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Sample records for partial soybean meal

  1. Evaluation of corn gluten feed and cottonseed meal as partial replacements for soybean meal and corn in diets for pond raised hybrid catfish Ictalurus punctatus I. furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the use of corn gluten feed (CGF) and cottonseed meal (CSM) to partially replace soybean meal and corn in diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, Ictalurus punctatus × I. furcatus. Five 28% protein diets containing various combinations of CGF and CSM were evaluated. Fingerling hybr...

  2. Partial substitution of soybean meal by Gliricidia sepium or Guazuma ulmifolia leaves in the rations of growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco; Martínez-Pérez, Paulina; Corona, Luis; Cerdán, José Luis Valle; Mendoza, Germán David

    2016-01-01

    The partial substitution of soybean meal by Gliricidia sepium or Guazuma ulmifolia leaves in the rations of growing lambs was evaluated at an experimental station in the dry tropics of Mexico. Sixteen weaned crossbred male Pelibuey × Blackbelly lambs (initial weight 19 ± 1.66 kg), distributed in a completely randomized design, were assigned to the following protein sources: (a) 100% soybean meal, (b) 50% soybean meal + 50% G. sepium, (c) 50 % soybean meal + 25% G. ulmifolia + 25% G. sepium, and (d) 50% soybean meal + 50% G. ulmifolia in isoproteic rations. The lambs were housed in individual pens and fed ad libitum. Substitution of protein from soybean meal with G. ulmifolia did not affect gain, intake, or feed conversion; however, the inclusion of G. sepium reduced (linear effect, P < 0.01) gain and intake and impaired feed conversion (linear effect, P < 0.01). Partial substitution up to 50% of soybean meal with 50% G. ulmifolia leaves resulted in similar growth and lamb performance, but inclusion of G. sepium leaves adversely affected lamb growth, presumably due to other factors not related to the protein content. PMID:26494547

  3. Partial replacement of barley grain and soybean meal by fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) in diets of growing Awassi lambs.

    PubMed

    Abo Omar, J M; Omar, M

    2012-07-01

    Effects of partial substitution of barley grain and soybean meal with fleabane (FB) Conyza bonariensis on growth performances and body compositions of 24 male local Awassi lambs were studied. All lambs were male with an average BW of 20.3 kg (s.d. = 2.0 kg) at the beginning of the experiment. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six lambs each. Lambs in each group received individually their cereal-soybean-based total mixed rations with levels of FB: 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) diet, which replaced similar values of barley and soybean meal. All rations were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The fattening experiment lasted 9 weeks, after which all lambs were slaughtered. The composition of nutrients in the C. bonariensis were 89.6%, 15.0%, 28.0%, 30.0% and 10% for organic matter, CP, NDF, ADF and lignin, respectively. At the end of the experiment, lambs fed 100 and 150 g FB/kg DM diets gained more weight (P < 0.05) than those fed the control and 50 g FB/kg DM diets. The DM intake was lower in lambs fed the highest level of FB compared with intakes of lambs in other treatments. Diet content of FB had significant effect (P < 0.05) on weights of empty body, carcass, gut and external (hide, head and feet) among all animals. However, FB had no effects on lambs' thoracic organs (lungs and heart) and liver. Muscle, bone, omental and mesenteric fat, subcutaneous, intermuscular, pelvic and kidney fat weights (g/kg empty BW) were not affected by FB feeding. Carcass fat was decreased (P < 0.05) by the increase of FB. Total body fat was the same in all animals of the experiment. PMID:23031470

  4. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed. PMID:25304546

  5. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  6. Use of corn gluten feed and cottonseed meal to replace soybean meal in diets for pond raised channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prices of soybean meal and corn he two most commonly used, traditional feed ingredients in channel catfish diets ave increased dramatically in recent years. Using less-expensive alternative feed ingredients to partially replace soybean meal and corn would reduce feed cost. The present study eval...

  7. Adhesion Properties of Plywood Glue Containing Soybean Meal as Extender

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of soybean meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive intended for sprayline coaters. Ground soybean meal, with 51.5% (dry basis, db) crude protein and 1.5% (db) residual oil, replaced the current industry extender, wheat flour, in the standard ...

  8. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  9. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  10. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  11. Effects of partial substitution of fish meal by soybean meal with or without heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (LP20) on growth performance, digestibility, and immune response of amberjack, Seriola dumerili juveniles.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-01-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemented diets with heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) with graded levels of soybean meal (SBM) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and immune response of Seriola dumerili (initial weight, 25.05 ± 0.1 g). Seven isonitrogenous and isolipidic practical diets were formulated to contain 0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% SBM, and each SBM level was supplemented with HK-LP at 0.0 and 0.1%. Fish fed diet which contains 30% SBM with HK-LP grew significantly faster than the other groups with notable feed intake and protein retention. Further, protein gain, whole body protein content, protease activity, protein, and lipid digestibility were significantly increased for all fish groups except for fish fed diet which contains 45% SBM with or without HK-LP. Interestingly, lysozyme activity was significantly enhanced in fish fed diets that contain 15% and 30% SBM with HK-LP. Hematocrit, peroxidase, and bactericidal activities revealed a significant increase in 30% SBM with HK-LP group. In addition, fish fed diets which contain 0% and 30% SBM with HK-LP showed higher tolerance against low-salinity stress compared with other groups. In conclusion, the addition of HK-LP to amberjack diets appeared to improve SBM utilization, immune response, and stress resistance. PMID:25705667

  12. Effects of Partial Substitution of Fish Meal by Soybean Meal with or without Heat-Killed Lactobacillus plantarum (LP20) on Growth Performance, Digestibility, and Immune Response of Amberjack, Seriola dumerili Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Mahmoud A. O.; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-01-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemented diets with heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) with graded levels of soybean meal (SBM) on growth, digestibility, blood parameters, and immune response of Seriola dumerili (initial weight, 25.05 ± 0.1 g). Seven isonitrogenous and isolipidic practical diets were formulated to contain 0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% SBM, and each SBM level was supplemented with HK-LP at 0.0 and 0.1%. Fish fed diet which contains 30% SBM with HK-LP grew significantly faster than the other groups with notable feed intake and protein retention. Further, protein gain, whole body protein content, protease activity, protein, and lipid digestibility were significantly increased for all fish groups except for fish fed diet which contains 45% SBM with or without HK-LP. Interestingly, lysozyme activity was significantly enhanced in fish fed diets that contain 15% and 30% SBM with HK-LP. Hematocrit, peroxidase, and bactericidal activities revealed a significant increase in 30% SBM with HK-LP group. In addition, fish fed diets which contain 0% and 30% SBM with HK-LP showed higher tolerance against low-salinity stress compared with other groups. In conclusion, the addition of HK-LP to amberjack diets appeared to improve SBM utilization, immune response, and stress resistance. PMID:25705667

  13. Separation of soybean saponins from soybean meal by a technology of foam fractionation and resin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianxing; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Guo, Shenghao; Kang, Shufang

    2016-05-18

    Foam fractionation and resin adsorption were used to recover soybean saponins from the industrial residue of soybean meal. First, a two-stage foam fractionation technology was studied for concentrating soybean saponins from the leaching liquor. Subsequently, resin adsorption was used to purify soybean saponins from the foamate in foam fractionation. The results showed that the enrichment ratio, the recovery percentage, and the purity of soybean saponins by using the two-stage foam fractionation technology could reach 4.45, 74%, and 67%, respectively. After resin adsorption and desorption, the purity of soybean saponins in the freeze-dried powder from the desorption solution was 88.4%. PMID:26030807

  14. Effect of replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal on production of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently that CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We wished to test whether CM was more effective than SBM on low CP (14.9% CP) than high CP (16.8% CP) diets and to see if it was advant...

  15. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  16. Suitability of Soybean Meal from Insect-Resistant Soybeans for Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ortega, María A; Davis, Adam J; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-03-23

    Benning(M) and Benning(MGH) are near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the soybean cultivar Benning, which contain insect-resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the soybean accession PI 229358. Benning(M) contains QTL-M, which confers antibiosis and antixenosis. In addition to QTL-M, Benning(MGH) contains QTL-G, which confers antibiosis, and QTL-H, which confers antixenosis. Soybean meal was produced from Benning and the NILs. Nutritional composition, digestible amino acid content, and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEN) were equivalent among soybean meals. A 21-day broiler feeding trial was carried out to determine if the QTLs affect soybean meal quality. Weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated. No biologically significant differences were detected for broilers fed Benning, Benning(M), and Benning(MGH). This demonstrates that soybean meal produced from the insect-resistant NILs is equivalent to soybean meal produced from their non-insect-resistant parent cultivar for broiler weight gain. PMID:26949980

  17. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14) and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5) were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2) and mechanically extracted (heated) soybean meal (n = 2) from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration when formulating ruminant

  18. SOYBEAN meal: a low cost-product with potential high-value application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean meal is the predominant co-product from soybean processing and the most inexpensive ($0.17/kg) among the various soy protein products. Because of its abundant quantity, ready availability, and low cost, soybean meal has been and continues to be an attractive starting material for developing...

  19. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  20. A feasibility study of non-targeted adulterant screening based on NIRM spectral library of soybean meal to guarantee quality: The example of non-protein nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanghui; Fan, Xia; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia

    2016-11-01

    The quality and safety of soybean meal is a key matter for the livestock breeding and food industries, since it is one of the most important and widely used protein feed raw materials. As driven by commercial interests, new illegal adulterants which are unknown to consumers and regulators emerge constantly. In order to make up for the inadequacy of traditional detection methods, a novel non-targeted adulterant screening method based on a near-infrared microscopy spectral library of soybean meal is proposed. This study focused on the feasibility of non-targeted screening methods for the detection of adulteration in soybean meal. Six types of non-protein nitrogen were taken as examples and partial least squares discriminant analysis was employed to verify the feasibility of this novel method. The results showed that the non-targeted screening method could screen out adulterations in soybean meal with satisfactory results. PMID:27211617

  1. Replacement of Soybean Meal in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Diets with Cottonseed Meal and Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two pond experiments were conducted to evaluate cottonseed meal (CSM), distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and supplemental lysine as replacements for soybean meal (SBM) in channel catfish diets. In Experiment 1, fish fed diets in which SBM was totally replaced with CSM gained similar wei...

  2. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. PMID:26699944

  3. Effects of ethanol, heat, and lipid treatment of soybean meal on nitrogen utilization by ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, G.L.; Berger, L.L.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ruminant nitrogen utilization of soybean meal treated with (1) 70% ethanol at 23 or 78/sup 0/C, (2) 10% coconut oil or tallow, or (3) a combination of 70% ethanol at 78/sup 0/C and coconut oil or tallow was evaluated. Nitrogen solubility was lowest for soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C, ethanol plus coconut oil and ethanol plus tallow. In situ nitrogen disappearance was lowest for soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C, ethanol plus coconut oil, and ethanol plus tallow. Rates of nitrogen disappearance between 3 and 12 h were lowest for soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C, ethanol plus coconut oil, and ethanol plus tallow. Nitrogen retained by lambs was greater for lambs fed soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C than for those fed untreated soybean meal. Ruminal ammonia 4 h post feeding was lowest for lambs fed soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C, ethanol plus coconut oil, and coconut oil. These data indicate that the 78/sup 0/C ethanol treatment improved nitrogen utilization.

  4. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in soybean meal, fish meal, spray-dried plasma protein and fermented soybean meal to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether fermentation could increase apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), energy (E) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal (FSBM) greater than that of soybean meal (SBM) in weaned pigs. Four weaned pigs (10.00 ± 0.30 kg) were surgically equipped with T-cannulas and randomly followed a 4 × 4 Latin square design of treatments (SBM, FSBM, fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein). Overall, the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose, in the FSBM diet, which were significantly reduced by 39.4, 92.2, and 92.9%, respectively, as compared to the SBM diet. As a consequence of ANF reduction in FSBM, the AID of DM, N and E as well as AA was significantly greater with FSBM than SBM. Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to improvement of digestibility of AA. As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to reduce diet costs. PMID:26300306

  5. Processing soybean meal for biodiesel production; effect of a new processing method on growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard soybean meal is produced by toasting to reduce trypsin inhibitor levels and hexane extraction to remove the valuable soybean oil. The extracted oil is used primarily in human foods, with its use as a feedstock for production of biodiesel growing rapidly. A new method of soybean meal proce...

  6. Long-term effects of corn, soybean meal, wheat bran, and fish meal on manganese utilization in the chick.

    PubMed

    Halpin, K M; Baker, D H

    1986-07-01

    A 7-week assay was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of several natural feed ingredients on Mn utilization. Chicks were fed a Mn-deficient casein-dextrose diet supplemented with fish meal, wheat bran, or a corn-soybean meal mixture. Although these feed ingredients contain significant quantities of Mn, they actually depressed performance and reduced the Mn concentration in key tissues when dietary Mn was near the chick's minimal requirement. At deficient levels of dietary Mn, fish meal also had detrimental effects on those parameters, and it increased the severity of perosis as well. PMID:3748949

  7. Growth, Immune Response and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed Diets Containing Cottonseed Meal and Supplemental Essential Amino Acid as Substitute for Soybean Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier studies indicate that tilapia utilized cottonseed meal (CSM) poorly relative to soybean meal (SBM) or SBM and peanut meal. It has also been shown that gossypol was not a contributing factor, since these fish can tolerate very high levels of dietary gossypol (1,600-2,000 mg/kg diet). Moreover...

  8. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Meat Meal and Soybean Meal Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the concentration and digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) in meat meal (MM), and to compare these values with the respective values in soybean meal (SBM). Six barrows (initial body weight = 66.9±3.8 kg) surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were allotted to a replicated 3×3 balanced Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. Two experimental diets containing test ingredients as the sole source of AA were prepared to estimate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) for CP and AA by the direct method. An N-free diet was also prepared to estimate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. All experimental diets contained 5% chromic oxide as an indigestible index. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation period and a 2-d of ileal digesta collection period. Ileal digesta samples were collected from 0900 to 1700 on d 6 and 7 of each period. The concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp in MM and SBM were analyzed to be 64.1, 3.5, 1.1 and 0.6, and 45.6, 2.8, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The AID of all AA except Gly in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The AID of Lys, Met, and Trp in MM was estimated to be 56.0, 71.7, and 47.1%, respectively. The SID of all AA in MM was less (p<0.05) than in SBM. The SID of Lys, Met, and Trp was 65.1, 79.2, and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the CP and AA contents in MM were greater than those in SBM whereas the ileal digestibility of all AA in MM was less than in SBM. PMID:25050041

  9. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  10. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  11. SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY INULIN AFFECTS BIOAVAILABILITY OF IRON PRESENT IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL TO YOUNG PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency represents one of the most common global nutritional disorders in humans. Our objective was to determine whether and how supplemental inulin improved bioavailability of iron intrinsically present in a corn-soybean meal based diet to young pigs for hemoglobin synthesis. In Experimen...

  12. Novel starch based nano scale enteric coatings from soybean meal for colon-specific delivery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean meal was used to isolate resistant starch and produce nanoparticles, which could be potential coating materials for colonic nutrient and drug deliveries. The nanoparticles were in 40 +/- 33.2 nm ranges. These nanoparticles were stable under simulated human physiological conditions. The deg...

  13. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF HEAT-TREATED SOYBEAN MEAL FOR CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of heat treatment of defatted raw soybean meal (RSBM) on the growth, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Six isocaloric and isonitrogenous practical diets were formulated. A diet containing 45% of comm...

  14. Development of protein enriched noodles using texturized defatted meal from sunflower, flaxseed and soybean.

    PubMed

    Bhise, Suresh; Kaur, A; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2015-09-01

    Texturized defatted meals from sunflower, soybean and flaxseed prepared using extrusion technology were incorporated in noodles to improve the protein content of noodles. Noodles were also evaluated for chemical composition, cooking quality, color, functional, textural and sensory properties. Sensory, color and cooking characteristics of noodles were negatively affected with increasing level as texturized flour compared with the control. Noodles with 10 % texturized sunflower and flaxseed flour received the highest sensory scores. Overall acceptability scores were maximum for control and noodles with 10 % texturized defatted meal of sunflower and flaxseed. Further incorporation of 20 % texturized defatted flour from soybean in noodle making gave satisfactory results in terms of overall acceptability. It was concluded that texturized defatted meal serve as good substitute to wheat flour with increased protein content in noodles production and utilization. PMID:26345004

  15. Growth response and feed utilization of juvenile hybrid catfish fed diets containing distiller's dried grains with solubles to replace a combination of soybean meal and corn meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in aquaria with juveile hybrid catfish (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus X blue catfish I. furcatus) to evaluate distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for a combination of soybean meal (SBM) and corn meal (CM). Twenty-five 75-L glass aquaria ...

  16. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  17. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

  18. Fermentation of Soybean Meal Hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Luján-Rhenals, Deivis E; Morawicki, Rubén O; Gbur, Edward E; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-07-01

    Most of the ethanol currently produced by fermentation is derived from sugar cane, corn, or beets. However, it makes good ecological and economic sense to use the carbohydrates contained in by-products and coproducts of the food processing industry for ethanol production. Soybean meal, a co-product of the production of soybean oil, has a relatively high carbohydrate content that could be a reasonable substrate for ethanol production after fermentable sugars are released via hydrolysis. In this research, the capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2233 and Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis NRRL B-4286 to produce ethanol was evaluated using soybean meal hydrolyzates as substrates for the fermentation. These substrates were produced from the dilute-acid hydrolysis of soybean meal at 135 °C for 45 min with 0, 0.5%, 1.25%, and 2% H2 SO4 and at 120 °C for 30 min with 1.25% H2 SO4 . Kinetic parameters of the fermentation were estimated using the logistic model. Ethanol production using S. cerevisiae was highest with the substrates obtained at 135 °C, 45 min, and 0.5% H2 SO4 and fermented for 8 h, 8 g/L (4 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM), while Z. mobilis reached its maximum ethanol production, 9.2 g/L (4.6 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM) in the first 20 h of fermentation with the same hydrolyzate. PMID:25998174

  19. Isolation of Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) from Soy Meal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattsangi, Prem D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a straight-forward and relatively inexpensive method for routine isolation of purified soybean agglutinin, suitable for use as a starting material in most studies, especially for fluorescent-labeling experiments. The process is used as a project to provide advanced laboratory training at a two-year college. (Author/JN)

  20. Effects of Replacing Soybean Meal with Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Performance, Serum Biochemical Variables and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, F. Z.; Zeng, X. G.; Ding, X. L.

