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Sample records for parthenolide analogue suppresses

  1. A water soluble parthenolide analogue suppresses in vivo tumor growth of two tobacco associated cancers, lung and bladder cancer, by targeting NF-κB and generating reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Appaiah, Hitesh; Cheng, Liang; Crooks, Peter; Neelakantan, Sundar; Peat, Tyler; Klaunig, James; Matthews, William; Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) is a water soluble parthenolide analogue with preclinical activity in hematologic malignancies. Using NSCLC cell lines (A549, H522) and an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B) and TCC cell lines (UMUC-3, HT-1197, HT-1376) and a bladder papilloma (RT-4), we aimed to characterize DMAPT's anti-cancer activity in tobacco associated neoplasms. Flow cytometric, electrophorectic mobility gel shift assays (EMSA), and western blot studies measured generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of NFκB DNA binding, and changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptotic proteins. DMAPT generated ROS with subsequent JNK activation and also decreased NFκB DNA binding and anti-apoptotic proteins, TRAF-2 and XIAP. DMAPT induced apoptotic cell death and altered cell cycle distribution with upregulation of p21 and p73 levels in a cell type dependent manner. DMAPT suppressed cyclin D1 in BEAS2B. DMAPT retained NFκB and cell cycle inhibitory activity in the presence of the tobacco carcinogen nitrosamine ketone, 4(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3–pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Using a BrdU accumulation assay, 5 to 20μM of DMAPT was shown to inhibit cellular proliferation of all cell lines by more than 95%. Oral dosing of DMAPT suppressed in vivo A549 and UMUC-3 subcutaneous xenograft growth by 54% (p=0.015) and 63% (p<0.01) respectively and A549 lung metastatic volume by 28% (p=0.043). In total this data demonstrates DMAPT's novel anti-cancer properties in both early and late stage tobacco associated neoplasms as well as its significant in vivo activity. The data provides support for the conduct of clinical trials in TCC and NSCLC. PMID:20669221

  2. Syntheses and Biological Evaluation of Costunolide, Parthenolide, and Their Fluorinated Analogues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Jin; Ge, Wei-Zhi; Li, Qiu-Ying; Lu, Yaxin; Gong, Jian-Miao; Kuang, Bei-Jia; Xi, Xiaonan; Wu, Haiting; Zhang, Quan; Chen, Yue

    2015-09-10

    Inspired by the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), herein we report the asymmetric total synthesis of the germacrane ring (24). The synthetic strategy features a selective aldol reaction between β,γ-unsaturated chiral sulfonylamide 15a and aldehyde 13, as well as the intramolecular α-alkylation of sulfone 21 to construct a 10-membered carbocylic ring. The key intermediate 24 can be used to prepare the natural products costunolide and parthenolide (PTL), which are the key precursors for transformation into other SLs. Furthermore, the described synthetic sequences are amenable to the total synthesis of SL analogues, such as trifluoromethylated analogues 32 and 45. Analogues 32 and 45 maintained high activities against a series of cancer cell lines compared to their parent PTL and costunolide, respectively. In addition, 32 showed enhanced tolerance to acidic media compared with PTL. To our surprise, PTL and 32 showed comparable half-lives in rat plasma and in the presence of human liver microsomes. PMID:26226279

  3. Dimethylaminoparthenolide, a water soluble parthenolide, suppresses lung tumorigenesis through down-regulating the STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Jung M; Qian, Xuemin; Upadhyayya, Pramod; Hong, Kwon H; Kassie, Fekadu

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most fatal cancer and development of agents that suppress lung tumorigenesis is a crucial strategy to reduce mortality related to this disease. In the present study, we showed, using an in vitro model of lung tumorigenesis, that dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT), a water soluble parthenolide analog, selectively inhibited the growth and survival of premalignant and malignant cells with minimal effects on parental immortalized cells. These effects were paralleled by suppression of pSTAT3, Mcl-1 and cyclin D1 and PARP cleavage, suggesting that the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of DMAPT could be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Moreover, in tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumor bioassay in mice, intranasal instillation of low doses of DMAPT significantly reduced the overall lung tumor multiplicity by 39%. Interestingly, the drug was specifically effective (62% reduction) against bigger lung tumors (> 2 mm), which have a higher potential to develop into lung adenocarcinoma. Western immunoblotting analyses of mouse lung tissues indicated significantly lower level of pSTAT3 and Mcl-1 in the carcinogen plus DMAPT group relative to the group treated with the carcinogen only. Given the evidence that STAT3 is activated in more than half of lung cancers and it regulates genes involved in cell proliferation, survival and angiogenesis, DMAPT is a promising agent for lung cancer chemoprevention in subjects who are at high risk of developing this devastating disease. PMID:24200081

  4. Suppression of tubulin detyrosination by parthenolide recruits the plant-specific kinesin KCH to cortical microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Natalie; Ludwig, Holger; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Detyrosination of α-tubulin seems to be conserved in all eukaryotes. However, its biological function in plants has remained obscure. A conserved C-terminal tyrosine is removed by a still unidentified tubulin–tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTC) and can be religated by a tubulin–tyrosine ligase (TTL). To obtain insight into the still elusive biological function of this detyrosination–tyrosination cycle, the effects of the TTC inhibitor parthenolide were analysed in BY-2 tobacco cells. Parthenolide caused a depletion of detyrosinated α-tubulin, whereas the level of tyrosinated tubulin was elevated. This biochemical effect was accompanied by growth inhibition in cycling BY-2 cells and alteration of microtubule-dependent events that define division and expansion geometry such as cell plate alignment or axial expansion. Furthermore, parthenolide triggered an apoplastic alkalinization indicative of activation of defence-related calcium influx channels. At the same time, parthenolide promoted the association of the plant-specific kinesin KCH with cortical microtubules. These observations are integrated into a working model, where detyrosination acts as signal to modulate the binding of kinesin motors involved in structural and sensory functions of the microtubular cytoskeleton. PMID:25779700

  5. Parthenolide Inhibits Cancer Stem-Like Side Population of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via Suppression of the NF-κB/COX-2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kun; Xia, Bin; Zhuang, Qun-Ying; Hou, Meng-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Luo, Bing; Qiu, Yang; Gao, Yan-Fang; Li, Xiao-Jie; Chen, Hui-Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; He, Cheng-Yong; Huang, Yi-Jun; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Zhong-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and contribute to both disease initiation and relapse. In this study, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was found to regulate cancer stem-like side population cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and enhance cancer stem-like cells' characteristics such as higher colony formation efficiency and overexpression of stemness-associated genes. The regulatory effect of COX-2 on cancer stem-like characteristics may be mediated by ABCG2. COX-2 overexpression by a gain-of-function experiment increased the proportion of side population cells and their cancer stemness properties. The present study also demonstrated that in contrast to the classical chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil, which increased the proportion of side population cells and upregulated the expression of COX-2, parthenolide, a naturally occurring small molecule, preferentially targeted the side population cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and downregulated COX-2. Moreover, we found that the cancer stem-like cells' phenotype was suppressed by using COX-2 inhibitors NS-398 and CAY10404 or knocking down COX-2 with siRNA and shRNA. These findings suggest that COX-2 inhibition is the mechanism by which parthenolide induces cell death in the cancer stem-like cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In addition, parthenolide exhibited an inhibitory effect on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) nucler translocation by suppressing both the phosphorylation of IκB kinase complex and IκBα degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that parthenolide may exert its cancer stem cell-targeted chemotherapy through the NF-κB/COX-2 pathway. PMID:25553117

  6. Sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide attenuates production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Da Hee; Lee, Min Sung; Lee, Chung Soo

    2015-09-01

    Microbial product lipopolysaccharide has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. Parthenolide present in extracts of the herb feverfew has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of parthenolide on the Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathway activation-induced productions of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes has not been studied. Using human keratinocytes, we investigated the effect of parthenolide on the inflammatory mediator production in relation to the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated-Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which regulate the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Parthenolide, Akt inhibitor, Bay 11-7085, and N-acetylcysteine each attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1β and PGE2, increase in the levels of cyclooxygenase, formation of reactive oxygen species, increase in the levels of Toll-like receptor-4, and activation of the Akt/mTOR and NF-κB in keratinocytes. The results show that parthenolide appears to attenuate the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes by suppressing the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways. The activation of signaling transduction pathways appear to be regulated by reactive oxygen species. Parthenolide appears to attenuate the microbial product-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25971793

  7. Repressed Ca(2+) clearance in parthenolide-treated murine brain bEND.3 endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tien-Yao; Lou, Shyh-Liang; Cheng, Ka-Shun; Wong, Kar-Lok; Wang, Mei-Ling; Su, Tzu-Hui; Chan, Paul; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2015-12-15

    Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone compound isolated from the leaves and flowerheads of the plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). The anticancer effects of parthenolide have been well studied and this lactone compound is currently under clinical trials. Parthenolide is also a protective agent in cardiac reperfusion injury via its inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Not much is known if this compound affects signal transduction in non-tumor cells. We investigated whether parthenolide affected Ca(2+) signaling in endothelial cells, key components in regulating the vascular tone. In this work using mouse cortical microvascular bEND.3 endothelial cells, we found that a 15-h treatment with parthenolide resulted in amplified ATP-triggered Ca(2+) signal; the latter had a very slow decay rate suggesting suppression of Ca(2+) clearance. Evidence suggests parthenolide suppressed Ca(2+) clearance by inhibiting the plasmalemmal Ca(2+) pump; such suppression did not result from decreased expression of the plasmalemmal Ca(2+) pump protein. Rather, such suppression was possibly a consequence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, since salubrinal (an ER stress protector) was able to alleviate parthenolide-induced Ca(2+) clearance suppression. Given the current deployment of parthenolide as an anti-cancer drug in clinical trials and the potential usage of this lactone as a cardioprotectant, it is important to examine in details the perturbing effects of parthenolide on Ca(2+) homeostasis in endothelial cells and neighboring vascular smooth muscle cells, activities of which exert profound effects on hemodynamics. PMID:26607466

  8. Parthenolide ameliorates Concanavalin A-induced acute hepatitis in mice and modulates the macrophages to an anti-inflammatory state.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Huafeng; Fu, Shuyu; Cheng, Xixi; Yang, Fengrui; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yan; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Huang, Wenjing; Yang, Luhong; Na, Dongchen; Da, Yurong; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Rongxin

    2016-09-01

    Parthenolide, the principal sesquiterpene lactone present in medicinal plants such as feverfew, has anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of parthenolide against acute hepatitis in mice. Mice acute hepatitis were induced by Concanavalin A and treated by parthenolide in vivo. Results shown that parthenolide remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of the mice livers with Concanavalin A-induced acute hepatitis. Meanwhile, parthenolide treatment recover the liver function which indicated by decreased the serum alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities and promoted the expression of Ki67 in the livers of these mice. In addition, parthenolide administration suppressed the Concanavalin A-induced immune reaction, as indicated by the number of F4/80, CD49b and CD4 cells present in the liver. Furthermore, parthenolide also significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Moreover, parthenolide exposure decreased the phosphorylation of STAT3 and p38, and promoted the phosphorylation of p53 in RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In conclusion, parthenolide represents a drug candidate to protect the liver against Concanavalin A-induced acute hepatitis. The possible molecular mechanism involves the anti-inflammatory effects of parthenolide may by suppressing the STAT3/p38 signals and enhanced the p53 signals. PMID:27270078

  9. Parthenolide induces apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways and inhibits FAK-mediated cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sang Won; Park, Eon Sub; Lee, Chung Soo

    2014-01-01

    The natural product parthenolide induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanism of apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells exposed to parthenolide is not clear. In addition, it is unclear whether parthenolide-induced apoptosis is mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of GSH contents, and the effect of parthenolide on the invasion and migration of human epithelial ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of parthenolide exposure on apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration using the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3. The results suggest that parthenolide may induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian carcinoma cell lines by activating the mitochondrial pathway and the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways. The apoptotic effect of parthenolide appears to be mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of GSH. Parthenolide inhibited fetal bovine serum-induced cell adhesion and migration of OVCAR-3 cells, possibly through the suppression the focal adhesion kinase-dependent activation of cytoskeletal-associated components. Therefore, parthenolide might be beneficial in the treatment of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma and combination therapy. PMID:24065392

  10. A water soluble parthenolide analog suppresses in vivo tumor growth of two tobacco-associated cancers, lung and bladder cancer, by targeting NF-κB and generating reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Appaiah, Hitesh; Cheng, Liang; Crooks, Peter; Neelakantan, Sundar; Peat, Tyler; Klaunig, James; Matthews, William; Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2011-05-15

    Dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) is a water soluble parthenolide analog with preclinical activity in hematologic malignancies. Using non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H522) and an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B) and TCC cell lines (UMUC-3, HT-1197 and HT-1376) and a bladder papilloma (RT-4), we aimed to characterize DMAPT's anticancer activity in tobacco-associated neoplasms. Flow cytometric, electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSA), and Western blot studies measured generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of NFκB DNA binding, and changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptotic proteins. DMAPT generated ROS with subsequent JNK activation and also decreased NFκB DNA binding and antiapoptotic proteins, TRAF-2 and XIAP. DMAPT-induced apoptotic cell death and altered cell cycle distribution with upregulation of p21 and p73 levels in a cell type-dependent manner. DMAPT suppressed cyclin D1 in BEAS2B. DMAPT retained NFκB and cell cycle inhibitory activity in the presence of the tobacco carcinogen nitrosamine ketone, 4(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Using a BrdU accumulation assay, 5-20 μM of DMAPT was shown to inhibit cellular proliferation of all cell lines by more than 95%. Oral dosing of DMAPT suppressed in vivo A549 and UMUC-3 subcutaneous xenograft growth by 54% (p = 0.015) and 63% (p < 0.01), respectively, and A549 lung metastatic volume by 28% (p = 0.043). In total, this data demonstrates DMAPT's novel anticancer properties in both early and late stage tobacco-associated neoplasms as well as its significant in vivo activity. The data provides support for the conduct of clinical trials in TCC and NSCLC. PMID:20669221

  11. Parthenolide inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing activity by down-regulation of NFATc1 induction and c-Fos stability, during RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2014-01-01

    Parthenolide, a natural product derived from Feverfew, prevents septic shock and inflammation. We aimed to identify the effects of parthenolide on the RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand)-induced differentiation and bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts. In this study, parthenolide dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in BMMs, without any evidence of cytotoxicity and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and IκB, as well as IκB degradation by RANKL treatment. Parthenolide suppressed the expression of NFATc1, OSCAR, TRAP, DC-STAMP, and cathepsin K in RANKL-treated BMMs. Furthermore, parthenolide down-regulated the stability of c-Fos protein, but could not suppress the expression of c-Fos. Overexpression of NFATc1 and c-Fos in BMMs reversed the inhibitory effect of parthenolide on RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Parthenolide also inhibited the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Parthenolide inhibits the differentiation and bone-resolving activity of osteoclast by RANKL, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for bone destructive disorders associated with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 451-456] PMID:24314143

  12. Radio-sensitization of the murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8 with parthenolide, a natural inhibitor of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    SUGIYASU, KENJIRO; NANNO, KATSUHIKO; TAMAI, NORIYUKI; HASHIMOTO, NOBUYUKI; KISHIDA, YUKI; YOSHIKAWA, HIDEKI; MYOUI, AKIRA

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-κB has been shown to be associated with cancer resistance to radiotherapy (RT), and is constitutively active in the murine osteosarcoma cell line, LM8. Parthenolide has been reported to show antitumor activity through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In this study, we investigated the radio-sensitizing activity of parthenolide. We established Luc-LM8, a stable transfectant reporter construct of NF-κB transcriptional activity into LM8. Luc-LM8 maintained the malignancy observed with LM8. In vitro, Luc-LM8 cells were cultured with or without parthenolide treatment, irradiated, and subjected to cell viability and apoptosis assays. In vivo, to investigate whether parthenolide enhances radio-sensitivity of tumors, a tumor growth assay was conducted. Parthenolide enhanced the growth inhibitory effect of RT and induced the apoptosis of Luc-LM8 cells with RT in vitro. The in vivo tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the mice treated with parthenolide and RT. The present study suggests that parthenolide sensitizes Luc-LM8 cells to irradiation. Thus, parthenolide is a potential candidate for use as a potent radio-sensitizing drug for use in cancer RT. PMID:22866095

  13. Cell context-dependent activities of parthenolide in primary and metastatic melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, M; Lesiak-Mieczkowska, K; Koprowska, K; Szulawska-Mroczek, A; Wozniak, M

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Growing evidence implicates NF-κB as an important contributor to metastasis and increased chemoresistance of melanoma. Here, we report the effects of parthenolide on either untreated, cisplatin- or TNFα-treated melanoma cell lines A375, 1205Lu and WM793, exhibiting different levels of constitutive NF-κB activity. Experimental approach: Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to assess changes in NF-κB activity, and real-time PCR to evaluate expression of NF-κB-regulated genes. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell death was also visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Migration was determined by scratch assay and invasiveness by Matrigel assay. Key results: Parthenolide suppressed both constitutive and induced NF-κB activity in melanoma cells. This was accompanied by down-regulation of cancer-related genes, with NF-κB-binding sites in their promoters, including: Bcl-XL, survivin, cyclin D1, interleukin 8 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. When the various effects of 6 µM parthenolide were compared, apoptosis associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was most efficiently induced in 1205Lu cells, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase was observed in WM793 cells, and high metastatic potential was markedly reduced in A375 cells. These findings not only reflected differences between melanoma cell lines in basal expression of NF-κB-regulated genes, but also suggested other parthenolide targets involved in cell cycle progression, migration, invasiveness and survival. Conclusions: Inhibition of constitutive and therapeutically induced NF-κB pathway by parthenolide might be useful in the treatment of melanoma, although the diversity of changes induced in melanoma cells with different genetic backgrounds indicate context-dependent poly-pharmacological properties of this compound. PMID:20590608

  14. Fluorinated Amino-Derivatives of the Sesquiterpene Lactone, Parthenolide, as 19F NMR Probes in Deuterium-Free Environments

    PubMed Central

    Woods, James R.; Mo, Huaping; Bieberich, Andrew A.; Alavanja, Tanja; Colby, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and biological activity of fluorinated amino-derivatives of the sesquiterpene lactone, parthenolide, are described. A fluorinated aminoparthenolide analogue with biological activity similar to the parent natural product was discovered, and its X-ray structure was obtained. This lead compound was then studied using 19F NMR in the presence and absence of glutathione to obtain additional mechanism of action data, and it was found that the aminoparthenolide eliminates amine faster in the presence of glutathione than in the absence of glutathione. The exact changes in concentrations of fluorinated compound and amine were quantified by a concentration-reference method using 19F NMR; a major benefit of applying this strategy is that no deuterated solvents or internal standards are required to obtain accurate concentrations. These mechanistic data with glutathione may contribute to the conversion of the amino-derivative to parthenolide, the active pharmacological agent, in glutathione-rich cancer cells. PMID:22029741

  15. The influence of thought suppression and cognitive load on intrusions and memory processes following an analogue stressor.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Cain, Neralie; Nehmy, Thomas; Seymour, Melanie

    2009-12-01

    Ironic Process Theory and the role of thought suppression have been used in part to explain the phenomenon of intrusive memories in various disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. How thought suppression interacts with other cognitive processes believed to be instrumental in the development of traumatic intrusive memory is unclear. In an analogue study, thought suppression and cognitive processing was manipulated in 4 experimental groups after participants (n=80) viewed a trauma film. The impact of suppression was examined in relation to self-reported intrusive experiences as well as via more objective methods (word stem and dot probe tasks) to assess potential preferential encoding of negative material. Cognitive load appeared to undermine thought suppression ability, with these participants experiencing more intrusions over the week relative to participants in all other conditions. This group also showed greater priming to negative film-related words, and both suppression groups demonstrated enhanced memory for film-related content on recognition testing. Thought suppression mediated the relationship between negative interpretations of initial intrusions and later intrusions experienced over the week. The findings are discussed in the context of ironic process theory and cognitive models of posttraumatic stress. PMID:19892082

  16. Does post-event cognitive load undermine thought suppression and increase intrusive memories after exposure to an analogue stressor?

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Cain, Neralie; Nehmy, Thomas; Seymour, Melanie

    2009-04-01

    Ironic process theory has been used in part to explain the phenomenon of intrusive memories in various disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder. How thought suppression interacts with other cognitive processes believed to be instrumental in the development of traumatic intrusive memory was tested. In an analogue design 120 participants were randomised to five conditions, four of which also required participants to attempt to suppress intrusive memories after viewing a film of traumatic content. Participants in three conditions were also required to perform concurrent tasks that acted as a cognitive load during suppression. Intrusive memories were recorded during the experimental phase and at 1-week follow-up. Contrary to predictions, post-film processing did not undermine suppression success. There was some suggestion that post-film processing resulted in those participants experiencing intrusions of shorter duration than the no-suppression control group in two 5-minute intrusion monitoring intervals at the initial and follow-up phase of the experiment, but this was not reflected in a 1-week diary measure of intrusions. All experimental groups performed in a similar fashion in terms of memory testing of the film's content. The findings are discussed in the context of ironic process theory and cognitive models of post-traumatic stress. PMID:19132604

  17. The solution and solid state stability and excipient compatibility of parthenolide in feverfew.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ping; Madieh, Shadi; Augsburger, Larry L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the stability of parthenolide in feverfew solution state and powdered feverfew (solid state), and explore the compatibility between commonly used excipients and parthenolide in feverfew. Feverfew extract solution was diluted with different pH buffers to study the solution stability of parthenolide in feverfew. Powdered feverfew extract was stored under 40 degrees C/0% approximately 75% relative humidities (RH) or 31% RH/5~50 degrees C to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the stability of parthenolide in feverfew solid state. Binary mixtures of feverfew powered extract and different excipients were stored at 50 degrees C/ 75% RH for excipient compatibility evaluation. The degradation of parthenolide in feverfew solution appears to fit a typical first-order reaction. Parthenolide is comparatively stable when the environmental pH is in the range of 5 to 7, becoming unstable when pH is less than 3 or more than 7. Parthenolide degradation in feverfew in the solid state does not fit any obvious reaction model. Moisture content and temperature both play important roles affecting the degradation rate. After 6 months of storage, parthenolide in feverfew remains constant at 5 degrees C/31% RH. However, approximately 40% parthenolide in feverfew can be degraded if stored at 50 degrees C/31% RH. When the moisture changed from 0% to 75% RH, the degradation of parthenolide in feverfew increased from 18% to 32% after 6-month storage under 40 degrees C. Parthenolide in feverfew exhibits good compatibility with commonly used excipients under stressed conditions in a 3-week screening study. PMID:18181526

  18. The effect of GnRH analogues for pituitary suppression on ovarian response in repeated ovarian stimulation cycles

    PubMed Central

    Cavagna, Mario; Paes de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Daniela; Biaggioni Lopes, Fabio; de Cássia Savio Figueira, Rita; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian stimulation is employed in assisted reproduction techniques in order to obtain as many oocytes as possible. The early rise in oestradiol levels may lead to the premature end of the respective cycle. In order to avoid such an effect, pituitary suppression has been employed. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maintenance or replacement of the type of GnRH analogue (i.e., agonist or antagonist) employed for pituitary suppression in the consecutive intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle would negatively influence oocyte quality and ICSI outcome. Material and methods A retrospective observational study was conducted including 181 women with primary infertility. Patients were divided into four different groups according to the GnRH analogue used for pituitary suppression in the first and consecutive cycle. Results When a GnRH agonist was employed for pituitary suppression in the first cycle, the consecutive cycle showed comparable outcomes when performed with either a GnRH agonist or a GnRH antagonist. When the first cycle was performed with a GnRH antagonist, the use of the GnRH agonist in the successive cycle led to an increased number of oocytes retrieved (7.5% vs. 10.3%, p = 0.032) and the production of a higher number of embryos (4.5% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.036). Conclusions When the first cycle is carried out with a GnRH antagonist, the use of a GnRH agonist in the successive cycle would lead to increased numbers of oocytes collected and embryos produced. PMID:22295031

  19. Nature's Migraine Treatment: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Parthenolide from "Tanacetum parthenium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Emma L.; Ashe, Siobhan; Walsh, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to provide students with the essential skills and knowledge required to perform the extraction, isolation, and structural elucidation of parthenolide from "Tanacetum parthenium" or feverfew. Students are introduced to a background of the traditional medicinal uses of parthenolide, while more modern applications of…

  20. Novel Vitamin K analogues suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Jennifer J.; Bestman, Jennifer E.; Josey, Benjamin J.; Inks, Elizabeth S.; Stackley, Krista D.; Rogers, Carolyn E.; Chou, C. James; Chan, Sherine S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world’s population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit HDACs using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, NQN1, significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of VPA. We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogues. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6 Hz) and corneal kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogues for prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production. PMID:24291671

  1. Parthenolide inhibits nociception and neurogenic vasodilatation in the trigeminovascular system by targeting TRPA1 channel

    PubMed Central

    Materazzi, Serena; Benemei, Silvia; Fusi, Camilla; Gualdani, Roberta; De Siena, Gaetano; Vastani, Nisha; Andersson, David A.; Trevisan, Gabriela; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Wei, Xiaomei; Dussor, Gregory; Pollastro, Federica; Patacchini, Riccardo; Appendino, Giovanni; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Nassini, Romina

