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1

RBMK Safety Analysis in Accidents Initiated by Partial Ruptures of the Circulation Circuit  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives an analysis of the current state of the RBMK safety evaluation in accidents initiated by partial ruptures of the delivery part of the circulating loop. It appears from this analysis that applicability and uncertainty of the international code RELAP for RBMK safety analysis could not be determined up to the present. At the same time it is shown in the paper that fuel rod cladding temperature can reach the acceptability criterion in the accidents. As a result it has been concluded that bases of the next stage of the RBMK safety analysis would be creation of a code oriented to the special features of a reactor RBMK. (authors)

Dostov, Anatoly I.; Kramerov, Alexander Ja. [Russian Research Center - RRC, Kurchatov Institute Kurchatov Square, 46 Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

2002-07-01

2

Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

Primm, Trent [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

2009-04-01

3

Safety analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

Knight, John C.

1995-01-01

4

Efficacy and safety of accelerated partial breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery: a meta-analysis of published comparative studies.  

PubMed

To compare the treatment outcomes between accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and conventional whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and to explore the efficacy and safety of APBI as an adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer who received breast-conserving therapy. Eligible studies were identified on Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library updated to July 10, 2012. Comparative studies were considered for inclusion. Analyses were carried out using Stata software. Eleven comparative studies with a total of 7,097 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences between group APBI and group WBI associated with the supraclavicular failure, distant metastasis, overall survival, and disease-free survival, while local recurrence (LR) and axillary failure (AF) increased in group APBI. The sensitivity analysis indicated that both the LR and AF were not statistically significant difference between the two groups. In the subgroup analysis, LR was statistically significantly higher in group APBI for patients with the age <60, large tumor size, and unknown margin status. APBI is a safe treatment modality and could become a potential option for the delivery of adjuvant radiation therapy in patients receiving breast-conserving therapy, especially for the suitable group that was classified by the American Society of Radiation Oncology Consensus Panel. PMID:24372818

Kong, Lingling; Cheng, Jian; Ding, Xiuping; Li, Baosheng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Hongsheng; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Tao; Sun, Hongfu

2014-01-01

5

K Basin safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

1994-12-16

6

Partial Wave Analysis at BESIII  

E-print Network

The BESIII experiment in Beijing takes data in $\\tau$-charm domain since 2009. For the moment the world largest samples of $J/\\psi$, $\\psi(3686)$, $\\psi(3770)$ and $\\psi(4040)$ data have been collected. Hadron spectroscopy is a unique way to access QCD, which is one of the most important physics goals of BESIII. Experimental search of new forms of hadrons and subsequent investigation of their properties would provide validation of and valuable input to the quantitative understanding of QCD. The key to success lies in high levels of precision during the measurement and high statistics in the recorded data set complemented with sophisticated analysis methods. Partial wave analysis (PWA) is a powerful tool to study the hadron spectroscopy, that allows one to extract the resonance's spin-parity, mass, width and decay properties with high sensitivity and accuracy. In this poster, we present the working PWA framework of BESIII -- GPUPWA and the recent results of PWA of $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\eta\\eta$. GPUPWA is a PWA framework for high statistics partial wave analyses harnessing the GPU parallel computing.

Beijiang Liu

2014-03-06

7

Partial Wave Analysis at BESIII  

E-print Network

The BESIII experiment in Beijing takes data in $\\tau$-charm domain since 2009. For the moment the world largest samples of $J/\\psi$, $\\psi(3686)$, $\\psi(3770)$ and $\\psi(4040)$ data have been collected. Hadron spectroscopy is a unique way to access QCD, which is one of the most important physics goals of BESIII. Experimental search of new forms of hadrons and subsequent investigation of their properties would provide validation of and valuable input to the quantitative understanding of QCD. The key to success lies in high levels of precision during the measurement and high statistics in the recorded data set complemented with sophisticated analysis methods. Partial wave analysis (PWA) is a powerful tool to study the hadron spectroscopy, that allows one to extract the resonance's spin-parity, mass, width and decay properties with high sensitivity and accuracy. In this poster, we present the working PWA framework of BESIII -- GPUPWA and the recent results of PWA of $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\eta\\eta$. GPUPWA is a PWA fra...

Liu, Beijiang

2014-01-01

8

Safety analysis and review system  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a comprehensive Safety Analysis and Review System that satisfies Department of Energy safety analysis report requirements. This system consists of interrelated criteria for hazard classification, risk assessment, selection of Safety Class Items (SCIs), and selection of Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). The system provides input for design decisions at appropriate project milestones as required by the life cycle of a project. The criteria used for selection in hazard classification, risk assessment, Safety Class Items (SCI) identification, and Operational Safety Requirement (OSR) identification are the subject of this paper.

Hallinan, E.J.; Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Cowen, M.L.; Stephens, K.W.; Waltz, W.R.; Kim, K.S.

1992-07-01

9

Safety analysis and review system  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a comprehensive Safety Analysis and Review System that satisfies Department of Energy safety analysis report requirements. This system consists of interrelated criteria for hazard classification, risk assessment, selection of Safety Class Items (SCIs), and selection of Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). The system provides input for design decisions at appropriate project milestones as required by the life cycle of a project. The criteria used for selection in hazard classification, risk assessment, Safety Class Items (SCI) identification, and Operational Safety Requirement (OSR) identification are the subject of this paper.

Hallinan, E.J.; Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Cowen, M.L.; Stephens, K.W.; Waltz, W.R.; Kim, K.S.

1992-01-01

10

Model-Based Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety analysis techniques are well established and are used extensively during the design of safety-critical systems. Despite this, most of the techniques are highly subjective and dependent on the skill of the practitioner. Since these analyses are usually based on an informal system model, it is unlikely that they will be complete, consistent, and error free. In fact, the lack of precise models of the system architecture and its failure modes often forces the safety analysts to devote much of their effort to gathering architectural details about the system behavior from several sources and embedding this information in the safety artifacts such as the fault trees. This report describes Model-Based Safety Analysis, an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system model created using a model-based development process. By extending the system model with a fault model as well as relevant portions of the physical system to be controlled, automated support can be provided for much of the safety analysis. We believe that by using a common model for both system and safety engineering and automating parts of the safety analysis, we can both reduce the cost and improve the quality of the safety analysis. Here we present our vision of model-based safety analysis and discuss the advantages and challenges in making this approach practical.

Joshi, Anjali; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.

2006-01-01

11

Software Hazard and Safety Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety is a system property and software, of itself, cannot be safe or unsafe. However software has a major in?uence on safety in many modern systems, e.g. aircraft and engine controls, railway signalling, and medical equipment. The paper outlines the principles of system hazard and safety analysis, and brie?y describes work on adapting classical hazard and safety anal- ysis techniques

John A. Mcdermid

2002-01-01

12

Integrated Safety Analysis Teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

2008-01-01

13

Aviation safety analysis  

E-print Network

Introduction: Just as the aviation system is complex and interrelated, so is aviation safety. Aviation safety involves design of aircraft and airports, training of ground personnel and flight crew members' maintenance of ...

Ausrotas, Raymond A.

1984-01-01

14

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Here is a partial list of safeguards for explosive actuated  

E-print Network

to soft construction materials, such as wood, plaster, tar, dry wallboard, and the like, or to stud on the other side. Portable Power Tools Safety Tip #14 Don't be a fool. Inspect your tools. Operators

Minnesota, University of

15

10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. ...safety information, integrated safety analysis, and management measures, are...

2011-01-01

16

10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. ...safety information, integrated safety analysis, and management measures, are...

2012-01-01

17

10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. ...safety information, integrated safety analysis, and management measures, are...

2013-01-01

18

10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. ...safety information, integrated safety analysis, and management measures, are...

2010-01-01

19

10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy... Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. ...safety information, integrated safety analysis, and management measures, are...

2014-01-01

20

System safety engineering analysis handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

Ijams, T. E.

1972-01-01

21

Partial Wave Analysis using Graphics Cards  

E-print Network

Partial wave analysis is a key technique in hadron spectroscopy. The use of unbinned likelihood fits on large statistics data samples and ever more complex physics models makes this analysis technique computationally very expensive. Parallel computing techniques, in particular the use of graphics processing units, are a powerful means to speed up analyses; in the contexts of the BES III, Compass and GlueX experiments, parallel analysis frameworks have been created. They provide both fits that are faster by more than two orders of magnitude than legacy code and environments to quickly program and run an analysis. This in turn allows the physicists to focus on the many difficult open problems pertaining to partial wave analysis.

Niklaus Berger

2011-08-30

22

Qualitative Analysis of Partially-Observable Markov Decision Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study observation-based strategies for partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with parity objectives. An observation-based strategy relies on partial information about the history of a play, namely, on the past sequence of observations. We consider qualitative analysis problems: given a POMDP with a parity objective, decide whether there exists an observation-based strategy to achieve the objective with probability 1 (almost-sure winning), or with positive probability (positive winning). Our main results are twofold. First, we present a complete picture of the computational complexity of the qualitative analysis problem for POMDPs with parity objectives and its subclasses: safety, reachability, Büchi, and coBüchi objectives. We establish several upper and lower bounds that were not known in the literature. Second, we give optimal bounds (matching upper and lower bounds) for the memory required by pure and randomized observation-based strategies for each class of objectives.

Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent; Henzinger, Thomas A.

23

Measuring Safety Performance: A Comparison of Whole, Partial, and Momentary Time-Sampling Recording Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Partial-interval (PIR), whole-interval (WIR), and momentary time sampling (MTS) estimates were compared against continuous measures of safety performance for three postural behaviors: feet, back, and shoulder position. Twenty-five samples of safety performance across five undergraduate students were scored using a second-by-second continuous…

Alvero, Alicia M.; Struss, Kristen; Rappaport, Eva

2008-01-01

24

SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly evaluated and identified. This document supersedes the seismic classifications, assignments, and computations in ''Seismic Analysis for Preclosure Safety'' (BSC 2004a).

E.N. Lindner

2004-12-03

25

[Cultural safety: a concept analysis].  

PubMed

Cultural safety is a concept that is getting more attention in scientific literature related to the cultural dimension of care. Difficulty to grasp the meaning and implications for research, education and practice is frequently raised by the authors. A concept analysis inspired by the evolutionary method of Rodgers was performed to better understand its meaning and its utility to the various fields of nursing. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts to identify literature published between 1988 and 2012 and containing the expression "cultural safety". 68 documents were analyzed. Findings included attributes, antecedents and consequences of cultural safety. The evolution of cultural safety through the various sociocultural and political contexts and application domains is also addressed. Issues related to the definition and operationalization of the concept, as well as the ability to export it out of its context of emergence, are discussed. The concept of cultural safety needs further development and a theoretical integration before reaching a conceptual clarity and effective operationalization. PMID:23409542

Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

2012-12-01

26

Partially Premixed Flame (PPF) Research for Fire Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incipient fires typically occur after the partial premixing of fuel and oxidizer. The mixing of product species into the fuel/oxidizer mixture influences flame stabilization and fire spread. Therefore, it is important to characterize the impact of different levels of fuel/oxidizer/product mixing on flame stabilization, liftoff and extinguishment under different gravity conditions. With regard to fire protection, the agent concentration required to achieve flame suppression is an important consideration. The initial stage of an unwanted fire in a microgravity environment will depend on the level of partial premixing and the local conditions such as air currents generated by the fire itself and any forced ventilation (that influence agent and product mixing into the fire). The motivation of our investigation is to characterize these impacts in a systematic and fundamental manner.

Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Hegde, Uday

2004-01-01

27

Safety study application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Included are analyses of existing facilities done under the aegis of the Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program, and analyses of new and modified facilities. A graded approach is used wherein the level of analysis and documentation for each facility is commensurate with the magnitude of the hazard(s), the complexity of the facility and the stage of the facility life cycle. Safety analysis reports (SARs) for hazard Category 1 and 2 facilities are usually detailed and extensive because these categories are associated with public health and safety risk. SARs for Category 3 are normally much less extensive because the risk to public health and safety is slight. At Energy Systems, safety studies are the name given to SARs for Category 3 (formerly {open_quotes}low{close_quotes}) facilities. Safety studies are the appropriate instrument when on-site risks are limited to irreversible consequences to a few people, and off-site consequences are limited to reversible consequences to a few people. This application guide provides detailed instructions for performing safety studies that meet the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.22, {open_quotes}Technical Safety Requirements,{close_quotes} and 5480.23, {open_quotes}Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.{close_quotes} A seven-chapter format has been adopted for safety studies. This format allows for discussion of all the items required by DOE Order 5480.23 and for the discussions to be readily traceable to the listing in the order. The chapter titles are: (1) Introduction and Summary, (2) Site, (3) Facility Description, (4) Safety Basis, (5) Hazardous Material Management, (6) Management, Organization, and Institutional Safety Provisions, and (7) Accident Analysis.

Not Available

1993-07-01

28

Partial pressure analysis in space testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For vacuum-system or test-article analysis it is often desirable to know the species and partial pressures of the vacuum gases. Residual gas or Partial Pressure Analyzers (PPA's) are commonly used for this purpose. These are mass spectrometer-type instruments, most commonly employing quadrupole filters. These instruments can be extremely useful, but they should be used with caution. Depending on the instrument design, calibration procedures, and conditions of use, measurements made with these instruments can be accurate to within a few percent, or in error by two or more orders of magnitude. Significant sources of error can include relative gas sensitivities that differ from handbook values by an order of magnitude, changes in sensitivity with pressure by as much as two orders of magnitude, changes in sensitivity with time after exposure to chemically active gases, and the dependence of the sensitivity for one gas on the pressures of other gases. However, for most instruments, these errors can be greatly reduced with proper operating procedures and conditions of use. In this paper, data are presented illustrating performance characteristics for different instruments and gases, operating parameters are recommended to minimize some errors, and calibrations procedures are described that can detect and/or correct other errors.

Tilford, Charles R.

1994-01-01

29

The adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adaptive Safety Analysis and Monitoring (ASAM) system is a hybrid model-based software tool for assisting intelligence analysts to identify terrorist threats, to predict possible evolution of the terrorist activities, and to suggest strategies for countering terrorism. The ASAM system provides a distributed processing structure for gathering, sharing, understanding, and using information to assess and predict terrorist network states. In combination with counter-terrorist network models, it can also suggest feasible actions to inhibit potential terrorist threats. In this paper, we will introduce the architecture of the ASAM system, and discuss the hybrid modeling approach embedded in it, viz., Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to detect and provide soft evidence on the states of terrorist network nodes based on partial and imperfect observations, and Bayesian networks (BNs) to integrate soft evidence from multiple HMMs. The functionality of the ASAM system is illustrated by way of application to the Indian Airlines Hijacking, as modeled from open sources.

Tu, Haiying; Allanach, Jeffrey; Singh, Satnam; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Willett, Peter

2004-09-01

30

Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

Saito, G.H.

1994-10-01

31

14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213 Section 417.213 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight...

2010-01-01

32

14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213 Section 417.213 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight...

2014-01-01

33

14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213 Section 417.213 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight...

2013-01-01

34

14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213 Section 417.213 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight...

2012-01-01

35

14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213 Section 417.213 Aeronautics...LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight...

2011-01-01

36

14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety analysis. 33.75 Section 33.75 Aeronautics...Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a) (1) The applicant must...reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if...

2013-01-01

37

14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety analysis. 33.75 Section 33.75 Aeronautics...Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a) (1) The applicant must...reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if...

2011-01-01

38

14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety analysis. 33.75 Section 33.75 Aeronautics...Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a) (1) The applicant must...reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if...

2014-01-01

39

14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety analysis. 33.75 Section 33.75 Aeronautics...Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a) (1) The applicant must...reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account, if...

2012-01-01

40

Radiation safety content guide for safety analysis reports  

SciTech Connect

US Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) facilities develop Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) to permit evaluation of potential hazards to the health and safety of the public and employees and potential hazards to government property and the environment. The SAR is the primary vehicle by which the Operating Contractor provides information to demonstrate that the facility can be operated safely. The Savannah River Operations Office independently reviews SARs to determine their technical integrity and completeness. In order to make the review process most efficient, SARs must be prepared in a consistent manner and contain all required information. This document provides guidance on the content of the radiation safety information to be included in SARs. It is not within the scope of this guide to address the entire Safety Analysis Report. 53 refs.

Not Available

1989-08-01

41

Automation for System Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul

2009-01-01

42

Infusing Reliability Techniques into Software Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software safety analysis for a large software intensive system is always a challenge. Software safety practitioners need to ensure that software related hazards are completely identified, controlled, and tracked. This paper discusses in detail how to incorporate the traditional reliability techniques into the entire software safety analysis process. In addition, this paper addresses how information can be effectively shared between the various practitioners involved in the software safety analyses. The author has successfully applied the approach to several aerospace applications. Examples are provided to illustrate the key steps of the proposed approach.

Shi, Ying

2015-01-01

43

327 Building Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to systematically identify and analyze the hazards associated with the stabilization and deactivation of the 327 Building. This SAR establishes the Safety Basis for the 327 Building and was prepared in accordance with HNF-3731,327 Building Safety Basis Criteria Document. Applied technology legend removed per DOE/HQ letter dated 10/29/2001.

HENDERSON, J.F.

2001-01-15

44

Geometric Partial Differential Equations and Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an introduction to the use of geometric partial differential equations in image processing and computer vision. It brings a number of new concepts into the field, providing a very fundamental and formal approach to image processing. State-of-the-art practical results in a large number of real problems are achieved with the techniques described. Applications covered include image segmentation,

Guillermo Sapiro

2001-01-01

45

10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.204...design of safety structures, systems and components) and the...

2010-01-01

46

HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

EVANS, C B

2004-12-21

47

A Synthetic Vision Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents efforts to analyze a sample of aviation safety programs, using the LMI-developed integrated safety analysis tool to determine the change in system risk resulting from Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) technology implementation. Specifically, we have worked to modify existing system safety tools to address the safety impact of synthetic vision (SV) technology. Safety metrics include reliability, availability, and resultant hazard. This analysis of SV technology is intended to be part of a larger effort to develop a model that is capable of "providing further support to the product design and development team as additional information becomes available". The reliability analysis portion of the effort is complete and is fully documented in this report. The simulation analysis is still underway; it will be documented in a subsequent report. The specific goal of this effort is to apply the integrated safety analysis to SV technology. This report also contains a brief discussion of data necessary to expand the human performance capability of the model, as well as a discussion of human behavior and its implications for system risk assessment in this modeling environment.

Hemm, Robert; Houser, Scott

2001-01-01

48

Satellite System Safety Analysis Using STPA  

E-print Network

Traditional hazard analysis techniques based on failure models of accident causality, such as the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method currently used at NASA, are inadequate for analyzing safety at the system level. ...

Dunn, Nicholas Connor

2013-01-01

49

Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.

Swanson, D.S.; Thieme, M.A.

2003-06-16

50

Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.

Douglas S. Swanson; Michael A. Thieme

2003-06-01

51

Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1991-12-31

52

PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS AND PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION  

EPA Science Inventory

The mathematics behind the techniques of principal component analysis and partial least squares regression is presented in detail, starting from the appropriate extreme conditions. he meaning of the resultant vectors and many of their mathematical interrelationships are also pres...

53

Overview of Energy Systems` safety analysis report programs. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility`s safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This ``Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs`` Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

Not Available

1992-03-01

54

SAFETY ANALYSIS Paper n268  

E-print Network

of Civil Engineering, the University of Tokyo #12;1 1 INTRODUCTION Traffic accidents are a heavy financial", 1994), total cost of traffic accidents in 1991 is as high as 5.03 trillion Japanese yen ( about 40 invested in order to achieve a safer road transportation all over the world, the traffic safety situation

Wang, Yinhai

55

Uncertainty analysis for Ulysses safety evaluation report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the effort to review the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report and to understand the risk of plutonium release from the Ulysses spacecraft General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermal Generator, the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) performed an integrated, quantitative analysis of the uncertainties of the calculated risk of plutonium release from Ulysses. Using state-of-art probabilistic risk assessment technology, the uncertainty analysis accounted for both variability and uncertainty of the key parameters of the risk analysis. The results show that INSRP had high confidence that risk of fatal cancers from potential plutonium release associated with calculated launch and deployment accident scenarios is low.

Frank, Michael V.

1991-01-01

56

14 CFR 417.405 - Ground safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The ground safety analysis must account for...The ground safety analysis must account for...within hardware systems that can cause a...A ground safety analysis must identify...must verify all information in a ground safety analysis, including design margins,...

2010-01-01

57

Partial Wave Analysis of Coupled Photonic Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The very high quality factors sustained by microcavity optical resonators are relevant to applications in wavelength filtering, routing, switching, modulation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing. Increases in the density of photonic elements require that attention be paid to how electromagnetic (EM) coupling modifies their optical properties. This is especially true when cavity resonances are involved, in which case, their characteristics may be fundamentally altered. Understanding the optical properties of microcavities that are near or in contact with photonic elements---such as other microcavities, nanostructures, couplers, and substrates---can be expected to advance our understanding of the roles that these structures may play in VLSI photonics, biosensors and similar device technologies. Wc present results from recent theoretical studies of the effects of inter- and intracavity coupling on optical resonances in compound spherical particles. Concentrically stratified spheres and bispheres constituted from homogeneous and stratified spheres are subjects of this investigation. A new formulation is introduced for the absorption of light in an arbitrary layer of a multilayered sphere, which is based on multiple reflections of the spherical partial waves of the Lorenz-Mie solution for scattering by a sphere. Absorption efficiencies, which can be used to profile cavity resonances and to infer fluorescence yields or the onset of nonlinear optical processes in the microcavities, are presented. Splitting of resonances in these multisphere systems is paid particular attention, and consequences for photonic device development and possible performance enhancements through carefully designed architectures that exploit EM coupling are considered.

Fuller, Kirk A.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

58

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR AND RETURN PERIOD OF INPUT MOTIONS FOR SEISMIC RELIABILITY ESTIMATION OF STEEL PIERS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, the revision of the design codes to consider the performance design is advanced including the Specification of Highway Bridges in recent years. If an objective performance is shown as a limit state and its performance is shown by the amount of the probability, the performance design method is equal to the limit state design method. The limit state design method is the design method based on the structural reliability theory. The partial safety factors design method will be one of the standard methods because this design method is introduced in ISO2394. As for the partial safety factors design method, a decision of the value of the partial factors is a very important matter. This paper presents some correlation between partial safety factors and return period of input motions for the reliability design method. In this study, partial safety factors are calculated by a proposed method by authors which is to prepare several partial safety factors around the ones obtained from AFOSM method in advance. We check the correlation by designing a steel pier to withstand local buckling against a ground excitation.

Kitahara, Takeshi; Kajita, Yukihide; Kishi, Yusuke

59

Transient analysis of a safety injection system  

SciTech Connect

A thermal-hydraulic analysis that can accurately predict the behavior of the supplementary safety system of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company reactors is discussed. The analysis was formulated from first principles, and a computer code was written to solve this problem. The fluid network analysis presented here is general and can be used to solve unrelated problems. The analysis and the computer code were verified by comparing the code predictions with the results of experiments designed especially for this purpose.

Squarer, D.; Kothmann, R.E.; Fagan, T.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1991-01-01

60

SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY INTEGRATION WITH SAFETY ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to share the Savannah River Site lessons learned on Safeguards and Security (S&S) program integration with K-Area Complex (KAC) safety basis. The KAC Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), is managed by the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), and the S&S program, managed by Wackenhut Services, Incorporated--Savannah River Site (WSI-SRS). WSRC and WSI-SRS developed a contractual arrangement to recognize WSI-SRS requirements in the KAC safety analysis. Design Basis Threat 2003 (DBT03) security upgrades required physical modifications and operational changes which included the availability of weapons which could potentially impact the facility safety analysis. The KAC DSA did not previously require explicit linkage to the S&S program to satisfy the safety analysis. WSI-SRS have contractual requirements with the Department of Energy (DOE) which are separate from WSRC contract requirements. The lessons learned will include a discussion on planning, analysis, approval of the controls and implementation issues.

Hearn, J; James Lightner, J

2007-04-13

61

Safety and efficacy of a partially covered self-expandable metal stent in benign pyloric obstruction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of partially covered self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) in benign pyloric obstruction. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 10 consecutive patients with peptic ulcer-related pyloric obstructive symptoms (gastric outlet obstruction scoring system (GOOSS) score of 1) between March 2012 and September 2013. The patients were referred to and managed by partially covered SEMS insertion in our tertiary academic center. We assessed the technical success, symptom improvement, and adverse events after stenting. RESULTS: Early symptoms were improved just 3 d after SEMS placement in all 10 patients. The GOOSS score of all patients improved from 1 to 3. There were no serious immediate adverse events. The overall rate of being symptom free was 90% at a median of 11 mo of follow-up (range: 4-43 mo). Five patients were managed by a rescue SEMS because of failure of previous endoscopic balloon dilatation. Among them, four patients had sustained symptom improvement after the SEMS procedure. During the follow-up period, migration of the SEMS was observed in two patients (20.0%), both of whom had previous endoscopic balloon dilatation before SEMS insertion. CONCLUSION: Despite the small number in this study, partially covered SEMSs showed a favorable and safe outcome in the treatment of naïve benign pyloric obstruction and in salvage treatment after balloon dilatation failure. PMID:25469043

Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu

2014-01-01

62

1 Using Global Analysis, Partial Specifications, and an Extensible Assertion  

E-print Network

1 Using Global Analysis, Partial Specifications, and an Extensible Assertion Language for Program,german,buenog@fi.upm.es Department of Computer Science Technical University of Madrid (UPM) Abstract. We present a framework information obtained from static analysis of the program. The results of this process are expressed

Puebla, Germán

63

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

SciTech Connect

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24

64

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

NONE

1995-11-01

65

Waste Receiving & Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)  

SciTech Connect

The hazard and accident analysis concludes that all risks associated with operation of Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) are within evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated effects of releases in all bounding accidents are below safety class criteria, eliminating the need for safety-class designation of any structures, systems, or components. Process enclosures are considered to be safety-significant, based on worker safety considerations and maintenance of defense in depth. This Final Safety Analysis Report demonstrates that adherence to the safety basis will ensure necessary operational safety considerations have been addressed sufficiently and justifies the adequacy of the safety basis in protecting the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment.

TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

2001-07-10

66

Statistical approach to partial equilibrium analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical approach to market equilibrium and efficiency analysis is proposed in this paper. One factor that governs the exchange decisions of traders in a market, named willingness price, is highlighted and constitutes the whole theory. The supply and demand functions are formulated as the distributions of corresponding willing exchange over the willingness price. The laws of supply and demand can be derived directly from these distributions. The characteristics of excess demand function are analyzed and the necessary conditions for the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium point of the market are specified. The rationing rates of buyers and sellers are introduced to describe the ratio of realized exchange to willing exchange, and their dependence on the market price is studied in the cases of shortage and surplus. The realized market surplus, which is the criterion of market efficiency, can be written as a function of the distributions of willing exchange and the rationing rates. With this approach we can strictly prove that a market is efficient in the state of equilibrium.

Wang, Yougui; Stanley, H. E.

2009-04-01

67

14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309 Section 417.309 ...§ 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight...of their components, must satisfy the analysis requirements of this section....

2011-01-01

68

14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309 Section 417.309 ...§ 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight...of their components, must satisfy the analysis requirements of this section....

2013-01-01

69

SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17

70

Fréchet sensitivity analysis for partial differential equations with distributed parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews Fr´ echet sensitivity analysis for partial differential equations with variations in distributed parameters. The Fr´ echet derivative provides a linear map be- tween parametric variations and the linearized response of the solution. We propose a methodology based on representations of the Frderivative operator to find those variations that lead to the largest changes to the solution (the

Jeff Borggaard; Vitor Leite Nunes

2011-01-01

71

Gas turbine safety improvement through risk analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended to provide the engineer with the information necessary to understand certain statistical methods that are used to improve system safety. It will provide an understanding of Weibull analysis, in that it describes when the Weibull distribution is appropriate, how to construct a Weibull plot, and how to use the parameters of the Weibull distribution to calculate risk. The paper will also provide the engineer with a comprehension of Monte Carlo simulation as it relates to quantifying safety risk. The basic components of Monte Carlo simulation are discussed as well as the formulation of a system model and its application in the gas turbine industry.

Crosby, T.M.; Reinman, G.L.

1988-04-01

72

ARIES-AT safety design and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARIES-AT is a 1000MWe conceptual fusion power plant design with a very low projected cost of electricity. The design contains many innovative features to improve both the physics and engineering performance of the system. From the safety and environmental perspective, there is greater depth to the overall analysis than in past ARIES studies. For ARIES-AT, the overall spectrum of off-normal

D. A. Petti; B. J. Merrill; R. L. Moore; G. R. Longhurst; L. El-Guebaly; E. Mogahed; D. Henderson; P. Wilson; A. Abdou

2006-01-01

73

Light-water reactor safety analysis codes  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the evolution of light-water reactor safety analysis codes is presented. Included is a summary comparison of the technical capabilities of major system codes. Three recent codes are described in more detail to serve as examples of currently used techniques. Example comparisons between calculated results using these codes and experimental data are given. Finally, a brief evaluation of current code capability and future development trends is presented.

Jackson, J.F.; Ransom, V.H.; Ybarrondo, L.J.; Liles, D.R.

1980-01-01

74

Towards a Framework for Safety Analysis of Body Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

of preliminary studies highlighted in [8]. The ultimate challenge is to assure the safety of patients who use on the patient's safety. Assuring patient safety is especially challenging in BSNs because of their differencesTowards a Framework for Safety Analysis of Body Sensor Networks Philip Asare1,2 , John Lach1 , John

Stankovic, John A.

75

Preliminary Safety Analysis for the IRIS Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A deterministic analysis of the IRIS safety features has been carried out by means of the best-estimate code RELAP (ver. RELAP5 mod3.2). First, the main system components were modeled and tested separately, namely: the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the modular helical-coil Steam Generators (SG) and the Passive (natural circulation) Emergency Heat Removal System (PEHRS). Then, a preliminary set of accident transients for the whole primary and safety systems was investigated. Since the project was in a conceptual phase, the reported analyses must be considered preliminary. In fact, neither the reactor components, nor the safety systems and the reactor signal logics were completely defined at that time. Three 'conventional' design basis accidents have been preliminary evaluated: a Loss Of primary Flow Accident, a Loss Of Coolant Accident and a Loss Of Feed Water accident. The results show the effectiveness of the safety systems also in LOCA conditions; the core remains covered for the required grace period. This provides the basis to move forward to the preliminary design. (authors)

Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Cioncolini, A.; Lombardi, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cipollaro, A.; Orioto, F. [Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Conway, L.E. [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States); Barroso, A.C. [CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-22-294-900 (Brazil)

2002-07-01

76

Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of composite action. This level of partial composite action can influence the behavior and stiffness of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents numerical investigations of the level of partial composite action and its influence on the flexural stiffness of SC walls. The results are used to propose design criteria for steel headed shear studs, such as their size, spacing, and strength.

Zhang, Kai

77

Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

Lewandowski, G.A.

1980-02-01

78

Natural circulation reactor design safety analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis study covers both global performance and local phenomena analyses focusing on natural circulation reactor design safety. Four important topics are included: the global SBWR design safety assessment, important local phenomena investigation, steady and transient natural circulation process study, and two-phase instability analysis. The conceptual design of the SBWR-200 is introduced in this thesis and the global performance of a natural circulation reactor is then assessed using PUMA integral test data and RELAP5 simulations. A safety assessment methodology is developed to evaluate the PUMA integral test data extrapolation and code scalability. The RELAP5 code simulation capability in low-pressure low-flow conditions is also validated. The study shows that the code is capable of predicting the global accident scenario in natural circulation reactors with reasonable accuracy, while failing to reproduce some safety related local phenomena. The natural circulation process is investigated in detail using PUMA separate effect natural circulation tests. The natural circulation flow rate and heat transfer rate have been modeled analytically and numerically. The work indicates that two-phase natural circulation has enough capability to remove decay power. However, the flow instability observed in two-phase natural circulation cases seriously challenges the feasibility of natural circulation reactor design. The instability is classified as a type of density wave instability induced by flashing. A detailed stability study is performed focusing on flashing induced instability under natural circulation condition. Various flashing phenomena have been studied and a mechanistic flashing model has been proposed and improved using a relaxation method. The developed relaxation flashing model can be applied to general two-phase non-equilibrium phenomena.

