Science.gov

Sample records for partial safety analysis

  1. Pharmacokinetic, partial pharmacodynamic and initial safety analysis of (−)-Epicatechin in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Christopher F.; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Shiva, Sruti; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Taub, Pam R.; Su, Yongxuan; Ceballos, Guillermo; Dugar, Sundeep; Schreiner, George; Villarreal, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    (−)-Epicatechin ((−)-EPI), a naturally occurring flavanol has emerged as a likely candidate for cocoa-based product reported reductions in cardiometabolic risk. The present study aimed to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of purified (−)-EPI administered to healthy volunteers. In this phase I, open-label, two-part single- and multiple-dose study subjects received either a single dose (n=9) of 50, 100 or 200 mg or multiple doses (n=8) of 50 mg daily (q.d.) or twice daily (b.i.d) for 5 days. Blood was collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 hrs after (−)-EPI administration in the single and multiple dose groups (blood collection repeated in day 5). Samples were analyzed by HPLC-HR-ESI-MS for EPI and metabolites quantification. In the q.d. and b.i.d. groups, blood samples were analyzed for NO surrogates, follistatin, platelet mitochondrial complex I, V and citrate synthase level determinations. (−)-EPI was well tolerated and readily absorbed with further phase 2 metabolism. On day 5, in the q.d. and b.i.d. groups, there were significant increases in plasma nitrite of 30 % and 17 %, respectively. In the q.d. group on day 5 vs. day 1, platelet mitochondria complexes I, IV and citrate synthase activities demonstrated a significant increase of ~ 92, 62 and 8 %, respectively. Average day 5 follistatin AUC levels were ~2.5 fold higher vs. day 1 AUC levels in the b.i.d. group. (−)-EPI was safe with no observed adverse effects and our findings suggest that increases in NO metabolites, mitochondrial enzyme function and plasma follistatin levels may underlie some of the beneficial effects of cocoa products or (−)-EPI as reported in other studies. PMID:25598082

  2. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent

    2008-01-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. Such a model was built based on the available description parameters as provided by the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analysis performed with the model constructed was compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel which increases the neutron resonance absorption reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus making LEU fuel a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  3. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, Trent; Gehin, Jess C

    2009-04-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  4. Safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1995-01-01

    We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

  5. Partial pressure analysis of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1984-11-01

    The application of partial pressure analysis for plasma diagnostic measurements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the techniques of plasma flux analysis and partial pressure analysis for mass spectrometry of plasmas. Emphasis is given to the application of quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS). The interface problems associated with the coupling of a QMS to a plasma device are discussed including: differential-pumping requirements, electromagnetic interferences from the plasma environment, the detection of surface-active species, ion source interactions, and calibration procedures. Example measurements are presented from process monitoring of glow discharge plasmas which are useful for cleaning and conditioning vacuum vessels.

  6. West side, oblique, partially hidden by trees, utility safety fence, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side, oblique, partially hidden by trees, utility safety fence, and the deep shadow of the 1962 annex. View to northeast. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  8. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Butterfield, C

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  9. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  10. CONVEYOR SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.

  11. Integrated Safety Analysis Tiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Carla; McNairy, Lisa; Wetherholt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Commercial partnerships and organizational constraints, combined with complex systems, may lead to division of hazard analysis across organizations. This division could cause important hazards to be overlooked, causes to be missed, controls for a hazard to be incomplete, or verifications to be inefficient. Each organization s team must understand at least one level beyond the interface sufficiently enough to comprehend integrated hazards. This paper will discuss various ways to properly divide analysis among organizations. The Ares I launch vehicle integrated safety analyses effort will be utilized to illustrate an approach that addresses the key issues and concerns arising from multiple analysis responsibilities.

  12. Integrated Safety Analysis Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

  13. Model-Based Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.

    2006-01-01

    System safety analysis techniques are well established and are used extensively during the design of safety-critical systems. Despite this, most of the techniques are highly subjective and dependent on the skill of the practitioner. Since these analyses are usually based on an informal system model, it is unlikely that they will be complete, consistent, and error free. In fact, the lack of precise models of the system architecture and its failure modes often forces the safety analysts to devote much of their effort to gathering architectural details about the system behavior from several sources and embedding this information in the safety artifacts such as the fault trees. This report describes Model-Based Safety Analysis, an approach in which the system and safety engineers share a common system model created using a model-based development process. By extending the system model with a fault model as well as relevant portions of the physical system to be controlled, automated support can be provided for much of the safety analysis. We believe that by using a common model for both system and safety engineering and automating parts of the safety analysis, we can both reduce the cost and improve the quality of the safety analysis. Here we present our vision of model-based safety analysis and discuss the advantages and challenges in making this approach practical.

  14. Partial wave analysis using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Niklaus; Beijiang, Liu; Jike, Wang

    2010-04-01

    Partial wave analysis is an important tool for determining resonance properties in hadron spectroscopy. For large data samples however, the un-binned likelihood fits employed are computationally very expensive. At the Beijing Spectrometer (BES) III experiment, an increase in statistics compared to earlier experiments of up to two orders of magnitude is expected. In order to allow for a timely analysis of these datasets, additional computing power with short turnover times has to be made available. It turns out that graphics processing units (GPUs) originally developed for 3D computer games have an architecture of massively parallel single instruction multiple data floating point units that is almost ideally suited for the algorithms employed in partial wave analysis. We have implemented a framework for tensor manipulation and partial wave fits called GPUPWA. The user writes a program in pure C++ whilst the GPUPWA classes handle computations on the GPU, memory transfers, caching and other technical details. In conjunction with a recent graphics processor, the framework provides a speed-up of the partial wave fit by more than two orders of magnitude compared to legacy FORTRAN code.

  15. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  16. Partially Premixed Flame (PPF) Research for Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Hegde, Uday

    2004-01-01

    Incipient fires typically occur after the partial premixing of fuel and oxidizer. The mixing of product species into the fuel/oxidizer mixture influences flame stabilization and fire spread. Therefore, it is important to characterize the impact of different levels of fuel/oxidizer/product mixing on flame stabilization, liftoff and extinguishment under different gravity conditions. With regard to fire protection, the agent concentration required to achieve flame suppression is an important consideration. The initial stage of an unwanted fire in a microgravity environment will depend on the level of partial premixing and the local conditions such as air currents generated by the fire itself and any forced ventilation (that influence agent and product mixing into the fire). The motivation of our investigation is to characterize these impacts in a systematic and fundamental manner.

  17. Partial pressure analysis in space testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    For vacuum-system or test-article analysis it is often desirable to know the species and partial pressures of the vacuum gases. Residual gas or Partial Pressure Analyzers (PPA's) are commonly used for this purpose. These are mass spectrometer-type instruments, most commonly employing quadrupole filters. These instruments can be extremely useful, but they should be used with caution. Depending on the instrument design, calibration procedures, and conditions of use, measurements made with these instruments can be accurate to within a few percent, or in error by two or more orders of magnitude. Significant sources of error can include relative gas sensitivities that differ from handbook values by an order of magnitude, changes in sensitivity with pressure by as much as two orders of magnitude, changes in sensitivity with time after exposure to chemically active gases, and the dependence of the sensitivity for one gas on the pressures of other gases. However, for most instruments, these errors can be greatly reduced with proper operating procedures and conditions of use. In this paper, data are presented illustrating performance characteristics for different instruments and gases, operating parameters are recommended to minimize some errors, and calibrations procedures are described that can detect and/or correct other errors.

  18. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  19. Adapting safety requirements analysis to intrusion detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Several requirements analysis techniques widely used in safety-critical systems are being adapted to support the analysis of secure systems. Perhaps the most relevant system safety techique for Intrusion Detection Systems is hazard analysis.

  20. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: A multivariable model including system level factors

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of ‘partially’ immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138– 13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151 – 6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017 – 10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075 – 7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144 - 0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598 – 23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057 – 0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam and Carbamazepine as Monotherapy in Partial Seizures.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Swaroop Hassan; Chakraborty, Ananya; Virupakshaiah, Akash; Kumar, Nithin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a newer antiepileptic drug with better pharmacokinetic profile. Currently, it is frequently used for the treatment of partial seizures. The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of LEV and Carbamazepine (CBZ) in partial epilepsy. Methods. This was a prospective, open labeled, randomized study. It was conducted in participants suffering from partial seizures after the approval of ethics committee and written informed consent. The first group received Tab LEV (500 to 3000 mg/day) and the second group received Tab CBZ (300 to 600 mg/day). The primary outcomes were efficacy and safety. The secondary outcome was the Quality of Life (QOL). Efficacy was assessed by comparing the seizure freedom rates at the end of 6 months. Safety profile was evaluated by comparing the adverse effects. QOL was assessed by QOLIE-10 scale. Results. The overall seizure freedom rate at the end of 6 months was 71.42% in CBZ group compared to 78.57% in LEV group (p = 0.2529). Both LEV and CBZ reported a similar incidence of adverse reactions. LEV group reported more behavioral changes like increased aggression and anxiety. Also, it showed better QOL compared to the CBZ group. Conclusion. LEV monotherapy and CBZ monotherapy demonstrated similar efficacy for treatment of partial epilepsy and were found to be well tolerated. PMID:26798511

  2. Safety study application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Included are analyses of existing facilities done under the aegis of the Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program, and analyses of new and modified facilities. A graded approach is used wherein the level of analysis and documentation for each facility is commensurate with the magnitude of the hazard(s), the complexity of the facility and the stage of the facility life cycle. Safety analysis reports (SARs) for hazard Category 1 and 2 facilities are usually detailed and extensive because these categories are associated with public health and safety risk. SARs for Category 3 are normally much less extensive because the risk to public health and safety is slight. At Energy Systems, safety studies are the name given to SARs for Category 3 (formerly {open_quotes}low{close_quotes}) facilities. Safety studies are the appropriate instrument when on-site risks are limited to irreversible consequences to a few people, and off-site consequences are limited to reversible consequences to a few people. This application guide provides detailed instructions for performing safety studies that meet the requirements of DOE Orders 5480.22, {open_quotes}Technical Safety Requirements,{close_quotes} and 5480.23, {open_quotes}Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.{close_quotes} A seven-chapter format has been adopted for safety studies. This format allows for discussion of all the items required by DOE Order 5480.23 and for the discussions to be readily traceable to the listing in the order. The chapter titles are: (1) Introduction and Summary, (2) Site, (3) Facility Description, (4) Safety Basis, (5) Hazardous Material Management, (6) Management, Organization, and Institutional Safety Provisions, and (7) Accident Analysis.

  3. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (4) A fatigue assessment. (f) If applicable, the safety analysis must include, but not be limited to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety analysis. 35.15 Section 35.15... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.15 Safety analysis. (a)(1) The applicant must analyze...

  4. [Partial lease squares approach to functional analysis].

    PubMed

    Preda, C

    2006-01-01

    We extend the partial least squares (PLS) approach to functional data represented in our models by sample paths of stochastic process with continuous time. Due to the infinite dimension, when functional data are used as a predictor for linear regression and classification models, the estimation problem is an ill-posed one. In this context, PLS offers a simple and efficient alternative to the methods based on the principal components of the stochastic process. We compare the results given by the PLS approach and other linear models using several datasets from economy, industry and medical fields. PMID:17124795

  5. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  6. Partial Differential Algebraic Sensitivity Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-05-15

    PDASAC solves stiff, nonlinear initial-boundary-value in a timelike dimension t and a space dimension x. Plane, circular cylindrical or spherical boundaries can be handled. Mixed-order systems of partial differential and algebraic equations can be analyzed with members of order or 0 or 1 in t, 0,1 or 2 in x. Parametric sensitivities of the calculated states are compted simultaneously on request, via the Jacobian of the state equations. Initial and boundary conditions are efficiently reconciled.more » Local error control (in the max-norm or the 2-norm) is provided for the state vector and can include the parametric sensitivites if desired.« less

  7. Development of partial failure analysis method in probability risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, T.; Modarres, M.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to evaluate the partial failure effect on current Probability Risk Assessments (PRAs). An integrated methodology of the thermal-hydraulic analysis and fuzzy logic simulation using the Dynamic Master Logic Diagram (DMLD) was developed. The thermal-hydraulic analysis used in this approach is to identify partial operation effect of any PRA system function in a plant model. The DMLD is used to simulate the system performance of the partial failure effect and inspect all minimal cut sets of system functions. This methodology can be applied in the context of a full scope PRA to reduce core damage frequency. An example of this application of the approach is presented. The partial failure data used in the example is from a survey study of partial failure effects from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS).

  8. PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS AND PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematics behind the techniques of principal component analysis and partial least squares regression is presented in detail, starting from the appropriate extreme conditions. he meaning of the resultant vectors and many of their mathematical interrelationships are also pres...

  9. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  10. Partial Wave Analysis of Coupled Photonic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Kirk A.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The very high quality factors sustained by microcavity optical resonators are relevant to applications in wavelength filtering, routing, switching, modulation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing. Increases in the density of photonic elements require that attention be paid to how electromagnetic (EM) coupling modifies their optical properties. This is especially true when cavity resonances are involved, in which case, their characteristics may be fundamentally altered. Understanding the optical properties of microcavities that are near or in contact with photonic elements---such as other microcavities, nanostructures, couplers, and substrates---can be expected to advance our understanding of the roles that these structures may play in VLSI photonics, biosensors and similar device technologies. Wc present results from recent theoretical studies of the effects of inter- and intracavity coupling on optical resonances in compound spherical particles. Concentrically stratified spheres and bispheres constituted from homogeneous and stratified spheres are subjects of this investigation. A new formulation is introduced for the absorption of light in an arbitrary layer of a multilayered sphere, which is based on multiple reflections of the spherical partial waves of the Lorenz-Mie solution for scattering by a sphere. Absorption efficiencies, which can be used to profile cavity resonances and to infer fluorescence yields or the onset of nonlinear optical processes in the microcavities, are presented. Splitting of resonances in these multisphere systems is paid particular attention, and consequences for photonic device development and possible performance enhancements through carefully designed architectures that exploit EM coupling are considered.

  11. Radiological Safety Analysis Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-22

    Version 03 RSAC-6.2 can be used to model complex accidents and radiological consequences to individuals from the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. A user can generate a fission product inventory; decay and ingrow the inventory during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment; model the downwind dispersion of the activity; and calculate doses to downwind individuals. Doses are calculated through the inhalation, immersion, ground surface and ingestion pathways. New to RSAC-6.2 are the abilitiesmore » to calculate inhalation from release to a room, inhalation from resuspension of activities, and a new model for dry deposition. Doses can now be calculated as close as 10 meters from the release point. RSAC-6.2 has been subjected to extensive independent verification and validation for use in performing safety-related dose calculations to support safety analysis reports. WinRP 2.0, a windows based overlay to RSAC-6.2, assists users in creating and running RSAC-6.2 input files. RSAC-6, Rev. 6.2 (03/11/02) corrects an earlier issue with RSAC-6, compiled with F77L-EM/32 Fortran 77 Version 5.10, which would not allow the executable to run with XP or VISTA Windows operating systems. Because this version is still in use at some facilities, it is being released through RSICC in addition to the new RSAC 7 (CCC-761).« less

  12. Efficacy and safety of brivaracetam for partial-onset seizures in 3 pooled clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Mameniškienė, Rūta; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Klein, Pavel; Gamage, Jessica; Schiemann, Jimmy; Johnson, Martin E.; Whitesides, John; McDonough, Belinda; Eckhardt, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for SV2A, for treatment of partial-onset (focal) seizures (POS) in adults. Methods: Data were pooled from patients (aged 16–80 years) with POS uncontrolled by 1 to 2 antiepileptic drugs receiving BRV 50, 100, or 200 mg/d or placebo, without titration, in 3 phase III studies of BRV (NCT00490035, NCT00464269, and NCT01261325, ClinicalTrials.gov, funded by UCB Pharma). The studies had an 8-week baseline and a 12-week treatment period. Patients receiving concomitant levetiracetam were excluded from the efficacy pool. Results: In the efficacy population (n = 1,160), reduction over placebo (95% confidence interval) in baseline-adjusted POS frequency/28 days was 19.5% (8.0%–29.6%) for 50 mg/d (p = 0.0015), 24.4% (16.8%–31.2%) for 100 mg/d (p < 0.00001), and 24.0% (15.3%–31.8%) for 200 mg/d (p < 0.00001). The ≥50% responder rate was 34.2% (50 mg/d, p = 0.0015), 39.5% (100 mg/d, p < 0.00001), and 37.8% (200 mg/d, p = 0.00003) vs 20.3% for placebo (p < 0.01). Across the safety population groups (n = 1,262), 90.0% to 93.9% completed the studies. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported by 68.0% BRV overall (n = 803) and 62.1% placebo (n = 459). Serious TEAEs were reported by 3.0% (BRV) and 2.8% (placebo); 3 patients receiving BRV and one patient receiving placebo died. TEAEs in ≥5% patients taking BRV (vs placebo) were somnolence (15.2% vs 8.5%), dizziness (11.2% vs 7.2%), headache (9.6% vs 10.2%), and fatigue (8.7% vs 3.7%). Conclusions: Adjunctive BRV was effective and generally well tolerated in adults with POS. Classification of evidence: This analysis provides Class I evidence that adjunctive BRV is effective in reducing POS frequency in adults with epilepsy and uncontrolled seizures. PMID:27335114

  13. Automation for System Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

  14. Radiation safety content guide for safety analysis reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    US Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) facilities develop Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) to permit evaluation of potential hazards to the health and safety of the public and employees and potential hazards to government property and the environment. The SAR is the primary vehicle by which the Operating Contractor provides information to demonstrate that the facility can be operated safely. The Savannah River Operations Office independently reviews SARs to determine their technical integrity and completeness. In order to make the review process most efficient, SARs must be prepared in a consistent manner and contain all required information. This document provides guidance on the content of the radiation safety information to be included in SARs. It is not within the scope of this guide to address the entire Safety Analysis Report. 53 refs.

  15. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety analysis. 35.15 Section 35.15... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.15 Safety analysis. (a)(1) The applicant must analyze the.... This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical...

  16. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety analysis. 33.75 Section 33.75... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a... consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account,...

  17. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety analysis. 33.75 Section 33.75... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a... consequences of all failures that can reasonably be expected to occur. This analysis will take into account,...

  18. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety analysis. 35.15 Section 35.15... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.15 Safety analysis. (a)(1) The applicant must analyze the.... This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical...

  19. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety analysis. 35.15 Section 35.15... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.15 Safety analysis. (a)(1) The applicant must analyze the.... This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical...

  20. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety analysis. 35.15 Section 35.15... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.15 Safety analysis. (a)(1) The applicant must analyze the.... This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical...

  1. Quantitative NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, M.; Alleman, T. L.; Dyer, T.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphitylation of hydroxyl groups in biodiesel samples with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by 31P-NMR analysis provides a rapid quantitative analytical technique for the determination of substitution patterns on partially esterified glycerols. The unique 31P-NMR chemical shift data was established with a series mono and di-substituted fatty acid esters of glycerol and then utilized to characterize an industrial sample of partially processed biodiesel.

  2. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G.; Swain, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  3. Partial analysis of experiment LDEF A-0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Due to delays in manifesting the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility from space, attention was concentrated on extracting the maximum information from the EIOM-2 (oxygen interaction with materials experiment) flown on STS-8 in September 1983. An analysis was made of the optical surfaces exposed during that flight and an assessment made of the effect of the 5 eV atomic oxygen upon their physical and chemical properties. The surfaces studied were of two types: high-purity thin films sputtered or evaporated onto 2.54-cm diam lambda/20 fused silica optical flats, and highly polished bulk samples. Rapid etching of carbon and carbonaceous surfaces was observed with polycarbonate CR-39 showing the largest etch of any substrate flown and measured. Of the metals tested, only osmium and silver showed large effects, the former being heavily etched and the later forming a very thick layer of oxide. The first measurable effects on iridium, aluminum, nickel, tungsten and niobium thin films are reported.

  4. Statistical approach to partial equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yougui; Stanley, H. E.

    2009-04-01

    A statistical approach to market equilibrium and efficiency analysis is proposed in this paper. One factor that governs the exchange decisions of traders in a market, named willingness price, is highlighted and constitutes the whole theory. The supply and demand functions are formulated as the distributions of corresponding willing exchange over the willingness price. The laws of supply and demand can be derived directly from these distributions. The characteristics of excess demand function are analyzed and the necessary conditions for the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium point of the market are specified. The rationing rates of buyers and sellers are introduced to describe the ratio of realized exchange to willing exchange, and their dependence on the market price is studied in the cases of shortage and surplus. The realized market surplus, which is the criterion of market efficiency, can be written as a function of the distributions of willing exchange and the rationing rates. With this approach we can strictly prove that a market is efficient in the state of equilibrium.

  5. Facilitating Analysis of Multiple Partial Data Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, Mark W.; Liebersbach, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic Operations Automation: Mechanisms, Imaging, Navigation report Generation (ROAMING) is a set of computer programs that facilitates and accelerates both tactical and strategic analysis of time-sampled data especially the disparate and often incomplete streams of Mars Explorer Rover (MER) telemetry data described in the immediately preceding article. As used here, tactical refers to the activities over a relatively short time (one Martian day in the original MER application) and strategic refers to a longer time (the entire multi-year MER missions in the original application). Prior to installation, ROAMING must be configured with the types of data of interest, and parsers must be modified to understand the format of the input data (many example parsers are provided, including for general CSV files). Thereafter, new data from multiple disparate sources are automatically resampled into a single common annotated spreadsheet stored in a readable space-separated format, and these data can be processed or plotted at any time scale. Such processing or plotting makes it possible to study not only the details of a particular activity spanning only a few seconds, but also longer-term trends. ROAMING makes it possible to generate mission-wide plots of multiple engineering quantities [e.g., vehicle tilt as in Figure 1(a), motor current, numbers of images] that, heretofore could be found only in thousands of separate files. ROAMING also supports automatic annotation of both images and graphs. In the MER application, labels given to terrain features by rover scientists and engineers are automatically plotted in all received images based on their associated camera models (see Figure 2), times measured in seconds are mapped to Mars local time, and command names or arbitrary time-labeled events can be used to label engineering plots, as in Figure 1(b).

  6. SAS Partial Least Squares (PLS) for Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to implement discriminant analysis using SAS partial least squares (PLS) regression for analysis of spectral data. This was done in combination with previous efforts which implemented data pre-treatments including scatter correction, derivatives, mean centering, and v...

  7. Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gwyn

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the status of the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Integrated Safety Analysis (EA) by identifying the initial work scope scheduled for completion during the ISA development period, the schedules associated with the tasks identified, safety analysis issues encountered, and a summary of accomplishments during the reporting period. This status covers the period from October 1, 2000 through March 30, 2001.

  8. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety analysis. 33.75 Section 33.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis....

  9. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety analysis. 33.75 Section 33.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis....

  10. Analysis of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile male subjects.

    PubMed

    Almeamar, Hussein Ali; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Ismail, Patimah; Nadkarni, Prashan; Fawzi, Nora

    2013-04-01

    Complete deletions in the AZF (a, b, and c) sub-regions of the Y-chromosome have been shown to contribute to unexplained male infertility. However, the role of partial AZFc deletions in male infertility remains to be verified. Three types of partial AZFc deletions have been identified. They are gr/gr, b1/b3, and b2/b3 deletions. A recent meta-analysis showed that ethnic and geographical factors might contribute to the association of partial AZFc deletions with male infertility. This study analyzed the association of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile males. Fifty two oligozoospermic infertile males and 63 fertile controls were recruited to this study. Screening for partial AZFc deletions was done using the two sequence-tagged sites approach (SY1291 and SY1191) which were analyzed using both the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis and the high resolution melt, HRM method. Gr/gr deletions were found in 11.53% of the cases and 9.52% of the controls (p = 0.725). A B2/b3 deletion was found in one of the cases (p = 0.269). No B1/b3 deletions were identified in this study. The results of HRM analysis were consistent with those obtained using the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis method. The HRM analysis was highly repeatable (95% limit of agreement was -0.0879 to 0.0871 for SY1191 melting temperature readings). In conclusion, our study showed that partial AZFc deletions were not associated with male infertility in Malaysian subjects. HRM analysis was a reliable, repeatable, fast, cost-effective, and semi-automated method which can be used for screening of partial AZFc deletions. PMID:23231020

  11. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  12. Modeling, analysis and verification of a partial shunt system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Spacecraft power system modeling, analysis and verification techniques using the electronic circuit simulation programs such as SPICE and SABER are presented. Partial shunt control system dynamics including the loop gain and bus impedance are derived. A typical partial shunt system is modeled and the loop gain of the system is simulated using an electronic circuit simulator. To confirm the circuit model simulation results prior to expensive hardware testing, they should be compared with the results simulated from a transfer function model derived from circuit equations. The spacecraft test results finally verify the modeling and analysis.

  13. Infusing Reliability Techniques into Software Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Software safety analysis for a large software intensive system is always a challenge. Software safety practitioners need to ensure that software related hazards are completely identified, controlled, and tracked. This paper discusses in detail how to incorporate the traditional reliability techniques into the entire software safety analysis process. In addition, this paper addresses how information can be effectively shared between the various practitioners involved in the software safety analyses. The author has successfully applied the approach to several aerospace applications. Examples are provided to illustrate the key steps of the proposed approach.

  14. Partial Component Analysis of a Comprehensive Smoking Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; Hackett, Gail

    The effects of a comprehensive program for the treatment of cigarette addiction were investigated. Subjects were 18 university students and 12 community members. Abstinence levels of 40 percent, verified by expired air carbon monoxide tests, were achieved in a six to nine month follow-up period. A partial component analysis revealed that the…

  15. SLAC three-body partial wave analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Lasinski, T.A.; Sinervo, P.K.

    1985-10-01

    We present a heuristic description of the SLAC-LBL three-meson partial wave model, and describe how we have implemented it at SLAC. The discussion details the assumptions of the model and the analysis, and emphasizes the methods we have used to prepare and fit the data. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. TRIAGE DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR PARTIAL-BODY EXPOSURE: DICENTRIC ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Pellmar, Terry C.

    2009-01-01

    Partial-body biodosimetry is likely to be required after a radiological or nuclear exposure. Clinical signs and symptoms, distribution of dicentrics in circulating blood cells, organ-specific biomarkers, physical signals in teeth and nails all can provide indications of non-homogeneous exposures. Organ specific biomarkers may provide early warning regarding physiological systems at risk after radiation injury. Use of a combination of markers and symptoms will be needed for clinical insights for therapeutic approaches. Analysis of dicentrics, a marker specific for radiation injury, is the “Gold standard” of biodosimetry and can reveal partial-body exposures. Automation of sample processing for dicentric analysis can increase throughput with customization of off-the-shelf technologies for cytogenetic sample processing and information management. Automated analysis of the metaphase spreads is currently limited but improvements are in development. Our efforts bridge the technological gaps to allow the use of dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) for risk-based stratification of mass casualties. This article summarizes current knowledge on partial-body cytogenetic dose assessment synthesizing information leading to the proposal of an approach to triage dose prediction in radiation mass casualties, based on equivalent whole-body doses under partial-body exposure conditions and assesses the validity of using this model. An initial screening using only 20 metaphase spreads per subject can confirm irradiation above 2-Gy. A subsequent increase to 50 metaphases improves dose determination to allow risk stratification for clinical triage. Metaphases evaluated for inhomogeneous distribution of dicentrics can reveal partial-body exposures. We tested the validity of this approach in an in vitro model that simulates partial-body irradiation by mixing irradiated and un-irradiated lymphocytes in various proportions. Our preliminary results support the notion that this approach will

  17. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D`Aquila, D.M.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  18. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.307...

  19. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.307...

  20. 49 CFR 229.307 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety analysis. 229.307 Section 229.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.307...

  1. Presurgical multimodality neuroimaging analysis for complex partial seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.; Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Rowley, Howard A.; Weiner, Michael W.

    1998-07-01

    Surgical treatment of patients suffering from complex partial seizures requires the localization of the epileptogenic zone for surgical resection. Currently, clinicians utilize electroencephalography (EEG), psychological tests, and various neuroimaging modalities together to determine the location of this zone. We investigate the use of positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the presurgical workup and analysis of patients with complex partial seizures. The results of imaging studies of 25 patients are compared for lateralization accuracy and relative concordance.

  2. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    SciTech Connect

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  3. A Synthetic Vision Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Houser, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This report documents efforts to analyze a sample of aviation safety programs, using the LMI-developed integrated safety analysis tool to determine the change in system risk resulting from Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) technology implementation. Specifically, we have worked to modify existing system safety tools to address the safety impact of synthetic vision (SV) technology. Safety metrics include reliability, availability, and resultant hazard. This analysis of SV technology is intended to be part of a larger effort to develop a model that is capable of "providing further support to the product design and development team as additional information becomes available". The reliability analysis portion of the effort is complete and is fully documented in this report. The simulation analysis is still underway; it will be documented in a subsequent report. The specific goal of this effort is to apply the integrated safety analysis to SV technology. This report also contains a brief discussion of data necessary to expand the human performance capability of the model, as well as a discussion of human behavior and its implications for system risk assessment in this modeling environment.

  4. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  5. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  6. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  7. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  8. Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas S. Swanson; Michael A. Thieme

    2003-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.

  9. Using Addenda in Documented Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.S.; Thieme, M.A.

    2003-06-16

    This paper discusses the use of addenda to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Addenda were prepared for several systems and processes at the facility that lacked adequate descriptive information and hazard analysis in the DSA. They were also prepared for several new activities involving unreviewed safety questions (USQs). Ten addenda to the RWMC DSA have been prepared since the last annual update.

  10. Overview of Energy Systems` safety analysis report programs. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility`s safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This ``Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs`` Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  11. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62... Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each... are graded commensurate with the reduction of the risk attributable to that item. Three elements...

  12. Uncertainty analysis for Ulysses safety evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Michael V.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the effort to review the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report and to understand the risk of plutonium release from the Ulysses spacecraft General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermal Generator, the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) performed an integrated, quantitative analysis of the uncertainties of the calculated risk of plutonium release from Ulysses. Using state-of-art probabilistic risk assessment technology, the uncertainty analysis accounted for both variability and uncertainty of the key parameters of the risk analysis. The results show that INSRP had high confidence that risk of fatal cancers from potential plutonium release associated with calculated launch and deployment accident scenarios is low.

  13. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.204 Documented safety analysis... approval from DOE for the methodology used to prepare the documented safety analysis for the...

  14. 14 CFR 417.405 - Ground safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety analysis. 417.405 Section 417... OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.405 Ground safety analysis. (a) A launch operator must perform a ground safety analysis for launch vehicle hardware, ground...

  15. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.204 Documented safety analysis... approval from DOE for the methodology used to prepare the documented safety analysis for the...

  16. Long-term efficacy and safety of thalamic stimulation for drug-resistant partial epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Thomas; Worth, Robert; Henry, Thomas R.; Gross, Robert E.; Nazzaro, Jules M.; Labar, Douglas; Sperling, Michael R.; Sharan, Ashwini; Sandok, Evan; Handforth, Adrian; Stern, John M.; Chung, Steve; Henderson, Jaimie M.; French, Jacqueline; Baltuch, Gordon; Rosenfeld, William E.; Garcia, Paul; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Fountain, Nathan B.; Elias, W. Jeffrey; Goodman, Robert R.; Pollard, John R.; Tröster, Alexander I.; Irwin, Christopher P.; Lambrecht, Kristin; Graves, Nina; Fisher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report long-term efficacy and safety results of the SANTE trial investigating deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) for treatment of localization-related epilepsy. Methods: This long-term follow-up is a continuation of a previously reported trial of 5- vs 0-V ANT stimulation. Long-term follow-up began 13 months after device implantation with stimulation parameters adjusted at the investigators' discretion. Seizure frequency was determined using daily seizure diaries. Results: The median percent seizure reduction from baseline at 1 year was 41%, and 69% at 5 years. The responder rate (≥50% reduction in seizure frequency) at 1 year was 43%, and 68% at 5 years. In the 5 years of follow-up, 16% of subjects were seizure-free for at least 6 months. There were no reported unanticipated adverse device effects or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. The Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale and 31-item Quality of Life in Epilepsy measure showed statistically significant improvement over baseline by 1 year and at 5 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Long-term follow-up of ANT deep brain stimulation showed sustained efficacy and safety in a treatment-resistant population. Classification of evidence: This long-term follow-up provides Class IV evidence that for patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy, anterior thalamic stimulation is associated with a 69% reduction in seizure frequency and a 34% serious device-related adverse event rate at 5 years. PMID:25663221

  17. Reliability based calibration of partial safety factors for design of free pipeline spans

    SciTech Connect

    Ronold, K.O.; Nielsen, N.J.R.; Tura, F.; Bryndum, M.B.; Smed, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper demonstrates how a structural reliability method can be applied as a rational means to analyze free spans of submarine pipelines with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and to establish partial safety factors for design of such free spans against this failure mode. It is important to note that the described procedure shall be considered as an illustration of a structural reliability methodology, and that the results do not represent a set of final design recommendations. A scope of design cases, consisting of a number of available site-specific pipeline spans, is established and is assumed representative for the future occurrence of submarine pipeline spans. Probabilistic models for the wave and current loading and its transfer to stresses in the pipe wall of a pipeline span is established together with a stochastic representation of the material resistance. The event of failure in ultimate loading is considered as based on a limit state which is reached when the maximum stress over the design life of the pipeline exceeds the yield strength of the pipe material. The yielding limit state is considered an ultimate limit state (ULS).

  18. SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY INTEGRATION WITH SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn, J; James Lightner, J

    2007-04-13

    The objective of this paper is to share the Savannah River Site lessons learned on Safeguards and Security (S&S) program integration with K-Area Complex (KAC) safety basis. The KAC Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), is managed by the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), and the S&S program, managed by Wackenhut Services, Incorporated--Savannah River Site (WSI-SRS). WSRC and WSI-SRS developed a contractual arrangement to recognize WSI-SRS requirements in the KAC safety analysis. Design Basis Threat 2003 (DBT03) security upgrades required physical modifications and operational changes which included the availability of weapons which could potentially impact the facility safety analysis. The KAC DSA did not previously require explicit linkage to the S&S program to satisfy the safety analysis. WSI-SRS have contractual requirements with the Department of Energy (DOE) which are separate from WSRC contract requirements. The lessons learned will include a discussion on planning, analysis, approval of the controls and implementation issues.

  19. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  1. Free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yu; Chang, Y. W.

    A study on the free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks is presented. The tanks considered are the upright circular cylindrical tanks that are rigidly supported at the base. The top of the tanks are either free or constrained. Two types of constraints are considered, namely, hinged and roller support. The governing differential equations for the tank-liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange's equation. The response functions examined include the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the tank-liquid system and the associated modal pressure.

  2. Free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu; Chang, Y.W.

    1994-06-01

    A study on the free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks is presented. The tanks considered are the upright circular cylindrical tanks that are rigidly supported at the base. the top of the tanks are either free or constrained. Two types of constraints are considered, namely, hinged and roller support. The governing differential equations for the tank-liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange`s equation. The response functions examined include the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the tank-liquid system and the associated modal pressure.

  3. A New Pion-Nucleon Partial Wave Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Michael; Watson, Shon; Stahov, Jugoslav

    2006-10-01

    Existing determinations of the masses, widths and decay modes of low-lying excited states of the nucleon, as compiled in the Review of Particle Physics, are determined from energy-independent partial wave analyses of pion-nucleon scattering data. For the N*(1440) and most other resonances under 2 GeV, the analyses cited are the Karlsruhe-Helsinki, Carnegie Mellon-Berkeley and Kent State analyses, the latter of which used the elastic amplitudes from the other two. The data included in these analyses were published before 1980. Other analyses, notably the recent ones from George Washington University and the Pittsburgh-Argonne group, are ``not used for averages, fits, limits, etc.'' Complete sets of measurements (differential cross sections, analyzing powers and spin rotation parameters) have been measured in the N*(1440) resonance region since 1980, culminating in the Crystal Ball program at BNL to measure all-neutral final states (charge exchange, multiple pi-zero final states, and inverse photoproduction). A new partial wave analysis of the Karlsruhe-Helsinki type has been started by Abilene Christian University, University of Tuzla, and Rudjer Boskovic Institute. The analysis is constrained by fixed-t and interior hyperbolic dispersion relations. Comparisons of the new analysis to modern experimental data and to previous analyses will be presented.