    2013-01-01

    While feverfew has been used for centuries to treat pain and headaches and is recommended for migraine treatment, the mechanism for its protective action remains unknown. Migraine is triggered by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal neurons. Peptidergic sensory neurons, express a series of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, including the ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. Recent findings have identified agents either inhaled from the environment or produced endogenously, which are known to trigger migraine or cluster headache attacks, as TRPA1 simulants. A major constituent of feverfew, parthenolide, may interact with TRPA1 nucleophilic sites, suggesting that feverfew antimigraine effect derives from its ability to target TRPA1. We found that parthenolide stimulates recombinant (transfected cells) or natively expressed (rat/mouse trigeminal neurons) TRPA1, where it, however, behaves as a partial agonist. Furthermore, in rodents, after initial stimulation, parthenolide desensitizes the TRPA1 channel, and renders peptidergic, TRPA1-expressing nerve terminals unresponsive to any stimulus. This effect of parthenolide abrogates nociceptive responses evoked by stimulation of peripheral trigeminal endings. TRPA1 targeting and neuronal desensitization by parthenolide inhibits CGRP release from trigeminal neurons and CGRP-mediated meningeal vasodilatation, evoked by either TRPA1 agonists or other unspecific stimuli. TRPA1 partial agonism, together with desensitization and nociceptor defunctionalization, ultimately resulting in inhibition of CGRP release within the trigeminovascular system, may contribute to the antimigraine effect of parthenolide. PMID:23933184

  2. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M.; Pilat, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes. PMID:26090236

  3. The Potent Humanin Analogue (HNG) Protects Germ Cells and Leucocytes While Enhancing Chemotherapy-Induced Suppression of Cancer Metastases in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Lue, YanHe; Swerdloff, Ronald; Wan, Junxiang; Xiao, Jialin; French, Samuel; Atienza, Vince; Canela, Victor; Bruhn, Kevin W; Stone, Brian; Jia, Yue; Cohen, Pinchas; Wang, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Humanin is a peptide that is cytoprotective against stresses in many cell types. We investigated whether a potent humanin analogue S14G-humanin (HNG) would protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to normal cells without interfering with the chemotherapy-induced suppression of cancer cells. Young adult male mice were inoculated iv with murine melanoma cells. After 1 week, cancer-bearing mice were randomized to receive either: no treatment, daily ip injection of HNG, a single ip injection of cyclophosphamide (CP), or CP+HNG and killed at the end of 3 weeks. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of leucocytes and protected germ cell from CP-induced apoptosis. Lung metastases were suppressed by HNG or CP alone, and further suppressed by CP+HNG treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels were suppressed by HNG with or without CP treatment. To investigate whether HNG maintains its protective effects on spermatogonial stem cells, sperm output, and peripheral leucocytes after repeated doses of CP, normal adult male mice received: no treatment, daily sc injection of HNG, 6 ip injections of CP at 5-day intervals, and the same regimens of CP+HNG and killed at the end of 4 weeks of treatment. Cauda epididymal sperm counts were elevated by HNG and suppressed by CP. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of spermatogonial stem cells, sperm count and peripheral leucocytes. We conclude that HNG 1) protects CP-induced loss of male germ cells and leucocytes, 2) enhances CP-induced suppression of cancer metastases, and 3) acts as a caloric-restriction mimetic by suppressing IGF-1 levels. Our findings suggest that humanin analogues may be promising adjuvants to chemotherapy. PMID:26384090

  4. Nanodelivery of Parthenolide Using Functionalized Nanographene Enhances its Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, A.; Mustafa, T.; Kannarpady, G.; Bratton, S.M.; Radominska-Pandya, A.; Crooks, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in anticancer chemotherapy have been hindered by the lack of biocompatibility of new prospective drugs. One significant challenge concerns water insolubility, which compromises the bioavailability of the drugs leading to increased dosage and higher systemic toxicity. To overcome these problems, nanodelivery has been established as a promising approach for increasing the efficacy and lowering the required dosage of chemotherapeutics. The naturally derived compound, parthenolide (PTL), is known for its anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity, but its poor water solubility limits its clinical value. In the present study, we have used carboxyl-functionalized nanographene (fGn) delivery to overcome the extreme hydrophobicity of this drug. A water-soluble PTL analog, dimethylamino parthenolide (DMAPT), was also examined for comparison with the anticancer efficacy of our PTL-fGn complex. Delivery by fGn was found to increase the anticancer/apoptotic effects of PTL (but not DMAPT) when delivered to the human pancreatic cancer cell line, Panc-1. The IC50 value for PTL decreased from 39 µM to 9.5 µM when delivered as a mixture with fGn. The IC50 of DMAPT did not decrease when delivered as DMAPT-fGn and was significantly higher than that for PTL-fGn. There were significant increases in ROS formation and in mitochondrial membrane disruption in Panc-1 cells after PTL-fGn treatment as compared to PTL treatment, alone. Increases in toxicity were also seen with apoptosis detection assays using flow cytometry, ethidium bromide/acridine orange/DAPI staining, and TUNEL. Thus, fGn delivery was successfully used to overcome the poor water solubility of PTL, providing a strategy for improving the effectiveness of this anticancer agent. PMID:25574376

  5. An analogue investigation of the relationships among perceived parental criticism, negative affect, and borderline personality disorder features: the role of thought suppression.

    PubMed

    Cheavens, Jennifer S; Zachary Rosenthal, M; Daughters, Stacey B; Nowak, Jennifer; Kosson, David; Lynch, Thomas R; Lejuez, C W

    2005-02-01

    The current study examined the relationships among biological predisposition, social environment, emotion regulation, and features characteristic of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Using an analogue sample, we examined whether thought suppression mediated the relationship of negative affective intensity/reactivity and perceived parental criticism with a composite of BPD features including impulsivity, interpersonal sensitivity, and aggression. Results indicated that thought suppression fully mediated the relationship between negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD features and partially mediated the relationship between BPD features and perceived parental criticism. Clinical implications, directions for further research, and limitations of the present study are discussed. PMID:15629754

  6. Parthenolide induces MITF-M downregulation and senescence in patient-derived MITF-Mhigh melanoma cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mariusz L.; Talar, Beata; Sztiller-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Nejc, Dariusz; Czyz, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The activity of the M isoform of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF-M) has been attributed to regulation of differentiation, proliferation, survival and senescence of melanoma cells. MITF expression was shown to be antagonized by the activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Parthenolide, an inhibitor of NF-κB, has not been yet reported to affect MITF-M expression. Our results obtained in patient-derived melanoma cell populations indicate that parthenolide efficiently decreases the MITF-M level. This is neither dependent on p65/NF-κB signaling nor RAF/MEK/ERK pathway activity as inhibition of MEK by GSK1120212 (trametinib) and induction of ERK1/2 activity by parthenolide itself do not interfere with parthenolide-triggered depletion of MITF-M in both wild-type BRAF and BRAFV600E melanoma populations. Parthenolide activity is not prevented by inhibitors of caspases, proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. As parthenolide reduces MITF-M transcript level and HDAC1 protein level, parthenolide-activated depletion of MITF-M protein may be considered as a result of transcriptional regulation, however, the influence of parthenolide on other elements of a dynamic control over MITF-M cannot be ruled out. Parthenolide induces diverse effects in melanoma cells, from death to senescence. The mode of the response to parthenolide is bound to the molecular characteristics of melanoma cells, particularly to the basal MITF-M expression level but other cell-autonomous differences such as NF-κB activity and MCL-1 level might also contribute. Our data suggest that parthenolide can be developed as a drug used in combination therapy against melanoma when simultaneous inhibition of MITF-M, NF-κB and HDAC1 is needed. PMID:26824319

  7. Parthenolide induces apoptosis in colitis-associated colon cancer, inhibiting NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    KIM, SE LIM; LIU, YU CHUAN; SEO, SEUNG YOUNG; KIM, SEONG HUN; KIM, IN HEE; LEE, SEUNG OK; LEE, SOO TEIK; KIM, DAE-GHON; KIM, SANG WOOK

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor parthenolide (PT) was identified as a promising anticancer agent for the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis. Additionally, our previous study demonstrated that PT administration suppresses tumor growth in a xenograft model of colorectal cancer cells via regulation of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. However, the role of PT in the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PT administration on CAC using a murine model. Azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were administered to induce experimental CAC in the following three groups of treated mice: i) AOM and DSS plus vehicle; ii) AOM, DSS and 2 mg/kg PT; and iii) AOM, DSS and 4 mg/kg PT. It was demonstrated that the histological acuteness of AOM/DSS-induced CAC was significantly reduced following the administration of PT, resulting in decreased NF-κB p65 expression levels via a blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of inhibitor of κB-α (IκBα). Furthermore, PT administration appeared to enhance the process of carcinogenesis via the downregulation of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-extra large, mediated by inhibition of NF-κB activation. Apoptosis and caspase-3 expression were markedly increased in the PT-treated group. These findings indicate that PT inhibits IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, resulting in the initiation of apoptosis and the eventual suppression of CAC development. The beneficial effects of PT treatment observed in the experimental CAC model indicate the potential chemopreventive and therapeutic role of PT in CAC. PMID:26137027

  8. Parthenolide-Induced Cytotoxicity in H9c2 Cardiomyoblasts Involves Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tien-Yao; Chan, Paul; Gong, Chi-Li; Wong, Kar-Lok; Su, Tzu-Hui; Shen, Pei-Chen; Leung, Yuk-Man; Liu, Zhong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac cellular injury as a consequence of ischemia and reperfusion involves nuclear factor-κB (NF-κ B), amongst other factors, and NF-κ B inhibitors could substantially reduce myocardial infarct size. Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone compound which could inhibit NF-κ B, has been shown to ameliorate myocardial reperfusion injury but may also produce toxic effects in cardiomyocytes at high concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic effects of this drug on H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, which are precursor cells of cardiomyocytes. Methods Cell viability and apoptosis were examined by MTT and TUNEL assay, respectively, and protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using DCFH-DA as dye. Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured microfluorimetrically using, respectively, fura 2 and rhodamine 123 as dyes. Results Parthenolide caused apoptosis at 30 μ M, as judged by TUNEL assay and Bax and cytochrome c translocation. It also caused collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Parthenolide triggered ROS formation, and vitamin C (antioxidant) partially alleviated parthenolide-induced cell death. Conclusions The results suggested that parthenolide at high concentrations caused cytotoxicity in cardiomyoblasts in part by inducing oxidative stress, and demonstrated the imperative for cautious and appropriate use of this agent in cardioprotection. PMID:27122844

  9. Crystal structure of (E)-13-(pyrimidin-5-yl)parthenolide

    PubMed Central

    Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C19H22N2O3, {systematic name (1aR,4E,7aS,8E,10aS,10bR)-1a,5-dimethyl-8-[(pyrimidin-5-yl)­methylid­ene]-2,3,6,7,7a,8,10a,10b-octa­hydro­oxireno[2′,3′:9,10]cyclo­deca­[1,2-b]furan-9(1aH)-one} was obtained from the reaction of parthenolide [systematic name (1aR,7aS,10aS,10bR,E)-1a,5-dimethyl-8-methyl­ene-2,3,6,7,7a,8,10a,10b-octa­hydro­oxireno[2′,3′:9,10]cyclodeca­[1,2-b]furan-9(1aH)-one] with 5-bromo­pyrimidine under Heck reaction conditions, and was identified as an E isomer. The mol­ecule possesses ten-, five- (lactone) and three-membered (epoxide) rings with a pyrimidine group as a substituent. The ten-membered ring displays an approximate chair–chair conformation, while the lactone ring shows a flattened envelope-type conformation. The dihedral angle between the pyrimidine moiety and the lactone ring system is 29.43 (7)°. PMID:26870423

  10. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and antileukemic activity of novel C9- and C14-functionalized parthenolide analogs.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vikas; Alwaseem, Hanan; O'Dwyer, Kristen M; Ponder, Jessica; Li, Qi Ying; Jordan, Craig T; Fasan, Rudi

    2016-09-01

    Parthenolide is a naturally occurring terpene with promising anticancer properties, particularly in the context of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Optimization of this natural product has been challenged by limited opportunities for the late-stage functionalization of this molecule without affecting the pharmacologically important α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety. Here, we report the further development and application of a chemoenzymatic strategy to afford a series of new analogs of parthenolide functionalized at the aliphatic positions C9 and C14. Several of these compounds were determined to be able to kill leukemia cells and patient-derived primary AML specimens with improved activity compared to parthenolide, exhibiting LC50 values in the low micromolar range. These studies demonstrate that different O-H functionalization chemistries can be applied to elaborate the parthenolide scaffold and that modifications at the C9 or C14 position can effectively enhance the antileukemic properties of this natural product. The C9-functionalized analogs 22a and 25b were identified as the most interesting compounds in terms of antileukemic potency and selectivity toward AML versus healthy blood cells. PMID:27396927

  11. Cell death in amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis induced by parthenolide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmania amazonensis infection results in diverse clinical manifestations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis. The arsenal of drugs available for treating Leishmania infections is limited. Therefore, new, effective, and less toxic leishmaniasis treatments are still needed. We verified cell death in amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis induced by the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide. Results The tested compound was able to concentration-dependently affect axenic and intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 1.3 μM and 2.9 μM, respectively after 72 h incubation. No genotoxic effects were observed in a micronucleus test in mice. Parthenolide induced morphological and ultrastructural changes in axenic amastigotes, including a loss of membrane integrity, swelling of the mitochondrion, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and intense exocytic activity in the region of the flagellar pocket. These results led us to investigate the occurrence of autophagic vacuoles with monodansylcadaverine and the integrity of the plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potential using flow cytometry. In all of the tests, parthenolide had positive results. Conclusions Our results indicate that the antileishmanial action of parthenolide is associated with autophagic vacuole appearance, a reduction of fluidity, a loss of membrane integrity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Considering the limited repertoire of existing antileishmanial compounds, the products derived from medicinal plants has been one the greatest advances to help develop new chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:24913205

  12. The Influence of Thought Suppression and Cognitive Load on Intrusions and Memory Processes following an Analogue Stressor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Cain, Neralie; Nehmy, Thomas; Seymour, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Ironic Process Theory and the role of thought suppression have been used in part to explain the phenomenon of intrusive memories in various disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. How thought suppression interacts with other cognitive processes believed to be instrumental in the development of traumatic intrusive memory is unclear. In…

  13. Parthenolide reduces the frequency of ABCB5-positive cells and clonogenic capacity of melanoma cells from anchorage independent melanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, Malgorzata; Koprowska, Kamila; Sztiller-Sikorska, Malgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the cancer stem cell phenotype in melanoma is dynamically regulated. Therefore, effective therapies have to target simultaneously bulk tumor cells and melanoma stem-like cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of parthenolide on heterogeneous cancer cell populations from anchorage-independent melanospheres. Cells derived from nodular melanoma specimens were grown under serum-free sphere-forming conditions. The effects of parthenolide on cellular viability, immunophenotype and self-renewing capacity were assessed with cells from dissociated melanospheres. Its penetration capacity was evaluated with intact melanospheres. In melanoma cells that survived treatment with parthenolide, a different immunophenotype than that in untreated control was found. The frequency of cells expressing the ABCB5 transporter was markedly reduced. Most importantly, melanoma cells that survived parthenolide treatment lost their self-renewing capacity. Significantly lower influence of drug on cellular viability and frequency of ABCB5-positive cells was observed in intact melanospheres. The potential clinical significance of our findings is based on the ability of parthenolide to affect both bulk and melanoma stem-like cells with clonogenic capacity and high expression of the ABCB5 transporter. Its low penetration capacity, however, may limit its action to easily accessible melanoma cells, either circulating in the blood or those in the vicinity to blood vessels within the tumor. Because of limited penetration capacity of parthenolide, this drug should be further explored as a part of multimodal therapies rather than as a stand-alone therapeutic agent. PMID:23192276

  14. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel apigenin analogues that suppress pancreatic stellate cell proliferation in vitro and associated pancreatic fibrosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Mrazek, Amy A.; Wang, Xiaofu; Ding, Chunyong; Ding, Ye; Porro, Laura J.; Liu, Huiling; Chao, Celia; Hellmich, Mark R.; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) play an important role in chronic pancreatitis (CP), and inhibition of the activated PSC is considered as a potential strategy for the treatment and prevention of CP. Herein, we disclose our findings that apigenin and its novel analogues suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis in PSC which reduce the PSC-mediated fibrosis in CP. Chemical modifications of apigenin have been directed to build a focused library of O-alkylamino-tethered apigenin derivatives at 4′-O position of the ring C with the attempt to enhance the potency and drug-like properties including aqueous solubility. A number of compounds such as 14, 16, and 24 exhibited potent antiproliferative effects as well as improved aqueous solubility. Intriguingly, apigenin, new analogues 23 and 24 displayed significant efficacy to reduce pancreatic fibrosis even at a low dose of 0.5 mg/kg in our proof-of-concept study using a preclinical in vivo mouse model of CP. PMID:24837156

  15. Heck products of parthenolide and melampomagnolide-B as anticancer modulators that modify cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Penthala, Narsimha R.; Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Janganati, Venumadhav; MacNicol, Kenzie B.; Cragle, Chad E.; Madadi, Nikhil R.; Hardy, Linda L.; MacNicol, Angus M.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    (E)-13-(Aryl/heteroaryl)parthenolides (5a–i and 6a–i) were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to modify cell cycle progression during progesterone-stimulated Xenopus oocyte maturation and screened for their anticancer activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. (E)-13-(4-aminophenyl) parthenolide (5b) caused a significant inhibition of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation, and was determined to function downstream of MAP kinase signaling, but upstream of the activation of the universal G2/M regulator, M-phase promoting factor (MPF, cyclin B/Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). The compound (E)-13-(2-bromo-phenyl)parthenolide (5c) activates oocyte maturation independently of progesterone stimulation. Compounds 5b and 5c displayed modest growth inhibition on select cancer cell lines at 10 micromolar dose when tested on the panel of 60 cancer cell lines. By contrast, compounds (5f and 7) did not modulate oocyte maturation but did exhibit micromolar level growth inhibition against most of the human cancer cell lines over a range of doses. Together, our findings indicate that screening of compounds in the oocyte maturation assay may identify additional effective cell cycle regulatory compounds that do not necessarily exert overt cytotoxicity as assessed in traditional drug screening assays. PMID:25117652

  16. Heck products of parthenolide and melampomagnolide-B as anticancer modulators that modify cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Penthala, Narsimha R; Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Janganati, Venumadhav; MacNicol, Kenzie B; Cragle, Chad E; Madadi, Nikhil R; Hardy, Linda L; MacNicol, Angus M; Crooks, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    (E)-13-(Aryl/heteroaryl)parthenolides (5a-i and 6a-i) were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to modify cell cycle progression during progesterone-stimulated Xenopus oocyte maturation and screened for their anticancer activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. (E)-13-(4-aminophenyl) parthenolide (5b) caused a significant inhibition of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation, and was determined to function downstream of MAP kinase signaling, but upstream of the activation of the universal G2/M regulator, M-phase promoting factor (MPF), cyclin B/Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). The compound (E)-13-(2-bromo-phenyl)parthenolide (5c) activates oocyte maturation independently of progesterone stimulation. Compounds 5b and 5c displayed modest growth inhibition on select cancer cell lines at 10 μM dose when tested on the panel of 60 cancer cell lines. By contrast, compounds (5f and 7) did not modulate oocyte maturation but did exhibit micromolar level growth inhibition against most of the human cancer cell lines over a range of doses. Together, our findings indicate that screening of compounds in the oocyte maturation assay may identify additional effective cell cycle regulatory compounds that do not necessarily exert overt cytotoxicity as assessed in traditional drug screening assays. PMID:25117652

  17. Parthenolide induces apoptosis via TNFRSF10B and PMAIP1 pathways in human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parthenolide (PTL) is a sesquiterpene lactone which can induce apoptosis in cancer cells and eradicate cancer stem cells such as leukemia stem cells, prostate tumor-initiating cells and so on. However, the mechanism remains largely unclear. Methods Lung cancer cells were treated with parthenolide and the cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot analysis, and the cell survival was assayed by SRB and MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated by DNA flow cytometry analysis. TNFRSF10B, PMAIP1, ATF4 and DDIT3 genes were knocked down by siRNA technique. Apoptosis was evaluated by using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry analysis. Results Parthenolide (PTL) induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human lung cancer cells. Moreover, PTL treatment in NSCLC cells increases expression of TNFRSF10B/DR5 and PMAIP1/NOXA. Silencing of TNFRSF10B or PMAIP1 or overexpression of CFLAR /c-FLIP (long form) could protect cells from PTL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, PTL could increase the levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress hallmarks such as ERN1, HSPA5, p-EIF2A, ATF4 and DDIT3. Knockdown of ATF4 and DDIT3 abrogated PTL-induced apoptosis, which suggested that PTL induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. More importantly, we found that ATF4, DDIT3, TNFRSF10B and PMAIP1 were up-regulated more intensively, while CFLAR and MCL1 were down-regulated more dramatically by PTL in A549/shCDH1 cells than that in control cells, suggesting that PTL preferred to kill cancer stem cell-like cells by activating more intensive ER stress response in cancer stem cell-like cells. Conclusion We showed that parthenolide not only triggered extrinsic apoptosis by up-regulating TNFRSF10B and down-regulating CFLAR, but also induced intrinsic apoptosis through increasing the expression of PMAIP1 and decreasing the level of MCL1 in NSCLC cells. In addition, parthenolide triggered stronger ER stress response in

  18. Plumbagin, Vitamin K3 Analogue, Suppresses STAT3 Activation Pathway through Induction of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, SHP-1: Potential Role in Chemosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Sandur, Santosh K.; Pandey, Manoj K; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2009-01-01

    The activation of STAT3 has been linked with carcinogenesis through survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential not only for prevention but also for treatment of cancer. In the present report, we investigated whether plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), an analogue of Vitamin K and isolated from chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, can modulate the STAT3 pathway. We found that plumbagin inhibited both constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 phosphorylation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and this correlated with the inhibition of c-Src, JAK1, and JAK2 activation. Vanadate, however, reversed the plumbagin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that plumbagin induced the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1; and silencing of the SHP-1 abolished the effect of plumbagin. This agent also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, and VEGF, activated caspase-3, induced PARP cleavage, and increased the sub-G1 population of MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the plumbagin-induced apoptosis. When compared with AG490, a rationally designed STAT3/JAK2 inhibitor, plumbagin was found more potent in suppressing proliferation of cells. Plumbagin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that the plumbagin inhibits STAT3 activation pathway through induction of SHP-1 and this may mediate sensitization of STAT3 overexpressing cancers to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:20068065

  19. Magnesium and manganese interactively modulate parthenolide accumulation and the antioxidant defense system in the leaves of Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Farzadfar, Soudeh; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Hojati, Mostafa

    2016-09-01

    A balanced nutrient supply is a critical factor affecting accumulation of terpenoids in plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two essential nutrients for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes are scarce. Here, the interactional effects between magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) on plant growth, oxidative status, parthenolide accumulation and expression of key genes involved in parthenolide biosynthesis including 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase (HMGR), germacrene A synthase (GAS), germacrene A oxidase (GAO), costunolide synthase (COS) and parthenolide synthase (PTS) in the leaves of feverfew plants grown at different Mn and Mn levels were assessed. Plant growth and leaf pigment concentrations were associated with the amount of applied Mg but could be modified by the Mn level. Deprivation and the addition of both Mg and Mn induce oxidative stress. Mg supply also alleviated the adverse effects of Mn excess on plant growth and oxidative status. In addition, parthenolide biosynthesis decreased under deprivation of Mg or Mn, but the addition of Mn up to 50μM under 2mM Mg supply considerably increased its accumulation. The parthenolide accumulation trend might reflect the up-regulation of terpenoid-related genes and enzyme activities as well as the oxidative status of feverfew leaves. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of Mg and Mn on parthenolide biosynthesis through the activation of terpene synthases, which concomitantly modulate by oxidative status. PMID:27450490

  20. The Nonartemisinin Sesquiterpene Lactones Parthenin and Parthenolide Block Plasmodium falciparum Sexual Stage Transmission.