Zheng, Dong

2001-07-01

79

Partial wave analysis of J\\/psi-->gamma(etapi+pi- )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial wave analysis of BES J\\/psi-->gamma(etapi+pi-) data has been performed in the mass region 1.1 to 2.0 GeV. A peak is observed due to eta(1440) in the etapi+pi- invariant mass distribution; JP=0- is preferred over 1+. Its mass is M=1385+\\/-7 MeV and it decays into both etasigma and a0(980)pi, with BR[a0(980)pi, a0-->etapi\\/etasigma]=0.70+\\/-0.12(stat)+\\/- 0.20(syst). Destructive interference between the two decay

J. Z. Bai; Y. Ban; J. G. Bian; G. P. Chen; H. F. Chen; J. C. Chen; Y. Chen; Y. Q. Chen; B. S. Cheng; X. Z. Cui; H. L. Ding; L. Y. Dong; Z. Z. Du; C. S. Gao; M. L. Gao; S. Q. Gao; J. H. Gu; S. D. Gu; W. X. Gu; Y. F. Gu; Y. N. Guo; S. W. Han; Y. Han; J. He; K. L. He; M. He; G. Y. Hu; H. M. Hu; J. L. Hu; Q. H. Hu; T. Hu; X. Q. Hu; Y. Z. Huang; C. H. Jiang; Y. Jin; Z. J. Ke; Y. F. Lai; P. F. Lang; C. G. Li; D. Li; H. B. Li; J. Li; P. Q. Li; R. B. Li; W. Li; X. H. Li; X. N. Li; H. M. Liu; J. Liu; R. G. Liu; Y. Liu; F. Lu; J. G. Lu; X. L. Luo; E. C. Ma; J. M. Ma; H. S. Mao; Z. P. Mao; X. C. Meng; J. Nie; N. D. Qi; X. R. Qi; C. D. Qian; J. F. Qiu; Y. H. Qu; Y. K. Que; G. Rong; Y. Y. Shao; B. W. Shen; D. L. Shen; H. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; H. Z. Shi; X. F. Song; F. Sun; H. S. Sun; Y. Sun; S. Q. Tang; G. L. Tong; F. Wang; L. S. Wang; L. Z. Wang; Meng Wang; P. Wang; S. M. Wang; T. J. Wang; Y. Y. Wang; C. L. Wei; Y. G. Wu; D. M. Xi; X. M. Xia; P. P. Xie; Y. Xie; G. F. Xu; S. T. Xue; J. Yan; W. G. Yan; C. M. Yang; C. Y. Yang; J. Yang; X. F. Yang; M. H. Ye; S. W. Ye; Y. X. Ye; C. S. Yu; C. X. Yu; G. W. Yu; Y. H. Yu; Z. Q. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; Y. Yuan; B. Y. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; Dehong Zhang; H. L. Zhang; J. Zhang; L. S. Zhang; Q. J. Zhang; S. Q. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Y. Y. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; H. W. Zhao; Jiawei Zhao; M. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; J. P. Zheng; L. S. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; B. Q. Zhou; G. P. Zhou; H. S. Zhou; L. Zhou; K. J. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang; D. V. Bugg; A. V. Sarantsev; B. S. Zou

1999-01-01

80

A partial wave analysis of p ? p???? 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial wave analysis of p?p????0 data from the Crystal Barrel experiment is made in terms of s-channel resonances. The decay channels a0(980)?, f0(1770)? and f0(2105)? provide evidence for two I=1, JPC=0?+ resonances. The first has mass M=2360±25 MeV and width ?=300+100?50 MeV, and the second M=2070±35 MeV, ?=310+100?50 MeV. There is also evidence for a JPC=2?+ state with M=2005±15 MeV and ?=200±40 MeV, decaying

A. V Anisovich; C. A Baker; C. J Batty; D. V Bugg; V. A Nikonov; A. V Sarantsev; V. V Sarantsev; B. S Zou

2001-01-01

81

Pharmacokinetics and Safety Profile of Ispronicline (TC1734), a New Brain Nicotinic Receptor Partial Agonist, in Young Healthy Male Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research suggests that drugs activating nicotine acetylcholine receptors might be promising therapy in cognitive decline seen in the elderly, including Alzheimer’s disease. Ispronicline (TC-1734), a brain-selective &agr;4&bgr;2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, has shown memory-enhancing properties in rodents and a good tolerability profile. The safety and the full pharmacokinetic profile of TC-1734 and its N-desalkylated metabolite, TC-1784, were investigated

G. Dunbar; A. Demazières; A. Monreal; C. Cisterni; D. Metzger; R. Kuchibhatla; R. Luthringer

2006-01-01

82

Improved Range Safety Analysis for Space Vehicles Using Range Safety Template Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses an alternative to traditional methodologies for space launch and re-entry vehicle range safety analysis using the Range Safety Template Toolkit (RSTT), developed by Australia's Defense Science and Technology Organization (DSTO) in partnership with Aerospace Concepts Pty Ltd. RSTT offers rapid generation of mission-specific safety templates that comply with internationally-recognized standards for range risk criteria. Compared to some traditional methods, RSTT produces more accurate assessments of risk to personnel and infrastructure. This provides range operators with greater confidence in the range safety products, enhancing their ability to rigorously manage safety on their ranges. RSTT also offers increased precision of risk analysis and iteration of mission design allowing greater flexibility in planning range operations with rapid feedback on the safety impact of mission changes. These concepts are explored through examples involving a suborbital sounding rocket, demonstrating how traditional range safety assumptions may be reassessed using the RSTT robust probabilistic methodology.

Tisato, J.; Vuletich, I.; Brett, M.; Williams, W.; Wilson, S.

2012-01-01

83

Partial differential equations and fractal analysis to plant leaf identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Texture is an important visual attribute used to plant leaf identification. Although there are many methods of texture analysis, some of them specifically for interpreting leaf images is still a challenging task because of the huge pattern variation found in nature. In this paper, we investigate the leaf texture modeling based on the partial differential equations and fractal dimension theory. Here, we are first interested in decomposing the original texture image into two components f = u + v, such that u represents a cartoon component, while v represents the oscillatory component. We demonstrate how this procedure enhance the texture component on images. Our modeling uses the non-linear partial differential equation (PDE) of Perona-Malik. Based on the enhanced texture component, we estimated the fractal dimension by the Bouligand-Minkowski method due to its precision in quantifying structural properties of images. The feature vectors are then used as inputs to our classification system, based on linear discriminant analysis. We validate our approach on a benchmark with 8000 leaf samples. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach improves average classification rates in comparison with traditional methods. The results suggest that the proposed approach can be a feasible step for plant leaf identification, as well as different real-world applications.

Brandoli Machado, Bruno; Casanova, Dalcimar; Nunes Gonçalves, Wesley; Martinez Bruno, Odemir

2013-02-01

84

Safety and capacity analysis of automated and manual highway systems  

E-print Network

Safety and capacity analysis of automated and manual highway systems Jason Carbaugh, Datta N Abstract This paper compares safety of automated and manual highway systems with respect to resulting rear-end collision frequency and severity. Safety is related to driver, vehicle and highway operating characteristics

Sengupta, Raja

85

Overview of Energy Systems' safety analysis report programs  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility's safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs'' Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

Not Available

1992-03-01

86

Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

1992-08-01

87

Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

1992-01-01

88

Partially observable Markov decision processes and performance sensitivity analysis.  

PubMed

The sensitivity-based optimization of Markov systems has become an increasingly important area. From the perspective of performance sensitivity analysis, policy-iteration algorithms and gradient estimation methods can be directly obtained for Markov decision processes (MDPs). In this correspondence, the sensitivity-based optimization is extended to average reward partially observable MDPs (POMDPs). We derive the performance-difference and performance-derivative formulas of POMDPs. On the basis of the performance-derivative formula, we present a new method to estimate the performance gradients. From the performance-difference formula, we obtain a sufficient optimality condition without the discounted reward formulation. We also propose a policy-iteration algorithm to obtain a nearly optimal finite-state-controller policy. PMID:19022734

Li, Yanjie; Yin, Baoqun; Xi, Hongsheng

2008-12-01

89

Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of partial onset seizures in children from one month of age  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the pediatric population, affecting up to one percent of children, and for which the mainstay of treatment is anticonvulsant medication. Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. Of 34 anticonvulsants currently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), only 13 have been approved for use in children. Although infants and young children are disproportionately affected by epilepsy, there are currently only three anticonvulsant medications that have been specifically evaluated and approved for use in children younger than 2 years of age. In 2012, the FDA approved levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for partial onset seizures in infants and children from one month of age. Here we review the available data on levetiracetam in the pediatric epilepsy population. We first discuss the pharmacological profile of levetiracetam, including its mechanism of action, formulations and dosing, and pharmacokinetics in children. We then review the available efficacy, safety, and tolerability data in children from one month of age with partial onset seizures. We conclude that the current data leading to the approval of levetiracetam for use in infants and children with partial onset seizures is encouraging, although more work needs to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of levetiracetam across different pediatric age groups. PMID:23458993

Cormier, Justine; Chu, Catherine J

2013-01-01

90

Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-09-01

91

The Use of Partial Residual Plots in Regression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines partial residuals in multiple linear regression. The ith partial residual vector can be thought of as the dependent variable vector corrected for all independent variables except the ith variable. A plot of the ith partial residuals vs values of the ith variable is proposed as a replacement for the usual plot displaying ordinary residuals vs the ith

Wayne A. Larsen; Susan J. McCleary

1972-01-01

92

75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD [Recommendation 2010-1] Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate...Workers AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Notice, recommendation;...

2010-11-30

93

Safety analysis of the nuclear chemistry Building 151  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety analysis that was done on Building 151. The report outlines the methodology, the analysis, and the findings that led to the low hazard classification. No further safety evaluation is indicated at this time. 5 tables.

Kvam, D.

1984-06-29

94

Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Tokamak Physics Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), includes an indication of the magnitude of facility hazards, complexity of facility operations, and the stage of the facility life-cycle. It presents the results of safety analyses, safety assurance programs, identified vulnerabilities, compensatory measures, and, in general, the rationale describing why the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) can be safely operated. It discusses application of the graded approach to the TPX safety analysis, including the basis for using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94 in the development of the PSAR.

Motloch, C.G.; Bonney, R.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Levine, J.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Masson, L.S. [SCIENTECH, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Commander, J.C.

1995-04-01

95

The role of safety analysis in accident prevention.  

PubMed

The need for safety analysis has grown in the fields of nuclear industry, civil and military aviation and space technology where the potential for accidents with far-reaching consequences for employees, the public and the environment is most apparent. Later the use of safety analysis has spread widely to other industrial branches. General systems theory, accident theories and scientific management represent domains that have influenced the development of safety analysis. These relations are shortly presented and the common methods employed in safety analysis are described and structured according to the aim of the search and to the search strategy. A framework for the evaluation of the coverage of the search procedures employed in different methods of safety analysis is presented. The framework is then used in an heuristic and in an empiric evaluation of hazard and operability study (HAZOP), work safety analysis (WSA), action error analysis (AEA) and management oversight and risk tree (MORT). Finally, some recommendations on the use of safety analysis for preventing accidents are presented. PMID:3337767

Suokas, J

1988-02-01

96

A safety analysis of warhead balancing  

SciTech Connect

Reentry vehicles (RVs) carrying warheads from ballistic missiles must be carefully balanced with the warhead in situ to prevent wobble as the RVs enter the earth`s atmosphere to prevent inaccuracy or loss of the warhead. This balancing is performed on a dynamic balancing machine that rotates the RV at significant angular velocities. Seizure of the spindle shaft of the machine could result in rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly, which could over-stress and shear bolts or other structures that attach the RV to the balancing machine. This could result in undesired motions of the RV and impact of the RV on equipment or structures in the work area. This potential safety problem has long been recognized in a general way, but no systematic investigation of the possible accident sequences had been performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe an integrated set of systems analysis techniques that worked well in developing a set of accident sequences that describe the motions of the RV following a spindle-shaft seizure event.

Bott, T.F.

1998-12-01

97

Analysis of US child care safety regulations.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: With 1.9 million US children cared for in organized group child care, the safety of these children is a public health concern. In the absence of federal policy, each state has developed its own day care safety regulations. METHODS: After creating a set of 36 criteria from three sets of national guidelines, we assessed the safety regulations of 45 states. With a mailed survey of state day care regulatory personnel, we examined the processes of formulating and implementing safety policy in 47 states. RESULTS: For 24 of the 36 items, more than half the states' regulations were below the criteria or failed to mention the topic. Most notable is the inattention to playground safety, choking hazards, and firearms. CONCLUSION: The uneven quality of regulations may be a reflection of a regulatory process that is fragmented, with many different groups sharing authority and with limited involvement of injury prevention specialists. PMID:1854015

Runyan, C W; Gray, D E; Kotch, J B; Kreuter, M W

1991-01-01

98

The Quality/Safety Medical Index: Implementation and Analysis.  

PubMed

Medical analytics relating to quality and safety measures have become particularly timely and of high importance in contemporary medical practice. In medical imaging, the dynamic relationship between medical imaging quality and radiation safety creates challenges in quantifying quality or safety independently. By creating a standardized measurement which simultaneously accounts for quality and safety measures (i.e., quality safety index), one can in theory create a standardized method for combined quality and safety analysis, which in turn can be analyzed in the context of individual patient, exam, and clinical profiles. The derived index measures can be entered into a centralized database, which in turn can be used for comparative performance of individual and institutional service providers. In addition, data analytics can be used to create customizable educational resources for providers and patients, clinical decision support tools, technology performance analysis, and clinical/economic outcomes research. PMID:25416467

Reiner, Bruce I

2014-11-22

99

Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process has been realized through minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, in terms of time frame (dates, transfer time length and trajectory, radiation environment), equipment (vehicles, in terms of shape, volume, onboard material choice, size and structure), location (if in space, on the surface, inside or outside a certain habitats), crew characteristics (number, gender, age, tasks) and performance required (spacecraft and habitat volumes), radiation exposure annual and career limit constraint (from NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle (shelter from the occurrence of Solar Particle Events). On the lunar surface the most important contribution to radiation exposure is given by background Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particles, mostly protons, alpha particles, and some heavy ions, and by locally induced particles, mostly neutrons, created by the interaction between GCR and surface material and emerging from below the surface due to backscattering processes. In this environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with long-term shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats, from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in full detail (e.g., shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. In this first analysis all the shape considered are cylindrical or composed of combination of cylinders. Moreover, a radiation safety analysis of more future possible habitats like lava tubes has been also performed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

100

Analysis of microgravity space experiments Space Shuttle programmatic safety requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of an analysis of microgravity space experiments space shuttle programmatic safety requirements and recommends the creation of a Safety Compliance Data Package (SCDP) Template for both flight and ground processes. These templates detail the programmatic requirements necessary to produce a complete SCDP. The templates were developed from various NASA centers' requirement documents, previously written guidelines on safety data packages, and from personal experiences. The templates are included in the back as part of this report.

Terlep, Judith A.

1996-01-01

101

SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document  

SciTech Connect

This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.

BERGMANN, D.W.

1999-02-24

102

Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

Bengston, S.J.

1994-05-01

103

41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.130 Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? A qualified fire protection...

2011-01-01

104

41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.130 Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? A qualified fire protection...

2012-01-01

105

41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? 102-80.110 Section...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.110 What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? To be...

2011-01-01

106

41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.130 Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? A qualified fire protection...

2013-07-01

107

41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? 102-80.110 Section...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.110 What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? To be...

2013-07-01

108

41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? 102-80.110 Section...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.110 What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? To be...

2010-07-01

109

41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.130 Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? A qualified fire protection...

2010-07-01

110

41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? 102-80.110 Section...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.110 What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? To be...

2012-01-01

111

41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.130 Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? A qualified fire protection...

2014-01-01

112

41 CFR 102-80.110 - What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? 102-80.110 Section...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.110 What must an equivalent level of safety analysis indicate? To be...

2014-01-01

113

Analysis of partial loss reward models and its application  

E-print Network

; partial total loss models: a fraction of the total accumulated reward is lost at state transitions, BAnalysis of partial loss reward models and its application #3; M. Telek 1 , S. R#19;acz 2 1, Hungary telek@hit.bme.hu, Sandor.Racz@eth.ericsson.se Abstract This paper studies a class of Markov reward

Telek, Miklós

114

Analysis of partial and complete protection in malaria cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous and analysis of incidence data must account for this for correct statistical inference. Less widely appreciated is the occurrence of a large number of zero counts (children without a malaria episode) in malaria cohort studies. Zero-inflated regression methods provide one means of addressing this issue, and also allow risk factors providing complete and partial protection to be disentangled. Methods Poisson, negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models were fitted to data from two cohort studies of malaria in children in Ghana. Multivariate models were used to understand risk factors for elevated incidence of malaria and for remaining malaria-free, and to estimate the fraction of the population not at risk of malaria. Results ZINB models, which account for both heterogeneity in individual risk and an unexposed sub-group within the population, provided the best fit to data in both cohorts. These approaches gave additional insight into the mechanism of factors influencing the incidence of malaria compared to simpler approaches, such as NB regression. For example, compared to urban areas, rural residence was found to both increase the incidence rate of malaria among exposed children, and increase the probability of being exposed. In Navrongo, 34% of urban residents were estimated to be at no risk, compared to 3% of rural residents. In Kintampo, 47% of urban residents and 13% of rural residents were estimated to be at no risk. Conclusion These results illustrate the utility of zero-inflated regression methods for analysis of malaria cohort data that include a large number of zero counts. Specifically, these results suggest that interventions that reach mainly urban residents will have limited overall impact, since some urban residents are essentially at no risk, even in areas of high endemicity, such as in Ghana. PMID:24093726

2013-01-01

115

Analysis of abutment teeth in partially edentulous patients.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine changes in the position of the abutment teeth (AT), size of undercuts for a denture clasp, as well as an existence of an adequate preparation of abutment teeth. A total of 156 casts of partially edentulous jaws, with 460 AT, were analyzed. The size of undercuts, a degree of abutment rotation, inclination and migration were measured using a dental parallelometer. The abutment teeth position was related to the level of occlusal plane in a dental articulator. Furthermore, the existence of an adequate preparation of abutment teeth, as well as a type of a denture and a type of a denture retention element were also considered. Analysis were carried out twice on casts made from a hard stone, the first time before the denture treatment had begun and the second time on the new casts obtained after new dentures had been delivered. The first analysis (prior dental treatment) revealed that a total of 33.9% of the analyzed AT were rotated, 31.3% were inclined, 12.1% had migrated, and 57.3% were elongated above the occlusal plane. On the casts obtained after the new dentures had been made, it was observed that none of the AT had an adequate preparation. Only 37.6% of all retention elements were located in adequate undercut positions on the AT. Upon the results of the present study a conclusion can be established that many abutment teeth are rotated, elongated, inclined, and migrated, which point to a requirement for AT preparation prior the manufacture of new denture; however none of the AT was adequately prepared considering insertion plane and many denture elements were located in an inadequate undercut size. PMID:25145006

Stanci?, Ivica; Popovac, Aleksandra; Rodi?, Teodora; Stipeti?, Jasmina; Strajni?, Ljiljana; Persi?, Sanja

2014-06-01

116

Partial differential equation transform — Variational formulation and Fourier analysis  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform’s controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The frequency selection is achieved either by diffusion coefficients or by propagation time. Finally, we explore a large number of practical applications to further demonstrate the utility of proposed PDE transform. PMID:22207904

Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

2011-01-01

117

Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

2013-01-01

118

Safety Analysis Report Update Program: Overview and Phase 1 implementation  

SciTech Connect

During FY 1989, the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) office formed joint Operating Contractor/DOE-ORO organizations to address safety analysis related issues. The Safety Analysis Report Working Group (SARWG) took on the task of developing a strategy to address the issue of updating SARs to today's standards. The resulting SAR Update Program was approved by the Safety Analysis Report Management Group (SARMG) and on November 6, 1989, was accepted by the senior management of DOE-ORO, and its operating contractors, including Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. This SAR Update Program consists of five phases: Phase 0 -- continued operation evaluations; Phase 1 -- hazard classification and qualitative analysis; Phase 1A -- updated operational safety requirements; Phase 2 -- quantitative accident analysis; and, Phase 3 -- complete DOE-approved SARs. 8 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1991-08-01

119

Safety Analysis of ITER EDA Design by GEMSAFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

General Methodology of Safety Analysis and Evaluation for Fusion Systems (GEMSAFE) was applied to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design in the stage of Engineering Design Activities (EDA) to identify Design Basis Events (DBEs) and the related safety features, which were compared with those of the ITER design in the stage of Conceptual Design Activities (CDA). As a result,

Mitsuhiro Arika; Masaki Saito; Tetsuo Sawada; Yoichi Fujii-e

1997-01-01

120

Fourth Calcined Solids Storage Facility. Final safety analysis report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This safety analysis report describes the Fourth Calcined Solids Storage Facility and presents the results of a safety evaluation of the facility including a design basis accident. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a multi-purpose facility for recovering enriched U-235 from a wide variety of spent reactor fuels. Solvent extraction processes employed in recovery of fissile materials generate radioactive

Schindler

1980-01-01

121

Network Analysis of Underground Transportation Hub Safety Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network construction model of underground transportation hub safety monitoring center is proposed in this paper according to the disadvantages of present management mode in underground transportation hub. Taking transfer station from two different lines as an example, network analysis of the information transmission for BAS (Building Automatic System) and FAS (Fire Alarm System) which affect subway safety directly in

Wang Jia; Liu Shufeng; Chen Zhixin; Wang Xiaohui

2010-01-01

122

Evolutionary Safety Analysis: Motivations from the Air Traffic Management Domain  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Safety Analysis: Motivations from the Air Traffic Management Domain Massimo Felici the ATM (Air Traffic Management) 2000+ Strategy, systems from different suppli- ers will be interconnected.g., SMEs). In practice, safety analyses adapt and reuse system design models (pro- duced by third parties

Felici, Massimo

123

Formal Safety Analysis of Transportation Control Frank Ortmeier, Wolfgang Reif  

E-print Network

with only minimal risk. To ensure these requirements formal methods are a great help. The ForMoSA approach provides an integrated methodology for formally ana- lyzing safety-critical transportation systems. One describe the ForMoSA approach to safety analysis of critical, embedded system (Sect. 2), outline a possible

Reif, Wolfgang

124

Formal Safety Analysis of Transportation Control Frank Ortmeier, Wolfgang Reif  

E-print Network

are a great help. The ForMoSA approach provides an integrated methodology for formally ana­ lyzing safety. In the following we will briefly describe the ForMoSA approach to safety analysis of critical, embedded system

Reif, Wolfgang

125

Formal Safety Analysis of Transportation Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a safety point of view different transportation systems share many properties and requirements. They are all supposed to function correctly, to be failure tolerant and to be associated with only minimal risk. To ensure these requirements formal methods are a great help. The ForMoSA approach provides an integrated methodology for formally ana- lyzing safety-critical transportation systems. One important and

Frank Ortmeier; Wolfgang Reif

126

Using failure mode and effects analysis to improve patient safety.  

PubMed

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) (ie, prospective risk analysis) involves close examination of high-risk processes to identify needed improvements that will reduce the chance of unintended adverse events. This risk assessment process is used in other industries (ie, manufacturing, aviation) to evaluate system safety. Health care organizations now are using it to evaluate and improve the safety of patient care activities. The FMEA process promotes systematic thinking about the safety of patient care processes (ie, what could go wrong, what needs to be done to prevent failures.) The steps of the FMEA process are described and applied to a high-risk perioperative process. PMID:12885066

Spath, Patrice L

2003-07-01

127

Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to develop and demonstrate technologies that contribute to a reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio. Safety benefits analyses are currently being conducted. Preliminary results for the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) projects of the AvSP have been completed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model. The integrated safety analysis method comprises two principal components: a reliability model and a simulation model. In the reliability model, the results indicate how different technologies and systems will perform in normal, degraded, and failed modes of operation. In the simulation, an operational scenario is modeled. The primary purpose of the SVS project is to improve safety by providing visual-flightlike situation awareness during instrument conditions. The current analyses are an estimate of the benefits of SVS in avoiding controlled flight into terrain. The scenario modeled has an aircraft flying directly toward a terrain feature. When the flight crew determines that the aircraft is headed toward an obstruction, the aircraft executes a level turn at speed. The simulation is ended when the aircraft completes the turn.

Reveley, Mary S.

2003-01-01

128

Efficacy and safety of extended-release oxcarbazepine (Oxtellar XR™) as adjunctive therapy in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of once-daily 1200 mg and 2400 mg SPN-804 (Oxtellar XR™, Supernus Pharmaceuticals), an extended-release tablet formulation of oxcarbazepine (OXC), added to 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Methods The Prospective, Randomized Study of OXC XR in Subjects with Partial Epilepsy Refractory (PROSPER) study was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group Phase 3 study. The primary efficacy endpoint was median percent reduction from baseline in monthly (28-day) seizure frequency for the 16-week double-blind treatment period in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population with analyzable seizure data. Other efficacy analyses included proportion of patients with ? 50% seizure reduction, proportion of patients seizure free, and the relationship between clinical response and plasma concentration. Results Median percent reduction was -28.7% for placebo, ?38.2% (P = 0.08 vs placebo) for once-daily SPN-804 1200 mg, and ?42.9% (P = 0.003) for SPN-804 2400 mg. Responder rates were 28.1%, 36.1% (P = 0.08), and 40.7% (P = 0.02); 16-week seizure-free rates in a pragmatic ITT analysis were 3.3%, 4.9% (P = 0.59), and 11.4% (P = 0.008), respectively. When data were analyzed separately for study site clusters, a post hoc analysis demonstrated that both SPN-804 dosages were significantly superior to placebo in median percent seizure reduction (placebo: ?13.3%; 1200 mg: ?34.5%, P = 0.02; 2400 mg: ?52.7%, P = 0.006) in the North American study site cluster. A concentration–response analysis also supported a clinically meaningful effect for 1200 mg. Adverse event types reflected the drug's established profile. Adverse event frequency was consistent with a pharmacokinetic profile in which SPN-804 produces lower peak plasma concentrations vs immediate-release OXC. Once-daily dosing was not associated with any new safety signals. Conclusions Adjunctive once-daily SPN-804 improved seizure control in patients with inadequately controlled partial-onset seizures. Adverse event occurrence and discontinuations due to adverse events suggest improved tolerability vs previously published data with immediate-release OXC. PMID:24359313

French, JA; Baroldi, P; Brittain, ST; Johnson, JK

2014-01-01

129

14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (c) Systems, subsystems...operations information. A ground safety analysis report must...detailed safety information about each launch vehicle system, subsystem...ground safety analysis report must...introduction to its systems, subsystems...operations information that...

2010-01-01

130

Component-Based Safety Analysis of FPGAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-based and modular software development techniques have become established in recent years. Without complementary verification and certification methods the benefits of these development techniques are reduced. As part of certification, it is necessary to show a system is acceptably safe which subsumes both the normal and abnormal (failure) cases. However, nonfunctional properties, such as safety and failures, are abstraction breakers,

Philippa Conmy; Iain Bate

2010-01-01

131

Upgrading the safety toolkit: Initiatives of the accident analysis subgroup  

SciTech Connect

Since its inception, the Accident Analysis Subgroup (AAS) of the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) has been a leading organization promoting development and application of appropriate methodologies for safety analysis of US Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The AAS, one of seven chartered by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group, has performed an oversight function and provided direction to several technical groups. These efforts have been instrumental toward formal evaluation of computer models, improving the pedigree on high-use computer models, and development of the user-friendly Accident Analysis Guidebook (AAG). All of these improvements have improved the analytical toolkit for best complying with DOE orders and standards shaping safety analysis reports (SARs) and related documentation. Major support for these objectives has been through DOE/DP-45.

O'Kula, K.R.; Chung, D.Y.

1999-07-01

132

Safety and possible effects of low-intensity resistance training associated with partial blood flow restriction in polymyositis and dermatomyositis.  

PubMed

IntroductionOur aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a low-intensity resistance training program combined with partial blow flow restriction (BFR training) in a cohort of patients with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM).MethodsIn total, 13 patients with PM and DM completed a 12-week twice a week low-intensity (that is, 30% one-repetition-maximum (1RM)) resistance exercise training program combined with partial blood flow restriction (BFR). Assessments of muscle strength, physical function, quadriceps cross sectional (CSA) area, health-related quality of life, and clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed at baseline and after the intervention.ResultsThe BFR training program was effective in increasing the maximal dynamic strength in both the leg-press (19.6%, P <0.001) and knee-extension exercises (25.2% P <0.001), as well as in the timed-stands (15.1%, P <0.001) and timed-up-and-go test (¿4.5%, P =0.002). Quadriceps CSA was also significantly increased after the intervention (4.57%, P =0.01). Similarly, all of the components of the Short Form-36 Health Survey, the Health Assessment Questionnaire scores, and the patient- and physician reported Visual Analogue Scale were significantly improved after training (P <0.05). Importantly, no clinical evidence or any other self-reported adverse event were found. Laboratory parameters (creatine kinase and aldolase) were also unchanged (P >0.05) after the intervention.ConclusionsWe demonstrated that a 12-week supervised low-intensity resistance training program associated with partial blood flow restriction may be safe and effective in improving muscle strength and function as well as muscle mass and health-related quality of life in patients with PM and DM.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov NCT01501019. Registered November 29, 2011. PMID:25344395

Mattar, Melina; Gualano, Bruno; Perandini, Luiz; Shinjo, Samuel; Lima, Fernanda; Sá-Pinto, Ana; Roschel, Hamilton

2014-10-25

133

Multilevel Analysis Methods for Partially Nested Cluster Randomized Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores multilevel modeling approaches for 2-group randomized experiments in which a treatment condition involving clusters of individuals is compared to a control condition involving only ungrouped individuals, otherwise known as partially nested cluster randomized designs (PNCRTs). Strategies for comparing groups from a PNCRT in the…

Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

134

FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF CYLINDRICAL TANKS PARTIALLY FILLED WITH LIQUID  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple but effective modal solution based on the underlying ideas of the hierarchical finite element method is presented for evaluating the free vibration characteristics of vertical, thin, circular, cylindrical shells, partially or completely filled with liquid and subjected to any variationally consistent set of boundary conditions on the lower and upper boundaries. Effects of static liquid pressure, in-plane inertias

P. B. Gonçalves; N. R. S. S. Ramos

1996-01-01

135

Partial volume correction using an energy multiresolution analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Position Emission Tomography (PET) allows the in-vivo monitoring of functional processes in the body. However its limited spatial resolution induces Partial Volume Effect (PVE), which leads to a loss of signal in tissues of size similar to the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the imaging device and induces activity spillover between adjacent structures with different amounts of activity. The aim

Francisca P. Figueiras; Xavier Jimenez; Deborah Pareto; Juan D. Gispert

2009-01-01

136

Finite element analysis of lumbosacral reconstruction after partial sacrectomy  

PubMed Central

Background The biomechanical property of MGT for patients who underwent partial sacrectomy is not well documented, so this study aimed to investigate biomechanical property of lumbosacral reconstruction after partial sacrectomy. Material/Methods Three 3-dimensional finite element models of lumbosacral region were established: 1) an intact model (INT), 2) a defective model in which partial sacrectomy was performed cephalad to S1 foramina (DEF), and 3) a reconstructed model (REC). Results Displacements of anchor point on L3 vertebrae in INT, DEF, and REC model were 6.63 mm, 10.62 mm, 4.29 mm (titanium), and 3.86mm (stainless steel), respectively. Stress distribution of the instrument in REC model showed excessive concentration on the caudal spinal rod, which may cause rod failure between spine and ilia. Maximum von Mise stress of the stainless steel instrument was higher than titanium instruments, and values of stress of the anchor point around the sacroiliac joint in the REC model were 26.4MPa with titanium instruments and 23.9 MPa with stainless steel instruments. Conclusions Lumbosacral reconstruction can significantly increase stiffness of the spinopelvis of patients who underwent partial sacrectomy. However, the rod between L5 and ilia is the weakest region of all instruments. Stainless steel instruments have higher risk of rod failure and are less suitable for lumboiliac arthrodesis than titanium instruments. PMID:24874025

Zheng, Longpo; Li, Ziqiang; Li, Quan; Ji, Fang; Cai, Zhengdong

2014-01-01

137

Occupational Analysis: Safety and Health Coordinator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this document which includes an overview of general required competencies for safety and health coordinators in the workplace. General areas of competence such as monitoring health and physical hazards in the work environment, conducting audits and providing information are included, as well as specific tasks in each category. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-03-09

138

Safety analysis approaches or mixed transuranic waste.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed a survey of assumptions and techniques used for safety analyses at seven sites that handle or store mixed transuranic (TRU) waste operated by contractors for the US Department of Energy (DOE). While approaches to estimating on-site and off-site consequences of hypothetical accidents differ, there are commonalities in all of the safety studies. This paper identifies key parameters and methods used to estimate the radiological consequences associated with release of waste forms under abnormal conditions. Specific facilities are identified by letters with their safety studies listed in a bibliography rather than as specific references so that similarities and differences are emphasized in a nonjudgmental manner. References are provided for specific parameters used to project consequences associated with compromise of barriers and dispersion of potentially hazardous materials. For all of the accidents and sites, estimated dose commitments are well below guidelines even using highly conservative assumptions. Some of the studies quantified the airborne concentrations of toxic materials; this paper only addresses these analyses briefly, as an entire paper could be dedicated to this subject.

Courtney, J. C.; Dwight, C. C.; Forrester, R. J.; Lehto, M. A.; Pan, Y. C.

1999-02-10

139

Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis of Synthetic Vision Conducted  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program is to develop and demonstrate technologies that could help reduce the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio beyond what is now available. Synthetic vision is the first of the Aviation Safety Program technologies that has been analyzed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These synthetic vision analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model.

Reveley, Mary S.

2002-01-01

140

Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

McCormick, W.A.