    2012-01-01

    This trial was performed to study the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with fermented rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, serum biochemistry variable and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 640 d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments, 4 pens per treatment and 40 birds per pen for a 6-wk feeding trial. In the four treatment groups, fermented RSM replaced soybean meal at 0, 5, 10, and 15%, respectively. On 21 d and 42 d, two birds from each pen were randomly selected and slaughtered. Blood samples and sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for measurement of serum biochemical variables and intestinal morphology, respectively. Results showed that body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion (FC) were significantly (p<0.01) poorer for birds fed the 15% fermented RSM diet than those fed with 0, 5 and 10% fermented RSM diets during all periods. Compared with 0 and 5% fermented RSM groups, IgG content in the serum of birds in 10 and 15% fermented RSM groups was improved (p<0.01) urea nitrogen content of serum was reduced (p<0.01) during both growing and finishing periods. However, IgM, phosphorus and calcium levels increased (p<0.05) only during the growing period. Increased (p<0.05) villus height was observed in the duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM. In addition, villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was significantly higher (p<0.01) for birds fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM than for those fed diets with 0, 5 and 15% fermented RSM. The present results suggest that RSM fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative protein source and that it could be safely used replace up to 10% SBM in broiler diets. PMID:25049539

  1. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Solís, Camila J; De la Paz, Javiera F; Alaurent, Trevor G S; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J; Dantagnan, Patricio; Feijóo, Carmen G

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  2. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Solís, Camila J.; Alaurent, Trevor G. S.; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J.; Feijóo, Carmen G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  3. Soybean meal retains its nutritional value as an animal feed following its use for biodiesel production via in situ transesterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability in poultry nutrition of the lipid-depleted meal generated by in situ transesterification of flaked soybeans to produce biodiesel was examined. For purposes of comparison, analogous diets were formulated using flaked soybeans whose lipid had been removed by conventional industrial he...

  4. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the activities of serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the activities of lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase and total superoxide dismutase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  5. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05), while crude lipid content of the whole body fed Diet 5 or 6 was significantly higher than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05). Protein digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P < 0.05). Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  6. Effect of soybean meal substitution by different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits of white and coloured dwarf dam lines.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Biswas, A; Neema, R P; Maity, B

    2010-06-01

    1. The effect of soybean meal substitution by different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits of white and coloured dwarf dam lines was investigated. 2. A total of 144 dwarf hens (38 weeks of age) from the same hatch were randomly divided into 12 groups of 12 birds (4 dietary treatments x 3 replicates). 3. A 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study the effect of 2 lines (Factor A) and substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with 4 concentrations (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of sunflower meal (SFM) [Factor B] on egg quality traits of dwarf dam line hens. 4. All the diets were designed to be isocaloric (113 MJ ME/kg) and isonitrogenous (180 g/kg crude protein) The duration of the experiment was 12 weeks. 5. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant line effect. There were non-significant effects of substitution of soybean meal with different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits except for Haugh unit. 6. White plumaged dwarf broiler breeder dam line produced significantly fewer, but larger, eggs than coloured dwarf dam line hens. PMID:20680878

  7. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Shoulders, J; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 2 sources of high-protein canola meal (CM-HP1 and CM-HP2), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), and soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 barrows (51.5 ± 4.0 kg initial BW) were housed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet (97.4% corn) and 4 diets that contained both corn and each of the 3 sources of canola meal or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME were 3,347 and 3,268 kcal/kg in corn, 3,312 and 2,893 kcal/kg in CM-HP1, 3,627 and 3,346 kcal/kg in CM-HP2, 2,798 and 2,492 kcal/kg in CM-CV, and 4,000 and 3,796 kcal/kg in SBM, respectively. Values for DE and ME were greater (P< 0.05) in SBM than in all other ingredients, but DE and ME were greater (P < 0.05) in corn and the 2 high-protein canola meals than in CM-CV. The DE and ME were also greater (P< 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-HP1. In Exp. 2, 10 barrows (65.3 ± 10.4 kg initial BW) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 5 diets and 5 periods in each square. A N-free diet and 4 corn starch-based diets that contained CM-HP1, CM-HP2, CM-CV, or SBM as the sole source of AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID of CP and all AA except Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in SBM than in the 3 sources of canola meal. With the exception of His and Lys, no differences in SID of indispensable AA were observed among the 3 sources of canola meal. The SID of His and Lys were greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP1 and CM-HP2 than in CM-CV and the SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-CV, but no differences in the SID of indispensable AA were observed between CM-HP1 and CM-HP2. In conclusion, the 2 high-protein canola

  8. Lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on soybean and castorbean meals: optimization, immobilization, and application for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Milena M; Barbosa, Aneli M; Bofinger, Matheus R; Dekker, Robert F H; Messias, Josana M; Guedes, Carmen L B; Zaminelli, Tiago; de Oliveira, Bruno H; de Lima, Valéria M G; Dall'antonia, Luiz H

    2013-08-01

    The effects of soybean and castorbean meals were evaluated separately, and in combinations at different ratios, as substrates for lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 in submerged fermentation using only distilled water. The addition of glycerol analytical grade (AG) and glycerol crude (CG) to soybean and castorbean meals separately and in combination, were also examined for lipase production. Glycerol-AG increased enzyme production, whereas glycerol-CG decreased it. A 2(4) factorial design was developed to determine the best concentrations of soybean meal, castorbean meal, glycerol-AG, and KH2PO4 to optimize lipase production by B. ribis EC-01. Soybean meal and glycerol-AG had a significant effect on lipase production, whereas castorbean meal did not. A second treatment (2(2) factorial design central composite) was developed, and optimal lipase production (4,820 U/g of dry solids content (ds)) was obtained when B. ribis EC-01 was grown on 0.5 % (w/v) soybean meal and 5.2 % (v/v) glycerol in distilled water, which was in agreement with the predicted value (4,892 U/g ds) calculated by the model. The unitary cost of lipase production determined under the optimized conditions developed ranged from US$0.42 to 0.44 based on nutrient costs. The fungal lipase was immobilized onto Celite and showed high thermal stability and was used for transesterification of soybean oil in methanol (1:3) resulting in 36 % of fatty acyl alkyl ester content. The apparent K m and V max were determined and were 1.86 mM and 14.29 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. PMID:23749470

  9. Fish meal replacement with solvent extracted soybean meal or soy protein isolate in a practical diet formulation for Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus, L.) reared in low salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two eight-week growth trials were conducted with juvenile Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, fed 0 to 100% replacement of FM protein with soybean meal (SBM) or soy protein isolate (SPI). Practical-type diets were formulated with at least 360 g kg1 digestible protein and 24 mg kJ-1 digestible p...

  10. Prediction of digestible and metabolisable energy in soybean meals produced from soybeans of different origins fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongchao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Panpan; Liu, Ling; Piao, Xiangshu; Stein, Hans H; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) in 22 sources of soybean meal (SBM) produced from soybeans from different countries and subsequently to establish equations for predicting the DE and ME in SBM based on their chemical composition. The 22 sources of SBM were all processed in Chinese crushing plants, but the soybeans used originated from China (n=6), the US (n=6), Brazil (n=7) or Argentina (n=3). The basal diet was a corn-based diet and 22 additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and 24.3% of each source of SBM. The average DE and ME in SBM from China, the US, Brazil and Argentina were 15.73, 15.93, 15.64 and 15.90 MJ/kg and 15.10, 15.31, 14.97 and 15.42 MJ/kg, respectively, and no differences among countries were observed. From a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were generated. The best-fit equations for SBM were DE=38.44-0.43 crude fibre -0.98 gross energy +0.11 acid detergent fibre (R2=0.67, p<0.01) and ME=2.74+0.97 DE -0.06 crude protein (R2=0.79, p<0.01). In conclusion, there were no differences in the DE and ME of SBM among the different soybean sources used in this experiment. The DE and ME of SBM of different origin can be predicted based on their chemical composition when fed to growing pigs. PMID:26457348

  11. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows. PMID:26454286

  12. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P < 0.05). The organic matter, CP, and NDF digestibilities were not affected, but the digestibility of NFC was lower at 30 and 45 % than at 0 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, feed conversion, slaughter and carcass weights, chilling losses, ribeye area, and absolute values and yields of neck, ribs, loin, and leg were not affected. However, the carcass yield was lower at 45 % of DCM and the absolute value of shoulder was lower at 30 and 45 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features. PMID:26563274

  13. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus myskiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  14. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  15. Performance and carcass characteristics of young cattle fed with soybean meal treated with tannins.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Rafael; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; da Silva Martins, Taiane; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Dos Santos Monnerat, João Paulo Ismério

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with soybean meal treated with tannin (SBMT) on the intake, digestibility, performance and characteristics of the carcasses of young cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-two Nellore bulls with body weight of 244.5 ± 4.99 kg were used. Diets had the inclusion of 7.5% SBM, with a proportion of that SBM (0, 33, 66 or 100%) replaced for SBMT; and other treatment (SBMT + urea) just with 2.5% of SBM which was treated with tannins. Seven animals were randomly selected and slaughtered, and the remaining animals were distributed on treatments and remained for 112 days. After, all animals were slaughtered. There was a linear decline in dry matter intake (P = 0.026) when SBM was replaced with SBMT. No decrease in carcass weight (P > 0.05) was observed. The efficiency of carcass weight gain showed a quadratic function effect (P = 0.049). There were changes in carcass gain composition when SBMT was added (P < 0.05), with an increase in muscle and reduction in fat deposition. The use of SBMT in place of SBM causes changes in body gain composition in animals and reduces DM intake by the animals, achieving a better feed conversion efficiency. PMID:26355192

  16. Optimization of Glutamine Peptide Production from Soybean Meal and Analysis of Molecular Weight Distribution of Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanli; Liang, Xinhong; Wei, Min; Zhao, Wenhong; He, Baoshan; Lu, Qiyu; Huo, Quangong; Ma, Chengye

    2012-01-01

    The process parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis and molecular weight distribution of glutamine (Gln) peptides from soybean meal were investigated. The Protamex® hydrolysis pH of 6.10, temperature of 56.78 °C, enzyme to substrate ratio (E/S) of 1.90 and hydrolysis time of 10.72 h were found to be the optimal conditions by response surface methodology (RSM) for a maximal degree of hydrolysis (DH) value of 16.63% and Gln peptides content at 5.95 mmol/L. The soybean meal was hydrolyzed by a combination of Protamex® and trypsinase so that DH and Gln peptides would reach 22.02% and 6.05 mmol/mL, respectively. The results of size exclusion chromatography indicated that the relative proportion of the molecular weight <1000 Da fraction increased with DH values from 6.76%, 11.13%, 17.89% to 22.02%, most notably the 132–500 Da fractions of hydrolysates were 42.14%, 46.57%, 58.44% and 69.65%. High DH values did not lead to high Gln peptides content of the hydrolysate but to the low molecular weight Gln peptides. PMID:22837706

  17. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  18. Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

    2012-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing levels of dietary camelina meal. Weight gain (p < 0.01) and feed intake (p = 0.08) were linearly reduced as the level of camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p < 0.01). Birds fed diets containing 15% camelina meal had significantly higher (p < 0.01) levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total n-3 fatty acids, total n-6 fatty acids and a significantly lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.01) than birds fed canola meal. In conclusion, the inclusion of camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197

  19. Effect of feeding fermented soybean meal on plasma concentration of cortisol in LPS-challenged nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to determine if feeding nursery pigs diets containing either plasma protein (PP) or fermented soybean meal (FSBM) would alter the overall stress response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge as indicated by plasma concentrations of cortisol. Pigs (n=24) were...

  20. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  1. Use of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Soybean Meal by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SM) used in the diets of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Six isocaloric (3.22 ± 0.02 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (30.1 ± 0.2% SE) experimental diets were formulate...

  2. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, Δ(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma

  3. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. PMID:26574036

  4. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  5. Bioavailability of zinc from inorganic and organic sources for pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, K J; Lewis, A J; Giesemann, M A; Miller, P S

    1994-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted with pigs 1) to determine the effect of supplemental Zn on growth performance, bone Zn, and plasma Zn in pigs fed Zn-unsupplemented, corn-soybean meal diets and 2) to assess bioavailability of Zn from inorganic and organic Zn sources. In both experiments, weanling pigs were fed a diet with no supplemental Zn for 5 wk to deplete their Zn stores. In Exp. 1, 192 pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (growing diet, 32 mg/kg of Zn; finishing diet, 27 mg/kg of Zn) supplemented with feed-grade ZnSO4.H2O to provide 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of supplemental Zn. Supplemental Zn did not affect weight gain, feed intake, or gain/feed during either the growing or the finishing period (P > .05). However, bone and plasma Zn concentrations increased linearly (P < .01) in response to supplemental Zn at dietary Zn levels between 27 mg/kg (basal) and 47 mg/kg (breakpoint). In Exp. 2, three levels of supplemental Zn from ZnSO4.H2O (0, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn) were used to construct a standard curve (metacarpal, coccygeal vertebrae, and plasma Zn concentrations regressed on supplemental Zn intake; R2 = .93, .89, and .82, respectively). From the standard curve, the bone and plasma Zn concentrations obtained from pigs fed 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from ZnO and 7.5 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from Zn-methionine (ZnMET) and Zn-lysine (ZnLYS) were used to calculate bioavailable Zn via multiple linear regression, slope-ratio analysis. The estimates of Zn bioavailability differed depending on which variable was used. Overall trends indicated the following rankings: ZnSO4.H2O > ZnMet > ZnO > ZnLys. PMID:7883627

  6. Evaluation of the inclusion of soybean oil and soybean processing by-products to soybean meal on nutrient composition and digestibility in swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Bruce, K J; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Zinn, K E; Pope, L L; Mahan, D C; Fastinger, N D; Watts, M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Castaneda, E O; Ellis, M; Fahey, G C

    2006-06-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of selected soybean (SB) processing byproducts (gums, oil, soapstock, weeds/trash) when added back to soybean meal (SBM) during processing on the resulting nutrient composition, protein quality, nutrient digestibility by swine, and true metabolizable energy (TMEn) content and standardized AA digestibility by poultry. To measure ileal DM and nutrient digestibility, pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. The concentration of TMEn and the standardized AA digestibility by poultry were determined using the precision fed cecectomized rooster assay. Treatments in the swine experiment included SBM with no by-products; SBM with 1% gum; SBM with 3% gum; SBM with 0.5% soapstock; SBM with 1.5% soapstock; SBM with 2% weeds/trash; SBM with a combination of 3% gum, 1.5% soapstock, and 2% weeds/trash; SBM with 5.4% soybean oil; and roasted SB. A 10 x 10 Latin square design was utilized. The experiment was conducted at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and at The Ohio State University, Columbus. In the swine experiment, apparent ileal DM, OM, CP, and AA digestibilities were reduced (P < 0.05) when pigs consumed the combination by-product diet compared with the diet containing no by-products. Apparent ileal digestibilities of DM, CP, and total essential, total nonessential, and total AA were lower (P < 0.05) for any diet containing by-products compared with the diet with no by-products. Apparent ileal digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, and AA were lower (P < 0.05) for the roasted SB-compared with the SB oil-containing diet. In the rooster experiment, TMEn values were greater (P < 0.05) for roasted SB compared with SBM with no by-products and increased linearly as the addition of soapstock increased. Individual, total essential, total nonessential, and total AA digestibilities were lower (P < 0.05) for roosters fed roasted SB versus SBM devoid of by-products. Gums, soapstock, and weeds

  7. Bacteria grown on natural gas prevent soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Romarheim, Odd H; Øverland, Margareth; Mydland, Liv T; Skrede, Anders; Landsverk, Thor

    2011-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of solvent extracted soybean meal (SBM) is associated with inflammation in the distal intestine of salmonid fish, commonly referred to as SBM-induced enteritis. The enteritis is linked to alcohol soluble components in SBM, but the mechanisms have not been established. Previous studies show that bacterial meal (BM) containing mainly Methylococcus capsulatus grown on natural gas is a suitable protein source for salmonids. The BM is rich in nucleotides, phospholipids, and small peptides that might be beneficial for intestinal homeostasis. In this study, a fish meal (FM)-based control diet (FM diet) and diets with 200 g/kg SBM (SBM diet), 300 g/kg BM (BM diet), and 300 g/kg BM and 200 g/kg SBM (BM-SBM diet) were fed to juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) for 80 d. Dietary inclusion of SBM reduced growth (P = 0.007). Inclusion of BM reduced digestibility of protein (P = 0.002) and lipids (P = 0.011) and increased (P < 0.01) the relative weights (g/kg whole body) of total gut, liver, and stomach, and mid and distal intestine. Fish fed the SBM diet developed enteritis, lacked carbonic anhydrase 12 in the brush border of epithelial cells in distal intestine, and had more epithelial cells reacting for proliferating cell nuclear antigen compared with fish fed the other diets. Fish fed the same amount of SBM combined with BM showed no signs of inflammation in the distal intestine. Our results demonstrate that BM grown on natural gas can be used to prevent SBM-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. PMID:21106922

  8. Effects of oligosaccharides in a soybean meal-based diet on fermentative and immune responses in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable oligosaccharides, particularly those found in soybean meal (SBM), may modulate fermentation in the ceca, thus affecting intestinal immune responses to intestinal pathogens. We hypothesized that fermentable oligosaccharides found in SBM would positively impact cecal fermentation and inte...