    PubMed

    Balaich, Jared N; Mathias, Derrick K; Torto, Baldwyn; Jackson, Bryan T; Tao, Dingyin; Ebrahimi, Babak; Tarimo, Brian B; Cheseto, Xavier; Foster, Woodbridge A; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2016-04-01

    Parthenin and parthenolide are natural products that are closely related in structure to artemisinin, which is also a sesquiterpene lactone (SQL) and one of the most important antimalarial drugs available. Parthenin, like artemisinin, has an effect onPlasmodiumblood stage development. We extended the evaluation of parthenin as a potential therapeutic for the transmissible stages ofPlasmodium falciparumas it transitions between human and mosquito, with the aim of gaining potential mechanistic insight into the inhibitory activity of this compound. We posited that if parthenin targets different biological pathways in the parasite, this in turn could pave the way for the development of druggable compounds that could prevent the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. We examined parthenin's effect on male gamete activation and the ookinete-to-oocyst transition in the mosquito as well as on stage V gametocytes that are present in peripheral blood. Parthenin arrested parasite development for each of the stages tested. The broad inhibitory properties of parthenin on the evaluated parasite stages may suggest different mechanisms of action between parthenin and artemisinin. Parthenin's cytotoxicity notwithstanding, its demonstrated activity in this study suggests that structurally related SQLs with a better safety profile deserve further exploration. We used our battery of assays to test parthenolide, which has a more compelling safety profile. Parthenolide demonstrated activity nearly identical to that of parthenin againstP. falciparum, highlighting its potential as a possible transmission-blocking drug scaffold. We discuss the context of the evidence with respect to the next steps toward expanding the current antimalarial arsenal. PMID:26787692

  1. Novel mTOR inhibitory activity of ciclopirox enhances parthenolide antileukemia activity

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Siddhartha; Hassane, Duane C.; Corbett, Cheryl; Becker, Michael W.; Jordan, Craig T.; Guzman, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    Ciclopirox, an antifungal agent commonly used for the dermatologic treatment of mycoses, has been shown recently to have antitumor properties. Although the exact mechanism of ciclopirox is unclear, its antitumor activity has been attributed to iron chelation and inhibition of the translation initiation factor eIF5A. In this study, we identify a novel function of ciclopirox in the inhibition of mTOR. As with other mTOR inhibitors, we show that ciclopirox significantly enhances the ability of the established preclinical antileukemia compound, parthenolide, to target acute myeloid leukemia. The combination of parthenolide and ciclopirox demonstrates greater toxicity against acute myeloid leukemia than treatment with either compound alone. We also demonstrate that the ability of ciclopirox to inhibit mTOR is specific to ciclopirox because neither iron chelators nor other eIF5A inhibitors affect mTOR activity, even at high doses. We have thus identified a novel function of ciclopirox that might be important for its antileukemic activity. PMID:23660068

  2. Parthenolide Induces Apoptosis in Committed Progenitor AML Cell line U937 via Reduction in Osteopontin

    PubMed Central

    Zahedpanah, Mahdi; Shaiegan, Mojgan; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamidollah; Nikbakht, Mohsen; Nikugoftar, Mahin; Mohammadi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interfering with cell proliferation and survival is a critical role for antineoplastic drugs leading to cell death through induction of apoptosis. Alternative treatments with herbal extracts offer insights into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy. Parthenolide (PTL), an extract from feverfew, induces apoptosis in primary human leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and bulk leukemic cell populations. Osteopontin (OPN) preserves cell viability in response to anticancer agents and its receptors could be utilized for therapeutic targeting of cancer cells. Methods: U937 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 with concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 µM PTL for 20-24 hours for MTT assays. Apoptosis assays were performed with Annexin V-Alexa Fluor-488/PI as Annexin V+/PI- and Annexin V+/PI+ to measure early and late apoptosis, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure OPN gene expression using the 2-ΔΔCt method. The PTL–treated cells were stained with FITC-CD38 antibody for flow cytometry analyses. Data were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by SPSS 19. Results: Parthenolide inhibited growth of U937 cells with IC25 and IC50 values of 4 and 5.8 µM, respectively. Death induction with PTL was apoptotic. Flow cytometry showed a significant decrease in the percentage of CD38+ U937 cells in response to PTL. Osteopontin gene expression decreased in response to PTL. Conclusion: PTL induced apoptosis and reduced OPN gene expression in U937 cells.

  3. Pharmacological targeting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human erythrocytes by Bay 11-7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate.

    PubMed

    Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Giustarini, Daniela; Koralkova, Pavla; Köberle, Martin; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Dreischer, Peter; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lang, Florian; Toulany, Mahmoud; Wieder, Thomas; Mojzikova, Renata; Rossi, Ranieri; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In mature erythrocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) yield NADPH, a crucial cofactor of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) converting glutathione disulfide (GSSG) into its reduced state (GSH). GSH is essential for detoxification processes in and survival of erythrocytes. We explored whether the anti-inflammatory compounds Bay 11-7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were able to completely deplete a common target (GSH), and to impair the function of upstream enzymes of GSH recycling and replenishment. Treatment of erythrocytes with Bay 11-7082, parthenolide or DMF led to concentration-dependent eryptosis resulting from complete depletion of GSH. GSH depletion was due to strong inhibition of G6PDH activity. Bay 11-7082 and DMF, but not parthenolide, were able to inhibit the GR activity. This approach "Inhibitors, Detection of their common target that is completely depleted or inactivated when pharmacologically relevant concentrations of each single inhibitor are applied, Subsequent functional analysis of upstream enzymes for this target" (IDS), can be applied to a broad range of inhibitors and cell types according to the selected target. The specific G6PDH inhibitory effect of these compounds may be exploited for the treatment of human diseases with high NADPH and GSH consumption rates, including malaria, trypanosomiasis, cancer or obesity. PMID:27353740

  4. Pharmacological targeting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human erythrocytes by Bay 11–7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Giustarini, Daniela; Koralkova, Pavla; Köberle, Martin; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Dreischer, Peter; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lang, Florian; Toulany, Mahmoud; Wieder, Thomas; Mojzikova, Renata; Rossi, Ranieri; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In mature erythrocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) yield NADPH, a crucial cofactor of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) converting glutathione disulfide (GSSG) into its reduced state (GSH). GSH is essential for detoxification processes in and survival of erythrocytes. We explored whether the anti-inflammatory compounds Bay 11–7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were able to completely deplete a common target (GSH), and to impair the function of upstream enzymes of GSH recycling and replenishment. Treatment of erythrocytes with Bay 11–7082, parthenolide or DMF led to concentration-dependent eryptosis resulting from complete depletion of GSH. GSH depletion was due to strong inhibition of G6PDH activity. Bay 11–7082 and DMF, but not parthenolide, were able to inhibit the GR activity. This approach “Inhibitors, Detection of their common target that is completely depleted or inactivated when pharmacologically relevant concentrations of each single inhibitor are applied, Subsequent functional analysis of upstream enzymes for this target” (IDS), can be applied to a broad range of inhibitors and cell types according to the selected target. The specific G6PDH inhibitory effect of these compounds may be exploited for the treatment of human diseases with high NADPH and GSH consumption rates, including malaria, trypanosomiasis, cancer or obesity. PMID:27353740

  5. Parthenolide and DMAPT exert cytotoxic effects on breast cancer stem-like cells by inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Carlisi, D; Buttitta, G; Di Fiore, R; Scerri, C; Drago-Ferrante, R; Vento, R; Tesoriere, G

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive forms of breast carcinoma associated with a high rate of recidivism. In this paper, we report the production of mammospheres from three lines of TNBC cells and demonstrate that both parthenolide (PN) and its soluble analog dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) suppressed this production and induced cytotoxic effects in breast cancer stem-like cells, derived from dissociation of mammospheres. In particular, the drugs exerted a remarkable inhibitory effect on viability of stem-like cells. Such an effect was suppressed by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the cytotoxic effect. Instead z-VAD, a general inhibitor of caspase activity, was ineffective. Analysis of ROS generation, performed using fluorescent probes, showed that both the drugs stimulated in the first hours of treatment a very high production of hydrogen peroxide. This event was, at least in part, a consequence of activation of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), as it was reduced by apocynin and diphenylene iodinium, two inhibitors of NOXs. Moreover, both the drugs caused downregulation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), which is a critical regulator of the intracellular antioxidant response. Prolonging the treatment with PN or DMAPT we observed between 12 and 24 h that the levels of both superoxide anion and hROS increased in concomitance with the downregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, during this phase dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred together with necrosis of stem-like cells. Finally, our results suggested that the effect on ROS generation found in the first hours of treatment was, in part, responsible for the cytotoxic events observed in the successive phase. In conclusion, PN and DMAPT markedly inhibited viability of stem-like cells derived from three lines of TNBCs by inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell necrosis

  6. Parthenolide and DMAPT exert cytotoxic effects on breast cancer stem-like cells by inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Carlisi, D; Buttitta, G; Di Fiore, R; Scerri, C; Drago-Ferrante, R; Vento, R; Tesoriere, G

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive forms of breast carcinoma associated with a high rate of recidivism. In this paper, we report the production of mammospheres from three lines of TNBC cells and demonstrate that both parthenolide (PN) and its soluble analog dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT) suppressed this production and induced cytotoxic effects in breast cancer stem-like cells, derived from dissociation of mammospheres. In particular, the drugs exerted a remarkable inhibitory effect on viability of stem-like cells. Such an effect was suppressed by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the cytotoxic effect. Instead z-VAD, a general inhibitor of caspase activity, was ineffective. Analysis of ROS generation, performed using fluorescent probes, showed that both the drugs stimulated in the first hours of treatment a very high production of hydrogen peroxide. This event was, at least in part, a consequence of activation of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), as it was reduced by apocynin and diphenylene iodinium, two inhibitors of NOXs. Moreover, both the drugs caused downregulation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), which is a critical regulator of the intracellular antioxidant response. Prolonging the treatment with PN or DMAPT we observed between 12 and 24 h that the levels of both superoxide anion and hROS increased in concomitance with the downregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, during this phase dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred together with necrosis of stem-like cells. Finally, our results suggested that the effect on ROS generation found in the first hours of treatment was, in part, responsible for the cytotoxic events observed in the successive phase. In conclusion, PN and DMAPT markedly inhibited viability of stem-like cells derived from three lines of TNBCs by inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell necrosis

  7. Targeting Thioredoxin Reductase by Parthenolide Contributes to Inducing Apoptosis of HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongzhu; Zhang, Junmin; Yao, Juan; Liu, Yaping; Fang, Jianguo

    2016-05-01

    Parthenolide (PTL), a major active sesquiterpene lactone from the herbal plant Tanacetum parthenium, has been applied in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Although PTL demonstrates potent anticancer efficacy in numerous types of malignant cells, the cellular targets of PTL have not been well defined. We reported here that PTL interacts with both cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR2), two ubiquitous selenocysteine-containing antioxidant enzymes, to elicit reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells. PTL selectively targets the selenocysteine residue in TrxR1 to inhibit the enzyme function, and further shifts the enzyme to an NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide anions, leading to reactive oxygen species accumulation and oxidized thioredoxin. Under the conditions of inhibition of TrxRs in cells, PTL does not cause significant alteration of cellular thiol homeostasis, supporting selective target of TrxRs by PTL. Importantly, overexpression of functional TrxR1 or Trx1 confers protection, whereas knockdown of the enzymes sensitizes cells to PTL treatment. Targeting TrxRs by PTL thus discloses an unprecedented mechanism underlying the biological activity of PTL, and provides deep insights to understand the action of PTL in treatment of cancer. PMID:27002142

  8. Raloxifene analogue LY117018 suppresses oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell apoptosis through activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Eto, Masato; Kozaki, Koichi; Akishita, Masahiro; Okabe, Tetsuro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

    2008-07-28

    A selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in relatively high-risk postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms by which raloxifene exerts a pharmacological effect on cardiovascular organs have not been fully elucidated. The present study was designed to examine whether the raloxifene analogue, 6-hydroxy-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-benzo(b) thien-3-yl-p-(2-(pyrrolidinyl)ethoxy phenyl ketone (LY117018), could inhibit apoptosis and to clarify the signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells. LY117018 significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in bovine carotid artery endothelial cells. The anti-apoptotic effect of LY117018 was abolished by an estrogen receptor antagonist, 7alpha,7beta-(9[(4,4,5,5,5-Pentafluoropentyl)sulfinyl]nonyl) estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol (ICI 182,780). Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and Akt, have been shown to act as apoptotic or anti-apoptotic signals. Phosphorylation of p38, JNK, ERK1/2 and Akt was examined. LY117018 increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation but did not enhance the phosphorylation of p38, JNK, or Akt. The anti-apoptotic effect of LY117018 was prevented by treatment with 2-[2'-amino-3'-methoxyphenyl]-oxanaphthalen-4-one (PD98059), an upstream inhibitor of ERK1/2. LY117018 stimulated an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was diminished by ICI 182,780. The activation of ERK/1/2 by LY117018 was not inhibited by the transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D. These results suggest that estrogen receptors and the ERK1/2 signaling pathway are involved in the anti-apoptotic action of LY117018 in vascular endothelial cells. PMID:18541231

  9. Pharmacologic inhibitors of IkappaB kinase suppress growth and migration of mammary carcinosarcoma cells in vitro and prevent osteolytic bone metastasis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Idris, Aymen I; Libouban, Hélène; Nyangoga, Hervé; Landao-Bassonga, Euphemie; Chappard, Daniel; Ralston, Stuart H

    2009-08-01

    The NF-kappaB signaling pathway is known to play an important role in the regulation of osteoclastic bone resorption and cancer cell growth. Previous studies have shown that genetic inactivation of IkappaB kinase (IKK), a key component of NF-kappaB signaling, inhibits osteoclastogenesis, but the effects of pharmacologic IKK inhibitors on osteolytic bone metastasis are unknown. Here, we studied the effects of the IKK inhibitors celastrol, BMS-345541, parthenolide, and wedelolactone on the proliferation and migration of W256 cells in vitro and osteolytic bone destruction in vivo. All compounds tested inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of W256 cells as evidenced by caspase-3 activation and nuclear morphology. Celastrol, BMS-345541, and parthenolide abolished IL1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced IkappaB phosphorylation and prevented nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and DNA binding. Celastrol and parthenolide but not BMS-345541 prevented the activation of both IKKalpha and IKKbeta, and celastrol inhibited IKKalpha/beta activation by preventing the phosphorylation of TAK1, a key receptor-associated factor upstream of IKK. Celastrol and parthenolide markedly reduced the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and urinary plasminogen activator, and inhibited W256 migration. Administration of celastrol or parthenolide at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day suppressed trabecular bone loss and reduced the number and size of osteolytic bone lesions following W256 injection in rats. Histomorphometric analysis showed that both compounds decreased osteoclast number and inhibited bone resorption. In conclusion, pharmacologic inhibitors of IKK are effective in preventing osteolytic bone metastasis in this model and might represent a promising class of agents to the prevention and treatment of metastatic bone disease associated with breast cancer. PMID:19671767

  10. Parthenolide enhances sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to TRAIL by inducing death receptor 5 and promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Lim; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Park, Young Ran; Seo, Seung Young; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, In Hee; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae-Ghon; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent. Recombinant human TRAIL has been evaluated in clinical trials, however, various malignant tumors are resistant to TRAIL. Parthenolide (PT) has recently been demonstrated as a highly effective anticancer agent and has been suggested to be used for combination therapy with other anticancer agents. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which PT sensitizes colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. HT-29 (TRAIL-resistant) and HCT116 (TRAIL-sensitive) cells were treated with PT and/or TRAIL. The results demonstrated that combined treatment induced apoptosis which was determined using MTT, cell cycle analysis, Annexin V assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. Interestingly, we confirmed that HCT116 cells have much higher death receptor (DR) 5 than HT-29 cells and PT upregulates DR5 protein level and surface expression in both cell lines. Apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway was confirmed by detecting regulation of Bcl-2 family members, p53 cytochrome C release, and caspase cascades. These results suggest that PT sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via upregulation of DR5 and mitochondria-dependent pathway. Combination treatment using PT and TRAIL may offer an effective strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance of certain CRC cells. PMID:25502339

  11. Effects of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide on prostate tumor-initiating cells: an integrated molecular profiling approach

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Brian T.; Hurt, Elaine M.; Kalathur, Madhuri; Duhagon, Maria Ana; Milner, John A.; Kim, Young S.; Farrar, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests tumor-initating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells, are responsible for tumor initiation and progression; therefore, they represent an important cell population for development of future anti-cancer therapies. In this study, we show that the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide (PTL) is cytotoxic to prostate TICs isolated from prostate cancer cell lines: DU145, PC3, VCAP and LAPC4, as well as primary prostate TICs. Furthermore, PTL inhibited TIC-driven tumor formation in mouse xenografts. Using an integrated molecular profiling approach encompassing proteomics, profiles of activated transcription factors and genomics we ascertained the effects of PTL on prostate cancer cells. In addition to the previously described effects of PTL, we determined that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase src, and many src signaling components, including: Csk, FAK, β1-arrestin, FGFR2, PKC, MEK/MAPK, CaMK, ELK-1 and ELK-1-dependent genes are novel targets of PTL action. Furthermore, PTL altered the binding of transcription factors important in prostate cancer including: C/EBP-α, fos related antigen-1 (FRA-1), HOXA-4, c-MYB, SNAIL, SP1, serum response factor (SRF), STAT3, X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) and p53. In summary, we show PTL is cytotoxic to prostate TICs and describe the molecular events of PTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Therefore, PTL represents a promising therapeutic for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:19204913

  12. Anti-Inflammatory and Cytostatic Activities of a Parthenolide-Like Sesquiterpene Lactone from Cota palaestina subsp. syriaca

    PubMed Central

    Talhouk, Rabih S.; Nasr, Bilal; Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Ajeeb, Bushra; Nahhas, Rana; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek H.; Saliba, Najat A.

    2015-01-01

    A sesquiterpene lactone 1-β,10-Epoxy-6-hydroxy-1,10H-inunolide (K100) was isolated through “bioassay-guided fractionation” from Cota palaestina subsp. syriaca, an Eastern Mediterranean endemic plant. K100 inhibited endotoxin- (ET-) induced proinflammatory markers: IL-6, MMP-9, and NO in normal mouse mammary SCp2 Cells. Molecular docking in silico suggested that K100, having highly analogous structure as parthenolide (PTL), an anticancer compound, could bind PTL target proteins at similar positions and with comparable binding affinities. Both compounds, K100 and PTL, inhibited the proliferation and prolonged the S-phase of the cell cycle of breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells grown in 2D cultures. Noncytotoxic concentrations of K100 and PTL decreased the proliferation rate of MDA-MB-231 and shifted their morphology from stellate to spherical colonies in 3D cultures. This was accompanied with a significant increase in the amount of small colonies and a decrease in the amount of large colonies. Moreover, K100 and PTL decreased cellular motility and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells. In summary, these results suggest that K100 exhibits PTL-analogous anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and antimetastatic effects. PMID:26089941

  13. The Relationship Between Water Structure and Blood Compatibility in Poly(2-methoxyethyl Acrylate) (PMEA) Analogues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Shingo; Kusakari, Miho; Watahiki, Shogo; Oikawa, Masahiko; Hoshiba, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    Six types of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) analogues were synthesized and the water structure in the hydrated polymers was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hydrated PMEA analogues exhibited the different amounts of intermediate water. Non-thrombogenicity evaluation was performed on PMEA analogues for platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Platelet adhesion was suppressed on PMEA analogues. In addition, the protein adsorption and deformation were suppressed by increasing the amount of intermediate water. This study demonstrates that the amount of intermediate water might play a key role in expressing the blood compatibility of polymeric materials. PMID:26017931

  14. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  15. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of lapacho analogues. 2. Modification of the basic naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, redox activation, and suppression of human keratinocyte hyperproliferation by 8-hydroxynaphtho[2,3-b]thiophene-4,9-diones.

    PubMed

    Bannwitz, Sven; Krane, Dirk; Vortherms, Silke; Kalin, Tobias; Lindenschmidt, Cathrin; Zahedi Golpayegani, Nader; Tentrop, Jan; Prinz, Helge; Müller, Klaus

    2014-07-24

    The basic structure of linearly anellated lapacho quinones, naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (7), was modified in the search for novel agents against keratinocyte hyperproliferation. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of several heterocycle-fused naphthoquinones as well as a full range of 2- and 7-substituted derivatives of one of these, 8-hydroxynaphtho[2,3-b]thiophene-4,9-dione (8a), are described. Out of a total of 71 analogues, particularly 2-thenoyl-substituted 26l, 2-nicotinoyl-substituted 26m, and 2-oxadiazole-substituted 35a compared favorably with the antipsoriatic agent anthralin. Their potency for suppression of keratinocyte hyperproliferation, which was evaluated using HaCaT cells as a model, was combined with comparably low membrane-damaging effects toward keratinocytes, as established by the release of lactate dehydrogenase activity from the cytoplasm of the cells. With respect to the mechanism of action, redox activation of lapacho quinones by one- and two-electron reduction in isolated enzymatic assays was studied, and their potential to generate superoxide was confirmed in the keratinocyte-based hyperproliferation assay. PMID:24964246

  16. Structural Analogues of Selfotel.

    PubMed

    Dziuganowska, Zofia A; Ślepokura, Katarzyna; Volle, Jean-Noël; Virieux, David; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Kafarski, Paweł

    2016-06-17

    A small library of phosphonopiperidylcarboxylic acids, analogues of NMDA antagonist selfotel (CGS 19755), was synthesized. First, the series of aromatic esters was obtained via a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction (Hirao coupling) of dialkyl phosphites with bromopyridinecarboxylates, followed by their hydrolysis. Then, hydrogenation of the resulting phosphonopyridylcarboxylic acids over PtO2 yielded the desired phosphonopiperidylcarboxylic acids. NMR studies indicated that the hydrogenation reaction proceeds predominantly by cis addition. Several compounds were obtained as monocrystal structures. Preliminary biological studies performed on cultures of neurons suggest that the obtained compounds possess promising activity toward NMDA receptors. PMID:27187758

  17. Analogue-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analogue Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses circuits for three-bit and four-bit analogue digital converters and digital analogue converters. These circuits feature slow operating speeds that enable the circuitry to be used to demonstrate the mode of operation using oscilloscopes and signal generators. (DDR)

  18. In human retinoblastoma Y79 cells okadaic acid-parthenolide co-treatment induces synergistic apoptotic effects, with PTEN as a key player.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Riccardo; Drago-Ferrante, Rosa; D'Anneo, Antonella; Augello, Giuseppa; Carlisi, Daniela; De Blasio, Anna; Giuliano, Michela; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Vento, Renza

    2013-10-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood. In developing countries, treatment is limited, long-term survival rates are low and current chemotherapy causes significant morbidity to pediatric patients and significantly limits dosing. Therefore there is an urgent need to identify new therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical outcome of patients with retinoblastoma. Here, we investigated the effects of two natural compounds okadaic acid (OKA) and parthenolide (PN) on human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. For the first time we showed that OKA/PN combination at subtoxic doses induces potent synergistic apoptotic effects accompanied by lowering in p-Akt levels, increasing in the stabilized forms of p53 and potent decrease in pS166-Mdm2. We also showed the key involvement of PTEN which, after OKA/PN treatment, potently increased before p53, thus suggesting that p53 activation was under PTEN action. Moreover, after PTEN-knockdown p-Akt/ pS166Mdm2 increased over basal levels and p53 significantly lowered, while OKA/PN treatment failed both to lower p-Akt and pS166-Mdm2 and to increase p53 below/over their basal levels respectively. OKA/PN treatment potently increased ROS levels whereas decreased those of GSH. Reducing cellular GSH by l-butathionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine treatment significantly anticipated the cytotoxic effect exerted by OKA/PN. Furthermore, the effects of OKA/PN treatment on both GSH content and cell viability were less pronounced in PTEN silenced cells than in control cells. The results provide strong suggestion for combining a treatment approach that targets the PTEN/Akt/Mdm2/p53 pathway. PMID:23938948

  19. Phosphonate analogues of aminoacyl adenylates.

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, C C; Dixon, H B

    1978-01-01

    Phosphonomethyl analogues of glycyl phosphate and valyl phosphate, i.e. NH2-CHR-CO-CH2-PO(OH)2, were synthesized and esterified with adenosine to give analogues of aminoacyl adenylates. The interaction of these adenylate analogues with valyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli was studied by fluorescence titration. The analogue of valyl phosphate has an affinity for the enzyme comparable with that of valine, but that of valyl adenylate is bound much less tightly than either valyl adenylate or corresponding derivative of valinol. The affinity of the analogue of glycyl adenylate was too low to be measured. We conclude that this enzyme interacts specifically with both the side chain and the anhydride linkage of the adenylate intermediate. PMID:743207

  20. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  1. Synthesis and study of new paramagnetic resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Kálai, Tamás; Borza, Erzsébet; Antus, Csenge; Radnai, Balázs; Gulyás-Fekete, Gergely; Fehér, Andrea; Sümegi, Balázs; Hideg, Kálmán

    2011-12-15

    New resveratrol analogues containing five- and six-membered nitroxides and isoindoline nitroxides were synthesized. These new compounds were compared to resveratrol based on their ABTS radical scavenging ability as well on their capacity to suppress inflammatory process in macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharides. The ABTS and ROS scavenging activities of new molecules were the same or weaker than that of resveratrol, but some of paramagnetic resveratrol derivatives suppressed nitrite and TNFα production more efficiently than resveratrol. Based on these results the new nitroxide and phenol containing hybrid molecules can be considered as new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:22088309

  2. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  3. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D

    2010-12-23

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses. PMID:20504815

  4. Phosphonomethyl analogues of hexose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Webster, D; Jondorf, W R; Dixon, H B

    1976-05-01

    The analogue of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in which the phosphate group, -O-PO3H2, on C-6 is replaced by the phosphonomethyl group, -CH2-PO3H2, was made enzymically from the corresponding analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate. It was a substrate for aldolase, which was used to form it, but not for fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. It was hydrolysed chemically to yield the corresponding analogue of fructose 6-phosphate [i.e. 6-deoxy-6-(phosphonomethyl)-D-fructose, or, more strictly, 6,7-dideoxy-7-phosphono-D-arabino-2-heptulose]. This proved to be a substrate for the sequential actions of glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Thus seven out of the nine enzymes of the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways so far tested catalyse the reactions of the phosphonomethyl isosteres of their substrates. PMID:7247