  4. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  5. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  6. 14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75 Safety analysis. (a... judgment and previous experience combined with sound design and test philosophies. (4) The applicant must... systems; (4) Refrigerant injection systems; (5) Gas temperature control systems; (6) Engine speed,...

  7. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  8. Partial differential equations and fractal analysis to plant leaf identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandoli Machado, Bruno; Casanova, Dalcimar; Nunes Gonçalves, Wesley; Martinez Bruno, Odemir

    2013-02-01

    Texture is an important visual attribute used to plant leaf identification. Although there are many methods of texture analysis, some of them specifically for interpreting leaf images is still a challenging task because of the huge pattern variation found in nature. In this paper, we investigate the leaf texture modeling based on the partial differential equations and fractal dimension theory. Here, we are first interested in decomposing the original texture image into two components f = u + v, such that u represents a cartoon component, while v represents the oscillatory component. We demonstrate how this procedure enhance the texture component on images. Our modeling uses the non-linear partial differential equation (PDE) of Perona-Malik. Based on the enhanced texture component, we estimated the fractal dimension by the Bouligand-Minkowski method due to its precision in quantifying structural properties of images. The feature vectors are then used as inputs to our classification system, based on linear discriminant analysis. We validate our approach on a benchmark with 8000 leaf samples. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach improves average classification rates in comparison with traditional methods. The results suggest that the proposed approach can be a feasible step for plant leaf identification, as well as different real-world applications.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

  10. Uncertainty analysis for Ulysses safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V. )

    1991-01-01

    As part of the effort to review the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report and to understand the risk of plutonium release from the Ulysses spacecraft General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermal Generator (GPHS-RTG), the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) and the author performed an integrated, quantitative analysis of the uncertainties of the calculated risk of plutonium release from Ulysses. Using state-of-art probabilistic risk assessment technology, the uncertainty analysis accounted for both variability and uncertainty of the key parameters of the risk analysis. The results show that INSRP had high confidence that risk of fatal cancers from potential plutonium release associated with calculated launch and deployment accident scenarios is low.

  11. Relationships between psychological safety climate facets and safety behavior in the rail industry: a dominance analysis.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Stephanie L; McGonagle, Alyssa K; Dove-Steinkamp, Megan L; Walker, Curtis T; Marmet, Matthew; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2010-09-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to confirm a relationship between employee perceptions of psychological safety climate and safety behavior for a sample of workers in the rail industry and (2) to explore the relative strengths of relationships between specific facets of safety climate and safety behavior. Non-management rail maintenance workers employed by a large North American railroad completed a survey (n=421) regarding workplace safety perceptions and behaviors. Three facets of safety climate (management safety, coworker safety, and work-safety tension) were assessed as relating to individual workers' reported safety behavior. All three facets were significantly associated with safety behavior. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative importance of each facet as related to the outcome, and work-safety tension evidenced the strongest relationship with safety behavior. PMID:20538102

  12. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section 830.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.206 Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the...

  13. COLD-SAT feasibility study safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, Steven T.; Yost, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite presents some unique safety issues. The feasibility study conducted at NASA-Lewis desired a systems safety program that would be involved from the initial design in order to eliminate and/or control the inherent hazards. Because of this, a hazards analysis method was needed that: (1) identified issues that needed to be addressed for a feasibility assessment; and (2) identified all potential hazards that would need to be controlled and/or eliminated during the detailed design phases. The developed analysis method is presented as well as the results generated for the COLD-SAT system.

  14. Applicability of Parallel Computing to Partial Wave Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruger, Justin; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Weygand, Dennis; CLAS Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Bound states of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) give insights into the nature of confinement, a key element of the strong interaction. States may be identified from weak signals extracted from the analysis of high statistics data from reactions with many final state particles. One of the best tools for the analysis of these reactions is Partial Wave Analysis (PWA). PWA transforms an ensemble of experimental data from a large acceptance detector from free particle eigenstates to angular momentum eigenstates. The PWA program must be fast enough to deal with the large amounts of data available currently, as processing time scales with the number of events. The scope of this research is to study the applicability and scalability of Intel's Xeon Phi using the Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture when applied to the existing PWA code at Jefferson Laboratory. An algorithm was developed for the Xeon Phi and scaled across 240 available threads, giving parallel functionality to the PWA which was originally written serially. This scaling can make the fitting process fifteen times faster. Supported by the US Department of Energy.

  15. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of partial onset seizures in children from one month of age

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Justine; Chu, Catherine J

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the pediatric population, affecting up to one percent of children, and for which the mainstay of treatment is anticonvulsant medication. Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. Of 34 anticonvulsants currently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), only 13 have been approved for use in children. Although infants and young children are disproportionately affected by epilepsy, there are currently only three anticonvulsant medications that have been specifically evaluated and approved for use in children younger than 2 years of age. In 2012, the FDA approved levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for partial onset seizures in infants and children from one month of age. Here we review the available data on levetiracetam in the pediatric epilepsy population. We first discuss the pharmacological profile of levetiracetam, including its mechanism of action, formulations and dosing, and pharmacokinetics in children. We then review the available efficacy, safety, and tolerability data in children from one month of age with partial onset seizures. We conclude that the current data leading to the approval of levetiracetam for use in infants and children with partial onset seizures is encouraging, although more work needs to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of levetiracetam across different pediatric age groups. PMID:23458993

  16. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section... Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the contractor... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for...

  17. 10 CFR 72.70 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.70 Section 72.70..., Reports, Inspections, and Enforcement § 72.70 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each specific licensee..., the final safety analysis report (FSAR) to assure that the information included in the report...

  18. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.248 Section 72.248... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate holder... section, the final safety analysis report (FSAR) to assure that the information included in the...

  19. FFTF Final Safety Analysis Report Amendment 82

    SciTech Connect

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2003-03-01

    This is the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 82 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) FSAR set assigned to you. This page change amendment incorporates changes previously approved by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. This amendment provides updates to the FSAR to facilitate FFTF shutdown and deactivation. Among the changes are the following: Chapter 11 is updated to describe upgrades to the Solid Waste Cask. Additional fuel handling accidents are added to Chapter 15. Appendix G is revised to clearly identify systems and their safety functions. Appendix H is revised to remove the discussion of material that has been removed from the Interim Storage Area. Appendix I is revised to provide a general description of liquid metal removal from FFTF. Other changes include minor technical updates from the FSAR annual review and editorial and procedure references.

  20. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Humes, D H; Clem, J M

    2002-12-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated. PMID:12793728

  1. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  2. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... demonstrates that the flight termination of any stage, at any time during flight, will not sever... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety...

  3. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... demonstrates that the flight termination of any stage, at any time during flight, will not sever... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety...

  4. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... demonstrates that the flight termination of any stage, at any time during flight, will not sever... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety...

  5. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... criticality, define a criticality safety program that: (i) Ensures that operations with fissionable material... criticality safety standards, and (iii) Describes how the program meets applicable nuclear criticality safety... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204...

  6. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... criticality, define a criticality safety program that: (i) Ensures that operations with fissionable material... criticality safety standards, and (iii) Describes how the program meets applicable nuclear criticality safety... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204...

  7. 10 CFR 830.204 - Documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... criticality, define a criticality safety program that: (i) Ensures that operations with fissionable material... criticality safety standards, and (iii) Describes how the program meets applicable nuclear criticality safety... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Documented safety analysis. 830.204 Section 830.204...

  8. Correlates of safety outcomes during patient ambulance transport: a partial test of the Haddon matrix.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan; Boyer, Ed; Flanagan, Richard; Lam, Than; Monos, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Haddon Matrix has been cited in a recent review of patient safety as a useful framework for understanding Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provider and patient injury prevention and safety during ambulance response and transport. The research goal of this study was to test part of the Haddon matrix, specifically variables within the pre-event host and event host cells, for explaining three multi-item ambulance-related safety outcomes: i.e., anticipated use of safety equipment, securing the patient, and securing the equipment. Complete study data were available for 648 EMS professionals who responded to the 2004 Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) survey. Overall very modest results were found. Specific findings indicated that EMS professionals with: lower perceived health, greater intrinsic satisfaction, more time in the patient compartment of an ambulance, and greater seatbelt use had higher anticipated use of ambulance safety equipment. For the patient being secured in an ambulance, the extremely high mean/low score variance resulted in only extrinsic satisfaction having a significant positive association. Finally, female EMS professionals, those more extrinsically satisfied, not being involved in a prior ambulance accident, and greater seatbelt use were related to higher frequency of securing ambulance equipment during patient transport. PMID:22968779

  9. Mechanistic facility safety and source term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-06-09

    A PC-based computer program was created for facility safety and source term analysis at Hanford The program has been successfully applied to mechanistic prediction of source terms from chemical reactions in underground storage tanks, hydrogen combustion in double contained receiver tanks, and proccss evaluation including the potential for runaway reactions in spent nuclear fuel processing. Model features include user-defined facility room, flow path geometry, and heat conductors, user-defined non-ideal vapor and aerosol species, pressure- and density-driven gas flows, aerosol transport and deposition, and structure to accommodate facility-specific source terms. Example applications are presented here.

  10. ESSAA: Embedded system safety analysis assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Peter; Holzer, Joseph; Guarro, Sergio; Hyatt, Larry

    1987-01-01

    The Embedded System Safety Analysis Assistant (ESSAA) is a knowledge-based tool that can assist in identifying disaster scenarios. Imbedded software issues hazardous control commands to the surrounding hardware. ESSAA is intended to work from outputs to inputs, as a complement to simulation and verification methods. Rather than treating the software in isolation, it examines the context in which the software is to be deployed. Given a specified disasterous outcome, ESSAA works from a qualitative, abstract model of the complete system to infer sets of environmental conditions and/or failures that could cause a disasterous outcome. The scenarios can then be examined in depth for plausibility using existing techniques.

  11. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  12. Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.L.

    1998-11-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Performance Expectation exists to update, revise, and/or cancel seven onsite SARPS during FY 1999. It is the U.S. Department of Energy's desire that 100% of the SARPs (which existed at the beginning of the PHMC Contract) be upgraded, revised, and/or canceled by the end of the five year contract. This plan is a ''living'' document and is used as a management tool.

  13. Partial differential equation transform — Variational formulation and Fourier analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform’s controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The

  14. Using Dynamic Master Logic Diagram for component partial failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, T.; Modarres, M.

    1996-12-01

    A methodology using the Dynamic Master Logic Diagram (DMLD) for the evaluation of component partial failure is presented. Since past PRAs have not focused on partial failure effects, the reliability of components are only based on the binary state assumption, i.e. defining a component as fully failed or functioning. This paper is to develop an approach to predict and estimate the component partial failure on the basis of the fuzzy state assumption. One example of the application of this methodology with the reliability function diagram of a centrifugal pump is presented.

  15. Natural circulation reactor design safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong

    2001-07-01

    This thesis study covers both global performance and local phenomena analyses focusing on natural circulation reactor design safety. Four important topics are included: the global SBWR design safety assessment, important local phenomena investigation, steady and transient natural circulation process study, and two-phase instability analysis. The conceptual design of the SBWR-200 is introduced in this thesis and the global performance of a natural circulation reactor is then assessed using PUMA integral test data and RELAP5 simulations. A safety assessment methodology is developed to evaluate the PUMA integral test data extrapolation and code scalability. The RELAP5 code simulation capability in low-pressure low-flow conditions is also validated. The study shows that the code is capable of predicting the global accident scenario in natural circulation reactors with reasonable accuracy, while failing to reproduce some safety related local phenomena. The natural circulation process is investigated in detail using PUMA separate effect natural circulation tests. The natural circulation flow rate and heat transfer rate have been modeled analytically and numerically. The work indicates that two-phase natural circulation has enough capability to remove decay power. However, the flow instability observed in two-phase natural circulation cases seriously challenges the feasibility of natural circulation reactor design. The instability is classified as a type of density wave instability induced by flashing. A detailed stability study is performed focusing on flashing induced instability under natural circulation condition. Various flashing phenomena have been studied and a mechanistic flashing model has been proposed and improved using a relaxation method. The developed relaxation flashing model can be applied to general two-phase non-equilibrium phenomena.

  16. Temperature characteristics analysis of HIV partial disconnection wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Shim, Jae-Myung; Lee, Yu-Sung; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Kim, Young-Dal

    2015-09-01

    Electric fires are caused mainly due to short circuits, overloads, and electric leakage. Of the causes, short circuits are caused by deteriorated insulation, poor contacts, and pressure damage. A partially disconnected wire refers to the status in which the wire section is partially cut, thus reducing the contact area compared to the normal state. Causes of partially disconnected wires, e.g., poor wire contacts and pressure damage, occur mostly in the wiring and in the device's contact area, and they locally increase the resistance, thus triggering thermal changes. Thus, this study simulated damage to a 450/750 V heat-resistant polyvinyl-chloride-insulated (HIV) wire used for preventing electric fires and analyzed the temperature characteristics of normal wires and partially disconnected wires.

  17. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program...

  18. Short course on system safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sudmann, R.H.

    1992-06-01

    This course provides and introduction to methods generally used in safety analysis and accident investigation. It is a non-mathematical approach, directed toward a casual user. The participant will learn techniques allowing them to dissect a system or incident in order identify real or potential safety problems. These techniques will be applied to analyze events which have occurred within DOE facilities. As a manager or staff person with general oversight responsibilities, the participant should gain an awareness of the big picture and not just ``dig for facts.`` This can be accomplished by being alert and responsive to the atmosphere and condition of the plant; mood and impression of the worker and the behavioral climate. The techniques taught in the course can be used to identify critical areas or indicators. These indicators will signal problems before the ``facts`` will. Analysis techniques taught are used to gauge the breadth of the ``forest`` and not necessarily to identify the trees. For this course includes a technical background with experience in a chemical processing operations and a knowledge of basic chemistry and engineering is desirable. The course should help in a present or future assignment in an oversight role.

  19. Short course on system safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sudmann, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This course provides and introduction to methods generally used in safety analysis and accident investigation. It is a non-mathematical approach, directed toward a casual user. The participant will learn techniques allowing them to dissect a system or incident in order identify real or potential safety problems. These techniques will be applied to analyze events which have occurred within DOE facilities. As a manager or staff person with general oversight responsibilities, the participant should gain an awareness of the big picture and not just dig for facts.'' This can be accomplished by being alert and responsive to the atmosphere and condition of the plant; mood and impression of the worker and the behavioral climate. The techniques taught in the course can be used to identify critical areas or indicators. These indicators will signal problems before the facts'' will. Analysis techniques taught are used to gauge the breadth of the forest'' and not necessarily to identify the trees. For this course includes a technical background with experience in a chemical processing operations and a knowledge of basic chemistry and engineering is desirable. The course should help in a present or future assignment in an oversight role.

  20. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-05-17

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

  1. Multilevel analysis in road safety research.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Martensen, Heike; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical structures in road safety data are receiving increasing attention in the literature and multilevel (ML) models are proposed for appropriately handling the resulting dependences among the observations. However, so far no empirical synthesis exists of the actual added value of ML modelling techniques as compared to other modelling approaches. This paper summarizes the statistical and conceptual background and motivations for multilevel analyses in road safety research. It then provides a review of several ML analyses applied to aggregate and disaggregate (accident) data. In each case, the relevance of ML modelling techniques is assessed by examining whether ML model formulations (i) allow improving the fit of the model to the data, (ii) allow identifying and explaining random variation at specific levels of the hierarchy considered, and (iii) yield different (more correct) conclusions than single-level model formulations with respect to the significance of the parameter estimates. The evidence reviewed offers different conclusions depending on whether the analysis concerns aggregate data or disaggregate data. In the first case, the application of ML analysis techniques appears straightforward and relevant. The studies based on disaggregate accident data, on the other hand, offer mixed findings: computational problems can be encountered, and ML applications are not systematically necessary. The general recommendation concerning disaggregate accident data is to proceed to a preliminary investigation of the necessity of ML analyses and of the additional information to be expected from their application. PMID:23769622

  2. Lacosamide as treatment for partial epilepsy: mechanisms of action, pharmacology, effects, and safety

    PubMed Central

    Kellinghaus, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Lacosamide (LCM) is a novel agent that has been developed as an antiepileptic drug. In vitro studies suggest that LCM modulates voltage-gated sodium channels by enhancing their slow inactivation. In addition, LCM seems to interact with collapsin-response mediator protein 2 and thus may mediate neuronal plasticity. LCM has an elimination half-life of 13 hours, no relevant protein binding, and does not induce or inhibit enzymes of the cytochrome P450 system. No clinically significant drug–drug interactions have been discovered as yet. Experimental data suggest anticonvulsant as well as analgesic effects. Large clinical studies have demonstrated its efficacy for treatment of patients with partial seizures. LCM is well tolerated, and the most common adverse events are unspecific central nervous system and gastrointestinal effects such as dizziness, vertigo, nausea, and headache. LCM is approved for treatment of partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in the United States and the European Union within a dose range of 200 to 400 mg per day, administered twice daily. In addition to the oral formulations, an intravenous infusion solution is available. PMID:19816574

  3. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation in safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lendle, Samuel D.; Fireman, Bruce; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the performance of a targeted maximum likelihood estimator (TMLE) and a collaborative TMLE (CTMLE) to other estimators in a drug safety analysis, including a regression-based estimator, propensity score (PS)–based estimators, and an alternate doubly robust (DR) estimator in a real example and simulations. Study Design and Setting The real data set is a subset of observational data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California formatted for use in active drug safety surveillance. Both the real and simulated data sets include potential confounders, a treatment variable indicating use of one of two antidiabetic treatments and an outcome variable indicating occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Results In the real data example, there is no difference in AMI rates between treatments. In simulations, the double robustness property is demonstrated: DR estimators are consistent if either the initial outcome regression or PS estimator is consistent, whereas other estimators are inconsistent if the initial estimator is not consistent. In simulations with near-positivity violations, CTMLE performs well relative to other estimators by adaptively estimating the PS. Conclusion Each of the DR estimators was consistent, and TMLE and CTMLE had the smallest mean squared error in simulations. PMID:23849159

  4. Multilevel Analysis Methods for Partially Nested Cluster Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores multilevel modeling approaches for 2-group randomized experiments in which a treatment condition involving clusters of individuals is compared to a control condition involving only ungrouped individuals, otherwise known as partially nested cluster randomized designs (PNCRTs). Strategies for comparing groups from a PNCRT in the…

  5. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  6. Modeling Controller Tasks for Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly; Leveson, Nancy G.

    1998-01-01

    As control systems become more complex, the use of automated control has increased. At the same time, the role of the human operator has changed from primary system controller to supervisor or monitor. Safe design of the human computer interaction becomes more difficult. In this paper, we present a visual task modeling language that can be used by system designers to model human-computer interactions. The visual models can be translated into SpecTRM-RL, a blackbox specification language for modeling the automated portion of the control system. The SpecTRM-RL suite of analysis tools allow the designer to perform formal and informal safety analyses on the task model in isolation or integrated with the rest of the modeled system.

  7. "Generation 1.5" and Its Discourses of Partiality: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benesch, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This is a critical discourse analysis of "generation 1.5," a term used to refer to students born outside the United States who received part, or most, of their formal education in the United States. The analysis reveals that surrounding "generation 1.5" are 3 interconnected discourses of partiality: a discourse of demographic partiality, a…

  8. Overview of Energy Systems' safety analysis report programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility's safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs'' Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  9. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  10. Analysis of a color space conversion engine implemented using dynamic partial reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toukatly, Ryan; Patru, Dorin; Saber, Eli; Peskin, Eric; Roylance, Gene; Larson, Brad

    2013-02-01

    Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration allows parts of a Field Programmable Gate Array to be reconfigured, while the rest of the system continues uninterrupted operation. A Color Space Conversion Engine is a digital image-processing pipeline, which requires frequent reconfiguration of some, but not all of its stages. Therefore, it is a digital signal processing system that presumably can take advantage of dynamic partial reconfiguration. This paper describes the necessary design changes, testing, and performance analysis of a color space conversion engine implemented onto a field programmable gate array using dynamic partial reconfiguration. The analysis provides insight into the operational scenarios in which dynamic partial reconfiguration is advantageous or not.

  11. A stability analysis for a semilinear parabolic partial differential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafee, N.

    1973-01-01

    The parabolic partial differential equation considered is u sub t = u sub xx + f(u), where minus infinity x plus infinity and o t plus infinity. Under suitable hypotheses pertaining to f, a class of initial data is exhibited: phi(x), minus infinity x plus infinity, for which the corresponding solutions u(x,t) appraoch zero as t approaches the limit of plus infinity. This convergence is uniform with respect to x on any compact subinterval of the real axis.

  12. Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world. PMID:18231623

  13. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  14. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  15. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications. PMID:21520718

  16. Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  17. Efficacy and safety of extended-release oxcarbazepine (Oxtellar XR™) as adjunctive therapy in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    French, JA; Baroldi, P; Brittain, ST; Johnson, JK

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of once-daily 1200 mg and 2400 mg SPN-804 (Oxtellar XR™, Supernus Pharmaceuticals), an extended-release tablet formulation of oxcarbazepine (OXC), added to 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Methods The Prospective, Randomized Study of OXC XR in Subjects with Partial Epilepsy Refractory (PROSPER) study was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group Phase 3 study. The primary efficacy endpoint was median percent reduction from baseline in monthly (28-day) seizure frequency for the 16-week double-blind treatment period in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population with analyzable seizure data. Other efficacy analyses included proportion of patients with ≥ 50% seizure reduction, proportion of patients seizure free, and the relationship between clinical response and plasma concentration. Results Median percent reduction was -28.7% for placebo, −38.2% (P = 0.08 vs placebo) for once-daily SPN-804 1200 mg, and −42.9% (P = 0.003) for SPN-804 2400 mg. Responder rates were 28.1%, 36.1% (P = 0.08), and 40.7% (P = 0.02); 16-week seizure-free rates in a pragmatic ITT analysis were 3.3%, 4.9% (P = 0.59), and 11.4% (P = 0.008), respectively. When data were analyzed separately for study site clusters, a post hoc analysis demonstrated that both SPN-804 dosages were significantly superior to placebo in median percent seizure reduction (placebo: −13.3%; 1200 mg: −34.5%, P = 0.02; 2400 mg: −52.7%, P = 0.006) in the North American study site cluster. A concentration–response analysis also supported a clinically meaningful effect for 1200 mg. Adverse event types reflected the drug's established profile. Adverse event frequency was consistent with a pharmacokinetic profile in which SPN-804 produces lower peak plasma concentrations vs immediate-release OXC. Once-daily dosing was not

  18. Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.

  19. Analysis of Safety Requirements for Large Offshore Units Evacuation Systems. LSA safety function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk, Teresa; Burciu, Zbigniew

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents the problems related to the effectiveness of evacuation systems for large offshore installations. The analysis of safety requirements related to the complex evacuation, escape and rescue (EER) system elements has been carried out on the basis of the reports from the accidents of offshore drilling and production platforms. The safety function developed for life saving appliances (LSA) - the 6, 10 and 20 persons liferafts is presented as an example of a method for life saving appliances safety assessment.

  20. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Hazards analysis and safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the hazards analysis which was concerned only with hazards to personnel and not with loss of equipment or property. Hazards characterization includes the definition of a hazard, the hazard levels, and the hazard groups. The analysis methodology is described in detail. The methodology was used to prepare the top level functional flow diagrams, to perform the first level hazards assessment, and to develop a list of conditions and situations requiring individual hazard studies. The 39 individual hazard study results are presented in total.

  1. UNIPALS: SOFTWARE FOR PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS AND PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Software for the analysis of multivariate chemical data by principal components and partial least squares methods is included on disk. he methods extract latent variables from the chemical data with the UNIversal PArtial Least Squares or UNIPALS algorithm. he software is written ...

  2. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.248 Section 72.248 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate...

  3. Lie group analysis method for two classes of fractional partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Jiang, Yao-Lin

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we deal with two classes of fractional partial differential equation: n order linear fractional partial differential equation and nonlinear fractional reaction diffusion convection equation, by using the Lie group analysis method. The infinitesimal generators general formula of n order linear fractional partial differential equation is obtained. For nonlinear fractional reaction diffusion convection equation, the properties of their infinitesimal generators are considered. The four special cases are exhaustively investigated respectively. At the same time some examples of the corresponding case are also given. So it is very convenient to solve the infinitesimal generator of some fractional partial differential equation.

  4. Analysis of US child care safety regulations.

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, C W; Gray, D E; Kotch, J B; Kreuter, M W

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With 1.9 million US children cared for in organized group child care, the safety of these children is a public health concern. In the absence of federal policy, each state has developed its own day care safety regulations. METHODS: After creating a set of 36 criteria from three sets of national guidelines, we assessed the safety regulations of 45 states. With a mailed survey of state day care regulatory personnel, we examined the processes of formulating and implementing safety policy in 47 states. RESULTS: For 24 of the 36 items, more than half the states' regulations were below the criteria or failed to mention the topic. Most notable is the inattention to playground safety, choking hazards, and firearms. CONCLUSION: The uneven quality of regulations may be a reflection of a regulatory process that is fragmented, with many different groups sharing authority and with limited involvement of injury prevention specialists. PMID:1854015

  5. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of...

  6. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of...

  7. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62 Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of...

  8. TA-55 Final Safety Analysis Report Comparison Document and DOE Safety Evaluation Report Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bond

    2001-04-01

    This document provides an overview of changes to the currently approved TA-55 Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) that are included in the upgraded FSAR. The DOE Safety Evaluation Report (SER) requirements that are incorporated into the upgraded FSAR are briefly discussed to provide the starting point in the FSAR with respect to the SER requirements.

  9. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Overview - 13298

    SciTech Connect

    Bracke, G.; Fischer-Appelt, K.; Baltes, B.

    2013-07-01

    The project preliminary safety analysis of the Gorleben site started in 2010 and is based on the safety requirements for heat generating radioactive waste released from the German Federal Ministry for Environment, natural conservation and nuclear safety. The project consists of several tasks: the database defining the geology of Gorleben and the composition of the waste to be disposed of, the safety and demonstration concept, the repository concepts, the scenario analysis, the system analysis with long-term safety assessment and the synthesis. The overall synthesis indicates presently the compatibility of a repository in Gorleben with the safety requirements. The application of the method for a site selection process is still under evaluation. (authors)

  10. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, C.G.; Bonney, R.F.; Levine, J.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Masson, L.S.; Commander, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), includes an indication of the magnitude of facility hazards, complexity of facility operations, and the stage of the facility life-cycle. It presents the results of safety analyses, safety assurance programs, identified vulnerabilities, compensatory measures, and, in general, the rationale describing why the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) can be safely operated. It discusses application of the graded approach to the TPX safety analysis, including the basis for using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94 in the development of the PSAR.

  11. Application of Factor Restructuring Analysis in Enterprise Safety Culture Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yihong; Xia, Liming; Pan, Jinshuang; Zong, Hengheng

    The enterprise safety culture index system, which mainly consists of enterprise decision-making level, management level, implementation level, and external environmental factor, is constructed based on human errors theory. Then, a corresponding enterprise safety culture evaluation model adapting to the characteristics of this index system is presented with consideration of the constraint condition of data and by taking full use of the advantages of factor system restructuring analysis and principal component analysis in data processing; The model provides an operable way for evaluating the enterprise safety culture. Further, the model is to make up for the gaps of enterprise safety culture evaluation.

  12. Safety analysis report 231-Z Building

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, C.S.

    1989-03-01

    This report provides an intensive review of the nuclear safety of the operation of the 231-Z Building. For background information complete descriptions of the floor plan, building services, alarm systems, and glove box systems are included in this report. In addition, references are included to The Plutonium Laboratory Radiation Work Procedures, Safety Guides, 231-Z Operating Procedures Manual and Nuclear Materials accountability Procedures. Engineered and administrative features contribute to the overall safety of personnel, the building, and environs. The consequences of credible incidents were considered and are discussed.

  13. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Sklute, Elizabeth; Dyare, Melinda D

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  14. The quality/safety medical index: implementation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2015-02-01

    Medical analytics relating to quality and safety measures have become particularly timely and of high importance in contemporary medical practice. In medical imaging, the dynamic relationship between medical imaging quality and radiation safety creates challenges in quantifying quality or safety independently. By creating a standardized measurement which simultaneously accounts for quality and safety measures (i.e., quality safety index), one can in theory create a standardized method for combined quality and safety analysis, which in turn can be analyzed in the context of individual patient, exam, and clinical profiles. The derived index measures can be entered into a centralized database, which in turn can be used for comparative performance of individual and institutional service providers. In addition, data analytics can be used to create customizable educational resources for providers and patients, clinical decision support tools, technology performance analysis, and clinical/economic outcomes research. PMID:25416467

  15. System code requirements for safety analysis of SBWR

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.G.M.; Shiralkar, B.S.

    1994-12-31

    The simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) being developed by General Electric Nuclear Energy is an advanced boiling water reactor relying on natural circulation during normal operation and passive safety features. The major elements of the passive safety features are the automatic depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) through safety/relief valves and depressurization valves, the gravity-driven coolant system (GDCS), and the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) for residual heat removal. These passive safety systems, although based on existing technology, have generated new requirements for the computer codes used in safety and design analysis. TRACG is the computer code used for safety and design analysis for the SBWR.

  16. Effectiveness analysis of energy reclamation from partially depleted batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougal, Roger A.; Gao, Lijun; Jiang, Zhenhua

    This paper presents the study of energy reclamation from partially depleted primary batteries using secondary battery cells as temporary energy repositories. A DC/DC power converter is interposed between the two types of batteries to control the discharging of the primary battery as well as the charging of the secondary battery. The energy reclamation process is simulated and verified in the virtual test bed (VTB) computational environment using pre-validated battery models. Energy transferring and power losses among components are quantificationally studied. For an example system including a lithium sulfur dioxide primary battery with an initial state-of-charge of 0.3 at 296 K, an aggregated total of 216 kJ of energy is reclaimed and 82.87% of the energy (179 kJ) is stored in a 10-cell lithium-ion battery pack. A simple application scenario is used to show the potentially significant benefit of performing this energy reclamation technology. The study results demonstrate that 8.3% of weight and 10% of cost are saved. The main factors affecting the system performance are varied and the effects are analyzed. The results show that battery energy reclamation can be improved by: (1) appropriately increasing the battery operating temperature, (2) using relatively low discharging current, and (3) improving the power converter efficiency at the user-specified discharging current level.

  17. Free Vibration Analysis of Cylindrical Tanks Partially Filled with Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, P. B.; Ramos, N. R. S. S.

    1996-08-01

    A simple but effective modal solution based on the underlying ideas of the hierarchical finite element method is presented for evaluating the free vibration characteristics of vertical, thin, circular, cylindrical shells, partially or completely filled with liquid and subjected to any variationally consistent set of boundary conditions on the lower and upper boundaries. Effects of static liquid pressure, in-plane inertias and liquid free surface motions are taken into account. The solution of the shell problem is obtained through a procedure in which Sander's shell equations are transformed into a new system of first order ordinary differential equations which are solved by the Galerkin error-minimization procedure. The system variables are those quantities which appear in the boundary conditions on a rotationally symmetric edge of a cylindrical shell. The liquid is taken as non-viscous and incompressible, and the coupling between the deformable shell and this medium is taken into account. The solution for the liquid velocity potential is assumed as a sum of two sets of linear combinations of suitable harmonic functions which satisfy Laplace equation and the relevant boundary conditions. This procedure leads to a determinantal equation for the determination of the shell and liquid natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes. Application of the method to a few selected cases and comparisons of the numerical results with those obtained by other theories and from experiments are found to be good and demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the present methodology.

  18. Analysis of microgravity space experiments Space Shuttle programmatic safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terlep, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of microgravity space experiments space shuttle programmatic safety requirements and recommends the creation of a Safety Compliance Data Package (SCDP) Template for both flight and ground processes. These templates detail the programmatic requirements necessary to produce a complete SCDP. The templates were developed from various NASA centers' requirement documents, previously written guidelines on safety data packages, and from personal experiences. The templates are included in the back as part of this report.

  19. SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMANN, D.W.

    1999-02-24

    This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.

  20. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  1. Flood analysis using generalized logistic models in partial duration series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunya, P. K.; Singh, R. D.; Berndtsson, R.; Panda, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryAs a generalization of the commonly assumed Poisson distribution (PD) used to estimate the annual number of peaks over threshold in partial duration series (PDS) model, the negative binomial (NB) distribution is proposed in this study. Instead of generalized pareto distribution (GPD) and exponential distribution (ED) models popularly applied to predict the probability of the exceedances of peak over threshold, the performance of the general logistic distribution (GLD) models is analyzed. Two different models for analyzing extreme hydrologic events are compared, based on, PDS and annual maximum series (AMS), respectively. The performance of the two models in terms of uncertainty of T-year event estimator [ q( T)] is evaluated in the cases of estimation with the method of moments (MOMs), maximum likelihood (ML), and probability weighted moments (PWMs). The annual maximum distribution corresponding to a PDS model with Poisson distributed count of peaks above threshold and GLD for flood exceedances was found to be an extreme value type I (EV1) distribution. The comparison between PDS and AMS is made using ratio of variance of the T-year event estimates, which is derived analytically after checking the reliability of the expressions with Monte Carlo simulations. The results reveal that the AMS/NB-GLD and PDS/GLD models using PWM estimation method give least variance of flood estimates with the PDS model giving marginally better results. From the overall results, it was observed that the Poisson distribution performs better, where the difference between mean ( μ) and variance of counts of threshold exceedances is small otherwise the NB distribution is found to be efficient when used in combination with generalized logistic distribution in the PDS model, and this is more prominent for μ < 1.4. Hence, in such cases when the PDS data have a mean less than this, the AMS/NB-GLD and PDS/GLD should be a better model for q( T) estimation as compared to PDS/ED.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Differential-Algebraic Equations and Partial Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, L; Cao, Y; Li, S; Serban, R

    2005-08-09

    Sensitivity analysis generates essential information for model development, design optimization, parameter estimation, optimal control, model reduction and experimental design. In this paper we describe the forward and adjoint methods for sensitivity analysis, and outline some of our recent work on theory, algorithms and software for sensitivity analysis of differential-algebraic equation (DAE) and time-dependent partial differential equation (PDE) systems.

  3. Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Kim, R.H.

    1996-09-01

    A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated. Comparisons of FLUENT results with other results, i.e., experimental results, were made to determine the accuracy of the employed method. Results of the three-dimensional analysis may be useful in the valve design.

  4. A guide for performing system safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, J. M.; Douglass, R. W., III.; Williamson, F. R.; Dorman, M. C. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A general guide is presented for performing system safety analyses of hardware, software, operations and human elements of an aerospace program. The guide describes a progression of activities that can be effectively applied to identify hazards to personnel and equipment during all periods of system development. The general process of performing safety analyses is described; setting forth in a logical order the information and data requirements, the analytical steps, and the results. These analyses are the technical basis of a system safety program. Although the guidance established by this document cannot replace human experience and judgement, it does provide a methodical approach to the identification of hazards and evaluation of risks to the system.

  5. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  6. Applying MORT maintenance safety analysis in Finnish industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhilehto, Kaarin; Virolainen, Kimmo

    1992-02-01

    A safety analysis method based on MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) method, especially on the version developed for safety considerations in the evaluation of maintenance programs, is presented. The MORT maintenance safety analysis is intended especially for the use maintenance safety management. The analysis helps managers evaluate the goals of their safety work and measures taken to reach them. The analysis is done by a team or teams. The team ought to have expert knowledge of the organization both vertically and horizontally in order to be able to identify factors that may contribute to accidents or other interruptions in the maintenance work. Identification is made by using the MORT maintenance key question set as a check list. The questions check the way safety matters are connnected with the maintenance planning and managing, as well as the safety management itself. In the second stage, means to eliminate the factors causing problems are developed. New practices are established to improve safety of maintenance planning and managing in the enterprise.

  7. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309... analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight termination system and command control system, including each of their components, must satisfy the analysis requirements of this section. (2) Each analysis must...