  9. The effect of soybean meal processing method and diet inclusion level on growth and intestinal morphology of rainbow trout Onchorynchus mykiss.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard soybean meal is produced by toasting to reduce trypsin inhibitor levels and hexane extraction to remove the valuable soybean oil. The extracted oil is used primarily in human foods, with its use as a feedstock for production of biodiesel, a replacement for conventional petroleum diesel fue...

  10. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  11. Fate of transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid fragments in digesta and tissues of rabbits fed genetically modified soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Morera, P; Basiricò, L; Ronchi, B; Bernabucci, U

    2016-03-01

    Numerous animal feeding studies have investigated the presence of DNA from transgenic plants in tissues from different animal species, but the data reported are sometimes controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of transgenic DNA (tDNA) in the digesta and tissues of a meat rabbit breed fed genetically modified (GM) soybean meal. Fifteen male New Zealand White rabbits were used for the experimental trial. Ten rabbits (treated group [TG]) were fed a mixed feed containing 10% GM soybean meal and 5 rabbits (control group [CG]) received a mixed feed containing conventional soybean meal, both from weaning (28 d of age) to slaughter (80 ± 3 d). Samples of blood, liver, kidney, heart, stomach, intestine (jejunum), lateral quadricep muscle, longissimus muscle, and perirenal adipose tissue were collected to assess the possible DNA transfer from GM feed to animal tissues. Samples of stomach contents and feces were also taken to study the degradability of ingested tDNA from feed in the digestive tract of rabbit. Moreover, samples of hair were collected to determine the possible environmental contamination from feed powders present on the farm. The DNA extraction was performed using specific genomic DNA kits. All samples were monitored, by using real-time PCR, for oligonucleotide primers and probes specific for the transgenic Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 and for the endogenous () gene. As an internal control of rabbit tissues, the presence of the () gene was used. In this study, no fragments of tDNA were detectable in tissue DNA samples of rabbits except in the extracted DNA from stomach digesta, feces, and hair of rabbits fed with GM soybean. Similar results were found for the reference gene, whereas the presence of the gene was detected in all rabbit tissues. The lack of tDNA of soybean in rabbit tissues represents an important result, which demonstrates that meat from rabbits fed a diet containing GM feed is as that derived from rabbits fed

  12. Roscoe Miller award. Fatty-meal sonography for evaluating patients with suspected partial common duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, R M; Dodds, W J; Hogan, W J; Geenen, J E; Lawson, T L; Stewart, E T; Shaker, R; Kishk, S M

    1988-07-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of fatty-meal sonography for identifying patients with partial common duct obstruction. The test consisted of initial control measurements of common duct diameter followed by repeated measurements every 15 min for 60 min after a fatty meal consisting of Lipomul (1.5 ml/lb). The rationale proposed for the fatty-meal test is that in the presence of partial common duct obstruction, fat-induced increases in bile flow related to increased circulating levels of cholecystokinin are associated with an increase in the diameter of the common duct. Initial analysis of our data indicated that a change in diameter of +/- 1 mm was within the range of measurement error or possibly physiologic variation. In 44 control subjects (24 without a gallbladder), the common duct diameter either remained unchanged, showed an insignificant change of +/- 1 mm, or decreased (greater than or equal to 2 mm). The common duct diameter never showed an increase of more than 1 mm. The results of fatty-meal sonography in 47 patients with suspected partial common duct obstruction were negative in all 28 true-negative cases (specificity, 100%) and were positive (common duct increased by greater than or equal to 2 mm) in 14 of 19 true-positive cases (sensitivity, 74%). Thus, in this study a positive test finding always indicated partial common duct obstruction. Of the true-positive cases, fatty-meal sonography correctly identified seven of eight patients with cryptic obstructive sphincter-of-Oddi dysfunction (stenosis or dyskinesia) and five of nine patients with commun duct stones. We conclude that fatty-meal sonography is a useful noninvasive screening test for evaluating patients with suspected partial common duct obstruction. PMID:3287867

  13. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at 1 year: Action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. Objec...

  14. Effects of beta-mannanase in corn-soybean meal diets on laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M E; Fodge, D W; Hsiao, H Y

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a patented enzyme product (beta-Mannanase, Hemicell) has been shown to improve feed conversion in corn-soybean diets fed to broilers and swine. The mechanism of beta-Mannanase is to degrade beta-mannan, which is an antinutritional factor existing in many legumes, including soybean and canola meals. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not performance can be improved by including beta-Mannanase in diets of commercial laying hens, 18 through 66 wk of age. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. There were two energy sequences of 2,926-2,907-2,885 and 2,827-2,808-2,786 kcal ME/kg, which changed at 33 and 43 wk of age respectively; two dietary enzyme levels (0 and 110 units/g); and two Hy-Line strains (W36 and W77). Hen-day production, hen-housed production, BW, feed intake, mortality, egg weight, and specific gravity data were collected biweekly. Data were analyzed in four cycles (each with six 2-wk periods) and also for the whole experiment. beta-Mannanase increased egg weight from 51.4 to 51.7 g/egg (P < 0.05) in the first 12-wk cycle. This effect was consistent across energy levels. beta-Mannanase significantly improved hen-day and hen-housed production after the first cycle. Hen-day production of the beta-Mannanase group was 0.70, 1.07, and 1.5% greater than the control for cycles two, three, and four, respectively (P < 0.01). After 30 wk of age, average hen-day production of hens fed the low-energy diets with beta-Mannanase was similar or superior to that of hens fed the high-energy diets without the enzyme. The study indicates that beta-Mannanase is capable of increasing egg weight in commercial layers at early stages of production, and increasing egg production, particularly delaying the postpeak decline in productivity. PMID:10626649

  15. Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60 % sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66 % relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) ( = NBRC 109509(T) = BCRC 80582(T)). PMID:25281727

  16. Evaluation of a rendered poultry mortality-soybean meal product as a supplemental protein source for pig diets.

    PubMed

    Myer, R O; Brendemuhl, J H; Leak, F W; Hess, J B

    2004-04-01

    Dehydrated/rendered broiler mortality-soybean meal products (DPS) were evaluated in two trials as high-protein feedstuffs for pig diets. Broiler mortalities, collected and frozen on-farm and transported to a central facility, were minced, blended with soybean meal, and dried with a final product temperature of 120 to 130 degrees C. The final DPS products used contained approximately 30 and 45% (DM basis) dried broiler mortality for the first and second trials, respectively (DPS1 and DPS2). The first trial involved 50 young, growing pigs (9 to 26 kg) and the second, 72 growing and finishing pigs (27 to 111 kg). The trials compared corn-based diets containing either soybean meal (SBM; 48%) or DPS products as the supplemental protein source. The DPS products averaged 50% CP and 2.9% total lysine; crude fat content of DPS used in the first trial was 8%, and for the second, 14.6% (as-fed basis). The ADG of pigs fed the DPS diets in either trial was similar to that of pigs fed the SBM control diets. In the second trial, pigs fed DPS2 had an overall average G:F ratio that was 9% better (P < 0.01) than that of pigs fed the SBM control diets. Carcass characteristics and pork quality from pigs of the growing-finishing trial were not affected by dietary treatment. Subjective carcass fat firmness scores indicated slightly softer fat (P < 0.05) from pigs fed DPS2. The mincing, blending with SBM, and dehydration of frozen stored on-farm broiler mortalities produced a safe and nutritious protein feedstuff for pigs, while also offering a viable disposal option. PMID:15080329

  17. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy beans. The results are based on an officially supervised HACCP based program including annual testing of around 4000 samples. Results During the 19-year period, 34% of samples collected during unloading of ships delivering soybeans yielded Salmonella; the proportion of samples from ships that yielded Salmonella varied from 12-62% each year. Dust samples from all shiploads from South America yielded Salmonella. In total 94 serovars of Salmonella were isolated, including nine (90%) of the EU 2012 top ten serovars isolated from clinical cases of salmonellosis in humans, including major animal pathogenic serovars like Spp. Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The effectiveness of the HACCP based control was indicated by a low prevalence of Salmonella contamination in the clean area of the plant, which is considered to be the main reason for the successful prevention of Salmonella in the end product. Despite extensive testing, no sample from the finished soybean meal product was found to be Salmonella contaminated. Conclusions This study shows that a HAACP-based control program in a soybean crushing plant can produce Salmonella free soybean meal despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soybeans. That approach is suggested as an effective way to minimize the risk of Salmonella exposure of the animal feed mills and contamination of the subsequent animal feed chain. PMID:25011553

  18. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal. PMID:25062659

  19. Effects of fermented soybean meal on innate immunity-related gene expressions in nursery pigs acutely challenged with lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Carroll, Jeffery A; Kim, Sung Woo

    2015-05-01

    This experiment was to determine if replacing soybean meal with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) would reduce the innate immune response after lipopolysaccharide challenge and the changes of gene expression profiles associated with this response. Forty-eight 21 day-old pigs were housed individually and fed three diets for 15 days: CON (a diet without FSBM or spray-dried plasma protein; SDPP), PP7 (a diet with 7% SDPP), and FS10 (a diet with 10% FSBM). Pigs were fitted with a jugular vein catheters receiving lipopolysaccharide challenge (25 μg/kg body weight (BW)) on day 15. Blood was collected for 5 h at 30-min intervals to measure cortisol. Expressions of gene transcripts in total RNA from leukocytes were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray at 210 min after lipopolysaccharides injection. Cortisol of FS10 was lower (P < 0.05) than CON after lipopolysaccharides challenge. The expression levels of 17 transcripts, including cytosolic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase A4-4 were increased (P < 0.05), whereas 23 genes including adiponectin, neonatal Fc receptor and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 5 were decreased (P < 0.05) in FS10. This study suggests that FSBM-fed pigs can modulate expression of genes related to inflammatory response and anti-oxidant activity which can be a potential reason for reduced serum cortisol. PMID:25440755

  20. Growth and body composition of nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as replacements for fish meal, with and without supplemental lysine and methionine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantities of fishmeal (FM) have remained level for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in all animal production as a high quality protein source. Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely-used plant-protein ingredient for replacing various proportio...

  1. Evaluation of Partially Hydrogenated Methyl Ethers of Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specifications mandating biodiesel quality, most notably in the EU (EN 14214) and the USA (ASTM D 6751), have emerged that influence feedstock choice in the production of biodiesel fuel. For instance, EN 14214 contains a specification for iodine value (IV, 120) that eliminates soybean oil (SBO) as ...

  2. Evaluation of Partially Hydrogenated Methyl Esters of Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specifications mandating biodiesel quality, most notably in the EU (EN 14214) and the USA (ASTM D 6751), have emerged that influence feedstock choice in the production of biodiesel fuel. For instance, EN 14214 contains a specification for iodine value (IV, 120) that eliminates soybean oil (SBO) as ...

  3. Microsatellite Diversity of Soybean Genotypes Differing in Bean Pod Mottle Virus Leaf Symptom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr, is the most important source of vegetable oil and protein meal in the world. Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a threat to soybean yield and productivity in most soybean growing states of the USA. In the absence of complete resistance to BPMV, partial resistance of so...

  4. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  5. Effect of fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 on the phytic acid, raffinose, and stachyose contents of soybean meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the impact of submerged fermentation procedures using Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast strain PJ69-4a on degradation of phytic acid and the raffinosaccharides, raffinose, and stachyose, in soybean meal. The goal of the research was to identify a n...

  6. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  7. Severity of soybean meal induced distal intestinal inflammation, enterocyte proliferation rate, and fatty acid binding protein (Fabp2) staining differ between strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete replacement of fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fishes often causes reduced growth and can negatively affect health. Salmonids fed diets containing full fat or defatted soybean meal develop dose dependent inflammation in the distal intestine (DI). Little is known about the sensitivity of d...

  8. Prebiotic Supplementation has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal

    PubMed Central

    Sealey, Wendy M.; Conley, Zachariah B.; Bensley, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health, and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A) prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ±SD of 0.5 g) were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P = 0.9582) nor prebiotic inclusion (P = 0.9348) and no interaction was observed (P = 0.1242). Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P = 0.4895), prebiotic inclusion (P = 0.3258) or their interaction (P = 0.1478). Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P = 0.0038) and prebiotic inclusion (P = 0.0327) without significant interaction (P = 0.3370). Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F. psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P = 0.0345) while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P = 0.0671). These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat

  9. Prebiotic Supplementation has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal.

    PubMed

    Sealey, Wendy M; Conley, Zachariah B; Bensley, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health, and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A) prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ±SD of 0.5 g) were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P = 0.9582) nor prebiotic inclusion (P = 0.9348) and no interaction was observed (P = 0.1242). Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P = 0.4895), prebiotic inclusion (P = 0.3258) or their interaction (P = 0.1478). Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P = 0.0038) and prebiotic inclusion (P = 0.0327) without significant interaction (P = 0.3370). Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F. psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P = 0.0345) while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P = 0.0671). These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat

  10. Protective Effects of Polysaccharides from Soybean Meal Against X-ray Radiation Induced Damage in Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lei; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Haitian; Cheng, Cuilin; Fu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Jiaren; Yang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective effect of the polysaccharides from soybean meal (SMP) against X-ray radiation-induced damage in mouse spleen lymphocytes. MTT and comet assay were performed to evaluate SMP’s ability to prevent cell death and DNA damage induced by radiation. The results show that, X-ray radiation (30 KV, 10 mA, 8 min (4 Gy)) can significantly increase cell death and DNA fragmentation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Pretreatment with SMP for 2 h before radiation could increase cell viability, moreover, the SMP can reduce X-ray radiation-induced DNA damage. The percentage of tail DNA and the tail moment of the SMP groups were significantly lower than those of the radiation alone group (p < 0.05). These results suggest SMP may be a good candidate as a radioprotective agent. PMID:22174652

  11. Novel quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 398841

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdmann is one of the most severe soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] diseases in the US. Partial resistance is as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of t...

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci conditioning partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 407861A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving resistance for Phytophthora root and stem rot is an important goal in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding. Partial resistance can be as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of this study was to identify QTL con...

  13. Effects of cellulase supplementation to corn soybean meal-based diet on the performance of sows and their piglets.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi D; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-07-01

    A total of 15 primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the current study to evaluate the efficacy of cellulase supplementation on the production performance of sows and piglets. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of three treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) CON (corn-soybean meal-based control); (ii) EZ1 (CON + 0.05% cellulase); and (iii) EZ2 (CON + 0.10% cellulase). The supplementation of cellulase had no effect (P > 0.05) on body weight and feed intake of lactating sows. At weaning, back fat thickness loss decreased (P = 0.04) linearly in EZ1 and EZ2 treatments. The average daily gain (ADG) of piglets increased (linear P = 0.06, quadratic P = 0.04)) during days 14 to 21 as well as at days 21 to 25 (linear P = 0.03 and quadratic P = 0.01) with the increase in the level of supplemented enzyme. Dry matter and nitrogen digestibility increased (linear P = 0.01) in lactating sows fed EZ1 and EZ2 diet compared with CON. In conclusion, it is suggested that cellulase supplementation to corn-soybean meal based diet exerts beneficial effects to sows in reducing their back fat thickness loss at weaning and also helps to improve nutrient digestibility. It also helped to improve the ADG of piglets. PMID:26420259

  14. Immunoreactivity reduction of soybean meal by fermentation, effect on amino acid composition and antigenicity of commercial soy products.

    PubMed

    Song, Y-S; Frias, J; Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Vidal-Valdeverde, C; de Mejia, E Gonzalez

    2008-05-15

    Food allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the consumer and the food industry. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reduction of immunoreactivity by natural and induced fermentation of soybean meal (SBM) with Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Saccharomyces cereviseae, and to assess the effect on amino acid concentration. Immunoreactivity of commercially available fermented soybean products and ingredients was also evaluated. ELISA and western blot were used to measure IgE immunoreactivity using plasma from soy sensitive individuals. Commercial soy products included tempeh, miso and yogurt. Fermented SBM showed reduced immunoreactivity to human plasma, particularly if proteins were <20kDa. S. cereviseae and naturally fermented SBM showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity, up to 89% and 88%, respectively, against human pooled plasma. When SBM was subjected to fermentation with different microorganisms, most of the total amino acids increased significantly (p<0.05) and only few of them suffered a decrease depending on the type of fermentation. All commercial soy containing products tested showed very low immunoreactivity. Thus, fermentation can decrease soy immunoreactivity and can be optimized to develop nutritious hypoallergenic soy products. However, the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be determined by human challenge studies. PMID:26059135

  15. Efficacy of white mustard and soybean meal as a bioherbicide in organic broccoli and spinach production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic cropping systems generally rely on mechanical or physical methods because of the lack of reliable organically accepted herbicides. Among the several potential bioherbicides being explored, white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal is among those bioherbicides that have been sho...