  5. Glaucine analogues as inhibitors of mouse splenocyte activity.

    PubMed

    Philipov, S; Ivanovska, N; Nikolova, P

    1998-10-01

    The inhibitory effect of 15 semi-synthetic analogues of glaucine (1) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced and the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation of mouse splenocytes was compared in vitro. Isoboldine (3), bracteoline (4) and dehydroglaucine (9) showed a significantly higher potency to suppress LPS-induced proliferation than 1, while 7-hydroxy-4-methylglaucine (8), 7-formyldehydroglaucine (11), 7-acetyldehydroglaucine (13), 7-benzoyldehydroglaucine (14), oxoglaucine (15) and glaucine-quinol (16) were less inhibitory. Compounds 3, 4, boldine (5), 15 and 16 surpassed significantly the inhibition expressed by 1 on Con A-induced proliferative response. The effect was equal to the inhibition determined for mitomycin C (Mit C) with both mitogens. In contrast to all others analogues, thaliporphine (2) stimulated splenocyte proliferation in both assays. Antibody response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was lowered most strongly by cataline (6), 7-methyldehydroglaucine (10) and 16. PMID:9812336

  6. Inhibition of receptor/G protein coupling by suramin analogues.

    PubMed

    Beindl, W; Mitterauer, T; Hohenegger, M; Ijzerman, A P; Nanoff, C; Freissmuth, M

    1996-08-01

    Suramin analogues act as direct antagonists of heterotrimeric G proteins because they block the rate-limiting step of G protein activation (i.e., the dissociation of GDP prebound to the G protein alpha subunit). We have used the human brain A1 adenosine receptor and the rat striatal D2 dopamine receptor, two prototypical Gi/G(o)-coupled receptors, as a model system to test whether the following analogues suppress the receptor-dependent activation of G proteins: 8-(3-nitrobenzamido)-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid (NF007), 8-(3-(3-nitrobenzamido)-benzamido)-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid (NF018); 8,8'-(carbonylbis(imino-3,1-phenylene))bis-(1,3,5-naphthalenetr isulfonic acid) (NF023); 8,8'-(carbonylbis(imino-3,1-phenylene)carbonylimino-(3,1- phenylene)) bis(1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid) (NF037); and suramin. Suramin and its analogues inhibit the formation of the agonist-specific ternary complex (agonist/receptor/G protein). This inhibition is (i) quasicompetitive with respect to agonist binding in that it can be overcome by increasing receptor occupancy but (ii) does not result from an interaction of the analogues with the ligand binding pocket of the receptors because the binding of antagonists or of agonists in the absence of functional receptor/G protein interaction is not affected. In addition to suppressing the spontaneous release of GDP from defined G protein alpha subunits, suramin and its analogues reduce receptor-catalyzed guanine nucleotide exchange. The site, to which suramin analogues bind, overlaps with the docking site for the receptor on the G protein alpha subunit. The structure-activity relationships for inhibition of agonist binding to the A1 adenosine receptor (suramin > NF037 > NF023) and of agonist binding to the inhibition D2 dopamine receptor (suramin = NF037 > NF023 > NF018) differ. Thus, NF037 discriminates between the ternary complexes formed by the agonist-liganded D2 dopamine receptors and those formed by the A1 adenosine

  7. Muscarinic interactions of bisindolylmaleimide analogues.

    PubMed

    Lazareno, S; Popham, A; Birdsall, N J

    1998-11-01

    We have used radioligand binding studies to determine the affinities of seven bisindolylmaleimide analogues, six of which are selective inhibitors of protein kinase C, at human muscarinic M1-M4 receptors. The compounds were most potent at M1 receptors, and Ro-31-8220 was the most potent analogue, with a Kd of 0.6 microM at M1 receptors. The weakest compounds, bisindolylmaleimide IV and bisindolylmaleimide V, had Kd values of 100 microM. If it is necessary to use protein kinase C inhibitors at concentrations of 10 microM or more in studies involving muscarinic receptors then bisindolylmaleimide IV may be the most appropriate inhibitor to use. PMID:9851596

  8. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  9. Phosphonate analogue substrates for enolase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V E; Cleland, W W

    1990-11-20

    Phosphonate analogues in which the bridge between C-2 and phosphorus is a CH2 group are slow substrates for yeast enolase. The pH variation of the kinetic parameters for the methylene analogue of 2-phosphoglycerate suggests that the substrate binds as a dianion and that Mg2+ can bind subsequently only if a metal ligand and the catalytic base are unprotonated. Primary deuterium isotope effects of 4-8 on V/KMg, but ones of only 1.15-1.32 on V for dehydration, show that proton removal to give the carbanion intermediate largely limits V/KMg and that a slow step follows which largely limits V (presumably carbanion breakdown). Since there is a D2O solvent isotope effect on V for the reverse reaction of 5, but not an appreciable one on the forward reaction, it appears that the slow rates with phosphonate analogues result from the fact that the carbanion intermediate is more stable than that formed from the normal substrates, and its reaction in both directions limits V. Increased stability as a result of replacement of oxygen by carbon at C-2 of the carbanion is the expected chemical behavior. PMID:2271661

  10. Policy issues in space analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  11. Lysophosphatidylserine analogues differentially activate three LysoPS receptors.

    PubMed

    Uwamizu, Akiharu; Inoue, Asuka; Suzuki, Kensuke; Okudaira, Michiyo; Shuto, Akira; Shinjo, Yuji; Ishiguro, Jun; Makide, Kumiko; Ikubo, Masaya; Nakamura, Sho; Jung, Sejin; Sayama, Misa; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Aoki, Junken

    2015-03-01

    Lysophosphatidylserine (1-oleoyl-2 R-lysophosphatidylserine, LysoPS) has been shown to have lipid mediator-like actions such as stimulation of mast cell degranulation and suppression of T lymphocyte proliferation, although the mechanisms of LysoPS actions have been elusive. Recently, three G protein-coupled receptors (LPS1/GPR34, LPS2/P2Y10 and LPS3/GPR174) were found to react specifically with LysoPS, raising the possibility that LysoPS serves as a lipid mediator that exerts its role through these receptors. Previously, we chemically synthesized a number of LysoPS analogues and evaluated them as agonists for mast-cell degranulation. Here, we used a transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) shedding assay to see if these LysoPS analogues activated the three LysoPS receptors. Modification of the serine moiety significantly reduced the ability of the analogues to activate the three LysoPS receptors, whereas modification of other parts resulted in loss of activity in receptor-specific manner. We found that introduction of methyl group to serine moiety (1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidylallothreonine) and removal of sn-2 hydroxyl group (1-oleoyl-2-deoxy-LysoPS) resulted in reduction of reactivity with LPS1 and LPS3, respectively. Accordingly, we synthesized a LysoPS analogue with the two modifications (1-oleoyl-2-deoxy-lysophosphatidylallothreonine) and found it to be an LPS2-selective agonist. These pharmacological tools will definitely help to identify the biological roles of these LysoPS receptors. PMID:25320102

  12. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  13. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    DOEpatents

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  14. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs." PMID:18720674

  15. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  16. Self-Restricted Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore Analogues: Dramatic Emission Enhancement and Remarkable Solvatofluorochromism.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongping; Yu, Chunyang; Gong, Lidong; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2016-08-01

    The confinement effect of the β-barrel defines the emission profiles of the chromophores of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family. Here, we describe the design strategy and mimicking of confinement effects via the chromophore itself, termed the self-restricted effect. By systematically tailoring the GFP core, a family of 2,5-dialkoxy-substituted GFP chromophore analogues is found to be highly emissive and show remarkable solvatofluorochromism in fluid solvents. Fluorescence quantum yield (QY) and lifetime measurements, in combination with theoretical calculations, illustrate the mechanism relying on inhibition of torsional rotation around the exocyclic CC bond. Meanwhile, theoretical calculations further reveal that the electrostatic interaction between the solvent and the imidazolinone oxygen can contribute to suppress the radiationless decay channel around the exocyclic C═C double bond. Our findings put forward a universal approach toward unlocked highly emissive GFPc analogues, potentially promoting the understanding of the photophysics and biochemical application of GFP chromophore analogues. PMID:27404318

  17. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  18. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  19. An analogue study of intrusions.

    PubMed

    Laposa, Judith M; Alden, Lynn E

    2006-07-01

    According to cognitive theorists, intrusive trauma memories have their origin in how information during the event is processed. Two studies investigated functional cognitive strategies during medical crises that might protect against intrusions. In Study 1, interviews with health-care professionals were used to identify cognitive strategies judged to be effective in controlling emotions and dealing with medical crises. Study 2 systematically manipulated the use of those strategies in a trauma analogue film paradigm. Experimental participants reported fewer intrusions, and less fear and avoidance of film-related stimuli during the subsequent week than controls. The manipulation did not affect anxiety during the film or memory disorganization. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusion development are discussed. PMID:16125135

  20. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  1. Laboratory study of cometary analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Brucato, J.; Mennella, V.; Palumbo, P.

    In situ exploration (e.g., GIOTTO mission) and astronomical observations (e.g., ISO) of comets have provided fundamental information about the structure, chemistry and physical properties of materials present in such primordial bodies of the Solar System. Moreover, it is known that cosmic materials evolve, depending on the efficiency of active processes (e.g., thermal annealing, UV irradiation, ion bombardment, gassolid interactions) in different space environments. Thus, the properties of cometary constituents must be considered in a wider perspective, including cosmic dust formation around cold stars and evolution in the interstellar medium until the formation of proto-planetary nebulae. In this scenario, laboratory experiments provide important hints to clarify the status of cometary compounds. The laboratory work is aimed at both reproducing material properties and at simulating their evolution based on the most effective mechanisms active in space. Several techniques are used to synthesise "analogues" of cometary compounds with controlled chemical and physical characteristics. The study of optical properties, complemented by other analytical techniques, is applied to investigate the products of synthesis in the experiments. The monitoring of the effects produced by processing methods, similar to those active in space, provides information both on the reactivity of materials and on the efficiency of treatments. Such an approach is able to provide quantitative information on chemical and structural modifications produced on organic and refractory materials. The comparison of laboratory results with data coming from space observations and in situ measurements provides a powerful tool to understand the real nature of comets and to place constraints on formation and evolution pathways. The laboratory experiments on analogues gain even more relevance as a sort of training in the future perspective of analysing cometary samples returned to Earth by space missions (e

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Library of Fluorescent Dipeptidomimetic Analogues as Substrates for Modified Bacterial Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sandipan Roy; Chauhan, Pradeep S; Dedkova, Larisa M; Bai, Xiaoguang; Chen, Shengxi; Talukder, Poulami; Hecht, Sidney M

    2016-05-01

    Described herein are the synthesis and photophysical characterization of a library of aryl-substituted oxazole- and thiazole-based dipeptidomimetic analogues, and their incorporation into position 66 of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in lieu of the natural fluorophore. These fluorescent analogues resemble the fluorophore formed naturally by GFP. As anticipated, the photophysical properties of the analogues varied as a function of the substituents at the para position of the phenyl ring. The fluorescence emission wavelength maxima of compounds in the library varied from ∼365 nm (near-UV region) to ∼490 nm (visible region). The compounds also exhibited a large range of quantum yields (0.01-0.92). The analogues were used to activate a suppressor tRNACUA and were incorporated into position 66 of GFP using an in vitro protein biosynthesizing system that employed engineered ribosomes selected for their ability to incorporate dipeptides. Four analogues with interesting photophysical properties and reasonable suppression yields were chosen, and the fluorescent proteins (FPs) containing these fluorophores were prepared on a larger scale for more detailed study. When the FPs were compared with the respective aminoacyl-tRNAs and the actual dipeptide analogues, the FPs exhibited significantly enhanced fluorescence intensities at the same concentrations. Part of this was shown to be due to the presence of the fluorophores as an intrinsic element of the protein backbone. There were also characteristic shifts in the emission maxima, indicating the environmental sensitivity of these probes. Acridon-2-ylalanine and oxazole 1a were incorporated into positions 39 and 66 of GFP, respectively, and were shown to form an efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair, demonstrating that the analogues can be used as FRET probes. PMID:27050631

  3. Carvedilol Analogue Inhibits Triggered Activities Evoked by Both Early and Delayed Afterdepolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Mitsunori; Xiao, Jianmin; Zhou, Qiang; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Chua, Su-Kiat; Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael; Lin, Shien-Fong; Back, Thomas G.; Chen, SR Wayne; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carvedilol and its analogues suppress delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardias by direct action on the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2). OBJECTIVE We tested a hypothesis that carvedilol analogue may also prevent triggered activities (TAs) through the suppression of early afterdepolarizations (EADs). METHODS Intracellular Ca2+ and membrane voltage were simultaneously recorded using optical mapping technique in Langendorff-perfused mouse and rabbit hearts to study the effect of carvedilol analogue, VK-II-36 that does not have significant beta-blocking effects. RESULTS Spontaneous intracellular Ca2+ elevations (SCaEs) during diastole was induced by rapid ventricular pacing and isoproterenol infusion in intact rabbit ventricles. Systolic and diastolic SCaEs were simultaneously noted in Langendorff-perfused RyR2 R4496+/− mouse hearts after creating atrioventricular block. VK-II-36 effectively suppressed SCaEs and eliminated TAs observed in both mouse and rabbit ventricles. We tested the effect of VK-II-36 on EADs using a rabbit model of acquired long QT syndrome in which phase-2 and phase-3 EADs were observed in association with systolic SCaEs. VK-II-36 abolished the systolic SCaEs and phase-2 EADs, and greatly decreased the dispersion of repolarization and the amplitude of phase-3 EADs. VK-II-36 completely prevented EAD-mediated TAs in all ventricles studied. CONCLUSION A carvedilol analogue, VK-II-36 inhibits ventricular tachyarrhythmias in intact mouse and rabbit ventricles by suppression of SCaEs, independent of beta-blocking activity. The RyR2 may be a potential target for treating focal ventricular arrhythmias triggered by either EADs or DADs. PMID:22982970

  4. Plant volatile analogues strengthen attractiveness to insect.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  5. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  6. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24918540

  7. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  8. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-09-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mltogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  9. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  10. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties. PMID:22721390

  11. Thalidomide analogue CC1069 inhibits development of rat adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, S J; Freeman, S L; Corral, L G; Ocampo, C J; Kaplan, G

    1999-01-01

    The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been implicated in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis in humans as well as of experimental arthritis in rodents. Thalidomide, and to a greater extent the new thalidomide analogue CC1069, inhibit monocyte TNF-α production both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study is to establish whether these drugs block production of TNF-α as well as IL-2 by rat leucocytes and whether this inhibition affects the development of rat adjuvant arthritis (AA). Cultured splenocytes were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of thalidomide, CC1069, or solvent, and the production of TNF-α and IL-2 were compared. Next, adjuvant was injected into the base of the tail of rats without or with daily intraperitoneal injections with 100–200 mg/kg per day thalidomide or 50–200 mg/kg per day CC1069. Disease activity, including ankle swelling, hind limb radiographic and histological changes, weight gain, and ankle joint cytokine mRNA levels, were monitored. CC1069, but not the parent drug thalidomide, inhibited in vitro production of TNF-α and IL-2 by stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, a dose-dependent suppression of AA disease activity occurred in the CC1069-treated animals. In contrast, thalidomide-treated rats experienced comparable arthritis severity to placebo-treated animals. There was also a reduction in TNF-α and IL-2 mRNA levels in the ankle joints of CC1069-treated rats compared with thalidomide- and placebo-treated arthritic rats. Early initiation of CC1069 treatment suppressed AA inflammation more efficiently than delayed treatment. We conclude that thalidomide, which did not suppress TNF-α or IL-2 production in vitro by Lewis rat cells, did not suppress development of rat AA. However, the development of rat AA can be blocked by the thalidomide analogue CC1069, which is an efficient inhibitor of TNF-α production and IL-2 in vitro

  12. Synthesis and SAR of vinca alkaloid analogues.

    PubMed

    Voss, Matthew E; Ralph, Jeffery M; Xie, Dejian; Manning, David D; Chen, Xinchao; Frank, Anthony J; Leyhane, Andrew J; Liu, Lei; Stevens, Jason M; Budde, Cheryl; Surman, Matthew D; Friedrich, Thomas; Peace, Denise; Scott, Ian L; Wolf, Mark; Johnson, Randall

    2009-02-15

    Versatile intermediates 12'-iodovinblastine, 12'-iodovincristine and 11'-iodovinorelbine were utilized as substrates for transition metal based chemistry which led to the preparation of novel analogues of the vinca alkaloids. The synthesis of key iodo intermediates, their transformation into final products, and the SAR based upon HeLa and MCF-7 cell toxicity assays is presented. Selected analogues 27 and 36 show promising anticancer activity in the P388 murine leukemia model. PMID:19147348

  13. Planetary habitability: lessons learned from terrestrial analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Louisa J.; Dartnell, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial analogue studies underpin almost all planetary missions and their use is essential in the exploration of our Solar system and in assessing the habitability of other worlds. Their value relies on the similarity of the analogue to its target, either in terms of their mineralogical or geochemical context, or current physical or chemical environmental conditions. Such analogue sites offer critical ground-truthing for astrobiological studies on the habitability of different environmental parameter sets, the biological mechanisms for survival in extreme environments and the preservation potential and detectability of biosignatures. The 33 analogue sites discussed in this review have been selected on the basis of their congruence to particular extraterrestrial locations. Terrestrial field sites that have been used most often in the literature, as well as some lesser known ones which require greater study, are incorporated to inform on the astrobiological potential of Venus, Mars, Europa, Enceladus and Titan. For example, the possibility of an aerial habitable zone on Venus has been hypothesized based on studies of life at high-altitudes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We also demonstrate why many different terrestrial analogue sites are required to satisfactorily assess the habitability of the changing environmental conditions throughout Martian history, and recommend particular sites for different epochs or potential niches. Finally, habitable zones within the aqueous environments of the icy moons of Europa and Enceladus and potentially in the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan are discussed and suitable analogue sites proposed. It is clear from this review that a number of terrestrial analogue sites can be applied to multiple planetary bodies, thereby increasing their value for astrobiological exploration. For each analogue site considered here, we summarize the pertinent physiochemical environmental features they offer and critically assess the fidelity with which

  14. Investigation of salicylate hepatic responses in comparison with chemical analogues of the drug.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Amy R; Logie, Lisa; Patel, Kashyap; Bacon, Sandra; Forteath, Calum; Harthill, Jean; Roberts, Adam; Sutherland, Calum; Stewart, Derek; Viollet, Benoit; Sakamoto, Kei; McDougall, Gordon; Foretz, Marc; Rena, Graham

    2016-08-01

    Anti-hyperglycaemic effects of the hydroxybenzoic acid salicylate might stem from effects of the drug on mitochondrial uncoupling, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, and inhibition of NF-κB signalling. Here, we have gauged the contribution of these effects to control of hepatocyte glucose production, comparing salicylate with inactive hydroxybenzoic acid analogues of the drug. In rat H4IIE hepatoma cells, salicylate was the only drug tested that activated AMPK. Salicylate also reduced mTOR signalling, but this property was observed widely among the analogues. In a sub-panel of analogues, salicylate alone reduced promoter activity of the key gluconeogenic enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase and suppressed basal glucose production in mouse primary hepatocytes. Both salicylate and 2,6 dihydroxybenzoic acid suppressed TNFα-induced IκB degradation, and in genetic knockout experiments, we found that the effect of salicylate on IκB degradation was AMPK-independent. Previous data also identified AMPK-independent regulation of glucose but we found that direct inhibition of neither NF-κB nor mTOR signalling suppressed glucose production, suggesting that other factors besides these cell signalling pathways may need to be considered to account for this response to salicylate. We found, for example, that H4IIE cells were exquisitely sensitive to uncoupling with modest doses of salicylate, which occurred on a similar time course to another anti-hyperglycaemic uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol, while there was no discernible effect at all of two salicylate analogues which are not anti-hyperglycaemic. This finding supports much earlier literature suggesting that salicylates exert anti-hyperglycaemic effects at least in part through uncoupling. PMID:27130437

  15. Glucagonlike Peptide 2 Analogue Teduglutide

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S.; Basson, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Short bowel syndrome occurs when a shortened intestine cannot absorb sufficient nutrients or fluids. Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide 2 that reduces dependence on parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome by promoting enterocytic proliferation, increasing the absorptive surface area. However, enterocyte function depends not only on the number of cells that are present but also on differentiated features that facilitate nutrient absorption and digestion. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that teduglutide impairs human intestinal epithelial differentiation. DESIGN AND SETTING We investigated the effects of teduglutide in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells at a basic science laboratory. This was an in vitro study using Caco-2 cells, a human-derived intestinal epithelial cell line commonly used to model enterocytic biology. EXPOSURE Cells were exposed to teduglutide or vehicle control. MAINOUTCOMESAND MEASURES We analyzed the cell cycle by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. We used quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to assay the expression of the enterocytic differentiation markers villin, sucrase-isomaltase, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as well as that of the putative differentiation signals schlafen 12 (SLFN12) and caudal-related homeobox intestine-specific transcription factor (Cdx2). Villin promoter activity was measured by a luciferase-based assay. RESULTS The MTS assay demonstrated that teduglutide increased cell numbers by a mean (SD) of 10% (2%) over untreated controls at a maximal 500nM (n = 6, P < .05). Teduglutide increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells vs untreated controls by a mean (SD

  16. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  17. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    Dexamethasone suppression test measures whether adrenocorticotrophic hormone ( ACTH ) secretion by the pituitary can be suppressed. ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong ... your blood is drawn so that the cortisol level in your blood ...

  18. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  19. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is being suppressed by high blood sugar. ... away. The lab measures the glucose and growth hormone (GH) levels in each sample.

  20. Convergent syntheses of LeX analogues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An; Hendel, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of three Lex derivatives from one common protected trisaccharide is reported. These analogues will be used respectively for competitive binding experiments, conjugation to carrier proteins and immobilization on gold. An N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide acceptor was first glycosylated at O-4 with a galactosyl imidate. This coupling was performed at 40 °C under excess of BF3·OEt2 activation and proceeded best if the acceptor carried a 6-chlorohexyl rather than a 6-azidohexyl aglycon. The 6-chlorohexyl disaccharide was then converted to an acceptor and submitted to fucosylation yielding the corresponding protected 6-chlorohexyl Lex trisaccharide. This protected trisaccharide was used as a precursor to the 6-azidohexyl, 6-acetylthiohexyl and 6-benzylthiohexyl trisaccharide analogues which were obtained in excellent yields (70–95%). In turn, we describe the deprotection of these intermediates in one single step using dissolving metal conditions. Under these conditions, the 6-chlorohexyl and 6-azidohexyl intermediates led respectively to the n-hexyl and 6-aminohexyl trisaccharide targets. Unexpectedly, the 6-acetylthiohexyl analogue underwent desulfurization and gave the n-hexyl glycoside product, whereas the 6-benzylthiohexyl analogue gave the desired disulfide trisaccharide dimer. This study constitutes a particularly efficient and convergent preparation of these three Lex analogues. PMID:20485599

  1. Dolastatin 11 conformations, analogues and pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Ahad; Bates, Robert B; Crane, Zackary D; Dicus, Christopher W; Gramme, Michelle R; Hamel, Ernest; Marcischak, Jacob; Martinez, David S; McClure, Kelly J; Nakkiew, Pichaya; Pettit, George R; Stessman, Chad C; Sufi, Bilal A; Yarick, Gayle V

    2005-07-01

    Twenty analogues of the natural antitumor agent dolastatin 11, including majusculamide C, were synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity against human cancer cells and stimulation of actin polymerization. Only analogues containing the 30-membered ring were active. Molecular modeling and NMR evidence showed the low-energy conformations. The amide bonds are all trans except for the one between the Tyr and Val units, which is cis. Since an analogue restricted to negative 2-3-4-5 angles stimulated actin polymerization but was inactive in cells, the binding conformation (most likely the lowest-energy conformation in water) has a negative 2-3-4-5 angle, whereas a conformation with a positive 2-3-4-5 angle (most likely the lowest energy conformation in chloroform) goes through cell walls. The highly active R alcohol from borohydride reduction of dolastatin 11 is a candidate for conversion to prodrugs. PMID:15878670

  2. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  3. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  4. Effect of a synthetic indolicidin analogue on lipid peroxidation in thermal burns.