  8. Partial Derivative Games in Thermodynamics: A Cognitive Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies in recent years have demonstrated that upper-division students struggle with the mathematics of thermodynamics. This paper presents a task analysis based on several expert attempts to solve a challenging mathematics problem in thermodynamics. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we highlight the importance of cognitive task…

  9. F-Canyon Suspension and Deactivation Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    LOW, JM

    2004-04-30

    This paper describes Savannah River Site's compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) direction to suspend current operations, transition to accommodate revised facility missions, and initiate operations to deactivate F-Canyon using a suspension and deactivation safety basis. This paper integrates multiple Workshop theme topics - Lessons Learned from the Safety Analysis Process, Improvements in Documenting Hazard and Accident Analysis, and Closure Issues - Decontamination and Decommissioning. The paper describes the process used to develop safety documentation to support suspension and deactivation activities for F-Canyon. Embodied are descriptive efforts that include development of intermediate and final ''end states'' (e.g., transitional operations), preparation of safety bases documents to support transition, performance of suspension and deactivation activities (e.g. solvent washing, tank/sump flushing, and laboratory waste processing), and downgrade of Safety Class and Safety Significant equipment. The reduction and/or removal of hazards in the facility result in significant risk (frequency times consequence) reduction to the public, site workers, and the environment. Risk reduction then allows the downgrade of safety class and safety significant systems (e.g., ventilation system) and elimination of associated surveillances. The downgrade of safety systems results in significant cost savings.

  10. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  11. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to develop and demonstrate technologies that contribute to a reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio. Safety benefits analyses are currently being conducted. Preliminary results for the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) projects of the AvSP have been completed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model. The integrated safety analysis method comprises two principal components: a reliability model and a simulation model. In the reliability model, the results indicate how different technologies and systems will perform in normal, degraded, and failed modes of operation. In the simulation, an operational scenario is modeled. The primary purpose of the SVS project is to improve safety by providing visual-flightlike situation awareness during instrument conditions. The current analyses are an estimate of the benefits of SVS in avoiding controlled flight into terrain. The scenario modeled has an aircraft flying directly toward a terrain feature. When the flight crew determines that the aircraft is headed toward an obstruction, the aircraft executes a level turn at speed. The simulation is ended when the aircraft completes the turn.

  12. Computational methods for criticality safety analysis within the scale system

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Bucholz, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The criticality safety analysis capabilities within the SCALE system are centered around the Monte Carlo codes KENO IV and KENO V.a, which are both included in SCALE as functional modules. The XSDRNPM-S module is also an important tool within SCALE for obtaining multiplication factors for one-dimensional system models. This paper reviews the features and modeling capabilities of these codes along with their implementation within the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) of SCALE. The CSAS modules provide automated cross-section processing and user-friendly input that allow criticality safety analyses to be done in an efficient and accurate manner. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014-present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  14. Recent Progresses in Nanobiosensing for Food Safety Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Huang, Huifen; Zhu, Fang; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    With increasing adulteration, food safety analysis has become an important research field. Nanomaterials-based biosensing holds great potential in designing highly sensitive and selective detection strategies necessary for food safety analysis. This review summarizes various function types of nanomaterials, the methods of functionalization of nanomaterials, and recent (2014–present) progress in the design and development of nanobiosensing for the detection of food contaminants including pathogens, toxins, pesticides, antibiotics, metal contaminants, and other analytes, which are sub-classified according to various recognition methods of each analyte. The existing shortcomings and future perspectives of the rapidly growing field of nanobiosensing addressing food safety issues are also discussed briefly. PMID:27447636

  15. Safety analysis approaches or mixed transuranic waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, J. C.; Dwight, C. C.; Forrester, R. J.; Lehto, M. A.; Pan, Y. C.

    1999-02-10

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed a survey of assumptions and techniques used for safety analyses at seven sites that handle or store mixed transuranic (TRU) waste operated by contractors for the US Department of Energy (DOE). While approaches to estimating on-site and off-site consequences of hypothetical accidents differ, there are commonalities in all of the safety studies. This paper identifies key parameters and methods used to estimate the radiological consequences associated with release of waste forms under abnormal conditions. Specific facilities are identified by letters with their safety studies listed in a bibliography rather than as specific references so that similarities and differences are emphasized in a nonjudgmental manner. References are provided for specific parameters used to project consequences associated with compromise of barriers and dispersion of potentially hazardous materials. For all of the accidents and sites, estimated dose commitments are well below guidelines even using highly conservative assumptions. Some of the studies quantified the airborne concentrations of toxic materials; this paper only addresses these analyses briefly, as an entire paper could be dedicated to this subject.

  16. Growth factor therapy in patients with partial-thickness burns: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; He, Jinguang; Dong, Jiasheng

    2016-06-01

    Growth factor (GF) therapy has shown promise in treating a variety of refractory wounds. However, evidence supporting its routine use in burn injury remains uncertain. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis assessing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate efficacy and safety of GFs in the management of partial-thickness burns. Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane databases. Endpoint results analysed included wound healing and scar formation. Thirteen studies comprising a total of 1924 participants with 2130 wounds (1131 GF receiving patients versus 999 controls) were identified and included, evaluating the effect of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on partial-thickness burns. Topical application of these agents significantly reduced healing time by 5·02 (95% confidence interval, 2·62 to 7·42), 3·12 (95% CI, 1·11 to 5·13) and 5·1 (95% CI, 4·02 to 6·18) days, respectively, compared with standard wound care alone. In addition, scar improvement following therapy with FGF and EGF was evident in terms of pigmentation, pliability, height and vascularity. No significant increase in adverse events was observed in patients receiving GFs. These results suggested that GF therapy could be an effective and safe add-on to standard wound care for partial-thickness burns. High-quality, adequately powered trials are needed to further confirm the conclusion. PMID:25040572

  17. Demonstration of a Safety Analysis on a Complex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Alfaro, Liliana; Alvarado, Christine; Brown, Molly; Hunt, Earl B.; Jaffe, Matt; Joslyn, Susan; Pinnell, Denise; Reese, Jon; Samarziya, Jeffrey; Sandys, Sean; Shaw, Alan; Zabinsky, Zelda

    1997-01-01

    For the past 17 years, Professor Leveson and her graduate students have been developing a theoretical foundation for safety in complex systems and building a methodology upon that foundation. The methodology includes special management structures and procedures, system hazard analyses, software hazard analysis, requirements modeling and analysis for completeness and safety, special software design techniques including the design of human-machine interaction, verification, operational feedback, and change analysis. The Safeware methodology is based on system safety techniques that are extended to deal with software and human error. Automation is used to enhance our ability to cope with complex systems. Identification, classification, and evaluation of hazards is done using modeling and analysis. To be effective, the models and analysis tools must consider the hardware, software, and human components in these systems. They also need to include a variety of analysis techniques and orthogonal approaches: There exists no single safety analysis or evaluation technique that can handle all aspects of complex systems. Applying only one or two may make us feel satisfied, but will produce limited results. We report here on a demonstration, performed as part of a contract with NASA Langley Research Center, of the Safeware methodology on the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) portion of the air traffic control (ATC) system and procedures currently employed at the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol). CTAS is an automated system to assist controllers in handling arrival traffic in the DFW area. Safety is a system property, not a component property, so our safety analysis considers the entire system and not simply the automated components. Because safety analysis of a complex system is an interdisciplinary effort, our team included system engineers, software engineers, human factors experts, and cognitive psychologists.

  18. Analysis of factors affecting containment with extracted partial enclosures using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Batt, Rachel L; Kelsey, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    The Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) COSHH Essentials (HSE, 2002, COSHH Essentials: easy steps to control chemicals HSG193. 2nd edn. ISBN 0 71762737 3. Available at http://www.coshh-essentials.org.uk. Accessed 30 October 2013) provides guidance on identifying the approaches required to control exposure to chemicals in the workplace. The control strategies proposed in COSHH Essentials are grouped into four control approaches: general ventilation, engineering control, containment, or to seek specialist advice. We report the use of experimental measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to examine the performance of an engineering control approach and a containment control approach. The engineering control approach simulated was an extracted partial enclosure, based on the COSHH Essentials G200, for which simulations were compared with data from experiments. The containment approach simulated was of drum filling (in an extracted partial enclosure), based on the COSHH Essentials G305. The influence of the following factors on containment was examined: face velocity, size and location of face opening, and movement and ventilation flows. CFD predictions of the engineering control approach agreed well with the majority of the experimental measurements demonstrating confidence in the modelling approach used. The results show that the velocity distribution at the face of the enclosure is not uniform and the location and size of the opening are significant factors affecting the flow field and hence the containment performance. The simulations of drum filling show the effect on containment of the movement of a drum through the face of an enclosure. Analysis of containment performance, using a tracer, showed that containment was affected by the interaction between the ventilation flow direction and drum movement and spacing. Validated CFD simulations are shown to be a useful tool for gaining insight into the flows in control strategies for exposure

  19. Westinghouse Hanford Company safety analysis reports and technical safety requirements upgrade program

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    During Fiscal Year 1992, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) separately transmitted the following US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for compliance: DOE 5480.21, ``Unreviewed Safety Questions,`` DOE 5480.22, ``Technical Safety Requirements,`` and DOE 5480.23, ``Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.`` WHC has proceeded with its impact assessment and implementation process for the Orders. The Orders are closely-related and contain some requirements that are either identical, similar, or logically-related. Consequently, WHC has developed a strategy calling for an integrated implementation of the three Orders. The strategy is comprised of three primary objectives, namely: Obtain DOE approval of a single list of DOE-owned and WHC-managed Nuclear Facilities, Establish and/or upgrade the ``Safety Basis`` for each Nuclear Facility, and Establish a functional Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process to govern the management and preservation of the Safety Basis for each Nuclear Facility. WHC has developed policy-revision and facility-specific implementation plans to accomplish near-term tasks associated with the above strategic objectives. This plan, which as originally submitted in August 1993 and approved, provided an interpretation of the new DOE Nuclear Facility definition and an initial list of WHC-managed Nuclear Facilities. For each current existing Nuclear Facility, existing Safety Basis documents are identified and the plan/status is provided for the ISB. Plans for upgrading SARs and developing TSRs will be provided after issuance of the corresponding Rules.

  20. Business analysis in occupational health and safety consultations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, T B; Himmelstein, J; Pransky, G; Beavers, J D

    1991-10-01

    We present a method for incorporating business analysis into comprehensive health and safety consultations using as an example a plant with an elevated incidence of cumulative trauma disorders. Business information, including product and management history, short- and long-term corporate goals, functional analysis, profit history, organizational structure with respect to health and safety, and personnel and labor-management relationships are evaluated simultaneously with traditional ergonomic factors. The additional business data allow consultants to identify the full scope of etiologies and make practical, credible recommendations that are more likely to be adopted by management and labor. We propose that techniques of "business analysis" be routinely incorporated into occupational health and safety consultations. However, because collection and interpretation of these data require business skills outside the occupational safety and health expert's usual repertoire, the consulting team must include participants with business expertise. We have found that occupational health medical personnel with an understanding of business analysis concepts can be very effective advocates for changes in health and safety practices. We strongly recommend incorporating methods of business analysis into the occupational health and safety curriculum. PMID:1753300

  1. Lessons learned from commercial reactor safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragola, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    As design concepts involving nuclear power are developed for space missions, prudence requires a consideration of the historical perspective provided by the commerical nuclear power generating station industry. This would allow the aerospace industry to take advantage of relevant historical experience, drawing from the best features and avoiding the pitfalls which appear to have stifled the growth of the commercial nuclear industry as a whole despite its comparatively admirable safety performance record. This paper provides some history of the development of commercial nuclear plant designs, and discusses the lessons which have been learned and how they apply to the space nuclear propulsion situation.

  2. Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis of Synthetic Vision Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program is to develop and demonstrate technologies that could help reduce the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio beyond what is now available. Synthetic vision is the first of the Aviation Safety Program technologies that has been analyzed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These synthetic vision analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model.

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  4. Hybrid Safety Analysis Using Functional and Risk Decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER,J. ARLIN; JOHNSON,ALICE J.; WERNER,PAUL W.

    2000-07-15

    Safety analysis of complex systems depends on decomposing the systems into manageable subsystems, from which analysis can be rolled back up to the system level. The authors have found that there is no single best way to decompose; in fact hybrid combinations of decompositions are generally necessary to achieve optimum results. They are currently using two backbone coordinated decompositions--functional and risk, supplemented by other types, such as organizational. An objective is to derive metrics that can be used to efficiently and accurately aggregate information through analysis, to contribute toward assessing system safety, and to contribute information necessary for defensible decisions.

  5. Software Safety Analysis of a Flight Guidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor); Tribble, Alan C.; Miller, Steven P.; Lempia, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes the safety analysis performed on a Flight Guidance System (FGS) requirements model. In particular, the safety properties desired of the FGS model are identified and the presence of the safety properties in the model is formally verified. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the entire project, while Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of the problem domain, the nature of accidents, model based development, and the four-variable model. Chapter 3 outlines the approach. Chapter 4 presents the results of the traditional safety analysis techniques and illustrates how the hazardous conditions associated with the system trace into specific safety properties. Chapter 5 presents the results of the formal methods analysis technique model checking that was used to verify the presence of the safety properties in the requirements model. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes the main conclusions of the study, first and foremost that model checking is a very effective verification technique to use on discrete models with reasonable state spaces. Additional supporting details are provided in the appendices.

  6. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the... Criteria Preclosure Safety Analysis § 63.112 Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area. The preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area...

  7. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the... Criteria Preclosure Safety Analysis § 63.112 Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area. The preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area...

  8. Safety analysis of the existing 851 Firing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-06-05

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 851 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but two of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exceptions were the linear accelerator and explosives, which were classified as moderate hazards per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public.

  9. Safety analysis of the existing 850 Firing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-06-05

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 850 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives, which was classified as a moderate hazard per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public.

  10. System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

  11. Safety analysis of SISL process module

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study.

  12. FFTF Final Safety Analysis Report Amendment 81 [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2002-01-10

    Since the last reactor operation of FFTF in March of 1992, the FFTF has either been in a programmatic status of Standby or Shutdown. The facility hazards have decreased markedly. Rather than making extensive Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) changes, Appendix G was prepared to reflect the design and operation during Standby or Shutdown. Appendix G describes the application of the entire FSAR for the current configuration, accounting for the natural reduction in hazards and new system configurations associated with Standby/Shutdown. The technical system chapters and the safety analysis chapter of the FSAR describe how the design and operation fulfilled the requirements necessary to support reactor operation; this information is retained for design basis and historical information. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is submitted per the requirements of Paragraph 014, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Manual Chapter 0540, ''Safety of ERDA-Owned Reactors.'' This FSAR and its supporting documentation provide a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, plant design, normal and emergency operations, potential accidents and predicted consequences of such accidents, and the means that will prevent such accidents and/or reduce their consequences to an acceptable level.

  13. An analysis of the nucleon spectrum from lattice partially-quenched QCD

    SciTech Connect

    W. Armour; Allton, C. R.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Young, Ross D.

    2010-09-01

    The chiral extrapolation of the nucleon mass, Mn, is investigated using data coming from 2-flavour partially-quenched lattice simulations. The leading one-loop corrections to the nucleon mass are derived for partially-quenched QCD. A large sample of lattice results from the CP-PACS Collaboration is analysed, with explicit corrections for finite lattice spacing artifacts. The extrapolation is studied using finite range regularised chiral perturbation theory. The analysis also provides a quantitative estimate of the leading finite volume corrections. It is found that the discretisation, finite-volume and partial quenching effects can all be very well described in this framework, producing an extrapolated value of Mn in agreement with experiment. This procedure is also compared with extrapolations based on polynomial forms, where the results are less encouraging.

  14. Integrated safety analysis based on spatial kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Finnemann, H.; Drescher, G.

    1994-12-31

    The continuing progress in computer technology, characterized by the ever-increasing calculational speed of various computer architectures, enables the direct coupling of up to recently separate code systems. As a consequence different areas of analysis like reactor physics, core thermal hydraulics, and plant dynamics can be integrated to increase the accuracy of simulation over that obtained from imposing conservative boundary conditions at the interfaces. The coupling of thermal-hydraulic subchannel analysis with nodal space-time kinetics calculations is an important step toward an even more extensive integration of complex code systems. In this paper we present some results of a transient departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) calculation integrated in the nodal kinetics code PANBOX.

  15. Partial-wave analysis for elastic p{sup 13}C scattering at astrophysical energies

    SciTech Connect

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2012-03-15

    A standard partial-wave analysis was performed on the basis of known measurements of differential cross sections for elastic p{sup 13}C scattering at energies in the range 250-750 keV. This analysis revealed that, in the energy range being considered, it is sufficient to take into account the {sup 3}S{sub 1} wave alone. A potential for the triplet {sup 3}S{sub 1}-wave state of the p{sup 13}C system in the region of the J{sup p}T = 1{sup -1} resonance at 0.55 MeV was constructed on the basis of the phase shifts obtained from the aforementioned partial-wave analysis.

  16. Microspectral analysis with laser in microleakage evaluation between infrastructure and veneer materials in fixed partial dentures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Draganescu, Gheorghe; Todea, Carmen; Dodenciu, Dorin; Rominu, Roxana

    2008-02-01

    The microleakage at the interface between the metal infrastructure and the veneering part of the fixed partial dentures are a common problem of aesthetic dentistry. It is possible to use the method of laser microspectral analysis for investigations of microleakage at the metal-veneering material interfaces in fixed partial prostheses. The laser microspectral analysis device LMA-10 (Carl Zeiss, Jena) was used equipped with a diffraction spectrometer PGS-2 (Carl Zeiss, Jena). Different fixed partial dentures were used to determine the microleakage between the metal infrastructure and the veneering material. The distribution of chemical elements at interface infiltration was investigated, making a series of craters and establishing the spectra of the vapours emitted from the craters. Data was gathered in various tables of chemical elements showing the quality and the quantity of microleakage. The laser microspectral analysis is a punctual method of analysis, which allows to investigate small quantities of materials of around 0.1 μg. This method allows to establish the content of atoms and molecules and to perform semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis. By this method it is possible to establish trace elements, i. e. with concentration of ppm (parts per million).

  17. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant’s Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results.

  18. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  19. Safety analysis results for cryostat ingress accidents in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Petti, D.A.

    1997-06-01

    Accidents involving the ingress of air, helium, or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Safety analysis results for cryostat ingress accidents in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Accidents involving the ingress of air or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

  1. Safety Analysis Results for Cryostat Ingress Accidents in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, B. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Petti, D. A.

    1997-06-01

    Accidents involving the ingress of air, helium, or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

  2. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309 Section 417.309 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... procedural or human errors; (7) Account for any single failure point on another system that could disable...

  3. 10 CFR 72.70 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.70 Section 72.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Records, Reports, Inspections, and Enforcement §...

  4. 10 CFR 72.70 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.70 Section 72.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  5. 10 CFR 72.70 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety analysis report updating. 72.70 Section 72.70 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE...

  6. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate holder for a spent fuel storage cask design shall update periodically, as provided in paragraph (b) of this... Commission, in accordance with § 72.4, within 90 days after the spent fuel storage cask design has...

  7. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate holder for a spent fuel storage cask design shall update periodically, as provided in paragraph (b) of this... Commission, in accordance with § 72.4, within 90 days after the spent fuel storage cask design has...

  8. 10 CFR 72.248 - Safety analysis report updating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.248 Safety analysis report updating. (a) Each certificate holder for a spent fuel storage cask design shall update periodically, as provided in paragraph (b) of this... Commission, in accordance with § 72.4, within 90 days after the spent fuel storage cask design has...

  9. Implementation of the Generic Safety Analysis Report - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-02

    The Savannah River Site has completed the development, review and approval process for the Generic Safety Analysis Report (GSAR) and implemented this information in facility SARs and BIOs. This includes the yearly revision of the GSAR and the facility-specific SARs. The process has provided us with several lessons learned.

  10. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  11. Safety analysis of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation container

    SciTech Connect

    Uspuras, E.; Rimkevicius, S.

    2007-07-01

    Ignalina NPP comprises two Units with RBMK-1500 reactors. After the Unit 1 of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was shut down in 2004, approximately 1000 fuel assemblies from Unit were available for further reuse in Unit 2. The fuel-transportation container, vehicle, protection shaft and other necessary equipment were designed in order to implement the process for on-site transportation of Unit 1 fuel for reuse in the Unit 2. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was developed to demonstrate that the proposed set of equipment performs all functions and assures the required level of safety for both normal operation and accident conditions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the content and main results of SAR, focusing attention on the container used to transport spent fuel assemblies from Unit I on Unit 2. In the SAR, the structural integrity, thermal, radiological and nuclear safety calculations are performed to assess the acceptance of the proposed set of equipment. The safety analysis demonstrated that the proposed nuclear fuel transportation container and other equipment are in compliance with functional, design and regulatory requirements and assure the required safety level. (authors)

  12. Safety analysis of optically ignited explosive and pyrotechnic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Holswade, S.

    1994-05-01

    The future of optical ordnance depends on the acceptance, validation and verification of the stated safety enhancement claims of optical ordnance over existing electrical explosive devices (EED`s). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance, with the primary motivation of this effort being the enhancement of explosive safety by specifically reducing the potential of premature detonation that can occur with low energy electrically ignited explosive devices. By using semiconductor laser diodes for igniting these devices, safety improvements can be made without being detrimental to current system concerns since the inputs required for these devices are similar to electrical systems. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) of the energetic material provides the opportunity to remove the bridgewire and electrically conductive pins from the charge cavity, creating a Faraday cage and thus isolating the explosive or pyrotechnic materials from stray electrical ignition sources. Recent results from our continued study of safety enhancements are presented. The areas of investigation which are presented include: (1) unintended optical source analysis, specifically lightning insensitivity, (2) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) insensitivity analysis, and (3) powder safety.

  13. [Safety analysis for astronaut and the personal protective equipment].

    PubMed

    Chen, J D; Sun, J B; Shi, H P; Sun, H L

    1999-12-01

    Objective. To analyze and study astronaut and his personal equipment safety. Method. Three of the most widely used approaches, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA) and system hazards analysis (SHA) were used. Result. It was demonstrated that astronaut and the personal equipment are subjected to various potential hazards, such as human errors, astronaut illness, fire or space suit emergency decompression, etc. Their causes, mechanisms, possible effects and criticality of some critical potential hazards were analyzed and identified in more details with considerations of the historic accidents of manned spaceflight. And the compensating provisions and preventive measures for each hazard were discussed. Conclusion. The analysis study may be helpful in enhancing the safety of the astronaut and its personal protective equipment. PMID:12434807

  14. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The purpose of this SAR Addendum is to incorporate plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. The Pu metal is packed in an inner container (designated the T-Ampoule) that replaces the PC-1 inner container. The documentation and results from analysis contained in this addendum demonstrate that the replacement of the PC-1 and associated packaging material with the T-Ampoule and associated packaging with the addition of the plutonium metal content are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system and prevention of criticality when the package is subjected to the tests specified in 10 CFR 71.71, 71.73 and 71.74.

  15. PBMR nuclear design and safety analysis: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, C.

    2006-07-01

    PBMR is a high-temperature helium-cooled graphite-moderated continuous-fuelled pebble bed reactor. The power conversion unit is directly coupled to the reactor and the power turbines are driven through a direct closed-circuit helium cycle. An overview is presented on the nuclear engineering analyses used for the design and safety assessment for the PBMR. Topics addressed are the PBMR design, safety and licensing requirements, nuclear engineering analysis results, software verification and validation, and advances in software development. (authors)

  16. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) multicanister overpack cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-07-14

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) documents the safety of shipments of irradiated fuel elements in the MUlticanister Overpack (MCO) and MCO Cask for a highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile package. This SARP evaluates the package during transfers of (1) water-filled MCOs from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and (2) sealed and cold vacuum dried MCOs from the CVDF in the 100 K Area to the Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area.

  18. Safety risk analysis of an innovative environmental technology.

    PubMed

    Parnell, G S; Frimpon, M; Barnes, J; Kloeber, J M; Deckro, R E; Jackson, J A

    2001-02-01

    The authors describe a decision and risk analysis performed for the cleanup of a large Department of Energy mixed-waste subsurface disposal area governed by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In a previous study, the authors worked with the site decision makers, state regulators, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional regulators to develop a CERCLA-based multiobjective decision analysis value model and used the model to perform a screening analysis of 28 remedial alternatives. The analysis results identified an innovative technology, in situ vitrification, with high effectiveness versus cost. Since this technology had not been used on this scale before, the major uncertainties were contaminant migration and pressure buildup. Pressure buildup was a safety concern due to the potential risks to worker safety. With the help of environmental technology experts remedial alternative changes were identified to mitigate the concerns about contaminant migration and pressure buildup. The analysis results showed that the probability of an event with a risk to worker safety had been significantly reduced. Based on these results, site decision makers have refocused their test program to examine in situ vitrification and have continued the use of the CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology to analyze remedial alternatives. PMID:11332543

  19. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of zonisamide in adult patients with partial, generalized, and combined seizures: an open labeled, noncomparative, observational Indian study.

    PubMed

    Dash, Amitabh; Ravat, Sangeeta; Srinivasan, Avathvadi Venkatesan; Shetty, Ashutosh; Kumar, Vivek; Achtani, Renu; Mathur, Vivek Narain; Maramattom, Boby Varkey; Bajpai, Veeresh; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Narayana, Randhi Venkata; Mehta, Suyog

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicentric, noncomparative open-label observational study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy zonisamide in Indian adult patients for the treatment of partial, generalized, or combined seizures. A total of 655 adult patients with partial, generalized, or combined seizures from 30 centers across India were recruited after initial screening. Patients received 100 mg zonisamide as initiating dose as monotherapy/adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks, with titration of 100 mg every 2 weeks if required. Adverse events, responder rates, and seizure freedom were observed every 4 weeks. Efficacy and safety were also assessed using Clinicians Global Assessment of Response to Therapy and Patients Global Assessment of Tolerability to Therapy, respectively. Follow-up was conducted for a period of 24 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 655 patients were enrolled and received the treatment and 563 completed the evaluation phase. A total of 20.92% of patients received zonisamide as monotherapy or alternative monotherapy and 59.85% patients received zonisamide as first adjunctive therapy. Compared with baseline, 41.22% of patients achieved seizure freedom and 78.6% as responder rate at the end of 24 week study. Most commonly reported adverse events were loss of appetite, weight loss, sedation, and dizziness, but discontinuation due to adverse events of drug was seen in 0.92% of patients. This open label real-world study suggests that zonisamide is an effective and well-tolerated antiepileptic drug in Indian adults for treatment of partial, generalized as well as combined seizures type. No new safety signals were observed. PMID:27013882

  20. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of zonisamide in adult patients with partial, generalized, and combined seizures: an open labeled, noncomparative, observational Indian study

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Amitabh; Ravat, Sangeeta; Srinivasan, Avathvadi Venkatesan; Shetty, Ashutosh; Kumar, Vivek; Achtani, Renu; Mathur, Vivek Narain; Maramattom, Boby Varkey; Bajpai, Veeresh; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Narayana, Randhi Venkata; Mehta, Suyog

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicentric, noncomparative open-label observational study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy zonisamide in Indian adult patients for the treatment of partial, generalized, or combined seizures. A total of 655 adult patients with partial, generalized, or combined seizures from 30 centers across India were recruited after initial screening. Patients received 100 mg zonisamide as initiating dose as monotherapy/adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks, with titration of 100 mg every 2 weeks if required. Adverse events, responder rates, and seizure freedom were observed every 4 weeks. Efficacy and safety were also assessed using Clinicians Global Assessment of Response to Therapy and Patients Global Assessment of Tolerability to Therapy, respectively. Follow-up was conducted for a period of 24 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 655 patients were enrolled and received the treatment and 563 completed the evaluation phase. A total of 20.92% of patients received zonisamide as monotherapy or alternative monotherapy and 59.85% patients received zonisamide as first adjunctive therapy. Compared with baseline, 41.22% of patients achieved seizure freedom and 78.6% as responder rate at the end of 24 week study. Most commonly reported adverse events were loss of appetite, weight loss, sedation, and dizziness, but discontinuation due to adverse events of drug was seen in 0.92% of patients. This open label real-world study suggests that zonisamide is an effective and well-tolerated antiepileptic drug in Indian adults for treatment of partial, generalized as well as combined seizures type. No new safety signals were observed. PMID:27013882

  1. Worker Safety and Health and Nuclear Safety Quarterly Performance Analysis (January - March 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, C E

    2009-10-07

    The DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to 'implement comprehensive management and independent assessments that are effective in identifying deficiencies and broader problems in safety and security programs, as well as opportunities for continuous improvement within the organization' and to 'regularly perform assessments to evaluate implementation of the contractor's processes for screening and internal reporting.' LLNL has a self-assessment program, described in ES&H Manual Document 4.1, that includes line, management and independent assessments. LLNL also has in place a process to identify and report deficiencies of nuclear, worker safety and health and security requirements. In addition, the DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to evaluate 'issues management databases to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions' (page 14, DOE Enforcement Process Overview, December 2007). LLNL requires that all worker safety and health and nuclear safety noncompliances be tracked as 'deficiencies' in the LLNL Issues Tracking System (ITS). Data from the ITS are analyzed for worker safety and health (WSH) and nuclear safety noncompliances that may meet the threshold for reporting to the DOE Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). This report meets the expectations defined by the DOE Office of Enforcement to review the assessments conducted by LLNL, analyze the issues and noncompliances found in these assessments, and evaluate the data in the ITS database to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions. The report attempts to answer three questions: (1) Is LLNL evaluating its programs and state of compliance? (2) What is LLNL finding? (3) Is LLNL appropriately managing what it finds? The analysis in this report focuses on data from the first quarter of 2008 (January through March). This quarter is analyzed within the context of information identified in previous quarters to

  2. Software safety analysis activities during software development phases of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Hui-Yin; Sherif, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the MLS software safety analysis activities and documents the SSA results. The scope of this software safety effort is consistent with the MLS system safety definition and is concentrated on the software faults and hazards that may have impact on the personnel safety and the environment safety.

  3. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

  4. Stability analysis of multigrid acceleration methods for the solution of partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, John F.

    1990-01-01

    A calculation is made of the stability of various relaxation schemes for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. A multigrid acceleration method is introduced, and its effects on stability are explored. A detailed stability analysis of a simple case is carried out and verified by numerical experiment. It is shown that the use of multigrids can speed convergence by several orders of magnitude without adversely affecting stability.

  5. SCALE 6: Comprehensive Nuclear Safety Analysis Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Version 6 of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in February 2009, contains significant new capabilities and data for nuclear safety analysis and marks an important update for this software package, which is used worldwide. This paper highlights the capabilities of the SCALE system, including continuous-energy flux calculations for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections, ENDF/B-VII continuous-energy and multigroup nuclear cross-section data, continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations, Monte Carlo radiation shielding analyses with automated three-dimensional variance reduction techniques, one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations, two- and three-dimensional lattice physics depletion analyses, fast and accurate source terms and decay heat calculations, automated burnup credit analyses with loading curve search, and integrated three-dimensional criticality accident alarm system analyses using coupled Monte Carlo criticality and shielding calculations.

  6. Evolution of Safety Analysis to Support New Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrasher, Chard W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle as a key component of the Constellation program which will provide safe and reliable transportation to the International Space Station, back to the moon, and later to Mars. The risks and costs of the Ares I must be significantly lowered, as compared to other manned launch vehicles, to enable the continuation of space exploration. It is essential that safety be significantly improved, and cost-effectively incorporated into the design process. This paper justifies early and effective safety analysis of complex space systems. Interactions and dependences between design, logistics, modeling, reliability, and safety engineers will be discussed to illustrate methods to lower cost, reduce design cycles and lessen the likelihood of catastrophic events.

  7. Ares I-X Range Safety Flight Envelope Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Olds, Aaron D.; Craig, Anthony S.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  8. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication.

  9. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J... Analysis Report J417.1General (a) This appendix provides the content and format requirements for a ground safety analysis report. A launch operator must perform a ground safety analysis as required by subpart...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J... Analysis Report J417.1General (a) This appendix provides the content and format requirements for a ground safety analysis report. A launch operator must perform a ground safety analysis as required by subpart...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J... Analysis Report J417.1General (a) This appendix provides the content and format requirements for a ground safety analysis report. A launch operator must perform a ground safety analysis as required by subpart...

  12. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  13. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  14. LES and acoustic analysis of thermo-acoustic instabilities in a partially premixed model combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Ignacio; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Poinsot, Thierry; Román Casado, Juan C.; Kok, Jim B. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and acoustic analysis tools to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in a methane/air academic burner installed at the University of Twente (The Netherlands). It operates under fuel-lean partially premixed conditions at atmospheric pressure, and was built to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in conditions representative of gas turbine Lean Premixed systems: gaseous fuel is injected upstream of the combustor and has a limited time to mix with air. Even though the objective is to burn in a premixed mode, the actual regime corresponds to a partially premixed flame where strong equivalence ratio variations are created especially during combustion instabilities. Capturing these modes with LES is a challenge: here, simulations for both stable and unstable regimes are performed. In the unstable case, the limit cycle oscillations (LCO) are characterized and compared to experimental results. Reasonable agreement is found between simulations and experiments.

  15. Error analysis of a fast partial pivoting method for structured matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Douglas R.; Brent, Richard P.

    1995-06-01

    Many matrices that arise in the solution of signal processing have a special displacement structure. For example, adaptive filtering and direction-of-arrival estimation yield matrices of a Toeplitz type. A recent method of Gohberg, Kailath, and Olshevsky (GKO) allows fast Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting for such structured matrices. In this paper, a rounding error analysis is performed on the Cauchy and Toeplitz variants of the GKO method. It is shown the error growth depends on the growth in certain auxiliary vectors, the generators, which are computed by the GKO algorithms, It is also shown that in certain circumstances, the growth in the generators can be large, and so the error growth is much larger than would be encountered with normal Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting. A modification of the algorithm to perform a type of row-column pivoting is proposed which may circumvent this problem.

  16. Fire hazard analyses and safety analysis reports relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, W.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-30

    DOE Order 5480.7A requires that Fire Hazard Analyses (FHA) be performed for new facilities, for facilities requiring a DOE 5480.23 Safety Analysis, or as directed by the DOE Program Secretarial Officer. DOE Order 5480.23 requires that a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) be prepared for DOE nuclear facilities. Both the FHA and SAR `documents provide important information and direction for facility design and operation. Each of the two documents address the effects of postulated fire scenarios, and both have common or at least consistent bases, and have overlapping elements. However, some of the objectives of the required analyses are distinctly different. These differences have historically resulted in variations in the interpretation and Understanding of the DOE Orders and associated guidance by organizations and individuals within the Westinghouse Hanford Company.

  17. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-11-09

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG&G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort.

  18. Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.

    2003-04-01

    Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.

  19. Patterns of Failure After MammoSite Brachytherapy Partial Breast Irradiation: A Detailed Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sea Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael; Shah, Anand; Jokich, Peter; Solmos, Gene; Strauss, Jonathan; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz; Nguyen, Cam; Griem, Katherine

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a detailed analysis of treatment failures after MammoSite breast brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation from our single-institution experience. Methods and Materials: Between October 14, 2002 and October 23, 2006, 78 patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and accelerated partial breast irradiation using the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator. We identified five treatment failures in the 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up. Pathologic data, breast imaging, and radiation treatment plans were reviewed. For in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, the doses delivered to the areas of recurrence by partial breast irradiation were calculated. Results: At a median follow-up time of 26.1 months, five treatment failures were identified. There were three in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, one failure directly adjacent to the original surgical bed, and one failure in the axilla with synchronous distant metastases. The crude failure rate was 7.1% (5 of 70), and the crude local failure rate was 5.7% (4 of 70). Estimated progression-free survival at 48 months was 89.8% (standard error 4.5%). Conclusions: Our case series of 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up and a median follow-up of 26 months is the largest single-institution report to date with detailed failure analysis associated with MammoSite brachytherapy. Our failure data emphasize the importance of patient selection when offering partial breast irradiation.

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  1. Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jamali, K.; Stack, D.W.; Sullivan, L.H.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, `ensuring` plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is `safe.` Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude.