  16. Processing of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal reduces protein digestibility and pig growth performance but does not affect nitrogen solubilization along the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM) as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Fifty-four growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 6 experimental diets. Four of the diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM as the sole protein source. The remaining 2 experimental diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to the same standardized ileal digestible AA levels as the SBM or RSM diet. Pigs were slaughtered at 40 kg, and organ weights were recorded. The organs plus blood and empty carcass were analyzed for CP content. The small intestine was divided into 3 segments, and chyme samples were taken from the last meter of each segment. Chyme of the SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM diets was centrifuged to separate the soluble and insoluble fractions, and N content was determined in the latter. The amount of insoluble N as a fraction of N in chyme at each small intestinal segment was not affected by processing. Diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, affected ( < 0.05) the G:F and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP. Processing reduced G:F from 0.56 to 0.38 for SBM and 0.49 to 0.40 for RSM, whereas supplementing crystalline AA increased G:F to the level of the SBM and RSM diets. Processing reduced the SID of CP from 87.2% to 69.2% for SBM and 71.0% to 52.2% for RSM. Diet type affected ( < 0.05) the CP content in the empty body, with processing reducing this content from 170 to 144 g/kg empty BW for SBM and 157 to 149 g/kg empty BW for RSM and supplementing crystalline AA restoring this content

  17. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  18. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products. PMID:27065264

  19. Ruminal degradability of dry matter, crude protein, and amino acids in soybean meal, canola meal, corn, and wheat dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-08-01

    Different protein sources, such as canola meal (CM) or dried distillers grains (DDG), are currently used in dairy rations to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, little data exists comparing their rumen degradation in a single study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and AA of SBM, CM, high-protein corn DDG (HPDDG), and wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS). In situ studies were conducted with 4 rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows fed a diet containing 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate. Each protein source was incubated in the rumen of each cow in nylon bags for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h to determine DM and CP rumen degradation kinetics, whereas additional bags were also incubated for 16 h to evaluate AA ruminal disappearance. Rumen DM and CP degradability was calculated from rumen-undegraded residues corrected or not for small particle loss. Data were fitted to an exponential model to estimate degradation parameters and effective degradability (ED) was calculated with a passage rate of 0.074 h(-1). The WDDGS and SBM had higher uncorrected ED (DM=75.0 and 72.6%; CP=84.8 and 66.0%, respectively) than CM and HPDDG (DM=57.2 and 55.5%; CP=59.3 and 48.2%, respectively), due to higher soluble fraction in WDDGS and a combination of higher potentially degradable fraction and rate of degradation in SBM. Correction for small particle loss from bags, higher for WDDGS than for the other protein sources, decreased estimated ED but did not alter feed ranking. The ruminal disappearance of AA after 16 h of incubation reflected the overall pattern of CP degradation between protein supplements, but the ruminal disappearance of individual AA differed between protein supplements. Overall, these results indicate that, in the current study, (1) SBM and WDDGS were more degradable in the rumen than CM and HPDDG, and (2) that small particle loss correction is relevant but does not alter this

  20. Metabolite Regulation of Partially Purified Soybean Nodule Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Schuller, Kathryn A.; Turpin, David H.; Plaxton, William C.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was purified 40-fold from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) nodules to a specific activity of 5.2 units per milligram per protein and an estimated purity of 28%. Native and subunit molecular masses were determined to be 440 and 100 kilodaltons, respectively, indicating that the enzyme is a homotetramer. The response of enzyme activity to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) concentration and to various effectors was influenced by assay pH and glycerol addition to the assay. At pH 7 in the absence of glycerol, the Km (PEP) was about twofold greater than at pH 7 in the presence of glycerol or at pH 8. At pH 7 or pH 8 the Km (MgPEP) was found to be significantly lower than the respective Km (PEP) values. Glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, and dihydroxyacetone phosphate activated PEPC at pH 7 in the absence of glycerol, but had no effect under the other assay conditions. Malate, aspartate, glutamate, citrate, and 2-oxoglutarate were potent inhibitors of PEPC at pH 7 in the absence of glycerol, but their effectiveness was decreased by raising the pH to 8 and/or by adding glycerol. In contrast, 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate were less effective inhibitors at pH 7 in the absence of glycerol than under the other assay conditions. Inorganic phosphate (up to 20 millimolar) was an activator at pH 7 in the absence of glycerol but an inhibitor under the other assay conditions. The possible significance of metabolite regulation of PEPC is discussed in relation to the proposed functions of this enzyme in legume nodule metabolism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16667849

  1. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  2. Influence of different processing treatments on the detectability of nucleic acid and protein targets in transgenic soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-04-01

    Influences of dry heating, wet heating, and extrusion on the degradation of DNA and protein from transgenic soybean meal (TSM) were analyzed using qualitative PCR, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), and Western blot. The 414-bp Lectin gene was thoroughly degraded after dry heating between 75 and 90 °C for 30 min, wet heating, and extrusion at 165 °C with 39 % moisture content. The 483-bp CP4-EPSPS gene was not detected after dry heating, wet heating, and extrusion at 120 °C with 39 % moisture content. The degradation ratios of both Lectin and CP4-EPSPS genes increased from 0.4 to 92.1 % and 6.1 to 84.0 % as temperatures rose from 90 to 165 °C. iELISA results of the extruded TSM showed that the CP4-EPSPS protein content was reduced from 4.19 to 0.54 % as temperatures rose from 90 to 150 °C and was not detectable at 165 °C. Western blot results also showed the degradation of CP4-CPSPS protein after extrusion. Our results showed that temperature played an essential role in DNA and protein degradation, and the content of genetically modified organism (GMO) products may be changed after processing and could not reflect the initial content of the products. PMID:24566925

  3. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L.; Fonseca, Rafael F.; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. PMID:23365723

  4. Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum.

    PubMed

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Hayakawa, Mariko; Minami, Tadayasu; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Kapoor, Mahendra Parkash; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Wakabayashi, Kazuo

    2015-05-14

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P < 0.05) acute (studies 1 and 3) and long-term (studies 1 and 2) satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P < 0.05) reduce energy intake from whole-day snacking. PHGG could be an ideal natural soluble fibre for delivering acute and long term satiety effects for comfortable appetite control. PMID:25851425

  5. Effect of substitution of soybean meal by canola meal or distillers grains in dairy rations on amino acid and glucose availability.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-01-01

    Canola meal (CM) or by-products of ethanol production (dried distillers grain, DDG) may offer an economical alternative to soybean meal (SBM) in North American dairy rations. These protein supplements can effectively replace SBM and, in 2 recent meta-analyses, CM had a positive effect on milk and milk protein yields compared with SBM. The objective of this study was to determine if the positive responses observed with inclusion of CM in dairy rations could be explained by an increased availability of His, Lys, Met, or glucose. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods. Cows were fed isonitrogenous (17.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy of lactation) diets formulated to slightly exceed nutrient requirements. Diets contained 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate including SBM, CM, corn high-protein DDG (HPDDG), or wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS) as the single protein supplement. The effect of protein supplements on availability of His, Lys, Met, and glucose was estimated using variations in the whole-body (WB) flux of these nutrients, determined by isotopic dilution. As planned, dry matter intake and milk and milk protein yields were not affected by treatments and averaged 23.7, 31.4, and 1.14 kg/d, respectively. Lactose yield did not differ among diets although milk lactose content tended to be lower with CM and WDDGS diets than with SBM and HPDDG diets. Lysine availability was affected by treatments: the highest WB irreversible loss rate (ILR) was observed for the CM diet (371 g/d) and the lowest for HPDDG diet (290 g/d); values for SBM and WDDGS were intermediate (330 and 316 g/d, respectively). Availability of His and Met did not vary among diets and WB ILR averaged, respectively, 129 and 124 g/d; the CM diet, however, had numerically the highest His and Met ILR. Plasma concentrations of most of the essential AA were higher with the CM diet and lower with the HPDDG diet, the

  6. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  7. Effects of corn and soybean meal types on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism and productivity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shen, J S; Song, L J; Sun, H Z; Wang, B; Chai, Z; Chacher, B; Liu, J X

    2015-03-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:25656206

  8. Making soy sauce from defatted soybean meal without the mejus process by submerged cultivation using thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jeong Min; Park, Doo Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was not significantly altered while growing in a defatted soybean meal (DFSM) slurry at 60 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days. Five species of thermophilic bacteria, which belong to the genera Aeribacillus (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis [TGGE] band no. 1), Saccharococcus (TGGE band no. 2), Geobacillus (TGGE band no. 3), Bacillus (TGGE band no. 4), and Anoxybacillus (TGGE band no. 5), were detected in the fermenting DFSM slurry. The cell-free culture fluid obtained from the fermenting DFSM slurry on day 14 hydrolyzed starch and soy protein at 60 °C but not at 30 °C. Soy sauce (test soy sauce) was prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry after a 30 day cultivation at 60 °C and a 60 day ripening at 45 °C. Free amino acid (AA) and organic acid contents in the soy sauce increased in proportion to the fermentation period, whereas ammonium decreased proportionally. Mg and Ca contained in the soy sauce decreased proportionally during fermentation and were lower than those in the non-fermented DFSM extract (control). Spectral absorbance of soy sauce prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry was maximal at 430 nm and increased slightly in proportion to the fermentation period. The aroma and flavor of the test soy sauce were significantly different from those of traditional Korean soy sauce. Conclusively, soy sauce may be prepared directly from the fermented DFSM slurry without meju-preparing process and fermentation period may be a factor for control of soy sauce quality. PMID:26243923

  9. Effect of dietary protein supply originating from soybean meal or casein on the intestinal microbiota of piglets.

    PubMed

    Rist, Vanessa T S; Weiss, Eva; Sauer, Nadja; Mosenthin, Rainer; Eklund, Meike

    2014-02-01

    Dietary composition is a major factor influencing the intestinal microbial ecosystem of pigs. To alleviate weaning-associated disorders, variations in dietary protein supply may beneficially affect microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. A total of 48 piglets, fitted with simple ileal T-cannulas, was used to examine the effect of protein supply of either highly digestible casein or less digestible, fiber-rich soybean meal (SBM) on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Gene copies of 7 bacteria groups were determined by real-time PCR in ileal digesta and feces. Ileal counts of total eubacteria, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium Cluster XIVa were higher (P < 0.001) in the casein-based diets. Fecal counts of all analyzed bacterial groups were higher for the SBM-based diets (P < 0.001), apart from Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05) which were higher in the casein-based diets. Ileal counts of lactobacilli linearly increased as the crude protein level was increased up to 335 g/kg (P < 0.01). The Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group linearly decreased in ileal samples (P < 0.01) and increased in fecal samples (P < 0.05) as the crude protein level in the SBM-based diet was increased. Both, protein level and protein source may affect intestinal microbial balance. Higher dietary protein levels in combination with diets low in fiber contents might stimulate proliferation of protein fermenting bacteria in piglet's large intestine. Further studies are warranted to clarify, whether this would be associated with intestinal disturbances. PMID:24176945

  10. Glutamate promotes nucleotide synthesis in the gut and improves availability of soybean meal feed in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chika; Maekawa, Mayumi; Bannai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate (Glu) plays various roles directly or through conversions to other amino acids in intracellular metabolisms such as energy source for enterocytes and precursor for nucleic acids. In this study, we examined the effect of single and chronic oral administration of Glu on cell proliferation in intestine and growth in rainbow trout fed soybean meal (SBM) based diet. In the single dose study, 30, 120 and 360 min after oral administration of 50 and 500 mg/kg Glu, the blood and intestine tissues were collected for amino acid concentration and gene expression analysis. Cell-proliferation was detected 24 h after administration using bromo-deoxy uridine (BrdU) in intestine. In the chronic experiment, fish were fed SBM-based diet added 1 and 2 % of Glu for 8 weeks. Final body weight, plasma amino acid concentrations, gene expression and cell-proliferation in the intestine were analyzed. The expressions of some nucleic acid-synthesis related genes were significantly increased 30 min after administration of 50 mg/kg of Glu. After 8 weeks of feeding, the fish fed SBM-based diet showed significantly lower body weight and microvillus thickness in proximal intestine. Supplementation of 2 % of Glu in the SBM-based feed improved both of them. Though it was not significant difference, Glu tended to increase cell-proliferation in the proximal intestine dose-dependently in both single and chronic administration. Our experiment indicates that Glu has positive effect on rainbow trout fed SBM-based feed by reforming proximal intestine through altering cell-proliferation. PMID:27441140

  11. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    PubMed

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  12. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Sahlmann, Christian; Gu, Jinni; Kortner, Trond M.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight. PMID:25923375

  13. Effects of Corn and Soybean Meal Types on Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J. S.; Song, L. J.; Sun, H. Z.; Wang, B.; Chai, Z.; Chacher, B.; Liu, J. X.

    2015-01-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:25656206

  14. Effects of feed grade poultry by-product meal, soybean meal and protein level in the diet on the performance and immune status of pond-grown sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two primary ways to achieve low-cost, nutritionally efficacious diets for sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis) are to decrease crude protein levels and use alternative animal or plant ingredients to partially, or totally, replace fish meal. A 459-day feeding trial was conducted with juven...

  15. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  16. Efficacy of quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy and fatty-meal sonography for evaluating patients with suspected partial common duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, R M; Dodds, W J; Hogan, W J; Geenen, J E; Collier, B D; Shaker, R; Kishk, S M; Stewart, E T; Lawson, T L; Hassanein, E H

    1988-03-01

    In this study we evaluated by blinded design the diagnostic efficacy of two noninvasive techniques, quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy (QHS) and fatty-meal sonography (FMS), for evaluating patients with suspected partial common duct obstruction. Quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy was performed on 56 cholecystectomized individuals (22 asymptomatic controls, 28 patients with suspected partial common duct obstruction, and 6 nonjaundiced cirrhotics) and FMS was done in 51 cases. For QHS, time-activity curves were generated for regions of interest over the liver, hepatic hilum, and common duct. For FMS, we measured common duct diameter before and 45 min after a fatty meal (Lipomul, 1.5 ml/kg). Each of the 28 patients with suspected partial common duct obstruction and 6 cirrhotic patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, often accompanied by sphincter of Oddi manometry. Findings from these examinations were taken as the gold standard to determine the presence or absence of conditions that could account for intermittent symptomatic partial common duct obstruction. The most sensitive indicators for a positive test were a 45-min isotope clearance of less than 63% for QHS and a common duct increase of greater than or equal to 2 mm after the fatty meal for FMS. Of 28 patients with suspected partial common duct obstruction, 15 were judged to be true-positive and 13 true-negative. The 6 cirrhotic patients were without common duct obstruction. The study findings showed that each test had a 67% sensitivity that improved to 80% when the findings from both test results were combined. The specificity of QHS was 85% and that of FMS was 100%. All 6 cirrhotic patients had negative findings on FMS and 4 were false-positive on QHS. The true-positives included 8 patients with a small common duct stone and 6 with obstructive sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (4 stenosis, 2 dyskinesia). We conclude that noninvasive QHS and FMS afford good sensitivity and specificity

  17. Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary vulnerability of soybean production to climate change is likely to be from the effects of drought, which may be exacerbated by high temperature events. Technological adaptation can likely take advantage of warming in some production areas and rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon ...

  18. Digestibility marker and ileal amino acid digestibility in phytase-supplemented soybean or canola meals for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Favero, A; Ragland, D; Vieira, S L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Adeola, O

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments using soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) were conducted to investigate whether the choice of digestibility marker influenced the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N and AA in diets supplemented with phytase. In each experiment, 18 barrows fitted with T-cannulas at the ileocecal junction were assigned to 3 diets consisting of a N-free diet to determine endogenous losses of N and AA, a semipurified diet (SBM in Exp. 1 or CM in Exp. 2), and the semipurified diet supplemented with phytase at 1,000 phytase units/kg. Three digestibility markers including acid-insoluble ash (AIA), chromic oxide (Cr2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to each diet at 3 g/kg. Each diet was fed for 7 d, consisting of a 5-d adjustment and a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. In both studies, basal ileal endogenous losses determined with Cr2O3 as a digestibility marker were lower (P<0.01) than with those determined with AIA or TiO2 digestibility markers. Using SBM as the protein source in Exp. 1, there was no interaction between phytase and digestibility marker on AID or SID of AA. The AID of N and AA in SBM using AIA as a digestibility marker tended to be lower (P<0.1) compared with Cr2O3 or TiO2 digestibility markers. Phytase supplementation increased (P<0.001) the AID of Ca and P. The use of AIA or Cr2O3 digestibility marker tended to be associated with lower (P<0.1) SID values compared with TiO2. Phytase did not affect the SID of N or any AA in SBM except for Met, for which there was an increase (P<0.05) with phytase supplementation. Using CM as the protein source in Exp. 2, there were significant interactions between digestibility marker and phytase. Phytase supplementation had effects (P<0.01) on AID or SID when Cr2O3 or TiO2 was used as the digestibility marker. With Cr2O3 or TiO2 as the digestibility marker in the CM diets, phytase supplementation increased (P<0.05) the SID of N and all AA (except Trp). There was

  19. Effect of Phytogenic Feed Additives in Soybean Meal on In vitro Swine Fermentation for Odor Reduction and Bacterial Community Comparison.