    PubMed

    Lazarenko, V A; Lyashev, Yu D; Shevchenko, N I

    2014-08-01

    Experimental simulation of burn was followed by accumulation of LPO products and suppression of antioxidant enzyme activity in the burn wound. Application of a synthetic analogue of indolicidin led to an increase in MDA and acylhydroperoxide concentrations in the burn wound on experimental day 1. Further application of the peptide in a dose of 100 mg/kg had no significant effect on the studied parameters, while the peptide in a dose of 500 mg/kg was followed by a decrease in the level of LPO products on days 10 and 14. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in rats treated with 500 mg/kg indolicidin analogue had a two-phase pattern: an increase on day 4 was followed by a decrease. PMID:25110080

  5. Synthetic analogues of the natural compound cryphonectric acid interfere with photosynthetic machinery through two different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Pereira, Wagner Luiz; Tomaz, Deborah Campos; de Oliveira, Fabrício Marques; Giberti, Samuele; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2013-06-12

    A series of isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ones (phthalides), analogues of the naturally occurring phytotoxin cryphonectric acid, were designed, synthesized, and fully characterized by NMR, IR, and MS analyses. Their synthesis was achieved via condensation, aromatization, and acetylation reactions. The measurement of the electron transport chain in spinach chloroplasts showed that several derivatives are capable of interfering with the photosynthetic apparatus. Few of them were found to inhibit the basal rate, but a significant inhibition was brought about only at concentrations exceeding 50 μM. Some other analogues acted as uncouplers or energy transfer inhibitors, with a remarkably higher effectiveness. Isobenzofuranone addition to the culture medium inhibited the growth of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus , with patterns consistent with the effects measured in vitro upon isolated chloroplasts. The most active derivatives, being able to completely suppress algal growth at 20 μM, may represent structures to be exploited for the design of new active ingredients for weed control. PMID:23678958

  6. D-luciferin analogues: a multicolor toolbox for bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Qiang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Pi; Zhang, Jingyu; Guo, Wei

    2012-08-20

    Colorful mixture: Three types of luciferin analogues, that is, alkylaminoluciferins, aminoselenoluciferin, and luciferins with a benzimidazole scaffold, have been reported. These analogues show excellent bioluminescent properties and great potential in bioluminescence imaging. PMID:22807027

  7. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  8. New cytotoxic analogues of annonaceous acetogenins.

    PubMed

    Rodier, S; Le Huerou, Y; Renoux, B; Doyon, J; Renard, P; Pierré, A; Gesson, J P; Grée, R

    2001-01-01

    A series of new acetogenin analogues incorporating a central catechol moiety instead of the tetrahydrofuran ring(s) have been prepared and tested against L1210 leukemia cells. Although less potent than bullatacinone, which has the same terminal lactone, these compounds display interesting cell cycle effects. PMID:11962508

  9. Synthesis and Cytoxicity of Sempervirine and Analogues.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaohong; Yang, Chunying; Cleveland, John L; Bannister, Thomas D

    2016-03-01

    Sempervirine and analogues were synthesized using a route featuring Sonogashira and Larock Pd-catalyzed reactions. Structure-activity relationships were investigated using three human cancer cell lines. 10-Fluorosempervirine is the most potently cytotoxic member of the family yet described. PMID:26828413

  10. The arsonomethyl analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, S R; Sparkes, M J; Dixon, H B

    1983-01-01

    4-Arsono-2-hydroxybutanoic acid, the analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate in which -CH2-AsO3H2 replaces -O-PO3H2, was synthesized. It proved to be a substrate for phosphoglycerate kinase. Its Michaelis constant was only slightly higher than that of the natural substrate, but its catalytic constant was about 1300 times smaller. PMID:6615422

  11. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-03-01

    Project overview provides background on carbonic anhydrase transport mechanism for CO2 in the human body and proposed approach for ARPA-E project to create a synthetic enzyme analogue and utilize it in a membrane for CO2 capture from flue gas.

  12. Synthesis of lipid II phosphonate analogues.

    PubMed

    Borbás, Anikó; Herczegh, Pál

    2011-09-01

    Simple analogues of lipid II were synthesized from 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranose using conjugate addition onto ethylidene bisphosphonate and subsequent Wadsworth-Horner-Emmons reaction with long chain aliphatic aldehydes. PMID:21600568

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine. PMID:11003150

  14. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:27301366

  15. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  16. Recent advances in topoisomerase I-targeting agents, camptothecin analogues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Kee; Lee, Namkyu

    2002-12-01

    The present review concentrates on camptothecin (CPT) analogues, the most extensively studied topoisomerase I (topo I) inhibitors, and provides concise information on the structural features of human topo I enzyme, mechanisms of interaction of CPT with topo I, structure-activity relationship study of CPT analogues including the influence of lactone stability on antitumor activity, and recent updates of valuable CPT analogues. PMID:12370044

  17. Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure - part II. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues and prostamides.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Ciro; dell'Omo, Roberto; Romano, Mario R; Rinaldi, Michele; Zeppa, Lucia; Parmeggiani, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    The second part of this two part review (please see Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 10(16)) reports the characteristics of other antiglaucoma medications: systemic (acetazomide) and topical (dorzolamide and brinzolamide) carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, which suppress aqueous humour formation; and prostaglandin analogues (latanoprost and travoprost) and prostamides (bimatoprost), which raise aqueous humour outflow. The pharmacologic properties of each compound and its efficacy in the medical treatment of glaucoma, mainly the primary open-angle form, are discussed briefly, focusing on the clinical evidence supporting their use. PMID:19929706

  18. [Insulin analogues: modifications in the structure, molecular and metabolic consequences].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Romero, E

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has provided insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, with an efficacy and safety that has improved the treatment of this disease. We briefly review the principal characteristics of the insulin analogues currently available. Both rapid-acting (lispro, aspart and glulisine) and long acting (glargine and determir) insulin analogues are included in this review. We describe the pharmacology of each insulin analogue, their differences with the human insulin, the administration, indication, efficacy and safety. In addition we discussed the main controversies of the use of these insulin analogues. In particular, those related with the risk of cancer and retinopathy, and their use in pregnant women. PMID:23517895

  19. Design and synthesis of new fluconazole analogues.

    PubMed

    Pore, Vandana S; Agalave, Sandip G; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, Praveen K; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad I

    2015-06-21

    We have synthesized new fluconazole analogues containing two different 1,2,3-triazole units in the side chain. The synthesis of new amide analogues using a variety of acids is also described. All the compounds showed very good antifungal activity. A hemolysis study of the most active compounds 6e and 13j showed that both compounds did not cause any hemolysis at the dilutions tested. These compounds did not exhibit any toxicity to L929 cells at MIC and lower concentrations. In the docking study, the overall binding mode of 6e and 13j appeared to be reasonable and provided a good insight into the structural basis of inhibition of Candida albicans Cyp51 by these compounds. PMID:25975803

  20. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Negrato, Marco; Abbiati, Giorgio; Dell’Acqua, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues. PMID:26664620

  1. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of acetogenin analogues.

    PubMed

    Rodier, S; Le Huérou, Y; Renoux, B; Doyon, J; Renard, P; Pierré, A; Gesson, J P; Grée, R

    2000-06-19

    A set of 16 new simplified analogues of acetogenins has been designed based on: (i) the replacement of the bis THF moiety of these natural products by an ethylene glycol bis ether unit; (ii) the introduction of different lipophilic side chains (alkyl, aryl, dialkylamino, O-cholesteryl); (iii) the presence of the same terminal isolactone. In vitro cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia is reported. PMID:10890167

  2. Efficient synthesis of esermethole and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongyun; Zhao, Yuanhong; Dai, Xiaoyong; Liu, Jianping; Li, Liang; Zhang, Hongbin

    2011-06-01

    In this work, a general and flexible synthetic route towards the synthesis of pyrroloindoline alkaloids was developed. This new strategy features with a palladium mediated sequential arylation-allylation of o-bromoanilides and leads to the construction of oxindoles bearing a full carbon quaternary center. The cheap triphenylphosphine was proved to be a highly effective ligand for this one pot transformation. On the basis of this new method, esermethole and its analogues were synthesized. PMID:21472186

  3. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  4. An analogue experimental model of depth fluctuations in lava lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witham, Fred; Woods, Andrew W.; Gladstone, Charlotte

    2006-07-01

    Lava lakes, consisting of molten degassing lava in summit craters of active basaltic volcanoes, sometimes exhibit complex cycles of filling and emptying on time-scales of hours to weeks such as recorded at Pu’u’O’o in Hawaii and Oldoinyo Lengai in Tanzania. Here we report on a new series of analogue laboratory experiments of two-phase flow in a reservoir-conduit-lava lake system which spontaneously generates oscillations in the depth of liquid within the lake. During the recharge phase, gas supplied from a subsurface reservoir of degassing magma drives liquid magma up the conduit, causing the lake to fill. As the magmastatic pressure in the lake increases, the upward supply of magma, driven by the gas bubbles, falls. Eventually the upflow becomes unstable, and liquid drains downwards from the lake, driven by the magmastatic pressure of the overlying lake, suppressing the ascent of any more bubbles from the chamber. At a later stage, once the lake has drained sufficiently, the descent speed of liquid through the conduit decreases below the ascent speed of the bubbles, and the recharge cycle resumes. Application of a quantitative model of the experiments to the natural system is broadly consistent with field data.

  5. Blood Loss Estimation Using Gauze Visual Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Ali Algadiem, Emran; Aleisa, Abdulmohsen Ali; Alsubaie, Huda Ibrahim; Buhlaiqah, Noora Radhi; Algadeeb, Jihad Bagir; Alsneini, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating intraoperative blood loss can be a difficult task, especially when blood is mostly absorbed by gauze. In this study, we have provided an improved method for estimating blood absorbed by gauze. Objectives To develop a guide to estimate blood absorbed by surgical gauze. Materials and Methods A clinical experiment was conducted using aspirated blood and common surgical gauze to create a realistic amount of absorbed blood in the gauze. Different percentages of staining were photographed to create an analogue for the amount of blood absorbed by the gauze. Results A visual analogue scale was created to aid the estimation of blood absorbed by the gauze. The absorptive capacity of different gauze sizes was determined when the gauze was dripping with blood. The amount of reduction in absorption was also determined when the gauze was wetted with normal saline before use. Conclusions The use of a visual analogue may increase the accuracy of blood loss estimation and decrease the consequences related to over or underestimation of blood loss. PMID:27626017

  6. Cough suppression disorders spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reich, Jerome M

    2014-02-01

    Volitional cough suppression, identified exclusively in females, is an unusual causal mechanism for instances of lobar atalectasis and bronchiectasis. It is a postulated mechanism for the genesis of Lady Windermere Syndrome. PMID:24462261

  7. Jet Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  8. Three Efficient Methods for Preparation of Coelenterazine Analogues.

    PubMed

    Shakhmin, Anton; Hall, Mary P; Walker, Joel R; Machleidt, Thomas; Binkowski, Brock F; Wood, Keith V; Kirkland, Thomas A

    2016-07-18

    The growing popularity of bioluminescent assays has highlighted the need for coelenterazine analogues possessing properties tuned for specific applications. However, the structural diversity of known coelenterazine analogues has been limited by current syntheses. Known routes for the preparation of coelenterazine analogues employ harsh reaction conditions that limit access to many substituents and functional groups. Novel synthetic routes reported here establish simple and robust methods for synthesis and investigation of structurally diverse marine luciferase substrates. Specifically, these new routes allow synthesis of coelenterazine analogues containing various heterocyclic motifs and substituted aromatic groups with diverse electronic substituents at the R(2) position. Interesting analogues described herein were characterized by their physicochemical properties, bioluminescent half-life, light output, polarity and cytotoxicity. Some of the analogues represent leads that can be utilized in the development of improved bioluminescent systems. PMID:27305599

  9. Suppression of fertility in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Maenhoudt, C; Santos, N R; Fontbonne, A

    2014-06-01

    Unfortunately, the overpopulation of dogs is still a problem in the majority of countries and even though surgical methods of sterilization, the most traditional and commonly used technique, have been intensively performed, the impact on the dog population is negligible. The neutering of companion animals as ovariohysterectomy (spaying) or orchidectomy (castration) has its limitations because of the cost, the need of a surgical environment and the risk of surgical and/or anaesthetical complications (ACCD 2009). In fact, surgical castration has been banished in some northern European countries and has limited acceptance in other countries. In a survey performed in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 56.5% of the owners of adopted shelter dogs were against the surgical procedure for different reasons (Soto et al. 2005). Currently, the options for contraception, defined as suppression of fertility are based on hormonal treatment. The treatments can be divided into analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), progestins and androgens. Other possibilities of contraception are via the immunological system with vaccinations against GnRH, the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and the zona pellucida proteins. Finally, there is also the intra-epididymal or intratesticular injection of sclerosing substances in dogs. Mechanical devices to disrupt fertility are not used anymore due to the side effects. Suppression of fertility in adult dogs will be reviewed in order of use and possible impact on the dog population. PMID:24947862

  10. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  11. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process.

  12. Conformationally restrained aromatic analogues of fosmidomycin and FR900098.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Thomas; Schlüter, Katrin; Pein, Miriam; Behrendt, Christoph; Bergmann, Bärbel; Walter, Rolf D

    2007-07-01

    The synthesis and in-vitro antimalarial activity of conformationally restrained bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) ester analogues of the natural product fosmidomycin is presented. In contrast to alpha-aryl-substituted analogues, conformationally restrained aromatic analogues exhibit only moderate in-vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The most active derivative displays an IC(50) value of 47 microM. PMID:17611943

  13. Analogue factoring algorithm based on polychromatic interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamma, Vincenzo; Garuccio, Augusto; Shih, Yanhua

    2010-08-01

    We present a novel factorization algorithm which can be computed using an analogue computer based on a polychromatic source with a given wavelength bandwidth, a multi-path interferometer and a spectrometer. The core of this algorithm stands on the measurement of the periodicity of a "factoring" function given by an exponential sum at continuous argument by recording a sequence of interferograms associated with suitable units of displacement in the inteferometer. A remarking rescaling property of such interferograms allows, in principle, the prime number decomposition of several large integers. The information about factors is encoded in the location of the inteferogram maxima.

  14. Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, Juliet; Flynn, Chris; Portinari, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims: This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48 000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods: The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar analogues versus a reference solar reflection spectrum. Results: We derive spectroscopic parameters for 148 solar analogues (about 70 are new entries to the literature) and verify with a-posteriori differential tests that our values are well-centred on the solar values. We use our dataset to assess the two alternative calibrations of the GCS parameters; our methods favour the latest revision. We show that the choice of spectral line list or the choice of asteroid or time of observation does not affect the results. We also identify seven solar twins in our sample, three of which are published here for the first time. Conclusions: Our methods provide an independent means to differentially test the calibration of stellar catalogues around the values of a well-known benchmark star, which makes our work interesting for calibration tests of upcoming Galactic surveys. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 077.D

  15. Phonon analogue of topological nodal semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Kane and Lubensky proposed a mapping between bosonic phonon problems on isostatic lattices to chiral fermion systems based on factorization of the dynamical matrix [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014)]. The existence of topologically protected zero modes in such mechanical problems is related to their presence in the fermionic system and is dictated by a local index theorem. Here we adopt the proposed mapping to construct a two-dimensional mechanical analogue of a fermionic topological nodal semimetal that hosts a robust bulk node in its linearized phonon spectrum. Such topologically protected soft modes with tunable wavevector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.

  16. Digitoxin Analogues with Improved Anticytomegalovirus Activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth and possess antiviral activities at nanomolar concentrations. In this study we evaluated the anticytomegalovirus (CMV) activity of digitoxin and several of its analogues. We show that sugar type and sugar length attached to the steroid core structure affects its anticytomegalovirus activity. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies identified the l-sugar containing cardiac glycosides as having improved anti-CMV activity and may lead to better understanding of how these compounds inhibit CMV replication. PMID:24900847

  17. Materials analogue of zero-stiffness structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2011-04-01

    Anglepoise lamps and certain tensegrities are examples of zero-stiffness structures. These structures are in a state of neutral equilibrium with respect to changes in configuration of the system. Using Eshelby's example of an edge dislocation in a thin plate that can bend, we report the discovery of a non-trivial new class of material structures as an analogue to zero-stiffness structures. For extended positions of the edge dislocation in these structures, the dislocation experiences a zero image force. Salient features of these material structures along with the key differences from conventional zero-stiffness structures are pointed out.

  18. The electrical properties of Mars analogue dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrison, J.; Jensen, J.; Kinch, K.; Mugford, R.; Nørnberg, P.

    2004-03-01

    Dust is a major environmental factor on the surface and in the atmosphere of Mars. Knowing the electrical charge state of this dust would be of both scientific interest and important for the safety of instruments on the Martian surface. In this study the first measurements have been performed of dust electrification using suspended Mars analogue material. This has been achieved by attracting suspended dust onto electrodes placed inside a Mars simulation wind tunnel. The Mars analogue used was from Salten Skov in Denmark, this contained a high concentration of ferric oxide precipitate. Once suspended, this dust was found to consist of almost equal quantities of negatively (46±6%) and positively (44±15%) charged grains. These grains were estimated to typically carry a net charge of around 10 5e, this is sufficient to dominate the processes of adhesion and cohesion of this suspended dust. Evidence is presented for electrostatic aggregation of the dust while in suspension. Development of a simple instrument for measuring electrical charging of the suspended dust on Mars will be discussed.

  19. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  20. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity. PMID:27010713

  1. Subordinate male cichlids retain reproductive competence during social suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kustan, Jacqueline M.; Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    Subordinate males, which are excluded from reproduction often save energy by reducing their investment in sperm production. However, if their position in a dominance hierarchy changes suddenly they should also rapidly attain fertilization capability. Here, we asked how social suppression and ascension to dominance influences sperm quality, spermatogenesis and reproductive competence in the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, where reproduction is tightly coupled to social status. Dominant territorial (T) males are reproductively active while subordinate non-territorial (NT) males are suppressed, but given the opportunity, NT males will perform dominance behaviours within minutes and attain T male testes size within days. Using the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label germ cell proliferation, we found that the spermatogenic cycle takes approximately 11–12 days, and social status had no effect on proliferation, suggesting that spermatogenesis continues during reproductive suppression. Although sperm velocity did not differ among social states, NT males had reduced sperm motility. Remarkably, males ascending in status showed sperm motility equivalent to T males within 24 h. Males also successfully reproduced within hours of social opportunity, despite four to five weeks of suppression and reduced testis size. Our data suggest that NT males maintain reproductive potential during suppression possibly as a strategy to rapidly improve reproductive fitness upon social opportunity. PMID:21733892

  2. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  3. Viscoelastic Suppression of Gravity-Driven Counterflow Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Layne, D.; Magee, E. W.; Katz, J. I.

    2011-02-01

    Attempts to achieve “top kill” of flowing oil wells by pumping dense drilling “muds,” i.e., slurries of dense minerals, from above will fail if the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the gravity-driven counterflow produces turbulence that breaks up the denser fluid into small droplets. Here we estimate the droplet size to be submillimeter for fast flows and suggest the addition of a shear-thickening or viscoelastic polymer to suppress turbulence. We find in laboratory experiments a variety of new physical effects for a viscoelastic shear-thickening liquid in a gravity-driven counterstreaming flow. There is a progression from droplet formation to complete turbulence suppression at the relevant high velocities. Thick descending columns show a viscoelastic analogue of the viscous buckling instability. Thinner streams form structures resembling globules on a looping filament.

  4. Viscoelastic suppression of gravity-driven counterflow instability.

    PubMed

    Beiersdorfer, P; Layne, D; Magee, E W; Katz, J I

    2011-02-01

    Attempts to achieve "top kill" of flowing oil wells by pumping dense drilling "muds," i.e., slurries of dense minerals, from above will fail if the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the gravity-driven counterflow produces turbulence that breaks up the denser fluid into small droplets. Here we estimate the droplet size to be submillimeter for fast flows and suggest the addition of a shear-thickening or viscoelastic polymer to suppress turbulence. We find in laboratory experiments a variety of new physical effects for a viscoelastic shear-thickening liquid in a gravity-driven counterstreaming flow. There is a progression from droplet formation to complete turbulence suppression at the relevant high velocities. Thick descending columns show a viscoelastic analogue of the viscous buckling instability. Thinner streams form structures resembling globules on a looping filament. PMID:21405442

  5. Drugs that suppress TSH or cause central hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Bryan R

    2009-12-01

    Many different drugs affect thyroid function. Most of these drugs act at the level of the thyroid in patients with normal thyroid function, or at the level of thyroid hormone absorption or metabolism in patients requiring exogenous levothyroxine. A small subset of medications including glucocorticoids, dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogues and rexinoids affect thyroid function through suppression of TSH in the thyrotrope or hypothalamus. Fortunately, most of these medications do not cause clinically evident central hypothyroidism. A newer class of nuclear hormone receptors agonists, called rexinoids, cause clinically significant central hypothyroidism in most patients and dopamine agonists may exacerbate 'hypothyroidism' in patients with non-thyroidal illness. In this review, we explore mechanisms governing TSH suppression of these drugs and the clinical relevance of these effects. PMID:19942154

  6. Functional Analysis: The Use of Analogues in Applied Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine Peck

    2001-01-01

    This article suggests possible applications of experimental analyses using analogues to empirically verify results of functional assessments in classrooms for students with autism and related disabilities. Analogue assessments involve creating conditions in which antecedents and consequences are held constant and specific variables suspected to…

  7. Space Analogue Environments: Are the Populations Comparable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, G. M.

    Background: Much of our present understanding about psychology in space is based on studies of groups operating in so-called analogue environments where personnel are exposed to many of the same stressors as those experienced by astronauts in space. One possible problem with extrapolating results is that personnel operating in various hazardous and confined environments might differ in characteristics influencing coping, interaction, and performance. The object of this study was to compare the psychological similarity of these populations in order to get a better understanding of whether this extrapolation is justifiable. The samples investigated include polar crossings (N= 22), personnel on Antarctic research stations (N= 183), several military occupations (N= 187), and participants in space simulation studies (N=20). Methods: Personnel in each of these environments were assessed using the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL). The PCI is a multidimensional trait assessment battery that measures various aspects of achievement orientation and social competence. The UCL is a questionnaire designed to assess habitual coping strategies when encountering stressful or demanding situations. Results: Only minor differences in use of habitual coping strategies were evident across the different samples. In relation to personality scores, the military subjects and participants in space simulation studies indicated higher competitiveness and negative instrumentality compared to both the personnel on Antarctic research stations and participants in polar expedition. Among the personnel on Antarctic research stations, significant gender differences were found with women scoring lower on competitiveness, negative instrumentality and impatience/irritability. Compared to the other samples, the participants in polar expeditions were found to be more homogeneous in personality and no significant gender differences were evident on the traits that

  8. Photoimmune suppression and photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2002-03-01

    The primary cause of non-melanoma skin cancer, the most prevalent form of human neoplasia, is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. Exposing mice to UV radiation induces skin cancers that are highly antigenic. Upon transfer of an UV-induced skin cancer to a normal syngeneic mouse, the tumor cells are recognized and rapidly destroyed by the immune system of the recipient. This raises the question of how these cancers avoided immune destruction during their development in the UV-irradiated host. This question was answered when it was discovered that in addition to being carcinogenic, UV radiation was also immunosuppressive. Studies with immune suppressed transplantation recipients, and biopsy proven skin cancer patients have confirmed that UV-induced immune suppression is a risk factor for skin cancer development in humans. It is of great importance, therefore, to understand the mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression. The focus of this manuscript will be to use some examples from the more recent scientific literature to review the mechanisms by which UV radiation suppresses the immune response and allows for the progressive outgrowth of antigenic skin tumors. PMID:11861222

  9. Parasitic suppressing circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, J. T.; Raposa, F. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A circuit for suppressing parasitic oscillations across an inductor operating in a resonant mode is described. The circuit includes a switch means and resistive means connected serially across the inductor. A unidirectional resistive-capacitive network is also connected across the inductor and to the switch means to automatically render the switch means conducting when inductive current through the inductor ceases to flow.

  10. Development of new mitomycin C and porfiromycin analogues.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, B S; Lin, H J; Cheng, L; Remers, W A; Bradner, W T

    1981-08-01

    New mitomycin C and porfiromycin analogues were prepared by treating mitomycin A and N-methylmitomycin A with a variety of amines, including aziridines, allylamines, propargylamines, chloroalkylamines, hydroxyalkylamines, glycine derivatives, aralkylamines, and heterocyclic amines. All analogues were evaluated against P-388 murine leukemia and selected ones were examined for their leukopenic properties. Certain analogues were found to be superior to mitomycin C in potency, efficacy, and therapeutic ratio in the P-388 assay. The most active substituents at the mitosane 7 position included aziridine, 2-methylaziridine, propargylamine, furfurylamine, methyl glycinate, and 3-aminopyridine. Mitomycin A and the 7-aziridino, 7-(2-methylaziridino), and 3-aminopyridine analogues were less leukopenic than mitomycin C. Certain other analogues, including propargylamino and methyl glycinate, were highly leukopenic. The three compounds tested against B-16 melanoma in mice were significantly more effective than mitomycin C in this assay. Previously established structure--activity relationships were found inadequate to account for all of the new data. PMID:7328599

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of tetralone abscisic acid analogues.