1998-09-29

141

Applied Simulation for Rail Crossing Economics and Safety Analysis  

E-print Network

. . . . . Applied Simulation for Rail Crossing Economics and Safety Analysis Hao Zhou Alan Zhang · Developing a simulation tool to support rail crossing analysis, including: ­ Calculate rail crossing delay ­ Analyze impact to local traffic ­ Support rail crossing economics · Applying simulation to container

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

142

Software Safety Analysis of a Flight Guidance System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document summarizes the safety analysis performed on a Flight Guidance System (FGS) requirements model. In particular, the safety properties desired of the FGS model are identified and the presence of the safety properties in the model is formally verified. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the entire project, while Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of the problem domain, the nature of accidents, model based development, and the four-variable model. Chapter 3 outlines the approach. Chapter 4 presents the results of the traditional safety analysis techniques and illustrates how the hazardous conditions associated with the system trace into specific safety properties. Chapter 5 presents the results of the formal methods analysis technique model checking that was used to verify the presence of the safety properties in the requirements model. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes the main conclusions of the study, first and foremost that model checking is a very effective verification technique to use on discrete models with reasonable state spaces. Additional supporting details are provided in the appendices.

Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor); Tribble, Alan C.; Miller, Steven P.; Lempia, David L.

2004-01-01

143

Safety of partial breast reconstruction in extended indications for conservative surgery in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast conservation surgery after large volume excisions for women with relatively larger or multicentric operable breast cancer (OBC) and in some locally advanced breast cancers (LABC) post neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), is known to be a feasible option using a latissimus dorsi flap. However, the oncological safety of such a procedure is not well reported in literature. Two hundred and twenty one women with breast cancer (148-OBC, 73-LABC) underwent BCT plus LD during March 1998 to August 2009. One hundred and forty six women (72-LABC, 66-OBC) received prior NACT for downstaging, followed by completion of adjuvant therapy in all, including postoperative radiotherapy and hormone therapy where indicated. Women aged 20-62 years, with tumors 1.5-15 cm (median 5.0 cm), underwent volume replacement surgery with LD flap. All positive cut margins (total-4.9%, gross positive-1.3%) were re-excised to ensure negative margins. The mean surgical time for excision of primary with axillary clearance followed by volume replacement by LD was 5 h and mean hospital stay 6 days. Donor site morbidity was seen in 11 patients and 3 had minor recipient site infection. At a median follow up of 36 months, ten of 221 patients (4.5%) had failed locally (7-OBC, 3-LABC). The determinants of local recurrence were presence of lymphatic vascular invasion (p?=?0.016) and axillary metastasis (p?=?0.003). BCT plus LD flap is an oncologically safe, technically quick procedure with minimal morbidity, and should be offered to all eligible women as an extended breast conservation procedure. PMID:22693374

Parmar, Vani; Hawaldar, R; Badwe, R A

2010-09-01

144

[Stress analysis of distal free-end removable partial denture].  

PubMed

The study of the force distribution in distal free-end removable partial denture is complicated by the great difference of biomechanical property between the supporting tissue of the distal free-end removable partial denture, abutment tooth and alveolar mucosa under the denture base. Finite element method (FEM) was used in this study to estimate the effect on the abutment tooth and alveolar mucosa under various load conditions. The model is composed of the second premolar, the first molar and the second molar in acrylic resin teeth with the first premolar serving as the abutment. The stress on the abutment tooth was found reduced by 15% on comparing the load condition 3 (222 newton vertical force on each denture acrylic tooth) with the load condition 2 (222 newton vertical force on the second premolar and the first molar), and it can be further reduced by 22% in comparison to load condition 4 (222 newton vertical force on each denture tooth but shared equally to two occlusal contact points per denture tooth). The maximum displacement of the alveolar mucosa was found adjacent to the load area, and the maximum vertical displacement of the alveolar mucosa at load condition 4 is only 0.015 mm greater than load condition 3. It is concluded that when the number of occlusal contacts in distal free-end removable partial denture is increased and evenly distributed, the load on the abutment tooth will be decreased, with only minor effect on the alveolar mucosa. PMID:2282568

Liau, Y S; Chen, P S

1990-12-01

145

The analysis of hazards and the hazards of analysis: reflections on air traffic safety management.  

PubMed

The justification of investments in air traffic control systems has typically been based on risk-benefit analyses of the safety of air traffic. But the lack of empirical evidence concerning collisions between aircraft, and the problems of very small numbers make risk analysis inadequate. The pitfalls of risk analysis are discussed in this paper. A framework for safety analysis is proposed where safety is to be assured rather than traded off in the economic sense against other expenditures on the system. The trade-off in the analysis of large investments on control technologies should be between economy and efficiency and should no include safety. PMID:3094552

Kanafani, A

1986-10-01

146

RISMC ADVANCED SAFETY ANALYSIS WORKING PLAN – FY 2015 – FY 2019  

SciTech Connect

SUMMARY In this report, the Advanced Safety Analysis Program (ASAP) objectives and value proposition is described. ASAP focuses on modernization of nuclear power safety analysis (tools, methods and data); implementing state-of-the-art modeling techniques (which include, for example, enabling incorporation of more detailed physics as they become available); taking advantage of modern computing hardware; and combining probabilistic and mechanistic analyses to enable a risk informed safety analysis process. The modernized tools will maintain the current high level of safety in our nuclear power plant fleet, while providing an improved understanding of safety margins and the critical parameters that affect them. Thus, the set of tools will provide information to inform decisions on plant modifications, refurbishments, and surveillance programs, while improving economics. The set of tools will also benefit the design of new reactors, enhancing safety per unit cost of a nuclear plant. As part of the discussion, we have identified three sets of stakeholders, the nuclear industry, the Department of Energy (DOE), and associated oversight organizations. These three groups would benefit from ASAP in different ways. For example, within the DOE complex, the possible applications that are seen include the safety of experimental reactors, facility life extension, safety-by-design in future generation advanced reactors, and managing security for the storage of nuclear material. This report provides information in five areas: 1. A value proposition (“why is this important?”) that will make the case for stakeholder’s use of the ASAP research and development (R&D) products. 2. An identification of likely end users and pathway to adoption of enhanced tools by the end-users. 3. A proposed set of practical and achievable “use case” demonstrations. 4. A proposed plan to address ASAP verification and validation (V&V) needs. 5. A proposed schedule for the multi-year ASAP.

Ronaldo H. Szilard; Curtis L. Smith

2014-09-01

147

Safety analysis and review system (SARS) assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations, safety analyses are required for DOE projects in order to ensure that: (1) potential hazards are systematically identified; (2) potential impacts are analyzed; (3) reasonable measures have been taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the hazards; and (4) there is documented management authorization of the DOE operation based on an objective assessment of the adequacy of the safety analysis. This report is intended to provide the DOE Office of Plans and Technology Assessment (OPTA) with an independent evaluation of the adequacy of the ongoing safety analysis effort. As part of this effort, a number of site visits and interviews were conducted, and FE SARS documents were reviewed. The latter included SARS Implementation Plans for a number of FE field offices, as well as safety analysis reports completed for certain FE operations. This report summarizes SARS related efforts at the DOE field offices visited and evaluates the extent to which they fulfill the requirements of DOE 5481.1.

Browne, E.T.

1981-03-01

148

Safety analysis of the existing 850 Firing Facility  

SciTech Connect

A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 850 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives, which was classified as a moderate hazard per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public.

Odell, B.N.

1986-06-05

149

Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.

Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

150

System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

Bartos, R.J.

1994-08-01

151

Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sklute, Elizabeth [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyare, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

2008-01-01

152

Recoverability Analysis for Modified Compressive Sensing with Partially Known Support  

PubMed Central

The recently proposed modified-compressive sensing (modified-CS), which utilizes the partially known support as prior knowledge, significantly improves the performance of recovering sparse signals. However, modified-CS depends heavily on the reliability of the known support. An important problem, which must be studied further, is the recoverability of modified-CS when the known support contains a number of errors. In this letter, we analyze the recoverability of modified-CS in a stochastic framework. A sufficient and necessary condition is established for exact recovery of a sparse signal. Utilizing this condition, the recovery probability that reflects the recoverability of modified-CS can be computed explicitly for a sparse signal with nonzero entries. Simulation experiments have been carried out to validate our theoretical results. PMID:24520341

Zhang, Jun; Li, Yuanqing; Gu, Zhenghui; Yu, Zhu Liang

2014-01-01

153

MA3H0 Term 2 Numerical Analysis and Partial Differential Equations 15 CATS  

E-print Network

MA3H0 Term 2 Numerical Analysis and Partial Differential Equations 15 CATS Status: Core, List A and computation. This course is an introduction to the numerical analysis of PDEs which is designed to emphasise the interaction between mathematical theory and numerical methods. Topics in this module include: · Analysis

Elliott, Charles

154

The Simplified Partial Digest Problem: Hardness and a Probabilistic Analysis  

E-print Network

the problem of genome mapping using restriction site analysis. In restriction site analysis, an enzyme cuts the strand to the enzyme until the digestion process is complete. We consider there are n restriction sites a target DNA strand into DNA fragments, and these DNA fragments are used to reconstruct the restriction

Pratt, Vaughan

155

Safety Analysis of Sugar Cataract Development Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems  

E-print Network

Safety Analysis of Sugar Cataract Development Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems Derek Riley continuous dynamics [6]. In this paper we model Sugar Cataract Development (SCD) as a SHS, and we present a probabilistic verification method for computing the probability of sugar cataract formation for different

Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

156

Transportation Center Seminar... Analysis of Highway-Safety Data  

E-print Network

Transportation Center Seminar... Analysis of Highway-Safety Data: Current than 1.2 million people die annually in highway-related crashes and as many highway-related crashes to be the 5th leading cause of death in the world

Bustamante, Fabián E.

157

Safety analysis of optically ignited explosive and pyrotechnic devices  

SciTech Connect

The future of optical ordnance depends on the acceptance, validation and verification of the stated safety enhancement claims of optical ordnance over existing electrical explosive devices (EED`s). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance, with the primary motivation of this effort being the enhancement of explosive safety by specifically reducing the potential of premature detonation that can occur with low energy electrically ignited explosive devices. By using semiconductor laser diodes for igniting these devices, safety improvements can be made without being detrimental to current system concerns since the inputs required for these devices are similar to electrical systems. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) of the energetic material provides the opportunity to remove the bridgewire and electrically conductive pins from the charge cavity, creating a Faraday cage and thus isolating the explosive or pyrotechnic materials from stray electrical ignition sources. Recent results from our continued study of safety enhancements are presented. The areas of investigation which are presented include: (1) unintended optical source analysis, specifically lightning insensitivity, (2) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) insensitivity analysis, and (3) powder safety.

Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Holswade, S.

1994-05-01

158

Safety analysis of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation container  

SciTech Connect

Ignalina NPP comprises two Units with RBMK-1500 reactors. After the Unit 1 of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was shut down in 2004, approximately 1000 fuel assemblies from Unit were available for further reuse in Unit 2. The fuel-transportation container, vehicle, protection shaft and other necessary equipment were designed in order to implement the process for on-site transportation of Unit 1 fuel for reuse in the Unit 2. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was developed to demonstrate that the proposed set of equipment performs all functions and assures the required level of safety for both normal operation and accident conditions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the content and main results of SAR, focusing attention on the container used to transport spent fuel assemblies from Unit I on Unit 2. In the SAR, the structural integrity, thermal, radiological and nuclear safety calculations are performed to assess the acceptance of the proposed set of equipment. The safety analysis demonstrated that the proposed nuclear fuel transportation container and other equipment are in compliance with functional, design and regulatory requirements and assure the required safety level. (authors)

Uspuras, E.; Rimkevicius, S. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, 3 Breslaujos str., LT-3035 Kaunas (Lithuania)

2007-07-01

159

Aggregate nonparametric safety analysis of traffic zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploring the significant variables related to specific types of crashes is vitally important in the planning stage of a transportation network. This paper aims to identify and examine important variables associated with total crashes and severe crashes per traffic analysis zone (TAZ) in four counties of the state of Florida by applying nonparametric statistical techniques such as data mining and

Chowdhury Siddiqui; Mohamed Abdel-Aty; Helai Huang

160

[Safety analysis for astronaut and the personal protective equipment].  

PubMed

Objective. To analyze and study astronaut and his personal equipment safety. Method. Three of the most widely used approaches, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA) and system hazards analysis (SHA) were used. Result. It was demonstrated that astronaut and the personal equipment are subjected to various potential hazards, such as human errors, astronaut illness, fire or space suit emergency decompression, etc. Their causes, mechanisms, possible effects and criticality of some critical potential hazards were analyzed and identified in more details with considerations of the historic accidents of manned spaceflight. And the compensating provisions and preventive measures for each hazard were discussed. Conclusion. The analysis study may be helpful in enhancing the safety of the astronaut and its personal protective equipment. PMID:12434807

Chen, J D; Sun, J B; Shi, H P; Sun, H L

1999-12-01

161

Transperitoneal Approach versus Retroperitoneal Approach: A Meta-Analysis of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the efficiency and safety of the transperitoneal approaches with retroperitoneal approaches in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma and provide evidence-based medicine support for clinical treatment. Methods A systematic computer search of PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was executed to identify retrospective observational and prospective randomized controlled trials studies that compared the outcomes of the two approaches in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted, and evaluated the included studies and executed statistical analysis by using software STATA 12.0. Outcomes of interest included perioperative and postoperative variables, surgical complications and oncological variables. Results There were 8 studies assessed transperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (TLPN) versus retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RLPN) were included. RLPN had a shorter operating time (SMD?=?1.001,95%confidence interval[CI] 0.609–1.393,P<0.001), a lower estimated blood loss (SMD?=?0.403,95%CI 0.015–0.791,P?=?0.042) and a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD?=?0.936 DAYS,95%CI 0.609–1.263,P<0.001) than TLPN. There were no significant differences between the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches in other outcomes of interest. Conclusions This meta-analysis indicates that, in appropriately selected patients, especially patients with intraperitoneal procedures history or posteriorly located renal tumors, the RLPN can shorten the operation time, reduce the estimated blood loss and shorten the length of hospital stay. RLPN may be equally safe and be faster compared with the TLPN. PMID:24658032

Zhao, Xiaowen; Ni, Shaobin; Zhang, Cheng; Guo, Changgang; Ren, Minghua

2014-01-01

162

Safety analysis results for cryostat ingress accidents in ITER  

SciTech Connect

Accidents involving the ingress of air or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

Merrill, B.J.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Petti, D.A.

1996-12-31

163

Safety Analysis Results for Cryostat Ingress Accidents in ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidents involving the ingress of air, helium, or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

Merrill, B. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Petti, D. A.

1997-06-01

164

Safety analysis results for cryostat ingress accidents in ITER  

SciTech Connect

Accidents involving the ingress of air, helium, or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Merrill, B.J.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Petti, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., ID (United States)] [Idaho National Engineering Lab., ID (United States)

1997-06-01

165

Flood analysis using generalized logistic models in partial duration series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryAs a generalization of the commonly assumed Poisson distribution (PD) used to estimate the annual number of peaks over threshold in partial duration series (PDS) model, the negative binomial (NB) distribution is proposed in this study. Instead of generalized pareto distribution (GPD) and exponential distribution (ED) models popularly applied to predict the probability of the exceedances of peak over threshold, the performance of the general logistic distribution (GLD) models is analyzed. Two different models for analyzing extreme hydrologic events are compared, based on, PDS and annual maximum series (AMS), respectively. The performance of the two models in terms of uncertainty of T-year event estimator [ q( T)] is evaluated in the cases of estimation with the method of moments (MOMs), maximum likelihood (ML), and probability weighted moments (PWMs). The annual maximum distribution corresponding to a PDS model with Poisson distributed count of peaks above threshold and GLD for flood exceedances was found to be an extreme value type I (EV1) distribution. The comparison between PDS and AMS is made using ratio of variance of the T-year event estimates, which is derived analytically after checking the reliability of the expressions with Monte Carlo simulations. The results reveal that the AMS/NB-GLD and PDS/GLD models using PWM estimation method give least variance of flood estimates with the PDS model giving marginally better results. From the overall results, it was observed that the Poisson distribution performs better, where the difference between mean ( ?) and variance of counts of threshold exceedances is small otherwise the NB distribution is found to be efficient when used in combination with generalized logistic distribution in the PDS model, and this is more prominent for ? < 1.4. Hence, in such cases when the PDS data have a mean less than this, the AMS/NB-GLD and PDS/GLD should be a better model for q( T) estimation as compared to PDS/ED.

Bhunya, P. K.; Singh, R. D.; Berndtsson, R.; Panda, S. N.

2012-02-01

166

Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows  

SciTech Connect

A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated. Comparisons of FLUENT results with other results, i.e., experimental results, were made to determine the accuracy of the employed method. Results of the three-dimensional analysis may be useful in the valve design.

Huang, C.; Kim, R.H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science

1996-09-01

167

Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

Not Available

1994-06-01

168

Partial Derivative Games in Thermodynamics: A Cognitive Task Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies in recent years have demonstrated that upper-division students struggle with the mathematics of thermodynamics. This paper presents a task analysis based on several expert attempts to solve a challenging mathematics problem in thermodynamics. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we highlight the importance of cognitive task…

Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.

2014-01-01

169

Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated.

Chendong Huang; Rhyn H. Kim

1996-01-01

170

Evolution of Safety Analysis to Support New Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle as a key component of the Constellation program which will provide safe and reliable transportation to the International Space Station, back to the moon, and later to Mars. The risks and costs of the Ares I must be significantly lowered, as compared to other manned launch vehicles, to enable the continuation of space exploration. It is essential that safety be significantly improved, and cost-effectively incorporated into the design process. This paper justifies early and effective safety analysis of complex space systems. Interactions and dependences between design, logistics, modeling, reliability, and safety engineers will be discussed to illustrate methods to lower cost, reduce design cycles and lessen the likelihood of catastrophic events.

Thrasher, Chard W.

2008-01-01

171

SCALE 6: Comprehensive Nuclear Safety Analysis Code System  

SciTech Connect

Version 6 of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in February 2009, contains significant new capabilities and data for nuclear safety analysis and marks an important update for this software package, which is used worldwide. This paper highlights the capabilities of the SCALE system, including continuous-energy flux calculations for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections, ENDF/B-VII continuous-energy and multigroup nuclear cross-section data, continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations, Monte Carlo radiation shielding analyses with automated three-dimensional variance reduction techniques, one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations, two- and three-dimensional lattice physics depletion analyses, fast and accurate source terms and decay heat calculations, automated burnup credit analyses with loading curve search, and integrated three-dimensional criticality accident alarm system analyses using coupled Monte Carlo criticality and shielding calculations.

Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL

2011-01-01

172

An antiproton-proton partial-wave analysis  

SciTech Connect

Partial-wave analyses (PWAs) have a long history in the fields of {pi}N and NN scattering. Due to the poor quality of low-energy antiproton beams and the resulting absence of accurate experimental data, analogous model-independent studies of the much more complex {bar p}p system have in the past always been impossible. In the pre-LEAR era spin-dependent observables and charge-exchange ({bar p}p - {bar n}n) data were almost nonexistent, the situation between 400 and 925 MeV/c is now quite good. High-quality analyzing-power data have been obtained for the elastic and charge-exchange reactions. Very recently, even charge-exchange depolarization data have become available. Unfortunately, the practical difficulties involved in constructing a high-quality ``cooled`` antiproton beam of lower momentum are large. Consequently, the {bar p}p database below about 400 MeV/c is still by far not as good as one would like, in striking contrast to the pp case where very accurate data exist as low as T{sub L} = 0.35 MeV. It also remains an outstanding experimental challenge to construct a polarized antiproton beam to further probe the spin structure of the interaction. A new method has been developed by the Nijmegen group to perform PWAs of the abundant and accurate NN scattering data below T{sub L} = 350 MeV. With the now available high-quality data from LEAR and KEK, we have been able to extend the methods used in these NN PWAs to perform an energy-dependent PWA of all {bar p}p scattering data below p{sub L} = 925 MeV/c. The same methods of PWA have also been applied to the strangeness-exchange reaction {bar p}p {yields} {bar {lambda}}{lambda}, for which the PS185 group at LEAR has obtained beautiful data. In the next section we review the theoretical ideas behind these Nijmegen PWAS, and we apply these ideas and methods to the case of {bar p}p scattering. In section IV some results of this {bar p}p PWA are presented and discussed.

Timmermans, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rijken, T.A.; de Swart, J.J. [Katholieke Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

1993-11-01

173

Pharmacokinetics and safety profile of ispronicline (TC-1734), a new brain nicotinic receptor partial agonist, in young healthy male volunteers.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that drugs activating nicotine acetylcholine receptors might be promising therapy in cognitive decline seen in the elderly, including Alzheimer's disease. Ispronicline (TC-1734), a brain-selective alpha4beta2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, has shown memory-enhancing properties in rodents and a good tolerability profile. The safety and the full pharmacokinetic profile of TC-1734 and its N-desalkylated metabolite, TC-1784, were investigated in 2 phase I studies, and results are reported in this article. Study A used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design with a rising single-dose scheme (2-320 mg). Study B used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design with a rising multiple-dose scheme (doses: 50, 100, and 200 mg, once daily, x 10 days). Cmax of TC-1734 was reached around 1 to 2 hours postdose, and mean terminal half-life (t1/2) ranged from 3 to 5.3 hours (single doses) and from 2.7 to 8.8 hours (repeated doses). No accumulation of TC-1734 was observed after 10 days. Renal clearance appeared to be a minor method of elimination of TC-1734 and TC-1784. A high interindividual variability was noted for all parameters. Across the dose ranges explored, TC-1734 was safe and well tolerated. No changes of clinical significance were seen on laboratory and cardiovascular parameters. Adverse events were generally of mild to moderate intensity, with dizziness and headache being reported most frequently. PMID:16809797

Dunbar, G; Demazières, A; Monreal, A; Cisterni, C; Metzger, D; Kuchibhatla, R; Luthringer, R

2006-07-01

174

Analysis of dam safety management system in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to an increasing amount of dam damage or break in resent years, great importance is attached to dam safety management in many countries. This paper analyzes the status of Chinese dam safety management according to the integral safety concept for dam including structural safety, dam safety monitoring, operational safety and emergency planning. Comparing with the safety management of large

Cheng Cuiyun; Qian Xin; Zhang Yuchao; Sheng Jinbao

2010-01-01

175

Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

2015-02-01

176

14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J to Part 417...Appendix J to Part 417—Ground Safety Analysis Report J417.1General (a) This...format requirements for a ground safety analysis report. A launch operator must...

2013-01-01

177

14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J to Part 417...Appendix J to Part 417—Ground Safety Analysis Report J417.1General (a) This...format requirements for a ground safety analysis report. A launch operator must...

2014-01-01

178

14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J to Part 417...Appendix J to Part 417—Ground Safety Analysis Report J417.1General (a) This...format requirements for a ground safety analysis report. A launch operator must...

2012-01-01

179

14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J to Part 417...Appendix J to Part 417—Ground Safety Analysis Report J417.1General (a) This...format requirements for a ground safety analysis report. A launch operator must...

2011-01-01

180

Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, `ensuring` plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is `safe.` Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude.

Jamali, K. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Core Technical Support and Facility Transition; Stack, D.W.; Sullivan, L.H.; Sanzo, D.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-08-01

181

Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

MCCOY, J.C.

1999-03-16

182

Dominating Clasp of the Financial Sector Revealed by Partial Correlation Analysis of the Stock Market  

E-print Network

methods have been used to study the behavior of stock data for the purpose of detecting some dynamicalDominating Clasp of the Financial Sector Revealed by Partial Correlation Analysis of the Stock What are the dominant stocks which drive the correlations present among stocks traded in a stock market

Jacob, Eshel Ben

183

Protein Folding Trajectories Analysis: Summarization, Event Detection and Consensus Partial Folding Pathway  

E-print Network

Protein Folding Trajectories Analysis: Summarization, Event Detection and Consensus Partial Folding in protein folding trajectories. We pro- pose an approach that employs the simplicity of contact maps and po- tentially cure diseases caused by misfolding. The protein folding problem is therefore one

Yang, Hui

184

SYMPOSIUM PAPERS Comparative Analysis of Partial Structures of a Peat Humic and Fulvic Acid Using  

E-print Network

SYMPOSIUM PAPERS Comparative Analysis of Partial Structures of a Peat Humic and Fulvic Acid Using- and heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectra a more reliable pH 1 to 2, and fulvic acids (FA), soluble across condensed fraction of of a fulvic and a humic acid obtained from Eriophorum peat. An HS, whereas FA

Hemminga, Marcus A.

185

Multi-sensor analysis techniques for SSME safety monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two algorithms were developed which utilized multi-sensor analysis techniques to complement the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) safety monitoring system. The first algorithm analyzed the accumulative error between actual and predicted values of the engine parameter set, while the second algorithm combined these error terms into a response pattern and correlated each pattern with a standard pattern. These algorithms were applied to twelve SSME anomalous test firings and were found to produce improved failure detection times in eight of those twelve compared to the current engine safety monitoring system. Of the eight detected anomalous test firings, the first algorithm detected all eight, while the second algorithm detected seven of the eight. No false alarms were indicated by either algorithm for twelve nominal test firings. An initial parametric study of these algorithms for optimized parameter selection is presented and algorithm robustness to sensor failure is demonstrated.

Maul, William A., III

1990-01-01

186

In tank processing safety analysis program summary report. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this summary report is to present results from the safety analysis work that was performed in support of the ``Seismic Safety Issue Resolution Program Plan`` for the In-Tank Processing (ITP) Facility. Results from this effort include estimates of the consequences that postulated earthquakes might introduce. For beyond evaluation based earthquake (EBE) events, best estimate values (e.g., waste tank volumes) are used rather than bounding values to analyze the consequences of such events. This is consistent with the probabilistic approach outlined in Attachment C of the program plan. Planned follow-on work will also involve best estimates of probabilities for soil liquefaction and differential settlement. These probabilities will be combined in an accident progression event tree (APET) model that is used to provide estimates of risk for beyond EBE seismic events.

Radder, J.A.

1994-11-01

187

Simplifying documentation while approaching site closure: integrated health & safety plans as documented safety analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, environmental restoration activities are supported by Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) that combine the required project-specific Health and Safety Plans, Safety Basis Requirements (SBRs), and Process Requirements (PRs) into single Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs). By isolating any remediation activities that deal with Enriched Restricted Materials, the SBRs and PRs assure

Tulanda

2003-01-01

188

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

189

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

190

76 FR 28336 - Domestic Licensing of Source Material-Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...oversight and control of design information, safety information, and records of modifications...practices means a design philosophy, applied...designed facility and system that will exhibit...integrated safety analysis can then be used...

2011-05-17

191

Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

Not Available

1994-09-01

192

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

193

Safety analysis of contained low-hazard biotechnology applications.  

PubMed

A technical safety analysis has been performed on a containment-level-2 pilot plant in order to assess an upgrading of the existing facility, which should comply with good manufacturing practices. The results were obtained by employing the hazard and operability (HAZOP) assessment method and are discussed in the light of the appropriateness of this procedural tool for low-hazard biotechnology applications. The potential release of micro-organisms accounts only for a minor part of the hazardous consequences. However, in certain cases the release of a large or moderate amount of micro-organisms would not be immediately identified. Most of the actions required to avoid these consequences fall into the realm of operational procedures. As a major part of potential failures result from human errors, standard operating procedures play a prominent role when establishing the concept of safety management. The HAZOP assessment method was found to be adequate for the type of process under investigation. The results also may be used for the generation of checklists which, in most cases, are sufficient for routine safety assurance. PMID:15795979

Pettauer, D; Käppeli, O; van den Eede, G

1998-06-01

194

Network analysis reveals patterns behind air safety events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex networks have been extensively used to study the topological and dynamical characteristics of transportation systems, although far less attention has been devoted to the analysis of specific problems arising in everyday operations. In this work, the use of a network representation is proposed for studying the appearance of Loss of Separation events, a kind of safety occurrence in which two aircraft violate the minimal separation while airborne. The topological analysis of networks representing the structure of traffic flows allows identifying situations in which the probability of appearance of such events is increased. Beyond these specific results, this work demonstrates the usefulness of the complex network approach in the analysis of operational patterns and occurrences.

Zanin, Massimiliano

2014-05-01

195

Fault Tree Analysis Application for Safety and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many commercial software tools exist for fault tree analysis (FTA), an accepted method for mitigating risk in systems. The method embedded in the tools identifies a root as use in system components, but when software is identified as a root cause, it does not build trees into the software component. No commercial software tools have been built specifically for development and analysis of software fault trees. Research indicates that the methods of FTA could be applied to software, but the method is not practical without automated tool support. With appropriate automated tool support, software fault tree analysis (SFTA) may be a practical technique for identifying the underlying cause of software faults that may lead to critical system failures. We strive to demonstrate that existing commercial tools for FTA can be adapted for use with SFTA, and that applied to a safety-critical system, SFTA can be used to identify serious potential problems long before integrator and system testing.

Wallace, Dolores R.

2003-01-01

196

Safety analysis reports for multiple hazard category facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site contains many nuclear facilities for which safety analysis reports (SARs) are required. The current requirements with which the SARs must comply are given in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23. This order requires use of the graded approach. The graded approach demands a more thoroughly documented assessment of complex, higher hazard facilities than simple, lower hazard facilities because grading is a function of both hazard potential and complexity. The treatment of different hazard category facilities in the development of the SAR for the Central Laboratory Facility at the Savannah River Site is described here.

Geeting, M.W.; Gerrard, P.B. [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

197

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (ERP), Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF). Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document was prepared to take the place of a Safety Evaluation Report since the Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)and associated Baseline Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) File do not meet the requirements of a complete safety analysis documentation. Its purpose is to present in summary form the background of how the BSAF and Baseline TSR originated and a description of the process by which it was produced and approved for use in the Environmental Restoration Program.The BSAF is a facility safety reference document for INEL environmental restoration activities including environmental remediation of inactive waste sites and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of surplus facilities. The BSAF contains safety bases common to environmental restoration activities and guidelines for performing and documenting safety analysis. The common safety bases can be incorporated by reference into the safety analysis documentation prepared for individual environmental restoration activities with justification and any necessary revisions. The safety analysis guidelines in BSAF provide an accepted method for hazard analysis; analysis of normal, abnormal, and accident conditions; human factors analysis; and derivation of TSRS. The BSAF safety bases and guidelines are graded for environmental restoration activities.

Not Available

1994-06-20

198

Safety and efficacy of ezogabine (retigabine) in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures: Interim results from two ongoing open-label studies.  

PubMed

Interim results of two open-label extension studies assessed ezogabine/retigabine safety and tolerability for partial-onset seizures. At data cutoff, 336 (60%) patients received ? 12 months' open-label ezogabine/retigabine. The most common TEAEs included dizziness (22%), somnolence (19%), headache (14%), and fatigue (10%). Change in seizure frequency from baseline (median reduction, 53%) and responder rate (52.5%) was maintained in patients remaining on ezogabine/retigabine. Continuous 6-month and 12-month seizure-free rates for ezogabine/retigabine exposures ? 12 months were 13.1% and 7.1%, respectively. PMID:22771137

Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Brodie, Martin J; Leroy, Robert; Cyr, Tracy; Hall, Susan; Castiglia, Mary; Twomey, Colleen; VanLandingham, Kevan

2012-11-01

199

Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

1981-11-01

200

PHYSICS AND SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR THE NIST RESEARCH REACTOR.  

SciTech Connect

Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses provide an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations were performed with the MCNP code to determine the safety parameters for the NBSR. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions were performed with MONTEBURNS. MCNP calculations were performed to determine the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle power distributions, moderator temperature coefficient, and shim safety arm, beam tube and void reactivity worths. The calculational model included a plate-by-plate description of each fuel assembly, axial mid-plane water gap, beam tubes and the tubular geometry of the shim safety arms. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop was determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model that includes the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. The statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF were determined with MCNP. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. In both the startup and maximum reactivity insertion accidents, the core power transient is terminated by a reactor trip at 26 MW. The calculations show that both the peak reactor power and the excursion energy depend on the negative reactivity insertion from reactor trip. In one of the loss-of-flow accidents offsite electrical power is assumed lost to the three operating primary pumps. A slightly delayed reactor scram is initiated as a result of primary flow coast down. The RELAP5 results indicate that there is adequate margin to CHF and no damage to the fuel will occur, because of the momentum of the coolant flowing through the fuel channels and the negative scram reactivity insertion. For both the primary pump seizure and inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, the RELAP5 analyses indicate that the reduction in power following the trip is sufficient to ensure that there is adequate margin to CHF and that the fuel cladding does not fail. The analysis of the loss-of-flow accident in the extremely unlikely case where both shutdown pumps fail, shows that the cooling provided by the D{sub 2}O is sufficient to ensure the cladding does not fail. The power distributions were examined for a set of fuel misloadings in which a fresh fuel element is moved from a peripheral low-reactivity location to a central high-reactivity location. The calculations show that there is adequate margin to CHF and the cladding does not fail. An additional analysis was performed to simulate the operation at low power (500 kW) without forced flow cooling. The result indicates that natural convection cooling is adequate for operation of the NBSR at a power level of 500 kW.

CHENG,L.HANSON,A.DIAMOND,D.XU,J.CAREW,J.RORER,D.