    PubMed

    Alam, M J; Mamuad, L L; Kim, S H; Jeong, C D; Sung, H G; Cho, S B; Jeon, C O; Lee, K; Lee, Sang S

    2013-02-01

    The effect of different phytogenic feed additives on reducing odorous compounds in swine was investigated using in vitro fermentation and analyzed their microbial communities. Soybean meal (1%) added with 0.1% different phytogenic feed additives (FA) were in vitro fermented using swine fecal slurries and anaerobically incubated for 12 and 24 h. The phytogenic FAs used were red ginseng barn powder (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, FA1), persimmon leaf powder (Diospyros virginiana L., FA2), ginkgo leaf powder (Ginkgo biloba L., FA3), and oregano lippia seed oil extract (Lippia graveolens Kunth, OL, FA4). Total gas production, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2 (-)-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 (-)-N), sulfate (SO4 (--)), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other metabolites concentration were determined. Microbial communities were also analyzed using 16S rRNA DGGE. Results showed that the pH values on all treatments increased as incubation time became longer except for FA4 where it decreased. Moreover, FA4 incubated for 12 and 24 h was not detected in NH3-N and H2S. Addition of FAs decreased (p<0.05) propionate production but increased (p<0.05) the total VFA production. Ten 16S rRNA DGGE bands were identified which ranged from 96 to 100% identity which were mostly isolated from the intestine. Similarity index showed three clearly different clusters: I (FA2 and FA3), II (Con and FA1), and III (FA4). Dominant bands which were identified closest to Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486T), Uncultured bacterium clone PF6641 and Streptococcus lutetiensis (CIP 106849T) were present only in the FA4 treatment group and were not found in other groups. FA4 had a different bacterial diversity compared to control and other treatments and thus explains having lowest odorous compounds. Addition of FA4 to an enriched protein feed source for growing swine may effectively reduce odorous compounds which are typically associated with swine production. PMID:25049786

  20. Effect of Phytogenic Feed Additives in Soybean Meal on In vitro Swine Fermentation for Odor Reduction and Bacterial Community Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. J.; Mamuad, L. L.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, C. D.; Sung, H. G.; Cho, S. B.; Jeon, C. O.; Lee, K.; Lee, Sang S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different phytogenic feed additives on reducing odorous compounds in swine was investigated using in vitro fermentation and analyzed their microbial communities. Soybean meal (1%) added with 0.1% different phytogenic feed additives (FA) were in vitro fermented using swine fecal slurries and anaerobically incubated for 12 and 24 h. The phytogenic FAs used were red ginseng barn powder (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, FA1), persimmon leaf powder (Diospyros virginiana L., FA2), ginkgo leaf powder (Ginkgo biloba L., FA3), and oregano lippia seed oil extract (Lippia graveolens Kunth, OL, FA4). Total gas production, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2−-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N), sulfate (SO4−−), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other metabolites concentration were determined. Microbial communities were also analyzed using 16S rRNA DGGE. Results showed that the pH values on all treatments increased as incubation time became longer except for FA4 where it decreased. Moreover, FA4 incubated for 12 and 24 h was not detected in NH3-N and H2S. Addition of FAs decreased (p<0.05) propionate production but increased (p<0.05) the total VFA production. Ten 16S rRNA DGGE bands were identified which ranged from 96 to 100% identity which were mostly isolated from the intestine. Similarity index showed three clearly different clusters: I (FA2 and FA3), II (Con and FA1), and III (FA4). Dominant bands which were identified closest to Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486T), Uncultured bacterium clone PF6641 and Streptococcus lutetiensis (CIP 106849T) were present only in the FA4 treatment group and were not found in other groups. FA4 had a different bacterial diversity compared to control and other treatments and thus explains having lowest odorous compounds. Addition of FA4 to an enriched protein feed source for growing swine may effectively reduce odorous compounds which are typically associated with swine production. PMID:25049786

  1. Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using In vitro Rumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Chang-Dae; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Choi, Yeon Jae; Soriano, Alvin P.; Cho, Kwang Keun; Jeon, Che-Ok; Lee, Sung Sil; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean meal (SM) and soluble starch (SS) on biogenic amine production and microbial diversity using in vitro ruminal fermentation. Treatments comprised of incubation of 2 g of mixture (expressed as 10 parts) containing different ratios of SM to SS as: 0:0, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, or 0:10. In vitro ruminal fermentation parameters were determined at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h of incubation while the biogenic amine and microbial diversity were determined at 48 h of incubation. Treatment with highest proportion of SM had higher (p<0.05) gas production than those with higher proportions of SS. Samples with higher proportion of SS resulted in lower pH than those with higher proportion of SM after 48 h of incubation. The largest change in NH3-N concentration from 0 to 48 h was observed on all SM while the smallest was observed on exclusive SS. Similarly, exclusive SS had the lowest NH3-N concentration among all groups after 24 h of incubation. Increasing methane (CH4) concentrations were observed with time, and CH4 concentrations were higher (p<0.05) with greater proportions of SM than SS. Balanced proportion of SM and SS had the highest (p<0.05) total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) while propionate was found highest in higher proportion of SS. Moreover, biogenic amine (BA) was higher (p<0.05) in samples containing greater proportions of SM. Histamines, amine index and total amines were highest in exclusive SM followed in sequence mixtures with increasing proportion of SS (and lowered proportion of SM) at 48 h of incubation. Nine dominant bands were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and their identity ranged from 87% to 100% which were mostly isolated from rumen and feces. Bands R2 (uncultured bacterium clone RB-5E1) and R4 (uncultured rumen bacterium clone L7A_C10) bands were found in samples with higher proportions of SM while R3 (uncultured Firmicutes bacterium clone NI_52), R7 (Selenomonas sp. MCB2

  2. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens. PMID:20852122

  3. Reduction of Soybean Meal Non-Starch Polysaccharides and α-Galactosides by Solid-State Fermentation Using Cellulolytic Bacteria Obtained from Different Environments

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Rafael; Ortúzar, Felipe; Navarrete, Paola; Espejo, Romilio; Romero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is an important protein source in animal feed. However, the levels of SBM inclusion are restricted in some animal species by the presence of antinutritional factors (ANFs), including non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and α-galactosides (GOSs). The aim of this study was to reduce the soybean meal NSPs and GOSs by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a combination of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from different environments (termites, earthworms, corn silage and bovine ruminal content). To analyse the key enzymatic activities, the isolates were grown in minimal media containing NSPs extracted from SBM. The selected bacterial strains belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Cohnella and Cellulosimicrobium. SSF resulted in a reduction of nearly 24% in the total NSPs, 83% of stachyose and 69% of raffinose and an increase in the protein content. These results suggest that cellulolytic bacteria-based SSF processing facilitates SBM nutritional improvement. In addition, the use of fermented SBM in animal diets can be recommended. PMID:22984557

  4. Effect of β-Mannanase and α-Galactosidase Supplementation to Soybean Meal Based Diets on Growth, Feed Efficiency and Nutrient Digestibility of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    PubMed Central

    Yiğit, Nalan Ozgur; Koca, Seval Bahadir; Didinen, Behire Isıl; Diler, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with 87 g rainbow trout to evaluate the effects on growth performances, feed efficiency and nutrient digestibility of adding β-mannanase and α-galactosidase enzymes, solely or in combination. Seven diets were prepared by adding β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme at two different levels (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg) to control diet (without enzyme) including soybean meal. Mixed enzymes (1 g/kg, 2 g/kg) were prepared by adding β-mannanase and α-galactosidase at the same doses (0.5+0.5 g/kg and 1+1 g/kg). At the end of the experiment, addition of β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme to diet containing 44% soybean meal had no significant effects on growth performance and gain:feed (p>0.05). In addition, adding β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme in different rations to trout diets had no affect on nutrient digestibility and body composition (p>0.05). PMID:25050005

  5. Genome-wide association mapping of partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean plant introductions from the Republic of Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot is one of the most yield-limiting diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr], caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Partial resistance is controlled by several genes and, compared to single gene (Rps gene) resistance to P. sojae, places less selection pressure on...

  6. Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Properties of Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Methyl Esters Blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Important fuel properties and emissions characteristics of blends (20 vol%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes in physical properties were noticed for B20...

  7. Energy and Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Concentrations for Growing Pigs and Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Fermented or Conventional Soybean Meal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Lu, W. Q.; Li, D. F.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, H. L.; Niu, S.; Piao, X. S.

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy of co-inoculating Bacillus subtilis MA139 with Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to produce fermented soybean meal (FSBM). Three experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) (Exp. 1), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) (Exp. 2), and feeding value (Exp. 3) of FSBM produced by this new strategy (NFSB) compared with soybean meal (SBM) and conventionally available FSBM (Suprotein). In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows (initial body weight [BW] of 32.2 ±1.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets with 6 replicates per diet. A corn basal diet and 3 diets based on a mixture of corn and 1 of 3 soybean products listed above were formulated and the DE and ME contents were determined by the difference method. The results showed that there were no differences in DE and ME between SBM and either FSBM product (p>0.05). In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 26.8±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulaes and used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three corn-starch-based diets were formulated using each of the 3 soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. The results showed that the SID of all AA except arginine and histidine was similar for NFSB and SBM (p>0.05), but Suprotein had greater (p<0.05) SID of most AA except lysine, aspartate, glycine and proline than NFSB. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 piglets (initial BW of 8.8±1.2 kg) were blocked by weight and fed 1 of 4 diets including a control diet with 24% SBM as well as diets containing 6% and 12% NFSB or 12% Suprotein added at the expense of SBM. During d 15 to 28, replacing SBM with 6% NFSB significantly improved average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) for nursery piglets. During the overall experiment, ADG of piglets fed diets containing

  8. Partial blood meal, carbohydrate availability, and blood-feeding postponement effects on human host avidity and DEET repellency in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host avidity and DEET repellency were measured in partially blood fed Aedes albopictus (Skuse) provided 10% sucrose in water, water, or neither when access to a human host was postponed for 1 to 72 h after a partial blood meal. Carbohydrate availability and post-feeding time influenced host avidity...

  9. Effect of replacing soybean meal protein with protein from upland cottonseed, Pima cottonseed, or extruded Pima cottonseed on production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Kerkman, T M; Sullivan, H M; Dowd, M K; Funk, P A

    2013-04-01

    Pima cotton production is increasing in the United States, but Pima cottonseed generally contains higher concentrations of the antinutritive pigment gossypol than conventional upland cottonseed. Heating promotes the reaction of gossypol with protein, reducing gossypol absorption and toxicity. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value for dairy cattle of Pima cottonseed cake (PCSC) that was heated and oil largely removed by an experimental extrusion process, compared with upland cottonseed (UCS) and Pima cottonseed (PCS). The PCS had greater crude protein (CP) and ether extract, less neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), similar total gossypol, but higher (-)-gossypol isomer compared with UCS. Extrusion reduced lipid content by 73%, increased concentrations of CP, NDF, and ADF, and reduced total gossypol, (+)-gossypol, and (-)-gossypol in PCSC versus PCS. Forty lactating Holsteins (8 with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk into 5 squares in a replicated, incomplete 8 × 8 Latin square, and were fed diets containing, on a dry matter (DM) basis, 30% alfalfa silage, 31% corn silage, 21 to 25% high-moisture corn, and about 15% CP. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Supplemental CP was from (1) solvent soybean meal (SSBM) only or 50% from SSBM plus 50% from (2) UCS, (3) PCS, (4) PCSC, (5) UCS plus PCS, and (6) UCS plus PCSC, or (7) 50% from expeller soybean meal (ESBM) plus 50% from PCS, and (8) 50% from ESBM plus 50% from PCSC. Periods were 4 wk long (total of 16 wk); production data were collected over the last 2 wk and blood and ruminal samples were taken on d 28 of each period. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Diet affected dry matter intake, with greatest intake on diet 6 and lowest intake on diets 1 and 3. The highest milk fat content was observed on diet 5 and the greatest fat yield on diet 7; fat content and yield were lowest on diet 1

  10. Effect of biotin and(or) lysine additions to corn-soybean meal diets on the performance and nutrient balance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C R; Veum, T L

    1986-01-01

    Supplementation of a basal corn-soybean meal diet with 0 or .2% L-lysine and 0, .25 or .55 ppm biotin produced six dietary treatments in a factorial arrangement. Pig performance, post-weaning scour scores, plasma urea N (PUN) levels, N and energy balance and liver pyruvate carboxylase activity (PC) were response criteria. Crossbred pigs were fed from weaning at 4 wk of age (8.0 kg) to market weight in performance trials utilizing 552 pigs in the 35-d starter period and 384 pigs in the subsequent grower (about 21 to 50 kg) and finisher (about 50 to 95 kg) periods. Pigs remained on their respective dietary treatments for the entire experiment. Energy and N balance trials were conducted utilizing 36 barrows from the grower period (avg 44.7 kg) and 36 barrows from the finisher period (avg 90.3 kg) of the performance study. Barrows were sacrificed following completion of the 6-d collection periods to measure liver PC activity. The basal starter diet contained 17.0% crude protein (CP), 86% lysine and .22 ppm biotin. Increasing the corn:soybean meal ratio reduced the dietary levels of CP, lysine and biotin to 14.8%, .69% and .19 ppm for the basal grower diet and to 11.1%, .50% and .17 ppm, respectively, for the basal finisher diet. Lysine supplementation improved (P less than .05) average daily feed intake and average daily gain for all periods, gain:feed ratios for the starter and grower periods and reduced (P less than .01) PUN levels at the end of the starter and finisher periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3082842

  11. Effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Kang, Bin; Tao, Linli; Rong, Hua; Zhang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded cholesterol levels (0 [control], 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5%) for nine weeks. The fish were then challenged by A. hydrophila and their survival rate recorded for the next week. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally increased the serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) activities, but decreased the serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Further, the hepatic CAT and serum SOD, CAT, and TAC activities were significantly higher in fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol compared to those fed the control diet, whereas the serum and hepatic MDA contents were significantly lower. The respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, and hepatic lysozyme activity increased steadily when the supplemental cholesterol was increased by up to 1.2% and then declined with further addition. The serum lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity increased steadily with increasing dietary supplemental cholesterol level up to 0.9% and then declined with further addition. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally enhanced the protection against A. hydrophila infection, and fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol exhibited the highest post-challenge survival rate. The results indicated that cholesterol may be under-supplied in rainbow trout fed soybean meal-based diets, and dietary cholesterol supplementation (0.9-1.2%) contributed to improved immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout against A. hydrophila. PMID:23207478

  12. Metabolisable energy and amino acid digestibility of high-oil maize, low-phytate maize and low-phytate soybean meal for White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O

    2005-10-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the metabolisable energy and amino acid digestibilities of high-oil maize (HOM), low-phytate maize (LPM) and low-phytate soybean meal (LPSBM) as compared with normal maize (NM) and normal soybean meal (NSBM) using male White Pekin ducks. 2. In the first experiment, the TMEN (kJ/g) value of HOM (16.58) was higher than that of NM (16.05), but that of LPM (16.11) did not differ from those of HOM or NM. The true digestibility coefficients for methionine (0.874, 0.871 or 0.876), lysine (0.805, 0.816 or 0.813) and tryptophan (0.946, 0.959 or 0.960) did not differ among NM, LPM and HOM, respectively. The average true digestibility coefficients for all amino acids in NM, LPM or HOM (0.886, 0.890 or 0.900, respectively) did not differ among the three ingredients. 3. In the second experiment, the TMEN value of LPSBM (12.39) was approximately 8% higher than that of NSBM (11.46). The true digestibility coefficients for most amino acids were higher for LPSBM than for NSBM, except in the case of histidine, cysteine and tyrosine, which were not different. The average true digestibility coefficient for all amino acids in LPSBM (0.945) was higher than in NSBM (0.924). 4. Results of the two experiments indicate that the energy and amino acids in the feed ingredients evaluated were well utilised by ducks and that LPSBM has a higher energy value as well as digestible essential amino acid concentration than NSBM for ducks. PMID:16359116

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci for Partial Resistance to Phytophthora Sojaei in Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by the oomycete, Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases to limit soybean production in the US. Although fourteen resistance genes (Rps) to P. sojae have been identified, adaptation of by the pathogen has made many of these ineffe...

  14. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  15. Partial improvements in the flavor quality of soybean seeds using intercropping systems with appropriate shading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Yang, Cai-qiong; Zhang, Qing; Lou, Ying; Wu, Hai-jun; Deng, Jun-cai; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-yu

    2016-09-15

    The profiles of isoflavone and fatty acids constitute important quality traits in soybean seeds, for making soy-based functional food products, due to their important contributions to the flavor and nutritional value of these products. In general, the composition of these constituents in raw soybeans is affected by cultivation factors, such as sunlight; however, the relationship of the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles with cultivation factors is not well understood. This study evaluated the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles in soybeans grown under a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system with different row spacings, and with changes in the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmittance. The effects of PAR on the isoflavone and fatty acid contents were found to be quadratic. Appropriate intercropping shading may reduce the bitterness of soybeans caused by soy aglycone and could improve their fatty acid composition. PMID:27080886

  16. PALM AND PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OILS ADVERSELY ALTER LIPOPROTEIN PROFILES COMPARED WITH SOYBEAN AND CANOLA OILS IN MODERATELY HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Partially-hydrogenated fat has an unfavorable effect on cardiovascular disease risk. Palm oil has reemerged as a potential substitute due to favorable physical characteristics. Objective: To assess the effect of palm oil relative to both partially-hydrogenated fat and oils high in mon...

  17. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  18. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  19. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05) of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05) and water-holding capacity (p<0.05) than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.01), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01). Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  20. Dissection of two soybean QTL conferring partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae through sequence and gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phytophthora sojae is the primary pathogen of soybeans that are grown on poorly drained soils. Race-specific resistance to P. sojae in soybean is gene-for-gene, although in many areas of the US and worldwide there are populations that have adapted to the most commonly deployed resistance to P. sojae ( Rps) genes. Hence, this system has received increased attention towards identifying mechanisms and molecular markers associated with partial resistance to this pathogen. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified in the soybean cultivar ‘Conrad’ that contributes to the expression of partial resistance to multiple P. sojae isolates. Results In this study, two of the Conrad QTL on chromosome 19 were dissected through sequence and expression analysis of genes in both resistant (Conrad) and susceptible (‘Sloan’) genotypes. There were 1025 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 87 of 153 genes sequenced from Conrad and Sloan. There were 304 SNPs in 54 genes sequenced from Conrad compared to those from both Sloan and Williams 82, of which 11 genes had SNPs unique to Conrad. Eleven of 19 genes in these regions analyzed with qRT-PCR had significant differences in fold change of transcript abundance in response to infection with P. sojae in lines with QTL haplotype from the resistant parent compared to those with the susceptible parent haplotype. From these, 8 of the 11 genes had SNPs in the upstream, untranslated region, exon, intron, and/or downstream region. These 11 candidate genes encode proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, hormone-mediated pathways, plant cell structural modification, ubiquitination, and basal resistance. Conclusions These findings may indicate a complex defense network with multiple mechanisms underlying these two soybean QTL conferring resistance to P. sojae. SNP markers derived from these candidate genes can contribute to fine mapping of QTL and marker assisted breeding for resistance to P. sojae

  1. Can Supplementing starter diets with probiotics increase soybean meal incorporation levels in practical grow-out diets for Rainbow Trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of partially autolyzed yeast and Grobiotic™-A to improve immune response and disease resistance in rainbow trout. Three experimental diets were prepared by supplementing either partially autolyzed yeast or Grobiotic™-A at the manufacturer’s recommende...