    PubMed

    Nyangulu, James M; Nelson, Ken M; Rose, Patricia A; Gai, Yuanzhu; Loewen, Mary; Lougheed, Brenda; Quail, J Wilson; Cutler, Adrian J; Abrams, Suzanne R

    2006-04-01

    Bicyclic analogues of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were designed to incorporate the structural elements and functional groups of the parent molecule that are required for biological activity. The resulting tetralone analogues were predicted to have enhanced biological activity in plants, in part because oxidized products would not cyclize to forms corresponding to the inactive catabolite phaseic acid. The tetralone analogues were synthesized in seven steps from 1-tetralone and a range of analogues were accessible through a second route starting with 2-methyl-1-naphthol. Tetralone ABA 8 was found to have greater activity than ABA in two bioassays. The absolute configuration of (+)-8 was established by X-ray crystallography of a RAMP hydrazone derivative. The hydroxymethyl compounds 10 and 11, analogues for studying the roles of 8- and 9-hydroxy ABA 3 and 6, were also synthesized and found to be active. PMID:16557330

  12. Solution Processed PEDOT Analogues in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Österholm, Anna M; Ponder, James F; Kerszulis, Justin A; Reynolds, John R

    2016-06-01

    We have designed fully soluble ProDOTx-EDOTy copolymers that are electrochemically equivalent to electropolymerized PEDOT without using any surfactants or dispersants. We show that these copolymers can be incorporated as active layers in solution processed thin film supercapacitors to demonstrate capacitance, stability, and voltage similar to the values of those that use electrodeposited PEDOT as the active material with the added advantage of the possibility for large scale, high-throughput processing. These Type I supercapacitors provide exceptional cell voltages (up to 1.6 V), highly symmetrical charge/discharge behavior, promising long-term stability exceeding 50 000 charge/discharge cycles, as well as energy (4-18 Wh/kg) and power densities (0.8-3.3 kW/kg) that are comparable to those of electrochemically synthesized analogues. PMID:27195798

  13. Derivatisable Cyanobactin Analogues: A Semisynthetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Oueis, Emilia; Adamson, Catherine; Mann, Greg; Ludewig, Hannes; Redpath, Philip; Migaud, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many natural cyclic peptides have potent and potentially useful biological activities. Their use as therapeutic starting points is often limited by the quantities available, the lack of known biological targets and the practical limits on diversification to fine‐tune their properties. We report the use of enzymes from the cyanobactin family to heterocyclise and macrocyclise chemically synthesised substrates so as to allow larger‐scale syntheses and better control over derivatisation. We have made cyclic peptides containing orthogonal reactive groups, azide or dehydroalanine, that allow chemical diversification, including the use of fluorescent labels that can help in target identification. We show that the enzymes are compatible and efficient with such unnatural substrates. The combination of chemical synthesis and enzymatic transformation could help renew interest in investigating natural cyclic peptides with biological activity, as well as their unnatural analogues, as therapeutics. PMID:26507241

  14. Current european regulatory perspectives on insulin analogues.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Harald G; Weise, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Insulin analogues are increasingly considered as an alternative to human insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Insulin analogues (IAs) are chemically different from human insulin and may have different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. The significance of the modifications of the insulin molecule for the safety profile of IAs must be considered. This review describes the regulatory procedure and the expectations for the scientific content of European marketing authorization applications for innovative IAs submitted to the European Medicines Agency. Particular consideration is given to a potential cancer hazard. Specific regulatory guidance on how to address a possible carcinogenic or tumor promoting effect of innovative IAs in non-clinical studies is available. After marketing authorization, the factual access of patients to the new product will be determined to great extent by health technology assessment bodies, reimbursement decisions and the price. Whereas the marketing authorization is a European decision, pricing and reimbursement are national or regional responsibilities. The assessment of benefit and risk by the European Medicines Agency is expected to influence future decisions on price and reimbursement on a national or regional level. Collaborations between regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies have been initiated on European and national level to facilitate the use of the European Medicines Agency's benefit risk assessment as basis on which to build the subsequent health technology assessment. The option for combined or joint scientific advice procedures with regulators and health technology assessment bodies on European level or on a national level in several European Member States may help applicants to optimize their development program and dossier preparation in regard of both European marketing authorization application and reimbursement decisions. PMID:21736748

  15. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  16. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    PubMed

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity. PMID:19778048

  17. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  18. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  19. Functionalized Congener Approach to Muscarinic Antagonists: Analogues of Pirenzepine

    PubMed Central

    Karton, Yishai; Bradbury, Barton J.; Baumgold, Jesse; Paek, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine (5,11-dihydro-11-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-6H-pyrido[2,3-b] [1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one) was derivatized to explore points of attachment of functionalized side chains for the synthesis of receptor probes and ligands for affinity chromatography. The analogues prepared were evaluated in competitive binding assays versus [3H]-N-methylscopolamine at four muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1AChR-m4AChR) in membranes from rat heart tissue and transfected A9L cells. 9-(Hydroxymethyl)pirenzepine, 8-(methylthio)pirenzepine, and a series of 8-aminosulfonyl derivatives were synthesized. Several 5-substituted analogues of pirenzepine also were prepared. An alternate series of analogues substituted on the 4-position of the piperazine ring was prepared by reaction of 4-desmethylpirenzepine with various electrophiles. An N-chloroethyl analogue of pirenzepine was shown to form a reactive aziridine species in aqueous buffer yet failed to affinity label muscarinic receptors. Within a series of aminoalkyl analogues, the affinity increased as the length of the alkyl chain increased. Shorter chain analogues were generally much less potent than pirenzepine, and longer analogues (7–10 carbons) were roughly as potent as pirenzepine at m1 receptors, but were nonselective. Depending on the methylene chain length, acylation or alkyl substitution of the terminal amine also influenced the affinity at muscarinic receptors. PMID:2066986

  20. Vibrotactile suppression of tinnitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhardt, Martin L.

    2002-05-01

    At the Society's 142nd meeting, the efficacy of high frequency bone conducted stimulation in suppressing tinnitus was presented. The hypothesized mechanism was the reprogramming of frequency tuning of auditory neurons in the central nervous system, secondarily to peripheral hearing loss. This mechanism is unlikely in cases of tinnitus in the presence of normal audiometric sensitivity. There is the possibility that hearing loss above 10 kHz can play a role in tinnitus, an association not thoroughly explored. Somatomotor stimulation influencing the quality of tinnitus has been reported, as have interconnections of the auditory and somatosensory systems. There would appear to be an evolutionary advantage of linking the sensorimotor organization of the external ear and the auditory function of the brainstem in sound localization. Thus, stimulation of the pinna and post auricular area may be a means of suppressing tinnitus. To that end a thin aluminum ceramic bimorph was constructed to fit on the inner surface of the pinna. When driven by low (<100 Hz) and high (>10 kHz) frequencies multiplied by MHz carriers, demodulation in the skin resulted in vibrotactile stimulation. Tactile stimulation was an adjunct to the high frequencies resulting in a multimodal suppressive effect in a small pilot study.

  1. Menstrual suppression: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hillard, Paula Adams

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual suppression to provide relief of menstrual-related symptoms or to manage medical conditions associated with menstrual morbidity or menstrual exacerbation has been used clinically since the development of steroid hormonal therapies. Options range from the extended or continuous use of combined hormonal oral contraceptives, to the use of combined hormonal patches and rings, progestins given in a variety of formulations from intramuscular injection to oral therapies to intrauterine devices, and other agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. The agents used for menstrual suppression have variable rates of success in inducing amenorrhea, but typically have increasing rates of amenorrhea over time. Therapy may be limited by side effects, most commonly irregular, unscheduled bleeding. These therapies can benefit women’s quality of life, and by stabilizing the hormonal milieu, potentially improve the course of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a seizure disorder. This review addresses situations in which menstrual suppression may be of benefit, and lists options which have been successful in inducing medical amenorrhea. PMID:25018654

  2. The preparation of zaragozic acid A analogues by directed biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, T S; Petuch, B; MacConnell, J; White, R; Dezeny, G; Arison, B; Bergstrom, J D; Colwell, L; Huang, L; Monaghan, R L

    1994-11-01

    Zaragozic acid A analogues are produced by an unidentified sterile fungus when it is exogenously supplied with 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid, 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid, 2-furoic acid, 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 3-fluorobenzoic acid, or 4-fluorobenzoic acid. The analogues carry 2-thiophenyl, 3-thiophenyl, 2-furyl, o-fluorophenyl, m-fluorophenyl, or p-fluorophenyl group, respectively, at C-6' of the C-1 alkyl side chain replacing the phenyl group of natural zaragozic acid A. All the new analogues of zaragozic acid A possess picomolar inhibitory activity against squalene synthase in vitro. PMID:8002393

  3. Synthesis, antiarrhythmic activity, and toxicological evaluation of mexiletine analogues.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Mariagrazia; Carocci, Alessia; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Toma, Maddalena; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lovece, Angelo; Catalano, Alessia; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Bruno, Claudio; De Palma, Annalisa; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Chiarini, Alberto; Franchini, Carlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Habtemariam, Solomon; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Four mexiletine analogues have been tested for their antiarrhythmic, inotropic, and chronotropic effects on isolated guinea pig heart tissues and to assess calcium antagonist activity, in comparison with the parent compound mexiletine. All analogues showed from moderate to high antiarrhythmic activity. In particular, three of them (1b,c,e) were more active and potent than the reference drug, while exhibiting only modest or no negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and vasorelaxant activity, thus showing high selectivity of action. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity and 1b,c,d did not impair motor coordination. All in, these new analogues exhibit an interesting cardiovascular profile and deserve further investigation. PMID:27267000

  4. Recent developments in naturally derived antimalarials: cryptolepine analogues.

    PubMed

    Wright, Colin W

    2007-06-01

    Increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to commonly used antimalarial drugs has made the need for new agents increasingly urgent. In this paper, the potential of cryptolepine, an alkaloid from the West African shrub Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, as a lead towards new antimalarial agents is discussed. Several cryptolepine analogues have been synthesized that have promising in-vitro and in-vivo antimalarial activity. Studies on the antimalarial modes of action of these analogues indicate that they may have different or additional modes of action to the parent compound. Elucidation of the mode of action may facilitate the development of more potent antimalarial cryptolepine analogues. PMID:17637183

  5. Effects of gonadoliberin analogue triptorelin on the pituitary-testicular complex in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Dygalo, N N; Shemenkova, T V; Kalinina, T S; Shishkina, G T

    2014-02-01

    Triptorelin, a synthetic analogue of neurohormone gonadoliberin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GnRH) administered daily to rats on postnatal days 5-7 suppressed the expression of GnRH receptor in the pituitary gland, but did not change functioning of the pituitary-testicular complex. Administration of triptorelin on postnatal days 12-14 (i.e. during the formation of pulsatile pattern of GnRH secretion and increasing levels of its mRNA receptor in the pituitary gland) had no effect on receptor expression, but increased the levels of luteinizing hormone mRNA in the pituitary gland and the weight of testes. At that time, blood levels of testosterone were lowered, which indicated disturbed pulsatile pattern of GnRH secretion. PMID:24771429

  6. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrazol-furan carboxamide analogues as novel Akt kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Wenhu; Xu, Lei; Dong, Xiaowu; Dong, Jun; Yi, Xiao; Ma, Xiaodong; Qiu, Ni; Li, Jia; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Yubo; Hu, Yongzhou

    2016-07-19

    A series of novel pyrazol-furan carboxamide analogues were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated for their Akt1 inhibitory activities, as well as anti-proliferative efficacies against HCT116 and OVCAR-8 cell lines. Most compounds exhibited moderate to excellent Akt1 inhibitory activities, together with favorable cytotoxicities. Further kinase selectivity assay of the most promising compound 25e illustrated that it was also potent against the structurally related AGC kinases, including Akt2, Akt3, ROCK1 and PKA, but was specific over kinases from other subfamilies. In addition, the Western blot analysis indicated that 25e could significantly suppress the phosphorylation level of Akt substrate GSK3β in PC-3 cell. Moreover, 25e demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of PRAS40 in LNCaP cell, with IC50 value of 30.4 nM. PMID:27089211

  7. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Glinsky, Gennadi V.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  8. Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analogue Therapy Of Gastroenteropancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bodei, Lisa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M; Krenning, Eric P

    2016-05-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been utilized for more than two decades and has been accepted as an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of inoperable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) or neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The two most commonly used radiopeptides for PRRT, (90)Y-octreotide and (177)Lu-octreotate, produce disease-control rates of 68%-94%, with progression-free survival rates that compare favorably with chemotherapy, somatostatin analogues, and newer targeted therapies. In addition, biochemical and symptomatic responses are commonly observed. In general, PRRT is well tolerated with only low to moderate toxicity in most individuals. In line with the need to place PRRT in the therapeutic sequence of gastroenteropancreatic NENs, a recently sponsored phase III randomized trial in small intestine NENs treated with (177)Lu-octreotate vs high-dose octreotide long-acting release demonstrated that (177)Lu-octreotate significantly improved progression-free survival. Other strategies that are presently being developed include combinations with targeted therapies or chemotherapy, intra-arterial PRRT, and salvage treatments. Sophisticated molecular tools need to be incorporated into the management strategy to more effectively define therapeutic efficacy and for an early identification of adverse events. The strategy of randomized controlled trials is a key issue to standardize the treatment and establish the position of PRRT in the therapeutic algorithm of NENs. PMID:27067503

  9. Actions of Thyroid Hormone Analogues on Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul J; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Lin, Hung-Yun; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression. Independently of its specific receptor (CX3CR1), fractalkine binds to αvβ3 at a site proximal to the thyroid hormone-tetrac receptor and changes the physical state of the integrin. Tetrac also affects expression of the genes for other CNS-relevant chemokines, including CCL20, CCL26, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL10. The chemokine products of these genes are important to vascularity of the brain, particularly of the choroid plexus, to inflammatory processes in the CNS and, in certain cases, to neuroprotection. Thyroid hormones are known to contribute to regulation of each of these CNS functions. We propose that actions of thyroid hormone and hormone analogues on chemokine gene expression contribute to regulation of inflammatory processes in brain and of brain blood vessel formation and maintenance. PMID:27493972

  10. Next generation fire suppressants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral band microprocessor controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  11. Next generation fire suppressants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerry A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  12. Effects of Prostaglandin Analogues on Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Nelson S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most prevalent risk factor for glaucoma. All treatments, whether surgical or pharmaceutical, are aimed at lowering IOP. Prostaglandin analogues are a first line therapy for glaucoma due to their ability to reduce IOP, once-daily dosing, efficacy, and minimal side-effect profile. Whereas prostaglandin analogues have been known to alter aqueous humor outflow through the unconventional (uveoscleral) pathway, more recent evidence suggests their action also occurs through the conventional (trabecular) pathway. Understanding how prostaglandin analogues successfully lower IOP is important, as this information may lead to the discovery of new molecular targets for future therapeutic intervention. This review explores the current understanding of prostaglandin analogue biology as it pertains to IOP reduction and improved aqueous humor outflow facility. PMID:24359106

  13. Practical enantiospecific syntheses of lysobisphosphatidic acid and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guowei; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2006-02-01

    We describe a versatile, efficient, and practical method for the preparation of enantiomerically pure lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), bisether analogues, and phosphorothioate analogues of LBPA from solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-oleoyl glycerol with 2-cyanoethyl bis(N,N-diisopropylamino)phosphite, followed by oxidation and deprotection, generated the enantiomers of 2,2'-LBPA. The corresponding phosphorothioate analogues were obtained by oxidation with sulfur. The (R,R) and (S,S) enantiomers of both LBPA and phosphorothioate LBPA were synthesized from (S)- and (R)-solketal, respectively. The ether analogue of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer were synthesized from the same enantiomer (S)-solketal by simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps. PMID:16438504

  14. Structural analogues of diosgenyl saponins: synthesis and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Kaskiw, Matthew J; Tassotto, Mary Lynn; Mok, Mac; Tokar, Stacey L; Pycko, Roxanne; Th'ng, John; Jiang, Zi-Hua

    2009-11-15

    Saponins display various biological activities including anti-tumor activity. Recently intensive research has been focused on developing saponins for tumor therapies. The diosgenyl saponin dioscin is one of the most common steroidal saponins and exhibits potent anticancer activity in several human cancer cells through apoptosis-inducing pathways. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of several diosgenyl saponin analogues containing either a 2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl residue or an alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl residue with different acyl substituents on the amino group. The cytotoxic activity of these compounds was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells. Structure-activity relationship studies show that the disaccharide saponin analogues are in general less active than their corresponding monosaccharide analogues. The incorporation of an aromatic nitro functionality into these saponin analogues does not exhibit significant effect on their cytotoxic activity. PMID:19819703

  15. Cell-Cycle Analyses Using Thymidine Analogues in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Anda, Silje; Boye, Erik; Grallert, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Thymidine analogues are powerful tools when studying DNA synthesis including DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, these analogues have been reported to have severe effects on cell-cycle progression and growth, the very processes being investigated in most of these studies. Here, we have analyzed the effects of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 5-Chloro-2′-deoxyuridine (CldU) using fission yeast cells and optimized the labelling procedure. We find that both analogues affect the cell cycle, but that the effects can be mitigated by using the appropriate analogue, short pulses of labelling and low concentrations. In addition, we report sequential labelling of two consecutive S phases using EdU and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Furthermore, we show that detection of replicative DNA synthesis is much more sensitive than DNA-measurements by flow cytometry. PMID:24551125

  16. Synthesis of a stable and orally bioavailable englerin analogue.

    PubMed

    Fash, David M; Peer, Cody J; Li, Zhenwu; Talisman, Ian J; Hayavi, Sima; Sulzmaier, Florian J; Ramos, Joe W; Sourbier, Carole; Neckers, Leonard; Figg, W Douglas; Beutler, John A; Chain, William J

    2016-06-01

    Synthesis of analogues of englerin A with a reduced propensity for hydrolysis of the glycolate moiety led to a compound which possessed the renal cancer cell selectivity of the parent and was orally bioavailable in mice. PMID:27107948

  17. Efficient total syntheses and biological activities of two teixobactin analogues.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Anish; Iyer, Abhishek; Vincent, Charlotte S; Van Lysebetten, Dorien; Prior, Stephen H; Madder, Annemieke; Taylor, Edward J; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-04-26

    The discovery of the new antibiotic teixobactin has been timely in the race for unearthing novel antibiotics wherein the emergence of drug resistant bacteria poses a serious threat worldwide. Herein, we present the total syntheses and biological activities of two teixobactin analogues. This approach is simple, efficient and has several advantages: it uses commercially available building blocks (except AllocHN-d-Thr-OH), has a single purification step and a good recovery (22%). By using this approach we have synthesised two teixobactin analogues and established that the d-amino acids are critical for the antimicrobial activity of these analogues. With continuing high expectations from teixobactin, this work can be regarded as a stepping stone towards an in depth study of teixobactin, its analogues and the quest for synthesising similar molecules. PMID:26984316

  18. Defining Analytical Strategies for Mars Sample Return with Analogue Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Sapers, H. M.; Francis, R.; Pontefract, A.; Tornabene, L. L.; Haltigin, T.

    2016-05-01

    The characterization of biosignatures in MSR samples will require integrated, cross-platform laboratory analyses carefully correlated and calibrated with Rover-based technologies. Analogue missions provide context for implementation and assessment.

  19. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    PubMed

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful? PMID:27262103

  20. Suppression of flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An active aerodynamic control system to control flutter over a large range of oscillatory frequencies is described. The system is not affected by mass, stiffness, elastic axis, or center of gravity location of the system, mode of vibration, or Mach number. The system consists of one or more pairs of leading edge and trailing edge hinged or deformable control surfaces, each pair operated in concert by a stability augmentation system. Torsion and bending motions are sensed and converted by the stability augmentation system into leading and trailing edge control surface deflections which produce lift forces and pitching moments to suppress flutter.

  1. Carbacaprazamycins: Chemically Stable Analogues of the Caprazamycin Nucleoside Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Mayumi; Hsuan, Lee Shang; Kato, Yuta; Matsuda, Akira

    2015-04-10

    Carbacaprazamycins, which are chemically stable analogues of caprazamycins, were designed and synthesized. These analogues were active against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and their activities were comparable to those of the parent caprazamycins. The effect of treatment with carbacaprazamycin on morphological changes in S. aureus indicated that the mode of action was completely different from those of existing peptidoglycan inhibitors. PMID:27622529

  2. Analogue and digital linear modulation techniques for mobile satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmarsh, W. J.; Bateman, A.; Mcgeehan, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The choice of modulation format for a mobile satellite service is complex. The subjective performance is summarized of candidate schemes and voice coder technologies. It is shown that good performance can be achieved with both analogue and digital voice systems, although the analogue system gives superior performance in fading. The results highlight the need for flexibility in the choice of signaling format. Linear transceiver technology capable of using many forms of narrowband modulation is described.

  3. Amphiphilic Tobramycin Analogues as Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sanjib K.; Fosso, Marina Y.; Green, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antifungal activities, cytotoxicities, and membrane-disruptive actions of amphiphilic tobramycin (TOB) analogues. The antifungal activities were established by determination of MIC values and in time-kill studies. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in mammalian cell lines. The fungal membrane-disruptive action of these analogues was studied by using the membrane-impermeable dye propidium iodide. TOB analogues bearing a linear alkyl chain at their 6″-position in a thioether linkage exhibited chain length-dependent antifungal activities. Analogues with C12 and C14 chains showed promising antifungal activities against tested fungal strains, with MIC values ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 mg/liter and 1.95 to 7.8 mg/liter, respectively. However, C4, C6, and C8 TOB analogues and TOB itself exhibited little to no antifungal activity. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for the most potent TOB analogues (C12 and C14) against A549 and Beas 2B cells were 4- to 64-fold and 32- to 64-fold higher, respectively, than their antifungal MIC values against various fungi. Unlike conventional aminoglycoside antibiotics, TOB analogues with alkyl chain lengths of C12 and C14 appear to inhibit fungi by inducing apoptosis and disrupting the fungal membrane as a novel mechanism of action. Amphiphilic TOB analogues showed broad-spectrum antifungal activities with minimal mammalian cell cytotoxicity. This study provides novel lead compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26033722

  4. Exploring the readthrough of nonsense mutations by non-acidic Ataluren analogues selected by ligand-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Pibiri, Ivana; Lentini, Laura; Tutone, Marco; Melfi, Raffaella; Pace, Andrea; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2016-10-21

    Ataluren, also known as PTC124, is a 5-(fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazolyl-benzoic acid suggested to suppress nonsense mutations by readthrough of premature stop codons in the mRNA. Potential interaction of PTC124 with mRNA has been recently studied by molecular dynamics simulations highlighting the importance of H-bonding and stacking π-π interactions. A series of non-acidic analogues of PTC124 were selected from a large database via a ligand-based virtual screening approach. Eight of them were synthesized and tested for their readthrough activity using the Fluc reporter harboring the UGA premature stop codon. The most active compound was further tested for suppression of the UGA nonsense mutation in the bronchial epithelial IB3.1 cell line carrying the W1282X mutation in the CFTR gene. PMID:27404557

  5. Bisphenol A and Its Analogues Activate Human Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yipeng; Ai, Ni; Park, Se-Hyung; Rios-Pilier, Jennifer; Perkins, Jordan T.; Welsh, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a base chemical used extensively in many consumer products. BPA and its analogues are present in environmental and human samples. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including BPA, have been shown to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that functions as a master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism by which these chemicals activate PXR remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the mechanism by which BPA interacts with and activates PXR and examined selected BPA analogues to determine whether they bind to and activate PXR. Methods: Cell-based reporter assays, in silico ligand–PXR docking studies, and site-directed mutagenesis were combined to study the interaction between BPA and PXR. We also investigated the influence of BPA and its analogues on the regulation of PXR target genes in human LS180 cells. Results: We found that BPA and several of its analogues are potent agonists for human PXR (hPXR) but do not affect mouse PXR activity. We identified key residues within hPXR’s ligand-binding pocket that constitute points of interaction with BPA. We also deduced the structural requirements of BPA analogues that activate hPXR. BPA and its analogues can also induce PXR target gene expression in human LS180 cells. Conclusions: The present study advances our understanding of the mechanism by which BPA interacts with and activates human PXR. Activation of PXR by BPA may explain some of the adverse effects of BPA in humans. PMID:22214767

  6. Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finazzi, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.

  7. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K.; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J.; Montemayor, Michelle M. Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest on the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribo analogue of cladribine possessed activity, but was least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, only cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active. PMID:26556315

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Pyridine-Bridged Analogues of Combretastatin-A4 as Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel pyridine-bridged analogues of combretastatin-A4 (CA-4) were designed and synthesized. As expected, the 4-atom linker configuration retained little cytotoxicities in the compounds 2e, 3e, 3g, and 4i. Activities of the analogues with 3-atom linker varied widely depending on the phenyl ring substitutions, and the 3-atom linker containing nitrogen represents the more favorable linker structure. Among them, three analogues (4h, 4s, and 4t) potently inhibited cell survival and growth, arrested cell cycle, and blocked angiogenesis and vasculature formation in vivo in ways comparable to CA-4. The superposition of 4h and 4s in the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin shows the binding posture of CA-4, 4h, and 4s are similar, as confirmed by the competitive binding assay where the ability of the ligands to replace tubulin-bound colchicine was measured. The binding data are consistent with the observed biological activities in antiproliferation and suppression of angiogenesis but are not predictive of their antitubulin polymerization activities. PMID:24669888

  9. Planck-suppressed operators

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10{sup 5}H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10{sup 2}H.