  2. IAEA Activities in the Area of Safety Analysis and Accident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; El-Shanawany, M.

    2006-07-01

    Safety analysis is a means of demonstrating how critical safety functions, the integrity of barriers against the release of radioactive materials, and various other safety requirements are fulfilled for a broad range of operating conditions and initiating events. Accordingly, performing safety analysis for a nuclear power plant is one of the most important safety principles. Thermal-hydraulic computer codes are extensively used worldwide for safety analysis by utilities, regulatory authorities, power plant designers and vendors, nuclear fuel companies, research organizations, and technical support organizations. Safety analysis methodology and computer codes have seen a significant development over the last two decades. This fact is also reflected in the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) that aims at increasing the quality and international harmonization of the approaches used in safety analysis. The paper provides an overview of activities and of examples of results obtained recently or planned in the near future in the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety in the field of safety analysis for both design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents as well as accident management. In this paper, specific technical guidance on the safety assessments in the IAEA Safety Standards such as safety analysis methodologies, probabilistic safety assessment, and development of accident management programmes are described. Future trends and related activities in safety analysis and accident management are also introduced. (authors)

  3. Safety analysis of the existing 804 and 845 firing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-06-05

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 804 and 845 Firing Facilities at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, peronnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operation and credible accident that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequence were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives. Since this hazard has the potential for causing significant on-site and minimum off-site consequences, Bunkers 804 and 845 have been classified as moderate hazard facilties per DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at these facilities will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public.

  4. A fuzzy logic methodology for fault-tree analysis in critical safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erbay, A.; Ikonomopoulos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fault-tree analysis in critical safety systems employing fuzzy sets for information representation is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the utilization of the extension principle for mapping crisp measurements to various degrees of membership in the fuzzy set of linguistic Truth. Criticality alarm systems are used in miscellaneous nuclear fuel processing, handling, and storage facilities to reduce the risk associated with fissile material operations. Fault-tree methodologies are graphic illustrations of tile failure logic associated with the development of a particular system failure (top event) from basic subcomponent failures (primary events). The term event denotes a dynamic change of state that occurs to system elements, which may include hardware, software, human, or environmental factors. A fault-tree represents a detailed, deductive, analysis that requires extensive system information. The knowledge incorporated in a fault tree can be articulated in logical rules of the form [open quotes]IF A is true THEN B is true.[close quotes] However, it is well known that this type of syllogism fails to give an answer when the satisfaction of the antecedent clause is only partial. Zadeh suggested a new type of fuzzy conditional inference. This type of syllogism (generalized modus ponens) reads as follows: Premise: A is partially true Implication: IF A is true THEN B is true Conclusion: B is partially-true. In generalized modus ponens, the antecedent is true only to some degree; hence, it is desired to compute the grade to which the consequent is satisfied. Fuzzy sets provide a natural environment for this type of computation because fuzzy variables (e.g., B) can take fuzzy values (e.g., partially-true).

  5. Detrended partial cross-correlation analysis of two nonstationary time series influenced by common external forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-06-01

    When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails.

  6. Detrended partial cross-correlation analysis of two nonstationary time series influenced by common external forces.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-06-01

    When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails. PMID:26172763

  7. Safety culture and accident analysis--a socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital.

    PubMed

    Rao, Suman

    2007-04-11

    One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, the key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization--seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly. PMID:16911855

  8. A review of the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate in the management of partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Rocamora, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a is a once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) that was approved in 2009 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) (Zebinix™), and in 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Aptiom™) as adjunctive therapy in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. It is a third-generation member of the dibenzazepine family of AEDs with distinctive mechanism of action, posology and tolerability profile. The eslicarbazepine acetate development program included an initial phase II study (study BIA 2-093) and three subsequent phase III, multicentre, randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled clinical trials (studies BIA-2093-301, BIA- 2093-302 and BIA -2093-303). A fourth phase III placebo-controlled trial (study BIA-2093-304) was designed in order to meet specific requirements of the FDA. All performed studies have consistently shown that eslicarbazepine acetate (800 to 1200 mg/day) is effective and well tolerated as adjunctive therapy for adults with partial-onset seizures. PMID:26136845

  9. A review of the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate in the management of partial-onset seizures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a is a once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) that was approved in 2009 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) (Zebinix™), and in 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Aptiom™) as adjunctive therapy in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. It is a third-generation member of the dibenzazepine family of AEDs with distinctive mechanism of action, posology and tolerability profile. The eslicarbazepine acetate development program included an initial phase II study (study BIA 2-093) and three subsequent phase III, multicentre, randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled clinical trials (studies BIA-2093-301, BIA- 2093-302 and BIA -2093-303). A fourth phase III placebo-controlled trial (study BIA-2093-304) was designed in order to meet specific requirements of the FDA. All performed studies have consistently shown that eslicarbazepine acetate (800 to 1200 mg/day) is effective and well tolerated as adjunctive therapy for adults with partial-onset seizures. PMID:26136845

  10. A meta-analysis on the impacts of partial cutting on forest structure and carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Zhao, S. Q.; Liu, S.; Oeding, J.

    2013-06-01

    Partial cutting, which removes some individual trees from a forest, is one of the major and widespread forest management practices that can significantly alter both forest structure and carbon (C) storage. Using 748 observations from 81 studies published between 1973 and 2011, we synthesized the impacts of partial cutting on three variables associated with forest structure (mean annual growth of diameter at breast height (DBH), stand basal area, and volume) and four variables related to various C stock components (aboveground biomass C (AGBC), understory C, forest floor C, and mineral soil C). Results show that the growth of DBH increased by 111.9% after partial cutting, compared to the uncut control, with a 95% bootstrapped confidence interval ranging from 92.2 to 135.9%, while stand basal area and volume decreased immediately by 34.2% ([-37.4%, -31.2%]) and 28.4% ([-32.0%, -25.1%]), respectively. On average, partial cutting reduced AGBC by 43.4% ([-47.7%, -39.3%]), increased understory C storage by 391.5% ([220.0%, 603.8%]), but did not show significant effects on C stocks on forest floor and in mineral soil. All the effects, if significant (i.e., on DBH growth, stand basal area, volume, and AGBC), intensified linearly with cutting intensity and decreased linearly over time. Overall, cutting intensity had more strong impacts than the length of recovery time on the responses of those variables to partial cutting. Besides the significant influence of cutting intensity and recovery time, other factors such as climate zone and forest type also affected forest responses to partial cutting. For example, a large fraction of the changes in DBH growth remains unexplained, suggesting the factors not included in the analysis may play a major role. The data assembled in this synthesis were not sufficient to determine how long it would take for a complete recovery after cutting because long-term experiments were scarce. Future efforts should be tailored to increase the

  11. Management implementation plan for a safety analysis and review system

    SciTech Connect

    Hulburt, D.A.; Berkey, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The US Department of Energy has issued an Order, DOE 5481.1, which establishes uniform requirements for the preparation and review of Safety Analysis for DOE Operations. The Management Implementation Plan specified herein establishes the administrative procedures and technical requirements for implementing DOE 5481.1 to Operations under the cognizance of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This Implementation Plan is applicable to all present and future Operations under the cognizance of PETC. The Plan identifies those Operations for which DOE 5481.1 is applicable and those Operations for which no further analysis is required because the initial determination and review has concluded that DOE 5481.1 does not apply.

  12. Deconvolution of variability and uncertainty in the Cassini safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampas, Frank J.; Loughin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The standard method for propagation of uncertainty in a risk analysis requires rerunning the risk calculation numerous times with model parameters chosen from their uncertainty distributions. This was not practical for the Cassini nuclear safety analysis, due to the computationally intense nature of the risk calculation. A less computationally intense procedure was developed which requires only two calculations for each accident case. The first of these is the standard ``best-estimate'' calculation. In the second calculation, variables and parameters change simultaneously. The mathematical technique of deconvolution is then used to separate out an uncertainty multiplier distribution, which can be used to calculate distribution functions at various levels of confidence.

  13. Qualitative safety analysis of proposed material relocation options

    SciTech Connect

    Cathey, N.G.; Foppe, T.L.

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the methodology used to perform a qualitative safety analysis of various options proposed for the relocation of Special Nuclear Material from its present locations to other areas of the Rocky Flats Plant. This analysis determined the relative risk ranking of various proposed relocation options considering the probability and consequences of accidents associated with the material handling, transportation, and storage locations. Of of the five options, two grouping of results were concluded to be significantly different, allowing the decision makers to balance risk issues with their other requirements (e.g., security, schedule, etc.).

  14. Partially penetrating fractures: Pressure transient analysis of an infinite conductivity fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, F.; Cinco-Ley, H.; Horne, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of the partial penetration of an infinite conductivity fracture on the transient pressure behavior of a vertically fractured well is investigated. Analysis of results shows that the pressure behavior of a well intersected by a partially-penetrating infinite conductivity vertical fracture can be divided into three flow periods: 1) the early time flow period which is characterized by a formation linear flow as in the case of a fully-penetrating infinite-conductivity vertical fracture, 2) the infinite-acting flow period and 3) the pseudoradial flow period which develops after the effects of the vertical boundaries of the reservoir are felt in the pressure behavior of the well. A log-log graph of log(h /SUB f/ /h)p /SUB wD/ versus log t /SUB Dxf/ shows a slope of one half during the early time flow period of a well with an infinite-conductivity partially penetrating fracture. The time for the end of the early time flow period is directly related to the square of the dimensionless height of the fracture, h /SUB fD/, which is defined as the ratio between the height of the fracture and its half length.

  15. Estimating Multiparameter Partial Expected Value of Perfect Information from a Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis Sample

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Mark; Oakley, Jeremy E.; Brennan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The partial expected value of perfect information (EVPI) quantifies the expected benefit of learning the values of uncertain parameters in a decision model. Partial EVPI is commonly estimated via a 2-level Monte Carlo procedure in which parameters of interest are sampled in an outer loop, and then conditional on these, the remaining parameters are sampled in an inner loop. This is computationally demanding and may be difficult if correlation between input parameters results in conditional distributions that are hard to sample from. We describe a novel nonparametric regression-based method for estimating partial EVPI that requires only the probabilistic sensitivity analysis sample (i.e., the set of samples drawn from the joint distribution of the parameters and the corresponding net benefits). The method is applicable in a model of any complexity and with any specification of input parameter distribution. We describe the implementation of the method via 2 nonparametric regression modeling approaches, the Generalized Additive Model and the Gaussian process. We demonstrate in 2 case studies the superior efficiency of the regression method over the 2-level Monte Carlo method. R code is made available to implement the method. PMID:24246566

  16. An observational efficacy and safety analysis of the treatment of acute invasive aspergillosis using voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, F; Selleslag, D; Aoun, M; Sonet, A; Gadisseur, A

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of voriconazole in patients with acute invasive aspergillosis (IA) in a real-life, clinical setting. This was a multicenter observational study in adult patients treated with voriconazole for invasive mycosis. The study evaluated clinical response, mortality, use of other licensed antifungal therapy (OLAT), and treatment duration. This sub-analysis evaluated treatment and outcome data specifically from adult patients with proven/probable IA, while safety data were assessed in patients with proven/probable/possible IA. Of the 141 patients enrolled, 113 were adults with proven/probable IA and six had possible IA. Voriconazole treatment duration ranged from 1 to 183 days (median, 49.5 days). Voriconazole was used exclusively in 64% (72/113) of patients and in combination/sequentially with OLAT in 36%. Overall successful treatment response was 50% (57/113 patients). Twelve percent (14/113) of patients were switched to OLAT, either because of insufficient response (four patients) or for safety reasons (10 patients). Overall and attributable (entirely or partially due to fungal infection) mortality rates were 52% (59/113) and 17%, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events were reported for 18% (22/119) of patients. This observational study confirms the results of previous clinical trials demonstrating voriconazole as an effective and safe agent for treatment of confirmed acute IA. PMID:21971820

  17. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  18. [The cascade scheme as a methodical platform for analysis of health risks in space flight and partially and fully analog conditions].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Poliakov, A V; Usov, V M

    2011-01-01

    Space anthropoecology, a subsection of human ecology, studies various aspects of physiological, psychological, social and professional adaptation to the extreme environment of space flight and human life and work in partially- and fully analogous conditions on Earth. Both SF and simulated extreme conditions are known for high human safety standards and a substantial analytic base that secures on-line analysis of torrent of information. Management evaluation and response to germing undesired developments aimed to curb their impact on the functioning of the crew-vehicle-environment system and human health involve the complete wealth of knowledge about risks to human health and performance. Spacecrew safety issues are tackled by experts of many specialties which emphasizes the importance of integral methodical approaches to risk estimation and mitigation, setting up barriers to adverse trends in human physiology and psychology in challenging conditions, and minimization of delayed effects on professional longevity and disorders in behavioral reactions. PMID:21970036

  19. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  20. Thermohydraulic and Safety Analysis for CARR Under Station Blackout Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Wenxi Tian; Suizheng Qiu; Guanghui Su; Dounan Jia; Xingmin Liu - China Institute of Atomic Energy

    2006-07-01

    A thermohydraulic and safety analysis code (TSACC) has been developed using Fortran 90 language to evaluate the transient thermohydraulic behaviors and safety characteristics of the China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR) under Station Blackout Accident(SBA). For the development of TSACC, a series of corresponding mathematical and physical models were considered. Point reactor neutron kinetics model was adopted for solving reactor power. All possible flow and heat transfer conditions under station blackout accident were considered and the optional models were supplied. The usual Finite Difference Method (FDM) was abandoned and a new model was adopted to evaluate the temperature field of core plate type fuel element. A new simple and convenient equation was proposed for the resolution of the transient behaviors of the main pump instead of the complicated four-quadrant model. Gear method and Adams method were adopted alternately for a better solution to the stiff differential equations describing the dynamic behaviors of the CARR. The computational result of TSACC showed the enough safety margin of CARR under SBA. For the purpose of Verification and Validation (V and V), the simulated results of TSACC were compared with those of Relap5/Mdo3. The V and V result indicated a good agreement between the results by the two codes. Because of the adoption of modular programming techniques, this analysis code is expected to be applied to other reactors by easily modifying the corresponding function modules. (authors)

  1. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  2. Partial-wave analysis of all nucleon-nucleon scattering data below 350 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Stoks, V.G.J.; Klomp, R.A.M.; Rentmeester, M.C.M.; de Swart, J.J. )

    1993-08-01

    We present a multienergy partial-wave analysis of all [ital NN] scattering data below [ital T][sub lab]=350 MeV, published in a regular physics journal between 1955 and 1992. After careful examination, our final database consists of 1787 [ital pp] and 2514 [ital np] scattering data. Our fit to these data results in [chi][sup 2]/[ital N][sub df]=1.08, with [ital N][sub df]=3945 the total number of degrees of freedom. All phase shifts and mixing parameters can be determined accurately.

  3. Risk assessment and its application to flight safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, D.L.; Barton, W.R.

    1989-12-01

    Potentially hazardous test activities have historically been a part of Sandia National Labs mission to design, develop, and test new weapons systems. These test activities include high speed air drops for parachute development, sled tests for component and system level studies, multiple stage rocket experiments, and artillery firings of various projectiles. Due to the nature of Sandia's test programs, the risk associated with these activities can never be totally eliminated. However, a consistent set of policies should be available to provide guidance into the level of risk that is acceptable in these areas. This report presents a general set of guidelines for addressing safety issues related to rocket flight operations at Sandia National Laboratories. Even though the majority of this report deals primarily with rocket flight safety, these same principles could be applied to other hazardous test activities. The basic concepts of risk analysis have a wide range of applications into many of Sandia's current operations. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Safety Analysis of ITER EDA Design by GEMSAFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arika, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Masaki; Sawada, Tetsuo; Fujii-e, Yoichi

    1997-06-01

    General Methodology of Safety Analysis and Evaluation for Fusion Systems (GEMSAFE) was applied to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design in the stage of Engineering Design Activities (EDA) to identify Design Basis Events (DBEs) and the related safety features, which were compared with those of the ITER design in the stage of Conceptual Design Activities (CDA). As a result, 18 DBEs for the EDA design were selected in comparison with 25 DBEs for the CDA design. DBEs related to the fuel area were categorized in higher event category than those of the CDA design due to the increase of the mobile tritium contained in some components. It was necessary to reduce the inventory of the tritium absorbed in the tokamak dust in the EDA design as well as in the CDA design. Some measures were recommended to reduce mobile tritium dissolved in the coolant in the single cooling loop due to the increase of this estimated inventory.

  5. System safety analysis of well-control equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.H.; Roche, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    In the wake of recent disasters in the oil and gas E and P and petrochemical industries, the importance of system safety analysis is becoming recognized. Reliability assessment techniques, which were developed in the nuclear-power-generation and defense industries, are potentially valuable tools for engineers in the offshore oil and gas business. BOP's and their control systems used on offshore rigs are typically made up of several subsystems. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and electronic modules are interfaced to provide functional control and monitoring of the mechanical BOP's and valves. Two techniques are used for reliability analysis of a blowout preventer (BOP) and a hydraulic control system. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) examines each part and the consequences of its malfunction. Fault tree analysis (FTA) traces undesired events to their causes. Reliability calculations and data sources are addressed.

  6. Flood Frequency Analysis For Partial Duration Series In Ganjiang River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhangli, Sun; xiufang, Zhu; yaozhong, Pan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimation of flood frequency is key to effective, nationwide flood damage abatement programs. The partial duration series (PDS) method is widely used in hydrologic studies because it considers all events above a certain threshold level as compared to the annual maximum series (AMS) method, which considers only the annual maximum value. However, the PDS has a drawback in that it is difficult to define the thresholds and maintain an independent and identical distribution of the partial duration time series; this drawback is discussed in this paper. The Ganjiang River is the seventh largest tributary of the Yangtze River, the longest river in China. The Ganjiang River covers a drainage area of 81,258 km2 at the Wanzhou hydrologic station as the basin outlet. In this work, 56 years of daily flow data (1954-2009) from the Wanzhou station were used to analyze flood frequency, and the Pearson-III model was employed as the hydrologic probability distribution. Generally, three tasks were accomplished: (1) the threshold of PDS by percentile rank of daily runoff was obtained; (2) trend analysis of the flow series was conducted using PDS; and (3) flood frequency analysis was conducted for partial duration flow series. The results showed a slight upward trend of the annual runoff in the Ganjiang River basin. The maximum flow with a 0.01 exceedance probability (corresponding to a 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) was 20,000 m3/s, while that with a 0.1 exceedance probability was 15,000 m3/s. These results will serve as a guide to hydrological engineering planning, design, and management for policymakers and decision makers associated with hydrology.

  7. DNA Damage Focus Analysis in Blood Samples of Minipigs Reveals Acute Partial Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lamkowski, Andreas; Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Ahmed, Emad A.; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy (±6%) Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1–8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after

  8. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lamkowski, Andreas; Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Ahmed, Emad A; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy (± 6%) Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after IR

  9. Analysis of effect of flameholder characteristics on lean, premixed, partially vaporized fuel-air mixtures quality and nitrogen oxides emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of the effect of flameholding devices on the precombustion fuel-air characteristics and on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for combustion of premixed partially vaporized mixtures. The analysis includes the interrelationships of flameholder droplet collection efficiency, reatomization efficiency and blockage, and the initial droplet size distribution and accounts for the contribution of droplet combustion in partially vaporized mixtures to NOx emissions. Application of the analytical procedures is illustrated and parametric predictions of NOx emissions are presented.

  10. Requirements analysis for safety-critical systems: A chemical batch processing example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delemos, R.; Saeed, A.; Anderson, T.

    1994-01-01

    An essential basis for the development of software for safety-critical systems is to establish high-quality requirements specifications. In the paper the authors present a methodology for requirements analysis that consists of: a framework which facilitates the systematic analysis of the safety requirements, a graph which records the safety specifications and their relationships, and a set of procedures for the quality analysis of the safety specifications. To illustrate the approach a case study, based on chemical batch processing, is presented.

  11. Evaluating the effect of partial contributing storage on the storage-discharge function from recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.

    2013-10-01

    Hydrograph recession during dry periods has been used to construct water storage-discharge relationships and to quantify storage dynamics and evaporation when streamflow data is available. However, variable hydrologic connectivity among hillslope-riparian-stream zones may affect the lumped storage-discharge relationship, and as a result, affect the estimation of evaporation and storage change. Given observations of rainfall and runoff, and remote-sensing-based observations of evaporation, the ratio (α) between estimated daily evaporation from recession analysis and observed evaporation, and the ratio (β) between estimated contributing storage and total watershed storage are computed for 9 watersheds located in different climate regions. Both evaporation and storage change estimation from recession analysis are underestimated due to the effect of partial contributing storage, particularly when the discharge is low. It was found that the values of α decrease significantly during individual recession events, while the values of β are relatively stable during a recession event. The values of β are negatively correlated with the water table depth and vary significantly among recession events. The partial contributing storage effect is one possible cause for the multi-valued storage-discharge relationship.

  12. Evaluating the effect of partial contributing storage on storage-discharge function from recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrograph recession during dry periods has been used to construct water storage-discharge relationship, and to quantify storage dynamics and evaporation when streamflow data is available. However, variable hydrologic connectivity among hillslope-riparian-stream zones may affect the lumped storage-discharge relationship, and as a result, affect the estimation of evaporation and storage change. Given observations of rainfall and runoff, and remote sensing-based observation of evaporation, the ratio (α) between estimated daily evaporation from recession analysis and observed evaporation, and the ratio (β) between estimated contributing storage and total watershed storage are computed for 9 watersheds located in different climate regions. Both evaporation and storage change estimation from recession analysis are underestimated due to the effect of partial contributing storage, particularly when the discharge is low. It was found that the values of α decrease significantly during individual recession events, while the values of β are relatively stable during a recession event. The values of β are negatively correlated with the water table depth, and vary significantly among recession events. The partial contributing storage effect is one possible cause for the multi-valued storage-discharge relationship.

  13. Detrended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis: A New Method for Analyzing Correlations in Complex System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao; Zhang, Huan; Piao, Lin; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new method, detrended partial-cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA), is proposed. Based on detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), this method is improved by including partial-correlation technique, which can be applied to quantify the relations of two non-stationary signals (with influences of other signals removed) on different time scales. We illustrate the advantages of this method by performing two numerical tests. Test I shows the advantages of DPCCA in handling non-stationary signals, while Test II reveals the “intrinsic” relations between two considered time series with potential influences of other unconsidered signals removed. To further show the utility of DPCCA in natural complex systems, we provide new evidence on the winter-time Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the winter-time Nino3 Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (Nino3-SSTA) affecting the Summer Rainfall over the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River (SRYR). By applying DPCCA, better significant correlations between SRYR and Nino3-SSTA on time scales of 6 ~ 8 years are found over the period 1951 ~ 2012, while significant correlations between SRYR and PDO on time scales of 35 years arise. With these physically explainable results, we have confidence that DPCCA is an useful method in addressing complex systems. PMID:25634341

  14. [Biomass Compositional Analysis Using Sparse Partial Least Squares Regression and Near Infrared Spectrum Technique].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yan; Wang, Chang-yue; Liu, Hui-jun; Tang, Jian-bin; Cai, Jin-hui; Wang, Jing-jun

    2015-07-01

    Forest bio-fuel, a new type renewable energy, has attracted increasing attention as a promising alternative. In this study, a new method called Sparse Partial Least Squares Regression (SPLS) is used to construct the proximate analysis model to analyze the fuel characteristics of sawdust combining Near Infrared Spectrum Technique. Moisture, Ash, Volatile and Fixed Carbon percentage of 80 samples have been measured by traditional proximate analysis. Spectroscopic data were collected by Nicolet NIR spectrometer. After being filtered by wavelet transform, all of the samples are divided into training set and validation set according to sample category and producing area. SPLS, Principle Component Regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) and Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) are presented to construct prediction model. The result advocated that SPLS can select grouped wavelengths and improve the prediction performance. The absorption peaks of the Moisture is covered in the selected wavelengths, well other compositions have not been confirmed yet. In a word, SPLS can reduce the dimensionality of complex data sets and interpret the relationship between spectroscopic data and composition concentration, which will play an increasingly important role in the field of NIR application. PMID:26717741

  15. Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2003-06-01

    The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

  16. Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

    2003-05-13

    The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

  17. Adverse drug reactions and safety considerations of NSAIDs: clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Shiv; Keshri, Lav; Pathak, Kamla

    2011-11-01

    NSAIDs are the most frequently used drugs for treatment, in Europe and the United States, accounting for approximately 5% of all prescriptions. Moreover, the use of NSAIDs is increasing because these constitute the first-line drug therapy for a wide range of rheumatic conditions. This increase is in part the result of the increasing population of elderly patients, who constitute the group of patients with greatest demand for these agents. There are many types of NSAIDs that vary in potency, action and potential side effects. Thus various efforts have been made to determine the safety considerations including adverse drug effects, duration of drug therapy, drug interactions, precautions and other drugs applied to reduce side effects. Researchers have introduced some novel techniques to diagnose NSAIDs related adverse effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa. The researchers dealing with the development of drug delivery system for these drugs should aim at designing a therapeutically efficacious dosage form with reduced side/adverse effects. Thus an effort has been made in this review to deal with the safety parameters of various NSAIDs with a special emphasis on preclinical and clinical safety analysis and various attempts to minimize the side effects by structural modification or by drug delivery system. PMID:22424538

  18. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  19. Fault Tree Analysis Application for Safety and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    Many commercial software tools exist for fault tree analysis (FTA), an accepted method for mitigating risk in systems. The method embedded in the tools identifies a root as use in system components, but when software is identified as a root cause, it does not build trees into the software component. No commercial software tools have been built specifically for development and analysis of software fault trees. Research indicates that the methods of FTA could be applied to software, but the method is not practical without automated tool support. With appropriate automated tool support, software fault tree analysis (SFTA) may be a practical technique for identifying the underlying cause of software faults that may lead to critical system failures. We strive to demonstrate that existing commercial tools for FTA can be adapted for use with SFTA, and that applied to a safety-critical system, SFTA can be used to identify serious potential problems long before integrator and system testing.

  20. Identification of faulty sensor using relative partial decomposition via independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Quek, S. T.

    2015-07-01

    Performance of any structural health monitoring algorithm relies heavily on good measurement data. Hence, it is necessary to employ robust faulty sensor detection approaches to isolate sensors with abnormal behaviour and exclude the highly inaccurate data in the subsequent analysis. The independent component analysis (ICA) is implemented to detect the presence of sensors showing abnormal behaviour. A normalized form of the relative partial decomposition contribution (rPDC) is proposed to identify the faulty sensor. Both additive and multiplicative types of faults are addressed and the detectability illustrated using a numerical and an experimental example. An empirical method to establish control limits for detecting and identifying the type of fault is also proposed. The results show the effectiveness of the ICA and rPDC method in identifying faulty sensor assuming that baseline cases are available.

  1. Partial N-terminal sequence analysis of human class II molecules expressing the DQw3 determinant.

    PubMed

    Obata, F; Endo, T; Yoshii, M; Otani, F; Igarashi, M; Takenouchi, T; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Kasahara, M; Wakisaka, A

    1985-09-01

    HLA-DQ molecules were isolated from DRw9-homozygous and DR4-homozygous cell lines by using a monoclonal antibody HU-18, which recognizes class II molecules carrying the conventional DQw3 determinant. The partial N-terminal sequence analysis of the DQw3 molecules revealed that they have sequences homologous to those of murine I-A molecules. Within the limits of our sequence analysis, the DQw3 molecules from the two cell lines are identical to each other in both the alpha and beta chains. The DQ alpha as well as DQ beta chains were found to have amino acid substitutions when compared to other I-A-like molecules whose sequences have been reported. These differences may contribute to the DQw supertypic specificity. The polymorphic nature of DQ molecules is in marked contrast to that of DR molecules where DR alpha chains are highly conserved while DR beta chains have easily detectable amino acid substitutions. PMID:2411700

  2. Learning partially directed functional networks from meta-analysis imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jane; Fox, Peter T.; Turner, Robert; Lohmann, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new exploratory method for the discovery of partially directed functional networks from fMRI meta-analysis data. The method performs structure learning of Bayesian networks in search of directed probabilistic dependencies between brain regions. Learning is based on the co-activation of brain regions observed across several independent imaging experiments. In a series of simulations, we first demonstrate the reliability of the method. We then present the application of our approach in an extensive meta-analysis including several thousand activation coordinates from more than 500 imaging studies. Results show that our method is able to automatically infer Bayesian networks that capture both directed and undirected probabilistic dependencies between a number of brain regions, including regions that are frequently observed in motor-related and cognitive control tasks. PMID:19815079

  3. Partial wave analysis of the reaction gamma p -> p omega$ and the search for nucleon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    M. Williams, D. Applegate, M. Bellis, C.A. Meyer

    2009-12-01

    An event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction gamma p -> p omega has been performed on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high precision spin density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of omega-> pi+ pi - pi0. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel pi0 exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F[15](1680) and D[13](1700) near threshold, as well as the G[17](2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J(P)=5/2(+) state around 2 GeV, a "missing" state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.

  4. Ares I-X Malfunction Turn Range Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares I rocket which was developed by NASA (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) component of the Constellation Program). The Ares I-X flight test vehicle achieved a successful flight test on October 28, 2009, from Pad LC-39B at Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). As part of the flight plan approval for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could have caused the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path. The effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version II (POST2) simulation tool. The Ares I-X simulation analysis provided output files containing vehicle trajectory state information. These were used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at KSC, and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer in the event of a flight test anomaly of the vehicle. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study.

  5. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 73

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 73 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTR) FSAR set. This page change incorporates Engineering Change Notices (ECNs) issued subsequent to Amendment 72 and approved for incorparoration before May 6, 1993. These changes include: Chapter 3, design criteria structures, equipment, and systems; chapter 5B, reactor coolant system; chapter 7, instrumentation and control systems; chapter 9, auxiliary systems; chapter 11, reactor refueling system; chapter 12, radiation protection and waste management; chapter 13, conduct of operations; chapter 17, technical specifications; chapter 20, FFTF criticality specifications; appendix C, local fuel failure events; and appendix Fl, operation at 680{degrees}F inlet temperature.

  6. Safety analysis reports for multiple hazard category facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, M.W.; Gerrard, P.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Savannah River Site contains many nuclear facilities for which safety analysis reports (SARs) are required. The current requirements with which the SARs must comply are given in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23. This order requires use of the graded approach. The graded approach demands a more thoroughly documented assessment of complex, higher hazard facilities than simple, lower hazard facilities because grading is a function of both hazard potential and complexity. The treatment of different hazard category facilities in the development of the SAR for the Central Laboratory Facility at the Savannah River Site is described here.

  7. PWR systems transient analysis: a reactor-safety perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, M.F.; Abramson, P.B.; McDonald, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the simulation of transient events in large PWR reactor systems for reactor safety studies, the plant model is quite detailed and must include most of the plant components and control systems to adequately analyze the range of transients. The results discussed were calculated with the RELAP4/MOD6 code and reveal the need for the analysis to carefully review and understand the results to assure that they are not being adversely affected by the improper solution techniques or changes in models during the calculation.

  8. NUSAR: N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, Amendment 21

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G L

    1989-12-01

    The enclosed pages are Amendment 21 of the N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report (NUSAR). NUSAR, formerly UNI-M-90, was revised by 18 amendments that were issued by UNC Nuclear Industries, the contractor previously responsible for N Reactor operations. As of June 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) acquired the operations and engineering contract for N Reactor and other facilities at Hanford. The document number for NUSAR then became WHC-SP-0297. The first revision was issued by WHC as Amendment 19, prepared originally by UNC. Summaries of each of the amendments are included in NUSAR Section 1.1.

  9. Analysis of pumping tests: Significance of well diameter, partial penetration, and noise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidari, M.; Ghiassi, K.; Mehnert, E.

    1999-01-01

    The nonlinear least squares (NLS) method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in confined and unconfined aquifers with finite diameter and partially penetrating pumping wells, and with partially penetrating piezometers or observation wells. It was demonstrated that noiseless and moderately noisy drawdown data from observation points located less than two saturated thicknesses of the aquifer from the pumping well produced an exact or acceptable set of parameters when the diameter of the pumping well was included in the analysis. The accuracy of the estimated parameters, particularly that of specific storage, decreased with increases in the noise level in the observed drawdown data. With consideration of the well radii, the noiseless drawdown data from the pumping well in an unconfined aquifer produced good estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and specific yield, but the estimated specific storage was unacceptable. When noisy data from the pumping well were used, an acceptable set of parameters was not obtained. Further experiments with noisy drawdown data in an unconfined aquifer revealed that when the well diameter was included in the analysis, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and vertical hydraulic conductivity may be estimated rather effectively from piezometers located over a range of distances from the pumping well. Estimation of specific storage became less reliable for piezemeters located at distances greater than the initial saturated thickness of the aquifer. Application of the NLS to field pumping and recovery data from a confined aquifer showed that the estimated parameters from the two tests were in good agreement only when the well diameter was included in the analysis. Without consideration of well radii, the estimated values of hydraulic conductivity from the pumping and recovery tests were off by a factor of four.The nonlinear least squares method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in

  10. Perampanel in the management of partial-onset seizures: a review of safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Hintz, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Perampanel (PER) is a novel antiepileptic drug recently introduced for the adjunctive treatment in epilepsy patients aged 12 years or older with partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization in the US and Europe. Its antiepileptic action is based on noncompetitive inhibition of postsynaptic AMPA receptors, decreasing excitatory synaptic transmission. Evaluation of efficacy in three placebo-controlled randomized Phase III studies showed that add-on therapy of PER decreased seizure frequencies significantly compared to placebo at daily doses between 4 mg/day and 12 mg/day. PER’s long half-life of 105 hours allows for once-daily dosing that is favorable for patient compliance with intake. Long-term extension studies showed a 62.5%–69.6% adherence of patients after 1 year of treatment, comparing favorably with other second-generation antiepileptic drugs. Whereas these trials demonstrated an overall favorable tolerability profile of PER, nonspecific central nervous system adverse effects like somnolence, dizziness, headache, and fatigue may occur. In addition, neuropsychiatric disturbances ranging from irritability to suicidality were reported in several case reports; both placebo-controlled and prospective long-term extension trials showed a low incidence of such behavioral and psychiatric complaints. For early recognition of neuropsychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, and aggression, slow titration and close monitoring during drug introduction are mandatory. This allows on the one hand to recognize patients particularly susceptible to adverse effects of the drug, and on the other hand to render the drug’s full potential of seizure control available for the vast majority of patient groups tolerating the drug well. PMID:26316718

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground Safety Analysis Report J Appendix J to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App. J Appendix J to Part 417—Ground Safety Analysis Report J417.1General (a)...

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.130 - Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must perform the equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.130 Section 102-80.130 Public Contracts and Property...

  14. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for reactor safety applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.

    1986-08-01

    The application and usefulness of an adjoint-based methodology for performing sensitivity analysis on reactor safety computer codes is investigated. The adjoint-based methodology, referred to as differential sensitivity theory (DST), provides first-order derivatives of the calculated quantities of interest (responses) with respect to the input parameters. The basic theoretical development of DST is presented along with the needed general extensions for consideration of model discontinuities and a variety of useful response definitions. A simple analytic problem is used to highlight the general DST procedures. finally, DST procedures presented in this work are applied to two highly nonlinear reactor accident analysis codes: (1) FASTGAS, a relatively small code for analysis of a loss-of-decay-heat-removal accident in a gas-cooled fast reactor, and (2) an existing code called VENUS-II which has been employed for analyzing the core disassembly phase of a hypothetical fast reactor accident. The two codes are different both in terms of complexity and in terms of the facets of DST which can be illustrated. Sensitivity results from the adjoint codes ADJGAS and VENUS-ADJ are verified with direct recalcualtions using perturbed input parameters. The effectiveness of the DST results for parameter ranking, prediction of response changes, and uncertainty analysis are illustrated. The conclusion drawn from this study is that DST is a viable, cost-effective methodology for accurate sensitivity analysis. In addition, a useful sensitivity tool for use in the fast reactor safety area has been developed in VENUS-ADJ. Future work needs to concentrate on combining the accurate first-order derivatives/results from DST with existing methods (based solely on direct recalculations) for higher-order response surfaces.