  2. Effects of soybean meal and salinity on intestinal transport of nutrients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Nordrum, S; Bakke-McKellep, A M; Krogdahl, A; Buddington, R K

    2000-03-01

    Groups of fresh- and seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with (SBM diet) or without (control diet) extracted soybean meal (30% of protein substituted with SBM) for 3 weeks. Average fish size per group ranged from 597 to 1763 g. One tank or net pen per species, dietary group and water salinity was used. In vitro nutrient transport (D-glucose, the L-amino acids aspartate, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and proline, and the dipeptide glycyl-sarcosine) was measured using intact tissue (everted sleeve method) from the different postgastric intestinal regions. The dimensions of the different intestinal regions were also measured for each treatment group. Results indicate that SBM causes decreased carrier-mediated transport and increased permeability of distal intestinal epithelium for the nutrients, and the capacity of this region to absorb nutrient was diminished. Salinity may also affect the relative contribution of carrier-mediated and independent uptake to total nutrient absorption. PMID:10818266

  3. Ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in low quality soybean meal sources treated with β-mannanase for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Park, J W; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2016-07-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy, dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in low quality soybean meals with different CP concentration (SBM 44% CP and SBM 48% CP) with or without 400 U β-mannanase/kg supplementation were evaluated in 20 cannulated barrows ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc) with an average BW of 25.08±3.42 kg. A N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of amino acids. The supplementation of β-mannanase improved (P0.05) AID of N and energy. The type of SBM (SBM 44% CP v. SBM 48% CP) had no effect on AID of DM, N and energy. β-mannanase improved (P<0.05) AID of sum of essential amino acids, arginine, histidine, lysine, valine and glycine. The SID of lysine was higher (P<0.05) in enzyme supplemented than in non-supplemented diets. Larger AID and SID of threonine and proline (P<0.05) were observed in SBM 48% CP than in SBM 44% CP. In conclusion, the supplementation of enzyme improved AID of arginine, histidine, lysine, valine and glycine, but it did not cause marked difference in SID of these amino acids except for lysine. The low nutrient digestibility of the SBM sources used in the present experiment might have favoured the positive effect of β-mannanase supplementation. PMID:26857033

  4. Effects of exogenous enzyme supplementation to corn- and soybean meal-based or complex diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jo, J K; Ingale, S L; Kim, J S; Kim, Y W; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Lee, J H; Chae, B J

    2012-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, blood metabolites, fecal VFA, and fecal ammonia-N in growing pigs (Sus scrofa) fed a corn (Zea mays L.)- and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal (SBM)-based diet. In Exp. 1, 240 growing barrows (initial BW: 55.6 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 4 replicates in each treatment with 12 pigs per replicate. The 5 treatments consisted of a corn-SBM-based control diet and 4 additional diets were similar to the control diet, with the exception that 0.05% β-mannanase (M), α-amylase + β-mannanase (AM), β-mannanase + protease (MPr), or α-amylase + β-mannanase + protease (AMP) was added to the diets, which were fed for 28 d. Pigs fed the AM, MPr, or AMP diet had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed the AMP diet also had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the M, AM, or MPr diet. Pigs fed the AMP diet had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. The G:F of the pigs fed the M, AM, or MPr diet were not different (P > 0.05) from the G:F in pigs fed the AMP or control diet. The ADFI, ATTD of nutrients, blood metabolites, and fecal VFA and ammonia-N concentrations were not different among treatments. In Exp. 2, 192 growing barrows (initial BW: 56.9 ± 1.0 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments. There were 4 replicates in each treatment with 12 pigs per replicate. Pigs were fed a corn-SBM-based diet (CSD) or a complex diet (CD) that contained corn, SBM, 3% rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal, 3% copra (Cocos nucifera L.) meal, and 3% palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) kernel meal. Each diet was prepared without exogenous enzymes or with 0.05% AMP and all diets were fed for 28 d. The ADG and G:F of pigs fed the CSD were greater (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the CD. However, the type of diet had no effect on the

  5. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at one year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Miller, Gary D.; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement (PMR) plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a PMR plan in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI). Objective Compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in ILI and diabetes support and education (DSE) groups at 12 months. Design Randomized controlled trial, comparing ILI to DSE, at 0- and 12-months. Participants/setting From 16 United States sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available on 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to DSE and 1,211 randomized to ILI. Main outcome measures A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and saturated fats; trans fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements (MRs); and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Statistical analyses performed Mixed-factor analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted chi-square tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. Results At 12 months, ILI had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than DSE. ILI consumed more servings/day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt & cheese; and fewer servings/day of fats, oils & sweets than DSE. A greater percentage of ILI than DSE participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within ILI, a greater percentage of participants consuming ≥ 2 MRs/day than < 1 MR/day met most

  6. Effects of production area and microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sotak-Peper, K M; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if the area in which soybeans are grown influences the concentration of P, phytate, and macro- and microminerals in the soybean meal (SBM) produced from the beans and, therefore, also influences the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in SBM. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of microbial phytase will increase the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM regardless of where the beans were grown. Twenty sources of SBM were procured from crushing facilities located in different regions of the United States that were separated into 3 zones: 1) the northern growing area (Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota), 2) the eastern growing area (Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio), and 3) the western growing area (Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska). For each source of SBM, 2 diets based on cornstarch and SBM were formulated; one of these diets contained no microbial phytase and the other diet contained 500 units/kg of microbial phytase. Two hundred growing barrows (16.90 ± 1.79 kg initial BW) were individually placed in metabolism crates and allotted to a randomized complete block design with 40 diets and 5 replicate pigs per treatment. Feces were collected for 4 d after a 4-d adaptation period using the marker-to-marker procedure. Results indicated that there were no differences in concentration of Ca, P, phytate, and macro- and microminerals among SBM from the different zones. However, there was a tendency ( = 0.055) for an increase in concentration of nonphytate P in SBM from the western growing area (0.25%) compared with SBM from the northern growing area (0.23%) and the eastern growing area (0.23%). There were no differences in feed intake, absorbed P, ATTD of P, STTD of P, Ca intake, Ca output, or ATTD of Ca for pigs fed SBM from the 3 zones. However, there was a tendency (P = 0.066) for an increase in P intake and P output from pigs fed SBM from the

  7. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  8. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno-competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal

    PubMed Central

    Moravej, Hoseein; Alahyari-Shahrasb, Majid; Kiani, Ali; Bagherirad, Mona; Shivazad, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ˚C. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing. PMID:25593680

  9. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, S; Poungchompu, O; Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Cherdthong, A

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg) were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate) on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a), potential degradability (a+b) and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM) linearly (p<0.01) increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b) and rate of degradation (c). In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials. PMID:26954119

  10. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    PubMed Central

    Polyorach, S.; Poungchompu, O.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg) were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate) on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a), potential degradability (a+b) and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM) linearly (p<0.01) increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b) and rate of degradation (c). In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials. PMID:26954119

  11. Effects of partial food restriction on nocturnal meal size and feeding speed are counteracted by concurrent REM sleep deprivation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Johansson, G G; Elomaa, E

    1986-06-01

    Effects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation on meal size and feeding speed were investigated by means of the cuff pedestal technique in 9 male rats exposed to partial food restriction. Reduction of available food by 50% alone, when accomplished by providing the pellets at the beginning of each dark period, during 7 consecutive days, induced a quite linear increase both in the meal size and feeding speed. When the same feeding schedule was repeated in combination with REM sleep deprivation, the meal size remained smaller and the feeding time was prolonged (during the first 3-4 days) when compared to those during food restriction alone, although losses of body weight were almost doubled. These findings are in agreement with the effects of REM sleep deprivation on the meal pattern in rats on ad libitum diet and provide further support for the suggestion of the importance of REM sleep in the generation of the light/dark rhythm of feeding in the rat. PMID:3741588

  12. Milk Production and Income over Feed Costs in Dairy Cows Fed Medium-roasted Soybean Meal and Corn Dried Distiller’s Grains with Solubles

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of feeding medium-roasted soybean meal (SBM) and corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles (CDDGS) in dairy cows on milk production and income over feed costs. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted with 24 crossbred multiparous Holstein Friesian dairy cows in early- and mid-lactation. Four dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet without feed substitute (Control), 7.17% dry matter (DM) roasted SBM replaced for concentrate (R-SBM), 11.50% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (DDGS), and 3.58% DM roasted SBM plus 5.75% DM CDDGS replaced for concentrate (SB-DG). The roasted SBM was produced using a medium-heated treatment at 100°C for 180 min. Dry matter intake was not affected by feeding high rumen undegradable protein (RUP) sources, but the replacement of roasted SBM and CDDGS for concentrate significantly improved (p<0.001) RUP intake (0.90, 0.86, and 0.88 kg/d corresponding to R-SBM, DDGS, and SB-DG) compared to the control (0.61 kg/d). Feeding roasted SBM and CDDGS alone or in combination had no significant effect on milk composition of dairy cows (p>0.05), whereas milk yield was significantly increased by 3.08 kg/d in the SB-DG group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Net income was meaningfully increased (p<0.05) from 4th week post feeding, the SB-DG group reached the greatest net income ($3.48/head/d) while the control group had the lowest value ($2.60/head/d). In conclusion, the use of CDDGS alone or in combination with medium-roasted SBM as substitute for concentrate in lactating dairy cattle diet led to improved milk production and net income over feed costs without affecting total dry matter intake and milk composition, while feeding medium-roasted SBM seemed to show intermediate values in almost parameters. PMID:25656183

  13. Effects of dietary soybean meal concentration on growth and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Alexander, L S; Rocha, G C; Van Alstine, W G; Boyd, R D; Pettigrew, J E; Dilger, R N

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM) concentration on the growth performance and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Four experimental treatments included a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 dietary SBM concentrations, 17.5% (LSBM) or 29% (HSBM), and 2 levels of PRRSV infection, uninfected sham or PRRSV infected. Sixty-four weanling pigs of split sex (21 d of age, 7.14 ± 0.54 kg) were individually housed in disease containment chambers. Pigs were provided a common diet for 1 wk postweaning before being equalized for BW and sex and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 16 replicate pigs per group. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 1 wk before receiving either a sham inoculation (sterile PBS) or a 1 × 10 50% tissue culture infective dose of PRRSV at 35 d of age (0 d postinoculation, DPI). Pig BW and feed intake were recorded weekly, and rectal temperatures were measured daily beginning on 0 DPI. Blood was collected on 0, 3, 7, and 14 DPI for determination of serum PRRSV load, differential complete blood cell counts, and haptoglobin and cytokine concentrations. Infection with PRRSV increased (P < 0.01) rectal temperatures of pigs throughout the infection period, with no influence of dietary SBM concentration. Pigs in the PRRSV-infected group had lower (P < 0.01) ADFI and G:F from 0 to 14 DPI compared with uninfected pigs. In the PRRSV-infected group, pigs fed HSBM tended to have improved ADG (P = 0.06) compared with pigs fed LSBM, whereas there was no influence of SBM concentration on growth of pigs in the uninfected group. At 14 DPI, PRRSV-infected pigs fed HSBM had a lower serum PRRSV load (P < 0.05), a higher (P = 0.02) hematocrit value, and a tendency for greater hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed LSBM. Serum haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations of PRRSV-infected pigs were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed HSBM at 3

  14. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal. PMID:26586314

  15. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in diets for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing menhaden fish meal and oil with APVM in practical diets of largemouth bass (LMB) to sustain or improve general performance while maintaining substantial amounts of the n-3 fatty acids in the fillets. The n-3 highly unsaturated fat...

  16. Short communication: Substituting dry distillers grains with solubles and rumen-protected amino acids for soybean meal in late-lactation cows' diets based on corn silage or ryegrass silage.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Zeringue, L K; Leonardi, C; Jenny, B F; Williams, C C; McCormick, M E; Moreira, V R

    2015-11-01

    Excess protein in dairy cattle diets increases production costs and contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplemented with rumen-protected Lys and Met in place of solvent-extracted soybean meal on the performance of late-lactation cows. Two experiments were carried out, with each using 24 late-lactating dairy cows distributed among 4 pens. In trial 1, corn silage was the main forage source. Control (HP1) total mixed ration (TMR) contained 16.3% crude protein (CP) with soybean meal as the main protein source. Treatment TMR (LP1) had 13.7% CP when soybean meal was replaced with DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Forage in trial 2 was ryegrass silage; control TMR (HP2; 15.4% CP) contained soybean meal and rumen-protected Met, whereas treatment TMR (LP2; 13.8% CP) contained DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Trials were analyzed as crossover design using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC) with cow as sampling unit and pen as the experimental unit. Treatments were similar in dry matter intake (21.0 and 20.4 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) and milk yield (20.7 and 20.5 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) during trial 1. Milk composition was similar between treatments, averaging 4.22, 3.73, 4.54, and 9.15, respectively, for fat, protein, lactose, and solids nonfat. Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 17.2 mg/dL for HP1 to 9.93 mg/dL for LP1. In trial 2, no significant differences were observed for dry matter intake (21.4 and 20.9 kg/cow per day for HP2 and LP2, respectively), milk yield (28.1 and 26.6 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), fat yield (0.99 vs. 0.92 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), protein yield (0.94 vs. 0.86 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively) and lactose yield (1.37 vs. 1.28 for HP2 and LP2, respectively). Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 9.88 mg/dL with HP2 to 6.39 mg/dL with the LP2

  17. Full substitution of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil, with partial substitution of fish meal with camelina meal, in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its effect on tissue lipids and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-08-15

    Camelina oil (CO) and meal (CM) are potential replacements of fish meal (FM) and oil (FO) in aquaculture feeds. CO is high in α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3, ALA) (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio >1. This study tested diets with 100% CO, solvent extracted FM (SEFM) and partially substituted FM with 10% CM, in a 16 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon (initial weight 240 g fish(-1)). Final weight (529-691 g fish(-1)) was not affected by using 100% CO; however it was lower in groups fed SEFM and 10% CM diets. Total lipid in salmon flesh fed a diet with CO, SEFM and CM (22% ww(-1)) was significantly higher than FO flesh (14% ww(-1)). There was no difference in the sensory quality of salmon fillets that were fed either FO or 100% CO diets. This was the first study to use CO as a complete FO replacement in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24679751

  18. MEGAGAMETOPHYTE ABNORMALITIES OF NEAR-ISOGENIC FEMALE PARTIAL-STERILE (PS) SOYBEAN MUTANTS (GLYCINE MAX; LEGUMINOSAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megagametogenesis of the Clark, Clark k2, and F1 hybrid plants of Clark crossed with the female partial-sterile trait of Clark k2 were studied using stereo light microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy. F1 hybrid plants were compared to the reproductive development in Clark and Clark k2 p...

  19. Classification of distinct seed carbohydrate profiles in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans are an important source of protein-rich meal for livestock feed formulations. Recent changes in the cost of commodity-based sources of metabolizable energy (ME) inputs has put pressure on soybean meal to deliver both protein and ME in feed formulations. The non-oil fraction of soybean con...

  20. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  1. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  2. The chemical characteristics of organic iron sources and their relative bioavailabilities for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Y; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-four organic Fe sources were evaluated by polarographic analysis and via solubility in buffers (pH 5 and 2) and deionized water. Organic Fe sources included 6 Fe-Met complexes (Fe-Met), 10 Fe-Gly complexes, 1 Fe-Lys complex, 4 Fe proteinates, and 3 Fe-AA complexes (Fe-AA). Sources varied considerably in chemical characteristics. Chelation strengths (quotient of formation [Q] values) ranged from weak (Q = 1.08) to extremely strong strength (Q = 8,590). A total of 1,170 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 6 replicate cages (15 chicks/cage) for each of 13 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 Fe sources × 3 added Fe levels) plus a control with no added Fe. Dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; 55.8 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, or 60 mg Fe/kg as iron sulfate (FeSO∙7HO); an Fe-Met with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W; Q = 1.37; 14.7% Fe); an iron proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M; Q = 43.6; 14.2% Fe); or an iron proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES; Q = 8,590; 10.2% Fe). The growth performance, Fe concentrations, hematological indices, and activities and gene expressions of 2 Fe-containing enzymes in tissues of broilers at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were determined in the present study. Transferrin saturation in plasma on 14 d; bone Fe on d 7 and 14; liver Fe on d 7, 14, and 21; kidney Fe on d 14; succinate dehydrogenase activities in the liver on d 21 and in the kidney on d 7 and 21; mRNA levels in the kidney and heart on d 14; and mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21 linearly increased ( < 0.05) as added Fe levels increased. However, differences in bioavailabilities among Fe sources were detected ( < 0.05) only for the mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of mRNA level in the liver or kidney of

  3. Use of corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles as a replacement for soybean meal and corn for supplementation in a corn silage-based stocker system.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L

    2013-02-01

    Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease

  4. Effects on growth and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as total replacement of fish meal without amino acid supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal (FM) is the main protein source in numerous aquaculture diets due to its palatability and quality. Quantities of FM have remained constant for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in diets used for the global aquaculture industry. Ther...

  5. Determination of the fourth and fifth limiting amino acids of broilers fed diets containing maize, soybean meal, and poultry by-product meal from 28 to 42 days of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Val is considered the fourth limiting amino acid for broilers fed diets containing ingredients from vegetable origin. However, Val and Ile may be co-limiting for broilers fed diets containing animal protein meals. An experiment was conducted to examine growth responses and meat yield of broilers pro...