  10. Vascular disrupting activity of combretastatin analogues.

    PubMed

    Porcù, Elena; Salvador, Alessia; Primac, Irina; Mitola, Stefania; Ronca, Roberto; Ravelli, Cosetta; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Vedaldi, Daniela; Romagnoli, Romeo; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2016-08-01

    Tubulin binding agents (TBAs) are drugs commonly used in cancer therapy as antimitotics. In the last years it has been described that TBAs, like combretastatin A-4 (CA-4), present also vascular disrupting activity and among its derivatives we identified three analogues endowed with potent microtubule depolymerizing activity, higher than that of the lead compound. In this paper we have investigated the anti-vascular activity of these derivatives. We tested the anti-angiogenic effects in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in vivo in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), and in a syngeneic tumor mouse model. The three molecules, compound 1: 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole; compound 2: (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole, compound-3 (4-amino-2-p-tolylaminothiazol-5-yl)-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-methanone) showed a moderate effect on the growth of HUVEC cells at concentrations below 200nM. At lower concentrations (5-20nM), in particular compound 2, they induced inhibition of capillary tube formation, inhibition of endothelial cell migration and affected endothelial cell morphology as demonstrated by the alteration of the microfilaments network. Moreover, they also increased permeability of HUVEC cells in a time dependent manner. In addition, compounds 1 and 3, as well as the reference compound CA-4, inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and in addition compound 3 prevented the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of FAK. In CAM assay, both compounds 2 and 3 efficiently counteracted the strong angiogenic response induced by bFGF, even at the lowest concentration used (1pmol/egg). Moreover in a syngenic mouse model, compounds 1-3 after a single i.p. injection (30mg/kg), showed a stronger reduction of microvascular density. Altogether our results identified these derivatives as potential new vascular disrupting agents candidates. PMID:27235861

  11. Somatostatin Analogues for Receptor Targeted Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaščáková, Slávka; Hofland, Leo J.; De Bruijn, Henriette S.; Ye, Yunpeng; Achilefu, Samuel; van der Wansem, Katy; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; van Koetsveld, Peter M.; Brugts, Michael P.; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; van Hagen, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality, used mainly for anticancer therapy that relies on the interaction of photosensitizer, light and oxygen. For the treatment of pathologies in certain anatomical sites, improved targeting of the photosensitizer is necessary to prevent damage to healthy tissue. We report on a novel dual approach of targeted PDT (vascular and cellular targeting) utilizing the expression of neuropeptide somatostatin receptor (sst2) on tumor and neovascular-endothelial cells. We synthesized two conjugates containing the somatostatin analogue [Tyr3]-octreotate and Chlorin e6 (Ce6): Ce6-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (1) and Ce6-[Tyr3]-octreotate-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (2). Investigation of the uptake and photodynamic activity of conjugates in-vitro in human erythroleukemic K562 cells showed that conjugation of [Tyr3]-octreotate with Ce6 in conjugate 1 enhances uptake (by a factor 2) in cells over-expressing sst2 compared to wild-type cells. Co-treatment with excess free Octreotide abrogated the phototoxicity of conjugate 1 indicative of a specific sst2-mediated effect. In contrast conjugate 2 showed no receptor-mediated effect due to its high hydrophobicity. When compared with un-conjugated Ce6, the PDT activity of conjugate 1 was lower. However, it showed higher photostability which may compensate for its lower phototoxicity. Intra-vital fluorescence pharmacokinetic studies of conjugate 1 in rat skin-fold observation chambers transplanted with sst2+ AR42J acinar pancreas tumors showed significantly different uptake profiles compared to free Ce6. Co-treatment with free Octreotide significantly reduced conjugate uptake in tumor tissue (by a factor 4) as well as in the chamber neo-vasculature. These results show that conjugate 1 might have potential as an in-vivo sst2 targeting photosensitizer conjugate. PMID:25111655

  12. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Walther, Frans J; Waring, Alan J; Sherman, Mark A; Zasadzinski, Joseph A; Gordon, Larry M

    2007-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and four surfactant-associated proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). Its major function in the lung alveolus is to reduce surface tension at the air-water interface in the terminal airways by the formation of a surface-active film enriched in surfactant lipids, hence preventing cellular collapse during respiration. Surfactant therapy using bovine or porcine lung surfactant extracts, which contain only polar lipids and native SP-B and SP-C, has dramatically improved the therapeutic outcomes of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). One important goal of surfactant researchers is to replace animal-derived therapies with fully synthetic preparations based on SP-B and SP-C, produced by recombinant technology or peptide synthesis, and reconstituted with selected synthetic lipids. Here, we review recent research developments with peptide analogues of SP-B and SP-C, designed using either the known primary sequence and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the native proteins or, alternatively, the known 3D structures of closely homologous proteins. Such SP-B and SP-C mimics offer the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of the respective native proteins, and may allow the design of optimized surfactant formulations for specific pulmonary diseases (e.g., acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)). These synthetic surfactant preparations may also be a cost-saving therapeutic approach, with better quality control than may be obtained with animal-based treatments. PMID:17575474

  13. ING5 suppresses proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, and induces autophagy and differentiation of gastric cancer cells: a good marker for carcinogenesis and subsequent progression.

    PubMed

    Gou, Wen-feng; Shen, Dao-fu; Yang, Xue-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Yun-peng; Sun, Hong-zhi; Su, Rong-Jian; Luo, Jun-sheng; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2015-08-14

    Here, we found that ING5 overexpression increased autophagy, differentiation, and decreased proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and lamellipodia formation in gastric cancer cells, while ING5 knockdown had the opposite effects. In SGC-7901 transfectants, ING5 overexpression caused G1 arrest, which was positively associated with 14-3-3 overexpression, Cdk4 and c-jun hypoexpression. The induction of Bax hypoexpression, Bcl-2, survivin, 14-3-3, PI3K, p-Akt and p70S6K overexpression by ING5 decreased apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. The hypoexpression of MMP-9, MAP1B and flotillin 2 contributed to the inhibitory effects of ING5 on migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells. ING5 overexpression might activate both β-catenin and NF-κB pathways in SGC-7901 cells, and promote the expression of down-stream genes (c-myc, VEGF, Cyclin D1, survivin, and interleukins). Compared with the control, ING5 transfectants displayed drug resistance to triciribine, paclitaxel, cisplatin, SAHA, MG132 and parthenolide, which was positively related to their apoptotic induction and the overexpression of chemoresistance-related genes (MDR1, GRP78, GRP94, IRE, CD147, FBXW7, TOP1, TOP2, MLH1, MRP1, BRCP1 and GST-π). ING5 expression was higher in gastric cancer than matched mucosa. It was inversely associated with tumor size, dedifferentiation, lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological staging of cancer. ING5 overexpression suppressed growth, blood supply and lung metastasis of SGC-7901 cells by inhibiting proliferation, enhancing autophagy and apoptosis in xenograft models. It was suggested that ING5 expression might be employed as a good marker for gastric carcinogenesis and subsequent progression by inhibiting proliferation, growth, migration, invasion and metastasis. ING5 might induce apoptotic and chemotherapeutic resistances of gastric cancer cells by activating β-catenin, NF-κB and Akt pathways. PMID:25980581

  14. ING5 suppresses proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, and induces autophagy and differentiation of gastric cancer cells: a good marker for carcinogenesis and subsequent progression

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Wen-feng; Shen, Dao-fu; Yang, Xue-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Yun-peng; Sun, Hong-zhi; Su, Rong-jian; Luo, Jun-sheng; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2015-01-01

    Here, we found that ING5 overexpression increased autophagy, differentiation, and decreased proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and lamellipodia formation in gastric cancer cells, while ING5 knockdown had the opposite effects. In SGC-7901 transfectants, ING5 overexpression caused G1 arrest, which was positively associated with 14-3-3 overexpression, Cdk4 and c-jun hypoexpression. The induction of Bax hypoexpression, Bcl-2, survivin, 14-3-3, PI3K, p-Akt and p70S6K overexpression by ING5 decreased apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. The hypoexpression of MMP-9, MAP1B and flotillin 2 contributed to the inhibitory effects of ING5 on migration and invasion of SGC-7901 cells. ING5 overexpression might activate both β-catenin and NF-κB pathways in SGC-7901 cells, and promote the expression of down-stream genes (c-myc, VEGF, Cyclin D1, survivin, and interleukins). Compared with the control, ING5 transfectants displayed drug resistance to triciribine, paclitaxel, cisplatin, SAHA, MG132 and parthenolide, which was positively related to their apoptotic induction and the overexpression of chemoresistance-related genes (MDR1, GRP78, GRP94, IRE, CD147, FBXW7, TOP1, TOP2, MLH1, MRP1, BRCP1 and GST-π). ING5 expression was higher in gastric cancer than matched mucosa. It was inversely associated with tumor size, dedifferentiation, lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological staging of cancer. ING5 overexpression suppressed growth, blood supply and lung metastasis of SGC-7901 cells by inhibiting proliferation, enhancing autophagy and apoptosis in xenograft models. It was suggested that ING5 expression might be employed as a good marker for gastric carcinogenesis and subsequent progression by inhibiting proliferation, growth, migration, invasion and metastasis. ING5 might induce apoptotic and chemotherapeutic resistances of gastric cancer cells by activating β-catenin, NF-κB and Akt pathways. PMID:25980581

  15. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  16. Reducing Viral Load Measurements to Once a Year in Patients on Stable, Virologically Suppressive Cart Regimen: Findings from the Australian HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Mahshid; Kariminia, Azar; Wright, Stephen; Mills, Graham; Woolley, Ian; Smith, Don; Templeton, David J.; Law, Matthew G.; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Reducing viral-load measurements to annual testing in virologically suppressed patients increases the estimated mean time those patients remain on a failing regimen by 6 months. This translates to an increase in the proportion of patients with at least one Thymidine Analogue Mutation from 10% to 32% over one year. PMID:26618053

  17. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  18. ZERO SUPPRESSION FOR RECORDERS

    DOEpatents

    Fort, W.G.S.

    1958-12-30

    A zero-suppression circuit for self-balancing recorder instruments is presented. The essential elements of the circuit include a converter-amplifier having two inputs, one for a reference voltage and the other for the signal voltage under analysis, and a servomotor with two control windings, one coupled to the a-c output of the converter-amplifier and the other receiving a reference input. Each input circuit to the converter-amplifier has a variable potentiometer and the sliders of the potentiometer are ganged together for movement by the servoinotor. The particular noveity of the circuit resides in the selection of resistance values for the potentiometer and a resistor in series with the potentiometer of the signal circuit to ensure the full value of signal voltage variation is impressed on a recorder mechanism driven by servomotor.

  19. Interference suppression of SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, V P

    2011-01-24

    The theory of three-wave SRS is developed, which takes into account nonlinear dispersion of a medium for arbitrary phases of the pump waves at the input to the medium. The effect of interference suppression of SRS is predicted for values of the total phase of the three-wave pump (2n+1){pi} (n=0, {+-}1, {+-}2...), the effect being caused by the destructive interference of polarisations of the nonresonant dipole-allowed transitions. The relation between the contributions of the linear and nonlinear dispersions to the SRS is found. It is shown that at a sufficiently large wave detuning, the anti-Stokes wave amplitude experiences spatial oscillations. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  20. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  1. Pressure suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  2. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of eight vitamin D analogues in milk using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Whitfield, Karen; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-09-01

    Milk is an important source of nutrients for various risk populations, including infants. The accurate measurement of vitamin D in milk is necessary to provide adequate supplementation advice for risk groups and to monitor regulatory compliance. Currently used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are capable of measuring only four analogues of vitamin D in unfortified milk. We report here an accurate quantitative analytical method for eight analogues of vitamin D: Vitamin D2 and D3 (D2 and D3), 25-hydroxy D2 and D3, 24,25-dihydroxy D2 and D3, and 1,25-dihydroxyD2 and D3. In this study, we compared saponification and protein precipitation for the extraction of vitamin D from milk and found the latter to be more effective. We also optimised the pre-column derivatisation using 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD), to achieve the highest sensitivity and accuracy for all major vitamin D forms in milk. Chromatography was optimised to reduce matrix effects such as ion-suppression, and the matrix effects were eliminated using co-eluting stable isotope labelled internal standards for the calibration of each analogue. The analogues, 25-hydroxyD3 (25(OH)D3) and its epimer (3-epi-25(OH)D3) were chromatographically resolved, to prevent over-estimation of 25(OH)D3. The method was validated and subsequently applied for the measurement of total vitamin D levels in human, cow, mare, goat and sheep milk samples. The detection limits, repeatability standard deviations, and recovery ranges were from 0.2 to 0.4 femtomols, 6.30-13.5%, and 88.2-105%, respectively. PMID:26388380

  3. Incorporation of tryptophan analogues into the lantibiotic nisin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Shao, Jinfeng; Li, Qian; van Heel, Auke J; de Vries, Marcel P; Broos, Jaap; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-05-01

    Lantibiotics are posttranslationally modified peptides with efficient inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the original modifications, incorporation of non-canonical amino acids can render new properties and functions to lantibiotics. Nisin is the most studied lantibiotic and contains no tryptophan residues. In this study, a system was constructed to incorporate tryptophan analogues into nisin, which included the modification machinery (NisBTC) and the overexpression of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS). Tryptophan and three different tryptophan analogues (5-fluoroTrp (5FW), 5-hydroxyTrp (5HW) and 5-methylTrp (5MeW)) were successfully incorporated at four different positions of nisin (I1W, I4W, M17W and V32W). The incorporation efficiency of tryptophan analogues into mutants I1W, M17W and V32W was over 97 %, while the mutant I4W showed relatively low incorporation efficiency (69-93 %). The variants with 5FW showed relatively higher production yield, while 5MeW-containing variants showed the lowest yield. The dehydration efficiency of serines or threonines was affected by the tryptophan mutants of I4W and V32W. The affinity of the peptides for the cation-ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography columns was significantly reduced when 5HW was incorporated. The antimicrobial activity of IIW and its 5FW analogue both decreased two times compared to that of nisin, while that of its 5HW analogue decreased four times. The 5FW analogue of I4W also showed two times decreased activity than nisin. However, the mutant M17W and its 5HW analogue both showed 32 times reduced activity relative to that of nisin. PMID:26872656

  4. Phosphonate analogues of carboxypeptidase A substrates are potent transition-state analogue inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hanson, J E; Kaplan, A P; Bartlett, P A

    1989-07-25

    Analogues of tri- and tetrapeptide substrates of carboxypeptidase A in which the scissile peptide linkage is replaced with a phosphonate moiety (-PO2--O-) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the enzyme. The inhibitors terminated with either L-lactate or L-phenyllactate [designated (O) Ala and (O) Phe, respectively] in the P1' position. Transition-state analogy was shown for a series of 14 tri- and tetrapeptide derivatives containing the structure RCO-AlaP-(O)Ala [RCO-AP(O)A, AP indicates the phosphonic acid analogue of alanine] by the correlation of the Ki values for the inhibitors and the Km/kcat values for the corresponding amide substrates. This correlation supports a transition state for the enzymatic reaction that resembles the tetrahedral intermediate formed upon addition of water to the scissile carbonyl group. The inhibitors containing (O) Phe at the P1' position proved to be the most potent reversible inhibitors of carboxypeptidase A reported to date: the dissociation constants of ZAFP(O)F, ZAAP(O)F, and ZFAP(O)F are 4, 3, and 1 pM, respectively. Because of the high affinity of these inhibitors, their dissociation constants could not be determined by steady-state methods. Instead, the course of the association and dissociation processes was monitored for each inhibitor as its equilibrium with the enzyme was established in both the forward and reverse directions. A phosphonamidate analogue, ZAAPF, in which the peptide linkage is replaced with a -PO2-NH- moiety, was prepared and shown to hydrolyze rapidly at neutral pH (t1/2 = 20 min at pH 7.5). This inhibitor is bound an order of magnitude less tightly than the corresponding phosphonate, ZAAP(O)F, a result that contrasts with the 840-fold higher affinity of phosphonamidates for thermolysin [Bartlett, P. A., & Marlowe, C. K. (1987) Science 235, 569-571], a zinc peptidase with a similar arrangement of active-site catalytic residues. PMID:2790000

  5. Spectral analysis of lunar analogue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of samples derived from terrestrial analogue sites are used to study lunar processes in their geological context (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). For this study samples from the volcanic region of the Eifel, Germany collected during field campaigns (Foing et al., 2010), are analyzed with a variety of spectrometers. The aim is to obtain a database of analyzed samples that could be used as a reference for future in situ measurements. Equipment used in the laboratory consists of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, a Raman laser spectrometer, as well as UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers. The Raman, UV-VIS and NIR are also used in combination with the EXoGeoLab mock-up lander during field campaigns (Foing, Stoker, Ehrenfreund, 2011). Calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers is the main focus of this research in order to obtain the clearest spectra. The calibration of the UV-VIS and NIR reflectance spectrometers requires the use of a good light source as well as suitable optical fibers to create a signal that covers the widest range in wavelengths available. To eliminate noise towards the edges of this range, multiple measurements are averaged and data is processed by dividing the signal by reference spectra. Calibration of the devices by creating a new dark and reference spectra has to take place after every sample measurement. In this way we take into account changes that occur in the signal due to the eating of the devices during the measurements. Moreover, the integration time is adjusted to obtain a clear signal without leading to oversaturation in the reflectance spectrum. The typical integration times for the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer vary between 1 - 18 s, depending on the amount of daylight during experiments. For the NIR reflectance spectrometer the integration time resulting in the best signals is approximately 150 ms in combination with a broad spectrum light

  6. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-05-01

    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  7. Terrestrial research in Mars analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, G.

    Fatty acids (FA) content was measured by GC-MS SIM technique in Sulfide ores of present day (Mid-Atlantic Ridge and others) and ancient (Ural Paleocene, Russia) black smokers; Early Proterozoic kerites of Volyn; Siberian, Canadian and Antarctic permafrosts and also in rocks of East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement. Analysis was shown presence those and only those fatty acids which are specific to microorganisms. FA with 12 up 19 of carbon atoms are thought to be a bacterial biomass sign. 3-Hydroxy fatty acids also found in samples and are strong specific markers of gram-negative bacteria. Cultivation yield living bacteria in some cases. The East-European platform Achaean crystalline basement rocks opened by Vorotilov Deep Well (VDW) drilled through Puchezh-Katunski impact structure were studied within depths 2575 - 2805 m. 34 microbial lipid markers were detected by GC-MS and 22 species were identified. Bacteria of g. Bacillus reached 6,8 % in subsurface communities. However, members of gg. Clostridium (37,1 - 33,2 %) and Rhodococcus (27,6 - 33,7 %) were absolute dominants within studied depth interval. Some lipid patterns of kerite samples could be assessed to definite genera or, in special cases, to species of contemporary microorganisms. For instance, 2-hydroxylauric acid is specific to Pseudomonas putida group or Acinetobacter spp., and hydroxymyristic together with hydroxypalmitic are specific to P.cepacea and cyanobacteria. 3-hydroxystearic acid was known as component of Acetobacter diazothrophycus and Gloebacter violaceous cyanobacterium. 10-hydroxystearic acid associated with Nocardia spp., which oxidizes oleic acid in organic substrates. 10-methylhexadecanoic (10Me16) acid together with 10Me14, 10Me15 and 10Me17 analogues are markers of actinomycetes. Significant part of Black Smokers organic matter is probably biogenic. Fatty acid features strongly assigns it to bacterial, microeucariotic and planta cells. Par example 3-hydroxy acids are

  8. Sonographic monitoring of LHRH analogue therapy in idiopathic precocious puberty in young girls.

    PubMed

    Hall, D A; Crowley, W F; Wierman, M E; Simeone, J F; McCarthy, K A

    1986-06-01

    Precocious puberty in young girls is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics and gonadal growth before 8 years of age. Approximately 60% of isosexual precocious development in girls has no organic cause and is termed idiopathic precocious puberty. Thirteen young girls with idiopathic precocious puberty were treated with LHRH analogue under a well-established protocol. Pelvic ultrasound was added to the protocol to examine ultrasound's role in supplying a morphologic parameter of suppression of the pubertal process. Initially, 11 patients had ovarian volumes greater than normal, and ovarian cysts measuring 0.5 cm to 4 cm in diameter were identified in seven patients. All 13 patients had enlarged pretreatment uteri greater than 3 cm in length. Eleven of these patients had a pubertal or adult uterine configuration. After 1 year of therapy, 11 patients had normal prepubertal ovarian volumes, and 12 of 13 patients had a decrease in ovarian volume. No demonstrable cysts were present at 1 year. Eleven had a reduction in uterine length. Nine of the 11 patients with a pubertal uterine configuration reverted to a more prepubertal-like morphology. The sonographic morphologic changes correlated well with laboratory and clinical data indicating suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:3088048

  9. Review of insulin and its analogues in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mane, Krishnappa; Chaluvaraju, Kc; Niranjan, Ms; Zaranappa, Tr; Manjuthej, Tr

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy. Diabetes finally leads to more complications and to prevent these complications insulin and its analogues are used. After more than half a century of treating diabetics with animal insulin's, recombinant DNA technologies and advanced protein chemistry made human insulin preparations available in the early 1980s. As the next step, over the last decade, insulin analogues were constructed by changing the structure of the native protein with the goal of improving the therapeutic properties of it, because the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rapid, intermediate and long-acting preparations of human insulin make it almost impossible to achieve sustained normoglycemia. The first clinically available insulin analogue, lispro, confirmed the hopes by showing that improved glycaemic control can be achieved without an increase in hypoglycaemic events. Two new insulin analogues, insulin glargine and insulin aspart, have recently been approved for clinical use in the United States and several other analogues are being intensively tested. PMID:24826038

  10. STRV Cryocooler Tip Motion Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Johnson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1b) scheduled to fly at the beginning of June 1994, has a cryocooler vibration suppression experiment aboard doing motion suppression of the tip of the coldfinger. STRV-1b is a bread box sized satellite to be launched on the next flight of the Ariane-4.

  11. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  12. Nonanesthetics can suppress learning.

    PubMed

    Kandel, L; Chortkoff, B S; Sonner, J; Laster, M J; Eger, E I

    1996-02-01

    Nonanesthetic gases or vapors do not abolish movement in response to noxious stimuli despite partial pressures and affinities for lipids that would, according to the Meyer-Overton hypothesis, predict such abolition. We investigated whether nonanesthetics depress learning and memory (i.e., provide amnesia). To define learning, we used a "fear-potentiated startle paradigm": rats trained to associate light with a noxious stimulus (footshock) will startle more, as measured by an accelerometer, when a startle-eliciting stimulus (e.g., a noise) is paired with light than when the startle-eliciting stimulus is presented alone. We imposed light-shock pairings on 98 rats under three conditions: no anesthesia (control); 0.20, 0.29, and 0.38 times the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) of desflurane; or two nonanesthetics (1,2-dichloroperfluorocyclobutane and perfluoropentane) at partial pressures predicted from their lipid solubilities to be between 0.2 and 1 MAC. Desflurane produced a dose-related depression of learning with abolition of learning at 0.28 MAC. Perfluoropentane at 0.2-predicted MAC had the same effect as 0.28 MAC desflurane. 1,2-Dichloroperfluorocyclobutane at 0.5- to 1-predicted MAC abolished learning. Because nonanesthetics suppress learning but not movement (the two critical components of anesthesia), they may prove useful in discriminating between mechanisms and sites of action of anesthetics. PMID:8561335

  13. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  14. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression

    PubMed Central

    Hulbert, Justin C.; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  15. Sound can suppress visual perception.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Souta; Ide, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    In a single modality, the percept of an input (e.g., voices of neighbors) is often suppressed by another (e.g., the sound of a car horn nearby) due to close interactions of neural responses to these inputs. Recent studies have also suggested that close interactions of neural responses could occur even across sensory modalities, especially for audio-visual interactions. However, direct behavioral evidence regarding the audio-visual perceptual suppression effect has not been reported in a study with humans. Here, we investigated whether sound could have a suppressive effect on visual perception. We found that white noise bursts presented through headphones degraded visual orientation discrimination performance. This auditory suppression effect on visual perception frequently occurred when these inputs were presented in a spatially and temporally consistent manner. These results indicate that the perceptual suppression effect could occur across auditory and visual modalities based on close and direct neural interactions among those sensory inputs. PMID:26023877

  16. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of semisynthetic zearalenone analogues.

    PubMed

    Tadpetch, Kwanruthai; Kaewmee, Benyapa; Chantakaew, Kittisak; Kantee, Kawalee; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak

    2016-08-01

    Zearalenone is a β-resorcylic acid macrolide with various biological activities. Herein we report the synthesis and cytotoxic activities of 34 zearalenone analogues against human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells as well as noncancerous Vero cells. Some zearalenone analogues showed moderately enhanced cytotoxic activities against the two cancer cell lines. We have discovered the potential lead compounds with diminished or no cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the double bond at the 1' and 2' positions of zearalenone core was crucial for cytotoxic activities on both cell lines. In addition, for zearalenol analogues, the unprotected hydroxyl group at C-2 and an alkoxy substituent at C-4 played key roles on cytotoxic effects of both cell lines. PMID:27311894

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New (-)-Englerin Analogues.