  15. Robotic versus Open Partial Nephrectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chen; Ye, Huamao; Lv, Chen; Yang, Qing; Sheng, Jing; Song, Shangqing; Qu, Le; Xiao, Liang; Sun, Yinghao; Wang, Linhui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To critically review the currently available evidence of studies comparing robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) and open partial nephrectomy (OPN). Materials and Methods A comprehensive review of the literature from Pubmed, Web of Science and Scopus was performed in October 2013. All relevant studies comparing RPN with OPN were included for further screening. A cumulative meta-analysis of all comparative studies was performed and publication bias was assessed by a funnel plot. Results Eight studies were included for the analysis, including a total of 3418 patients (757 patients in the robotic group and 2661 patients in the open group). Although RPN procedures had a longer operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD]: 40.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.39–67.40; p = 0.002), patients in this group benefited from a lower perioperative complication rate (19.3% for RPN and 29.5% for OPN; odds ratio [OR]: 0.53; 95%CI, 0.42–0.67; p<0.00001), shorter hospital stay (WMD: −2.78; 95%CI, −3.36 to −1.92; p<0.00001), less estimated blood loss(WMD: −106.83; 95%CI, −176.4 to −37.27; p = 0.003). Transfusions, conversion to radical nephrectomy, ischemia time and estimated GFR change, margin status, and overall cost were comparable between the two techniques. The main limitation of the present meta-analysis is the non-randomization of all included studies. Conclusions RPN appears to be an efficient alternative to OPN with the advantages of a lower rate of perioperative complications, shorter length of hospital stay and less blood loss. Nevertheless, high quality prospective randomized studies with longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24740259

  16. Partial coverage inspection of corroded engineering components using extreme value analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benstock, Daniel; Cegla, Frederic

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic thickness C-scans provide information about wall thickness of a component over the entire inspected area. They are performed to determine the condition of a component. However, this is time consuming, expensive and can be unfeasible where access to a component is restricted. The pressure to maximize inspection resources and minimize inspection costs has led to both the development of new sensing technologies and inspection strategies. Partial coverage inspection aims to tackle this challenge by using data from an ultrasonic thickness C-scan of a small fraction of a component's area to extrapolate to the condition of the entire component. Extreme value analysis is a particular tool used in partial coverage inspection. Typical implementations of extreme value analysis partition a thickness map into a number of equally sized blocks and extract the minimum thickness from each block. Extreme value theory provides a limiting form for the probability distribution of this set of minimum thicknesses, from which the parameters of the limiting distribution can be extracted. This distribution provides a statistical model for the minimum thickness in a given area, which can be used for extrapolation. In this paper the basics of extreme value analysis and its assumptions are introduced. We discuss a new method for partitioning a thickness map, based on ensuring that there is evidence that the assumptions of extreme value theory are met by the inspection data. Examples of the implementation of this method are presented on both simulated and experimental data. Further it is shown that realistic predictions can be made from the statistical models developed using this methodology.

  17. An analysis of human performance in simulated partial-gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Nathan R.; Gutierrez, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Three unique partial gravity test environments; parabolic flight, water immersion and a mechanical-relief device provide the environment to evaluate human locomotion, reach sweeps, and posture in the reduced gravity levels of the moon (1/6) and Mars (3/8). The development of a motion analysis database for 1/6 and 3/8 gravity environments as well as an initial understanding of human motion in low gravity environments are the focus of these experiments. Each of the three partial-gravity simulations provided a unique environment with some specific limitations. Water immersion provides a continuous testing environment but must factor in the effects of water viscosity drag, subject weighting, and breathing apparatus. Parabolic flight provides the most realistic testing environment although the test must be interrupted every 40 seconds to execute a complete parabolic maneuver of the aircraft. Mechanical force relief systems also provide uninterrupted testing. However, the body support harness necessary for use of mechanical force relief systems can potentially hinder test subject movement. By using the test results generated from all three test arenas, the Man-Systems Division will create a database of human locomotion specific to the lunar and Mars gravity environments. The information gathered is being used to enhance the development and design of future human habitation elements.

  18. SAID Partial Wave Analyses from CNS DAC (Center for Nuclear Studies Data Analysis Center)

    DOE Data Explorer

    George Washington University (GW) has one of the largest university-based nuclear-physics groups in the nation. Many of the current and future projects are geared to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) at Newport News, VA. JLab is the world's premier electron accelerator for nuclear physics, and GW is one of the charter members of the governing body of JLab, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA). The George Washington Data Analysis Center (DAC) was created in 1998 by an agreement among the Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, and the GW Center for Nuclear Studies.The activities of the DAC fall into four distinct categories: 1) Performing partial-wave analyses of fundamental two- and three-body reactions; 2) Maintenance of databases associated with these reactions; 3) Development of software to disseminate DAC results (as well as the results of competing model-independent analyses and potential approaches); and 4) Phenomenological and theoretical investigations which bridge the gap between theory and experiment; in particular, the extraction of N* and D * hadronic and electromagnetic couplings. Partial Wave Analyses (and the associated databases) available at GW are: Pion-Nucleon, Kaon-Nucleon, Nucleon-Nucleon, Pion Photoproduction, Pion Electroproduction, Kaon Photoproduction, Eta Photoproduction, Eta-Prime Photoproduction, Pion-Deuteron (elastic), and Pion-Deuteron to Proton+Proton. [Taken from http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm">http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm

  19. Analysis of Multiple Partially Ordered Responses to Belief Items with Don't Know Option.

    PubMed

    Ip, Edward H; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Understanding beliefs, values, and preferences of patients is a tenet of contemporary health sciences. This application was motivated by the analysis of multiple partially ordered set (poset) responses from an inventory on layman beliefs about diabetes. The partially ordered set arises because of two features in the data-first, the response options contain a Don't Know (DK) option, and second, there were two consecutive occasions of measurement. As predicted by the common sense model of illness, beliefs about diabetes were not necessarily stable across the two measurement occasions. Instead of analyzing the two occasions separately, we studied the joint responses across the occasions as a poset response. Few analytic methods exist for data structures other than ordered or nominal categories. Poset responses are routinely collapsed and then analyzed as either rank ordered or nominal data, leading to the loss of nuanced information that might be present within poset categories. In this paper we developed a general class of item response models for analyzing the poset data collected from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory. The inferential object of interest is the latent trait that indicates congruence of belief with the biomedical model. To apply an item response model to the poset diabetes inventory, we proved that a simple coding algorithm circumvents the requirement of writing new codes such that standard IRT software could be directly used for the purpose of item estimation and individual scoring. Simulation experiments were used to examine parameter recovery for the proposed poset model. PMID:25479822

  20. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  1. Safety analysis and review system. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.T.

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes work completed in support of the implementation of the DOE Safety Analysis and Review System (SARS). It is intended to describe and summarize critical items identified during the course of this study and discussed in previous reports completed for other subtasks under this contract. The following were among the issues identified as requiring further overview, assessment, and action by DOE: (1) there needs to be firm guidance from DOE Headquarters (HQ) in regard to SARS-related responsibilities and requirements of the DOE field offices; (2) a system must be established to track the applicability and progress of SARS for individual DOE operations. Currently, it is difficult, if not impossible, to identify projects with SARS requirements in their contracts. Thus, it is difficult to set accurate schedules for safety analysis reviews; (3) a decision must be made by DOE officials as to whether review authority for moderate risk projects will be delegated to the field. As part of this, a detailed assessment of resources available for reviews, both at the field and HQ levels, needs to be accomplished; and (4) to be implemented effectively, SARS needs to be incorporated into the overall DOE project management system.

  2. Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1997-04-28

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB.

  3. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  4. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  5. Regional frequency analysis of extreme rainfalls using partial L moments method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zahrahtul Amani; Shabri, Ani

    2013-07-01

    An approach based on regional frequency analysis using L moments and LH moments are revisited in this study. Subsequently, an alternative regional frequency analysis using the partial L moments (PL moments) method is employed, and a new relationship for homogeneity analysis is developed. The results were then compared with those obtained using the method of L moments and LH moments of order two. The Selangor catchment, consisting of 37 sites and located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, is chosen as a case study. PL moments for the generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized logistic (GLO), and generalized Pareto distributions were derived and used to develop the regional frequency analysis procedure. PL moment ratio diagram and Z test were employed in determining the best-fit distribution. Comparison between the three approaches showed that GLO and GEV distributions were identified as the suitable distributions for representing the statistical properties of extreme rainfall in Selangor. Monte Carlo simulation used for performance evaluation shows that the method of PL moments would outperform L and LH moments methods for estimation of large return period events.

  6. [Quantitative analysis of alloy steel based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with partial least squares method].

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhi-Bo; Sun, Lan-Xiang; Xin, Yong; Li, Yang; Qi, Li-Feng; Yang, Zhi-Jia

    2014-02-01

    In the present paper both the partial least squares (PLS) method and the calibration curve (CC) method are used to quantitatively analyze the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy data obtained from the standard alloy steel samples. Both the major and trace elements were quantitatively analyzed. By comparing the results of two different calibration methods some useful results were obtained: for major elements, the PLS method is better than the CC method in quantitative analysis; more importantly, for the trace elements, the CC method can not give the quantitative results due to the extremely weak characteristic spectral lines, but the PLS method still has a good ability of quantitative analysis. And the regression coefficient of PLS method is compared with the original spectral data with background interference to explain the advantage of the PLS method in the LIBS quantitative analysis. Results proved that the PLS method used in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is suitable for quantitative analysis of trace elements such as C in the metallurgical industry. PMID:24822436

  7. Documented Safety Analysis for the B695 Segment

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D

    2008-09-11

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) was prepared for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 695 (B695) Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The report provides comprehensive information on design and operations, including safety programs and safety structures, systems and components to address the potential process-related hazards, natural phenomena, and external hazards that can affect the public, facility workers, and the environment. Consideration is given to all modes of operation, including the potential for both equipment failure and human error. The facilities known collectively as the DWTF are used by LLNL's Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division to store and treat regulated wastes generated at LLNL. RHWM generally processes low-level radioactive waste with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (e.g., much less than 100 nCi/g). Wastes processed often contain only depleted uranium and beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides, e.g., {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, or {sup 3}H. The mission of the B695 Segment centers on container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. The B695 Segment is used for storage of radioactive waste (including transuranic and low-level), hazardous, nonhazardous, mixed, and other waste. Storage of hazardous and mixed waste in B695 Segment facilities is in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). LLNL is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy (DOE). The B695 Segment is operated by the RHWM Division of LLNL. Many operations in the B695 Segment are performed under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) operation plan, similar to commercial treatment operations with best demonstrated available technologies. The buildings of the B695 Segment were designed and built considering such operations, using proven building systems

  8. Analysis of the flamelet concept in the numerical simulation of laminar partially premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Consul, R.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Carbonell, D.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2008-04-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the application of flamelet models based on the mixture fraction variable and its dissipation rate to the numerical simulation of partially premixed flames. Although the main application of these models is the computation of turbulent flames, this work focuses on the performance of flamelet concept in laminar flame simulations removing, in this way, turbulence closure interactions. A well-known coflow methane/air laminar flame is selected. Five levels of premixing are taken into account from an equivalence ratio {phi}={infinity} (nonpremixed) to {phi}=2.464. Results obtained using the flamelet approaches are compared to data obtained from the detailed solution of the complete transport equations using primitive variables. Numerical simulations of a counterflow flame are also presented to support the discussion of the results. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of the scalar dissipation rate modeling. (author)

  9. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis of SF6 partial discharge decomposition components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Heng; Ren, Jiangbo; Li, Jian; Li, Xin

    2015-02-01

    Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) internal SF6 gas produces specific decomposition components under partial discharge (PD). By detecting these characteristic decomposition components, such information as the type and level of GIS internal insulation deterioration can be obtained effectively, and the status of GIS internal insulation can be evaluated. SF6 was selected as the background gas for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) detection in this study. SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, and CO were selected as the characteristic decomposition components for system analysis. The standard infrared absorption spectroscopy of the four characteristic components was measured, the optimal absorption peaks were recorded and the corresponding absorption coefficient was calculated. Quantitative detection experiments on the four characteristic components were conducted. The volume fraction variation trend of four characteristic components at different PD time were analyzed. And under five different PD quantity, the quantitative relationships among gas production rate, PD time, and PD quantity were studied. PMID:25459612

  10. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis of SF6 partial discharge decomposition components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Heng; Ren, Jiangbo; Li, Jian; Li, Xin

    2015-02-01

    Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) internal SF6 gas produces specific decomposition components under partial discharge (PD). By detecting these characteristic decomposition components, such information as the type and level of GIS internal insulation deterioration can be obtained effectively, and the status of GIS internal insulation can be evaluated. SF6 was selected as the background gas for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) detection in this study. SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, and CO were selected as the characteristic decomposition components for system analysis. The standard infrared absorption spectroscopy of the four characteristic components was measured, the optimal absorption peaks were recorded and the corresponding absorption coefficient was calculated. Quantitative detection experiments on the four characteristic components were conducted. The volume fraction variation trend of four characteristic components at different PD time were analyzed. And under five different PD quantity, the quantitative relationships among gas production rate, PD time, and PD quantity were studied.

  11. Partial confirmatory factor analysis: described and illustrated on the NEO-PI-R.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Gilles E

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analytic (EFA) studies frequently conclude with the recommendation that future research should attempt to confirm the exploratively identified factor model solution via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In this article, I describe partial CFA (PCFA) as a technique to help researchers justify the recommendation of testing via CFA an EFA-derived model. Based on a Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) facet correlation matrix, the Five-factor model was examined via PCFA and was found not to be appropriate for testing via CFA. I conclude that researchers should supplement an EFA with a PCFA if there is an interest in eventually attempting to confirm the exploratively derived factor model via CFA. PMID:19085282

  12. PyPWA: A partial-wave/amplitude analysis software framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    The PyPWA project aims to develop a software framework for Partial Wave and Amplitude Analysis of data; providing the user with software tools to identify resonances from multi-particle final states in photoproduction. Most of the code is written in Python. The software is divided into two main branches: one general-shell where amplitude's parameters (or any parametric model) are to be estimated from the data. This branch also includes software to produce simulated data-sets using the fitted amplitudes. A second branch contains a specific realization of the isobar model (with room to include Deck-type and other isobar model extensions) to perform PWA with an interface into the computer resources at Jefferson Lab. We are currently implementing parallelism and vectorization using the Intel's Xeon Phi family of coprocessors.

  13. Analysis of the partially filled viscous ring damper. [application as nutation damper for spinning satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfriend, K. T.

    1973-01-01

    A ring partially filled with a viscous fluid has been analyzed as a nutation damper for a spinning satellite. The fluid has been modelled as a rigid slug of finite length moving in a tube and resisted by a linear viscous force. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, called the spin synchronous mode and the nutation synchronous mode. Time constants for each mode are obtained for both the symmetric and asymmetric satellite. The effects of a stop in the tube and an offset of the ring from the spin axis are also investigated. An analysis of test results is also given including a determination of the effect of gravity on the time constants in the two modes.

  14. Identification of Scopulariopsis species by partial 28S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Jagielski, Tomasz; Kosim, Kinga; Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna Barbara; Bielecki, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The genus Scopulariopsis contains over 30 species of mitosporic moulds, which although usually saprophytic may also act as opportunistic pathogens in humans. They have mainly been associated with onychomycosis, and only sporadically reported as a cause of deep tissue infections or systemic disease. Identification of Scopulariopsis species still largely relies on phenotype-based methods. There is a need for a molecular diagnostic approach, that would allow to reliably discriminate between different Scopulariopsis species. The aim of this study was to apply sequence analysis of partial 28S rRNA gene for species identification of Scopulariopsis clinical isolates. Although the method employed did reveal some genetic polymorphism among Scopulariopsis isolates tested, it was not enough for species delineation. For this to be achieved, other genetic loci, within and beyond the rDNA operon, need to be investigated. PMID:24459837

  15. Relationship between dressing and motor function in stroke patients: a study with partial correlation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to elucidate which motor functions are most or more important for dressing performance before and after rehabilitation. [Subjects] Seventy-nine first episode stroke patients in a hospital convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Methods] The relationships between motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs, unaffected side function, trunk function, balance, cognitive function, and independence level in dressing were examined at admission and discharge using partial correlation analysis. [Results] Independence level of dressing correlated with motor function of the affected upper limb and balance at admission, but correlated only with balance at discharge. [Conclusion] Balance function was strongly associated with level of dressing independence. The effect of gross motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs on the level of independence in dressing may thus be smaller than originally expected. Enhanced balance ability can be important for learning single-handed actions of self-dressing during rehabilitation. PMID:26834349

  16. Hydroelastic vibration analysis of partially liquid-filled shells using a series representation of the liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Herr, R. W.; Sewall, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A series representation of the oscillatory behavior of incompressible nonviscous liquids contained in partially filled elastic tanks is presented. Each term is selected on the basis of hydroelastic vibrations in circular cylindrical tanks. Using a complementary energy principle, the superposition of terms is made to approximately satisfy the liquid-tank interface compatibility. This analysis is applied to the gravity sloshing and hydroelastic vibrations of liquids in hemispherical tanks and in a typical elastic aerospace propellant tank. With only a few series terms retained, the results correlate very well with existing analytical results, NASTRAN-generated analytical results, and experimental test results. Hence, although each term is based on a cylindrical tank geometry, the superposition can be successfully applied to noncylindrical tanks.

  17. Relationship between dressing and motor function in stroke patients: a study with partial correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Otsuki, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Tozato, Fusae

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to elucidate which motor functions are most or more important for dressing performance before and after rehabilitation. [Subjects] Seventy-nine first episode stroke patients in a hospital convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Methods] The relationships between motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs, unaffected side function, trunk function, balance, cognitive function, and independence level in dressing were examined at admission and discharge using partial correlation analysis. [Results] Independence level of dressing correlated with motor function of the affected upper limb and balance at admission, but correlated only with balance at discharge. [Conclusion] Balance function was strongly associated with level of dressing independence. The effect of gross motor function of the affected upper and lower limbs on the level of independence in dressing may thus be smaller than originally expected. Enhanced balance ability can be important for learning single-handed actions of self-dressing during rehabilitation. PMID:26834349

  18. Total versus partial splenectomy in pediatric hereditary spherocytosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guizzetti, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    To compare the clinical effectiveness of total splenectomy (TS) or partial splenectomy (PS) in pediatric hereditary spherocytosis, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed (PROSPERO registration CRD42015030056). There were 14 observational studies comparing pre- and postoperative hematologic parameters. Secondary outcomes include in-hospital infections, surgical complications, symptomatic recurrence, and biliary disease. TS is more effective than PS to increase hemoglobin (3.6 g/dl vs. 2.2 g/dl) and reduce reticulocytes (12.5% vs. 6.5%) after 1 year; outcomes following PS are stable for at least 6 years. There were no cases of overwhelming postsplenectomy sepsis. A population-based patient registry is needed for long-term follow-up. PMID:27300151

  19. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for reactor-safety applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    The application and usefulness of an adjoint-based methodology for performing sensitivity analysis on reactor safety computer codes is investigated. The adjoint-based methodology, referred to as differential sensitivity theory (DST), provides first-order derivatives of the calculated quantities of interest (responses) with respect to the input parameters. The basic theoretical development of DST is presented along with the needed general extensions for consideration of model discontinuities and a variety of useful response definitions. A simple analytic problem is used to highlight the general DST procedures. Finally, DST procedures presented in this work are applied to two highly nonlinear reactor accident analysis codes: (1) FASTGAS, a relatively small code for analysis of loss-of-decay-heat-removal accident in a gas-cooled fast reactor, and (2) an existing code called VENUS-II which is typically employed for analyzing the core disassembly phase of a hypothetical fast reactor accident. The two codes are different both in terms of complexity and in terms of the facets of DST which can be illustrated. Sensitivity results from the adjoint codes ADJGAS and VENUS-ADJ are verified with direct recalculations using perturbed input parameters. The effectiveness of the DST results for parameter ranking, prediction of response changes, and uncertainty analysis are illustrated. The conclusion drawn from this study is that DST is a viable, cost-effective methodology for accurate sensitivity analysis.

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (ERP), Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-20

    This document was prepared to take the place of a Safety Evaluation Report since the Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)and associated Baseline Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) File do not meet the requirements of a complete safety analysis documentation. Its purpose is to present in summary form the background of how the BSAF and Baseline TSR originated and a description of the process by which it was produced and approved for use in the Environmental Restoration Program.The BSAF is a facility safety reference document for INEL environmental restoration activities including environmental remediation of inactive waste sites and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of surplus facilities. The BSAF contains safety bases common to environmental restoration activities and guidelines for performing and documenting safety analysis. The common safety bases can be incorporated by reference into the safety analysis documentation prepared for individual environmental restoration activities with justification and any necessary revisions. The safety analysis guidelines in BSAF provide an accepted method for hazard analysis; analysis of normal, abnormal, and accident conditions; human factors analysis; and derivation of TSRS. The BSAF safety bases and guidelines are graded for environmental restoration activities.

  1. Lameness detection challenges in automated milking systems addressed with partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Klaas, I; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-12-01

    Lameness causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods. Eighty variables retrieved from AMS were summarized week-wise and used to predict 2 defined classes: nonlame and clinically lame cows. Variables were represented with 2 transformations of the week summarized variables, using 2-wk data blocks before gait scoring, totaling 320 variables (2 × 2 × 80). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3 or 4/4) or not lame (score 1/4). Both models achieved sensitivity and specificity values around 80%, both in calibration and cross-validation. At the optimum values in the receiver operating characteristic curve, the false-positive rate was 28% in the parity 1 model, whereas in the parity 2 model it was about half (16%), which makes it more suitable for practical application; the model error rates were, 23 and 19%, respectively. Based on data registered automatically from one AMS farm, we were able to discriminate nonlame and lame cows, where partial least squares discriminant analysis achieved similar performance to the reference method. PMID:25282423

  2. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  3. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  4. Epilepsy (partial)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy? What is the risk of relapse in people in remission when withdrawing antiepileptic drugs? What are the effects of behavioural and psychological treatments for people with epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiepileptic drugs after a single seizure; monotherapy for partial epilepsy using carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate, or topiramate; addition of second-line drugs for drug-resistant partial epilepsy (allopurinol, eslicarbazepine, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, losigamone, oxcarbazepine, retigabine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or zonisamide); antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with partial or

  5. Limited-scope probabilistic safety analysis for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharirli, M.; Rand, J.L.; Sasser, M.K.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The reliability of instrumentation and safety systems is a major issue in the operation of accelerator facilities. A probabilistic safety analysis was performed or the key safety and instrumentation systems at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). in Phase I of this unique study, the Personnel Safety System (PSS) and the Current Limiters (XLs) were analyzed through the use of the fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analysis, and criticality analysis. Phase II of the program was done to update and reevaluate the safety systems after the Phase I recommendations were implemented. This paper provides a brief review of the studies involved in Phases I and II of the program.

  6. An Analysis of Excavation Support Safety Based on Experimental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorska, Karolina; Wyjadłowski, Marek

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of inclinometric measurements and numerical analyses of soldier-pile wall displacements. The excavation under investigation was made in cohesive soils. The measurements were conducted at points located at the edge of the cantilever excavation support system. The displacements of the excavation support observed over the period of three years demonstrated the pattern of steady growth over the first two months, followed by a gradual levelling out to a final plateau. The numerical analyses were conducted based on 3D FEM models. The numerical analysis of the problem comprise calculations of the global structural safety factor depending on the displacement of the chosen points in the lagging and conducted by means of the φ/c reduction procedure. The adopted graphical method of safety estimation is very conservative in the sense that it recognizes stability loss quite early, when one could further load the medium or weaken it by further strength reduction. The values of the Msf factor are relatively high. This is caused by the fact that the structure was designed for excavation twice as deep. Nevertheless, the structure is treated as a temporary one.

  7. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D

    2008-06-16

    This documented safety analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements', and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  8. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities March 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements,' and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  9. Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

  10. A long-term noninterventional safety study of adjunctive lacosamide therapy in patients with epilepsy and uncontrolled partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Eckhardt, Klaus; Doty, Pamela; De Backer, Marc; Brunnert, Marcus; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    This noninterventional, observational, postauthorization safety study (SP0942, NCT00771927) evaluated the incidence of predefined cardiovascular- (CV) and psychiatric-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), in patients with epilepsy and uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, when initiating adjunctive therapy with lacosamide or another approved antiepileptic drug (AED) according to standard medical practice. Active recording of predefined TEAEs of interest took place at three-monthly recommended visits for up to 12months. Of 1004 patients who received at least one dose of adjunctive AEDs, 511 initially added lacosamide therapy, 493 added another AED, 69 were ≥65years of age, and 72 took concomitant antiarrhythmic drugs. Patients in the lacosamide cohort had a higher median frequency of partial-onset seizures (6.0 versus 3.5 per 28days) despite taking more concomitant AEDs (84.9% versus 66.9% took ≥2) at baseline. Patients who added lacosamide took a modal dose of 200mg/day over the treatment period (n=501), and 50.1% (256/511) completed 12months of treatment. Fifty-one point nine percent (256/493) of patients who added another AED completed the study, with the most commonly added AED being levetiracetam (28.4%). Four patients (0.8%) in each cohort, all <65years of age, reported predefined CV-related TEAEs. None were considered serious or led to discontinuation. One event each of sinus bradycardia (lacosamide), atrioventricular block first degree (lacosamide), and syncope (other AED) were judged to be treatment-related. Another patient in the other AED cohort reported bradycardia while taking concomitant antiarrhythmic drugs. Predefined psychiatric-related TEAEs were reported by 21 patients (4.1%) in the lacosamide cohort and 27 patients (5.5%) in the other AED cohort. Depression was the most common to be treatment-related (7/11 and 12/18 of patients reporting treatment-related psychiatric TEAEs, respectively). Serious psychiatric-related TEAEs were

  11. A study on urban road traffic safety based on matter element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  12. A Study on Urban Road Traffic Safety Based on Matter Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure. PMID:25587267

  13. Numerical Analysis for Structural Safety Evaluation of Butterfly Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Myung-Seob; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Park, Han-Yung

    2010-06-01

    Butterfly valves are widely used in current industry to control the fluid flow. They are used for both on-off and throttling applications involving large flows at relatively low operating pressure especially in large size pipelines. For the industrial application of butterfly valves, it must be ensured that the valve could be used safety under the fatigue life and the deformations produced by the pressure of the fluid. In this study, we carried out the structure analysis of the body and the valve disc of the butterfly valve and the numerical simulation was performed by using ANSYS v11.0. The reliability of valve is evaluated under the investigation of the deformation, the leak test and the durability of the valve.

  14. New Mathematical Derivations Applicable to Safety and Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; Ferson, S.

    1999-04-19

    Boolean logic expressions are often derived in safety and reliability analysis. Since the values of the operands are rarely exact, accounting for uncertainty with the tightest justifiable bounds is important. Accurate determination of result bounds is difficult when the inputs have constraints. One example of a constraint is that an uncertain variable that appears multiple times in a Boolean expression must always have the same value, although the value cannot be exactly specified. A solution for this repeated variable problem is demonstrated for two Boolean classes. The classes, termed functions with unate variables (including, but not limited to unate functions), and exclusive-or functions, frequently appear in Boolean equations for uncertain outcomes portrayed by logic trees (event trees and fault trees).

  15. Issues related to criticality safety analysis for burnup credit applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-12-01

    Spent fuel transportation and storage cask designs based on a burnup credit approach must consider issues that are not relevant in casks designed under a fresh fuel loading assumption. Parametric analyses are required to characterize the importance of fuel assembly and fuel cycle parameters on spent fuel composition and reactivity. Numerical models are evaluated to determine the sensitivity of criticality safety calculations to modeling assumptions. This paper discusses the results of studies to determine the effect of two important modeling assumptions on the criticality analysis of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) spent fuel: (1) the effect of assumed burnup history (i.e., specific power during and time-dependent variations in operational power) during depletion calculations, and (2) the effect of axial burnup distributions on the neutron multiplication factor calculated for a three-dimensional (3-D) conceptual cask design.

  16. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Obrien, J.H.

    1997-02-24

    The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

  17. Planning Document for an NBSR Conversion Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond D. J.; Baek J.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2013-09-25

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR). The NBSR is a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a planning document for the conversion Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to, and approved by, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before the reactor could be converted.This report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis herein is on the SAR chapters that require significant changes as a result of conversion, primarily Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis. The document provides information on the proposed design for the LEU fuel elements and identifies what information is still missing. This document is intended to assist ongoing fuel development efforts, and to provide a platform for the development of the final conversion SAR. This report contributes directly to the reactor conversion pillar of the GTRI program, but also acts as a boundary condition for the fuel development and fuel fabrication pillars.

  18. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D. J.; Baek, J. S.; Hanson, A. L.; Cheng, L-Y; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  19. Safety analysis of the 700-horsepower combustion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berkey, B.D.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 700 h.p. Combustion Test Facility located in Building 93 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Extensive safety related measures have been incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of the Combustion Test Facility. These include: nitrogen addition to the coal storage bin, slurry hopper, roller mill and pulverizer baghouse, use of low oxygen content combustion gas for coal conveying, an oxygen analyzer for the combustion gas, insulation on hot surfaces, proper classification of electrical equipment, process monitoring instrumentation and a planned remote television monitoring system. Analysis of the system considering these factors has resulted in the determination of overall probabilities of occurrence of hazards as shown in Table I. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce these probabilities as indicated. The identified hazards include coal dust ignition by hot ductwork and equipment, loss of inerting within the coal conveying system leading to a coal dust fire, and ignition of hydrocarbon vapors or spilled oil, or slurry. The possibility of self-heating of coal was investigated. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce the ignition probability to no more than 1 x 10/sup -6/ per event. In addition to fire and explosion hazards, there are potential exposures to materials which have been identified as hazardous to personal health, such as carbon monoxide, coal dust, hydrocarbon vapors, and oxygen deficient atmosphere, but past monitoring experience has not revealed any problem areas. The major environmental hazard is an oil spill. The facility has a comprehensive spill control plan.

  20. Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin; Sneed, Jeannie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: (1) Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs; and (2) Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety.…

  1. Safety analysis forseismic motion of control rods accounting for rod misalignment

    SciTech Connect

    Osmin, W.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of three safety analyses performed by the SRL Safety Analysis Group (SAG) to assess the safety impact of control rod motion induced by a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE).

  2. Analysis of the Vibration Damping of Bonded Beams with a Single-Lap-Joint and Partial Dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Nak-Sam; Park, Jeong-Il

    A theoretical analysis model for the lateral vibration of beams with a bonded single-lap-joint and partial layered dampers has been proposed in this paper. Both shear and normal forces acting along the interface between the elastic and viscoelastic layers were considered in the vibration analysis. The analytical results were comparable to those obtained by the modal strain energy method and the harmonic response analysis, which were based on a finite element model. The effects of the location and thickness of the partial dampers on the system loss factor ηs were studied. The characteristic variations of ηs, with changes of the modulus and loss factor of the viscoelastic layer in the lap joint part and partial dampers were also studied. Consequently, the geometrical and material conditions at maximizing ηs were suggested.

  3. Exploring the association between speed and safety: A path analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Gargoum, Suliman A; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-08-01

    Road safety is influenced by many factors; these factors include characteristics of the road, climate, traffic and, most importantly, vehicle speeds. Previous research shows that increases in speed are typically associated with an increased collision risk. Moreover, previous studies have also found relationships between road and traffic characteristics and collisions. In addition, these features have also been found to affect speeds. This paper aims to model all the aforementioned relationships simultaneously using a Structural Equation Modelling approach. More specifically, the paper attempts to model the relationship between average speed and collision frequency, while taking into account the effects of factors that confound the relationship. Moreover, the analysis attempts to assess the mediated effects that some variables have on collisions through their effects on speed. The data used in this study originated from 353 two-lane urban roads in the city of Edmonton, Canada. The average speeds were obtained from 35 million speed survey observations collected over a five-year period. The speed data are linked to the crash frequency at each location during the same time frame, along with the other factors (road, traffic and climate). The results show that, among others, average speed, volume, segment length, medians and horizontal curves all have statistically significant effects on collisions. On the other hand, shoulders, speed limits and vehicle-lengths are some variables that significantly influence speeds. The results also show that the effects of some variables on safety are indeed mediated through speeds (both partial and full mediation is observed). These findings provide valuable insight that may assist decision makers in choosing and developing alternative speed management strategies, which, in turn, could help improve safety. PMID:27163700

  4. Prediction for human intelligence using morphometric characteristics of cortical surface: partial least square analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, J-J; Yoon, U; Yun, H J; Im, K; Choi, Y Y; Lee, K H; Park, H; Hough, M G; Lee, J-M

    2013-08-29

    A number of imaging studies have reported neuroanatomical correlates of human intelligence with various morphological characteristics of the cerebral cortex. However, it is not yet clear whether these morphological properties of the cerebral cortex account for human intelligence. We assumed that the complex structure of the cerebral cortex could be explained effectively considering cortical thickness, surface area, sulcal depth and absolute mean curvature together. In 78 young healthy adults (age range: 17-27, male/female: 39/39), we used the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and the cortical measurements calculated in native space from each subject to determine how much combining various cortical measures explained human intelligence. Since each cortical measure is thought to be not independent but highly inter-related, we applied partial least square (PLS) regression, which is one of the most promising multivariate analysis approaches, to overcome multicollinearity among cortical measures. Our results showed that 30% of FSIQ was explained by the first latent variable extracted from PLS regression analysis. Although it is difficult to relate the first derived latent variable with specific anatomy, we found that cortical thickness measures had a substantial impact on the PLS model supporting the most significant factor accounting for FSIQ. Our results presented here strongly suggest that the new predictor combining different morphometric properties of complex cortical structure is well suited for predicting human intelligence. PMID:23643979

  5. Partial wave analysis of the Dirac fermions scattered from Schwarzschild black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotăescu, Ion I.; Crucean, Cosmin; Sporea, Ciprian A.

    2016-03-01

    Asymptotic analytic solutions of the Dirac equation, giving the scattering modes (of the continuous energy spectrum, E>mc^2) in Schwarzschild's chart and Cartesian gauge, are used for building the partial wave analysis of Dirac fermions scattered by black holes. In this framework, the analytic expressions of the differential cross section and induced polarization degree are derived in terms of scattering angle, mass of the black hole, and energy and mass of the fermion. Moreover, the closed form of the absorption cross section due to the scattering modes is derived showing that in the high-energy limit this tends to the event horizon area regardless of the fermion mass (including zero). A graphical study presents the differential cross section analyzing the forward/backward scattering (known also as glory scattering) and the polarization degree as functions of scattering angle. The graphical analysis shows the presence of oscillations in scattering intensity around forward/backward directions, phenomena known as spiral scattering. The energy dependence of the differential cross section is also established by using analytical and graphical methods.

  6. Improved Flow Modeling in Transient Reactor Safety Analysis Computer Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Holowach, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Cheung, F.B.