2004-03-31

201

Fault diagnosis in chemical processes using Fisher discriminant analysis, discriminant partial least squares, and principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal component analysis (PCA) is the most commonly used dimensionality reduction technique for detecting and diagnosing faults in chemical processes. Although PCA contains certain optimality properties in terms of fault detection, and has been widely applied for fault diagnosis, it is not best suited for fault diagnosis. Discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) has been shown to improve fault diagnosis for

Leo H. Chiang; Evan L. Russell; Richard D. Braatz

2000-01-01

202

Safety analysis and review system. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work completed in support of the implementation of the DOE Safety Analysis and Review System (SARS). It is intended to describe and summarize critical items identified during the course of this study and discussed in previous reports completed for other subtasks under this contract. The following were among the issues identified as requiring further overview, assessment, and action by DOE: (1) there needs to be firm guidance from DOE Headquarters (HQ) in regard to SARS-related responsibilities and requirements of the DOE field offices; (2) a system must be established to track the applicability and progress of SARS for individual DOE operations. Currently, it is difficult, if not impossible, to identify projects with SARS requirements in their contracts. Thus, it is difficult to set accurate schedules for safety analysis reviews; (3) a decision must be made by DOE officials as to whether review authority for moderate risk projects will be delegated to the field. As part of this, a detailed assessment of resources available for reviews, both at the field and HQ levels, needs to be accomplished; and (4) to be implemented effectively, SARS needs to be incorporated into the overall DOE project management system.

Browne, E.T.

1981-03-01

203

Benchmarking of LOFT LRTS-COBRA-FRAP safety analysis model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to check out the LOFT LRTS/COBRA-IV/FRAP-T5 safety-analysis models against test data obtained during a LOFT operational transient in which there was a power and fuel-temperature rise. LOFT Experiment L6-3 was an excessive-load-increase anticipated transient test in which the main steam-flow-control valve was driven from its operational position to full-open in seven seconds. The resulting cooldown and reactivity-increase transients provide a good benchmark for the reactivity-and-power-prediction capability of the LRTS calculations, and for the fuel-bundle and fuel-rod temperature-response analysis capability of the LOFT COBRA-IV and FRAP-T5 models.

Hanson, G.H.; Atkinson, S.A.; Wadkins, R.P.

1982-05-01

204

Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

2014-01-01

205

A Study on Urban Road Traffic Safety Based on Matter Element Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

2014-01-01

206

Documented Safety Analysis for the B695 Segment  

SciTech Connect

This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) was prepared for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 695 (B695) Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The report provides comprehensive information on design and operations, including safety programs and safety structures, systems and components to address the potential process-related hazards, natural phenomena, and external hazards that can affect the public, facility workers, and the environment. Consideration is given to all modes of operation, including the potential for both equipment failure and human error. The facilities known collectively as the DWTF are used by LLNL's Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division to store and treat regulated wastes generated at LLNL. RHWM generally processes low-level radioactive waste with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (e.g., much less than 100 nCi/g). Wastes processed often contain only depleted uranium and beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides, e.g., {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, or {sup 3}H. The mission of the B695 Segment centers on container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. The B695 Segment is used for storage of radioactive waste (including transuranic and low-level), hazardous, nonhazardous, mixed, and other waste. Storage of hazardous and mixed waste in B695 Segment facilities is in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). LLNL is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy (DOE). The B695 Segment is operated by the RHWM Division of LLNL. Many operations in the B695 Segment are performed under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) operation plan, similar to commercial treatment operations with best demonstrated available technologies. The buildings of the B695 Segment were designed and built considering such operations, using proven building systems, and keeping them as simple as possible while complying with industry standards and institutional requirements. No operations to be performed in the B695 Segment or building system are considered to be complex. No anticipated future change in the facility mission is expected to impact the extent of safety analysis documented in this DSA.

Laycak, D

2008-09-11

207

Partial EHL analysis of rib-roller end contact in tapered roller bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial EHL analysis was performed for the tapered rib\\/spherical roller end contact in tapered roller bearings. The average Reynolds equation, the elasticity equation and the pressure-viscosity relation were solved simultaneously. The effects of the surface roughness as well as the peculiar geometrical and kinematics parameters of the rib-roller end contact on the friction torque and film thickness were investigated.

W. Wang; P. L. Wong; Z. Zhang

1996-01-01

208

Failure of All-ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures in vitro and in vivo: Analysis and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hertzian cone cracks visible at the loading site of 20 all-ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs), tested in vitro, led to the hypotheses that failure was due to the propagation of localized contact damage crack systems (Hertzian stress state) and that such damage was an unlikely clinical failure mode. Fractographic analysis of the 20 laboratory-failed and nine clinically-failed all-ceramic FPDs allowed

J. R. Kelly; J. A. Tesk; J. A. Sorensen

1995-01-01

209

Stability analysis of multigrid acceleration methods for the solution of partial differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A calculation is made of the stability of various relaxation schemes for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. A multigrid acceleration method is introduced, and its effects on stability are explored. A detailed stability analysis of a simple case is carried out and verified by numerical experiment. It is shown that the use of multigrids can speed convergence by several orders of magnitude without adversely affecting stability.

Fay, John F.

1990-01-01

210

Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

SciTech Connect

The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB.

Garvin, L.J.

1997-04-28

211

10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...technical information in final safety analysis report...presents the design bases and...a safety analysis of the structures, systems, and components...following information, at a level... (iii) Information relative...that the design will conform... (5) An analysis and evaluation...structures, systems, and...

2010-01-01

212

Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This documented safety analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements', and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

Laycak, D

2008-06-16

213

Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities March 2010  

SciTech Connect

This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements,' and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

Laycak, D T

2010-03-05

214

Comparative analysis of national regulations concerning blood safety across Europe.  

PubMed

In October 2001, representatives of 17 European countries (Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey and UK) met in Sarajevo at a course organized by the European School of Transfusion Medicine to discuss their countries' regulations concerning different aspects of the safety of blood transfusion. Results are summarized in tables to facilitate comparisons. Most countries (13/17) have specific transfusion laws and 9/17 have hospital-based systems as opposed to national organizations. Quality assurance is common among investigated countries (14/17). Voluntary associations are responsible for donor promotion in the majority of countries (13/17). Exclusively, voluntary non-remunerated donors are found in 5/17 countries, whereas in the remaining ones, incentives, family replacement and remuneration are mechanisms stimulating blood donation. Medical doctors using official selection criteria are checking donor suitability in virtually all countries, which also perform main microbiological testing. Regulations on good clinical use of blood and derivatives are present in most countries but applied only in some. Although the data presented need to be interpreted with some caution, this preliminary analysis shows that, although some significant differences still exist, the majority of countries studied are moving in the same direction to ensure safety of their blood supply. PMID:15113375

Mascaretti, L; James, V; Barbara, J; Cárdenas, J M; Blagoevska, M; Haraci?, M; Rossi, U

2004-04-01

215

Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect

The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

none,

1992-06-01

216

A Method for the Analysis of Impact Events Involving Nested Safety Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis model devised specifically for evaluating sequential impact damage to a space nuclear system (barrier failure and fuel release for isotopic systems and geometry changes for reactor systems) with a nested safety system design. The analysis model is a relatively simple deterministic approach using disruptive work as the measure of damage. This approach offers a logical basis for assessing the impact damage to nested safety systems from sequential impacts, for designing safety tests, for analyzing subsequent test data, and finally for use in a safety analysis. Because of the wide variety of conditions that must be considered in a complete safety analysis and the stochastic nature of the damage states, the deterministic approach is only the starting point for a complete safety analysis.

Coleman, James R.

2003-01-01

217

Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system  

SciTech Connect

The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

Obrien, J.H.

1997-02-24

218

Numerical Analysis for Structural Safety Evaluation of Butterfly Valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Butterfly valves are widely used in current industry to control the fluid flow. They are used for both on-off and throttling applications involving large flows at relatively low operating pressure especially in large size pipelines. For the industrial application of butterfly valves, it must be ensured that the valve could be used safety under the fatigue life and the deformations produced by the pressure of the fluid. In this study, we carried out the structure analysis of the body and the valve disc of the butterfly valve and the numerical simulation was performed by using ANSYS v11.0. The reliability of valve is evaluated under the investigation of the deformation, the leak test and the durability of the valve.

Shin, Myung-Seob; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Park, Han-Yung

2010-06-01

219

New Criticality Safety Analysis Capabilities in SCALE 5.1  

SciTech Connect

Version 5.1 of the SCALE computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in 2006, contains several significant enhancements for nuclear criticality safety analysis. This paper highlights new capabilities in SCALE 5.1, including improved resonance self-shielding capabilities; ENDF/B-VI.7 cross-section and covariance data libraries; HTML output for KENO V.a; analytical calculations of KENO-VI volumes with GeeWiz/KENO3D; new CENTRMST/PMCST modules for processing ENDF/B-VI data in TSUNAMI; SCALE Generalized Geometry Package in NEWT; KENO Monte Carlo depletion in TRITON; and plotting of cross-section and covariance data in Javapeno.

Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; DeHart, Mark D [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Goluoglu, Sedat [ORNL; Horwedel, James E [ORNL; Petrie Jr, Lester M [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL

2007-01-01

220

Partial-wave analysis of particular peaks in total scattering cross sections caused by a single partial wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain broad low-energy peaks in the total cross sections relevant for electron-atom scattering are studied and found to be caused by a single partial wave. Such peaks are associated here with complex orbital angular momentum (Regge) pole trajectories. At the peak energies these S-matrix poles are in some neighborhood of an integer value and at the same time near its maximum real part value as a function of energy. Such peaks are found to have no time delays. Results are presented for the Dirac equation using three rational function Thomas-Fermi potential models, all with the same behavior at large and small radial distances.

Thylwe, Karl-Erik; McCabe, Patrick

2014-10-01

221

Planning Document for an NBSR Conversion Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR). The NBSR is a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a planning document for the conversion Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to, and approved by, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before the reactor could be converted.This report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis herein is on the SAR chapters that require significant changes as a result of conversion, primarily Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis. The document provides information on the proposed design for the LEU fuel elements and identifies what information is still missing. This document is intended to assist ongoing fuel development efforts, and to provide a platform for the development of the final conversion SAR. This report contributes directly to the reactor conversion pillar of the GTRI program, but also acts as a boundary condition for the fuel development and fuel fabrication pillars.

Diamond D. J.; Baek J.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

2013-09-25

222

Partial wave analysis of pbar-p to Lambdabar-Lambda  

E-print Network

A partial wave analysis of PS185 data for pbar-p to Lambda-bar Lambda is presented. A 3S1 cusp is identified in the inverse process Lambda-bar Lambda to pbar-p at threshold using detailed balance. Partial wave amplitudes for pbar-p 3P0, 3F3, 3D3 and 3G3 exhibit a behaviour very similar to resonances observed in Crystal Barrel data. With this identification, the pbar-p to Lambda-bar Lambda data then provide evidence for a new I = 0, J^{PC} = 1^{--} resonance with mass M = 2290 +- 20 MeV, Gamma = 275 +- 35 MeV, coupling to both 3S1 and 3D1.

D. V. Bugg

2004-06-25

223

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May

B. M. Gillespie; R. W. Stromatt; G. A. Ross; E. A. Hoope

1992-01-01

224

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May

B. M. Gillespie; R. W. Stromatt; G. A. Ross; E. A. Hoope

1992-01-01

225

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2013-01-01

226

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2012-01-01

227

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2014-01-01

228

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2010-01-01

229

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2011-01-01

230

Distributed safety assessment for airborne systems: an industrial relevant approach for automated safety analysis and reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of safety critical systems in the aviation industry is a costly and time-consuming process. Despite the increasing complexity of modern aircraft systems, todays safety analyses and proofs for certification purposes are still performed through a number of predominantly manual, paper-based procedures, which are both expensive and prone to errors. This paper presents a new approach to integrate the most

Martin Waßmuth; Stephan C. Stilkerich; Enno Lübbers

2011-01-01

231

Car manufacturers and global road safety: a word frequency analysis of road safety documents  

PubMed Central

Objective The World Bank believes that the car manufacturers can make a valuable contribution to road safety in poor countries and has established the Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP) for this purpose. However, some commentators are sceptical. The authors examined road safety policy documents to assess the extent of any bias. Design Word frequency analyses of road safety policy documents from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the GRSP. Main outcome measures The relative occurrence of key road safety terms was quantified by calculating a word prevalence ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Terms for which there was a fourfold difference in prevalence between the documents were tabulated. Results Compared to WHO's World report on road traffic injury prevention, the GRSP road safety documents were substantially less likely to use the words speed, speed limits, child restraint, pedestrian, public transport, walking, and cycling, but substantially more likely to use the words school, campaign, driver training, and billboard. Conclusions There are important differences in emphasis in road safety policy documents prepared by WHO and the GRSP. Vigilance is needed to ensure that the road safety interventions that the car industry supports are based on sound evidence of effectiveness. PMID:17018674

Roberts, I; Wentz, R; Edwards, P

2006-01-01

232

Safety Analysis of FMS/CTAS Interactions During Aircraft Arrivals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant funded research on human-computer interaction design and analysis techniques, using future ATC environments as a testbed. The basic approach was to model the nominal behavior of both the automated and human procedures and then to apply safety analysis techniques to these models. Our previous modeling language, RSML, had been used to specify the system requirements for TCAS II for the FAA. Using the lessons learned from this experience, we designed a new modeling language that (among other things) incorporates features to assist in designing less error-prone human-computer interactions and interfaces and in detecting potential HCI problems, such as mode confusion. The new language, SpecTRM-RL, uses "intent" abstractions, based on Rasmussen's abstraction hierarchy, and includes both informal (English and graphical) specifications and formal, executable models for specifying various aspects of the system. One of the goals for our language was to highlight the system modes and mode changes to assist in identifying the potential for mode confusion. Three published papers resulted from this research. The first builds on the work of Degani on mode confusion to identify aspects of the system design that could lead to potential hazards. We defined and modeled modes differently than Degani and also defined design criteria for SpecTRM-RL models. Our design criteria include the Degani criteria but extend them to include more potential problems. In a second paper, Leveson and Palmer showed how the criteria for indirect mode transitions could be applied to a mode confusion problem found in several ASRS reports for the MD-88. In addition, we defined a visual task modeling language that can be used by system designers to model human-computer interaction. The visual models can be translated into SpecTRM-RL models, and then the SpecTRM-RL suite of analysis tools can be used to perform formal and informal safety analyses on the task model in isolation or integrated with the rest of the modeled system. We had hoped to be able to apply these modeling languages and analysis tools to a TAP air/ground trajectory negotiation scenario, but the development of the tools took more time than we anticipated.

Leveson, Nancy G.

1998-01-01

233

PHYSICS AND SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR THE NIST RESEARCH REACTOR.  

SciTech Connect

Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses provide an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional MCNP Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations were performed to determine the safety parameters for the NBSR. The core depletion and determination of the fuel compositions were performed with MONTEBURNS. MCNP calculations were performed to determine the beginning, middle, and end-of-cycle power distributions, moderator temperature coefficient, and shim arm, beam tube and void reactivity worths. The calculational model included a plate-by-plate description of each fuel assembly, axial mid-plane water gap, beam tubes and the tubular geometry of the shim arms. The time-dependent analysis of the primary loop was determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model including the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. The statistical analysis used to assure protection from critical heat flux (CHF) was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertainties contributing to the CHF calculation. The power distributions used to determine the local fuel conditions and margin to CHF were determined with MCNP. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow resulting from loss of electrical power, (4) loss-of-flow resulting from a primary pump seizure, (5) loss-of-flow resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, (6) loss-of-flow resulting from failure of both shutdown cooling pumps and (7) misloading of a fuel element. In both the startup and maximum reactivity insertion accidents, the core power transient is terminated by a reactor trip at 30 MW. The calculations show that both the peak reactor power and the excursion energy depend on the negative reactivity insertion from reactor trip. Two cases were considered for loss of electrical power. In the first case offsite power is lost, resulting in an immediate scram caused by loss of power to the control rod system. In the second case power is lost to only the three operating primary pumps, resulting in a slightly delayed scram when loss-of-flow is detected as the pumps coast down. In both instances, RELAP5 results indicate that there is adequate margin to CHF and no damage to the fuel will occur, because of the momentum of the coolant flowing through the fuel channels and the negative scram reactivity insertion. For both the primary pump seizure and inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve, the RELAP5 analyses indicate that the reduction in power following the trip is sufficient to ensure that there is adequate margin to CHF and the fuel cladding does not fail. The analysis of the loss-of-flow accident in the extremely unlikely case where both shutdown pumps fail shows that the cooling provided by the D{sub 2}O is sufficient to ensure the cladding does not fail. The power distributions were examined for a set of fuel misloadings in which a fresh fuel element is moved from a peripheral low-reactivity location to a central high-reactivity location. The calculations show that there is adequate margin to CHF and the cladding does not fail.

CAREW,J.CHENG,L.HANSON,AXU,J.RORER,D.DIAMOND,D.

2003-08-26

234

Formal Safety analysis of a radio-based railroad crossing using Deductive Cause-Consequence  

E-print Network

Formal Safety analysis of a radio-based railroad crossing using Deductive Cause}@informatik.uni-augsburg.de Abstract. In this paper we present the formal safety analysis of a radio- based railroad crossing. We use: a radio-based railroad crossing. We illustrate the results of DCCA for this example and compare them

Reif, Wolfgang

235

Formal Safety analysis of a radiobased railroad crossing using Deductive CauseConsequence  

E-print Network

Formal Safety analysis of a radio­based railroad crossing using Deductive Cause}@informatik.uni­augsburg.de Abstract. In this paper we present the formal safety analysis of a radio­ based railroad crossing. We use­based railroad crossing. We illustrate the results of DCCA for this example and compare them to results of other

Reif, Wolfgang

236

Fourth Calcined Solids Storage Facility. Final safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This safety analysis report describes the Fourth Calcined Solids Storage Facility and presents the results of a safety evaluation of the facility including a design basis accident. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a multi-purpose facility for recovering enriched U-235 from a wide variety of spent reactor fuels. Solvent extraction processes employed in recovery of fissile materials generate radioactive liquid wastes containing nuclear fission products. These liquid wastes are stored for several years in cooled, stainless steel tanks to allow decay of most short-lived radionuclides prior to calcination. In the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF), liquid waste are atomized in a hot-air-fluidized-bed of granular solids. A New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) is being designed to replace the WCF. The Fourth Calcined Solids Storage Facility will receive solids from the NWCF. There are currently three calcined solids storage facilities in service at ICPP; two are full and the third is being filled. The Fourth Calcined Solids Storage Facility provides an additional 17,000 ft/sup 3/ of storage. The new facility is similar to the existing facilities and will not alter appreciably the low risk level associated with existing storage of calcined solids. Double containment of the calcined solids is provided in three 12-ft diameter, 50-ft high, stainless steel bins enclosed in a reinforced concrete vault as shown. The facility is designed to withstand effects of local natural catastrophies, viz. flood, tornado and earthquake. Decay heat will be removed from the vault by conduction through the vault walls to the surrounding air and soil. During the first few years of facility use, supplementary cooling will be provided by the natural convection of cooling air through the vault. The new facility is similar to the existing calcined solids storage facilities; however, the number of bins is reduced from seven to three.

Schindler, R.E.

1980-02-01

237

Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

Natsir, Khairina; Yazid, Putranto Ilham; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi

2014-09-01

238

Safety and performance analysis of a commercial photovoltaic installation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuing to better understand the performance of PV systems and changes in performance with the system life is vital to the sustainable growth of solar. A systematic understanding of degradation mechanisms that are induced as a result of variables such as the service environment, installation, module/material design, weather, operation and maintenance, and manufacturing is required for reliable operation throughout a system's lifetime. We wish to report the results from an analysis of a commercial c-Si PV array owned and operated by DuPont. We assessed the electrical performance of the modules by comparing the original manufacturers' performance data with the measurements obtained using a solar simulator to determine the degradation rate. This evaluation provides valuable PV system field experience and document key issues regarding safety and performance. A review of the nondestructive and destructive analytical methods and characterization strategies we have found useful for system, module, and subsequent material component evaluations are presented. We provide an overview of our inspection protocol and subsequent control process to mitigate risk. The objective is to explore and develop best practice protocols regarding PV asset optimization and provide a rationale to reduce risk based on the analysis of our own commercial installations.

Hamzavy, Babak T.; Bradley, Alexander Z.

2013-09-01

239

Criticality safety analysis on fissile materials in Fukushima reactor cores  

SciTech Connect

The present study focuses on the criticality analysis for geological disposal of damaged fuels from Fukushima reactor cores. Starting from the basic understanding of behaviors of plutonium and uranium, a scenario sequence for criticality event is considered. Due to the different mobility of plutonium and uranium in geological formations, the criticality safety is considered in two parts: (1) near-field plutonium system and (2) far-field low enriched uranium (LEU) system. For the near-field plutonium system, a mathematical analysis for pure-solute transport was given, assuming a particular buffer material and waste form configuration. With the transport and decay of plutonium accounted, the critical mass of plutonium was compared with the initial load of a single canister. Our calculation leads us to the conclusion that our system with the initial loading being the average mass of plutonium in an assembly just before the accident is very unlikely to become critical over time. For the far-field LEU system, due to the uncertainties in the geological and geochemical conditions, calculations were made in a parametric space that covers the variation of material compositions and different geometries. Results show that the LEU system could not remain sub-critical within the entire parameter space assumed, although in the iron-rich rock, the neutron multiplicity is significantly reduced.

Liu, Xudong; Lemaitre-Xavier, E.; Ahn, Joonhong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hirano, Fumio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

2013-07-01

240

Partial-wave analysis of the low-mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A partial-wave analysis of the\\u000a $$\\\\overline {K^0 } \\\\pi ^ + \\\\pi ^ - $$\\u000a system in the mass range\\u000a $${\\\\rm M}(\\\\overline {K^0 } \\\\pi ^ + \\\\pi ^ - )< 1.6GeV$$\\u000a is presented for data at 3.95 and 14.3 GeV\\/c. We find important contributions from theJ\\u000a \\u000a P\\u000a =0? and 1+ states, the unnatural spin-parity states accounting for more than

B. Drevillon; S. Borenstein; B. Chaurand; J. M. Gago; A. Rouge; R. A. Salmeron; H. Videau; A. Borg; D. Denegri; Y. Pons; M. Spiro; K. Paler; C. Comber; S. N. Tovey; T. P. Shah

1976-01-01

241

Partial wave analysis of chic0-->pi+piK+K-  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial wave analysis of chic0-->pi+pi-K+K- in psi(2S)-->gammachic0 decay is presented using a sample of 14×106 psi(2S) events accumulated by the BES II detector. The data are fitted to the sum of relativistic covariant tensor amplitudes for intermediate resonant decay modes. From the fit, significant contributions to chic0 decays from the channels f0(980)f0(980), f0(980)f0(2200), f0(1370)f0(1710), K*(892)0 Kmacr *(892)0, K0*(1430) Kmacr

M. Ablikim; J. Z. Bai; Y. Ban; J. G. Bian; X. Cai; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; H. X. Chen; J. C. Chen; Jin Chen; Y. B. Chen; S. P. Chi; Y. P. Chu; X. Z. Cui; Y. S. Dai; Z. Y. Deng; L. Y. Dong; Q. F. Dong; S. X. Du; Z. Z. Du; J. Fang; S. S. Fang; C. D. Fu; C. S. Gao; Y. N. Gao; S. D. Gu; Y. T. Gu; Y. N. Guo; Y. Q. Guo; Z. J. Guo; F. A. Harris; K. L. He; M. He; Y. K. Heng; H. M. Hu; T. Hu; G. S. Huang; X. P. Huang; X. T. Huang; X. B. Ji; X. S. Jiang; J. B. Jiao; D. P. Jin; S. Jin; Yi Jin; Y. F. Lai; G. Li; H. B. Li; H. H. Li; J. Li; R. Y. Li; S. M. Li; W. D. Li; W. G. Li; X. L. Li; X. Q. Li; Y. L. Li; Y. F. Liang; H. B. Liao; C. X. Liu; F. Liu; Fang Liu; H. H. Liu; H. M. Liu; J. Liu; J. P. Liu; R. G. Liu; Z. A. Liu; F. Lu; G. R. Lu; H. J. Lu; J. G. Lu; C. L. Luo; F. C. Ma; H. L. Ma; L. L. Ma; Q. M. Ma; X. B. Ma; Z. P. Mao; X. H. Mo; J. Nie; S. L. Olsen; H. P. Peng; N. D. Qi; H. Qin; J. F. Qiu; Z. Y. Ren; G. Rong; L. Y. Shan; L. Shang; D. L. Shen; X. Y. Shen; H. Y. Sheng; F. Shi; X. Shi; H. S. Sun; J. F. Sun; S. S. Sun; Y. Z. Sun; Z. J. Sun; Z. Q. Tan; X. Tang; Y. R. Tian; G. L. Tong; G. S. Varner; D. Y. Wang; L. Wang; M. Wang; P. Wang; W. F. Wang; Y. F. Wang; Z. Wang; Zheng Wang; C. L. Wei; D. H. Wei; N. Wu; X. M. Xia; X. X. Xie; B. Xin; G. F. Xu; Y. Xu; M. L. Yan; F. Yang; H. X. Yang; J. Yang; Y. X. Yang; M. H. Ye; Y. X. Ye; Z. Y. Yi; G. W. Yu; C. Z. Yuan; J. M. Yuan; Y. Yuan; S. L. Zang; Y. Zeng; Yu Zeng; B. X. Zhang; C. C. Zhang; D. H. Zhang; H. Y. Zhang; J. W. Zhang; Q. J. Zhang; X. M. Zhang; X. Y. Zhang; Yiyun Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; Z. Q. Zhang; D. X. Zhao; J. W. Zhao; M. G. Zhao; P. P. Zhao; W. R. Zhao; Z. G. Zhao; H. Q. Zheng; J. P. Zheng; Z. P. Zheng; L. Zhou; N. F. Zhou; K. J. Zhu; Q. M. Zhu; Y. C. Zhu; Y. S. Zhu; Yingchun Zhu; Z. A. Zhu; B. A. Zhuang; X. A. Zhuang; B. S. Zou

2005-01-01

242

Analysis of factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor. During a 140-day long-term operation, influent pH value, dissolved oxygen (DO), and chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio were selected as operating factors to evaluate the maintenance and recovery of nitrite accumulation. Results showed that high DO concentration (2-4 mg/L) could damage nitrite accumulation immediately. However, nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) could be increased from 1.68 ± 1.51 to 35.46 ± 7.86% when increasing the pH values from 7.5 to 8.3 due to the increased free ammonia concentration. Afterwards, stable partial nitrification and high NAR could be recovered when the reactor operated under low DO concentration (0.5-1.0 mg/L). However, it required a long time to recover the partial nitrification of the reactor when the influent COD/N ratios were altered. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis implied that ammonium oxidizing bacteria were completely recovered to the dominant nitrifying bacteria in the system. Meanwhile, sludge volumetric index of the reactor gradually decreased from 115.6 to 56.6 mL/g, while the mean diameter of sludge improved from 74.57 to 428.8 ?m by using the strategy of reducing settling time. The obtained results could provide useful information between the operational conditions and the performance of partial nitrification when treating nitrogen-rich industrial wastewater. PMID:23942879

Wei, Dong; Du, Bin; Xue, Xiaodong; Dai, Peng; Zhang, Jian

2014-02-01

243

Optimization of Lyapunov invariants in analysis and implementation of safety-critical software systems  

E-print Network

This dissertation contributes to two major research areas in safety-critical software systems, namely, software analysis, and software implementation. In reference to the software analysis problem, the main contribution ...

Roozbehani, Mardavij

2008-01-01

244

Quantitative Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (QPIRT) for Reactor Safety Analysis  

E-print Network

Next generation reactor safety analysis codes are intended to make use of advanced numerical methods and higher fidelity models with built-in sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) [1]. However, due ...

Yurko, Joseph P.

245

Eye-safety analysis of infrared laser imaging for security surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eye-safety analysis is very important in the civil application of infrared laser imaging. In order to meet the requirements of human eye-safety protection, a model of eye-safety analysis is established based on ANSI Z136.1 Standard. When the value of maximum permissible exposure is given, one can estimate laser power and beam divergence angle under desired eye-safety distances from the model. We have simulated the model by MATLAB and given the laser power curve at different distances. Based on the curve, the eye-safety parameters of laser imaging systems can be easily designed. Therefore, the proposed model of eye-safety analysis can help to standardize infrared laser imaging products.

Yang, Jiaqi; Wang, Xinwei; Shi, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Yan

2011-11-01

246

Analysis of effect of flameholder characteristics on lean, premixed, partially vaporized fuel-air mixtures quality and nitrogen oxides emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was conducted of the effect of flameholding devices on the precombustion fuel-air characteristics and on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for combustion of premixed partially vaporized mixtures. The analysis includes the interrelationships of flameholder droplet collection efficiency, reatomization efficiency and blockage, and the initial droplet size distribution and accounts for the contribution of droplet combustion in partially vaporized mixtures to NOx emissions. Application of the analytical procedures is illustrated and parametric predictions of NOx emissions are presented.

Cooper, L. P.

1981-01-01

247

Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

2009-11-01

248

Upgrade Uranium Recovery Project No. 34110: final safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The accident analysis of the upgrade uranium recovery system indicated three potential hazards: (1) criticality, (2) toxic fumes from nitric acid solutions, and (3) release of toxic uranyl nitrate solutions. Any of these are capable of causing the death of one or more employees; therefore, they form the basis for the residual risks identified below. The analysis found no hazardous energies or substances capable of causing irreversible injury to, or the death of, any members of the public. The following residual risks will be controlled administratively by procedural constraints: An operator or maintenance error will cause /sup 235/U to be transferred into an unsafe container and cause a criticality. An operator or maintenance error will cause containers of /sup 235/U bearing material to be improperly spaced and cause a criticality. Extensive corrosion will cause a hole to form in a calciner tube, the corrosion will go undetected, and a criticality will result, and a loss of system and/or building solution containment will occur concurrent with a drain being open resulting in a criticality and/or release of toxic material. Additional residual risks that have a small probability are that an earthquake or tornado will affect the building, alter the system geometry, and initiate a criticality; that the compressed-gas (nitrogen) cylinder valve will be sheared off, become airborne, and alter the system geometry; and that loss of system and/or building solution containment may occur concurrently with fire sprinkler system actuation causing a criticality and/or release of toxic material. The following residual risks will be addressed in the Safety Study of the existing X-705 Building: that a spill of raffinate highly contaminated with /sup 99/Tc will occur due to operator error or incorrect lab analysis and that a gaseous or liquid effluent release of small amounts of transuranic elements will occur.

Not Available

1981-09-01

249

Safety and efficacy of adjunctive lacosamide among patients with partial-onset seizures in a long-term open-label extension trial of up to 8years.  

PubMed

Long-term (up to 8years of exposure) safety and efficacy of the antiepileptic drug lacosamide was evaluated in this open-label extension trial (SP615 [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00552305]). Patients were enrolled following participation in a double-blind trial or one of two open-label trials of adjunctive lacosamide for partial-onset seizures. Dosage adjustments of lacosamide (100-800mg/day) and/or concomitant antiepileptic drugs were allowed to optimize tolerability and seizure reduction. Of the 370 enrolled patients, 77%, 51%, and 39% had >1, >3, or >5years of lacosamide exposure, respectively. Median lacosamide modal dose was 400mg/day. Common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were dizziness (39.7%), headache (20.8%), nausea (17.3%), diplopia (17.0%), fatigue (16.5%), upper respiratory tract infection (16.5%), nasopharyngitis (16.2%), and contusion (15.4%). Dizziness (2.2%) was the only TEAE that led to discontinuation in >2% of patients. Ranges for median percent reductions in seizure frequency were 47-65%, and those for ?50% responder rates were 49-63% for 1-, 3-, and 5-year completer cohorts. Exposure to lacosamide for up to 8years was generally well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to previous double-blind trials, and efficacy was maintained. PMID:25461210

Rosenfeld, William; Fountain, Nathan B; Kaubrys, Gintaras; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; McShea, Cindy; Isojarvi, Jouko; Doty, Pamela

2014-12-01

250

Detrended partial-cross-correlation analysis: a new method for analyzing correlations in complex system.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new method, detrended partial-cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA), is proposed. Based on detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), this method is improved by including partial-correlation technique, which can be applied to quantify the relations of two non-stationary signals (with influences of other signals removed) on different time scales. We illustrate the advantages of this method by performing two numerical tests. Test I shows the advantages of DPCCA in handling non-stationary signals, while Test II reveals the "intrinsic" relations between two considered time series with potential influences of other unconsidered signals removed. To further show the utility of DPCCA in natural complex systems, we provide new evidence on the winter-time Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the winter-time Nino3 Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (Nino3-SSTA) affecting the Summer Rainfall over the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River (SRYR). By applying DPCCA, better significant correlations between SRYR and Nino3-SSTA on time scales of 6 ~ 8 years are found over the period 1951 ~ 2012, while significant correlations between SRYR and PDO on time scales of 35 years arise. With these physically explainable results, we have confidence that DPCCA is an useful method in addressing complex systems. PMID:25634341

Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao; Zhang, Huan; Piao, Lin; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg

2015-01-01

251

Detrended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis: A New Method for Analyzing Correlations in Complex System  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a new method, detrended partial-cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA), is proposed. Based on detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), this method is improved by including partial-correlation technique, which can be applied to quantify the relations of two non-stationary signals (with influences of other signals removed) on different time scales. We illustrate the advantages of this method by performing two numerical tests. Test I shows the advantages of DPCCA in handling non-stationary signals, while Test II reveals the “intrinsic” relations between two considered time series with potential influences of other unconsidered signals removed. To further show the utility of DPCCA in natural complex systems, we provide new evidence on the winter-time Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the winter-time Nino3 Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (Nino3-SSTA) affecting the Summer Rainfall over the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River (SRYR). By applying DPCCA, better significant correlations between SRYR and Nino3-SSTA on time scales of 6 ~ 8 years are found over the period 1951 ~ 2012, while significant correlations between SRYR and PDO on time scales of 35 years arise. With these physically explainable results, we have confidence that DPCCA is an useful method in addressing complex systems. PMID:25634341

Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao; Zhang, Huan; Piao, Lin; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg

2015-01-01

252

Preparation and application of a partially degradable gel in mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

In-gel digestion is an attractive route in mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, which, however, often suffers from a certain amount of sample loss mainly due to insufficient protein digestion and peptide extraction. To address this, herein we establish a partially degradable gel-assisted protein digestion and peptide recovery method by means of a simple replacement of bis-acrylamide (BA) with bis-acrylylcystamine (BAC). Concretely, the protein sample solubilized using high concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and urea were directly entrapped and immobilized into BAC-crosslinked gel by vacuum-dried gel absorption followed by fixation treatment. After removal of SDS and urea by repeated washing, the proteins were subjected to in-gel digestion and the gel was reductively treated. The tryptic peptides were recovered from the partial degradation of the gel and analyzed afterwards by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (CapLC-MS/MS). Compared with conventional BA-crosslinked gel method, this new method increased the numbers of identified proteins and unique peptides by 20.2% and 20.4%, respectively. The further statistical analysis demonstrated that the method improved the recovery of tryptic peptides particularly larger and/or hydrophobic peptides, thereby significantly facilitating protein identification. Thus, the newly developed method is a promising alternative for BA-crosslinked gel-based shotgun workflows and has potential application in the related fields of protein chemistry and proteomics. PMID:21920827

Zhou, Jian; Hu, Yongbo; Lin, Yong; Liu, Haipeng; Xie, Peng

2011-10-15

253

DNA Damage Focus Analysis in Blood Samples of Minipigs Reveals Acute Partial Body Irradiation  

PubMed Central

Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated ?H2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy (±6%) Co-60 ?-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to ?-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1–8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly ?-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-?H2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using ?H2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-?H2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after IR exposure. PMID:24498326

Lamkowski, Andreas; Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Ahmed, Emad A.; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

2014-01-01

254

DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.  