    PubMed

    López-Suárez, Laura; Riesgo, Lorena; Bravo, Fernando; Ransom, Tanya T; Beutler, John A; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of (-)-englerin A analogues obtained along our previously reported synthetic route based on a stereoselective gold(I) cycloaddition process. This synthetic route is a convenient platform to access analogues with broad structural diversity and has led us to the discovery of unprecedented and easier-to-synthesize derivatives with an unsaturation in the cyclopentyl ring between C4 and C5. We also introduce novel analogues in which the original isopropyl motif has been substituted with cyclohexyl, phenyl, and cyclopropyl moieties. The high selectivity and growth-inhibitory activity shown by these new derivatives in renal cancer cell lines opens new ways toward the final goal of finding effective drugs for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PMID:27005578

  18. Migrastatin analogues target fascin to block tumour metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Jakoncic, J.; Yang, S.; Zhang, J.; Huang, X.Y.

    2010-04-15

    Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of death of cancer patients. Development of new therapeutics preventing tumour metastasis is urgently needed. Migrastatin is a natural product secreted by Streptomyces, and synthesized migrastatin analogues such as macroketone are potent inhibitors of metastatic tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Here we show that these migrastatin analogues target the actin-bundling protein fascin to inhibit its activity. X-ray crystal structural studies reveal that migrastatin analogues bind to one of the actin-binding sites on fascin. Our data demonstrate that actin cytoskeletal proteins such as fascin can be explored as new molecular targets for cancer treatment, in a similar manner to the microtubule protein tubulin.

  19. Membrane-permeable Triphosphate Prodrugs of Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    Gollnest, Tristan; Dinis de Oliveira, Thiago; Rath, Anna; Hauber, Ilona; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2016-04-18

    The metabolic conversion of nucleoside analogues into their triphosphates often proceeds insufficiently. Rate-limitations can be at the mono-, but also at the di- and triphosphorylation steps. We developed a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) delivery system (TriPPPro-approach). In this approach, NTPs are masked by two bioreversible units at the γ-phosphate. Using a procedure involving H-phosphonate chemistry, a series of derivatives bearing approved, as well as potentially antivirally active, nucleoside analogues was synthesized. The enzyme-triggered delivery of NTPs was demonstrated by pig liver esterase, in human T-lymphocyte cell extracts and by a polymerase chain reaction using a prodrug of thymidine triphosphate. The TriPPPro-compounds of some HIV-inactive nucleoside analogues showed marked anti-HIV activity. For cellular uptake studies, a fluorescent TriPPPro-compound was prepared that delivered the triphosphorylated metabolite to intact CEM cells. PMID:27008042

  20. The metabolic and mitogenic properties of basal insulin analogues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Retrospective, observational studies have reported an association between diabetes treatment with insulin and a higher incidence of cancer. Objective Overview the literature for in vitro and in vivo studies of the metabolic and mitogenic properties of basal insulin analogues and assess the implications for clinical use. Methods Relevant studies were identified through PubMed and congress abstract database searches; data on metabolic and mitogenic signalling in relation to insulin treatment of diabetes are included in this review. Results The balance of evidence shows that although some analogues have demonstrated mitogenic potency in some in vitro studies in cancer cell lines, these findings do not translate to the in vivo setting in animals or to the clinical setting in humans. Conclusions The current consensus is that there is no clinical or in vivo evidence to indicate that any commercially available insulin analogue has carcinogenic effects. Large-scale, prospective clinical and observational studies will further establish any potential link. PMID:23373726

  1. Analogue modelling of syntectonic leucosomes in migmatitic schists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druguet, Elena; Carreras, Jordi

    2006-10-01

    Migmatites from the Cap de Creus tectonometamorphic belt display a wide variety of structures, from those formed when the leucosomes were melt-bearing, to those developed during solid-state deformation. The observed field structures have been modelled by means of analogue experiments. The materials used in the models are layered plasticine as a schist analogue, and chocolate as analogue of the crystallizing leucosome. A model for the development of syntectonic migmatites is proposed in which initial melt-bearing patches, preferentially formed within fertile pelitic layers, progressively evolve towards lens-shaped veins. Furthermore, heterogeneous deformation of anisotropic metasediments facilitates formation of extensional sites for further melt accumulation and transport. Melt crystallization implies a rapid increase in effective viscosity of leucosomes producing a reversal in competence contrast with respect to the enclosing schists. During the whole process, deformation localizes around crystallizing veins, giving rise to different and contrasting structures for melt-bearing and for solid-state stages.

  2. Nicorandil analogues containing NO-donor furoxans and related furazans.

    PubMed

    Boschi, D; Cena, C; Di Stilo, A; Fruttero, R; Gasco, A

    2000-07-01

    The synthesis and in vitro vasodilating properties of hybrid compounds in which furoxan (1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-oxide) moieties, endowed with different NO-donor properties, were substituted for the nitroxy function of Nicorandil are reported. The corresponding cyanoguanidine analogues are also considered. This approach has led to a series of vasorelaxing compounds devoid of affinity for K(ATP) channels, whose activity is prevalently due to their ability to activate sGC, at the concentrations of the experiments. Related furazan (1,2,5-oxadiazole) derivatives, unable to release nitric oxide were also prepared and studied for control. The amide analogues of Nicorandil display feeble vasorelaxing action not involving the activation of K+ channels, while in the guanidine analogues, this mechanism seems to underlie this action. PMID:10976520

  3. Analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of human acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Susanne; Mead, Andrew; Malinovskis, Aleksandrs; Hardwick, Nicola R; Guinn, Barbara-Ann

    2015-11-01

    The use of peptide vaccines, enhanced by adjuvants, has shown some efficacy in clinical trials. However, responses are often short-lived and rarely induce notable memory responses. The reason is that self-antigens have already been presented to the immune system as the tumor develops, leading to tolerance or some degree of host tumor cell destruction. To try to break tolerance against self-antigens, one of the methods employed has been to modify peptides at the anchor residues to enhance their ability to bind major histocompatibility complex molecules, extending their exposure to the T-cell receptor. These modified or analogue peptides have been investigated as stimulators of the immune system in patients with different cancers with variable but sometimes notable success. In this review we describe the background and recent developments in the use of analogue peptides for the immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia describing knowledge useful for the application of analogue peptide treatments for other malignancies. PMID:26438084

  4. Relative benefits of linear analogue and advanced digital hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sally A; Lutman, Mark E

    2004-03-01

    Speech recognition performance and self-reported benefit from linear analogue and advanced (digital) hearing aids were compared in 100 first-time hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss fitted monaurally with a behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid in a single-blind randomized crossover trial. Subjects used each aid for 5 weeks in turn, with aid order balanced across subjects. Three alternative models of digital hearing aid were assigned to subjects according to a balanced design. Aid type was disguised to keep subjects blind within practical limitations. Aided speech recognition performance in noise was measured at speech levels of 65 and 75dB at a speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) of +2dB for closed sets of single words. Self-rated benefit was measured using the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile (GHABP). Quality of life, hearing aid use and user preferences were also assessed. Speech recognition scores with the digital aids were significantly better at 75dB than with the analogue aids Self-reported benefit (APHAB, GHABP) and improvement in quality of life were generally not significantly different between analogue and digital aids, although aversiveness measured with the APHAB was significantly lower with digital aids, and satisfaction measured with the GHABP was greater. The digital aids were preferred significantly more often than the analogue aids, with 61 subjects choosing their digital aid, 26 choosing the analogue aid, and nine being equivocal. Overall, this study shows advantages for advanced digital over simple linear analogue aids in terms of both objective and subjective outcomes, although average differences are not large. PMID:15198378

  5. The Object-analogue approach for probabilistic forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frediani, M. E.; Hopson, T. M.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hacker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The object-analogue is a new method to estimate forecast uncertainty and to derive probabilistic predictions of gridded forecast fields over larger regions rather than point locations. The method has been developed for improving the forecast of 10-meter wind speed over the northeast US, and it can be extended to other forecast variables, vertical levels, and other regions. The object-analogue approach combines the analog post-processing technique (Hopson 2005; Hamill 2006; Delle Monache 2011) with the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) for forecast verification (Davis et al 2006a, b). Originally, MODE is used to verify mainly precipitation forecasts using features of a forecast region represented by an object. The analog technique is used to reduce the NWP systematic and random errors of a gridded forecast field. In this study we use MODE-derived objects to characterize the wind fields forecasts into attributes such as object area, centroid location, and intensity percentiles, and apply the analogue concept to these objects. The object-analogue method uses a database of objects derived from reforecasts and their respective reanalysis. Given a real-time forecast field, it searches the database and selects the top-ranked objects with the most similar set of attributes using the MODE fuzzy logic algorithm for object matching. The attribute probabilities obtained with the set of selected object-analogues are used to derive a multi-layer probabilistic prediction. The attribute probabilities are combined into three uncertainty layers that address the main concerns of most applications: location, area, and magnitude. The multi-layer uncertainty can be weighted and combined or used independently in such that it provides a more accurate prediction, adjusted according to the application interest. In this study we present preliminary results of the object-analogue method. Using a database with one hundred storms we perform a leave-one-out cross-validation to

  6. Tumor imaging and therapy using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marion; Breeman, Wout A P; Kwekkeboom, Dik J; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P

    2009-07-21

    Molecular imaging plays an essential role in balancing the clinical benefits and risks of radionuclide-based cancer therapy. To effectively treat individual patients, careful assessment of biodistribution, dosimetry, and toxicity is essential. In this Account, we describe advances that combine features of molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy to provide new avenues toward individualized cancer treatment. Selective receptor-targeting radiopeptides have emerged as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy of tumors that overexpress peptide receptors on the cell membrane. After such peptides labeled with gamma-emitting radionuclides bind to their receptors, they allow clinicians to visualize receptor-expressing tumors non-invasively. Peptides labeled with beta-particle emitters could also eradicate receptor-expressing tumors. The somatostatin receptors, which are overexpressed in a majority of neuroendocrine tumors, represent the first and best example of targets for radiopeptide-based imaging and radionuclide therapy. The somatostatin analogue (111)In-octreotide permits the localization and staging of neuroendocrine tumors that express the appropriate somatostatin receptors. Newer modified somatostatin analogues, including Tyr(3)-octreotide and Tyr(3)-octreotate, are successfully being used for tumor imaging and radionuclide therapy. Because there are few effective therapies for patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumors, this therapy is a promising novel treatment option for these patients. Peptide receptor imaging and radionuclide therapy can be combined in a single probe, called a "theranostic". To select patients who are likely to benefit from this type of intervention, we first use a peptide analogue labeled with a diagnostic radionuclide to obtain a scan. Selected patients will be treated using the same or a similar peptide analogue labeled with a therapeutic radionuclide. The development of such

  7. Concise synthesis of ether analogues of lysobisphosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guowei; Xu, Yong; Falguières, Thomas; Gruenberg, Jean; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2005-09-01

    We describe a versatile, efficient method for the preparation of ether analogues of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer from (S)-solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-octadecenyl glyceryl ether with 2-cyanoethyl bis-N,N-diisopropylamino phosphine and subsequent deprotection generated the bisether LBPA analogues. By simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps, we obtained the (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers of 2,2'-bisether LBPA. An ELISA assay with anti-LBPA monoclonal antibodies showed that the bisether LBPAs were recognized with the same affinity as the natural 2,2'-bisoleolyl LBPA. [reaction: see text] PMID:16119911

  8. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Semisynthetic Withalongolide A Analogues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The natural product withaferin A exhibits potent antitumor activity and other diverse pharmacological activities. The recently discovered withalongolide A, a C-19 hydroxylated congener of withaferin A, was recently reported to possess cytotoxic activity against head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Semisynthetic acetylated analogues of withalongolide A were shown to be considerably more cytotoxic than the parent compound. To further explore the structure–activity relationships, 20 new semisynthetic analogues of withalongolide A were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity against four different cancer cell lines. A number of derivatives were found to be more potent than the parent compound and withaferin A. PMID:24273633

  9. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  10. Halogenase Engineering for the Generation of New Natural Product Analogues.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-10-12

    Halogenases catalyze the incorporation of halogen atoms into organic molecules. Given the importance that halogenation has on the biological activity of small molecules, these enzymes have been subjected to intense engineering efforts to make them more suitable for biotechnology applications. The ability to biohalogenate complex molecules provides, in principle, the opportunity for rapid generation of a series of analogues with new or improved properties. Here we discuss the potential and limitations of using halogenases as biocatalysts, including recent advances in engineering halogenases to generate halogenated natural product analogues. PMID:26256103

  11. 12-Amino-andrographolide analogues: synthesis and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kasemsuk, Sakkasem; Sirion, Uthaiwan; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Saeeng, Rungnapha

    2013-12-01

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone of the plant Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to be cytotoxic against various cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, a series of β-amino-γ-butyrolactone analogues has been synthesized from naturally occurring andrographolide via one pot tandem aza-conjugate addition-elimination reaction. By using economic procedure without any base or catalyst at room temperature, the products obtained were in fair to excellent yields with high stereoselectivity. The cytotoxicity of all new amino analogues were evaluated against six cancer cell lines and revealed their potential for being developed as promising anti-cancer agents. PMID:23709127

  12. Synthesis of Conformationally Locked Versions of Puromycin Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Saneyoshi, Hisao; Michel, Benoît Y.; Choi, Yongseok; Strazewski, Peter; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    Conformationally locked North and South versions of puromycin analogues built on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane pseudosugar template were synthesized. The final assembly of the products was accomplished by the Staudinger-Vilarrasa coupling of the corresponding North (2 and 3) and South (6 and 7) 3′-azidopurine carbanucleosides with the Fmoc-protected 1-hydroxybenzotriazole ester of 4-methoxy-L-tyrosine. North azides 2 and 3 were reported earlier. The 3′-azido intermediates 6 and 7 that are necessary for the synthesis of the South puromycin analogues are described herein for the first time. PMID:18991379

  13. Non-natural acetogenin analogues as potent Trypanosoma brucei inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Florence, Gordon J.; Fraser, Andrew L.; Gould, Eoin R.; King, Elizabeth F.; Menzies, Stefanie K.; Morris, Joanne C.; Tulloch, Lindsay B.; Smith, Terry K.

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel bis-tetrahydropyran 1,4-triazole analogues based on the acetogenin framework display low micromolar trypanocidal activities towards both bloodstream and insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. A divergent synthetic strategy was adopted for the synthesis of the key tetrahydropyran intermediates to enable rapid access to diastereochemical variation either side of the 1,4-triazole core. The resulting diastereomeric analogues displayed varying degrees of trypanocidal activity and selectivity in structure activity relationship studies. PMID:25145275

  14. Design and Synthesis of Antitumor Heck-Coupled Sclareol Analogues: Modulation of BH3 Family Members by SS-12 in Autophagy and Apoptotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Shakeel-u-Rehman; Rah, Bilal; Lone, Shabir H; Rasool, Reyaz Ur; Farooq, Saleem; Nayak, Debasis; Chikan, Naveed Anjum; Chakraborty, Souneek; Behl, Akanksha; Mondhe, Dilip Manikaro; Goswami, Anindya; Bhat, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-04-23

    Sclareol, a promising anticancer labdane diterpene, was isolated from Salvia sclarea. Keeping the basic stereochemistry-rich framework of the molecule intact, a method for the synthesis of novel sclareol analogues was designed using palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative Heck coupling reaction in order to study their structure-activity relationship. Both sclareol and its derivatives showed an interesting cytotoxicity profile, with 15-(4-fluorophenyl)sclareol (SS-12) as the most potent analogue, having IC50 = 0.082 μM against PC-3 cells. It was found that SS-12 commonly interacts with Bcl-2 and Beclin 1 BH3 domain proteins and enhances autophagic flux by modulating autophagy-related proteins. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy by autophagy inhibitors protected against SS-12-induced apoptosis. Finally, SS-12 effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo in Ehrlich's ascitic and solid Sarcoma-180 mouse models. PMID:25825934

  15. Investigation of the indulgence cycles hypothesis of suppression on experimentally induced visual intrusions in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alishia D; Moulds, Michelle L

    2007-11-01

    Within the thought control literature, Wegner [(1989). White bears and other unwanted thoughts: Suppression, obsession, and the psychology of mental control. New York, NY, USA: Penguin Press.] referred to the combined initial suppression and expression phases of thought control as an indulgence cycle which results in the rebound effect typically observed in suppression studies. According to Ironic Process Theory [Wegner, (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101, 34-52.], this rebound leads to further attempts to suppress that are difficult due to the target thought's hyperaccessibility, resulting in a secondary rebound effect owing to a positive feedback system of indulgence cycles. The current study investigated (i) the effects of repeated suppression and opportunities for expression by using a method to index the frequency, duration, and associated levels of distress of an experimentally induced visual intrusion, and (ii) whether any observed effects were differentially linked to depressive symptomatology in an analogue sample of low and high dysphoric participants. Results supported a secondary rebound effect in those participants most successful at suppressing target intrusions. The findings offer an important extension to the emerging literature on the management of intrusive memories in depression. PMID:17692285

  16. Synthesis of monophytanyl ether analogues of lysophosphatidic and lysophosphatidyl glycerol.

    PubMed

    Kates, M; Hancock, A J

    1976-10-01

    The chemical synthesis of 3-O-phytanyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphoric acid (monophytanyl ether analogue of lysophosphatidic acid) was effected by condensation of 1-iodo-2-O-benzyl-3-O-phytanyl-sn-glycerol with silver di-p-nitrobenzyl phosphate in anhydrous toluene followed by catalytic hydrogenolysis of the resulting phosphotriester to remove the benzyl and p-nitrobenzyl groups. Synthesis of 3-O-phytanyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphoryl-1'-sn-glycerol (monophytanyl ether analogue of lysophosphatidyl glycerol) was carried out by conversion of the above phosphotriester to the monosilver salt of the suitably blocked lysophosphatidic acid which was condensed with 1-iodo-2-O-t-butyl-3-O-benzyl-sn-glycerol. Removal of the protecting aromatic and t-butyl groups from the resulting blocked triester intermediate gave the desired phytanyl ether analogue of lysophosphatidyl glycerol. Both lyso analogues were isolated as analytically and chromatographically pure potassium salts. Their physical properties and behavior towards acid hydrolysis are described. PMID:991376

  17. New phosphorus analogues of nitrogen classics--no carbon copies.

    PubMed

    Gudat, Dietrich

    2014-05-01

    Getting heavy: The recently prepared phosphorus analogues of two old acquaintances, urea and dinitrogen tetroxide, bear some structural resemblance to their archetypes but are no carbon copies. Their syntheses and chemical properties reveal rather certain peculiarities, which back the doctrine that the electronic properties of the heavier elements in a group differ from those of the lightest congener. PMID:24718995

  18. Synthesis of 4” manipulated Lewis X trisaccharide analogues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Summary Three analogues of the Lex trisaccharide antigen (β-D-Galp(1→4)[α-L-Fucp(1→3)]-D-GlcNAcp) in which the galactosyl residue is modified at O-4 as a methyloxy, deoxychloro or deoxyfluoro, were synthesized. We first report the preparation of the modified 4-OMe, 4-Cl and 4-F trichloroacetimidate galactosyl donors and then report their use in the glycosylation of an N-acetylglucosamine glycosyl acceptor. Thus, we observed that the reactivity of these donors towards the BF3·OEt2-promoted glycosylation at O-4 of the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyl acceptors followed the ranking 4-F > 4-OAc ≈ 4-OMe > 4-Cl. The resulting disaccharides were deprotected at O-3 of the glucosamine residue and fucosylated, giving access to the desired protected Lex analogues. One-step global deprotection (Na/NH3) of the protected 4”-methoxy analogue, and two-step deprotections (removal of a p-methoxybenzyl with DDQ, then Zemplén deacylation) of the 4”-deoxychloro and 4”-deoxyfluoro protected Lex analogues gave the desired compounds in good yields. PMID:23019441

  19. ON A p-ADIC ANALOGUE OF TATE HEIGHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzin'sh, A. A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the Tate height of an elliptic curve and its p-adic analogue. The main result is a series of explicit formulas for computing the local archimedean part of the Tate height. These results are used to obtain a new method for constructing the p-adic Tate height. Bibliography: 5 titles.

  20. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    PubMed Central

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis. PMID:26084050

  1. A new analogue of fatty alcohol from Tamarix hampeana L.

    PubMed

    Aykac, Ahmet; Akgül, Yurdanur

    2010-01-01

    New analogues of a long-chain secondary alcohol (1) and laserine (2) were isolated from the flowers of Tamarix hampeana L. The isolated compounds were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, LCMS/APCI, and chemical methods. Laserine was isolated for the first time from T. hampeana L. PMID:20013470

  2. Facile Synthesis of Natural Alkoxynaphthalene Analogues from Plant Alkoxybenzenes.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Krayushkin, Mikhail M; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Strelenko, Yuri A; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V

    2016-04-22

    Analogues of the bioactive natural alkoxynaphthalene pycnanthulignene D were synthesized by an efficient method. The starting plant allylalkoxybenzenes (1) are easily available from the plant essential oils of sassafras, dill, and parsley. The target 1-arylalkoxynaphthalenes (5) exhibited antiproliferative activity in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay. PMID:26910798

  3. Thymidine analogues to assess microperfusion in human tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Hilde L.; Ljungkvist, Anna S.; Rijken, Paul F.; Sprong, Debbie; Bussink, Jan; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Haustermans, Karin M.; Begg, Adrian C. . E-mail: a.begg@nki.nl

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To validate the use of the thymidine analogues as local perfusion markers in human tumors (no labeling indicates no perfusion) by comparison with the well-characterized perfusion marker Hoechst 33342. Methods and Materials: Human tumor xenografts from gliomas and head-and-neck cancers were injected with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) and the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. In frozen sections, each blood vessel was scored for the presence of IdUrd/BrdUrd labeling and Hoechst in surrounding cells. The percentage of analogue-negative vessels was compared with the fraction of Hoechst-negative vessels. Collocalization of the two markers was also scored. Results: We found considerable intertumor variation in the fraction of perfused vessels, measured by analogue labeling, both in the human tumor xenografts and in a series of tumor biopsies from head-and-neck cancer patients. There was a significant correlation between the Hoechst-negative and IdUrd/BrdUrd-negative vessels in the xenografts (r 85, p = 0.0004), despite some mismatches on a per-vessel basis. Conclusions: Thymidine analogues can be successfully used to rank tumors according to their fraction of perfused vessels. Whether this fraction correlates with the extent of acute hypoxia needs further confirmation.

  4. Synthesis, reactivity and biological activity of 5-alkoxymethyluracil analogues

    PubMed Central

    Brulikova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Summary This review article summarizes the results of a long-term investigation of 5-alkoxymethyluracil analogues and is aimed, in particular, at methods of syntheses. Most of the presented compounds were synthesized in order to evaluate their biological activity, therefore, a brief survey of biological activity, especially antiviral, cytotoxic and antibacterial, is also reported. PMID:21804865

  5. A Macroscopic Analogue of the Nuclear Pairing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic system involving permanent magnets is used as an analogue to nucleons in a nucleus to illustrate the significance of the pairing interaction. This illustrates that the view of the total nuclear energy based only on the nucleon occupancy of the energy levels can yield erroneous results and it is only when the pairing interaction is…

  6. Charged Analogues of Henning Knutsen Type Solutions in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Kumar, Sachin; Pratibha

    2011-11-01

    In the present article, we have found charged analogues of Henning Knutsen's interior solutions which join smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric at the pressure free interface. The solutions are singularity free and analyzed numerically with respect to pressure, energy-density and charge-density in details. The solutions so obtained also present the generalization of A.L. Mehra's solutions.

  7. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues.

    PubMed

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W; Shears, Stephen B; Veiga, Nicolás; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2016-08-22

    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions. PMID:27460418

  8. q-bosons and the q-analogue quantized field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    The q-analogue coherent states are used to identify physical signatures for the presence of a 1-analogue quantized radiation field in the q-CS classical limits where the absolute value of z is large. In this quantum-optics-like limit, the fractional uncertainties of most physical quantities (momentum, position, amplitude, phase) which characterize the quantum field are O(1). They only vanish as O(1/absolute value of z) when q = 1. However, for the number operator, N, and the N-Hamiltonian for a free q-boson gas, H(sub N) = h(omega)(N + 1/2), the fractional uncertainties do still approach zero. A signature for q-boson counting statistics is that (Delta N)(exp 2)/ (N) approaches 0 as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. Except for its O(1) fractional uncertainty, the q-generalization of the Hermitian phase operator of Pegg and Barnett, phi(sub q), still exhibits normal classical behavior. The standard number-phase uncertainty-relation, Delta(N) Delta phi(sub q) = 1/2, and the approximate commutation relation, (N, phi(sub q)) = i, still hold for the single-mode q-analogue quantized field. So, N and phi(sub q) are almost canonically conjugate operators in the q-CS classical limit. The q-analogue CS's minimize this uncertainty relation for moderate (absolute value of z)(exp 2).

  9. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production.

    PubMed

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-D-galactopyranosyl α-D-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. "Greener" alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis. PMID:26084050

  10. An Analysis of an Autoclitic Analogue in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Lattal, Kennon A.; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Using a conditional discrimination procedure, pigeons were exposed to a nonverbal analogue of qualifying autoclitics such as "definitely" and "maybe." It has been suggested that these autoclitics are similar to tacts except that they are under the control of private discriminative stimuli. Instead of the conventional assumption…