    2002-07-01

    A method of accounting for fluid-to-fluid shear in between calculational cells over a wide range of flow conditions envisioned in reactor safety studies has been developed such that it may be easily implemented into a computer code such as COBRA-TF for more detailed subchannel analysis. At a given nodal height in the calculational model, equivalent hydraulic diameters are determined for each specific calculational cell using either laminar or turbulent velocity profiles. The velocity profile may be determined from a separate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, experimental data, or existing semi-empirical relationships. The equivalent hydraulic diameter is then applied to the wall drag force calculation so as to determine the appropriate equivalent fluid-to-fluid shear caused by the wall for each cell based on the input velocity profile. This means of assigning the shear to a specific cell is independent of the actual wetted perimeter and flow area for the calculational cell. The use of this equivalent hydraulic diameter for each cell within a calculational subchannel results in a representative velocity profile which can further increase the accuracy and detail of heat transfer and fluid flow modeling within the subchannel when utilizing a thermal hydraulics systems analysis computer code such as COBRA-TF. Utilizing COBRA-TF with the flow modeling enhancement results in increased accuracy for a coarse-mesh model without the significantly greater computational and time requirements of a full-scale 3D (three-dimensional) transient CFD calculation. (authors)

  7. Safety analysis of natural gas vehicles transiting highway tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Shaaban, S.H.; Zuzovsky, M.; Anigstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to assess the relative hazard of compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicles traveling on various tunnels and bridges in New York City. The study considered those hazards arising from the release of fuel from CNG vehicles ranging in size from a passenger sedan to a full size 53 passenger bus. The approach used was to compare the fuel hazard of CNG vehicles to the fuel hazard of gasoline vehicles. The risk was assessed by estimating the frequency of occurrence and the severity of the hazard. The methodology was a combination of analyzing accident data, performing a diffusion analysis of the gas released in the tunnel and determining the consequences of ignition. Diffusion analysis was performed using the TEMPEST code for various accident scenarios resulting in CNG release inside the Holland Tunnel. The study concluded that the overall hazard of CNG vehicles transiting a ventilated tunnel is less than the hazard from a comparable gasoline fueled vehicle. 134 refs., 23 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Safety Analysis of FMS/CTAS Interactions During Aircraft Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded research on human-computer interaction design and analysis techniques, using future ATC environments as a testbed. The basic approach was to model the nominal behavior of both the automated and human procedures and then to apply safety analysis techniques to these models. Our previous modeling language, RSML, had been used to specify the system requirements for TCAS II for the FAA. Using the lessons learned from this experience, we designed a new modeling language that (among other things) incorporates features to assist in designing less error-prone human-computer interactions and interfaces and in detecting potential HCI problems, such as mode confusion. The new language, SpecTRM-RL, uses "intent" abstractions, based on Rasmussen's abstraction hierarchy, and includes both informal (English and graphical) specifications and formal, executable models for specifying various aspects of the system. One of the goals for our language was to highlight the system modes and mode changes to assist in identifying the potential for mode confusion. Three published papers resulted from this research. The first builds on the work of Degani on mode confusion to identify aspects of the system design that could lead to potential hazards. We defined and modeled modes differently than Degani and also defined design criteria for SpecTRM-RL models. Our design criteria include the Degani criteria but extend them to include more potential problems. In a second paper, Leveson and Palmer showed how the criteria for indirect mode transitions could be applied to a mode confusion problem found in several ASRS reports for the MD-88. In addition, we defined a visual task modeling language that can be used by system designers to model human-computer interaction. The visual models can be translated into SpecTRM-RL models, and then the SpecTRM-RL suite of analysis tools can be used to perform formal and informal safety analyses on the task model in isolation or integrated with

  9. Robot-assisted versus laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for localized renal tumors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Yan, Jiajun; Ren, Yu; Shen, Chong; Ying, Xiangrong; Pan, Shouhua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is being performed more frequently for the minimally invasive management of localized renal tumors. However, it’s unclear whether RAPN is more efficacious than the standard laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare RAPN and LPN in terms of perioperative and oncologic outcomes for the treatment of localized renal tumors. Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and OVID was conducted. Comparative studies comparing RAPN and LPN for the treatment of localized renal tumors were regarded eligible. The mean difference (MD), odds ratio (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each outcome. The methodologic quality of the included studies was evaluated using the strict criteria of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: 14 comparative studies (n = 1539 participants) were included in the present meta-analysis. Operative time was similar for RAPN and LPN (MD = 6.33, 95% CI [-23.93, 36.59]), however, warm ischemia time favored RAPN (MD = -3.29, 95% CI [-6.47, -0.10]). There was no significant difference in estimated blood loss (EBL) (MD = -42.24, 95% CI [-87.10, 2.61]) and length of stay (LOS) (MD = -0.29, 95% CI [-0.89, 0.32]). The incidence of intraoperative complications was similar for RAPN and LPN (OR = 0.68, 95% CI [0.29, 1.58]), as well as incidence of postoperative minor complications (OR = 1.10, 95% CI [0.80, 1.51]) and postoperative major complications distributions by Clavien classification (OR = 0.99, 95% CI [0.61, 1.61]). In addition, no significant difference was found in terms of positive surgical margin rate (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [0.56, 2.25]). Conclusions: RAPN had similar operative time, LOS, EBL, and perioperative complications compared with LPN, as well as positive margin rates. RAPN appears to offer the advantage of decreased WIT compared with LPN. Studies with long-term follow up are

  10. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Dissecting the Space-Time Structure of Tree-Ring Datasets Using the Partial Triadic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Nardin, Maxime; Godefroid, Martin; Ruiz-Diaz, Manuela; Sergent, Anne-Sophie; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Pâques, Luc; Rozenberg, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Tree-ring datasets are used in a variety of circumstances, including archeology, climatology, forest ecology, and wood technology. These data are based on microdensity profiles and consist of a set of tree-ring descriptors, such as ring width or early/latewood density, measured for a set of individual trees. Because successive rings correspond to successive years, the resulting dataset is a ring variables × trees × time datacube. Multivariate statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis, have been widely used for extracting worthwhile information from ring datasets, but they typically address two-way matrices, such as ring variables × trees or ring variables × time. Here, we explore the potential of the partial triadic analysis (PTA), a multivariate method dedicated to the analysis of three-way datasets, to apprehend the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets. We analyzed a set of 11 tree-ring descriptors measured in 149 georeferenced individuals of European larch (Larix decidua Miller) during the period of 1967–2007. The processing of densitometry profiles led to a set of ring descriptors for each tree and for each year from 1967–2007. The resulting three-way data table was subjected to two distinct analyses in order to explore i) the temporal evolution of spatial structures and ii) the spatial structure of temporal dynamics. We report the presence of a spatial structure common to the different years, highlighting the inter-individual variability of the ring descriptors at the stand scale. We found a temporal trajectory common to the trees that could be separated into a high and low frequency signal, corresponding to inter-annual variations possibly related to defoliation events and a long-term trend possibly related to climate change. We conclude that PTA is a powerful tool to unravel and hierarchize the different sources of variation within tree-ring datasets. PMID:25247299

  12. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsir, Khairina; Yazid, Putranto Ilham; Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi

    2014-09-01

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

  13. Interface design of VSOP'94 computer code for safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Natsir, Khairina Andiwijayakusuma, D.; Wahanani, Nursinta Adi; Yazid, Putranto Ilham

    2014-09-30

    Today, most software applications, also in the nuclear field, come with a graphical user interface. VSOP'94 (Very Superior Old Program), was designed to simplify the process of performing reactor simulation. VSOP is a integrated code system to simulate the life history of a nuclear reactor that is devoted in education and research. One advantage of VSOP program is its ability to calculate the neutron spectrum estimation, fuel cycle, 2-D diffusion, resonance integral, estimation of reactors fuel costs, and integrated thermal hydraulics. VSOP also can be used to comparative studies and simulation of reactor safety. However, existing VSOP is a conventional program, which was developed using Fortran 65 and have several problems in using it, for example, it is only operated on Dec Alpha mainframe platforms and provide text-based output, difficult to use, especially in data preparation and interpretation of results. We develop a GUI-VSOP, which is an interface program to facilitate the preparation of data, run the VSOP code and read the results in a more user friendly way and useable on the Personal 'Computer (PC). Modifications include the development of interfaces on preprocessing, processing and postprocessing. GUI-based interface for preprocessing aims to provide a convenience way in preparing data. Processing interface is intended to provide convenience in configuring input files and libraries and do compiling VSOP code. Postprocessing interface designed to visualized the VSOP output in table and graphic forms. GUI-VSOP expected to be useful to simplify and speed up the process and analysis of safety aspects.

  14. HPLC analysis and safety assessment of coumarin in foods.

    PubMed

    Sproll, Constanze; Ruge, Winfried; Andlauer, Claudia; Godelmann, Rolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2008-07-15

    Coumarin is a component of natural flavourings including cassia, which is widely used in foods and pastries. The toxicity of coumarin has raised some concerns and food safety authorities have set a maximum limit of 2mg/kg for foods and beverages in general, and a maximum level of 10mg/l for alcoholic beverages. An efficient method for routine analysis of coumarin is liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The optimal sample preparation for foods containing cinnamon was investigated and found to be cold extraction of 15g sample with 50mL of methanol (80%, v/v) for 30min using magnetic stirring. In the foods under investigation, appreciable amounts of coumarin were found in bakery products and breakfast cereals (mean 9mg/kg) with the highest concentrations up to 88mg/kg in certain cookies flavoured with cinnamon. Other foods such as liqueurs, vodka, mulled wine, and milk products did not have coumarin concentrations above the maximum level. The safety assessment of coumarin containing foods, in the context of governmental food controls, is complicated as a toxicological basis for the maximum limits appears to be missing. The limits were derived at a time when a genotoxic mechanism was assumed. However, this has since been disproven in more recent studies. Our exposure data on coumarin in bakery products show that there is still a need for a continued regulation of coumarin in foods. A toxicological re-evaluation of coumarin with the aim to derive scientifically founded maximum limits should be conducted with priority. PMID:26003373

  15. Criticality safety analysis on fissile materials in Fukushima reactor cores

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xudong; Lemaitre-Xavier, E.; Ahn, Joonhong; Hirano, Fumio

    2013-07-01

    The present study focuses on the criticality analysis for geological disposal of damaged fuels from Fukushima reactor cores. Starting from the basic understanding of behaviors of plutonium and uranium, a scenario sequence for criticality event is considered. Due to the different mobility of plutonium and uranium in geological formations, the criticality safety is considered in two parts: (1) near-field plutonium system and (2) far-field low enriched uranium (LEU) system. For the near-field plutonium system, a mathematical analysis for pure-solute transport was given, assuming a particular buffer material and waste form configuration. With the transport and decay of plutonium accounted, the critical mass of plutonium was compared with the initial load of a single canister. Our calculation leads us to the conclusion that our system with the initial loading being the average mass of plutonium in an assembly just before the accident is very unlikely to become critical over time. For the far-field LEU system, due to the uncertainties in the geological and geochemical conditions, calculations were made in a parametric space that covers the variation of material compositions and different geometries. Results show that the LEU system could not remain sub-critical within the entire parameter space assumed, although in the iron-rich rock, the neutron multiplicity is significantly reduced.

  16. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64. PMID:22021060

  17. Safety and performance analysis of a commercial photovoltaic installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzavy, Babak T.; Bradley, Alexander Z.

    2013-09-01

    Continuing to better understand the performance of PV systems and changes in performance with the system life is vital to the sustainable growth of solar. A systematic understanding of degradation mechanisms that are induced as a result of variables such as the service environment, installation, module/material design, weather, operation and maintenance, and manufacturing is required for reliable operation throughout a system's lifetime. We wish to report the results from an analysis of a commercial c-Si PV array owned and operated by DuPont. We assessed the electrical performance of the modules by comparing the original manufacturers' performance data with the measurements obtained using a solar simulator to determine the degradation rate. This evaluation provides valuable PV system field experience and document key issues regarding safety and performance. A review of the nondestructive and destructive analytical methods and characterization strategies we have found useful for system, module, and subsequent material component evaluations are presented. We provide an overview of our inspection protocol and subsequent control process to mitigate risk. The objective is to explore and develop best practice protocols regarding PV asset optimization and provide a rationale to reduce risk based on the analysis of our own commercial installations.

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life safety evaluation is to be performed by a qualified fire...

  19. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? The equivalent level of life safety evaluation is to be performed by a qualified fire...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Thermography Studies and Electrical Measurement of Partial Discharges in Underground Power Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Parada, A.; Guzman-Cabrera, R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Guzman-Sepulveda, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    The principal cause of damage in underground power cable installations is partial discharge (PD) activity. PD is a localized non-linear phenomenon of electrical breakdown that occurs in the insulating medium sitting between two conducting materials, which are at different potentials. The damage to the insulating material is induced by the AC voltage to which the insulator is subjected during the discharge process, and it can be directly or indirectly measured by the charge displacement across the insulation and the cavity defect. Non-invasive detection techniques that help in identifying the onset of the discharge process are required as PD is a major issue in terms of maintenance and performance of underground power installations. The main locations of failure are the accessories at points of connection such as terminals or splices. In this article, a study of electrical detection of PD and image processing of thermal pictures is presented. The study was carried out by controllably inducing specific failures in the accessories of the installation. The temporal evolution of the PD signals was supported with thermal images taken during the test in order to compare the PD activity and thermal increase due to failure. The analysis of thermographic images allows location of the failure by means of intensity-based texture segmentation algorithms. This novel technique was found to be suitable for non-invasive detection of the PD activity in underground power cable accessories.

  1. Explosion hazard analysis for an enclosure partially filled with a flammable gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.A.

    1999-11-01

    The constant volume explosion of a flammable gas is one of the more common accidental explosions. The explosion pressure at the stoichiometric condition is approximately 50 times greater than the failure pressure of most industrial structures. Observations from accident scenes suggest that some explosions are caused by a quantity of fuel significantly less than the stoichiometric amount required to fill an enclosure. This paper presents a method for analyzing the explosion hazard in an enclosure which is only partially filled with a flammable gas. The method, called the adiabatic mixing model, is based on thermodynamics and can be used to calculate the minimum fuel quantity which will yield a specified explosion pressure. Results are presented for a set of representative fuels and are compared with alternative explosion models. The results demonstrate that catastrophic structural damage can be achieved with a volume of flammable gas which is less than one percent of the enclosure volume. The method can be a useful tool for both hazard analysis and accident investigations.

  2. X-ray standing wave analysis of nanostructures using partially coherent radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K. Das, Gangadhar; Bedzyk, M. J.

    2015-09-07

    The effect of longitudinal (or temporal) coherence on total reflection assisted x-ray standing wave (TR-XSW) analysis of nanoscale materials is quantitatively demonstrated by showing how the XSW fringe visibility can be strongly damped by decreasing the spectral resolution of the incident x-ray beam. The correction for nonzero wavelength dispersion (δλ ≠ 0) of the incident x-ray wave field is accounted for in the model computations of TR-XSW assisted angle dependent fluorescence yields of the nanostructure coatings on x-ray mirror surfaces. Given examples include 90 nm diameter Au nanospheres deposited on a Si(100) surface and a 3 nm thick Zn layer trapped on top a 100 nm Langmuir-Blodgett film coating on a Au mirror surface. Present method opens up important applications, such as enabling XSW studies of large dimensioned nanostructures using conventional laboratory based partially coherent x-ray sources.

  3. Analysis of partially penetrating slug tests in a stratified formation by alternating piezometer and tube methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yoshitaka; Imai, Toshikazu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Nishigaki, Makoto

    2015-09-01

    In partially penetrating slug tests, hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates might not necessarily be valid because of vertical flows in heterogeneous formations. We assess the error in hypothetical stratified formations by numerical sensitivity analysis, and propose an effective method for compensation by incorporating two types of casing configuration (piezometer and tube). The hypothetical stratified formation consists of completely horizontal layers, each 1 m thick; the permeability is different between, but not within, layers. In this study, conductivity estimates in the piezometer and tube methods are calculated by assigning various patterns of conductivity to the test, upper, and lower layers: KT, KU, and KL. The effect of vertical flow becomes significant when KT is small relative to KU or KL, and KL is more important than KU because the base of the borehole is open to the lower formation. The conductivity ratios (estimate over actual value) are treated as approximately linearly dependent on logarithms of KT/KU and KT/KL, so that conductivity estimates can be straightforwardly derived from one piezometer measurement and two tube measurements at the top and bottom of the screen. The linear relations are evaluated and constant parameters are determined under specific conditions. This study also recommends alternating piezometer and tube methods in the drilling procedure because the actual variation of K with depth is larger than that found using isolated measurements, as shown in a field study of alluvial fan gravel deposits in Sapporo, Japan.

  4. Radioisotopic neutron transmission spectrometry: Quantitative analysis by using partial least-squares method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Jung, Sung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry, based on the scattering of high energy fast neutrons from a radioisotope and slowing-down by the light hydrogen atoms, is a useful technique for non-destructive, quantitative measurement of hydrogen content because it has a large measuring volume, and is not affected by temperature, pressure, pH value and color. The most common choice for radioisotope neutron source is (252)Cf or (241)Am-Be. In this study, (252)Cf with a neutron flux of 6.3x10(6)n/s has been used as an attractive neutron source because of its high flux neutron and weak radioactivity. Pulse-height neutron spectra have been obtained by using in-house built radioisotopic neutron spectrometric system equipped with (3)He detector and multi-channel analyzer, including a neutron shield. As a preliminary study, polyethylene block (density of approximately 0.947g/cc and area of 40cmx25cm) was used for the determination of hydrogen content by using multivariate calibration models, depending on the thickness of the block. Compared with the results obtained from a simple linear calibration model, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method offered a better performance in a quantitative data analysis. It also revealed that the PLSR method in a neutron spectrometric system can be promising in the real-time, online monitoring of the powder process to determine the content of any type of molecules containing hydrogen nuclei. PMID:19285419

  5. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis Discovered a Dietary Pattern Inversely Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yen-Li; Pan, Wen-Harn; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chen, Jen-Yang; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case–control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with multiple conditional logistic regression models, linking pattern scores and NPC risk. A high score of the PLS-DA derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruits, milk, fresh fish, vegetables, tea, and eggs ordered by loading values. We observed that one unit increase in the scores was associated with a significantly lower risk of NPC (ORadj = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60–0.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Similar results were observed among Epstein-Barr virus seropositive subjects. An NPC protective diet is indicated with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables), milk, other protein-rich foods (in particular fresh fish and eggs), and tea. This information may be used to design potential dietary regimen for NPC prevention. PMID:27249558

  6. Multilocus Association Testing of Quantitative Traits Based on Partial Least-Squares Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Guo, Xiong; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Because of combining the genetic information of multiple loci, multilocus association studies (MLAS) are expected to be more powerful than single locus association studies (SLAS) in disease genes mapping. However, some researchers found that MLAS had similar or reduced power relative to SLAS, which was partly attributed to the increased degrees of freedom (dfs) in MLAS. Based on partial least-squares (PLS) analysis, we develop a MLAS approach, while avoiding large dfs in MLAS. In this approach, genotypes are first decomposed into the PLS components that not only capture majority of the genetic information of multiple loci, but also are relevant for target traits. The extracted PLS components are then regressed on target traits to detect association under multilinear regression. Simulation study based on real data from the HapMap project were used to assess the performance of our PLS-based MLAS as well as other popular multilinear regression-based MLAS approaches under various scenarios, considering genetic effects and linkage disequilibrium structure of candidate genetic regions. Using PLS-based MLAS approach, we conducted a genome-wide MLAS of lean body mass, and compared it with our previous genome-wide SLAS of lean body mass. Simulations and real data analyses results support the improved power of our PLS-based MLAS in disease genes mapping relative to other three MLAS approaches investigated in this study. We aim to provide an effective and powerful MLAS approach, which may help to overcome the limitations of SLAS in disease genes mapping. PMID:21304821

  7. PCA of PCA: principal component analysis of partial covering absorption in NGC 1365

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M. L.; Walton, D. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Risaliti, G.

    2014-06-01

    We analyse 400 ks of XMM-Newton data on the active galactic nucleus NGC 1365 using principal component analysis (PCA) to identify model-independent spectral components. We find two significant components and demonstrate that they are qualitatively different from those found in MCG-6-30-15 using the same method. As the variability in NGC 1365 is known to be due to changes in the parameters of a partial covering neutral absorber, this shows that the same mechanism cannot be the driver of variability in MCG-6-30-15. By examining intervals where the spectrum shows relatively low absorption we separate the effects of intrinsic source variability, including signatures of relativistic reflection, from variations in the intervening absorption. We simulate the principal components produced by different physical variations, and show that PCA provides a clear distinction between absorption and reflection as the drivers of variability in AGN spectra. The simulations are shown to reproduce the PCA spectra of both NGC 1365 and MCG-6-30-15, and further demonstrate that the dominant cause of spectral variability in these two sources requires a qualitatively different mechanism.

  8. Accident analysis and control options in support of the sludge water system safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    HEY, B.E.

    2003-01-16

    A hazards analysis was initiated for the SWS in July 2001 (SNF-8626, K Basin Sludge and Water System Preliminary Hazard Analysis) and updated in December 2001 (SNF-10020 Rev. 0, Hazard Evaluation for KE Sludge and Water System - Project A16) based on conceptual design information for the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS) and 60% design information for the cask and container. SNF-10020 was again revised in September 2002 to incorporate new hazards identified from final design information and from a What-if/Checklist evaluation of operational steps. The process hazards, controls, and qualitative consequence and frequency estimates taken from these efforts have been incorporated into Revision 5 of HNF-3960, K Basins Hazards Analysis. The hazards identification process documented in the above referenced reports utilized standard industrial safety techniques (AIChE 1992, Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures) to systematically guide several interdisciplinary teams through the system using a pre-established set of process parameters (e.g., flow, temperature, pressure) and guide words (e.g., high, low, more, less). The teams generally included representation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), K Basins Nuclear Safety, T Plant Nuclear Safety, K Basin Industrial Safety, fire protection, project engineering, operations, and facility engineering.

  9. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  10. Multicomponent T2 Analysis of Articular Cartilage With Synovial Fluid Partial Volume Correction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Chaudhary, Rajeev; Block, Walter F.; Samsonov, Alexey; Kijowski, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of a three-pool model to account for the confounding effects of synovial fluid on multicomponent T2 analysis of articular cartilage using Multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Shot Observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT). Materials and Methods mcDESPOT was performed on the knee of eight asymptomatic volunteers and eight patients with osteoarthritis at 3.0T with multicomponent T2 maps created using the two-pool model and a three-pool model containing a nonexchanging synovial fluid water pool. The fraction of the fast-relaxing water component (FF) and the T2 relaxation times for the fast-relaxing (T2F) and slow-relaxing (T2S) water components were measured in the superficial and deep layers of patellar cartilage using the two-pool and three-pool models in asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis and were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results Within the superficial layer of patellar cartilage, FF was 22.5% and 25.6% for asymptomatic volunteers and 21.3% and 22.8% for patients with osteoarthritis when using the two-pool and three-pool models, respectively, while T2S was 73.9 msec and 62.0 msec for asymptomatic volunteers and 72.0 msec and 63.1 msec for patients with osteoarthritis when using the two-pool and three-pool models, respectively. For both asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis, the two-pool model provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower FF and higher T2S than the three-pool model, likely due to the effects of synovial fluid partial volume averaging. Conclusion The effects of partial volume averaging between superficial cartilage and synovial fluid may result in biased multicomponent T2 measurements that can be corrected using an mcDESPOT three-pool model containing a nonexchanging synovial fluid water pool. PMID:26435385

  11. Predictors of Local Recurrence Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben; Lyden, Maureen; Beitsch, Peter; Vicini, Frank A.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze a pooled set of nearly 2,000 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Mammosite Registry Trial and at William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) to identify factors associated with local recurrence following accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,961 women underwent partial breast irradiation between April 1993 and November 2010 as part of the ASBS Registry Trial or at WBH. Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional recurrence (RR), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for each group and for the pooled cohort. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed including age, tumor stage/size, estrogen receptor status, surgical margins, and lymph node status to determine their association with IBTR. Results: The two groups weres similar, but WBH patients were more frequently node positive, had positive margins, and were less likely to be within the American Society for Radiation Oncology-unsuitable group. At 5 years, the rates of IBTR, RR, DM, DFS, CSS, and OS for the pooled group of patients were 2.9%, 0.5%, 2.4%, 89.1%, 98.5%, and 91.8%, respectively. The 5-year rate of true recurrence/marginal miss was 0.8%. Univariate analysis of IBTR found that negative estrogen receptor status (odds ratio [OR], 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.13, p = 0.0007) was the only factor significantly associated with IBTR, while a trend was seen for age less than 50 (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90-3.58, p = 0.10). Conclusions: Excellent 5-year outcomes were seen following APBI in over 1,900 patients. Estrogen receptor negativity was the only factor associated with IBTR, while a trend for age less than 50 was noted. Significant differences in factors associated with IBTR were noted between cohorts, suggesting that factors driving IBTR may be predicated based on the risk

  12. Partial sequencing of the bottle gourd genome reveals markers useful for phylogenetic analysis and breeding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] is an important cucurbit crop worldwide. Archaeological research indicates that bottle gourd was domesticated more than 10,000 years ago, making it one of the earliest plants cultivated by man. In spite of its widespread importance and long history of cultivation almost nothing has been known about the genome of this species thus far. Results We report here the partial sequencing of bottle gourd genome using the 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. A total of 150,253 sequence reads, which were assembled into 3,994 contigs and 82,522 singletons were generated. The total length of the non-redundant singletons/assemblies is 32 Mb, theoretically covering ~ 10% of the bottle gourd genome. Functional annotation of the sequences revealed a broad range of functional types, covering all the three top-level ontologies. Comparison of the gene sequences between bottle gourd and the model cucurbit cucumber (Cucumis sativus) revealed a 90% sequence similarity on average. Using the sequence information, 4395 microsatellite-containing sequences were identified and 400 SSR markers were developed, of which 94% amplified bands of anticipated sizes. Transferability of these markers to four other cucurbit species showed obvious decline with increasing phylogenetic distance. From analyzing polymorphisms of a subset of 14 SSR markers assayed on 44 representative China bottle gourd varieties/landraces, a principal coordinates (PCo) analysis output and a UPGMA-based dendrogram were constructed. Bottle gourd accessions tended to group by fruit shape rather than geographic origin, although in certain subclades the lines from the same or close origin did tend to cluster. Conclusions This work provides an initial basis for genome characterization, gene isolation and comparative genomics analysis in bottle gourd. The SSR markers developed would facilitate marker assisted breeding schemes for efficient introduction of desired

  13. Failure of all-ceramic fixed partial dentures in vitro and in vivo: analysis and modeling.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J R; Tesk, J A; Sorensen, J A

    1995-06-01

    Hertzian cone cracks visible at the loading site of 20 all-ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs), tested in vitro, led to the hypotheses that failure was due to the propagation of localized contact damage crack systems (Hertzian stress state) and that such damage was an unlikely clinical failure mode. Fractographic analysis of the 20 laboratory-failed and nine clinically-failed all-ceramic FPDs allowed for definitive testing of these hypotheses and a comparison between in vitro and in vivo failure behavior. In all cases, failure occurred in the FPD connectors (none from contact damage), with approximately 70 to 78% originating from the interface between the core and veneer ceramics. The coincidence between failure origins provides strong evidence that the in vitro test modeled aspects of structural behavior having clinical importance. The fractographic observations, coupled with the in vitro failure load data, furnished very specific boundary conditions which were applied to constrain mathematical models of FPD connector failure. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the laboratory FPDs found that maximum principal tensile stresses would occur at locations consistent with the fractographic observations only if: (1) there were appropriate elastic moduli differences between the ceramics; and (2) a small amount of abutment rotation was allowed. Weibull failure probability (Pf) calculations, incorporating FEA stress profiles, very closely replicated the laboratory failure distribution only when: (1) the veneer ceramic was much weaker than the core ceramic; and (2) the Weibull modulus of the core-veneer interface was much lower than that for the free veneer surface (i.e., the interface is of lower quality with regard to defects).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7629333

  14. Exploring Omics data from designed experiments using analysis of variance multiblock Orthogonal Partial Least Squares.

    PubMed

    Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge

    2016-05-12

    Many experimental factors may have an impact on chemical or biological systems. A thorough investigation of the potential effects and interactions between the factors is made possible by rationally planning the trials using systematic procedures, i.e. design of experiments. However, assessing factors' influences remains often a challenging task when dealing with hundreds to thousands of correlated variables, whereas only a limited number of samples is available. In that context, most of the existing strategies involve the ANOVA-based partitioning of sources of variation and the separate analysis of ANOVA submatrices using multivariate methods, to account for both the intrinsic characteristics of the data and the study design. However, these approaches lack the ability to summarise the data using a single model and remain somewhat limited for detecting and interpreting subtle perturbations hidden in complex Omics datasets. In the present work, a supervised multiblock algorithm based on the Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (OPLS) framework, is proposed for the joint analysis of ANOVA submatrices. This strategy has several advantages: (i) the evaluation of a unique multiblock model accounting for all sources of variation; (ii) the computation of a robust estimator (goodness of fit) for assessing the ANOVA decomposition reliability; (iii) the investigation of an effect-to-residuals ratio to quickly evaluate the relative importance of each effect and (iv) an easy interpretation of the model with appropriate outputs. Case studies from metabolomics and transcriptomics, highlighting the ability of the method to handle Omics data obtained from fixed-effects full factorial designs, are proposed for illustration purposes. Signal variations are easily related to main effects or interaction terms, while relevant biochemical information can be derived from the models. PMID:27114219

  15. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  16. School Safety, Severe Disciplinary Actions, and School Characteristics: A Secondary Analysis of the School Survey on Crime and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seunghee; Akiba, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of a secondary analysis of survey data collected from 1,872 secondary school principals in the 2005-2006 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we examined the frequency of and reasons for severe disciplinary actions and the relationship between school characteristics and severe disciplinary actions. We found that severe disciplinary…

  17. Fault tree synthesis for software design analysis of PLC based safety-critical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, S. R.; Cho, C. H.; Seong, P. H.

    2006-07-01

    As a software verification and validation should be performed for the development of PLC based safety-critical systems, a software safety analysis is also considered in line with entire software life cycle. In this paper, we propose a technique of software safety analysis in the design phase. Among various software hazard analysis techniques, fault tree analysis is most widely used for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant systems. Fault tree analysis also has the most intuitive notation and makes both qualitative and quantitative analyses possible. To analyze the design phase more effectively, we propose a technique of fault tree synthesis, along with a universal fault tree template for the architecture modules of nuclear software. Consequently, we can analyze the safety of software on the basis of fault tree synthesis. (authors)

  18. Theoretical analysis of controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields in the intensity matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiki, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields by introducing the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and entropy, which is defined using the intensity matrix [H. Gamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 976 (1957)]. The analytical derivation of the WDF and entropy is presented for a partially coherent imaging system consisting of two pinholes illuminated by a circular source. It is shown that the WDF, defined in the 4D space–spatial frequency region, and entropy can be useful tools to understand how one can freely and quantitatively control the interference when any optical components in the partially coherent imaging system are changed.

  19. A Comparison of Approaches for the Analysis of Interaction Effects between Latent Variables Using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henseler, Jorg; Chin, Wynne W.

    2010-01-01

    In social and business sciences, the importance of the analysis of interaction effects between manifest as well as latent variables steadily increases. Researchers using partial least squares (PLS) to analyze interaction effects between latent variables need an overview of the available approaches as well as their suitability. This article…

  20. Radiofrequency Ablation Versus Partial Nephrectomy in Treating Small Renal Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaotao; Cui, Liang; Li, Fanglong; Qi, Siyong; Yin, Zhaoyang; Gao, Jiangping

    2015-12-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has emerged as an alternative treatment to surgical partial nephrectomy (PN) in the treatment of small renal tumors (SRTs). But its safety and oncological efficacy are still controversial. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the peritoperative and oncological outcomes of RFA and PN in the treatment of SRTs. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science were searched to identify eligible studies that compared the RFA and PN in the treatment of SRTs. Twelve retrospective studies that compared RFA with PN in the treatment of SRTs met our selection criterion and were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the local recurrence rate (4.14% vs 4.10%, RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.68, 2.07, P = 0.550) and distant metastases rate (2.76% vs 1.89%, RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 0.70, 2.46, P = 0.686) were not significantly different between the RFA group and the PN group. In terms of perioperative outcomes, RFA was associated with shorter length of stay (LOS) (WMD: -2.02 days, 95% CI: -2.77, -1.27, P < 0.001), lower eGFR decline after treatment (WMD: -3.90, 95% CI: -6.660, -1.140, P = 0.006). However, the overall perioperative complication rate (7.5% vs 6.2%, RR:1.10, 95% CI: 0.64, 1.87, P = 0.740) and the major complication rate (3.7% vs 4.4%, RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.60, P = 0.579) were both similar between RFA and PN groups. Compared with PN, RFA achieves an equal oncological outcome for SRTs with similar local recurrence rate and distant metastases rate. Additionally, RFA is associated with a similar perioperative complication rate, lower decline of eGFR, and shorter LOS. Therefore, RFA is an effective option in the treatment of SRTs for selected patients. PMID:26683944

  1. Analysis of partial-reflection data from the solar eclipse of 10 Jul. 1972. [ground-based experiment using vertical incident radio waves partially reflected from D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, T. A.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    Partial-reflection data collected for the eclipse of July 10, 1972 as well as for July 9 and 11, 1972, are analyzed to determine eclipse effects on D-region electron densities. The partial-reflection experiment was set up to collect data using an on-line PDP-15 computer and DECtape storage. The electron-density profiles show good agreement with results from other eclipses. The partial-reflection programs were changed after the eclipse data collection to improve the operation of the partial-reflection system. These changes were mainly due to expanded computer hardware and have simplified the operations of the system considerably.

  2. [Application of calibration curve method and partial least squares regression analysis to quantitative analysis of nephrite samples using XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Su, Bo-min; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2015-01-01

    The authors tried to find a method for quantitative analysis using pXRF without solid bulk stone/jade reference samples. 24 nephrite samples were selected, 17 samples were calibration samples and the other 7 are test samples. All the nephrite samples were analyzed by Proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) quantitatively. Based on the PIXE results of calibration samples, calibration curves were created for the interested components/elements and used to analyze the test samples quantitatively; then, the qualitative spectrum of all nephrite samples were obtained by pXRF. According to the PIXE results and qualitative spectrum of calibration samples, partial least square method (PLS) was used for quantitative analysis of test samples. Finally, the results of test samples obtained by calibration method, PLS method and PIXE were compared to each other. The accuracy of calibration curve method and PLS method was estimated. The result indicates that the PLS method is the alternate method for quantitative analysis of stone/jade samples. PMID:25993858

  3. A risk-informed approach to safety margins analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-07-01

    The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway is a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. The model has been tested on the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab.

  4. Analysis on partial thermal resistances of packaged SiC schottky barrier diodes at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehwa; Funaki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the temperature dependence of partial thermal resistances of a packaged SiC schottky barrier diode (SBD) for high temperature applications. Transient thermal resistances of the packaged SiC SBD were measured and characterized in temperature range from 27 to 275 °C. The partial thermal resistances were extracted and analyzed using the cumulative and differential thermal structure functions. The extracted partial thermal resistances were compared to the results from the finite difference thermal model, and both results were in good agreement. The temperature dependence of the partial thermal resistance of the SiC device and the Si3N4 substrate contributes to the overall thermal characteristics variation of the packaged SiC SBD.

  5. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 72

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, D. A.

    1992-08-01

    This document provides the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 72 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) FSAR set. This amendment change incorporates Engineering Change Notices issued subsequent to Amendment 71 and approved for incorporation before June 24, 1992. These include changes in: Chapter 2, Site Characteristics; Chapter 3, Design Criteria Structures, Equipment, and Systems; Chapter 5B, Reactor Coolant System; Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Control Systems; Chapter 8, Electrical Systems - The description of the Class 1E, 125 Vdc systems is updated for the higher capacity of the newly installed, replacement batteries; Chapter 9, Auxiliary Systems - The description of the inert cell NASA systems is corrected to list the correct number of spare sample points; Chapter 11, Reactor Refueling System; Chapter 12, Radiation Protection and Waste Management; Chapter 13, Conduct of Operations; Chapter 16, Quality Assurance; Chapter 17, Technical Specifications; Chapter 19, FFTF Fire Specifications for Fire Detection, Alarm, and Protection Systems; Chapter 20, FFTF Criticality Specifications; and Appendix B, Primary Piping Integrity Evaluation.

  6. Root Cause Analysis: Learning from Adverse Safety Events.

    PubMed

    Brook, Olga R; Kruskal, Jonathan B; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Larson, David B

    2015-10-01

    Serious adverse events continue to occur in clinical practice, despite our best preventive efforts. It is essential that radiologists, both as individuals and as a part of organizations, learn from such events and make appropriate changes to decrease the likelihood that such events will recur. Root cause analysis (RCA) is a process to (a) identify factors that underlie variation in performance or that predispose an event toward undesired outcomes and (b) allow for development of effective strategies to decrease the likelihood of similar adverse events occurring in the future. An RCA process should be performed within the environment of a culture of safety, focusing on underlying system contributors and, in a confidential manner, taking into account the emotional effects on the staff involved. The Joint Commission now requires that a credible RCA be performed within 45 days for all sentinel or major adverse events, emphasizing the need for all radiologists to understand the processes with which an effective RCA can be performed. Several RCA-related tools that have been found to be useful in the radiology setting include the "five whys" approach to determine causation; cause-and-effect, or Ishikawa, diagrams; causal tree mapping; affinity diagrams; and Pareto charts. PMID:26466177

  7. Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J. Arlin

    1999-06-10

    This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may be combined (aggregated) into an overall metric, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. Both positively contributing and negatively contributing factors are included. Metrics are weighted according to significance of the attribute and evaluated as to contribution toward the attribute. Aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed soft mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on overlap of the factors and by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to add important information to the decision process. The methodology has been implemented in software.