PubMed

Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated ?H2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy (± 6%) Co-60 ?-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to ?-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly ?-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-?H2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using ?H2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-?H2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after IR exposure. PMID:24498326

Lamkowski, Andreas; Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Ahmed, Emad A; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

2014-01-01

255

Partial wave analysis of the reaction ?p?p? and the search for nucleon resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction ?p?p? has been performed on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world’s first high-precision spin-density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of ???+?-?0. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel ?0 exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F15(1680) and D13(1700) near threshold, as well as the G17(2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a JP=5/2+ state around 2 GeV, a “missing” state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.

Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Krahn, Z.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Mayer, M.; McAndrew, J.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paris, M.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Perrin, Y.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.

2009-12-01

256

A risk-informed approach to safety margins analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway is a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. The model has been tested on the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab.

Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

2013-07-01

257

BESAFE II: Accident safety analysis code for MFE reactor designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability of controlled thermonuclear fusion as an alternative energy source hinges on its desirability from an economic and an environmental and safety standpoint. It is the latter which is the focus of this thesis. For magnetic fusion energy (MFE) devices, the safety concerns equate to a design's behavior during a worst-case accident scenario which is the loss of coolant

Lawrence Michael Sevigny

1997-01-01

258

Safety culture evaluation and asset root cause analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of organizational and management factors in nuclear power plant safety through the use of operating experiences. The ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) reports of thirteen plants (total thirty events) have been analyzed in term of twenty organizational dimensions (factors) identified by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pennsylvania State University. For three plants detailed results are reported in this paper. The results of thirteen plants are summarized in the form of a table. The study tends to confirm that organizational and management factors play an important role in plant safety. The twenty organizational dimensions and their definitions, in general, were adequate in this study. Formalization, Safety Culture, Technical Knowledge, Training, Roles-Responsibilities and Problem Identification appear to be key organizational factors which influence the safety of nuclear power plants studied.

Okrent, D.; Xiong, Y.

1995-12-31

259

An eQTL Analysis of Partial Resistance to Puccinia hordei in Barley  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic resistance to barley leaf rust caused by Puccinia hordei involves both R genes and quantitative trait loci. The R genes provide higher but less durable resistance than the quantitative trait loci. Consequently, exploring quantitative or partial resistance has become a favorable alternative for controlling disease. Four quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to leaf rust have been identified in the doubled haploid Steptoe (St)/Morex (Mx) mapping population. Further investigations are required to study the molecular mechanisms underpinning partial resistance and ultimately identify the causal genes. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored partial resistance to barley leaf rust using a genetical genomics approach. We recorded RNA transcript abundance corresponding to each probe on a 15K Agilent custom barley microarray in seedlings from St and Mx and 144 doubled haploid lines of the St/Mx population. A total of 1154 and 1037 genes were, respectively, identified as being P. hordei-responsive among the St and Mx and differentially expressed between P. hordei-infected St and Mx. Normalized ratios from 72 distant-pair hybridisations were used to map the genetic determinants of variation in transcript abundance by expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping generating 15685 eQTL from 9557 genes. Correlation analysis identified 128 genes that were correlated with resistance, of which 89 had eQTL co-locating with the phenotypic quantitative trait loci (pQTL). Transcript abundance in the parents and conservation of synteny with rice allowed us to prioritise six genes as candidates for Rphq11, the pQTL of largest effect, and highlight one, a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (HvPHGPx) for detailed analysis. Conclusions/Significance The eQTL approach yielded information that led to the identification of strong candidate genes underlying pQTL for resistance to leaf rust in barley and on the general pathogen response pathway. The dataset will facilitate a systems appraisal of this host-pathogen interaction and, potentially, for other traits measured in this population. PMID:20066049

Chen, Xinwei; Hackett, Christine A.; Niks, Rients E.; Hedley, Peter E.; Booth, Clare; Druka, Arnis; Marcel, Thierry C.; Vels, Anton; Bayer, Micha; Milne, Iain; Morris, Jenny; Ramsay, Luke; Marshall, David; Cardle, Linda; Waugh, Robbie

2010-01-01

260

Automated validation of patient safety clinical incident classification: macro analysis.  

PubMed

Patient safety is the buzz word in healthcare. Incident Information Management System (IIMS) is electronic software that stores clinical mishaps narratives in places where patients are treated. It is estimated that in one state alone over one million electronic text documents are available in IIMS. In this paper we investigate the data density available in the fields entered to notify an incident and the validity of the built in classification used by clinician to categories the incidents. Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) software was used to test the classes. Four statistical classifier based on J48, Naïve Bayes (NB), Naïve Bayes Multinominal (NBM) and Support Vector Machine using radial basis function (SVM_RBF) algorithms were used to validate the classes. The data pool was 10,000 clinical incidents drawn from 7 hospitals in one state in Australia. In first part of the study 1000 clinical incidents were selected to determine type and number of fields worth investigating and in the second part another 5448 clinical incidents were randomly selected to validate 13 clinical incident types. Result shows 74.6% of the cells were empty and only 23 fields had content over 70% of the time. The percentage correctly classified classes on four algorithms using categorical dataset ranged from 42 to 49%, using free-text datasets from 65% to 77% and using both datasets from 72% to 79%. Kappa statistic ranged from 0.36 to 0.4. for categorical data, from 0.61 to 0.74. for free-text and from 0.67 to 0.77 for both datasets. Similar increases in performance in the 3 experiments was noted on true positive rate, precision, F-measure and area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) scores. The study demonstrates only 14 of 73 fields in IIMS have data that is usable for machine learning experiments. Irrespective of the type of algorithms used when all datasets are used performance was better. Classifier NBM showed best performance. We think the classifier can be improved further by reclassifying the most confused classes and there is scope to apply text mining tool on patient safety classifications. PMID:23823288

Gupta, Jaiprakash; Patrick, Jon

2013-01-01

261

Analysis of pumping tests: Significance of well diameter, partial penetration, and noise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nonlinear least squares (NLS) method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in confined and unconfined aquifers with finite diameter and partially penetrating pumping wells, and with partially penetrating piezometers or observation wells. It was demonstrated that noiseless and moderately noisy drawdown data from observation points located less than two saturated thicknesses of the aquifer from the pumping well produced an exact or acceptable set of parameters when the diameter of the pumping well was included in the analysis. The accuracy of the estimated parameters, particularly that of specific storage, decreased with increases in the noise level in the observed drawdown data. With consideration of the well radii, the noiseless drawdown data from the pumping well in an unconfined aquifer produced good estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and specific yield, but the estimated specific storage was unacceptable. When noisy data from the pumping well were used, an acceptable set of parameters was not obtained. Further experiments with noisy drawdown data in an unconfined aquifer revealed that when the well diameter was included in the analysis, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and vertical hydraulic conductivity may be estimated rather effectively from piezometers located over a range of distances from the pumping well. Estimation of specific storage became less reliable for piezemeters located at distances greater than the initial saturated thickness of the aquifer. Application of the NLS to field pumping and recovery data from a confined aquifer showed that the estimated parameters from the two tests were in good agreement only when the well diameter was included in the analysis. Without consideration of well radii, the estimated values of hydraulic conductivity from the pumping and recovery tests were off by a factor of four.The nonlinear least squares method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in confined and unconfined aquifers with finite diameter and partially penetrating piezometers and observation wells. Noiseless and moderately noisy drawdown data from observation points located less than two saturated thicknesses of the aquifer from the pumping well produced a set of parameters that agrees very well with piezometer test data when the diameter of the pumping well was included in the analysis. The accuracy of the estimated parameters decreased with increasing noise level.

Heidari, M.; Ghiassi, K.; Mehnert, E.

1999-01-01

262

Integration of partial least squares and Monte Carlo gene expression analysis in coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of cardiovascular disease and leading cause of mortality worldwide. Microarray technology for gene expression analysis has facilitated the identification of the molecular mechanism that underlies the pathogenesis of CAD. Previous studies have primarily used variance or regression analysis, without considering array specific factors. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of CAD using partial least squares (PLS)-based analysis, which was integrated with the Monte Carlo technique. Microarray analysis was performed with a data set of 110 CAD patients and 111 controls obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 390 dysregulated genes were acquired. Significantly increased representations of dysregulated genes in Gene Ontology items, including transforming growth factor ?-activated receptor activity and acyl-CoA oxidase activity, were identified. Network analysis revealed three hub genes with a degree of >10, including ESR1, ITGA4 and ARRB2. The results of the present study provide novel information on the gene expression signatures of CAD patients and offer further theoretical support for future therapeutic study. PMID:24940402

ZHANG, HUAN; LI, TAO; WU, GUANJI; MA, FENG

2014-01-01

263

Robotic versus Open Partial Nephrectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To critically review the currently available evidence of studies comparing robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) and open partial nephrectomy (OPN). Materials and Methods A comprehensive review of the literature from Pubmed, Web of Science and Scopus was performed in October 2013. All relevant studies comparing RPN with OPN were included for further screening. A cumulative meta-analysis of all comparative studies was performed and publication bias was assessed by a funnel plot. Results Eight studies were included for the analysis, including a total of 3418 patients (757 patients in the robotic group and 2661 patients in the open group). Although RPN procedures had a longer operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD]: 40.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.39–67.40; p?=?0.002), patients in this group benefited from a lower perioperative complication rate (19.3% for RPN and 29.5% for OPN; odds ratio [OR]: 0.53; 95%CI, 0.42–0.67; p<0.00001), shorter hospital stay (WMD: ?2.78; 95%CI, ?3.36 to ?1.92; p<0.00001), less estimated blood loss(WMD: ?106.83; 95%CI, ?176.4 to ?37.27; p?=?0.003). Transfusions, conversion to radical nephrectomy, ischemia time and estimated GFR change, margin status, and overall cost were comparable between the two techniques. The main limitation of the present meta-analysis is the non-randomization of all included studies. Conclusions RPN appears to be an efficient alternative to OPN with the advantages of a lower rate of perioperative complications, shorter length of hospital stay and less blood loss. Nevertheless, high quality prospective randomized studies with longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24740259

Cai, Chen; Ye, Huamao; Lv, Chen; Yang, Qing; Sheng, Jing; Song, Shangqing; Qu, Le; Xiao, Liang; Sun, Yinghao; Wang, Linhui

2014-01-01

264

41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life...

2011-01-01

265

41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life...

2010-07-01

266

41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life...

2013-07-01

267

41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life...

2014-01-01

268

41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80...Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information...included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life...

2012-01-01

269

Accelerated partial breast irradiation using external beam radiotherapy—A feasibility study based on dosimetric analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the feasibility of using External Beam radiotherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation by a comparative tumour and normal tissue dose volume analysis with that of high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy. Background Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) is more clinically appealing because of the reduced treatment course duration and the irradiated area. Brachytherapy application is more dependent on the clinician's expertise when it is practised free hand without image guidance and a template. It happens to be an invasive procedure with the use of local anaesthesia which adds patient discomfort apart from its cost compared to External Beam Radiotherapy. But APBI with brachytherapy is more commonly practised procedure compared to EBRT owing to its previous reults. Hence in this research study, we intend to explore the use of EBRT with the radiobiological corrections for APBI in the place of brachytherapy. It is done as a dosimetric comparison of Brachytherapy treatment plans with that of EBRT plans. Materials and methods The computed tomography images of 15 patients undergoing ISBT planning were simulated with conformal photon fields. Various dose volume parameters of each structure were obtained from the DVH generated in the brachytherapy and the simulated external beam planning which can correlate well with the late toxicity. The plan quality indices such as conformity index and homogeneity index for the target volume were computed from the dosimetric factors. The statistical p values for CI, HI and normal tissue dosimetric parameters were calculated and the confidence levels achievable were analysed. The dose prescribed in brachytherapy was 3400cGy in ten fractions. The equivalent prescription dose for the external beam radiotherapy planning was 3000cGy in five fractions applied with radiobiological correction. Results All the fifteen patients were with complete lung data and six were with left sided tumours having complete cardiac data. The lung dosimetry data and the cardiac dosimetry data of the patients were studied. Lower percentages of lung and cardiac V20 and V5 volumes were obtained with conformal planning. The conformity of radiation dose to the tumour volume was akin to the interstitial brachytherapy planning. Moreover the external beam planning resulted in more homogenous dose distribution. For the sampled population, the statistical analysis showed a confidence level of 95% for using EBRT as an alternate to multi catheter ISBT. Conclusion The EBRT planning for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation was found to be technically feasible in the institution where the interstitial brachytherapy happens to be the only available technique as evident from the dose volume parameters and the statistical analysis. PMID:24377024

Anbumani, Surega; Palled, Siddanna R.; Prabhakar, Girish S.; Nambiraj, N. Arunai; Pichandi, Anchineyan

2012-01-01

270

SAID Partial Wave Analyses from CNS DAC (Center for Nuclear Studies Data Analysis Center)  

DOE Data Explorer

George Washington University (GW) has one of the largest university-based nuclear-physics groups in the nation. Many of the current and future projects are geared to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) at Newport News, VA. JLab is the world's premier electron accelerator for nuclear physics, and GW is one of the charter members of the governing body of JLab, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA). The George Washington Data Analysis Center (DAC) was created in 1998 by an agreement among the Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, and the GW Center for Nuclear Studies.The activities of the DAC fall into four distinct categories: 1) Performing partial-wave analyses of fundamental two- and three-body reactions; 2) Maintenance of databases associated with these reactions; 3) Development of software to disseminate DAC results (as well as the results of competing model-independent analyses and potential approaches); and 4) Phenomenological and theoretical investigations which bridge the gap between theory and experiment; in particular, the extraction of N* and D * hadronic and electromagnetic couplings. Partial Wave Analyses (and the associated databases) available at GW are: Pion-Nucleon, Kaon-Nucleon, Nucleon-Nucleon, Pion Photoproduction, Pion Electroproduction, Kaon Photoproduction, Eta Photoproduction, Eta-Prime Photoproduction, Pion-Deuteron (elastic), and Pion-Deuteron to Proton+Proton. [Taken from http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm">http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm

271

Analysis of Multiple Partially Ordered Responses to Belief Items with Don't Know Option.  

PubMed

Understanding beliefs, values, and preferences of patients is a tenet of contemporary health sciences. This application was motivated by the analysis of multiple partially ordered set (poset) responses from an inventory on layman beliefs about diabetes. The partially ordered set arises because of two features in the data-first, the response options contain a Don't Know (DK) option, and second, there were two consecutive occasions of measurement. As predicted by the common sense model of illness, beliefs about diabetes were not necessarily stable across the two measurement occasions. Instead of analyzing the two occasions separately, we studied the joint responses across the occasions as a poset response. Few analytic methods exist for data structures other than ordered or nominal categories. Poset responses are routinely collapsed and then analyzed as either rank ordered or nominal data, leading to the loss of nuanced information that might be present within poset categories. In this paper we developed a general class of item response models for analyzing the poset data collected from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory. The inferential object of interest is the latent trait that indicates congruence of belief with the biomedical model. To apply an item response model to the poset diabetes inventory, we proved that a simple coding algorithm circumvents the requirement of writing new codes such that standard IRT software could be directly used for the purpose of item estimation and individual scoring. Simulation experiments were used to examine parameter recovery for the proposed poset model. PMID:25479822

Ip, Edward H; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Quandt, Sara A

2014-12-01

272

Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

1998-01-01

273

Impedance analysis for oxygen reduction in lithium carbonate melt: Effect of partial pressure of oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Effects of partial pressure of oxygen and temperature on oxygen reduction kinetics on a submerged gold electrode in lithium carbonate melt were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and impedance analysis. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction in Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt is reversible up to 200 mV/s. The impedance analysis was carried out using a Complex Nonlinear Least Square (CNLS) paxameter estimation program based on the Randles-Ershler equivalent circlet. This analysis technique was used to estimate the electrode kinetics and the mass transfer related parameters such as the charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) and the Warburg coefficient {sigma}. The mass transfer related parameters obtained from cyclic voltammetry and impedance analysis were in good agreement. The reaction orders for oxygen at 800{degrees}C were calculated to be 0.38 for the exchange current density and 0.5 for the product D{sub o}{sup {1/2}}C{sub o}*; these values are consistent with the mechanism proposed in the literature for oxygen reduction in Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt on a submerged gold electrode.

Dave, B.B.; White, R.E.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A.J.

1989-01-01

274

Impedance analysis for oxygen reduction in lithium carbonate melt: Effect of partial pressure of oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Effects of partial pressure of oxygen and temperature on oxygen reduction kinetics on a submerged gold electrode in lithium carbonate melt were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and impedance analysis. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction in Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt is reversible up to 200 mV/s. The impedance analysis was carried out using a Complex Nonlinear Least Square (CNLS) paxameter estimation program based on the Randles-Ershler equivalent circlet. This analysis technique was used to estimate the electrode kinetics and the mass transfer related parameters such as the charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) and the Warburg coefficient {sigma}. The mass transfer related parameters obtained from cyclic voltammetry and impedance analysis were in good agreement. The reaction orders for oxygen at 800{degrees}C were calculated to be 0.38 for the exchange current density and 0.5 for the product D{sub o}{sup {1/2}}C{sub o}*; these values are consistent with the mechanism proposed in the literature for oxygen reduction in Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt on a submerged gold electrode.

Dave, B.B.; White, R.E.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A.J.

1989-12-31

275

In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 3: System safety analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective was to examine from a system safety viewpoint in-space propellant logistic elements and operations to define the potential hazards and to recommend means to reduce, eliminate or control them. A secondary objective was to conduct trade studies of specific systems or operations to determine the safest of alternate approaches.

1972-01-01

276

Method for carrier aircraft task flow safety analysis based on TPN  

Microsoft Academic Search

With tight timing, sequencing and compact, the time error of any task flow activities of carrier aircrafts may result flow fracturing, leading to unsafe task. Currently, the research in the carrier aircraft safety is mainly focused on the quality of its flight dynamics modeling and simulation, while for carrier aircraft task flow analysis, its improvement, and safety induced by the

Zhaoguang Peng; Tingdi Zhao; Jin Tian

2011-01-01

277

Aircraft Autolander Safety Analysis Through Optimal Control-Based Reach Set Computation  

E-print Network

Aircraft Autolander Safety Analysis Through Optimal Control-Based Reach Set Computation Alexandre M for thenumerical computation ofreachable sets for hybrid systems is presented and appliedto thedesign and safety a maximal controlled invariant set and a set-valued control law guaranteed to keep the aircraft within

278

FAST FERRY SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR SAN FRANCISCO BAY: NEEDS ASSESSMENT AND PRELIMINARY FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast ferry traffic and vessel speed are on the rise in San Francisco Bay. A conservative analysis estimates that daily fast ferry trips may increase from today's 100-plus trips to 665 trips in only 10 years. Although providing great opportunities for industry and travelers alike, increasing speed and congestion raise important safety considerations that could overwhelm the existing safety infrastructure.

Mary Walther; Jerry Aspland

2001-01-01

279

Aspects of environmental and safety analysis of fusion reactors  

E-print Network

This report summarizes the progress made between October 1976 and September 1977 in studies of some environmental and safety considerations in fusion reactor plants. A methodology to assess the admissible occurrence rate ...

Kazimi, Mujid S.

1977-01-01

280

A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

Gupta, J. P.

1989-01-01

281

Factors Analysis on Safety of Indoor Air Quality  

E-print Network

on safety of IAQ, including space dimensions, structure styles, and airproof materials. The impacts of ventilation on IAQ were tested with regard to supply air and contaminants, indoor air distribution, and maintenance of the ventilation system....

Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

2006-01-01

282

10 CFR 72.70 - Safety analysis report updating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...All safety analyses and evaluations...All final analyses and evaluations of the design and performance...structures, systems, and components...pertinent information developed during final design, construction... (4) All analyses of new...

2010-01-01

283

Reliability Analysis of DSRC Wireless Communication for Vehicle Safety Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 802.11-p based dedicated short range communication (DSRC) is being seriously considered as a promising wireless technology for enhancing transportation safety and highway efficiency. However, to-date, there is very little research done in characterizing the reliability of DSRC communication based on real-world experimental data, and its effect on the reliability of vehicle safety applications. Our experimental set-up includes a fleet

Fan Bai; Hariharan Krishnan

2006-01-01

284

Markov Modeling with Soft Aggregation for Safety and Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The methodology in this report improves on some of the limitations of many conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. A top-down mathematical approach is developed for decomposing systems and for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers. A ''Markov-like'' model is developed that facilitates combining (aggregating) inputs into overall metrics and decision aids, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. A major goal of Markov modeling is to help convey the top-down system perspective. One of the constituent methodologies allows metrics to be weighted according to significance of the attribute and aggregated nonlinearly as to contribution. This aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed ''soft'' mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on ''overlap'' of the factors as well as by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on considering new controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to obtain significant information% including cyclic information for the decision process. A practical example from the air transportation industry is used to demonstrate application of the methodology. Illustrations are given for developing a structure (along with recommended inputs and weights) for air transportation oversight at three different levels, for developing and using cycle information, for developing Importance and Sensitivity measures for soil aggregation, for developing dependence methodology, for constructing early alert logic, for tracking trends, for relating the Markov model to other (e.g., Reason) models, for developing and demonstrating rudimentary laptop software, and for developing an input/output display methodology.

COOPER,J. ARLIN

1999-09-01

285

Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs.

Herborn, D.I.

1991-10-01

286

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis of SF6 partial discharge decomposition components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) internal SF6 gas produces specific decomposition components under partial discharge (PD). By detecting these characteristic decomposition components, such information as the type and level of GIS internal insulation deterioration can be obtained effectively, and the status of GIS internal insulation can be evaluated. SF6 was selected as the background gas for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) detection in this study. SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, and CO were selected as the characteristic decomposition components for system analysis. The standard infrared absorption spectroscopy of the four characteristic components was measured, the optimal absorption peaks were recorded and the corresponding absorption coefficient was calculated. Quantitative detection experiments on the four characteristic components were conducted. The volume fraction variation trend of four characteristic components at different PD time were analyzed. And under five different PD quantity, the quantitative relationships among gas production rate, PD time, and PD quantity were studied.

Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Heng; Ren, Jiangbo; Li, Jian; Li, Xin

2015-02-01

287

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis of SF6 partial discharge decomposition components.  

PubMed

Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) internal SF6 gas produces specific decomposition components under partial discharge (PD). By detecting these characteristic decomposition components, such information as the type and level of GIS internal insulation deterioration can be obtained effectively, and the status of GIS internal insulation can be evaluated. SF6 was selected as the background gas for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) detection in this study. SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, and CO were selected as the characteristic decomposition components for system analysis. The standard infrared absorption spectroscopy of the four characteristic components was measured, the optimal absorption peaks were recorded and the corresponding absorption coefficient was calculated. Quantitative detection experiments on the four characteristic components were conducted. The volume fraction variation trend of four characteristic components at different PD time were analyzed. And under five different PD quantity, the quantitative relationships among gas production rate, PD time, and PD quantity were studied. PMID:25459612

Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Heng; Ren, Jiangbo; Li, Jian; Li, Xin

2015-02-01

288

Hydroelastic vibration analysis of partially liquid-filled shells using a series representation of the liquid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series representation of the oscillatory behavior of incompressible nonviscous liquids contained in partially filled elastic tanks is presented. Each term is selected on the basis of hydroelastic vibrations in circular cylindrical tanks. Using a complementary energy principle, the superposition of terms is made to approximately satisfy the liquid-tank interface compatibility. This analysis is applied to the gravity sloshing and hydroelastic vibrations of liquids in hemispherical tanks and in a typical elastic aerospace propellant tank. With only a few series terms retained, the results correlate very well with existing analytical results, NASTRAN-generated analytical results, and experimental test results. Hence, although each term is based on a cylindrical tank geometry, the superposition can be successfully applied to noncylindrical tanks.

Housner, J. M.; Herr, R. W.; Sewall, J. L.

1980-01-01

289

Partial least square regression: an analysis tool for quantitative non-destructive testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning of parts in eddy current testing can lead to a large amount of measurement data (predictors). Partial least square (PLS) regression is a mean to reduce the dimensionality of the subsequent inverse problem by projecting the predictors in a latent subspace of reduced dimension maximizing the covariance between the projection and the responses which have to be estimated. In a second step, a regression model is elaborated linking the responses to the latent variables. PLS was originally developed in the field of chemical analysis. In this paper, the PLS method is applied in the field of eddy current testing for the characterization of minute cracks. It is tested firstly on simulated data and then on experimental data. It is found that the reconstruction of the area of minute cracks is made possible by PLS.

Le Bihan, Yann; Pávó, József; Marchand, Claude

2014-09-01

290

A partial wave analysis of pbar-p -> eta-eta-pizero  

E-print Network

A partial wave analysis of pbar-p -> eta-eta-pizero data from the Crystal Barrel experiment is made in terms of s-channel resonances. The decay channels a_0(980)-eta, f_0(1770)-pi and f_0(2105)-pi provide evidence for two I = 1 J^{PC} = 0^{-+} resonances. The first has mass M =2360 +- 25 MeV and width Gamma = 300^{+100}_{-50} MeV, and the second M =2070 \\pm 35 MeV, Gamma = 310^{+100}_{-50} MeV. There is also evidence for a J^{PC} = 2^{-+} state with M = 2005 +- 15 MeV and Gamma = 200 +- 40 MeV, decaying strongly to a_0(980)-pi.

A. V. Anisovich; C. A. Baker; C. J. Batty; D. V. Bugg; V. A. Nikonov; A. V. Sarantsev; V. V. Sarantsev; B. S. Zou

2011-09-30

291

Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

2004-02-01

292

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

1992-01-01

293

Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

1992-01-01

294

Analysis of safety data in clinical trials using a recurrent event approach.  

PubMed

As an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of an investigational therapy, safety data are routinely collected in clinical trials. To date, the analysis of safety data has largely been limited to descriptive summaries of incidence rates or contingency tables aiming to compare simple rates between treatment arms. Many have argued that this traditional approach failed to take into account important information including severity, onset time, and multiple occurrences of a safety event. In addition, premature treatment discontinuation due to excessive toxicity causes informative censoring and may lead to potential bias in the interpretation of safety events. In this article, we propose a framework to summarize safety data with mean frequency function and compare safety events of interest between treatments with a generalized log-rank test, taking into account the aforementioned characteristics ignored in traditional analysis approaches. In addition, a multivariate generalized log-rank test to compare the overall safety profile of different treatments is proposed. In the proposed method, safety events are considered to follow a recurrent event process with a terminal event for each patient. The terminal event is modeled by a process of two types of competing risks: safety events of interest and other terminal events. Statistical properties of the proposed method are investigated via simulations. An application is presented with data from a phase II oncology trial. PMID:24519954

Gong, Qi; Tong, Barbara; Strasak, Alexander; Fang, Liang

2014-01-01

295

49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. 209.501 Section 209.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

2011-10-01

296

49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. 209.501 Section 209.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

2012-10-01

297

49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. 209.501 Section 209.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

2010-10-01

298

Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

1990-02-01

299

System safety and hazard analysis for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a four-meter class instrument being built to perform diffractionlimited observations of the sun. This paper describes how ATST has dealt with system safety and in particular hazard analysis during the design and development (D&D) phase. For ATST the development of a system safety plan and the oversight of the hazard analysis fell, appropriately, to systems engineering. We have adopted the methodology described in MIL-STD-882E, "Standard Practice for System Safety." While these methods were developed for use by the U.S. Department of Defense, they are readily applicable to the safety needs of telescope projects. We describe the details of our process, how it was implemented by the ATST design team, and some useful lessons learned. We conclude with a discussion of our safety related plans during the construction phase of ATST and beyond.

Hubbard, Robert P.

2010-07-01

300

Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate both the likelihood of occurrence of hazards, and the likelihood that those hazards will lead to negative safety events. Heuristics extracted from scenarios, questionnaires, and observed trends from scanning the aviation horizon may be helpful in capturing those future changes in a way conducive to safety assessment. What is also needed is a checklist of potential sources of emerging risk that arise from organizational features that are frequently overlooked. The ultimate goal is to develop a pragmatic, workable method for using descriptions of the future aviation context, to generate valid predictions of safety risks.

Smith, Brian E.

2013-01-01

301

Static-stress analysis of dual-axis safety vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8 ft diameter safety vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, is evaluated to determine its ability to contain the quasi-static residual pressure from a high explosive (HE) blast. The safety vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A smaller confinement vessel fits inside the safety vessel and contains the actual explosion, and the safety vessel functions as a second layer of containment in the unlikely case of a confinement vessel leak. The safety vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC107. Combined stresses that result from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared to the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzle components are adequately designed for a static pressure of 830 psi, plus the maximum expected external loads. Shell stresses at the 'shell to nozzle' interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 700 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 17,384 psi, which is significantly less than the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

Bultman, D. H.

1992-11-01

302

Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Dam Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical methodologies and particularly the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) effectively proved their efficiency in the non-destructive testing of the dams, in the last decade, after many successful applications worldwide. The MASW method developed in the outset of this decade considerably improved the prospects and the validity of these geophysical applications. Since MASW and the other geophysical techniques do not require drilling they progressively increased their popularity significantly. The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves can be applied for the assessment of both earthen and concrete dams. Nevertheless, mostly cases of earthen dams can be found in the literature. The method can detect and map low shear wave velocity areas potentially associated with low cohesion zones due to differential settlement events in the core or increased seepage. The advantage of MASW is that it is not influenced by the water saturation of the interior of the dam contrary to other methods eg. p-wave tomography. Usually, a joint application of MASW with the p-wave techniques can be an optimal choice since the two methodologies can act complementary. An application of MASW on a three-dimensional structure, such as a dam, however, can actually be considered as a complicated problem since the effects of the lateral structural anomalies can strongly affect the results. For example, in an earthen dam the investigation of the core can be influenced by the presence of the shells. Therefore, the problem should be carefully examined by modeling all these the lateral anomalies with the aim to avoid a misinterpretation of the results. The effectiveness of MASW to the dam safety assessment is presented through two example applications, one at the Mornos Dam, an earthen dam responsible for the water supply of Athens, and a second one at the Marathon Dam which is a concrete dam also used for the water supply of Athens. In the case of Mornos Dam, MASW detected areas affected by the differential settlement of the dam and more specifically by the arching phenomenon in the core. Such phenomena can lead to hydraulic fracture in the core and therefore should be carefully encountered. In particular the method detected, in the central part of the core, a weak zone just below the crest and another one at depth of 45 below crest, at a place where the monitoring instruments of the dam had measured very low effective stresses. This zone follows the shape pattern of the riverbed and at the edges of the crest it is connected with two other thick tensile zones. The example from the application in the concrete dam at Marathon is focused on the interior of the dam. The data acquired there, in the tunnels, were of different character than the ones gathered on usual applications on soil environment mainly due to the high and broad frequency content and the high phase velocity values. The standard data acquisition procedure also required some modification for the triggering and recording. The analysis of the data showed that such an application could provide useful results for the testing of the concrete quality.

Karastathis, V. K.