  6. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced

  7. Root response to Fusarium solani f. sp . glycines: temporal accumulation of transcripts in partially resistant and susceptible soybean.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M J; Yaegashi, Satsuki; Ahsan, Rubina; Shopinski, Kay L; Lightfoot, David A

    2005-05-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean is a complex of root rot disease caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (Fsg) and a leaf scorch disease caused by toxins produced by the pathogen in the roots. Development of partial rate-reducing resistance in roots to SDS was studied. The recombinant inbred line 23 (RIL23) that carried resistance conferred by six quantitative trait loci (QTL) derived from cultivars 'Essex' x 'Forrest' was compared to the susceptible cultivar Essex. Roots of RIL23 and its susceptible parent Essex were inoculated with Fsg. Transcript abundance (TA) of 191 ESTs was studied at five time points after inoculation. For most of the genes, there was an initial decrease in TA in the inoculated roots of both genotypes. By days 7 and 10 the inoculated roots of Essex failed to increase expression of the transcripts of defense-related genes. In RIL23 inoculated roots, the TA of 81 genes was increased by at least two-fold at day 3 (P=0.004), 88 genes at day 7 (P=0.0023) and 129 genes at day 10 (P=0.0026). A set of 35 genes maintained at least a two-fold higher abundance at all three time points. The increase in TA in RIL23 was in contrast to that observed in Essex where most of the ESTs showed either no change or a decreased TA. The ESTs with an increased TA had homology to the genes involved in resistance (analogs), signal transduction, plant defense, cell wall synthesis and transport of metabolites. Pathways that responded included the protein phosphorylation cascade, the phospholipase cascade and the phenolic natural products pathways, including isoflavone and cell wall synthesis. PMID:15815926

  8. Glandless cottonseed meal replaces fishmeal in shrimp diet research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed meal is high in protein and less expensive than fishmeal and soybean meal. Although cottonseeds contain the toxic compound gossypol, cotton plants can be engineered without gossypol in their seeds. In a study, cottonseed meal replaced up to 67% of dietary fishmeal without significantly ...

  9. Polyamines in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wang, L C

    1972-07-01

    Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were three main polyamines isolated from soybeans and partially characterized. Occurrence of polyamines in soybeans was established by separating trichloroacetic acid extracts of soybeans by cationic exchange column chromatography, identification with thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, mass spectral analysis, reactions with ninhydrin and Dragendorff reagents, and spectrophotometric characteristics. Soybeans contained a minimum of 29.0 micrograms of polyamines per gram of full-fat flour. The alcohol-soluble fraction of soybeans contained polyamines also. Resting seeds contained spermidine in higher concentration than either putrescine or spermine. Spermine appeared to be present in lowest concentration. Preliminary experiments suggested that some polyamines were possibly in bound forms. PMID:16658112

  10. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding. PMID:25735210

  11. Physical properties study on partially bio-based lubricant blends: Thermally modified soybean oil with popular commercial esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An initial evaluation of several oils, including: soybean oil (SBO), high oleic SBO, and thermally modified SBO, compared their acid values and viscosities over 28 days stored at 85 deg C. As expected, the acid values and viscosities increased and the high oleic oil demonstrated a smaller effect. ...

  12. Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with partial resistance to phytophthora sojae and flooding tolerance in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufm. & Gerd. and flooding can limit growth and productivity, of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], especially on poorly drained soils. The primary objective of this research project was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with f...

  13. Low-cost Soybean Protein Products as Extenders in Plywood Adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean flour and meal were evaluated as alternate protein extenders in plywood adhesives. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from soybean and cereal processing. Ground soybean meal was tested as replacement for wheat flour in glu...

  14. Low-Cost Soybean Protein Products as Extenders in Plywood Adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean flour and meal were evaluated as alternate protein extenders in plywood adhesives. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from soybean and cereal processing. Ground soybean meal was tested as replacement for wheat flour in gl...

  15. Easy Meal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  16. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    PubMed

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance. PMID:27254452

  17. Evaluating the suitability of maggot meal as a partial substitute of soya bean on the productive traits, digestibility indices and organoleptic properties of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Khan, R U; Sultan, A; Khan, M; Hayat, S U; Shahid, M S

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to replace soya bean meal with maggot meal at difference percentages. A total of 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups. Four diets were formulated with maggot meal to replace soya bean meal at the rate of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% designated as A, B, C and D respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum during the study which lasted for 28 days. Feed intake decreased significantly in treated groups while body weight, Feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage increased significantly in group D. Apparent metabolizable energy increased significantly in the group fed 30% maggot meal; however, no significant difference was found in dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract between the control and treated groups. The result of sensory evaluation revealed that tenderness and juiciness increased significantly in group C and B respectively. The colour and flavour were most accepted in group B and C. The results indicate that replacement of soya bean meal at the rate of 30% in broiler feed produced most favourable results. PMID:26847519

  18. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and OM than those offered the GS diets. Lambs offered the WCP silages had an increased (P < 0.05) N intake, N output, and digestibility of GE compared with those offered GS. Mean N digestibility was greatest (P < 0.05) in lambs offered LTPS. Lambs offered HP diets had increased (P < 0.001) digestibility of DM, OM, GE and N, and N- intake, output, retention, and digestibility compared with those offered the LP diets. In Exp. 2, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P < 0.05) ADG than those offered the GS diets. Feeding diets containing HP increased (P < 0.001) total DMI, slaughter BW, ADG, and FCE. Lambs offered the WCP had a greater (P < 0.05) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and urea concentration compared with those offered the GS diets. Feeding lambs HP diets

  19. Effects of a xylanase and protease, individually or in combination, and an ionophore coccidiostat on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens fed a wheat-soybean meal-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kalmendal, R; Tauson, R

    2012-06-01

    The effects of 2 single exogenous and monocomponent feed enzymes, and their combination, and an ionophore coccidiostat on production performance, feed AME(n), nutrient utilization, and intestinal morphology were studied in broiler chickens. One-day-old unvaccinated and unsexed Ross 308 birds (n = 320) were kept in groups of 8 on wood shavings in pens raised from the floor and fed one of 5 experimental diets, replicated 8 times, for 36 d. Treatments were 1) a wheat-soybean meal-based feed with no added coccidiostats or exogenous enzymes (CON), 2) CON + ionophore coccidiostat (Narasin), 3) CON + xylanase (Ronozyme WX CT; XYL), 4) CON + serine protease (Ronozyme ProAct CT; PRO), or 5) CON + xylanase + serine protease (XYL+PRO). Enzymes were added on top in the feed formulation. Diets contained 0.5% TiO₂ to facilitate estimations of total tract apparent nutrient utilization. Treatments had no effect on BW gain or feed intake, but feed conversion, apparent digestibility of starch and fat, and feed AME(n) were improved with all enzyme treatments. The relative length of the ileum was reduced with XYL+PRO. For all parameters measured, the effects of XYL+PRO were similar to when XYL and PRO were fed individually. Narasin had no effect on production performance or nutrient utilization but reduced the relative lengths of jejunum and ileum. Relative lengths and weights of duodenum and cecum were unaffected by treatments. In conclusion, the improved feed conversion with both a xylanase and a protease was reflected in increased nutrient utilization, but their combination was not superior to when supplied separately. Narasin did not affect performance or nutrient utilization but reduced the relative lengths of the jejunum and ileum. PMID:22582297

  20. Reduction of total glucosinolates in canola meal via thermal treatment and fungal bioprocessing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On a worldwide basis, canola (Brassica napus) meal is second only to soybean meal as a protein source for livestock. A general limitation of Brassica spp. meals is the presence of glucosinolates (GLS). GLS and the enzyme myrosinase are compartmentally stored separately in the plant. Upon disruption ...

  1. Canola meals from different production plants differ in ruminal protein degradability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactation trials have shown that production and N efficiency were improved when dietary soybean meal was replaced with equal crude protein (CP) from canola meal. Three or four canola meal samples were collected from each of 12 Canadian production plants (total = 37), and analyzed for differences in ...

  2. UTILIZING CORN GERM MEAL IN PLYWOOD GLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from cereal and soybean processing. We were previously successful in formulating a s...

  3. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  4. Bt-maize (MON810) and Non-GM Soybean Meal in Diets for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Juveniles – Impact on Survival, Growth Performance, Development, Digestive Function, and Transcriptional Expression of Intestinal Immune and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  5. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  6. Bt-maize (MON810) and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  7. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  8. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  9. Identification of a new soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor mutation and its effect on Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor content in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seeds possess anti-nutritional compounds which inactivate digestive proteases, principally corresponding to two families: Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitors (KTi) and Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBI). High levels of raw soybeans/soybean meal in feed mixtures can cause poor weight gain and pancreatic abno...

  10. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  11. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  12. Nutritional evaluation of lectin-free soybeans for poultry.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M W; Parsons, C M; Hymowitz, T

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the nutritional value of raw lectin-free soybeans in comparison with raw Kunitz trypsin inhibitor-free soybeans, raw conventional soybeans, and commercial heat processed soybean meal (SBM). Analyzed lectin values (milligrams per kilogram) were 7.2, 7.1, and < 0.00015 for the Kunitz-free, conventional, and lectin-free soybeans, respectively. Three experiments were conducted using New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks fed 23% CP dextrose-soybean diets from 8 to 17 d of age. Growth performance of chicks fed lectin-free soybeans was greater (P < 0.05) than that of chicks fed raw conventional soybeans in all three experiments. However, performance of chicks fed lectin-free soybeans was lower than that of chicks fed Kunitz-free soybeans or SBM. The SBM yielded weight gains and feed efficiencies that were much higher than those observed from any of the raw soybeans. True amino acid digestibility and TMEn of the lectin-free and conventional soybeans were determined using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Seven roosters were crop-intubated with 30 g of soybeans and excreta were collected for 48 h. Digestibility coefficients of most amino acids for lectin-free soybeans were 5 to 8 percentage units higher than those for conventional soybeans, but the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Likewise, the TMEn for lectin-free soybeans was 11% higher than that for raw conventional soybeans (3.577 vs 3.227 kcal/g DM) but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the nutritional value of raw lectin-free soybeans is greater than raw conventional soybeans but is less than raw Kunitz-free soybeans and SBM, suggesting that trypsin inhibitor is a greater antinutritional factor than lectins. PMID:10023754

  13. Environmental stability of seed carbohydrate profiles in soybeans containing different alleles of the raffinose synthase 2 (RS2) gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] is an important crop because of the vegetable oil used for human consumption and the high protein meal used mainly for livestock feed formulations. For the highest quality soybean meal, the content of protein as well as the level of carbohydrates contributing positiv...

  14. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Results Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Conclusions Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes. PMID:24739302

  15. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Amanlou, H.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Bassiri, S.; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A.; Salamatdust, R.; Moosavi, A.; Karimi, V.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05) high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01) and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01). Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively) higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01) higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score) of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans. PMID:26623299

  16. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  17. Nutrient comparison of fresh and field-dried, green-seeded soybeans.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, A I

    1978-06-01

    Nutrient composition and biologic utilization of cooked, dried, and ground meals prepared from fresh and field-dried, green-seeded edible soybeans were evaluated. On a dry-weight basis, nutrient content of the fresh and field-dried meals were comparable for protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, and iron; fresh beans tended to have higher zinc content than the field-dried beans. Nutrient values for the green-seeded soybean meals were comparable to published values for full-fat soybean flour. Bioassay results indicated that protein efficiency ratios (PER) for rats fed casein were significantly better than those for the soybean-fed animals. Fresh, green-seeded soybean meal supported significantly better growth than did the field-dried, green-seeded soybean meal. Though significantly lower than that for the reference casein diet, the mean PER for fresh, green-seeded soybean meal was 90 per cent of that obtained with the reference casein. The nutrient analysis and protein bioassay data both indicate that green-seeded soybeans used as a vegetable item in the diet are a potentially significant food source of several important nutrients. PMID:566776

  18. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  19. Camelina meal supplementation to beef cattle: III. Effects on acute-phase and thyroid responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen halter-trained Angus steers were ranked by initial BW (average 191 ± 2.1 kg), and assigned (d 0) to receive supplements containing (as-fed basis): 1) 84% corn, 14% soybean meal, and 2% mineral mix (CO); and 2) 70% corn, 28% camelina meal, and 2% mineral mix (CAM). Treatments were offered in...

  20. Soybean Overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean is a legume and oilseed as well. Its bushy plants grow annually, adapt to a wide range of soils and climates, and enrich soils with nitrogen. Its seeds are valued for unique composition and versatile end uses as food, feed, and industrial materials. Currently, the soybean is an importa...

  1. Environmental Stability of Seed Carbohydrate Profiles in Soybeans Containing Different Alleles of the Raffinose Synthase 2 (RS2) Gene.

    PubMed

    Bilyeu, Kristin D; Wiebold, William J

    2016-02-10

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is important for the high protein meal used for livestock feed formulations. Carbohydrates contribute positively or negatively to the potential metabolizable energy in soybean meal. The positive carbohydrate present in soybean meal consists primarily of sucrose, whereas the negative carbohydrate components are the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs), raffinose and stachyose. Increasing sucrose and decreasing raffinose and stachyose are critical targets to improve soybean. In three recently characterized lines, variant alleles of the soybean raffinose synthase 2 (RS2) gene were associated with increased sucrose and decreased RFOs. The objective of this research was to compare the environmental stability of seed carbohydrates in soybean lines containing wild-type or variant alleles of RS2 utilizing a field location study and a date of planting study. The results define the carbohydrate variation in distinct regional and temporal environments using soybean lines with different alleles of the RS2 gene. PMID:26800264

  2. Quantitative trait locus analysis of seed sulfur containing amino acids in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a major source of plant protein for humans and livestock. Low levels of sulfur containing amino acids (cysteine and methionine) in soybean protein is the main limitation of soybean meal as animal food. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate Q...

  3. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  4. Feasibility of partial replacement of fishmeal with proteins from different sources in diets of Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Quangen; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi

    2014-12-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted in an indoor recirculation seawater system to investigate the effects of partial replacement of dietary fishmeal with proteins from five sources on the growth performance and feed utilization of Sebastes schlegeli. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated using fishmeal (FM, the control) as sole protein source, or proteins from five sources including poultry by-product meal (PBM), meat and bone meal (MBM), soybean meal (SBM), cottonseed meal (CSM) and canola meal (CNM). Fifteen percent of the crude protein provided by fish meal was replaced, respectively. The results showed that the differences in specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) among fish fed PBM, MBM, SBM, CSM and whole FM diets were not significant. However, SGR and SR of fish fed CNM diet was significantly lower than that of other treatments. Feeding rate, feed conversion, nutrient retention showed similar patterns to that of growth. Fish fed CSM and CNM showed significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter and gross energy than those fed others while fish fed CNM showed lower ADC of crude protein than those fed others ( P<0.05). These results suggested that it was feasible to substitute 15% dietary protein provided by fishmeal with PBM, MBM, SBM and CSM, respectively, but not with CNM as the replacement with CNM reduced fish growth and feed utilization.

  5. Lactational performance of dairy cows fed raw soybeans, with or without animal by-product proteins, or roasted soybeans.

    PubMed

    Grummer, R R; Luck, M L; Barmore, J A

    1994-05-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein cows averaged 10 wk postpartum and were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design to compare two feeding strategies for increasing the ratio of dietary undegradable to degradable protein. Treatments were raw soybeans, with or without meat and bone meal plus blood meal, and roasted soybeans as the primary protein supplements. Meat and bone meal and blood meal were fed at 4.0 and .9% of dietary DM, respectively. Basal diets were 30% alfalfa silage, 18% corn silage, and 52% corn-based concentrate mix. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Estimated undegradable protein contents, as a percentage of total CP, were 32.2, 36.2, and 34.3 for diets containing raw soybeans, raw soybeans plus animal by-product proteins, and roasted soybeans, respectively. The undegradable protein estimates were calculated from NRC values for basal feeds and from results of in vitro analysis of test protein supplements. Yields of milk and 3.5% FCM of cows receiving raw soybeans plus animal by-product proteins (45.5 and 43.4 kg/d) and roasted soybeans (44.7 and 42.7 kg/d) were greater than those of cows receiving raw soybeans alone (43.2 and 41.3 kg/d). Increasing the ratio of undegradable to degradable dietary protein also increased yields of milk protein and fat. No differences occurred in lactation performance among cows fed the two diets containing higher undegradable protein. The DMI was not influenced by treatment. Increasing the ratio of undegradable to degradable dietary protein by feeding animal by-product proteins or heated soybeans enhanced lactation performance. PMID:8046075

  6. A Method for the Separation and Partial Purification of the Three Forms of Nitrate Reductase Present in Wild-Type Soybean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Luc; Martin, Barry A.; Harper, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A rapid and simple purification method was used to separate and purify nitrate reductases (NR) from Williams soybean leaves. Blue Sepharose columns were sequentially eluted with 50 millimolar NADPH and 50 millimolar NADH, thus separating NAD(P)H:NR from NADH:NRs. Subsequent purification of the collected peaks on a fast protein liquid chromatography-Mono Q column enabled separation of two NADH:NRs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the subunit relative molecular mass for all three NR forms (constitutive NAD(P)H:NR [pH 6.5], EC 1.6.6.2; constitutive NADH:NR [pH 6.5], EC not assigned; and inducible NADH:NR [pH 7.5], EC 1.6.6.1) was approximately 107 to 109 kilodaltons. All three NRs showed similar spectra with absorption maxima at 413 and 273 nanometers in the oxidized state, and with the characteristics of a cytochrome b type heme upon reduction with NADH (absorption maxima at 556, 527, and 424 nanometers). The technique developed provides an improved separation of the three NR forms from soybean leaves. The similarity of the NRs with regard to their cytochrome b556 type heme content and in relative molecular mass indicated that other differences must exist to account for the different kinetic and physical properties previously reported. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16665497

  7. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A.; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (−0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (−0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (−0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure −5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  8. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (-0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (-0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (-0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure -5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  9. Evaluation of corn germ meal as extender in plywood adhesive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. Partially defatted dried corn germ, containing 2.1% (dry basis, db) crude oil and 24.7% (db) crude protein, was ground to 40-mesh particle size. The corn germ meal was then substituted (on...

  10. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  11. Soybean seed compostion and quality: interactions of enviroment genotype and management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and minerals for human and animal nutrition. Soybean seed contains approximately 40% protein, 20% oil, and 33% carbohydrates, 9% crude fiber. About one-third of the world's edible oils and two-thirds of its protein meal are ...

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci for sucrose content in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose is a desirable sugar in soybean seed that affects the quality of soyfoods and feed, therefore, soybean cultivars with high sucrose would be valuable for soyfood and meal markets. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed sucrose content u...