  8. Safety culture evaluation and asset root cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.; Xiong, Y.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the role of organizational and management factors in nuclear power plant safety through the use of operating experiences. The ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) reports of thirteen plants (total thirty events) have been analyzed in term of twenty organizational dimensions (factors) identified by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pennsylvania State University. For three plants detailed results are reported in this paper. The results of thirteen plants are summarized in the form of a table. The study tends to confirm that organizational and management factors play an important role in plant safety. The twenty organizational dimensions and their definitions, in general, were adequate in this study. Formalization, Safety Culture, Technical Knowledge, Training, Roles-Responsibilities and Problem Identification appear to be key organizational factors which influence the safety of nuclear power plants studied.

  9. Single implant and crown versus fixed partial denture: A cost-benefit, patient-centred analysis.

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Charles J; Naylor, W Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Single implants and their crowns have high survival rates that exceed the survival rates for fixed partial dentures on teeth and most but not all publications have determined single implants are more cost-effective than 3-unit fixed partial dentures. Both initial root canal treatment and retreatment are more cost-effective than tooth extraction and rehabilitation with a single implant and crown. PMID:27314112

  10. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    SciTech Connect

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}F-can{close_quotes}); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}Z-can{close_quotes}); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle ({open_quotes}CO-4{close_quotes}). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O and UF{sub 4}+oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and H{sub 2}O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant.

  11. Analysis of key safety metrics of thorium utilization in LWRs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ade, Brian J.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Worrall, Andrew; Powers, Jeffrey

    2016-04-08

    Here, thorium has great potential to stretch nuclear fuel reserves because of its natural abundance and because it is possible to breed the 232Th isotope into a fissile fuel (233U). Various scenarios exist for utilization of thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle, including use in different nuclear reactor types (e.g., light water, high-temperature gas-cooled, fast spectrum sodium, and molten salt reactors), along with use in advanced accelerator-driven systems and even in fission-fusion hybrid systems. The most likely near-term application of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). This use is primarily based on conceptsmore » that mix thorium with uranium (UO2 + ThO2) or that add fertile thorium (ThO2) fuel pins to typical LWR fuel assemblies. Utilization of mixed fuel assemblies (PuO2 + ThO2) is also possible. The addition of thorium to currently operating LWRs would result in a number of different phenomenological impacts to the nuclear fuel. Thorium and its irradiation products have different nuclear characteristics from those of uranium and its irradiation products. ThO2, alone or mixed with UO2 fuel, leads to different chemical and physical properties of the fuel. These key reactor safety–related issues have been studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and documented in “Safety and Regulatory Issues of the Thorium Fuel Cycle” (NUREG/CR-7176, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2014). Various reactor analyses were performed using the SCALE code system for comparison of key performance parameters of both ThO2 + UO2 and ThO2 + PuO2 against those of UO2 and typical UO2 + PuO2 mixed oxide fuels, including reactivity coefficients and power sharing between surrounding UO2 assemblies and the assembly of interest. The decay heat and radiological source terms for spent fuel after its discharge from the reactor are also presented. Based on this evaluation, potential impacts on safety requirements and identification of

  12. Automated validation of patient safety clinical incident classification: macro analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jaiprakash; Patrick, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Patient safety is the buzz word in healthcare. Incident Information Management System (IIMS) is electronic software that stores clinical mishaps narratives in places where patients are treated. It is estimated that in one state alone over one million electronic text documents are available in IIMS. In this paper we investigate the data density available in the fields entered to notify an incident and the validity of the built in classification used by clinician to categories the incidents. Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) software was used to test the classes. Four statistical classifier based on J48, Naïve Bayes (NB), Naïve Bayes Multinominal (NBM) and Support Vector Machine using radial basis function (SVM_RBF) algorithms were used to validate the classes. The data pool was 10,000 clinical incidents drawn from 7 hospitals in one state in Australia. In first part of the study 1000 clinical incidents were selected to determine type and number of fields worth investigating and in the second part another 5448 clinical incidents were randomly selected to validate 13 clinical incident types. Result shows 74.6% of the cells were empty and only 23 fields had content over 70% of the time. The percentage correctly classified classes on four algorithms using categorical dataset ranged from 42 to 49%, using free-text datasets from 65% to 77% and using both datasets from 72% to 79%. Kappa statistic ranged from 0.36 to 0.4. for categorical data, from 0.61 to 0.74. for free-text and from 0.67 to 0.77 for both datasets. Similar increases in performance in the 3 experiments was noted on true positive rate, precision, F-measure and area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) scores. The study demonstrates only 14 of 73 fields in IIMS have data that is usable for machine learning experiments. Irrespective of the type of algorithms used when all datasets are used performance was better. Classifier NBM showed best performance. We think the

  13. Combined genetic analysis of partial blast resistance in an upland rice population and recurrent selection for line and hybrid values.

    PubMed

    Veillet, S; Filippi, M C; Gallais, A

    1996-05-01

    The CNA-IRAT 5 upland rice population has been improved for 4 years by recurrent selection for blast resistance in Brazil. In order to predict the efficiency of recurrent selection in different test systems and to compare the relative advantage of hybrids versus pure line breeding, a combined genetic analysis of partial blast resistance in the CNA-IRAT 5 population was undertaken. A three-level hierarchical design in inbreeding and a factorial design were derived from the base population. Partial blast resistance of lines and hybrids was evaluated in the greenhouse and in the field by inoculation with one virulent blast isolate. The means and genetic variances of the hybrids and lines were estimated. Genetic advance by recurrent selection was predicted from estimates of variance components. The inheritance of partial blast resistance was mainly additive but non-additive effects were detected at both levels of means and variances. Mean heterosis ranged from 4%-8% for lesion size and lesion density to 10-12% for leaf and panicle resistance. High dominance or homozygous dominance variances relative to additive variance and negative covariance between additive and homozygous dominance effects were estimated. A low frequency of favourable alleles for partial resistance would explain the observed organisation of genetic variability in the base population. Recurrent selection will efficiently improve partial blast resistance of the CNA-IRAT 5 population. Genetic advance for line or hybrid values was expected to be higher testing doubled haploid lines than S1 lines, or than general combining ability. Two components of partial resistance assessed in the greenhouse, lesion size and lesion density, could be used as indirect selection criteria to improve field resistance. On the whole, hybrid breeding for partial blast resistance appeared to be slightly more advantageous than pure line breeding. PMID:24166386

  14. Resolving Difficulties of a Single-Channel Partial-Wave Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Brian; Manley, D. Mark

    2016-03-01

    The goal of our research is to determine better the properties of nucleon resonances using techniques of a global multichannel partial-wave analysis. Currently, many predicted resonances have not been found, while the properties of several known resonances are relatively uncertain. To resolve these issues, one must analyze many different reactions in a multichannel fit. Other groups generally approach this problem by generating an energy-dependent fit from the start. This is a fit where all channels are analyzed together. The method is powerful, but due to the complex nature of resonances, certain model-dependent assumptions have to be introduced from the start. The current work tries to resolve these issues by first generating single-energy solutions in which experimental data are analyzed in narrow energy bins. The single-energy solutions can then be used to constrain the energy-dependent solution in a comparatively unbiased manner. Our work focuses on adding three new single-energy solutions into the global fit. These reactions are γp --> ηp , γn --> ηn , and γp -->K+ Λ . During this talk, I will discuss the difficulties of this approach, our methods to overcome these difficulties, and a few preliminary results. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Medium Energy Nuclear Physics, under Award Nos. DE-FG02-01ER41194 and DE-SC0014323 and by the Kent State University Department of Physics.

  15. Analysis and modification of amorphous and partially-crystalline thin films

    SciTech Connect

    DiNardo, N.J.; Mercer, T.W.; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.; Siegal, M.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.R.; Plank, R.V.; Vohs, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    Thin films of light atomic weight elements in amorphous, partially-crystalline, or crystalline forms have applications in a broad range of technologies. For example, amorphous tetrahedral carbon (a-tC) and polymeric thin films impact electronic materials technology as electron- and light-emitting device elements, respectively. A lack of crystallinity introduces complexity in the experimental and theoretical characterization of these materials but is not necessarily a limiting factor in their performance. While the growth process is clearly a major factor governing the physical properties of a film, interactions with the substrate are also important, so surface and interface analysis provides an important complement to bulk measurements. This paper focuses on several approaches in the characterization and modification of thin films made possible by recent experimental advances. The structural and electronic properties of two model systems are considered as examples: a-tC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and polyaniline thin films grown by vapor deposition. First, scanning probe microscopies and X-ray scattering are used to investigate the structural aspects of a-tC films as a function of PLD growth conditions. The possible connection of nanoscale surface modification and characterization with electron emission properties will be discussed. Second, the results of inelastic scattering spectroscopy and other surface techniques will be discussed to obtain information on both interfacial aspects of the growth of polyaniline thin films and microscopic and macroscopic aspects of electrical conductivity upon doping. Comparisons will be made with other studies that address properties of analogous crystalline systems as appropriate. A brief assessment of the broader problem of analyzing these systems will be given.

  16. Interuser Interference Analysis for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems Part I: Partial-Period Cross-Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun (David)

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses an analysis approach to evaluate the interuser interference for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum (DSSS) Systems for Space Network (SN) Users. Part I of this analysis shows that the correlation property of pseudo noise (PN) sequences is the critical factor which determines the interuser interference performance of the DSSS system. For non-standard DSSS systems in which PN sequence s period is much larger than one data symbol duration, it is the partial-period cross-correlation that determines the system performance. This study reveals through an example that a well-designed PN sequence set (e.g. Gold Sequence, in which the cross-correlation for a whole-period is well controlled) may have non-controlled partial-period cross-correlation which could cause severe interuser interference for a DSSS system. Since the analytical derivation of performance metric (bit error rate or signal-to-noise ratio) based on partial-period cross-correlation is prohibitive, the performance degradation due to partial-period cross-correlation will be evaluated using simulation in Part II of this analysis in the future.

  17. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 3: System safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The primary objective was to examine from a system safety viewpoint in-space propellant logistic elements and operations to define the potential hazards and to recommend means to reduce, eliminate or control them. A secondary objective was to conduct trade studies of specific systems or operations to determine the safest of alternate approaches.

  18. 14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section 417.233 Aeronautics and Space... LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

  19. 14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section 417.233 Aeronautics and Space... LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety System A Appendix A to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App....

  1. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety System A Appendix A to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App....

  2. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety System A Appendix A to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App....

  3. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety System A Appendix A to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App....

  4. Development of an auditable safety analysis in support of a radiological facility classification

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, M.D.; Young, B.

    1995-03-01

    In recent years, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities commonly have been classified as reactor, non-reactor nuclear, or nuclear facilities. Safety analysis documentation was prepared for these facilities, with few exceptions, using the requirements in either DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System; or DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by development of an extensive Safety Analysis Report (SAR), which identifies hazards, assesses risks of facility operation, describes and analyzes adequacy of measures taken to control hazards, and evaluates potential accidents and their associated risks. This process is complicated by analysis of secondary hazards and adequacy of backup (redundant) systems. The traditional SAR process is advantageous for DOE facilities with appreciable hazards or operational risks. SAR preparation for a low-risk facility or process can be cost-prohibitive and quite challenging because conventional safety analysis protocols may not readily be applied to a low-risk facility. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management recognized this potential disadvantage and issued an EM limited technical standard, No. 5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation. This standard can be used for developing documentation for a facility classified as radiological, including preparation of an auditable (defensible) safety analysis. In support of the radiological facility classification process, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has developed an auditable safety analysis document based upon the postulation criteria and hazards analysis techniques defined in DOE Order 5480.23.

  5. [Failure mechanisms in the transfusion process. Importance of anticipatory operational safety analysis].

    PubMed

    Hergon, E; Crespeau, H; Rouger, P

    1994-01-01

    The methods used for the safety previsional analysis of operations represent an interesting set of tools to follow the so-called transfusion process, defined as all the steps from donors sensitization to recipients follow-up. FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) can be used as a prevention tool, independently of any dysfunction in the process. Of course, it can also be used following a failure, in order to analyse its causes and to apply specific corrections. Operation safety, quality insurance, epidemiologic surveillance and safety monitoring act in synergy. These three aspects of transfusion safety constitute a dynamic system. PMID:7812465

  6. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  7. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, C. N.; Sakthivel, M.; Elangovan, R. K.; Arularasu, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means of questionnaire surveys with employees, specifically referring to safety of material handling equipment. Based on results of the questionnaire surveys, two construction sites were selected for a safety education program targeting worker safety related to material handling equipment. Knowledge levels of the workers were gathered before and after the program and results obtained were subjected to a t-test analysis to mark significance level of the conducted safety education program. PMID:26446572

  8. Guidance for Safety Analysis of Other Than Nuclear Facilities/Activities at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Douglas Sidney; Perry, Scott William

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) provided guidance per DOE-ID Orders 420.C, "Safety Basis Review and Approval Process," and 420.D, "Requirements and Guidance for Safety Analysis," for conducting safety analysis for facilities and activities that do not meet either the nuclear facility criteria or the criteria for not requiring additional safety analysis (NRASA). These facilities and activities are thus designated as "other than nuclear" (OTN), and hazard analyses are performed using a graded approach. This graded approach is done in accordance with DOE-ID Order 420.D. DOE-ID guidance is used to format these OTN facilities and activities into 3-chapter documents, rather than the 17-chapter format specified in DOE-STD-3009-94, "Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports."

  9. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The flight safety limits must account for all temporal and geometric extents on the Earth's surface of... (8) Any uncertainty due to map errors and launch vehicle tracking errors. (c) Gates. If a...

  10. Markov Modeling with Soft Aggregation for Safety and Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER,J. ARLIN

    1999-09-01

    The methodology in this report improves on some of the limitations of many conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. A top-down mathematical approach is developed for decomposing systems and for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers. A ''Markov-like'' model is developed that facilitates combining (aggregating) inputs into overall metrics and decision aids, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. A major goal of Markov modeling is to help convey the top-down system perspective. One of the constituent methodologies allows metrics to be weighted according to significance of the attribute and aggregated nonlinearly as to contribution. This aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed ''soft'' mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on ''overlap'' of the factors as well as by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on considering new controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to obtain significant information% including cyclic information for the decision process. A practical example from the air transportation industry is used to demonstrate application of the methodology. Illustrations are given for developing a structure (along with recommended inputs and weights) for air transportation oversight at three different levels, for developing and using cycle information, for developing Importance and

  11. New Methods and Tools to Perform Safety Analysis within RISMC

    SciTech Connect

    Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Robert Kinoshita; Joshua Cogliati

    2013-11-01

    The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway uses a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. What differentiates the RISMC approach from traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is the concept of safety margin. In PRA, a safety metric such as core damage frequency (CDF) is generally estimated using static fault-tree and event-tree models. However, it is not possible to estimate how close we are to physical safety limits (say peak clad temperature) for most accident sequences described in the PRA. In the RISMC approach, what we want to understand is not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or not) to this event and how we might increase our safety margin through margin management strategies in a Dynamic PRA (DPRA) fashion. This paper gives an overview of methods that are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the scope of advance the current state of the art of dynamic PRA.

  12. Development of a Spatially-Selective, Nonlinear Refinement Algorithm for Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Lewis John

    This work focused on developing a novel method for solving the nonlinear partial differential equations associated with thermal-hydraulic safety analysis software. Traditional methods involve solving large systems of nonlinear equations. One class of methods linearizes the nonlinear equations and attempts to minimize the nonlinear truncation error with timestep size selection. These linearized methods are characterized by low computational cost but reduced accuracy. Another class resolves those nonlinearities by using an iterative nonlinear refinement technique. However, these iterative methods are computationally expensive when multiple iterates are required to resolve the nonlinearities. These two paradigms stand at the opposite ends of a spectrum, and the middle ground had yet to be investigated. This research sought to find that middle ground, a balance between the competing incentives of computational cost and accuracy, by creating a hybrid method: a spatially-selective, nonlinear refinement (SNR) algorithm. As part of this work, the two-phase, three-field software COBRA was converted from a linearized semi-implicit solver to a nonlinearly convergent solver; an operator-based scaling that provides a physically meaningful convergence measure was developed and implemented; and the SNR algorithm was developed to enable a subdomain of the simulation to be subjected to multiple nonlinear iterates while maintaining global consistency. By selecting those areas of the computational domain where nonlinearities are expected to be high and subjecting only them to multiple nonlinear iterations, the accuracy of the nonlinear solver may be obtained without its associated computational cost.

  13. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2016-06-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  14. CFD analysis of fluid flow in an axial multi-stage partial-admission ORC turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surwilo, Jan; Lampart, Piotr; Szymaniak, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    Basic operational advantages of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems and specific issues of turbines working in these systems are discussed. The strategy for CFD simulation of the considered ORC turbine and the main issues of the numerical model are presented. The method of constructing the 3D CAD geometry as well as discretisation of the flow domain are also shown. Main features of partial admission flow in the multi-stage axial turbine are discussed. The influence of partial admission on the working conditions of the subsequent stage supplied at the full circumference is also described.

  15. Probabilistic reliability analysis, quantitative safety goals, and nuclear licensing in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cannell, W

    1987-09-01

    Although unpublicized, the use of quantitative safety goals and probabilistic reliability analysis for licensing nuclear reactors has become a reality in the United Kingdom. This conclusion results from an examination of the process leading to the licensing of the Sizewell B PWR in England. The licensing process for this reactor has substantial implications for nuclear safety standards in Britain, and is examined in the context of the growing trend towards quantitative safety goals in the United States. PMID:3685540

  16. In vitro analysis of partially hydrolyzed guar gum fermentation differences between six individuals.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Justin; Esparza, Julian; Swan, Jonathan; Taussig, David; Combs, Jerry; Slavin, Joanne

    2016-04-20

    Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is a fermentable, soluble, non-gelling fiber consumed as both a supplement and ingredient. PHGG supports bifidogenic and lactogenic growth, and increases the concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the distal intestine due to its fermentability. Changes in SCFA development due to the fermentation of dietary fibers in the colon have been widely studied, but there are limited studies analyzing the differences in SCFA development across multiple individuals (ages 23-68) exposed to the same dietary fiber (PHGG). With the six donors analyzed in this study, gas production varied from 59-80 mL/0.5 g fiber at 12 h and 85-93 mL/0.5 g fiber at 24 h between the six donors. At 12 h butyrate concentrations varied from 6.99 μmol mL(-1) to 23.84 μmol mL(-1) and from 8.78 μmol mL(-1) to 22.84 μmol mL(-1) at 24 h. Total SCFA concentration at 24 h ranged from 42.85 μmol mL(-1) to 91.17 μmol mL(-1). The overall average SCFA ratio for the six fecal donors was 30 : 45 : 25 (acetate : propionate : butyrate), which is similar to other fermentable fibers analyzed using in vitro systems. SCFA development in the distal intestine increases the amount of metabolizable energy from the diet, but varies greatly among people based primarily on the composition and changes of their gut microflora. With over a 2-fold difference in SCFA production, significant differences were found among healthy individuals fecal microflora when exposed to PHGG. Donor 6 SCFA concentrations decreased at 24 h, indicating a quicker fermentation process than the other five donors. All SCFAs measured fluctuated greatly among the six individuals within 24 h of analysis. Results of in vitro fermentation analyses are limited by the wide variation found with fecal donor. PMID:26862979

  17. Flood analysis using negative binomial and Generalized Pareto models in partial duration series (PDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunya, P. K.; Berndtsson, R.; Jain, Sharad. K.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    Two flood analysis estimation schemes, based on, respectively, partial duration series (PDS) and annual maximum series (AMS), are compared. The PDS model assumes a Generalized Pareto (GP) distribution for modeling the flood exceedances above threshold corresponding to a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution for annual maxima. As a generalization of the common assumption of the Poisson distribution (PD) to count the occurrences of peaks over threshold in the PDS models, the advantage of negative binomial (NB) distribution is explored in this study. The T-year event estimator for the annual maximum distribution corresponding to the parent PDS model is formulated for producing AMS samples consistent with PDS samples which are used in simulations. The performance of the two models in terms of the uncertainty of the T-year event estimator is evaluated in the cases of estimation with the method of probability weighted moments (PWM). In a similar way, the performance of the derived PDS/NB-GP model is compared with the existing PDS/PD-GP model in terms of uncertainty of T-year event estimator using simulation and field data. The results show the T-year event estimate using PDS/NB-GP model yields lower variance compared to PDS/PD-GP models for most cases. However both the models perform similarly at higher return periods more than 300 years, using the ratios of the variance of T-years estimate as an index, and the ratio decreases with an increase in mean number of annual exceedances above threshold (μ). From the results it is observed that both AMS and PDS models yield the same variance when μ varies from 1.4 to 1.65. However, in case of NB distribution the PDS and AMS models gives the same variance of q(T) when variance (σ2) is 1.5 times the mean number of annual exceedance above threshold. The performance of the PDS models and the corresponding AMS models using the available data of Dee (at Cairnton) shows the PDS/NB-GP model to be marginally better at return

  18. Free vibration analysis of cantilever plate partially submerged into a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Yang, Dong-Ho

    2013-07-01

    The free flexural vibration of a cantilever plate partially submerged in a fluid is investigated. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and irrotational. The virtual mass matrix is derived by solving the boundary-value problem related to the fluid motion using elliptical coordinates. The introduction of the elliptical coordinates naturally leads to the use of the Mathieu function. Hence, the virtual mass matrix which reflects the effect of the fluid on the natural vibration characteristics is expressed in analytical form in terms of the Mathieu functions. The virtual mass matrix is then combined with the dynamic model of a thin rectangular plate obtained by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This combination is used to analyze the natural vibration characteristics of a partially submerged cantilever plate qualitatively. Also, the non-dimensionalized added virtual mass incremental factors for a partially submerged cantilever plate are presented to facilitate the easy estimation of natural frequencies of a partially submerged cantilever plate. It is found that the numerical results are in good agreement with the previous results, thus validating the proposed approach.

  19. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Generalized Partial Credit Model Analysis of Differential Item Functioning across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…

  20. Partial Dictation as a Measure of EFL Listening Proficiency: Evidence from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Hongwen

    2013-01-01

    Partial dictation is a measure of EFL listening proficiency that can be easily constructed, administered, and scored by EFL teachers. However, it is controversial whether this form of test measures lower-order abilities exclusively or involves both lower- and higher-order abilities. In order to answer this question, a study was designed to examine…

  1. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  2. Synteny analysis of loci controlling partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches between Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphanomyces root rot, due to Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most damaging diseases of pea worldwide. Breeding for partial polygenic resistance to Aphanomyces root rot is a major objective for the development of the pea crop in Europe. Our objectives were to study i)- the diversity of resistanc...

  3. Cost/benefit analysis of managing annual invasive grasses in partially invaded sagebrush steppe ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate the cost-benefit of a single herbicide application or targeted grazing of annual grasses during restoration of partially invaded sagebrush steppe ecosystems used for livestock production. The cost/benefit model used is based on estimating the production of vegetation i...

  4. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  5. Static-stress analysis of dual-axis safety vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultman, D. H.

    1992-11-01

    An 8 ft diameter safety vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, is evaluated to determine its ability to contain the quasi-static residual pressure from a high explosive (HE) blast. The safety vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A smaller confinement vessel fits inside the safety vessel and contains the actual explosion, and the safety vessel functions as a second layer of containment in the unlikely case of a confinement vessel leak. The safety vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC107. Combined stresses that result from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared to the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzle components are adequately designed for a static pressure of 830 psi, plus the maximum expected external loads. Shell stresses at the 'shell to nozzle' interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 700 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 17,384 psi, which is significantly less than the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

  6. Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

    1998-01-01

    This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

  7. Analysis techniques for airborne laser range safety evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, M. S.; Jenkins, D. L.; Doerflein, R. D.

    1982-08-01

    Techniques to evaluate safety of airborne laser operations on the range are reported. The objectives of the safety evaluations were to (1) protect civilian and military personnel from the hazards associated with lasers, (2) provide users with the least restrictive constraints in which to perform their mission and still maintain an adequate degree of safety, and (3) develop a data base for the Navy in the event of suspected laser exposure of other related incidents involving military or civilian personnel. A microcomputer code, written in ASNI 77 FORTRAN, has been developed, which will provide safe flight profiles for airborne laser systems. The output of this code can also be used in establishing operating areas for ground based Lasers. Input to the code includes output parameters, NOHD and assigned buffer zone for the laser system, as well as parameters describing the geometry of the range.

  8. 76 FR 28336 - Domestic Licensing of Source Material-Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ..., such as UF6. The 1988 MOU between the NRC and OSHA (53 FR 43950) further discusses the radiological and... Safety Analysis AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...). The proposed amendments would require such licensees to conduct integrated safety analyses...

  9. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  10. Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

  11. Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

  12. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves and Dam Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karastathis, V. K.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical methodologies and particularly the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) effectively proved their efficiency in the non-destructive testing of the dams, in the last decade, after many successful applications worldwide. The MASW method developed in the outset of this decade considerably improved the prospects and the validity of these geophysical applications. Since MASW and the other geophysical techniques do not require drilling they progressively increased their popularity significantly. The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves can be applied for the assessment of both earthen and concrete dams. Nevertheless, mostly cases of earthen dams can be found in the literature. The method can detect and map low shear wave velocity areas potentially associated with low cohesion zones due to differential settlement events in the core or increased seepage. The advantage of MASW is that it is not influenced by the water saturation of the interior of the dam contrary to other methods eg. p-wave tomography. Usually, a joint application of MASW with the p-wave techniques can be an optimal choice since the two methodologies can act complementary. An application of MASW on a three-dimensional structure, such as a dam, however, can actually be considered as a complicated problem since the effects of the lateral structural anomalies can strongly affect the results. For example, in an earthen dam the investigation of the core can be influenced by the presence of the shells. Therefore, the problem should be carefully examined by modeling all these the lateral anomalies with the aim to avoid a misinterpretation of the results. The effectiveness of MASW to the dam safety assessment is presented through two example applications, one at the Mornos Dam, an earthen dam responsible for the water supply of Athens, and a second one at the Marathon Dam which is a concrete dam also used for the water supply of Athens. In the case of Mornos Dam, MASW detected areas affected

  13. Safety valve dynamic instability: An analysis of chatter

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, G.

    1985-05-01

    Safety valve chatter, which is characterized by violent oscillation of the disk or closure member, is a dynamical phenomenon representable by differential rather than algebraic equations. It is shown that the conditions necessary for avoiding chatter may be determined from the behavior of the differential equations in the region of certain critical points. The paper demonstrates how to determine these points and establish conditions necessary for avoiding chatter. The method is illustrated using a simple, but representative, gas-filled system. The results and their implications for safety valve design and selection are discussed, and a numerical example is given.

  14. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs.

  15. Use of Fault Tree Analysis for Automotive Reliability and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H

    2003-09-24

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) evolved from the aerospace industry in the 1960's. A fault tree is deductive logic model that is generated with a top undesired event in mind. FTA answers the question, ''how can something occur?'' as opposed to failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) that is inductive and answers the question, ''what if?'' FTA is used in risk, reliability and safety assessments. FTA is currently being used by several industries such as nuclear power and chemical processing. Typically the automotive industries uses failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) such as design FMEAs and process FMEAs. The use of FTA has spread to the automotive industry. This paper discusses the use of FTA for automotive applications. With the addition automotive electronics for various applications in systems such as engine/power control, cruise control and braking/traction, FTA is well suited to address failure modes within these systems. FTA can determine the importance of these failure modes from various perspectives such as cost, reliability and safety. A fault tree analysis of a car starting system is presented as an example.

  16. Analysis of Design Alternatives on Using Dynamic and Partial Reconfiguration in a Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veljkovic, Filip; Riesgo, Teresa; Berrojo, Luis; Regada, Raul; Alvaro, Angel; de la Torre, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Some of the biggest concerns in space systems are power consumption and reliability due to the limited power generated by the system's energy harvesters and the fact that once deployed, it is almost impossible to perform maintenance or repairs. Another consideration is that during deployment, the high exposure to electromagnetic radiation can cause single event damage effects including SEUs, SEFIs, SETs and others. In order to mitigate these problems inherent to the space environment, a system with dynamic and partial reconfiguration capabilities is proposed. This approach provides the flexibility to reconfigure parts of the FPGA while still in operation, thus making the system more flexible, fault tolerant and less power-consuming. In this paper, several partial reconfiguration approaches are proposed and compared in terms of device occupation, power consumption, reconfiguration speed and size of memory footprints.

  17. [Partial sequence homology of FtsZ in phylogenetics analysis of lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Xiu-zhu

    2005-10-01

    FtsZ is a structurally conserved protein, which is universal among the prokaryotes. It plays a key role in prokaryote cell division. A partial fragment of the ftsZ gene about 800bp in length was amplified and sequenced and a partial FtsZ protein phylogenetic tree for the lactic acid bacteria was constructed. By comparing the FtsZ phylogenetic tree with the 16S rDNA tree, it was shown that the two trees were similar in topology. Both trees revealed that Pediococcus spp. were closely related with L. casei group of Lactobacillus spp. , but less related with other lactic acid cocci such as Enterococcus and Streptococcus. The results also showed that the discriminative power of FtsZ was higher than that of 16S rDNA for either inter-species or inter-genus and could be a very useful tool in species identification of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16342751

  18. A Radiation Safety Analysis for Lunar Lava Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAngelis, G.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is an assessment of the lunar lava tubes physical characteristics and an evaluation of the their actual safety features from the point of view of the ionizing radiation environment as potential habitats for future lunar exploration crews. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Risk analysis and safety policy developments in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bottelberghs, P H

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands, external safety policy has been developed and implemented since the early eighties on the basis of a risk-based approach involving quantitative criteria for the tolerability of risk. Good experiences have been gained with the risk policy that applies to some 4000 establishments in the Netherlands where hazardous substances are present. On the basis of these experiences, legislation is now being prepared to give the risk tolerability criteria a full legal basis. This is aimed, in particular, to balance between risk control measures at the source through the licensing system, and spatial planning instruments to protect, e.g. residential areas against major hazards. The revision of the Seveso directive (96/82/EC) leads to the implementation of an integrated form of safety reporting, evaluation and inspection. Practical tools were developed for this implementation, e.g. for facilitating the selection of establishments and for assessing risks from major hazard establishments to surface water. In the past few years, the application of risk-based safety policy has been extended to other fields than establishments, e.g. for transport of hazardous chemicals and external safety of airports. PMID:10677654

  20. Thread safety in an MPI implementation : requirements and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Thakur, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-09-01

    The MPI-2 Standard has carefully specified the interaction between MPI and user-created threads. The goal of this specification is to allow users to write multithreaded MPI programs while also allowing MPI implementations to deliver high performance. However, a simple reading of the thread-safety specification does not reveal what its implications are for an implementation and what implementers must be aware (and careful) of. In this paper, we describe and analyze what the MPI Standard says about thread-safety and what it implies for an implementation. We classify the MPI functions based on their thread-safety requirements and discuss several issues to consider when implementing thread-safety in MPI. We use the example of generating new context ids (required for creating new communicators) to demonstrate how a simple solution for the single-threaded case does not naturally extend to the multithreaded case and how a naove thread-safe algorithm can be expensive. We then present an algorithm for generating context ids that works efficiently in both single-threaded and multithreaded cases.

  1. Bifurcation analysis of the behavior of partially wetting liquids on a rotating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Te-Sheng; Rogers, Steven; Tseluiko, Dmitri; Thiele, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the behavior of partially wetting liquids on a rotating cylinder using a model that takes into account the effects of gravity, viscosity, rotation, surface tension, and wettability. Such a system can be considered as a prototype for many other systems where the interplay of spatial heterogeneity and a lateral driving force in the proximity of a first- or second-order phase transition results in intricate behavior. So does a partially wetting drop on a rotating cylinder undergo a depinning transition as the rotation speed is increased, whereas for ideally wetting liquids, the behavior only changes quantitatively. We analyze the bifurcations that occur when the rotation speed is increased for several values of the equilibrium contact angle of the partially wetting liquids. This allows us to discuss how the entire bifurcation structure and the flow behavior it encodes change with changing wettability. We employ various numerical continuation techniques that allow us to track stable/unstable steady and time-periodic film and drop thickness profiles. We support our findings by time-dependent numerical simulations and asymptotic analyses of steady and time-periodic profiles for large rotation numbers.

  2. Stress and strain analysis of contractions during ramp distension in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian; Gregersen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated morphological and biomechanical remodeling in the intestine proximal to an obstruction. The present study aimed to obtain stress and strain thresholds to initiate contraction and the maximal contraction stress and strain in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments. Partial obstruction and sham operations were surgically created in mid-jejunum of male guinea pigs. The animals survived 2, 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. Animals not being operated on served as normal controls. The segments were used for no-load state, zero-stress state and distension analyses. The segment was inflated to 10 cmH2O pressure in an organ bath containing 37°C Krebs solution and the outer diameter change was monitored. The stress and strain at the contraction threshold and at maximum contraction were computed from the diameter, pressure and the zero-stress state data. Young’s modulus was determined at the contraction threshold. The muscle layer thickness in obstructed intestinal segments increased up to 300%. Compared with sham-obstructed and normal groups, the contraction stress threshold, the maximum contraction stress and the Young’s modulus at the contraction threshold increased whereas the strain threshold and maximum contraction strain decreased after 7 days obstruction (P<0.05 and 0.01). In conclusion, in the partially obstructed intestinal segments, a larger distension force was needed to evoke contraction likely due to tissue remodeling. Higher contraction stresses were produced and the contraction deformation (strain) became smaller. PMID:21632056

  3. A fully Bayesian before-after analysis of permeable friction course (PFC) pavement wet weather safety.

    PubMed

    Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Smit, Andre F; Prozzi, Jorge A

    2015-07-01

    Permeable friction course (PFC), a porous hot-mix asphalt, is typically applied to improve wet weather safety on high-speed roadways in Texas. In order to warrant expensive PFC construction, a statistical evaluation of its safety benefits is essential. Generally, the literature on the effectiveness of porous mixes in reducing wet-weather crashes is limited and often inconclusive. In this study, the safety effectiveness of PFC was evaluated using a fully Bayesian before-after safety analysis. First, two groups of road segments overlaid with PFC and non-PFC material were identified across Texas; the non-PFC or reference road segments selected were similar to their PFC counterparts in terms of site specific features. Second, a negative binomial data generating process was assumed to model the underlying distribution of crash counts of PFC and reference road segments to perform Bayesian inference on the safety effectiveness. A data-augmentation based computationally efficient algorithm was employed for a fully Bayesian estimation. The statistical analysis shows that PFC is not effective in reducing wet weather crashes. It should be noted that the findings of this study are in agreement with the existing literature, although these studies were not based on a fully Bayesian statistical analysis. Our study suggests that the safety effectiveness of PFC road surfaces, or any other safety infrastructure, largely relies on its interrelationship with the road user. The results suggest that the safety infrastructure must be properly used to reap the benefits of the substantial investments. PMID:25897515

  4. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

  5. The Oak Ridge Research Reactor: safety analysis: Volume 2, supplement 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, S.S.

    1986-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Research Reactor Safety Analysis was last updated via ORNL-4169, Vol. 2, Supplement 1, in May of 1978. Since that date, several changes have been effected through the change-memo system described below. While these changes have involved the cooling system, the electrical system, and the reactor instrumentation and controls, they have not, for the most part, presented new or unreviewed safety questions. However, some of the changes have been based on questions or recommendations stemming from safety reviews or from reactor events at other sites. This paper discusses those changes which were judged to be safety related and which include revisions to the syphon-break system and changes related to seismic considerations which were very recently completed. The maximum hypothetical accident postulated in the original safety analysis requires dynamic containment and filtered flow for compliance with 10CFR100 limits at the site boundary.