2012-12-01

303

Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the experienced user-base and the experimental validation base was decaying away quickly.

Carbajo, Juan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache %3CU%2B2013%3E CEA, France)

2011-06-01

304

Directed neural connectivity changes in robot-assisted gait training: A partial Granger causality analysis.  

PubMed

Now-a-days robotic exoskeletons are often used to help in gait training of stroke patients. However, such robotic systems have so far yielded only mixed results in benefiting the clinical population. Therefore, there is a need to investigate how gait learning and de-learning get characterised in brain signals and thus determine neural substrate to focus attention on, possibly, through an appropriate brain-computer interface (BCI). To this end, this paper reports the analysis of EEG data acquired from six healthy individuals undergoing robot-assisted gait training of a new gait pattern. Time-domain partial Granger causality (PGC) method was applied to estimate directed neural connectivity among relevant brain regions. To validate the results, a power spectral density (PSD) analysis was also performed. Results showed a strong causal interaction between lateral motor cortical areas. A frontoparietal connection was found in all robot-assisted training sessions. Following training, a causal "top-down" cognitive control was evidenced, which may indicate plasticity in the connectivity in the respective brain regions. PMID:25571451

Youssofzadeh, Vahab; Zanotto, Damiano; Stegall, Paul; Naeem, Muhammad; Wong-Lin, KongFatt; Agrawal, Sunil K; Prasad, Girijesh

2014-08-01

305

Finite element analysis of a four-unit all-ceramic fixed partial denture.  

PubMed

All-ceramic restorations are known to be prone to brittle fracture. However, a previously performed in vitro study indicates that four-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) with a zirconia framework are sufficiently strong to withstand occlusal forces in the posterior region. The aim of this study was to determine the stress distribution in such a four-unit FPD made of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP), under an occlusal load. A three-dimensional finite element model was constructed and a stress analysis performed with a force of 1630 N applied at the centre of the middle connector area. The location of maximum tensile stress according to finite element analysis coincided with the fracture origin of all 10 specimens fractured within the previous in vitro study. The maximum tensile stress in the area of the middle connector amounted to 633 MPa. It increased with the load being applied from the oral towards the buccal side (648 MPa) and decreased with the load being applied from the buccal towards the oral side (570 MPa). These stresses are of the same order as the flexural strength of Y-TZP, determined under standardized test conditions to be 600-1000 MPa. The model presented is intended to be used for further investigations, including thermally induced stresses during veneering. PMID:19117821

Dittmer, Marc Philipp; Kohorst, Philipp; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch-Scholz, Meike

2009-05-01

306

Partial Eval Partial Eval  

E-print Network

. . . . -- -- -- . . #12; A Naive Onl ine Partial val at r E (expression) ::= x | l l l lx.E | E@E #12; A Naive Onl ine Partial val at r E (expression) ::= x | l l l lx.E | E@E onpe : exp® ® ® ®env® ® ® ®value option � � � � exp (symbolic value) #12; A Naive Onl ine Partial val at r E (expression) ::= x | l l l lx.E | E

Sumii, Eijiro

307

Analysis of factors influencing safety management for metro construction in China.  

PubMed

With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the number and size of metro construction projects are increasing quickly. At the same time, and increasing number of accidents in metro construction make it a disturbing focus of social attention. In order to improve safety management in metro construction, an investigation of the participants' perspectives on safety factors in China metro construction has been conducted to identify the key safety factors, and their ranking consistency among the main participants, including clients, consultants, designers, contractors and supervisors. The result of factor analysis indicates that there are five key factors which influence the safety of metro construction including safety attitude, construction site safety, government supervision, market restrictions and task unpredictability. In addition, ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were performed to test the consistency of the means rating and the ranking of safety factors. The results indicated that the main participants have significant disagreement about the importance of safety factors on more than half of the items. Suggestions and recommendations on practical countermeasures to improve metro construction safety management in China are proposed. PMID:23932091

Yu, Q Z; Ding, L Y; Zhou, C; Luo, H B

2014-07-01

308

Thread safety in an MPI implementation : requirements and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The MPI-2 Standard has carefully specified the interaction between MPI and user-created threads. The goal of this specification is to allow users to write multithreaded MPI programs while also allowing MPI implementations to deliver high performance. However, a simple reading of the thread-safety specification does not reveal what its implications are for an implementation and what implementers must be aware (and careful) of. In this paper, we describe and analyze what the MPI Standard says about thread-safety and what it implies for an implementation. We classify the MPI functions based on their thread-safety requirements and discuss several issues to consider when implementing thread-safety in MPI. We use the example of generating new context ids (required for creating new communicators) to demonstrate how a simple solution for the single-threaded case does not naturally extend to the multithreaded case and how a naove thread-safe algorithm can be expensive. We then present an algorithm for generating context ids that works efficiently in both single-threaded and multithreaded cases.

Gropp, W.; Thakur, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science

2007-09-01

309

Risk analysis as a basis for safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper shows, with a practical application, how the hazard identification and evaluation phase of the Safety Management System (SMS) in a major risk installation (as defined by EC Directive CEE 96\\/82 (Seveso II) is the sizing criteria for the whole SMS, with its procedures. Probabilistic risk assessment techniques are applied to a foaming agent production plant. The links between

Micaela Demichela; Norberto Piccinini; Alfredo Romano

2004-01-01

310

Nuclear and chemical safety analysis: Purex Plant 1970 thorium campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to discuss the flowsheet and the related processing equipment with respect to nuclear and chemical safety. The analyses presented are based on equipment utilization and revised piping as outlined in the design criteria. Processing of thorium and uranium-233 in the Purex Plant can be accomplished within currently accepted levels of risk with respect to

A. L. Boldt; G. C. Oberg

1970-01-01

311

Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data for safety-analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data contained herein were compiled in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office Order OR 5481.1. That order sets forth assignment of responsibilities for safety analysis and review responsibilities and provides guidance relative to the content and format of safety analysis reports. The information presented in this document is intended for use by reference in individual safety analysis reports where applicable to support accident analyses or the establishment of design bases of significance to safety, and it is applicable only to Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities in Bethel and Melton Valleys. This information includes broad descriptions of the site characteristics, radioactive waste handling and monitoring practices, and the organization and operating policies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The historical background of the Laboratory is discussed briefly and the overall physical situation of the facilities is described in the following paragraphs.

Fitzpatrick, F.C.

1982-12-01

312

Robot-assisted versus laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for localized renal tumors: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is being performed more frequently for the minimally invasive management of localized renal tumors. However, it’s unclear whether RAPN is more efficacious than the standard laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare RAPN and LPN in terms of perioperative and oncologic outcomes for the treatment of localized renal tumors. Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and OVID was conducted. Comparative studies comparing RAPN and LPN for the treatment of localized renal tumors were regarded eligible. The mean difference (MD), odds ratio (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each outcome. The methodologic quality of the included studies was evaluated using the strict criteria of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: 14 comparative studies (n = 1539 participants) were included in the present meta-analysis. Operative time was similar for RAPN and LPN (MD = 6.33, 95% CI [-23.93, 36.59]), however, warm ischemia time favored RAPN (MD = -3.29, 95% CI [-6.47, -0.10]). There was no significant difference in estimated blood loss (EBL) (MD = -42.24, 95% CI [-87.10, 2.61]) and length of stay (LOS) (MD = -0.29, 95% CI [-0.89, 0.32]). The incidence of intraoperative complications was similar for RAPN and LPN (OR = 0.68, 95% CI [0.29, 1.58]), as well as incidence of postoperative minor complications (OR = 1.10, 95% CI [0.80, 1.51]) and postoperative major complications distributions by Clavien classification (OR = 0.99, 95% CI [0.61, 1.61]). In addition, no significant difference was found in terms of positive surgical margin rate (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [0.56, 2.25]). Conclusions: RAPN had similar operative time, LOS, EBL, and perioperative complications compared with LPN, as well as positive margin rates. RAPN appears to offer the advantage of decreased WIT compared with LPN. Studies with long-term follow up are needed to compare RAPN and LPN in terms of long-term complications and oncologic outcomes.

Zhang, Xiaolong; Yan, Jiajun; Ren, Yu; Shen, Chong; Ying, Xiangrong; Pan, Shouhua

2014-01-01

313

Dissecting the Space-Time Structure of Tree-Ring Datasets Using the Partial Triadic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Tree-ring datasets are used in a variety of circumstances, including archeology, climatology, forest ecology, and wood technology. These data are based on microdensity profiles and consist of a set of tree-ring descriptors, such as ring width or early/latewood density, measured for a set of individual trees. Because successive rings correspond to successive years, the resulting dataset is a ring variables × trees × time datacube. Multivariate statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis, have been widely used for extracting worthwhile information from ring datasets, but they typically address two-way matrices, such as ring variables × trees or ring variables × time. Here, we explore the potential of the partial triadic analysis (PTA), a multivariate method dedicated to the analysis of three-way datasets, to apprehend the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets. We analyzed a set of 11 tree-ring descriptors measured in 149 georeferenced individuals of European larch (Larix decidua Miller) during the period of 1967–2007. The processing of densitometry profiles led to a set of ring descriptors for each tree and for each year from 1967–2007. The resulting three-way data table was subjected to two distinct analyses in order to explore i) the temporal evolution of spatial structures and ii) the spatial structure of temporal dynamics. We report the presence of a spatial structure common to the different years, highlighting the inter-individual variability of the ring descriptors at the stand scale. We found a temporal trajectory common to the trees that could be separated into a high and low frequency signal, corresponding to inter-annual variations possibly related to defoliation events and a long-term trend possibly related to climate change. We conclude that PTA is a powerful tool to unravel and hierarchize the different sources of variation within tree-ring datasets. PMID:25247299

Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Nardin, Maxime; Godefroid, Martin; Ruiz-Diaz, Manuela; Sergent, Anne-Sophie; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Pâques, Luc; Rozenberg, Philippe

2014-01-01

314

Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

2014-01-01

315

An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety concerns  

PubMed Central

Objective A recent Institute of Medicine report called for attention to safety issues related to electronic health records (EHRs). We analyzed EHR-related safety concerns reported within a large, integrated healthcare system. Methods The Informatics Patient Safety Office of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) maintains a non-punitive, voluntary reporting system to collect and investigate EHR-related safety concerns (ie, adverse events, potential events, and near misses). We analyzed completed investigations using an eight-dimension sociotechnical conceptual model that accounted for both technical and non-technical dimensions of safety. Using the framework analysis approach to qualitative data, we identified emergent and recurring safety concerns common to multiple reports. Results We extracted 100 consecutive, unique, closed investigations between August 2009 and May 2013 from 344 reported incidents. Seventy-four involved unsafe technology and 25 involved unsafe use of technology. A majority (70%) involved two or more model dimensions. Most often, non-technical dimensions such as workflow, policies, and personnel interacted in a complex fashion with technical dimensions such as software/hardware, content, and user interface to produce safety concerns. Most (94%) safety concerns related to either unmet data-display needs in the EHR (ie, displayed information available to the end user failed to reduce uncertainty or led to increased potential for patient harm), software upgrades or modifications, data transmission between components of the EHR, or ‘hidden dependencies’ within the EHR. Discussion EHR-related safety concerns involving both unsafe technology and unsafe use of technology persist long after ‘go-live’ and despite the sophisticated EHR infrastructure represented in our data source. Currently, few healthcare institutions have reporting and analysis capabilities similar to the VA. Conclusions Because EHR-related safety concerns have complex sociotechnical origins, institutions with long-standing as well as recent EHR implementations should build a robust infrastructure to monitor and learn from them. PMID:24951796

Meeks, Derek W; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Lesley; Sittig, Dean F; Scott, Jean M; Singh, Hardeep

2014-01-01

316

SAFETY ANALYSIS APPROACH TO TANK 241SY101 REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Unreviewed Safety Question was declared related to the unexplained waste surface level growth in high-level radioactive waste storage Tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Because the waste surface level in Tank 241-SY-101 was growing in a manner inconsistent with previous behavior, the following issues of concern were recognized: (1) The continually rising surface level had the

2000-01-01

317

Sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer for atmospheric remote sensing in thermal IR: atmospheric weighting functions and surface partials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this presentation, we apply the adjoint sensitivity analysis of radiative transfer in thermal IR to the general case of the analytic evaluation of the weighting functions of atmospheric parameters together with the partial derivatives for the surface parameters. Applications to remote sensing of atmospheres of Mars and Venus are discussed.

Ustinov, E. A.

2003-01-01

318

Inter-class Def-Use Analysis with Partial Class Representations * Amie L. Souter and Lori L. Pollock  

E-print Network

Inter-class Def-Use Analysis with Partial Class Representations * Amie L. Souter and Lori L and polymorphism, but also through building server classes which can be used by many different client classes of classes, inheritance, polymorphism, and dynamic bind- ing. This paper demonstrates how exploiting

Pollock, Lori L.

319

Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Illicit Street-Drug Samples Using Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern drug laws require that a seized sample be characterized for both the illegal substances present and the quantity of each of those substances. The goal of this work was to develop a common approach to model development based on Raman spectroscopic analysis followed by partial least squares (PLS) regression that would allow us to obtain quantitative information from simulated

Owen S. Fenton; Lindsey A. Tonge; Taylor H. Moot; Kimberley A. Frederick

2011-01-01

320

The development of a facility for partial body in vivo activation analysis using californium-252 neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of the nuclear and physical properties of 252Cf, which is spontaneously fissile, suggests that it is a very suitable radioisotopic source of neutrons for partial body i n vivo activation analysis. A facility is described, which has been developed for use in the clinical environment, and is both simple in construction and operation and economical. The performance in the

Keith Boddy; Ian Robertson; Dimitris Glaros

1974-01-01

321

Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.  

PubMed

Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

2013-10-01

322

Differentiation of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).  

PubMed

The aims of the study were to differentiate Pueraria lobata from its related species Pueraria thomsonii and to examine the raw herbal material used in manufacturing kudzu root granules using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Sixty-four raw materials of P. lobata and P. thomsonii and kudzu root-labelled granules were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography. To differentiate P. lobata from P. thomsonii, PLS-DA models using the variables selected from the entire chromatograms, genetic algorithm (GA), successive projection algorithm (SPA), puerarin alone and six selected peaks were employed. The models constructed by GA and SPA demonstrated superior classification ability and lower model's complexity as compared to the model based on the entire chromatographic matrix, whilst the model constructed by the six selected peaks was comparable to the entire chromatographic model. The model established by puerarin alone showed inferior classification ability. In addition, the PLS-DA models constructed by the entire chromatographic matrix, GA, SPA and the six selected peaks showed that four brands out of seventeen granules were mislabelled as P. lobata. In conclusion, PLS-DA is a promising procedure for differentiating Pueraria species and determining raw material used in commercial products. PMID:23777642

Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

2013-10-01

323

Analysis of Partially Incomplete Tables of Breast Cancer Characteristics with an Ordinal Variable  

PubMed Central

Our goal is to model the joint distribution of a series of 4×2×2×2 contingency tables for which some of the data are partially collapsed (i.e., aggregated in as few as two dimensions). More specifically, the joint distribution of 4 clinical characteristics in breast cancer patients is estimated. These characteristics include estrogen receptor status (positive/negative), nodal involvement (positive/negative), HER2-neu expression (positive/negative), and stage of disease (I, II, III, IV). The joint distribution of the first three characteristics is estimated conditional on stage of disease and we propose a dynamic model for the conditional probabilities that let them evolve as the stage of disease progresses. The dynamic model is based on a series of Dirichlet distributions whose parameters are related by a Markov prior structure (called dynamic Dirichlet prior). This model makes use of information across disease stage (known as “borrowing strength”) and provides a way of estimating the distribution of patients with particular tumor characteristics. In addition, since some of the data sources are aggregated, a data augmentation technique is proposed to carry out a meta-analysis of the different datasets.

Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Nieto-Barajas, Luis E.; Munsell, Mark F.

2014-01-01

324

Radioisotopic neutron transmission spectrometry: Quantitative analysis by using partial least-squares method.  

PubMed

Neutron spectrometry, based on the scattering of high energy fast neutrons from a radioisotope and slowing-down by the light hydrogen atoms, is a useful technique for non-destructive, quantitative measurement of hydrogen content because it has a large measuring volume, and is not affected by temperature, pressure, pH value and color. The most common choice for radioisotope neutron source is (252)Cf or (241)Am-Be. In this study, (252)Cf with a neutron flux of 6.3x10(6)n/s has been used as an attractive neutron source because of its high flux neutron and weak radioactivity. Pulse-height neutron spectra have been obtained by using in-house built radioisotopic neutron spectrometric system equipped with (3)He detector and multi-channel analyzer, including a neutron shield. As a preliminary study, polyethylene block (density of approximately 0.947g/cc and area of 40cmx25cm) was used for the determination of hydrogen content by using multivariate calibration models, depending on the thickness of the block. Compared with the results obtained from a simple linear calibration model, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method offered a better performance in a quantitative data analysis. It also revealed that the PLSR method in a neutron spectrometric system can be promising in the real-time, online monitoring of the powder process to determine the content of any type of molecules containing hydrogen nuclei. PMID:19285419

Kim, Jong-Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Jung, Sung-Hee

2009-01-01

325

Multilocus Association Testing of Quantitative Traits Based on Partial Least-Squares Analysis  

PubMed Central

Because of combining the genetic information of multiple loci, multilocus association studies (MLAS) are expected to be more powerful than single locus association studies (SLAS) in disease genes mapping. However, some researchers found that MLAS had similar or reduced power relative to SLAS, which was partly attributed to the increased degrees of freedom (dfs) in MLAS. Based on partial least-squares (PLS) analysis, we develop a MLAS approach, while avoiding large dfs in MLAS. In this approach, genotypes are first decomposed into the PLS components that not only capture majority of the genetic information of multiple loci, but also are relevant for target traits. The extracted PLS components are then regressed on target traits to detect association under multilinear regression. Simulation study based on real data from the HapMap project were used to assess the performance of our PLS-based MLAS as well as other popular multilinear regression-based MLAS approaches under various scenarios, considering genetic effects and linkage disequilibrium structure of candidate genetic regions. Using PLS-based MLAS approach, we conducted a genome-wide MLAS of lean body mass, and compared it with our previous genome-wide SLAS of lean body mass. Simulations and real data analyses results support the improved power of our PLS-based MLAS in disease genes mapping relative to other three MLAS approaches investigated in this study. We aim to provide an effective and powerful MLAS approach, which may help to overcome the limitations of SLAS in disease genes mapping. PMID:21304821

Zhang, Feng; Guo, Xiong; Deng, Hong-Wen

2011-01-01

326

Interictal spike analysis of high density EEG in patients with partial epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the use of interictal spikes to localize epileptogenic brain from noninvasive scalp EEG recordings in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Methods Source reconstructions were performed using a high density electrode montage and a low density electrode montage by means of a distributed source modeling method. The source of interictal spike activity was localized using both realistic geometry boundary element method (BEM) head models and the 3-shell spherical head model. Results In the analysis of 7 patients, the high density electrode montage was found to provide results more consistent with the suspected region of epileptogenic brain identified for surgical resection using intracranial EEG recordings and structural MRI lesions, as compared to the spatial low density electrode montage used in routine clinical practice. Furthermore, the realistic geometry BEM head model provided better source localization. Conclusions Our results indicate the merits of using high density scalp EEG recordings and realistic geometry head modeling for source localization of interictal spikes in patients with partial epilepsy. Significance The present results suggest further improvement of source localization accuracy of epileptogenic brain from interictal EEG recorded using high density scalp electrode montage and realistic geometry head models. PMID:21126908

Wang, Gang; Worrell, Gregory; Yang, Lin; Wilke, Christopher; He, Bin

2011-01-01

327

Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety  

SciTech Connect

Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker safety are incorporated so the worker can readily identify the safety parameters of the their work. System safety tools such as Preliminary Hazard Analysis, What-If Analysis, Hazard and Operability Analysis as well as other techniques as necessary provide the groundwork for both determining bounding conditions for facility safety, operational safety, and day-to-clay worker safety.

Richardson, J. A. (Jeanne A.); McKernan, S. A. (Stuart A.); Vigil, M. J. (Michael J.)

2003-01-01

328

Analysis of safety-critical control software for a missile test facility  

SciTech Connect

As the functionality required of control systems has increased in complexity, digital computer systems have increasingly been incorporated in their design. For control systems that generate or direct large amounts of energy, the safety of these control systems and of the software incorporated in these control systems has become of increasing concern. Several techniques have been developed to evaluate the safety of software in computer-controlled systems. This paper describes a safety evaluation technique as applied to a specific safety-critical system. The next section of this paper describes the safety-critical system, the Missile Encounter Simulation Arena (MESA), identifying the hardware structure, the software architecture and the safety concerns inherent in the system. The following section describes the fault tree technique that was used to address a safety concerns by analysis of the control software, including description of the semi-automated tools used in the analysis. The paper concludes with discussion of the application of these results. This paper is a brief summary of the work performed; full details are available in thesis form.

Shimeall, T.J.; Winter, M.W. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Computer Science Dept.

1996-11-01

329

Safety analysis of B and W Standard PWR using thorium-based fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to assess the safety and licenseability of the Babcock and Wilcox standard 205-fuel assembly PWR when it is fueled with three types of thoria-based fuels denatured (²³³U\\/²³⁸U-Th)Oâ, denatured (²³⁵\\/U²³⁸U-Th)Oâ, and (Th-Pu)Oâ. Selected transients were analyzed using typical PWR safety analysis calculational methods. The results support the conclusion that it is feasible from a safety standpoint to

V. O. Uotinen; W. P. Carroll; H. M. Jones; E. C. Toops

1980-01-01

330

Predictors of Local Recurrence Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze a pooled set of nearly 2,000 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Mammosite Registry Trial and at William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) to identify factors associated with local recurrence following accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,961 women underwent partial breast irradiation between April 1993 and November 2010 as part of the ASBS Registry Trial or at WBH. Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional recurrence (RR), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for each group and for the pooled cohort. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed including age, tumor stage/size, estrogen receptor status, surgical margins, and lymph node status to determine their association with IBTR. Results: The two groups weres similar, but WBH patients were more frequently node positive, had positive margins, and were less likely to be within the American Society for Radiation Oncology-unsuitable group. At 5 years, the rates of IBTR, RR, DM, DFS, CSS, and OS for the pooled group of patients were 2.9%, 0.5%, 2.4%, 89.1%, 98.5%, and 91.8%, respectively. The 5-year rate of true recurrence/marginal miss was 0.8%. Univariate analysis of IBTR found that negative estrogen receptor status (odds ratio [OR], 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.13, p = 0.0007) was the only factor significantly associated with IBTR, while a trend was seen for age less than 50 (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.58, p = 0.10). Conclusions: Excellent 5-year outcomes were seen following APBI in over 1,900 patients. Estrogen receptor negativity was the only factor associated with IBTR, while a trend for age less than 50 was noted. Significant differences in factors associated with IBTR were noted between cohorts, suggesting that factors driving IBTR may be predicated based on the risk stratification of the patients being treated.

Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Beitsch, Peter [Dallas Breast Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Cancer Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

2012-04-01

331

A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified exampl0008.

Frank, Michael V. [Safety Factor Associates, Inc., 1410 Vanessa Circle, Encinitas, CA , 92024 (United States)

2006-01-20

332

Bayesian Statistics and Uncertainty Quantification for Safety Boundary Analysis in Complex Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of a safety-critical system often requires detailed knowledge of safe regions and their highdimensional non-linear boundaries. We present a statistical approach to iteratively detect and characterize the boundaries, which are provided as parameterized shape candidates. Using methods from uncertainty quantification and active learning, we incrementally construct a statistical model from only few simulation runs and obtain statistically sound estimates of the shape parameters for safety boundaries.

He, Yuning; Davies, Misty Dawn

2014-01-01

333

SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste

HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

1997-01-01

334

Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

1984-02-01

335

An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes  

PubMed Central

Background Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Methods Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. Results The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. Conclusion This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training. PMID:25379324

Haas, Emily J.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.; Rost, Kristen A.

2014-01-01

336

Interuser Interference Analysis for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems Part I: Partial-Period Cross-Correlation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation discusses an analysis approach to evaluate the interuser interference for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum (DSSS) Systems for Space Network (SN) Users. Part I of this analysis shows that the correlation property of pseudo noise (PN) sequences is the critical factor which determines the interuser interference performance of the DSSS system. For non-standard DSSS systems in which PN sequence s period is much larger than one data symbol duration, it is the partial-period cross-correlation that determines the system performance. This study reveals through an example that a well-designed PN sequence set (e.g. Gold Sequence, in which the cross-correlation for a whole-period is well controlled) may have non-controlled partial-period cross-correlation which could cause severe interuser interference for a DSSS system. Since the analytical derivation of performance metric (bit error rate or signal-to-noise ratio) based on partial-period cross-correlation is prohibitive, the performance degradation due to partial-period cross-correlation will be evaluated using simulation in Part II of this analysis in the future.

Ni, Jianjun (David)

2012-01-01

337

Performance and Safety Analysis of a Generic Small Modular Reactor  

E-print Network

the publically available performance criteria of the mPower SMR from B&W. The Monte Carlo codes MCNP5/MCNPX are used to model the core. Fuel enrichment, core inventory, core size are all variables optimized to meet the set goals of core lifetime and fuel... utilization (burnup). Vital core behavior characteristics such as delayed neutron fraction and reactivity coefficients are calculated and shown to be typical of larger PWR systems, which is necessary to ensure the inherent safety and to achieve rapid...

Kitcher, Evans Damenortey, 1987-

2012-11-07

338

Additional guidance for including nuclear safety equivalency in the Canister Storage Building and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility final safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This document provides guidance for the production of safety analysis reports that must meet both DOE Order 5480.23 and STD 3009, and be in compliance with the DOE regulatory policy that imposes certain NRC requirements.

Garvin, L.J.

1997-05-20

339

Retrospective clinical study and survival analysis on partial ceramic crowns: results up to 7 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to de-termine retrospectively the clinical performance of 42 all-ceramic partial crowns\\u000a (PCCs) placed during the past 7 years. All patients (n=25) with partial ceramic crowns (n=49) placed by one experienced dentist between 1992 and 1999 were asked to take part in a clinical study, and 22 patients\\u000a with 42 restorations agreed to do

A. Felden; G. Schmalz; K.-A. Hiller

2000-01-01

340

Accelerated partial breast irradiation for breast cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the long-term effect of breast conservation with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database, and China Journal Full-text Database were searched to identify relevant original published trials. Randomized controlled trials in any language comparing APBI with whole-breast radiotherapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer were included. RevMan 5 software was used for statistical analysis. Four trials involving 919 patients were included. The rate of 5- and 7-year excellent/good cosmetic results was significant {odds ratio (OR) = 2.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-3.62]} between two groups. The 5- and 8-year overall survival had no significant difference [OR = 1.76 (95% CI = 0.67-4.62) and OR = 0.86 (95% CI = 0.44-1.66)]. The 10-year overall survival had significant differences [OR = 0.56 (95% CI = 0.35-0.91)]. There were no differences in the 5-year local recurrence (LR)-free survival [OR = 0.65 (95% CI = 0.18-2.34)], cancer-specific survival [OR = 1.67 (95% CI = 0.39-7.12)], disease-free survival [OR = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.38-1.84)], LR [OR = 1.36 (95% CI = 0.46-3.99)], the rate of contralateral breast cancer [OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 0.73-10.89)], and distant metastasis [OR = 0.71 (95% CI = 0.22-2.31)]. APBI significantly improved the rate of excellent/good cosmetic results anywhere in the breast, shortened the treatment time, alleviated the pain, and improved the quality of life. Future large-scale, high-quality, and double-blind trials are needed. PMID:24466364

Ye, Xiu-Peng; Bao, Shen; Guo, Li-Yun; Wang, Xiao-Hu; Ma, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Zhi, Feng; Gao, Ying; Tian, Jin-Hui; Li, Rong; Gao, Huan-Min

2013-12-01

341

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis1  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the long-term effect of breast conservation with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database, and China Journal Full-text Database were searched to identify relevant original published trials. Randomized controlled trials in any language comparing APBI with whole-breast radiotherapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer were included. RevMan 5 software was used for statistical analysis. Four trials involving 919 patients were included. The rate of 5- and 7-year excellent/good cosmetic results was significant {odds ratio (OR) = 2.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21–3.62]} between two groups. The 5- and 8-year overall survival had no significant difference [OR = 1.76 (95% CI = 0.67–4.62) and OR = 0.86 (95% CI = 0.44–1.66)]. The 10-year overall survival had significant differences [OR = 0.56 (95% CI = 0.35–0.91)]. There were no differences in the 5-year local recurrence (LR)-free survival [OR = 0.65 (95% CI = 0.18–2.34)], cancer-specific survival [OR = 1.67 (95% CI = 0.39–7.12)], disease-free survival [OR = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.38–1.84)], LR [OR = 1.36 (95% CI = 0.46–3.99)], the rate of contralateral breast cancer [OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 0.73–10.89)], and distant metastasis [OR = 0.71 (95% CI = 0.22–2.31)]. APBI significantly improved the rate of excellent/good cosmetic results anywhere in the breast, shortened the treatment time, alleviated the pain, and improved the quality of life. Future large-scale, high-quality, and double-blind trials are needed. PMID:24466364

Ye, Xiu-peng; Bao, Shen; Guo, Li-yun; Wang, Xiao-hu; Ma, Yan-ping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chun-hua; Zhang, Yan-fang; Zhi, Feng; Gao, Ying; Tian, Jin-hui; Li, Rong; Gao, Huan-min

2013-01-01

342

Stage Right operational safety analysis and evaluation of Pantex personnel operations  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a study (Stage Right Operational Safety Analysis) that was performed to evaluate the effects of new Stage Right operations on the safety of Pantex personnel who perform the operations and maintain the equipment. The primary concern of the evaluation was for personnel safety during Stage Right operations, but operations equipment damage and degradation also were taken into account. This analysis evaluates safety of the work process in the staging of dismantled nuclear weapon pits within the modified Richmond magazines only. This Stage Right Process and Operational Safety Analysis includes the following processes: moving the pelletized drums from the pallet trailer to the pallet turner, staging of pallets and removal of pallets from the magazine, recovery from an incident in a magazine, setting up, opening, and closing a Zone 4 magazine, inventory of pelletized drums in the magazines, transporting pelletized drums from Zone 12 to Zone 4, and maintenance on the shielded lift truck that involves removal of the cab shielding. The analysis includes the following undesirable consequences: injury to personnel, breach of an AL-R8 container, drop of a loaded pallet, damage to equipment, and equipment unreliability.

Rountree, S.L.K.; Whitehurst, H.O.; Tomlin, E.H.; Restrepo, L.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Intera, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-01-01

343

Comparison of variants of canonical correlation analysis and partial least squares for combined analysis of MRI and genetic data.  

PubMed

The standard analysis approach in neuroimaging genetics studies is the mass-univariate linear modeling (MULM) approach. From a statistical view, however, this approach is disadvantageous, as it is computationally intensive, cannot account for complex multivariate relationships, and has to be corrected for multiple testing. In contrast, multivariate methods offer the opportunity to include combined information from multiple variants to discover meaningful associations between genetic and brain imaging data. We assessed three multivariate techniques, partial least squares correlation (PLSC), sparse canonical correlation analysis (sparse CCA) and Bayesian inter-battery factor analysis (Bayesian IBFA), with respect to their ability to detect multivariate genotype-phenotype associations. Our goal was to systematically compare these three approaches with respect to their performance and to assess their suitability for high-dimensional and multi-collinearly dependent data as is the case in neuroimaging genetics studies. In a series of simulations using both linearly independent and multi-collinear data, we show that sparse CCA and PLSC are suitable even for very high-dimensional collinear imaging data sets. Among those two, the predictive power was higher for sparse CCA when voxel numbers were below 400 times sample size and candidate SNPs were considered. Accordingly, we recommend Sparse CCA for candidate phenotype, candidate SNP studies. When voxel numbers exceeded 500 times sample size, the predictive power was the highest for PLSC. Therefore, PLSC can be considered a promising technique for multivariate modeling of high-dimensional brain-SNP-associations. In contrast, Bayesian IBFA cannot be recommended, since additional post-processing steps were necessary to detect causal relations. To verify the applicability of sparse CCA and PLSC, we applied them to an experimental imaging genetics data set provided for us. Most importantly, application of both methods replicated the findings of this data set. PMID:25527238

Grellmann, Claudia; Bitzer, Sebastian; Neumann, Jane; Westlye, Lars T; Andreassen, Ole A; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

2015-02-15

344

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...debris risk analysis. (3) A...for in the analysis and the probability...scenario. This information must include...Flight safety system fails to function...The following information for each launch...during destruct system delays. Burn...in vehicle design, flight termination...release hazard analysis A...

2010-01-01

345

Station Blackout: A case study in the interaction of mechanistic and probabilistic safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margins is important to improved decision making about nuclear power plant design, operation, and plant life extension. As research and development (R&D) in the light-water reactor (LWR) Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario.

Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli; Cristian Rabiti

2013-11-01

346

PWR integrated safety analysis methodology using multi-level coupling algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled three-dimensional (3D) neutronics/thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system codes give a unique opportunity for a realistic modeling of the plant transients and design basis accidents (DBA) occurring in light water reactors (LWR). Examples of such DBAs are the rod ejection accidents (REA) and the main steam line break (MSLB) that constitute the bounding safety problems for pressurized water reactors (PWR). These accidents involve asymmetric 3D spatial neutronic and T-H effects during the course of the transients. The thermal margins (the peak fuel temperature, and departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR)) are the measures of safety at a particular transient and need to be evaluated as accurate as possible. Modern 3D neutronics/T-H coupled codes estimate the safety margins coarsely on an assembly level, i.e. for an average fuel pin. More accurate prediction of the safety margins requires the evaluation of the transient fuel rod response involving locally coupled neutronics/T-H calculations. The proposed approach is to perform an on-line hot-channel safety analysis not for the whole core but for a selected local region, for example for the highest power loaded fuel assembly. This approach becomes feasible if an on-line algorithm capable to extract the necessary input data for a sub-channel module is available. The necessary input data include the detailed pin-power distributions and the T-H boundary conditions for each sub-channel in the considered problem. Therefore, two potential challenges are faced in the development of refined methodology for evaluation of local safety parameters. One is the development of an efficient transient pin-power reconstruction algorithm with a consistent cross-section modeling. The second is the development of a multi-level coupling algorithm for the T-H boundary and feed-back data exchange between the sub-channel module and the main 3D neutron kinetics/T-H system code, which already uses one level of coupling scheme between 3D neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics models. The major accomplishment of the thesis is the development of an integrated PWR safety analysis methodology with locally refined safety evaluations. This involved introduction of an improved method capable of efficiently restoring the fine pin-power distribution with a high degree of accuracy. In order to apply the methodology to evaluate the safety margins on a pin level, a refined on-line hot channel model was developed accounting for the cross-flow effects. Finally, this methodology was applied to best estimate safety analysis to more accurately calculate the thermal safety margins occurring during a design basis accident in PWR.

Ziabletsev, Dmitri Nickolaevich

347

Safety in the globalising knowledge economy: an analysis by paradoxes.  

PubMed

There is a widespread recognition of a 'crisis' in official scientific expertise, related to the increase of 'uncertainty' and the loss of 'trust', and whose cure is believed to lie in 'participation'. I argue that the crisis results from structural features of the globalising knowledge economy, and the contradictory roles of governments, acting both as promoters of global business enterprise and also as regulators on behalf of a sophisticated and suspicious public. I explain the crisis by substituting 'safety' for 'risk' as the operative concept, and also using 'paradox' as an explanatory tool. I produce a closed-cycle paradox, analogous to the classic Catch-22, to exhibit the contradictions in the situation. I discuss ways of resolving these, which include the recognition of policy-critical ignorance and the adoption of the perspective of post-normal science. PMID:11532355

Ravetz, J R

2001-09-14

348

System safety analysis of the Yucca Mountain tunnel boring machine  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis was to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine to be used at Yucca Mountain. This analysis required three steps to complete the risk evaluation: hazard/scenario identification, consequence assessment, and frequency assessment. The result was a `risk evaluation` of the scenarios identified in this analysis in accordance with MIL-STD-882C. The risk assessment in this analysis characterized the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and included recommendations for mitigating all identified risks.

Smith, M.G.; Booth, L. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Eisler, L. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1995-12-01

349

Assessment of documentation requirements under DOE 5481. 1, Safety Analysis and Review System (SARS)  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations (SARS) in regard to maintaining SARS documentation. Under SARS, all pertinent details of the entire safety analysis and review process for each DOE operation are to be traceable from the initial identification of a hazard. This report is intended to provide assistance in identifying the points in the SARS cycle at which documentation is required, what type of documentation is most appropriate, and where it ultimately should be maintained.

Browne, E.T.

1981-03-01

350

Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information from January 1, 2001 through March 31, 2001 available on the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Contents include 1) Cognitive Task Analysis; 2) RTO Educational Notes; 3) The Capability of Virtual Reality to Meet Military Requirements; 4) Aging Engines, Avionics, Subsystems and Helicopters; 5) RTO Meeting Proceedings; 6) RTO Technical Reports; 7) Low Grazing Angle Clutter...; 8) Verification and Validation Data for Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics; 9) Space Observation Technology; 10) The Human Factor in System Reliability...; 11) Flight Control Design...; 12) Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products in Defense Applications.

2001-01-01

351

System safety education focused on flight safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

Holt, E.

1971-01-01

352

A meta-analysis on the impacts of partial cutting on forest structure and carbon storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial cutting, which removes some individual trees from a forest, is one of the major and widespread forest management practices that can significantly alter both forest structure and carbon (C) storage. Using 746 observations from 82 publications, we synthesized the impacts of partial cutting on three variables associated with forest structure (i.e. mean annual growth of diameter at breast height (DBH), basal area (BA), and volume) and four variables related to various C stock components (i.e. aboveground biomass C (AGBC), understory C, forest floor C, and mineral soil C). Results shows that the growth of DBH elevated by 112% after partial cutting, compared to the uncut control, while stand BA and volume reduced immediately by 34% and 29%, respectively. On average, partial cutting reduced AGBC by 43%, increased understory C storage by 392%, but did not show significant effects on C storages on forest floor and in mineral soil. All the effects on DBH growth, stand BA, volume, and AGBC intensified linearly with cutting intensity (CI) and decreased linearly with the number of recovery years (RY). In addition to the strong impacts of CI and RY, other factors such as climate zone and forest type also affected forest responses to partial cutting. The data assembled in this synthesis were not sufficient to determine how long it would take for a complete recovery after cutting because long-term experiments were rare. Future efforts should be tailored to increase the duration of the experiments and balance geographic locations of field studies.

Zhou, D.; Zhao, S. Q.; Liu, S.; Oeding, J.

2013-01-01

353

Partial-likelihood analysis of spatio-temporal point-process data.  

PubMed

We investigate the use of a partial likelihood for estimation of the parameters of interest in spatio-temporal point-process models. We identify an important distinction between spatially discrete and spatially continuous models. We focus our attention on the spatially continuous case, which has not previously been considered. We use an inhomogeneous Poisson process and an infectious disease process, for which maximum-likelihood estimation is tractable, to assess the relative efficiency of partial versus full likelihood, and to illustrate the relative ease of implementation of the former. We apply the partial-likelihood method to a study of the nesting pattern of common terns in the Ebro Delta Natural Park, Spain. PMID:19673863

Diggle, Peter J; Kaimi, Irene; Abellana, Rosa

2010-06-01

354

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

N /A

1997-02-19

355

Software Safety Analysis of Digital Protection System Requirements Using a Qualitative Formal Method  

SciTech Connect

The safety analysis of requirements is a key problem area in the development of software for the digital protection systems of a nuclear power plant. When specifying requirements for software of the digital protection systems and conducting safety analysis, engineers find that requirements are often known only in qualitative terms and that existing fault-tree analysis techniques provide little guidance on formulating and evaluating potential failure modes. A framework for the requirements engineering process is proposed that consists of a qualitative method for requirements specification, called the qualitative formal method (QFM), and a safety analysis method for the requirements based on causality information, called the causal requirements safety analysis (CRSA). CRSA is a technique that qualitatively evaluates causal relationships between software faults and physical hazards. This technique, extending the qualitative formal method process and utilizing information captured in the state trajectory, provides specific guidelines on how to identify failure modes and the relationship among them. The QFM and CRSA processes are described using shutdown system 2 of the Wolsong nuclear power plants as the digital protection system example.

Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kee-Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sung-Deok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2004-08-15

356

14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...demonstrates that the system satisfies the fault tolerance requirements of § 417.303...demonstrates that the system satisfies the fault tolerance requirements of section D417...standard industry methodology such as a fault tree analysis or a failure modes...

2014-01-01

357

14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...demonstrates that the system satisfies the fault tolerance requirements of § 417.303...demonstrates that the system satisfies the fault tolerance requirements of section D417...standard industry methodology such as a fault tree analysis or a failure modes...

2012-01-01

358

Evaluation of different partial 16S rRNA gene sequence regions for phylogenetic analysis of microbiomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) are conventionally defined at a phylogenetic distance (0.03—species, 0.05—genus, 0.10—family) based on full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, partial sequences (700bp or shorter) have been used in most studies. This discord may affect analysis of diversity and species richness because sequence divergence is not distributed evenly along the 16S rRNA gene. In this study, we compared

Minseok Kim; Mark Morrison; Zhongtang Yu

2011-01-01

359

Integrated Software for the Analysis of Brain PET\\/SPECT Studies with Partial-Volume-Effect Correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present software for integrated analysis of brain PET studies and coregistered segmented MRI that couples a module for automated placement of regions of interest (ROI) with 4 alter- native methods for partial-volume-effect correction (PVEc). The accuracy and precision of these methods have been measured using 4 simulated 18F-FDG PET studies with increasing degrees of atrophy. Methods: The software allows

Mario Quarantelli; Karim Berkouk; Anna Prinster; Brigitte Landeau; Claus Svarer; Laszlo Balkay; Bruno Alfano; Arturo Brunetti; Jean-Claude Baron; Marco Salvatore

2004-01-01

360

Flood analysis using negative binomial and Generalized Pareto models in partial duration series (PDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two flood analysis estimation schemes, based on, respectively, partial duration series (PDS) and annual maximum series (AMS), are compared. The PDS model assumes a Generalized Pareto (GP) distribution for modeling the flood exceedances above threshold corresponding to a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution for annual maxima. As a generalization of the common assumption of the Poisson distribution (PD) to count the occurrences of peaks over threshold in the PDS models, the advantage of negative binomial (NB) distribution is explored in this study. The T-year event estimator for the annual maximum distribution corresponding to the parent PDS model is formulated for producing AMS samples consistent with PDS samples which are used in simulations. The performance of the two models in terms of the uncertainty of the T-year event estimator is evaluated in the cases of estimation with the method of probability weighted moments (PWM). In a similar way, the performance of the derived PDS/NB-GP model is compared with the existing PDS/PD-GP model in terms of uncertainty of T-year event estimator using simulation and field data. The results show the T-year event estimate using PDS/NB-GP model yields lower variance compared to PDS/PD-GP models for most cases. However both the models perform similarly at higher return periods more than 300 years, using the ratios of the variance of T-years estimate as an index, and the ratio decreases with an increase in mean number of annual exceedances above threshold (?). From the results it is observed that both AMS and PDS models yield the same variance when ? varies from 1.4 to 1.65. However, in case of NB distribution the PDS and AMS models gives the same variance of q(T) when variance (?2) is 1.5 times the mean number of annual exceedance above threshold. The performance of the PDS models and the corresponding AMS models using the available data of Dee (at Cairnton) shows the PDS/NB-GP model to be marginally better at return periods lower than 50 years.

Bhunya, P. K.; Berndtsson, R.; Jain, Sharad. K.; Kumar, Rakesh

2013-08-01

361

An advanced deterministic method for spent fuel criticality safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two decades, criticality safety analysts have come to rely to a large extent on Monte Carlo methods for criticality calculations. Monte Carlo has become popular because of its capability to model complex, non-orthogonal configurations or fissile materials, typical of real world problems. Over the last few years, however, interest in determinist transport methods has been revived, due shortcomings in the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo approaches for certain types of analyses. Specifically, deterministic methods are superior to stochastic methods for calculations requiring accurate neutron density distributions or differential fluxes. Although Monte Carlo methods are well suited for eigenvalue calculations, they lack the localized detail necessary to assess uncertainties and sensitivities important in determining a range of applicability. Monte Carlo methods are also inefficient as a transport solution for multiple pin depletion methods. Discrete ordinates methods have long been recognized as one of the most rigorous and accurate approximations used to solve the transport equation. However, until recently, geometric constraints in finite differencing schemes have made discrete ordinates methods impractical for non-orthogonal configurations such as reactor fuel assemblies. The development of an extended step characteristic (ESC) technique removes the grid structure limitations of traditional discrete ordinates methods. The NEWT computer code, a discrete ordinates code built upon the ESC formalism, is being developed as part of the SCALE code system. This paper will demonstrate the power, versatility, and applicability of NEWT as a state-of-the-art solution for current computational needs.

DeHart, M.D.

1998-01-01

362

Comparative Analysis of Laparoscopic Versus Open Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Tumors in 200 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeLaparoscopic partial nephrectomy is an emerging minimally invasive, nephron sparing approach for renal cell carcinoma. We compared perioperative outcomes after laparoscopic and open nephron sparing surgery (NSS) for patients with a solitary renal tumor of 7 cm or less at a single institution.

INDERBIR S. GILL; SURENA F. MATIN; MIHIR M. DESAI; JIHAD H. KAOUK; ANDREW STEINBERG; E. D. MASCHA; JULIE THORNTON; MAHMOUD H. SHERIEF; BRENDA STRZEMPKOWSKI; ANDREW C. NOVICK

2003-01-01

363

Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

2011-01-01

364

Viscoelastic finite element analysis of an all-ceramic fixed partial denture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years metal-free ceramic systems have become increasingly popular in dental practice because of their superior aesthetics, chemical durability and biocompatibility. Recently, manufacturers have proposed new dental ceramic systems that are advertized as being suitable for posterior fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Reports indicate that some of these systems have exhibited poor clinical performance. The objective of this study was

Paul H. DeHoff; Kenneth J. Anusavice; Nils Götzen

2006-01-01

365

Free vibration analysis of cantilever plate partially submerged into a fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The free flexural vibration of a cantilever plate partially submerged in a fluid is investigated. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and irrotational. The virtual mass matrix is derived by solving the boundary-value problem related to the fluid motion using elliptical coordinates. The introduction of the elliptical coordinates naturally leads to the use of the Mathieu function. Hence, the virtual mass matrix which reflects the effect of the fluid on the natural vibration characteristics is expressed in analytical form in terms of the Mathieu functions. The virtual mass matrix is then combined with the dynamic model of a thin rectangular plate obtained by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This combination is used to analyze the natural vibration characteristics of a partially submerged cantilever plate qualitatively. Also, the non-dimensionalized added virtual mass incremental factors for a partially submerged cantilever plate are presented to facilitate the easy estimation of natural frequencies of a partially submerged cantilever plate. It is found that the numerical results are in good agreement with the previous results, thus validating the proposed approach.

Kwak, Moon K.; Yang, Dong-Ho

2013-07-01

366

Analysis of an adaptive control scheme for a partially observed controlled Markov chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider an adaptive finite state controlled Markov chain with partial state information, motivated by a class of replacement problems. They present parameter estimation techniques based on the information available after actions that reset the state to a known value are taken. It is proved that the parameter estimates converge w.p.1 to the true (unknown) parameter, under the feedback

Emmanuel Fernandez-Gaucherand; Aristotle Arapostathis; Steven I. Marcus

1993-01-01

367

The Development and Performance Analysis of Partially Premixed LPG Porous Medium Combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous medium combustion has interesting advantages compared with free flame combustion due to higher burning rates, an increased power dynamic range, extension of the lean flammability limits, and low emissions of pollutants. This article presents the development and testing of a partially premixed porous medium combustor with liquified petroleum gas as fuel. The discrete porous medium is made up of

R. M. N. Muhad; M. Z. Abdullah; M. Abdul Mujeebu; M. Z. Abu Bakar; R. Zakaria; A. A. Mohamad

2011-01-01

368

Synteny analysis of loci controlling partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches between Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aphanomyces root rot, due to Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most damaging diseases of pea worldwide. Breeding for partial polygenic resistance to Aphanomyces root rot is a major objective for the development of the pea crop in Europe. Our objectives were to study i)- the diversity of resistanc...

369

NASA/TM-2007-214856 Safety and Performance Analysis of the  

E-print Network

March 2007 NASA/TM-2007-214856 Safety and Performance Analysis of the Non-Radar Oceanic National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA

Muñoz, César A.

370

NASA/TM-2009-215768 A Mathematical Basis for the Safety Analysis of  

E-print Network

June 2009 NASA/TM-2009-215768 A Mathematical Basis for the Safety Analysis of Conflict Prevention, Virginia Gilles Dowek Ecole Polytechnique, France #12;NASA STI Program . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific

Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

371

Preliminary Accident Analysis for Construction and Operation of the Chornobyl New Safety Confinement  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of potential exposure of personal and population during construction and exploitation of the New Safe Confinement was made. Scenarios of hazard event development were ranked. It is shown, that as a whole construction and exploitation of the NSC are in accordance with actual radiation safety norms of Ukraine.

Batiy, Valeriy; Rubezhansky, Yruiy; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.; Timmins, Douglas C.

2005-08-08

372

Aircraft Autolander Safety Analysis Through Optimal Control-Based Reach Set Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

and safety analysis of autoland systems. It is shown to be applicable to specific phases of landing: descent, flare, and touchdown. The method is based on optimal control and level set methods; it simultaneously computes a maximal controlled invariant set and a set-valued control law guaranteed to keep the aircraft within a safe set of states under autopilot mode switching.

Alexandre M. Bayen; Claire J. Tomlin; Meeko M. K. Oishi

2007-01-01

373

Impact of Feature Interaction on the Safety Analysis for Unmanned Avionics Product Lines  

E-print Network

interaction; I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft systems are systems built to support aircrafts that doImpact of Feature Interaction on the Safety Analysis for Unmanned Avionics Product Lines André L.habli, tim.kelly}@york.ac.uk Abstract--Unmanned Avionics Systems (UAS) are real-time critical embedded

Boyer, Edmond

374

Reliability reallocation models as a support tools in traffic safety analysis.  

PubMed

One of the essential questions placed before a road authority is where to act first, i.e. which road sections should be treated in order to achieve the desired level of reliability of a particular road, while this is at the same time the subject of this research. The paper shows how the reliability reallocation theory can be applied in safety analysis of a road consisting of sections. The model has been successfully tested using two apportionment techniques - ARINC and the minimum effort algorithm. The given methods were applied in the traffic safety analysis as a basic step, for the purpose of achieving a higher level of reliability. The previous methods used for selecting hazardous locations do not provide precise values for the required frequency of accidents, i.e. the time period between the occurrences of two accidents. In other words, they do not allow for the establishment of a connection between a precise demand for increased reliability (expressed as a percentage) and the selection of particular road sections for further analysis. The paper shows that reallocation models can also be applied in road safety analysis, or more precisely, as part of the measures for increasing their level of safety. A tool has been developed for selecting road sections for treatment on the basis of a precisely defined increase in the level of reliability of a particular road, i.e. the mean time between the occurrences of two accidents. PMID:24434655

Ba?kali?, Svetlana; Jovanovi?, Dragan; Ba?kali?, Todor

2014-04-01

375

Integrated safety analysis code system (ISAS) application for accident sequence analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the ITER Task ‘Reference Accident Sequences’, two accident sequences have been assessed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of integrated safety analysis code system (ISAS). The first one is a loss of coolant event in the divertor primary heat transfer system (DV PHTS) towards the vacuum vessel containment during normal plasma burn; the second one

M. T Porfiri; G Cambi

2000-01-01

376

SAFETY ANALYSIS ON RAIL HIGHWAY AT-GRADE CROSSING IN ALABAMA  

E-print Network

SAFETY ANALYSIS ON RAIL HIGHWAY AT-GRADE CROSSING IN ALABAMA Jing Li, Post-doc Researcher Gaurav-lane divided highways, urban/suburban arterials, highway bridges, and rail highway at-grade crossings, based Alabama Total Highway-Rail Incidents 1980 2012 82% reduction 70% reduction What can make RHGCs safer

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

377

Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a

Beverly Rainwater Sturgis; Kurt Evan Metzinger; Dana Auburn Powers; Christopher B. Atcitty; David B Robinson; John C. Hewson; Nathan E. Bixler; Brian W. Dodson; Donald L. Potter; John E. Kelly; Heather J. MacLean; Kenneth Donald Bergeron; Gregory Carl Bessette; Ronald J. Lipinski

2006-01-01

378

Bi-Directional Safety Analysis of Product Lines Department of Computer Science  

E-print Network

Bi-Directional Safety Analysis of Product Lines Qian Feng Department of Computer Science Iowa State University qianfeng@cs.iastate.edu Robyn R. Lutz Department of Computer Science Iowa State University and Jet Propulsion Laboratory rlutz@cs.iastate.edu Abstract As product-line engineering becomes more widespread, more

Lutz, Robyn R.

379

Modeling and Analysis of Safety-Critical Cyber Physical Systems using State/Event Fault Trees  

E-print Network

in a common model. To evaluate our approach, we apply it on a case study of a tire pressure monitoring system. Through their logical gates and hierarchical decomposition they are intuitively understandable. Due in safety analysis. Especially in the eld of cyber physical systems (CPSs), where numerous interfaces come

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

Addressing the identification problem in age-period-cohort analysis: a tutorial on the use of partial least squares and principal components analysis.  

PubMed

In the analysis of trends in health outcomes, an ongoing issue is how to separate and estimate the effects of age, period, and cohort. As these 3 variables are perfectly collinear by definition, regression coefficients in a general linear model are not unique. In this tutorial, we review why identification is a problem, and how this problem may be tackled using partial least squares and principal components regression analyses. Both methods produce regression coefficients that fulfill the same collinearity constraint as the variables age, period, and cohort. We show that, because the constraint imposed by partial least squares and principal components regression is inherent in the mathematical relation among the 3 variables, this leads to more interpretable results. We use one dataset from a Taiwanese health-screening program to illustrate how to use partial least squares regression to analyze the trends in body heights with 3 continuous variables for age, period, and cohort. We then use another dataset of hepatocellular carcinoma mortality rates for Taiwanese men to illustrate how to use partial least squares regression to analyze tables with aggregated data. We use the second dataset to show the relation between the intrinsic estimator, a recently proposed method for the age-period-cohort analysis, and partial least squares regression. We also show that the inclusion of all indicator variables provides a more consistent approach. R code for our analyses is provided in the eAppendix. PMID:22407139

Tu, Yu-Kang; Krämer, Nicole; Lee, Wen-Chung

2012-07-01

381

Mining Safety Signals in Spontaneous Reports Database using Concept Analysis  

E-print Network

drugs for a single adr. These are potential drug interactions (higher-order signals). Signal detection, linking the adverse reactions by pa- tients to drugs they took is a key activity typically based on the analysis of patient reports. Yet generating potentially interesting pairs (drug, re- action) from a record

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Stress analysis of portable safety platform (Core Sampler Truck)  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the stress analysis and evaluation of the portable platform of the rotary mode core sampler truck No. 2 (RMCST {number_sign}2). The platform comprises railing, posts, deck, legs, and a portable ladder; it is restrained from lateral motion by means of two brackets added to the drill-head service platform.

Ziada, H.H.

1995-03-30

383

10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must obtain...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must, as...normal, abnormal, and accident conditions, including...need for analysis of accidents which may be beyond...respect to a nonreactor nuclear facility with...

2014-01-01

384

10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must obtain...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must, as...normal, abnormal, and accident conditions, including...need for analysis of accidents which may be beyond...respect to a nonreactor nuclear facility with...

2011-01-01

385

10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must obtain...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must, as...normal, abnormal, and accident conditions, including...need for analysis of accidents which may be beyond...respect to a nonreactor nuclear facility with...

2013-01-01

386

10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must obtain...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must, as...normal, abnormal, and accident conditions, including...need for analysis of accidents which may be beyond...respect to a nonreactor nuclear facility with...

2012-01-01

387

SYSTEMS SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR FIRE EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ECRB CROSS DRIFT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate fire hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift (commonly referred to as the ECRB Cross-Drift). This analysis builds upon prior Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) System Safety Analyses and incorporates Topopah Springs (TS) Main Drift fire scenarios and ECRB Cross-Drift fire scenarios. Accident scenarios involving the fires in the Main Drift and the ECRB Cross-Drift were previously evaluated in ''Topopah Springs Main Drift System Safety Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1995) and the ''Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project East-West Drift System Safety Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998). In addition to listing required mitigation/control features, this analysis identifies the potential need for procedures and training as part of defense-in-depth mitigation/control features. The inclusion of this information in the System Safety Analysis (SSA) is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., Construction, Environmental Safety and Health, Design) responsible for these aspects of the ECRB Cross-Drift in developing mitigation/control features for fire events, including Emergency Refuge Station(s). This SSA was prepared, in part, in response to Condition/Issue Identification and Reporting/Resolution System (CIRS) item 1966. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with fires in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into Structure, System, or Component (SSC) designs; (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs; and (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

R. J. Garrett

2001-12-12

388

Development of guidance for states transitioning to new safety analysis tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With about 125 people dying on US roads each day, the US Department of Transportation heightened the awareness of critical safety issues with the passage of SAFETEA-LU (Safe Accountable Flexible Efficient Transportation Equity Act---a Legacy for Users) legislation in 2005. The legislation required each of the states to develop a Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) and incorporate data-driven approaches to prioritize and evaluate program outcomes: Failure to do so resulted in funding sanctioning. In conjunction with the legislation, research efforts have also been progressing toward the development of new safety analysis tools such as IHSDM (Interactive Highway Safety Design Model), SafetyAnalyst, and HSM (Highway Safety Manual). These software and analysis tools are comparatively more advanced in statistical theory and level of accuracy, and have a tendency to be more data intensive. A review of the 2009 five-percent reports and excerpts from the nationwide survey revealed astonishing facts about the continuing use of traditional methods including crash frequencies and rates for site selection and prioritization. The intense data requirements and statistical complexity of advanced safety tools are considered as a hindrance to their adoption. In this context, this research aims at identifying the data requirements and data availability for SafetyAnalyst and HSM by working with both the tools. This research sets the stage for working with the Empirical Bayes approach by highlighting some of the biases and issues associated with the traditional methods of selecting projects such as greater emphasis on traffic volume and regression-to-mean phenomena. Further, the not-so-obvious issue with shorter segment lengths, which effect the results independent of the methods used, is also discussed. The more reliable and statistically acceptable Empirical Bayes methodology requires safety performance functions (SPFs), regression equations predicting the relation between crashes and exposure for a subset of roadway network. These SPFs, specific to a region and the analysis period are often unavailable. Calibration of already existing default national SPFs to the state's data could be a feasible solution, but, how well the state's data is represented is a legitimate question. With this background, SPFs were generated for various classifications of segments in Georgia and compared against the national default SPFs used in SafetyAnalyst calibrated to Georgia data. Dwelling deeper into the development of SPFs, the influence of actual and estimated traffic data on the fit of the equations is also studied questioning the accuracy and reliability of traffic estimations. In addition to SafetyAnalyst, HSM aims at performing quantitative safety analysis. Applying HSM methodology to two-way two-lane rural roads, the effect of using multiple CMFs (Crash Modification Factors) is studied. Lastly, data requirements, methodology, constraints, and results are compared between SafetyAnalyst and HSM.

Alluri, Priyanka

389

JSC Safety and Mission Assurance Data Analysis Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These slides describe the data analysis methods that are used to determine inputs for probabilistic risk models supporting the Space Shuttle Program. Other applications can follow a similar path probably using different data sources. Statistical approaches are different and not addressed here. Topics included here: 1) Prior Distribution; 2) Likelihood Data; 3) Bayesian Updating; and 4) Uncertainty and Error. Note: This is a high-level discussion and is not intended to be a tutorial.

Roelant, Henk

2010-01-01

390

Top-Off Safety Analysis for NSLS-II  

SciTech Connect

Top-off injection will be adopted in NSLS-II. To ensure no injected beam can pass into experimental beamlines with open photon shutters during top-off injection, simulation studies for possible machine fault scenarios are required. We compare two available simulation methods, backward (H. Nishimura-LBL) and forward tracking (A. Terebilo-SLAC). We also discuss the tracking settings, fault scenarios, apertures and interlocks considered in the analysis.

Li,Y.; Casey, B.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.; Job, O.; Krinsky, S.; Parker, B.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.

2009-05-04

391

Zonal analysis - The final step in system safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unexpected interaction of unrelated systems has often been implicated in design-related aircraft accidents. Zonal analysis, which is definable as the systematic inspection of geographical locations of components and interconnections in a system with a view to potential system-to-system interactions, is highly relevant to the consequences of high rotational energy systems (such as turbofan engines), corrosive liquids, and pressure vessels.

Richard E. Caldwell; David B. Merdgen

1991-01-01

392

Partial genome analysis of Siberian sturgeon alloherpesvirus suggests its close relation to AciHV-2 - short communication.  

PubMed

Partial genome sequence of a herpes-like virus, isolated from Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri), was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The virus (SbSHV) has been shown to be the causative agent of an acute disease with high mortality in farmed juvenile sturgeons in Russia. Two fragments (of 7000 and 300 base pairs in length) encompassing 3 complete and 3 partial ORFs were amplified by PCR. Sturgeon herpesvirus strains, classified into species Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2), have been isolated and partially sequenced from several regions (California, Idaho, Oregon and Canada) of North America from white (A. transmontanus) and shortnose sturgeons (A. brevirostrum). The sequence of the SbSHV strain shared highest identity with that of the Canadian strain originating from shortnose sturgeon. The phylogenetic analysis also confirmed that SbSHV is closely related to AciHV-2 and could also be classified into this virus species. This is the first report on the occurrence of AciHV-2 in Europe. Previously, only another virus species, AciHV-1 has been detected in farmed white sturgeons in Italy. The size and position of ORFs in the examined gene block confirmed that this genomic region is highly conserved in members of the genus Ictalurivirus. PMID:20460226

Doszpoly, Andor; Shchelkunov, Igor S

2010-06-01

393

Partial versus Complete Fundoplication for the Correction of Pediatric GERD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is no consensus as to what extent of “wrap” is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Objective To evaluate if a complete (360 degree) or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Results 2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25%) used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor. Conclusions The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis. PMID:25386679

Glen, Peter; Chassé, Michaël; Doyle, Mary-Anne; Nasr, Ahmed; Fergusson, Dean A.

2014-01-01

394

Renormalization shielding and eikonal analysis on the atomic collision in dense partially ionized hydrogen plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The renormalization plasma screening effects on the electron-ion collision are investigated in dense partially ionized hydrogen plasmas. The Hamilton-Jacobi and eikonal methods with the effective interaction potential are employed to obtain the eikonal scattering phase shift and eikonal cross section for the electron-ion collision. It is found that the influence of renormalization screening strongly suppresses the eikonal scattering phase shift as well as the eikonal cross section, especially, for small impact parameter regions. In addition, the renormalization screening effect reduces the total eikonal cross section in all energy domains. The variation of the renormalization effects on the electron-ion collision in dense partially ionized hydrogen plasmas is also discussed.

Kim, Sung Soo [Department of Applied Mathematics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)

2013-12-15

395

Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

This document is the second volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of failure modes and effects analysis; accident analysis; operational safety requirements; quality assurance program; ES&H management program; environmental, safety, and health systems critical to safety; summary of waste-management program; environmental monitoring program; facility expansion, decontamination, and decommissioning; summary of emergency response plan; summary plan for employee training; summary plan for operating procedures; glossary; and appendices A and B.

NONE

1994-10-01

396

Motion analysis of a spinning satellite system with off-centre tanks partially filled with liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sloshing problem for, a spherical tank partially filled with liquid is analysed in this paper. The study is based on the\\u000a goveming, equations of fluid dynamics and the Euler's equations of systems with the influences of tank off-centering, fluid\\u000a vortices and the Coriolis' acceleration on the motion states of the systems taken into consideration. In the study, we adopt

Wang Zhaolin; Liao Min; Deng Zhongping

1989-01-01

397

Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect

A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

1994-03-01

398

Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

Shedrow, C.B.

1999-11-29

399

[Safe surgery checklist: analysis of the safety and communication of teams from a teaching hospital].  

PubMed

This study aimed to apply the WHO surgical safety checklist in the surgical specialties of a university hospital and to evaluate the opinion of the team regarding the influence of its application on the safety of the surgical process and on the interpersonal communication of the team. It is a descriptive, analytical qualitative field study conducted in the surgical center of a university hospital Data were collected by applying the checklist in a total of 30 surgeries. The researcher conducted its application in three phases, and then members of the surgical team were invited to voluntarily participate in the study, signifying their agreement to participate by signing an informed consent form and answering guiding questions. Bardin's Content Analysis Method was used to organize and analyze the data. The subjects did not notice any changes in their interpersonal communication when using the checklist; however, they gave suggestions and reported that its use provided greater safety to the procedure. PMID:23781726

Pancieri, Ana Paula; Santos, Bruna Pegorer; de Avila, Marla Andréia Garcia; Braga, Eliana Mara

2013-03-01

400

Safety analysis of B and W Standard PWR using thorium-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to assess the safety and licenseability of the Babcock and Wilcox standard 205-fuel assembly PWR when it is fueled with three types of thoria-based fuels denatured (/sup 233/U//sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, denatured (/sup 235//U/sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, and (Th-Pu)O/sub 2/. Selected transients were analyzed using typical PWR safety analysis calculational methods. The results support the conclusion that it is feasible from a safety standpoint to utilize either of the denatured urania-thoria fuels in the standard B and W plant. In addition, it appears that the use of thoria-plutonia fuels would probably also be feasible. These tentative conclusions depend on a data that is more limited than that available for UO/sub 2/ fuels.

Uotinen, V.O.; Carroll, W.P.; Jones, H.M.; Toops, E.C.