  6. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Ludewig, Hans; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Serre, Frederic

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the

  7. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  8. Partial versus Complete Fundoplication for the Correction of Pediatric GERD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Glen, Peter; Chassé, Michaël; Doyle, Mary-Anne; Nasr, Ahmed; Fergusson, Dean A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is no consensus as to what extent of “wrap” is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Objective To evaluate if a complete (360 degree) or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Results 2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25%) used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor. Conclusions The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis. PMID:25386679

  9. BESAFE II: Accident safety analysis code for MFE reactor designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevigny, Lawrence Michael

    The viability of controlled thermonuclear fusion as an alternative energy source hinges on its desirability from an economic and an environmental and safety standpoint. It is the latter which is the focus of this thesis. For magnetic fusion energy (MFE) devices, the safety concerns equate to a design's behavior during a worst-case accident scenario which is the loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In this dissertation, we examine the behavior of MFE devices during a LOCA and how this behavior relates to the safety characteristics of the machine; in particular the acute, whole-body, early dose. In doing so, we have produced an accident safety code, BESAFE II, now available to the fusion reactor design community. The Appendix constitutes the User's Manual for BESAFE II. The theory behind early dose calculations including the mobilization of activation products is presented in Chapter 2. Since mobilization of activation products is a strong function of temperature, it becomes necessary to calculate the thermal response of a design during a LOCA in order to determine the fraction of the activation products which are mobilized and thus become the source for the dose. The code BESAFE II is designed to determine the temperature history of each region of a design and determine the resulting mobilization of activation products at each point in time during the LOCA. The BESAFE II methodology is discussed in Chapter 4, followed by demonstrations of its use for two reference design cases: a PCA-Li tokamak and a SiC-He tokamak. Of these two cases, it is shown that the SiC-He tokamak is a better design from an accident safety standpoint than the PCA-Li tokamak. It is also found that doses derived from temperature-dependent mobilization data are different than those predicted using set mobilization categories such as those that involve Piet fractions. This demonstrates the need for more experimental data on fusion materials. The possibility for future improvements and modifications

  10. Identification of Medicinal Mugua Origin by Near Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least-squares Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bangxing; Peng, Huasheng; Yan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mugua is a common Chinese herbal medicine. There are three main medicinal origin places in China, Xuancheng City Anhui Province, Qijiang District Chongqing City, Yichang City, Hubei Province, and suitable for food origin places Linyi City Shandong Province. Objective: To construct a qualitative analytical method to identify the origin of medicinal Mugua by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Materials and Methods: Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was established after the Mugua derived from five different origins were preprocessed by the original spectrum. Moreover, the hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. Results: The result showed that PLSDA model was established. According to the relationship of the origins-related important score and wavenumber, and K-mean cluster analysis, the Muguas derived from different origins were effectively identified. Conclusion: NIRS technology can quickly and accurately identify the origin of Mugua, provide a new method and technology for the identification of Chinese medicinal materials. SUMMARY After preprocessed by D1+autoscale, more peaks were increased in the preprocessed Mugua in the near infrared spectrumFive latent variable scores could reflect the information related to the origin place of MuguaOrigins of Mugua were well-distinguished according to K. mean value clustering analysis. Abbreviations used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, NIRS: Near infrared spectroscopy, SG: Savitzky-Golay smoothness, D1: First derivative, D2: Second derivative, SNV: Standard normal variable transformation, MSC: Multiplicative scatter correction, PLSDA: Partial least squares discriminant analysis, LV: Latent variable, VIP scores: Important score. PMID:27076743

  11. Outcome of radiofrequency ablation over partial nephrectomy for small renal mass (<4 cm): a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yue; Chen, Shouzhen; Chen, Fan; Zhu, Kejia; Deng, Qiming; Luo, Li; Shi, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A meta-analysis was undertaken to provide evidence-based clinical trials comparing radiofrequency ablation with partial nephrectomy for small renal mass. Methods: We searched through the major medical databases such as Pub Med, EMBASE, Medline, Science Citation Index, Web of Science and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database) and Wangfang (Database of Chinese Ministry of Science & Technology) for all published studies without any limit on language from May 2007 until May 2015. The following search terms wereused: partial nephrectomy, radiofrequency ablation, renal cell carcinoma, small renal tumor or mass. Furthermore, additional related studies were manually searched in the reference lists of all published reviews and retrieved articles. Results: We found there were no statistical differences between groups in 5y-DFS, recurrence rates, complications, but a less percentage decease rate of GFR than PN, and RFA may be a better application for SRM (<4 cm). PMID:26884989

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1982-07-01

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given.

  13. Multimorbidity and Patient Safety Incidents in Primary Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Panagioti, Maria; Stokes, Jonathan; Esmail, Aneez; Coventry, Peter; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Alam, Rahul; Bower, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is increasingly prevalent and represents a major challenge in primary care. Patients with multimorbidity are potentially more likely to experience safety incidents due to the complexity of their needs and frequency of their interactions with health services. However, rigorous syntheses of the link between patient safety incidents and multimorbidity are not available. This review examined the relationship between multimorbidity and patient safety incidents in primary care. Methods We followed our published protocol (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007434). Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched up to May 2015. Study design and quality were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for the associations between multimorbidity and two categories of patient safety outcomes: ‘active patient safety incidents’ (such as adverse drug events and medical complications) and ‘precursors of safety incidents’ (such as prescription errors, medication non-adherence, poor quality of care and diagnostic errors). Meta-analyses using random effects models were undertaken. Results Eighty six relevant comparisons from 75 studies were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis demonstrated that physical-mental multimorbidity was associated with an increased risk for ‘active patient safety incidents’ (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.40 to 3.38) and ‘precursors of safety incidents’ (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.36 to 2.03). Physical multimorbidity was associated with an increased risk for active safety incidents (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45 to 1.80) but was not associated with precursors of safety incidents (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.13). Statistical heterogeneity was high and the methodological quality of the studies was generally low. Conclusions The association between multimorbidity and patient safety is complex, and varies by type of multimorbidity and type of safety incident. Our analyses suggest that multimorbidity

  14. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21. PMID:23820073

  15. Nuclear-power-safety reporting system: feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson, F.C.; Ims, J.

    1983-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is evaluating the possibility of instituting a data gathering system for identifying and quantifying the factors that contribute to the occurrence of significant safety problems involving humans in nuclear power plants. This report presents the results of a brief (6 months) study of the feasibility of developing a voluntary, nonpunitive Nuclear Power Safety Reporting System (NPSRS). Reports collected by the system would be used to create a data base for documenting, analyzing and assessing the significance of the incidents. Results of The Aerospace Corporation study are presented in two volumes. This document, Volume I, contains a summary of an assessment of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The FAA-sponsored, NASA-managed ASRS was found to be successful, relatively low in cost, generally acceptable to all facets of the aviation community, and the source of much useful data and valuable reports on human factor problems in the nation's airways. Several significant ASRS features were found to be pertinent and applicable for adoption into a NPSRS.

  16. Numerical analysis of partially molten splat during thermal spray process using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirari, M.; Abdellah El-Hadj, A.; Bacha, N.

    2010-03-01

    A finite element method is used to simulate the deposition of the thermal spray coating process. A set of governing equations is solving by a volume of fluid method. For the solidification phenomenon, we use the specific heat method (SHM). We begin by comparing the present model with experimental and numerical model available in the literature. In this study, completely molten or semi-molten aluminum particle impacts a H13 tool steel substrate is considered. Next we investigate the effect of inclination of impact of a partially molten particle on flat substrate. It was found that the melting state of the particle has great effects on the morphologies of the splat.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of oryx species using partial sequences of mitochondrial rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, H A; Arif, I A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a comparative evaluation of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes of the mitochondrial genome for molecular differentiation among three oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) with respect to two closely related outgroups, addax and roan. Our findings showed the failure of 12S rRNA gene to differentiate between the genus Oryx and addax, whereas a 342-bp partial sequence of 16S rRNA accurately grouped all five taxa studied, suggesting the utility of 16S rRNA segment for molecular phylogeny of oryx at the genus and possibly species levels. PMID:19048493

  18. Partial sequence analysis of 130 randomly selected maize cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Keith, C S; Hoang, D O; Barrett, B M; Feigelman, B; Nelson, M C; Thai, H; Baysdorfer, C

    1993-01-01

    As part of a project to identify novel maize (Zea mays L. cv B73) genes functionally, we have partially sequenced 130 randomly selected clones from a maize leaf cDNA library. Data base comparisons revealed seven previously sequenced maize cDNAs and 18 cDNAs with sequence similarity to related maize genes or to genes from other organisms. One hundred five cDNAs show little or no similarity to previously sequenced genes. Our results also establish the suitability of this library for large-scale sequencing in terms of its large insert size, proper insert orientation, and low duplication rate. PMID:8278499

  19. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 417 - Ground Safety Analysis Report

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system, subsystem and operation and each associated interface. The data in this chapter must include the... data. A hazard analysis form must contain or reference all information necessary to understand the...) Hazard analysis supporting data. A ground safety analysis report must include data that supports...

  20. Analysis of factors influencing safety management for metro construction in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q Z; Ding, L Y; Zhou, C; Luo, H B

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization in China, the number and size of metro construction projects are increasing quickly. At the same time, and increasing number of accidents in metro construction make it a disturbing focus of social attention. In order to improve safety management in metro construction, an investigation of the participants' perspectives on safety factors in China metro construction has been conducted to identify the key safety factors, and their ranking consistency among the main participants, including clients, consultants, designers, contractors and supervisors. The result of factor analysis indicates that there are five key factors which influence the safety of metro construction including safety attitude, construction site safety, government supervision, market restrictions and task unpredictability. In addition, ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were performed to test the consistency of the means rating and the ranking of safety factors. The results indicated that the main participants have significant disagreement about the importance of safety factors on more than half of the items. Suggestions and recommendations on practical countermeasures to improve metro construction safety management in China are proposed. PMID:23932091

  1. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    PubMed Central

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  2. Comparison of a Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approach with Advanced Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma

    2014-11-01

    As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) [1], the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) [2] Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.

  3. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data for safety-analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, F.C.

    1982-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data contained herein were compiled in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office Order OR 5481.1. That order sets forth assignment of responsibilities for safety analysis and review responsibilities and provides guidance relative to the content and format of safety analysis reports. The information presented in this document is intended for use by reference in individual safety analysis reports where applicable to support accident analyses or the establishment of design bases of significance to safety, and it is applicable only to Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities in Bethel and Melton Valleys. This information includes broad descriptions of the site characteristics, radioactive waste handling and monitoring practices, and the organization and operating policies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The historical background of the Laboratory is discussed briefly and the overall physical situation of the facilities is described in the following paragraphs.

  5. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    PubMed

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  6. A Methodological Approach for Spatiotemporally Analyzing Water-Polluting Effluents in Agricultural Landscapes Using Partial Triadic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J J; Darwiche-Criado, N; Sorando, R; Comín, F A; Sánchez-Pérez, J M

    2015-09-01

    Multivariate techniques for two-dimensional data matrices are normally used in water quality studies. However, if the temporal dimension is included in the analysis, other statistical techniques are recommended. In this study, partial triadic analysis was used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in water quality variables sampled in a northeastern Spain river basin. The results highlight the spatiality of the physical and chemical properties of water at different sites along a river over 1 yr. Partial triadic analysis allowed us to clearly identify the presence of a stable spatial structure that was common to all sampling dates across the entire catchment. Variables such as electrical conductivity and Na and Cl ions were associated with agricultural sources, whereas total dissolved nitrogen, NH-N concentrations, and NO-N concentrations were linked to polluted urban sites; differences were observed between irrigated and nonirrigated periods. The concentration of NO-N was associated with both agricultural and urban land uses. Variables associated with urban and agricultural pollution sources were highly influenced by the seasonality of different activities conducted in the study area. In analyzing the impact of land use and fertilization management on water runoff and effluents, powerful statistical tools that can properly identify the causes of pollution in watersheds are important. Partial triadic analysis can efficiently summarize site-specific water chemistry patterns in an applied setting for land- and water-monitoring schemes at the landscape level. The method is recommended for land-use decision-making processes to reduce harmful environmental effects and promote sustainable watershed management. PMID:26436278

  7. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  8. Analysis and Modeling of Parallel Photovoltaic Systems under Partial Shading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddala, Santhoshi Snigdha

    Since the industrial revolution, fossil fuels like petroleum, coal, oil, natural gas and other non-renewable energy sources have been used as the primary energy source. The consumption of fossil fuels releases various harmful gases into the atmosphere as byproducts which are hazardous in nature and they tend to deplete the protective layers and affect the overall environmental balance. Also the fossil fuels are bounded resources of energy and rapid depletion of these sources of energy, have prompted the need to investigate alternate sources of energy called renewable energy. One such promising source of renewable energy is the solar/photovoltaic energy. This work focuses on investigating a new solar array architecture with solar cells connected in parallel configuration. By retaining the structural simplicity of the parallel architecture, a theoretical small signal model of the solar cell is proposed and modeled to analyze the variations in the module parameters when subjected to partial shading conditions. Simulations were run in SPICE to validate the model implemented in Matlab. The voltage limitations of the proposed architecture are addressed by adopting a simple dc-dc boost converter and evaluating the performance of the architecture in terms of efficiencies by comparing it with the traditional architectures. SPICE simulations are used to compare the architectures and identify the best one in terms of power conversion efficiency under partial shading conditions.

  9. Partial discharge analysis of prestretched and unstretched acrylic elastomers for Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffoletto, Daniel P.; Burke, Kevin M.; Zirnheld, Jennifer L.

    2012-04-01

    Partial discharges (PD) occur in solid insulating materials when the insulating material is partially bridged by an electrical discharge in response to an applied voltage stress. PDs typically occur at localized points of high field stresses or at voids and other inhomogeneities within the insulator. The applied field's effect on the frequency of occurrence and intensity of PDs can be used to assess the electrical breakdown strength and aging characteristics of insulating materials. PD testing is therefore a promising characterization method to understand the insulating properties of the elastomers and geometries commonly used in DEAs. Prestretched (~100% and ~230% biaxial) and unstretched acrylic elastomers (3M VHB tapes) with solid metal electrodes have been tested. We have found the number and intensity of PDs increase with applied field, and that a significant number of PDs are detected before any actuation was visibly observed, implying that the fields required for actuation will cause material aging and degradation over time. Most interestingly, the number of PDs steadily increase as the applied voltage increases up to a sufficiently high voltage, where the PDs suddenly cease. Since internal voids can cause PDs, this may indicate that the Maxwell stress minimized the thickness of or eliminated these voids, which could explain how prestretching improves performance.

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of...

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... included in an equivalent level of safety analysis? 102-80.105 Section 102-80.105 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.105 What information must be included in an equivalent level of...

  12. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  13. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  14. Quantitative infrared spectroscopic analysis of SF 6 decomposition products obtained by electrical partial discharges and sparks using PLS-calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurte, R.; Heise, H. M.; Klockow, D.

    2001-05-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the analysis of gaseous by-products in sulfur hexafluoride gas used as an insulator in high-voltage equipment. Sparks and electrical partial discharges were generated between different point-plane configurations within a custom-made discharge chamber constructed from stainless steel and Teflon ®. Various electrode materials were used such as stainless steel, copper, aluminium, silver, tungsten and tungsten/copper alloy. Owing to the different electrical conditions, a wide concentration range of the decomposition products existed. The main-products found were the sulfuroxyfluorides SOF 4 and SOF 2, as well as HF following experiments with partial discharges and sparking with energies around 1.0 J/spark. All infrared spectra were recorded using an FTIR-spectrometer equipped with a 10 cm gas cell. Quantification was carried out using classical least-squares and partial least-squares (PLS) with multivariate spectral data from selected intervals. PLS calibration models were also optimised under the constraint of a minimum number of spectral variables with a view to developing simple photometers based on a restricted number of laser wavelengths. Standard errors of prediction obtained by cross-validation of different PLS calibration models are reported for the compounds mentioned, as well as for SF 4, SO 2F 2 and SiF 4.

  15. Estimating multiparameter partial expected value of perfect information from a probabilistic sensitivity analysis sample: a nonparametric regression approach.

    PubMed

    Strong, Mark; Oakley, Jeremy E; Brennan, Alan

    2014-04-01

    The partial expected value of perfect information (EVPI) quantifies the expected benefit of learning the values of uncertain parameters in a decision model. Partial EVPI is commonly estimated via a 2-level Monte Carlo procedure in which parameters of interest are sampled in an outer loop, and then conditional on these, the remaining parameters are sampled in an inner loop. This is computationally demanding and may be difficult if correlation between input parameters results in conditional distributions that are hard to sample from. We describe a novel nonparametric regression-based method for estimating partial EVPI that requires only the probabilistic sensitivity analysis sample (i.e., the set of samples drawn from the joint distribution of the parameters and the corresponding net benefits). The method is applicable in a model of any complexity and with any specification of input parameter distribution. We describe the implementation of the method via 2 nonparametric regression modeling approaches, the Generalized Additive Model and the Gaussian process. We demonstrate in 2 case studies the superior efficiency of the regression method over the 2-level Monte Carlo method. R code is made available to implement the method. PMID:24246566

  16. Plasma-assisted partial oxidation of methane at low temperatures: numerical analysis of gas-phase chemical mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goujard, Valentin; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Yuzawa, Shuhei; Ağiral, Anil; Okazaki, Ken

    2011-07-01

    Methane partial oxidation was investigated using a plasma microreactor. The experiments were performed at 5 and 300 °C. Microreactor configuration allows an efficient evacuation of the heat generated by methane partial oxidation and dielectric barrier discharges, allowing at the same time a better temperature control. At 5 °C, liquid condensation of low vapour pressure compounds, such as formaldehyde and methanol, occurs. 1H-NMR analysis allowed us to demonstrate significant CH3OOH formation during plasma-assisted partial oxidation of methane. Conversion and product selectivity were discussed for both temperatures. In the second part of this work, a numerical simulation was performed and a gas-phase chemical mechanism was proposed and discussed. From the comparison between the experimental results and the simulation it was found that CH3OO· formation has a determinant role in oxygenated compound production, since its fast formation disfavoured radical recombination. At 5 °C the oxidation leads mainly towards oxygenated compound formation, and plasma dissociation was the major phenomenon responsible for CH4 conversion. At 300 °C, higher CH4 conversion resulted from oxidative reactions induced by ·OH radicals with a chemistry predominantly oxidative, producing CO, H2, CO2 and H2O.

  17. Preliminary safety analysis of the zinc chlorine electric vehicle battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    Since the design is not yet fixed or fully detailed, the intent is to identify the principal areas of uncertainty and concern for public safety, thereby aiding in further development and initial deployment planning. Of the wide range of potential hazards considered, all were discounted except for possible release of toxic chlorine gas under conditions such as a major collision. The risk of casualties in such accidents appears to be significant, but probably similar to that for casualty rates now arising from sources unique to the ICE vehicle such as carbon monoxide poisoning and fire.

  18. Statistical analysis of liquid seepage in partially saturated heterogeneous fracture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, T.S.

    1999-12-01

    Field evidence suggests that water flow in unsaturated fracture systems may occur along fast preferential flow paths. However, conventional macroscale continuum approaches generally predict the downward migration of water as a spatially uniform wetting front subjected to strong inhibition into the partially saturated rock matrix. One possible cause of this discrepancy may be the spatially random geometry of the fracture surfaces, and hence, the irregular fracture aperture. Therefore, a numerical model was developed in this study to investigate the effects of geometric features of natural rock fractures on liquid seepage and solute transport in 2-D planar fractures under isothermal, partially saturated conditions. The fractures were conceptualized as 2-D heterogeneous porous media that are characterized by their spatially correlated permeability fields. A statistical simulator, which uses a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, was employed to generate synthetic permeability fields. Hypothesized geometric features that are expected to be relevant for seepage behavior, such as spatially correlated asperity contacts, were considered in the SA algorithm. Most importantly, a new perturbation mechanism for SA was developed in order to consider specifically the spatial correlation near conditioning asperity contacts. Numerical simulations of fluid flow and solute transport were then performed in these synthetic fractures by the flow simulator TOUGH2, assuming that the effects of matrix permeability, gas phase pressure, capillary/permeability hysteresis, and molecular diffusion can be neglected. Results of flow simulation showed that liquid seepage in partially saturated fractures is characterized by localized preferential flow, along with bypassing, funneling, and localized ponding. Seepage pattern is dominated by the fraction of asperity contracts, and their shape, size, and spatial correlation. However, the correlation structure of permeability field is less important

  19. Evaluation of a Partial Genome Screening of Two Asthma Susceptibility Regions Using Bayesian Network Based Bayesian Multilevel Analysis of Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Antal, Péter; Kiszel, Petra Sz.; Gézsi, András; Hadadi, Éva; Virág, Viktor; Hajós, Gergely; Millinghoffer, András; Nagy, Adrienne; Kiss, András; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Temesi, Gergely; Melegh, Béla; Kisfali, Péter; Széll, Márta; Bikov, András; Gálffy, Gabriella; Tamási, Lilla; Falus, András; Szalai, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate high number of potential factors related to asthma. Based on earlier linkage analyses we selected the 11q13 and 14q22 asthma susceptibility regions, for which we designed a partial genome screening study using 145 SNPs in 1201 individuals (436 asthmatic children and 765 controls). The results were evaluated with traditional frequentist methods and we applied a new statistical method, called Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA). This method uses Bayesian network representation to provide detailed characterization of the relevance of factors, such as joint significance, the type of dependency, and multi-target aspects. We estimated posteriors for these relations within the Bayesian statistical framework, in order to estimate the posteriors whether a variable is directly relevant or its association is only mediated. With frequentist methods one SNP (rs3751464 in the FRMD6 gene) provided evidence for an association with asthma (OR = 1.43(1.2–1.8); p = 3×10−4). The possible role of the FRMD6 gene in asthma was also confirmed in an animal model and human asthmatics. In the BN-BMLA analysis altogether 5 SNPs in 4 genes were found relevant in connection with asthma phenotype: PRPF19 on chromosome 11, and FRMD6, PTGER2 and PTGDR on chromosome 14. In a subsequent step a partial dataset containing rhinitis and further clinical parameters was used, which allowed the analysis of relevance of SNPs for asthma and multiple targets. These analyses suggested that SNPs in the AHNAK and MS4A2 genes were indirectly associated with asthma. This paper indicates that BN-BMLA explores the relevant factors more comprehensively than traditional statistical methods and extends the scope of strong relevance based methods to include partial relevance, global characterization of relevance and multi-target relevance. PMID:22432035

  20. Non-Darcian forced convection analysis in an annulus partially filled with a porous material

    SciTech Connect

    Chikh, S.; Boumedien, A.; Bouhadef, K.; Lauriat, G.

    1995-12-01

    Numerical solutions are presented for fully developed forced convection in concentric annuli partially filled with a porous medium. The porous medium is attached at the inner cylinder, which is maintained at uniform heat flux or at uniform wall temperature while the outer cylinder is adiabatic. The Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model was used to model the flow inside the porous medium. The dependence of the fluid flow and heat transfer on several parameters of the problem is thoroughly documented. The inertia coefficient at which the inertial effects reduce the flow rate by 5% is determined as a function of the Darcy number for various thicknesses of the porous substrate. It is also shown that a critical thickness at which the value of the Nusselt number reaches a minimum does not exist if the effective thermal conductivity of the fluid-saturated porous medium is much higher than the fluid conductivity.

  1. Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Module during Partial Shading based on Simplified Two-Diode Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitti Babu, B.; Gurjar, Suresh; Meher, Ashish

    2015-02-01

    Generally, the characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) array are largely affected by solar temperature, solar irradiance, shading patterns, array configuration and location of shading modules. Partial shading is due to moving clouds and shadows of nearby obstacles and can cause a significant degradation in the output of PV system. Hence, the characteristics of PV array get more multifaceted with multiple peaks. The ultimate aim of the paper is to analyze the performance of PV module during such adverse condition based on simplified two-diode model. To reduce the computational time, the simplified two-diode model has a photocurrent source in parallel with two ideal diodes. Only four parameters are required to be calculated from datasheet in order to simulate the model. Moreover, the performance of PV array is evaluated at different shaded patterns and it is found that the model has less computational time and gives accurate results.

  2. Does Quality-of-Life Policing Widen the Net? A Partial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.; Taylor, Angela; Eterno, John

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990s, the New York City Police Department instituted a policy of arresting individuals for less serious offenses that impinge on the city’s quality of life (QOL). Critics contend that QOL policing widened the net for arrest, especially among minorities. Alternatively, QOL policing could have created additional opportunities for arresting individuals from the same populations that tend to incur arrests for more serious offenses. This article reports on a comparison of New York City QOL and serious arrestees interviewed in 1999 that provides partial support for this alternative hypothesis; the two groups were similar regarding prior arrests, participation in QOL offenses, and demographic composition. Of note, blacks and Hispanics comprised close to 90% of both arrest populations. These findings suggest that QOL policing does not necessarily widen the net for arrest. PMID:25309134

  3. Calculation of Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Analysis. II; Inclusion of Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temkin, Aaron; Shertzer, J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There was a method for calculating the whole scattering amplitude, f(Omega(sub k)), directly. The idea was to calculate the complete wave function Psi numerically, and use it in an integral expression for f, which can be reduced to a 2 dimensional quadrature. The original application was for e-H scattering without exchange. There the Schrodinger reduces a 2-d partial differential equation (pde), which was solved using the finite element method (FEM). Here we extend the method to the exchange approximation. The S.E. can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, which are again solved by the FEM. The formal expression for f(Omega(sub k)) consists two integrals, f+/- = f(sub d) +/- f(sub e); f(sub d) is formally the same integral as the no-exchange f. We have also succeeded in reducing f(sub e) to a 2-d integral. Results will be presented at the meeting.

  4. Analysis on the off-state design and characterization of LIGBTs in partial SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho Ching Tee, Elizabeth; Antoniou, Marina; Udrea, Florin; Hoelke, Alexander; Ng, Liang Yew; Bin Wan Zainal Abidin, Wan Azlan; Pilkington, Steven John; Pal, Deb Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Classical high voltage devices fabricated on SOI substrates suffer from a backside coupling effect which could result in premature breakdown. This phenomenon becomes more prominent if the structure is an IGBT which features a p-type injector. To suppress the premature breakdown due to crowding of electro-potential lines within a confined SOI/buried oxide structure, the partial SOI (PSOI) technique is being introduced. This paper analyzes the off-state behavior of an n-type Superjunction (SJ) LIGBT fabricated on PSOI substrate. During the initial development stage the SJ LIGBT was found to have very high leakage. This was attributed to the back and side coupling effects. This paper discusses these effects and shows how this problem could be successfully addressed with minimal modifications of device layout. The off-state performance of the SJ LIGBT at different temperatures is assessed and a comparison to an equivalent LDMOSFET is given.

  5. Review and Analysis of Development of "Safety by Design" Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Scott A.; Hockert, John

    2009-10-20

    This report, the deliverable for Task 4 of the NA-243 Safeguards by Design Work Plan for Fiscal Year 2009, develops the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards By Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. This experience was selected for study because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. Development of DOE-STD-1189 began in January 2006 and the standard was issued for implementation in March 2008. The process was much more time consuming than originally anticipated and might not have come to fruition had senior DOE management been less committed to its success. Potentially valuable lessons can be learned from both the content and presentation of the integration approach in DOE-STD-1189 and from the DOE experience in developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189. These lessons are important because the instutionalization of SBD does not yet appear to have the level of senior management commitment afforded development and implementation of DOE-STD-1189.

  6. Analysis of Fundamental NIST Sphere Experiments Related to Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon S.

    2007-06-01

    A series of neutron transport experiments was performed in 1989 and 1990 at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) using a spherical stainless steel container and fission chambers. These experiments were performed to help understand errors observed in criticality calculations for arrays of individually subcritical components, particularly solution arrays [1-3]. They were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environment and Health, Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project. The intent was to evaluate the possibility that the criticality prediction errors stem from errors in the calculation of neutron leakage from individual components of the array. Thus, the explicit product of the experiments was the measurement of the leakage flux, as characterized by various Cd-shielded and unshielded fission rates. Because the various fission rates have different neutron-energy sensitivities, collectively they give an indication of the energy dependence of the leakage flux. Leakage and moderation were varied systematically through the use of different diameter spheres, with and without water. Some of these experiments with bare fission chambers have been evaluated by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)[4].

  7. A New Approach for Deep Gray Matter Analysis Using Partial-Volume Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Bonnier, Guillaume; Kober, Tobias; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Krueger, Gunnar; Meuli, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The existence of partial volume effects in brain MR images makes it challenging to understand physio-pathological alterations underlying signal changes due to pathology across groups of healthy subjects and patients. In this study, we implement a new approach to disentangle gray and white matter alterations in the thalamus and the basal ganglia. The proposed method was applied to a cohort of early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy subjects to evaluate tissue-specific alterations related to diffuse inflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. Method Forty-three relapsing-remitting MS patients and nineteen healthy controls underwent 3T MRI including: (i) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, double inversion recovery, magnetization-prepared gradient echo for lesion count, and (ii) T1 relaxometry. We applied a partial volume estimation algorithm to T1 relaxometry maps to gray and white matter local concentrations as well as T1 values characteristic of gray and white matter in the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Statistical tests were performed to compare groups in terms of both global T1 values, tissue characteristic T1 values, and tissue concentrations. Results Significant increases in global T1 values were observed in the thalamus (p = 0.038) and the putamen (p = 0.026) in RRMS patients compared to HC. In the Thalamus, the T1 increase was associated with a significant increase in gray matter characteristic T1 (p = 0.0016) with no significant effect in white matter. Conclusion The presented methodology provides additional information to standard MR signal averaging approaches that holds promise to identify the presence and nature of diffuse pathology in neuro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26845760

  8. Electronic Nose Based on Independent Component Analysis Combined with Partial Least Squares and Artificial Neural Networks for Wine Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Teodoro; Lozano, Jesús; Paredes, José A.; Álvarez, Fernando J.; Suárez, José I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an alternative way for wine classification and prediction based on an electronic nose (e-nose) combined with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as a dimensionality reduction technique, Partial Least Squares (PLS) to predict sensorial descriptors and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for classification purpose. A total of 26 wines from different regions, varieties and elaboration processes have been analyzed with an e-nose and tasted by a sensory panel. Successful results have been obtained in most cases for prediction and classification. PMID:22969387

  9. On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  10. On the partial-wave analysis of mesonic resonances decaying to multiparticle final states produced by polarized photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) using photon beams. In particular this report broadens this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  11. Model-Driven Safety Analysis of Closed-Loop Medical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pajic, Miroslav; Mangharam, Rahul; Sokolsky, Oleg; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian; Lee, Insup

    2013-01-01

    In modern hospitals, patients are treated using a wide array of medical devices that are increasingly interacting with each other over the network, thus offering a perfect example of a cyber-physical system. We study the safety of a medical device system for the physiologic closed-loop control of drug infusion. The main contribution of the paper is the verification approach for the safety properties of closed-loop medical device systems. We demonstrate, using a case study, that the approach can be applied to a system of clinical importance. Our method combines simulation-based analysis of a detailed model of the system that contains continuous patient dynamics with model checking of a more abstract timed automata model. We show that the relationship between the two models preserves the crucial aspect of the timing behavior that ensures the conservativeness of the safety analysis. We also describe system design that can provide open-loop safety under network failure. PMID:24177176

  12. Work Domain Analysis for understanding medication safety in care homes in England: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Rosemary H M; Anderson, Janet E; Buckle, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Medication safety and errors are a major concern in care homes. In addition to the identification of incidents, there is a need for a comprehensive system description to avoid the danger of introducing interventions that have unintended consequences and are therefore unsustainable. The aim of this study was to explore the impact and uniqueness of Work Domain Analysis (WDA) to facilitate an in-depth understanding of medication safety problems within the care home system and identify the potential benefits of WDA to design safety interventions to improve medication safety. A comprehensive, systematic and contextual overview of the care home medication system was developed for the first time. The novel use of the abstraction hierarchy (AH) to analyse medication errors revealed the value of the AH to guide a comprehensive analysis of errors and generate system improvement recommendations that took into account the contextual information of the wider system. PMID:26037621

  13. School food safety program based on hazard analysis and critical control point principles. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-12-15

    This final rule implements a legislative provision which requires school food authorities participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) or the School Breakfast Program (SBP) to develop a school food safety program for the preparation and service of school meals served to children. The school food safety program must be based on the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system established by the Secretary of Agriculture. The food safety program will enable schools to take systematic action to prevent or minimize the risk of foodborne illness among children participating in the NSLP and SBP. PMID:20169679

  14. A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Michael V.

    2006-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified examples.

  15. A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Michael V.

    2006-01-20

    The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified exampl0008.

  16. Bayesian Statistics and Uncertainty Quantification for Safety Boundary Analysis in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yuning; Davies, Misty Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of a safety-critical system often requires detailed knowledge of safe regions and their highdimensional non-linear boundaries. We present a statistical approach to iteratively detect and characterize the boundaries, which are provided as parameterized shape candidates. Using methods from uncertainty quantification and active learning, we incrementally construct a statistical model from only few simulation runs and obtain statistically sound estimates of the shape parameters for safety boundaries.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aboneh, Ephrem A.; Look, Kevin; Stone, Jamie; Lester, Corey; Chui, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004, and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently community pharmacies. However, it is unknown if safety culture dimensions developed in hospital settings can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Method The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in [state], United States. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. Results A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate of 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27 item, 4-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with 3 items, dropped in its entirety while 6 items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the 4-factor structure: safety related communication, staff training and work environment, organizational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Conclusion Dimensions related to safety culture in a community pharmacy environment may differ from those in other healthcare settings such as in hospitals. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. PMID:26208535

  18. Effects of relay chatter in seismic probabilistic safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.; Shiu, K.K.

    1985-01-01

    In the Zion and Indian Point Probabilistic Safety Studies, relay chatter was dismissed as a credible event and hence was not formally included in the analyses. Although little discussion is given in the Zion and Indian Point PSA documentation concerning the basis for this decision, it has been expressed informally that it was assumed that the operators will be able to reset all relays in a timely manner. Currently, it is the opinion of many professionals that this may be an oversimplification. The three basic areas which must be considered in addressing relay chatter include the fragility of the relays per se, the reliability of the operators to reset the relays and finally the systems response aspects. Each of these areas is reviewed and the implications for seismic PSA are discussed. Finally, recommendations for future research are given.

  19. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information from January 1, 2001 through March 31, 2001 available on the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Contents include 1) Cognitive Task Analysis; 2) RTO Educational Notes; 3) The Capability of Virtual Reality to Meet Military Requirements; 4) Aging Engines, Avionics, Subsystems and Helicopters; 5) RTO Meeting Proceedings; 6) RTO Technical Reports; 7) Low Grazing Angle Clutter...; 8) Verification and Validation Data for Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics; 9) Space Observation Technology; 10) The Human Factor in System Reliability...; 11) Flight Control Design...; 12) Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products in Defense Applications.

  20. The efficacy and safety of nivolumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Conghui; Zhang, Xunlei; Zhao, Kuiling; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Min; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Background Nivolumab has become a therapeutic regimen for the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in patients with advanced melanoma. Methods A systematic search from January 2008 to August 2015 with “nivolumab” and “advanced melanoma” as search terms was performed for possible clinical trials. According to the hazard ratio and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for progression-free survival (PFS), rates of objective response, complete response, partial response, rates of toxic effects, and the efficacy and safety of nivolumab were assessed. Using the software Review Manager (version 5.3) a meta-analysis was performed. Results There were four trials with 1,910 patients included. Based on the four trials, the pooled hazard ratio of PFS was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.43–0.66; P<0.001). The pooled risk ratio for the objective response rate, complete response, and partial response was 2.98% (95% CI, 2.38%–3.73%; P<0.001), 3.71% (95% CI, 2.67%–5.14%; P<0.001), and 2.51% (95% CI, 2.12%–2.99%; P<0.001), respectively. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab therapy significantly increased the risk of grade 3/4 rash and fatigue. Conclusion Nivolumab-based therapy prolonged PFS in treatment of advanced melanoma, with less adverse effects. Nivolumab appears to be a favorable treatment option as a novel, targeted anticancer agent, for patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:27051297