1980-06-01

401

An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

2003-09-01

402

Developing a Comprehensive Software Suite for Advanced Reactor Performance and Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an introduction to the reactor analysis capabilities of the nuclear power reactor simulation tools that are being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Toolkit. The NEAMS Toolkit is an integrated suite of multi-physics simulation tools that leverage high-performance computing to reduce uncertainty in the prediction of performance and safety of advanced reactor and fuel designs. The Toolkit effort is comprised of two major components, the Fuels Product Line (FPL), which provides tools for fuel performance analysis, and the Reactor Product Line (RPL), which provides tools for reactor performance and safety analysis. This paper provides an overview of the NEAMS RPL development effort.

Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Bradley, Keith S [ORNL] [ORNL; Fischer, Paul F [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Micheal A [ORNL] [ORNL; Tautges, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Ferencz, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Martineau, Richard C [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Rajeev [ORNL] [ORNL; Obabko, Aleksandr [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

403

Implementing 10 CFR 830 at the FEMP Silos: Nuclear Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Silos Project at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) is to safely remediate high-grade uranium ore residues (Silos 1 and 2) and metal oxide residues (Silo 3). The evolution of Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) for these facilities has reflected the changes in remediation processes. The final stage in silos DSAs is an interpretation of 10 CFR 830 Safe Harbor Requirements that combines a Health and Safety Plan with nuclear safety requirements. This paper will address the development of a Nuclear Health and Safety Plan, or N-HASP.

Fisk, Patricia; Rutherford, Lavon

2003-06-01

404

Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the transient event and maintains the core and reactor components at acceptable temperatures within allowable safety margins. It is also demonstrated that the transition from steady full-power, forced-cooling mode to steady decay-heat, natural-circulation mode is stable, predictable and well characterized.

Galvez, Cristhian

2011-12-01

405

Excellent shoulder function is attainable after partial or total scapulectomy. Analysis at prolonged follow-up.  

PubMed

We reviewed six cases of primary sarcomas requiring scapulectomy within the past 13 years in the Surgery Branch of the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md. Five of these patients returned for evaluation of disease status, evaluation of functional defects as determined by muscle group testing, and assessment of daily living skills and limitations. We demonstrated excellent shoulder function with partial scapulectomy and significant impairment with the additional loss of the glenoid fossa. In addition, we developed a thorough method of postoperative evaluation. Involvement of rehabilitation therapists before and after operatively is integral to this process in preparation for surgery and subsequent treatment. PMID:2322121

Ward, B; McGarvey, C; Lotze, M T

1990-04-01

406

On a nonlinear partial differential algebraic system arising in technical textile industry: Analysis and numerics  

E-print Network

In this paper a length-conserving numerical scheme for a nonlinear fourth order system of partial differential algebraic equations arising in technical textile industry is studied. Applying a semidiscretization in time, the resulting sequence of nonlinear elliptic systems with algebraic constraint is reformulated as constrained optimization problems in a Hilbert space setting that admit a solution at each time level. Stability and convergence of the scheme are proved. The numerical realization is performed by projected gradient methods on finite element spaces which determine the computational effort and approximation quality of the algorithm. Simulation results are presented and discussed in view of the application of an elastic inextensible fiber motion.

Grothaus, Martin

2012-01-01

407

MODEL 9977 B(M)F-96 SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on and for the 9977 Shipping Package, referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP). The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9977 package with the regulatory safety requirements for Type B packages. Per 10 CFR 71.59, for the 9977 packages evaluated in this SARP, the value of ''N'' is 50, and the Transport Index based on nuclear criticality control is 1.0. The 9977 package is designed with a high degree of single containment. The 9977 complies with 10 CFR 71 (2002), Department of Energy (DOE) Order 460.1B, DOE Order 460.2, and 10 CFR 20 (2003) for As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. The 9977 also satisfies the requirements of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material--1996 Edition (Revised)--Requirements. IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, Rev.), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria (2000). The 9977 package is designed, analyzed and fabricated in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, 1992 edition.

Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

2006-05-18

408

Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission. Volume 1: Reference design document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume 1, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes 2 and 3. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume 1 which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

1988-05-01

409

Integrated risk assessment and screening analysis of drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system.  

PubMed

Management of drinking water safety is changing towards an integrated risk assessment and risk management approach that includes all processes in a water supply system from catchment to consumers. However, given the large number of water supply systems in China and the cost of implementing such a risk assessment procedure, there is a necessity to first conduct a strategic screening analysis at a national level. An integrated methodology of risk assessment and screening analysis is thus proposed to evaluate drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system. The violation probability, indicating drinking water safety, is estimated at different locations of a water supply system in terms of permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, turbidity, residual chlorine and trihalomethanes. Critical parameters with respect to drinking water safety are then identified, based on which an index system is developed to prioritize conventional water supply systems in implementing a detailed risk assessment procedure. The evaluation results are represented as graphic check matrices for the concerned hazards in drinking water, from which the vulnerability of a conventional water supply system is characterized. PMID:17898443

Sun, F; Chen, J; Tong, Q; Zeng, S

2007-01-01

410

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1992-03-01

411

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1992-03-01

412

Estimating multiparameter partial expected value of perfect information from a probabilistic sensitivity analysis sample: a nonparametric regression approach.  

PubMed

The partial expected value of perfect information (EVPI) quantifies the expected benefit of learning the values of uncertain parameters in a decision model. Partial EVPI is commonly estimated via a 2-level Monte Carlo procedure in which parameters of interest are sampled in an outer loop, and then conditional on these, the remaining parameters are sampled in an inner loop. This is computationally demanding and may be difficult if correlation between input parameters results in conditional distributions that are hard to sample from. We describe a novel nonparametric regression-based method for estimating partial EVPI that requires only the probabilistic sensitivity analysis sample (i.e., the set of samples drawn from the joint distribution of the parameters and the corresponding net benefits). The method is applicable in a model of any complexity and with any specification of input parameter distribution. We describe the implementation of the method via 2 nonparametric regression modeling approaches, the Generalized Additive Model and the Gaussian process. We demonstrate in 2 case studies the superior efficiency of the regression method over the 2-level Monte Carlo method. R code is made available to implement the method. PMID:24246566

Strong, Mark; Oakley, Jeremy E; Brennan, Alan

2014-04-01

413

Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.  

PubMed

This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized. PMID:20593390

Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

2010-07-01

414

The Range Safety Debris Catalog Analysis in Preparation for the Pad Abort One Flight Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pad Abort One flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test Program is currently under development with the goal of demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System. In the event of a launch failure, this system will propel the Crew Exploration Vehicle to safety. An essential component of this flight test is range safety, which ensures the security of range assets and personnel. A debris catalog analysis was done as part of a range safety data package delivered to the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico where the test will be conducted. The analysis discusses the consequences of an overpressurization of the Abort Motor. The resulting structural failure was assumed to create a debris field of vehicle fragments that could potentially pose a hazard to the range. A statistical model was used to assemble the debris catalog of potential propellant fragments. Then, a thermodynamic, energy balance model was applied to the system in order to determine the imparted velocity to these propellant fragments. This analysis was conducted at four points along the flight trajectory to better understand the failure consequences over the entire flight. The methods used to perform this analysis are outlined in detail and the corresponding results are presented and discussed.

Kutty, Prasad M.; Pratt, William D.

2010-01-01

415

Uncertainty analysis for multivariate state estimation in safety-critical and mission-critical maintenance applications  

SciTech Connect

The Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and applied for real time surveillance applications for the purposes of signal validation, sensor operability validation, equipment health monitoring, incipient component fault annunciation, and process anomaly identification. Although MSET was originally developed for applications in the commercial nuclear industry, it has recently been spun off for applications in fields such as aerospace, manufacturing, transportation, robotics, and ship propulsion. Notwithstanding these types of successful applications of MSET in industry, it is necessary for safety-critical and mission-critical applications of MSET to have reliability analysis methods, including a propagation-of-uncertainty tool, which is needed to support safety evaluations in a variety of industries, and technical-specification-change requests in the case of the nuclear industry. For these and related applications, a general purpose uncertainty analysis tool for MSET has been developed that uses Monte Carlo simulation with Latin Hypercube Sampling. For any new application of MSET, the uncertainty analysis tool developed here may be used to investigate quantitative propagation-of-uncertainty behavior for all sensors under surveillance. In addition to supporting safety analysis of surveillance systems that are based on MSET, the tool developed here can be employed in parametric studies to support system designers in evaluating the relative value of adding new sensors to an engineering system during early design stages or for equipment or facility upgrades.

Zavaljevski, N.; Gross, K. C.

2000-04-03

416

Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

Herborn, D.I.

1993-11-01

417

On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons  

SciTech Connect

Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-04-01

418

Analysis and Modeling of Parallel Photovoltaic Systems under Partial Shading Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the industrial revolution, fossil fuels like petroleum, coal, oil, natural gas and other non-renewable energy sources have been used as the primary energy source. The consumption of fossil fuels releases various harmful gases into the atmosphere as byproducts which are hazardous in nature and they tend to deplete the protective layers and affect the overall environmental balance. Also the fossil fuels are bounded resources of energy and rapid depletion of these sources of energy, have prompted the need to investigate alternate sources of energy called renewable energy. One such promising source of renewable energy is the solar/photovoltaic energy. This work focuses on investigating a new solar array architecture with solar cells connected in parallel configuration. By retaining the structural simplicity of the parallel architecture, a theoretical small signal model of the solar cell is proposed and modeled to analyze the variations in the module parameters when subjected to partial shading conditions. Simulations were run in SPICE to validate the model implemented in Matlab. The voltage limitations of the proposed architecture are addressed by adopting a simple dc-dc boost converter and evaluating the performance of the architecture in terms of efficiencies by comparing it with the traditional architectures. SPICE simulations are used to compare the architectures and identify the best one in terms of power conversion efficiency under partial shading conditions.

Buddala, Santhoshi Snigdha

419

Partial discharge analysis of prestretched and unstretched acrylic elastomers for Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial discharges (PD) occur in solid insulating materials when the insulating material is partially bridged by an electrical discharge in response to an applied voltage stress. PDs typically occur at localized points of high field stresses or at voids and other inhomogeneities within the insulator. The applied field's effect on the frequency of occurrence and intensity of PDs can be used to assess the electrical breakdown strength and aging characteristics of insulating materials. PD testing is therefore a promising characterization method to understand the insulating properties of the elastomers and geometries commonly used in DEAs. Prestretched (~100% and ~230% biaxial) and unstretched acrylic elastomers (3M VHB tapes) with solid metal electrodes have been tested. We have found the number and intensity of PDs increase with applied field, and that a significant number of PDs are detected before any actuation was visibly observed, implying that the fields required for actuation will cause material aging and degradation over time. Most interestingly, the number of PDs steadily increase as the applied voltage increases up to a sufficiently high voltage, where the PDs suddenly cease. Since internal voids can cause PDs, this may indicate that the Maxwell stress minimized the thickness of or eliminated these voids, which could explain how prestretching improves performance.

Muffoletto, Daniel P.; Burke, Kevin M.; Zirnheld, Jennifer L.

2012-04-01

420

Methodology for the relative risk assessment in the LDF safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the methodology used for the relative risk assessment performed in the LDF Safety Analysis Report. The safety analysis for a facility of the hazard level of the LDF Complex (Buildings 490L, 492 are low hazard) should be mostly qualitative. This was the approach taken for the LDF risk assessment, where qualitative descriptors were assigned to event consequences and frequencies. The event consequences and frequencies were then combined using a risk matrix to obtain an assessment of the relative risk presented by each event to LDF workers and to the public. The development of the risk matrices is the main subject of this report. The matrices have been applied in the LDF SAR (LLNL, 1997).

Brereton, S.J.

1997-09-03

421

Assessing Safety in Distillation Column Using Dynamic Simulation and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety assessment becomes an important activity in chemical industries since the need to comply with general legal requirements in addition to meet safer plant and profit. This paper reviews some most frequently causes of distillation column malfunction. First, analysis of case histories will be discussed for providing guidelines in identifying potential trouble spots in distillation column. A dynamic simulation for operational failure is simulated as the basis for assessing the consequences. A case study will be used from a side stream distillation column to show the implementation of the concept. A framework for assessing safety in the column is proposed using Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Further, trouble-free operation in order to reduce the risk associated with column malfunction is described.

Werner, Suhendra; Fred, Witt; Compart

422

Safety and Techno-Economic Analysis of Solvent Selection for Supercritical Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reactors  

E-print Network

iii ABSTRACT Safety and Techno-Economic Analysis of Solvent Selection for Supercritical Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reactors. (December 2011) Natalie Asma Hamad, B.S., Texas A&M University at Qatar Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Mahmoud M.... El-Halwagi Dr. Nimir O. Elbashir Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis is a primary pathway for gas-to-liquid technology. In order to overcome commercial problems associated with reaction and transport...

Hamad, Natalie

2012-02-14

423

Calculation of Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Analysis. II; Inclusion of Exchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There was a method for calculating the whole scattering amplitude, f(Omega(sub k)), directly. The idea was to calculate the complete wave function Psi numerically, and use it in an integral expression for f, which can be reduced to a 2 dimensional quadrature. The original application was for e-H scattering without exchange. There the Schrodinger reduces a 2-d partial differential equation (pde), which was solved using the finite element method (FEM). Here we extend the method to the exchange approximation. The S.E. can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, which are again solved by the FEM. The formal expression for f(Omega(sub k)) consists two integrals, f+/- = f(sub d) +/- f(sub e); f(sub d) is formally the same integral as the no-exchange f. We have also succeeded in reducing f(sub e) to a 2-d integral. Results will be presented at the meeting.

Temkin, Aaron; Shertzer, J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

424

Hepatozoon spp.: pathological and partial 18S rRNA sequence analysis from three Brazilian dogs.  

PubMed

Molecular and histopathological studies were carried out on samples from three Brazilian dogs with persistent hepatozoonosis parasitemia. Canine hepatozoonosis was confirmed by finding gametocytes in blood smears. Histopathological examination of skeletal muscle biopsy revealed muscle degeneration and atrophy, and degenerating/regenerating myofibers, similar to the muscle degeneration caused by Hepatozoon americanum . However, the large cystic structures typical of H. americanum were not observed in muscle biopsies from these dogs. Partial 18S rRNA sequences amplified by PCR from the three Brazilian samples demonstrated closest similarity to the Hepatozoon sp. Fukuoka described in Japan (>99% identity). These results indicate that both additional clinical cases and genes need examination in order to determine the phylogenetic relatedness among canid Hepatozoon species. PMID:15988602

Paludo, Giane R; Friedmann, Horacio; Dell'Porto, Arlete; Macintire, Douglass K; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Boudreaux, Mary K; Baneth, Gad; Blagburn, Byron L; Dykstra, Christine C

2005-09-01

425

Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 8  

SciTech Connect

This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A.

Not Available

1993-03-01

426

Biophysical analysis of partially folded state of ?-lactalbumin in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants.  

PubMed

The role of different types of interactions and their contribution in the stabilization of bovine ?-lactalbumin (?-LA) molten globule in presence of cationic surfactant, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) have been examined using a combination of spectroscopic, light scattering and calorimetric techniques. The results correlated well with each other and were used to characterize the partially folded states of the protein both qualitatively and quantitatively. At lower concentration of the surfactants, the thermodynamic parameters obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy suggested an increased exposure of non-polar groups in HTAB while a possible restructuring of non-polar groups were indicated in SDS. The fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed the formation of an intermediate state at various concentrations of HTAB and SDS while the lifetime measurements supported the assumption of protein-surfactant complex stability in HTAB as compared to SDS. The hydrodynamic diameter and the ?-potential were analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) which also implicated the combined influence of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in protein unfolding in HTAB and only hydrophobic interactions in SDS. The binding parameters for ANS obtained from isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) measurements suggested a high stability of ?-LA molten globule and the role of enthalpic and entropic contribution in the binding of ANS in HTAB. It also indicated the fragility of ?-LA molten globule in SDS. The possible binding sites as well as the interactions of ANS with the partially folded protein were also studied from the thermodynamic parameters obtained from the ITC. PMID:21044789

Misra, Pinaki P; Kishore, Nand

2011-02-01

427

Weapons-Grade Plutonium-Thorium PWR Assembly Design and Core Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A light water reactor (LWR) fuel assembly design consisting of a blend of weapons-grade plutonium and natural thorium oxides was examined. The design meets current thermal-hydraulic and safety criteria. Such an assembly would have enough reactivity to achieve three cycles of operation. The pin power distribution indicates a fairly level distribution across the assembly, avoiding hot spots near guide tubes, corners, and other sections where excessive power would create significant loss to thermal-hydraulic margins.This work examined a number of physics and core safety analysis parameters that impact the operation and safety of power reactors. Such parameters as moderator coefficients of reactivity, Doppler coefficients, soluble boron worth, control rod worth, prompt neutron lifetime, and delayed-neutron fractions were considered. These in turn were used to examine reactor behavior during a number of operational conditions, transients, and accidents. Such conditions as shutdown from power with one rod stuck out, steam-line break accident, feedwater line break, loss of coolant flow, locked rotor accidents, control rod ejection accidents, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWSs) were examined.The analysis of selected reactor transients demonstrated that it is feasible to license and safely operate a reactor fueled with plutonium-thorium blended fuel. In most cases analyzed, the thorium mixture had less-severe consequences than those for a core comprising low-enriched uranium fuel. In the analyzed cases where the consequences were more severe, they were still within acceptable limits. The ATWS accident condition requires more analysis.

Dziadosz, David; Ake, Timothy N.; Saglam, Mehmet; Sapyta, Joe J. [Framatome ANP, Inc. (France)

2004-07-15

428

Partial wave analysis of p ? p annihilation channels in flight with I=1, C=+1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined analysis is reported of 3?0, ?0? and ?0?? data in the mass range 1960 to 2410 MeV. This analysis is made consistent also with ???0 data, reported separately. The analysis requires s-channel resonances with a spectrum close to that published earlier for C=+1 states with I=0; masses for I=1 states are lower on average by 20 MeV. Two

A. V. Anisovich; C. A Baker; C. J Batty; D. V. Bugg; V. A Nikonov; A. V. Sarantsev; V. V. Sarantsev; B. S Zou

2001-01-01

429

SOS8520 Organizational perspectives on safety conference of The Society for Risk Analysis Europe (SRAE) will be held June 17th  

E-print Network

SOS8520 Organizational perspectives on safety The 22nd conference of The Society for Risk Analysis (June 20th ­ 21st ) focusing on Organizational perspectives on safety The primary target group Contents: Basics of risk governance (Hovden) Societal safety and security issues (Hovden) Safety culture

Malinnikova, Eugenia

430

Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

431

Partial sequence analysis of an atypical Turkish isolate provides further information on the evolutionary history of Plum pox virus (PPV).  

PubMed

A variety of techniques, such as typing with subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies, restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis or subgroup-specific RT-PCR are available for the discrimination of Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates. However, the existence of PPV isolates showing abnormal typing properties has been observed in the past [Candresse, T., Cambra, M., Dallot, S., Lanneau, M., Asensio, M., Gorris, M.T., Revers, F., Macquaire, G., Olmos, A., Boscia, D., Quiot J.B., Dunez, J., 1998. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction assays for the typing of isolates belonging to the D and M serotypes of Plum pox potyvirus. Phytopathology 88, 198-204.]. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such anomalous serological and molecular typing characteristics, partial 3' (1449 nt) and 5' (3706 nt) sequences have been determined for an atypical Turkish PPV isolate (Abricotier Turquie or Ab-Tk). The results obtained indicate that its unusual typing behaviour is caused by point mutations affecting key restriction sites and epitopes and confirm that this isolate represents a divergent member of the PPV-M subgroup. In addition, analysis of the partial Ab-Tk genomic sequences demonstrated that the 5' region of the genome of this isolate has a mosaic structure resulting from recombination event(s), shedding new light on the evolutionary history of Plum pox virus. PMID:15681071

Glasa, Miroslav; Candresse, Thierry

2005-03-01

432

Ion beam analysis of partial lithium extraction of LiMn 2O 4 by chemical delithiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium manganese oxide, LiMn 2O 4, has been studied by many research groups. This material is a great candidate to be used as positive electrode in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries because of its low cost, abundant precursors and non-toxicity. LiMn 2O 4 has a spinel Fd-3m structure and shows a reversible extraction and insertion of lithium ions that is one of the most important characteristic of positive electrodes in rechargeable batteries. In this work, LiMn 2O 4 samples were synthesized by solid state reaction. A partial lithium removal was performed on this system by chemical delithiation using HCl aqueous solutions at different concentrations. Six partial-extracted compounds were obtained and characterized by Ion beam analysis (IBA) in order to obtain the Li concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analyses were also performed. A rigorous study of lithium contents is critical to analyze the structure properties of these compounds and samples production parameters. The IBA method used in this work was the analysis of energy spectra of elastic backscattered (EBS) proton from Mn, O and Li nuclei and the ?-particles energy from the 7Li( p, ?) 4He nuclear reaction (NR).

Andrade, E.; Romero Núñez, A.; Ibarra Palos, A.; Cruz, J.; Rocha, M. F.; Solis, C.; de Lucio, O. G.; Zavala, E. P.

2011-02-01

433

Hand Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Snowblower Safety Pumpkin Carving Safety Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Safety Removing a Ring News and Updates ... Safety Snowblower Safety Pumpkin Carving Safety Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Safety Removing a Ring News and Updates ...

434

Standard review plan for reviewing safety analysis reports for dry metallic spent fuel storage casks  

SciTech Connect

The Cask Standard Review Plan (CSRP) has been prepared as guidance to be used in the review of Cask Safety Analysis Reports (CSARs) for storage packages. The principal purpose of the CSRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of storage cask reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The CSRP also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the NRC staff in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a CSAR does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the CSRP. However, applicants should recognize that the NRC staff has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches.

Not Available

1988-01-01

435

[Social network analysis: a method to improve safety in healthcare organizations].  

PubMed

Patient safety depends on the culture of the healthcare organization involving relationships between professionals. This article proposes that the study of these relations should be conducted from a network perspective and using a methodology called Social Network Analysis (SNA). This methodology includes a set of mathematical constructs grounded in Graph Theory. With the SNA we can know aspects of the individual's position in the network (centrality) or cohesion among team members. Thus, the SNA allows to know aspects related to security such as the kind of links that can increase commitment among professionals, how to build those links, which nodes have more prestige in the team in generating confidence or collaborative network, which professionals serve as intermediaries between the subgroups of a team to transmit information or smooth conflicts, etc. Useful aspects in stablishing a safety culture. The SNA would analyze the relations among professionals, their level of communication to communicate errors and spontaneously seek help and coordination between departments to participate in projects that enhance safety. Thus, they related through a network, using the same language, a fact that helps to build a culture. In summary, we propose an approach to safety culture from a SNA perspective that would complement other commonly used methods. PMID:23892673

Marqués Sánchez, Pilar; González Pérez, Marta Eva; Agra Varela, Yolanda; Vega Núñez, Jorge; Pinto Carral, Arrate; Quiroga Sánchez, Enedina

2013-01-01

436

Safety analysis report for the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory: Supplement No. 2. Experiments with heterogeneous assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Factors affecting the safety of criticality experiments using heterogeneous assemblies are described and assessed. It is concluded that there is no substantial change in safety from experiments already being routinely performed at the Critical Mass Laboratory (CML), and that laboratory and personnel safety are adequately provided by the combination of engineered and administrative safety limits enforced at the CML. This conclusion is based on the analysis of operational controls, potential hazards, and the consequences of accidents. Contingencies considered that could affect nuclear criticality include manual changes in fuel loadings, water flooding, fire, explosion, loss of services, earthquake, windstorm, and flood. Other potential hazards considered include radiation exposure to personnel, and potential releases within the Assembly Room and outside to the environment. It is concluded that the Maximum Credible Nuclear Burst of 3 x 10/sup 18/ fissions (which served as the design basis for the CML) is valid for heterogeneous assemblies as well as homogeneous assemblies. This is based upon examination of the results of reactor destructive tests and the results of the SL-1 reactor destructive accident. The production of blast effects which might jeopardize the CML critical assembly room (of thick reinforced concrete) is not considered credible due to the extreme circumstances required to produce blast effects in reactor destructive tests. Consequently, it is concluded that, for experiments with heterogeneous assemblies, the consequences of the Maximum Credible Burst are unchanged from those previously estimated for experiments with homogeneous systems.

Gore, B.F.; Davenport, L.C.

1981-04-01

437

Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

Hulburt, D.A.

1981-05-01

438

Nitrogen Partial Pressure in the Archean Atmosphere From Analysis of Hydrothermal Quartz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric nitrogen constitutes the main pool of one of the major biogenic elements, it may provide a record of the terrestrial magnetic field, and it might have been instrumental to maintain clement temperatures despite a lower energy provided by the ancient Sun. We have investigated the partial pressure of di-nitrogen in the Archean atmosphere by analyzing the ratio between N2 and argon-36 (a primordial, chemically inert noble gas for which there is no reason to suspect abundance variation in the atmosphere through time) in fluid inclusions (FI) trapped in two hydrothermal quartz from the 3.5 Ga-old Dresser formation, North Pole, Pilbara (NE Australia). These samples have different histories of fluid trapping and deposition, and their ages are constrained within 3.0-3.5 Ga from U-Xe, and Ar-Ar dating. FI nitrogen is a mixture between hydrothermal and air-saturated water (ASW) end-members, that can be identified through geochemical correlations between Cl/36Ar, 40Ar/36Ar and N2/36Ar ratios. The ASW component has a N2/36Ar ratio within 30 % of the modern value, implying a N2 partial pressure during the Archean was within 0.6-1 bar. The nitrogen isotopic composition of the ASW end-member is also found similar to the present-day one within 3 permil. Combined with the recent proposal from ancient raindrop imprints that the total atmospheric pressure was 0.5-1.14 bar, this leaves less than 0.7 bar for the pressure of other atmospheric gases including CO2. Thus nitrogen did not play a significant role in the thermal budget of the ancient Earth, and the terrestrial magnetic field was already strong enough at that time to shield the upper atmosphere from interaction with the solar wind, and therefore to prevent atmospheric escape that would have been recorded otherwise in the nitrogen composition. These results also imply that exchanges of nitrogen between the Earth's mantle and the surface were limited, or proceeded at similar rates in both ways from the Archean to Present.

Marty, B.; Zimmermann, L.; Burgess, R.; Pujol, M.; Philippot, P.

2012-12-01

439

Poppr: an R package for genetic analysis of populations with clonal, partially clonal, and/or sexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

Many microbial, fungal, or oomcyete populations violate assumptions for population genetic analysis because these populations are clonal, admixed, partially clonal, and/or sexual. Furthermore, few tools exist that are specifically designed for analyzing data from clonal populations, making analysis difficult and haphazard. We developed the R package poppr providing unique tools for analysis of data from admixed, clonal, mixed, and/or sexual populations. Currently, poppr can be used for dominant/codominant and haploid/diploid genetic data. Data can be imported from several formats including GenAlEx formatted text files and can be analyzed on a user-defined hierarchy that includes unlimited levels of subpopulation structure and clone censoring. New functions include calculation of Bruvo’s distance for microsatellites, batch-analysis of the index of association with several indices of genotypic diversity, and graphing including dendrograms with bootstrap support and minimum spanning networks. While functions for genotypic diversity and clone censoring are specific for clonal populations, several functions found in poppr are also valuable to analysis of any populations. A manual with documentation and examples is provided. Poppr is open source and major releases are available on CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/package=poppr. More supporting documentation and tutorials can be found under ‘resources’ at: http://grunwaldlab.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:24688859

Tabima, Javier F.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

2014-01-01

440

Analysis of Multivariate Disease Classification Data in the Presence of Partially Missing Disease Traits  

PubMed Central

In modern cancer epidemiology, diseases are classified based on pathologic and molecular traits, and different combinations of these traits give rise to many disease subtypes. The effect of predictor variables can be measured by fitting a polytomous logistic model to such data. The differences (heterogeneity) among the relative risk parameters associated with subtypes are of great interest to better understand disease etiology. Due to the heterogeneity of the relative risk parameters, when a risk factor is changed, the prevalence of one subtype may change more than that of another subtype does. Estimation of the heterogeneity parameters is difficult when disease trait information is only partially observed and the number of disease subtypes is large. We consider a robust semiparametric approach based on the pseudo-conditional likelihood for estimating these heterogeneity parameters. Through simulation studies, we compare the robustness and efficiency of our approach with that of the maximum likelihood approach. The method is then applied to analyze the associations of weight gain with risk of breast cancer subtypes using data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

Miao, Jingang; Sinha, Samiran; Wang, Suojin; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M

2014-01-01

441

Value-directed human behavior analysis from video using partially observable Markov decision processes.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for learning decision theoretic models of human behaviors from video data. Our system learns relationships between the movements of a person, the context in which they are acting, and a utility function. This learning makes explicit that the meaning of a behavior to an observer is contained in its relationship to actions and outcomes. An agent wishing to capitalize on these relationships must learn to distinguish the behaviors according to how they help the agent to maximize utility. The model we use is a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP. The video observations are integrated into the POMDP using a dynamic Bayesian network that creates spatial and temporal abstractions amenable to decision making at the high level. The parameters of the model are learned from training data using an a posteriori constrained optimization technique based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. The system automatically discovers classes of behaviors and determines which are important for choosing actions that optimize over the utility of possible outcomes. This type of learning obviates the need for labeled data from expert knowledge about which behaviors are significant and removes bias about what behaviors may be useful to recognize in a particular situation. We show results in three interactions: a single player imitation game, a gestural robotic control problem, and a card game played by two people. PMID:17496372

Hoey, Jesse; Little, James J

2007-07-01

442

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY  

E-print Network

INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS & COMPLIANCE BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHRESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING

443

Timing of Formal Phase Safety Reviews for Large-Scale Integrated Hazard Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is a process used to identify and control unacceptable risk. As such, it does not occur in a vacuum. IHA approaches must be tailored to fit the system being analyzed. Physical, resource, organizational and temporal constraints on large-scale integrated systems impose additional direct or derived requirements on the IHA. The timing and interaction between engineering and safety organizations can provide either benefits or hindrances to the overall end product. The traditional approach for formal phase safety review timing and content, which generally works well for small- to moderate-scale systems, does not work well for very large-scale integrated systems. This paper proposes a modified approach to timing and content of formal phase safety reviews for IHA. Details of the tailoring process for IHA will describe how to avoid temporary disconnects in major milestone reviews and how to maintain a cohesive end-to-end integration story particularly for systems where the integrator inherently has little to no insight into lower level systems. The proposal has the advantage of allowing the hazard analysis development process to occur as technical data normally matures.

Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

2010-01-01

444

Photoelastic stress analysis of different designs of cement-retained fixed partial dentures on Morse taper oral implants.  

PubMed

There is no consensus in literature regarding the best plan for prosthetic rehabilitation with partial multiple adjacent implants to minimize stress generated in the bone-implant interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of cemented fixed partial dentures, splinted and nonsplinted, on Morse taper implants and with different types of coating material (ceramic and resin), using photoelastic stress analysis. A photoelastic model of an interposed edentulous space, missing a second premolar and a first molar, and rehabilitated with 4 different types of cemented crowns and supported by 2 adjacent implants was used. Groups were as follows: UC, splinted ceramic crowns; IC, nonsplinted ceramic crowns; UR, splinted resin crowns; and IR, nonsplinted resin crowns. Different vertical static loading conditions were performed: balanced occlusal load, 10 kgf; simultaneous punctiform load on the implanted premolar and molar, 10 kgf; and alternate punctiform load on the implanted premolar and molar, 5 kgf. Changes in stress distribution were analyzed in a polariscope, and digital photographs were taken of each condition to allow comparison of stress pattern distribution around the implants. Cementation of the fixed partial dentures generated stresses between implants. Splinted restorations distributed the stresses more evenly between the implants than nonsplinted when force was applied. Ceramic restorations presented better distribution of stresses than resin restorations. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that splinted ceramic restorations promote better stress distribution around osseointegrated implants when compared with nonsplinted crowns; metal-ceramic restorations present less stress concentration and magnitude than metal-plastic restorations. PMID:21415635

Menani, Luiz Ricardo; Tiossi, Rodrigo; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Almeida, Rossana Pereira

2011-03-01

445

Review of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues for transportation packages  

SciTech Connect

The staff of the Nuclear Engineering Applications Section (NEAS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been involved for over 25 years with the development and application of computational tools for use in analyzing the criticality safety and shielding features of transportation packages carrying radioactive material (RAM). The majority of the computational tools developed by ORNL/NEAS have been included within the SCALE modular code system (SCALE 1995). This code system has been used throughout the world for the evaluation of nuclear facility and package designs. With this development and application experience as a basis, this paper highlights a number of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues that confront the designer and reviewer of a new RAM package. Changes in the types and quantities of material that need to be shipped will keep these issues before the technical community and provide challenges to future package design and certification.

Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computational Physics and Engineering Div.

1995-12-31

446

To err is human: improving patient safety through failure mode and effect analysis.  

PubMed

Patient care errors occur in the laboratory. Traditionally, most errors have been thought to occur because of individual human failure. The assumption is that with adequate training, education; and orientation, technologists will perform flawlessly. Laboratory processes are designed on the premise that nothing will go wrong. Health-care professionals are looking at new methods of error prevention including Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Based on long experience in the engineering field, FMEA assumes everything will fail, humans err frequently, and the cause of an error often is beyond the individual's control. FMEA is a proactive, systematic, multidisciplinary team-based approach to error prevention. Patient safety is now a high priority with the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and this article introduces FMEA, a new method