  13. Yellow perch nutrient utilization and performance fed grower diet formulations with fermented soybean concentrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeds formulated with fermented soybean concentrate (FSBC) were processed using a pilot-scale Wenger twin screw extruder, using a 1.9 cm diameter circular die, and then fed to juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (~26g) as a protein replacer for fish meal protein. Four fish-meal replacement lev...

  14. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  15. The Timing of Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strubbe, Jan H.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    In most individuals, food intake occurs as discrete bouts or meals, and little attention has been paid to the factors that normally determine when meals will occur when food is freely available. On the basis of experiments using rats, the authors suggest that when there are no constraints on obtaining food and few competing activities, 3 levels of…

  16. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.

  17. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  18. Beta-conglycinin and gut histology of sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-GM soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is reported that the soybean protein (Beta-conglycinin) might cause inflammation of the distal intestine and stimulate endogenous cholecystokinin release that suppresses food intake in fish. We are studying the effects of meals made from new strains of non-GMO soybeans with high protein and redu...

  19. The genetic architecture of seed composition in soybean is refined by genome-wide association scans across multiple populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil and meal are major contributors to world-wide food production. Consequently, the genetic basis for soybean seed composition has been intensely studied using family-based mapping. Population-based mapping approaches, in the form of genome-wide association (GWA) scans, have been able to re...

  20. Crops that feed the world 2. Soybean-worldwide production, use, and constraints caused by pathogens and pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean crop is one of the most important crops worldwide.Soybean seeds are important for both protein meal and vegetable oil. The crop is grown on an estimated 6% of the world’s arable land, and since the 1970s, has the highest percentage increase of hectares in production compared to any other...

  1. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Son, A R; Ji, S Y; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME in copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR) in growing pigs. Eight boars with an initial BW of 67.3 ± 5.8 kg were individually housed in metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design was used with 4 dietary treatments, 4 periods, and 8 animals. A basal diet mainly contained corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 30% of CM, PKM, and CR. All diets contained the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 4.14:1. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was 89.5, 84.1, 82.4, and 87.9% (P < 0.001) in the basal, CM, PKM, and CR diets, respectively. The DE in CM and PKM were greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3440 and 3238 vs. 2966 kcal/kg as-fed). The ME in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3340 vs. 2935 kcal/kg as-fed) but not different from the ME in PKM (3168 kcal/kg as-fed). In conclusion, CM and PKM have a higher DE value than CR, and CM has a higher ME value than CR. PMID:23365309

  2. Dust suppression in swine feed using soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Mankell, K O; Janni, K A; Walker, R D; Wilson, M E; Pettigrew, J E; Jacobson, L D; Wilcke, W F

    1995-04-01

    Dust generation from swine feed (corn-soybean meal diet) treated with soybean oil was investigated using a cement mixer in a plywood box. Airborne total dust concentrations in the box were measured gravimetrically using a vacuum pump and filters while 12-kg feed samples were constantly mixed. The treatment factors were soybean oil concentration (0, 1, and 3%), corn bulk density (normal, 730 kg/m3 and low, 600 kg/m3), time of oil addition (before vs after grinding the corn), and storage time (0, 7, and 14 d). The feed was a mixture of soybean meal, base mix, and adjusted amounts of ground corn and soybean oil. Adding soybean oil after grinding at 1 and 3% levels to feed made with normal-bulk density corn suppressed total dust generation (3.39 and .99 mg/m3, respectively) (P < .001) compared with the no oil treatment (29.1 mg/m3). The 3% soybean oil treatment suppressed dust generation (.99 mg/m3) more than the 1% soybean oil treatment (3.39 mg/m3) (P < .001). Adding soybean oil after grinding the corn suppressed dust generation more than adding the oil to the corn before grinding for every oil level (P < .001). More dust was generated by feed made from low-bulk density corn than by feed made with normal-bulk density corn at every oil level (P < .001). There was no evidence of any storage time or treatment x storage time interactions. PMID:7628976

  3. Metabolic profiles of soybean roots during early stages of Fusarium tucumaniae infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean germplasm exhibits various levels of resistance to Fusarium tucumaniae, the main causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina. In this study, two soybean genotypes, one susceptible (NA 4613) and one partially resistant (DM 4670) to SDS infection, were inoculated with F...

  4. Camelina meal supplementation to beef cattle: III. Effects on acute-phase and thyroid responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty Angus x Hereford steers were ranked by BW on d -28 of the study and allocated to 20 drylot pens, which were randomly assigned to receive: 1) supplement containing (as-fed basis) 84% corn, 14% soybean meal, and 2% mineral mix (CO) offered during preconditioning (PC; d -28 to 0) and feedlot rece...

  5. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. Materials and methods: A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Mean % differences were determined and differences between and baseline and 1, 2 and 4h samples were compared with reference change value (RCV). Results: A significantly higher % activity of AT was observed at 1 h and 4 h after meal vs. baseline specimen [113 (104–117) and 111 (107–120) vs. 109 (102–118), respectively; P = 0.029 and P = 0.016]. APTT at 2 h was found significantly lower than baseline samples [32.0 (29.9–34.8) vs. 34.1 (32.2–35.2), respectively; P = 0.041]. The results of both Fbg and PS tests were not influenced by a light meal. Furthermore, no coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV. Conclusion: A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake. PMID:25351352

  6. Of men and meals.

    PubMed

    Beyer-Westendorf, J; Siegert, G

    2015-06-01

    Rivaroxaban is increasingly used to treat patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), a potentially life-threatening condition. Because absorption of rivaroxaban decreases from nearly 100% to 66% under fasting conditions, it is recommended that VTE patients take rivaroxaban with a meal. However, this recommendation is based on preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in healthy volunteers. So far, no clinical evidence is available to support this recommendation. We describe a case of a compliant young patient who developed recurrent pulmonary embolism during rivaroxaban treatment. PK studies provided evidence that malabsorption of rivaroxaban 20 mg due to irregular intake of meals during shift work was the leading cause of recurrent pulmonary embolism. When the patient was instructed to take rivaroxaban with a regular meal, peak plasma concentrations increased from 115 to 318 ng mL(-1) (+ 176%). Consequently, the importance of taking rivaroxaban with food may have a greater clinical relevance than data from preclinical PK studies suggest. PMID:25880707

  7. [Use of partially hydrolyzed and untreated straw meal in the feeding of breeding sows. 3. Nutrient digestibility, feed passage time and mineral balance with the addition of variously treated straw materials compared to concentrate feeding alone].

    PubMed

    Münchow, H; Häger, H; Bergner, H

    1986-01-01

    In studies with 16 breeding sows of the country species the feed value of straw materials and their fitness for use were ascertained in a long-term experiment. On the feeding basis of a concentrate ration (IV) untreated (I), HCl treated (II = HCl treatment without steaming) and partly hydrolysed straw meal (III = HCl treatment with subsequent steaming) were tested. In the course of the experiment and at a nutrient level of 1 (maintenance requirement), the digestibility of the organic matter of the ration and that of some major and trace elements, N and mineral balances as well as feed passage rate and water excretion in faeces were ascertained at selected measuring times. The following mean results were achieved: The integration of all straw materials tested lead to a significant reduction of the digestibility of the organic matter of the total ration, the least negative effect was caused by partly hydrolysed straw meal (III). The fractions crude protein, crude fibre and N-free extracts were mainly affected. Straw meal integration had a gravidity-conditioned influence on the daily N balance. Increased N excretion in faeces could only be compensated by non-pregnant animals by a decreased N excretion in urine. The mineral balance (Ca, P, Na, Cu and Mn) remained largely uninfluenced by the straw supplement. The feed passage rate was reduced by the use of all straw meal variants to ca. 50% of the value measured after the sole feeding of concentrate (IV). Feed passage rate and water excretion in faeces were approximately reciprocal. The digestibility of the organic matter of the straw materials ascertained according to the difference method amounted to 7.4 (I), 18.1 (II) and 27.9% (III); that of the N-free extracts in the same sequence to 10.0, 22.0 and 34.9%. The calculated energetic feed value was for I = 70.7, for II = 154.9 and for III = 240.7 EFUpig/kg DM. PMID:3741131

  8. Variation in Lesion Characteristics, Densities and Sporulation Levels Among Soybean Germplasm Accessions Resistant to Soybean Rust (Phakopsora Pachyrhizi)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of reddish-brown (RB) lesions instead of tan lesions on soybean leaves infected by the soybean rust (SBR) fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is generally considered to indicate at least partial resistance. Lower disease severity and/or lesion density relative to susceptible hosts with a ...

  9. Effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal on broiler performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hu, C H; Wang, D G; Pan, H Y; Zheng, W B; Zuo, A Y; Liu, J X

    2012-09-01

    Three hundred sixty 1-d-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal (BSLM) on growth performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality. The chicks were fed 4 diets containing different levels (0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0%) of BSLM as partial replacement for corn and soybean meal for a period of 42 d. The results showed that dietary supplementation of BSLM had no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performance. As compared with control, dietary 4%, 8%, and 12% BSLM increased (P < 0.05) b value (yellowness) both in shank and breast skin, increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of xanthophylls in abdominal fat and breast skin, improved (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, lowered malondialdehyde concentration, and decreased drip loss percentage of breast muscle. Dietary 8% and 12% BSLM decreased (P < 0.05) shank L values (lightness), increased (P < 0.05) shank a value (redness), and increased (P < 0.05) the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase of breast muscle as compared with control. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of BSLM in broiler chickens improved the poultry products quality with the more skin pigmentation and the less drip loss percentage of breast meat. The more skin pigmentation mainly related to the high amount of xanthophylls in BSLM. The decreased meat drip loss fed BSLM may be caused by the antioxidative function of BSLM. PMID:22912457

  10. Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoid high potassium fruit juices (orange juice). THREE-DAY DIABETIC GROCERY LIST FOR EMERGENCIES Item Amount (per ... Other Distilled water 5 one gallon jugs THREE-DAY DIABETIC MEAL PLAN FOR EMERGENCIES The sample meal ...

  11. Meals Served in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivigal, Lisa

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

  12. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  13. Mustard meal weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings. Unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact s...

  14. Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Choosing Healthy Restaurant Meals (PDF, 513.39 KB) You Might Also Like Drinking Enough Fluids Foot Care Monthly Progress Test STAY INFORMED Follow us on Twitter Visit us ...

  15. Effects of co-fermented Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues and soybean hulls by Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lai, L P; Lee, M T; Chen, C S; Yu, B; Lee, T T

    2015-12-01

    Soybean hulls are a by-product of soybean processing for oil and meal production; Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues (PESR) are by-products of the edible portion of the fruiting body enriched in bioactive metabolites. This study evaluated the effects of co-fermented PESR and soybean hulls with Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. The in vitro experimental results showed that xylananse and mannanase activity of solid-state fermented soybean hulls (100% SBH) and soybean hulls partially replaced with PESR (75:25, SHP) reached peak at day 12; solid-state fermentation (SSF) enhanced the total phenolic content and trolox equivalency in both products as well. Additionally, FSHP had higher xylotriose and mannobiose levels than fermented FSBH did. A total of 400 broilers (Ross 308) were assigned randomly into four groups receiving the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% fermented SBH (0.5% FSBH), 0.5% fermented SBHP (0.5% FSHP) and 1.0% fermented SBHP (1.0% FSHP) until 35 d of age, respectively. Results demonstrated that 0.5% FSHP addition increased body weight gain as compared with corresponding normal diet fed control in birds during entire experimental period. Compared with the control group, 0.5% FSHP group significantly increased the ratio of lactic acid bacteria to Clostridium perfringens in ceca as well as ileum villus height and jejunum villus height/crypt depth ratio of 35 d old birds. In conclusion, 0.5% FSHP supplementation in the diet could obtain not only improved body weight gain, but optimal intestinal morphology by exerting its bioactive metabolite properties when fed to broilers. PMID:26467005

  16. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  17. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean hulls (SBHs), a co-product of soybean meal milling, have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants contain...

  18. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P < 0.05) AID of DM, N, Ca, and P. Increasing phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) AID of P and Ca, respectively, with AID of Ca showing a tendency for a linear increase (P = 0.053). Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P < 0.05) AID of P from 46 to 62%. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, N, Ca, P, Mg, K, and energy. Contrasts showed that phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P < 0.05) AID for 8 indispensable AA (Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val), 6 dispensable AA (Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Ser, and Tyr), as well as for total AA. Furthermore, phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P < 0.10) to increase ileal digestibility of Gly. Ileal digestibility of Met, Trp, and Pro were not affected by phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P < 0.05) in AID of 6

  19. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  20. Inheritance of soybean aphid resistance from soybean PI 71506

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) continually establish populations of economic importance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production areas. Insecticide application costs and yield losses prompt the development of resistant varieties. The soybean germplasm accession PI 71506 has been s...

  1. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  2. Characteristics of milk and reduced fat cheddar cheese from cows fed extruded soybeans and niacin.

    PubMed

    Baer, R J; Lentsch, M R; Schingoethe, D J; Madison-Anderson, R J; Kasperson, K M

    1996-07-01

    A control diet and three experimental diets were fed to midlactation Holstein cows to evaluate the effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids and niacin on milk and reduced fat Cheddar cheese. The diet consisted mainly of rolled corn and soybean meal in the concentrate mixture. Experimental diets consisted of the control diet with added niacin and the control diet but with extruded soybeans substituted for part of the corn and soybean meal, with and without added niacin. Milks from cows fed diets of extruded soybean and extruded soybeans with added niacin contained lower concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and higher concentrations of long-chain fatty acids. Cheese milks consisted of a control, a homogenized control (3.45 MPa), and unhomogenized and homogenized milks (3.45 MPa) from cows fed extruded soybeans with added niacin. Reduced fat Cheddar cheeses produced from unhomogenized and homogenized milks from the cows fed extruded soybeans with added niacin contained higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids. The reduced fat Cheddar cheeses maintained acceptable flavor, body, and texture during storage. Homogenization of cheese milk had little effect on cheese properties. Cheeses manufactured from milks with high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids were softer; however, this difference was not detected by the sensory panel. PMID:8872710

  3. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  4. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) - effects on animal performance and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen reindeer were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets containing soybean meal (SBM) or fishmeal (WFM) as protein source) on animal growth performance, feed efficiency and ultimate meat quality. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM...

  5. In situ Transesterification: Process Modifications to Improve Efficiency; and Use of the Spent Meal in an Aquaculture Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that it is possible to directly transesterify the triglyceride fatty acids of the lipids of soybean, corn germ, canola, distillers dried grains with solubles, and meat & bone meal. Near quantitative 'in situ' transesterification occurs during incubation of the feedstock wit...

  6. Genes and alleles for quality traits on the soybean genetic/physical map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean has been grown in the United States for more than fifty years, with the value of the crop primarily residing in seed protein meal and seed oil. Work over several decades has resulted in an unprecedented number of genetic markers for a crop plant and an extensive and rigorous consensus geneti...

  7. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  8. NIR SPECTROSCOPY OF MICROWAVEABLE MEALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the prediction of total dietary fiber (TDF) in mixed meals was investigated. Meals were prepared for spectral analysis by homogenization only (HO), homogenization and drying (HD), and homogenization, drying and de-fatting (HDF). The NIR spectra ...

  9. Soybean irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important crop and a major component of the agricultural economy in the Missouri Bootheel and throughout Missouri. USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported that in 2012, 960 thousand acres of soybeans were harvested in Southeast Missouri (Butler, Cape Girardeau, ...

  10. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  11. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  12. Expellor extracted rape and safflower oilseed meals for poultry and sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.M.; Katz, R.J.; Auld, D.A.; Petersen, C.F.; Sauter, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to evaluate the feeding value of on-the-farm expellor extracted rape (RSM) and safflower (SM) oilseed meals for poultry and sheep. Rapeseed meal and SM contained 30.7 and 25.8% crude protein (CP) and 21.7 and 8.7% fat, respectively. Rapeseed meal contained a total glucosinolate concentration of 78.3 ..mu..moles/g. A 22-day feeding trial was conducted with 6-day-old chicks. Rapeseed meal and SM replaced 25 or 50% of the soybean meal (SBM) protein in isonitrogenous (23% CP), isocaloric (3250 kcal ME/kg) diets. Birds fed SBM and 25 or 50% SM consumed more (P < .01) daily feed and gained more (P < .01) per day than those fed 25 or 50% RSM. Birds fed RSM had enlarged thyroid glands in comparison to those fed SMB. Two lamb digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing cottonseed meal (CSM) protein with either RSM or SM on nitrogen utilization and DM digestibility. Replacing 100% of the CSM protein with RSM had no effect (P > .05) on dry matter digestibility and N utilization. Nitrogen balance studies indicate that expellor extracted SM may replace up to 75% of the CSM protein in diets for wethers. 8 tables.

  13. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your ... Your Baby's First Meal Page Content Article Body Colostrum provides all the nutrients and fluid that your newborn needs in the early days, ...

  14. Soybean defense responses to the soybean aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcript profiles in resistant (cv. Dowling) and susceptible (cv. Williams 82) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes were compared at 6 and 12 h with and without aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) infestation using cDNA microarrays. One hundred and sixteen genes showed specific responses in r...

  15. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  16. Soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode interactions in the field and effects on soybean yield.

    PubMed

    Hong, S C; MacGuidwin, A; Gratton, C

    2011-10-01

    How above- and belowground plant pests interact with each other and how these interactions affect productivity is a relatively understudied aspect of crop production. Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a root parasite of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is the most threatening pathogen in soybean production and soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, an aboveground phloem-feeding insect that appeared in North America in 2000, is the key aboveground herbivore of soybean in the midwestern United States. Now, both soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode co-occur in soybean-growing areas in the Upper Midwest. The objectives of this study were to examine aphid colonization patterns and population growth on soybean across a natural gradient of nematode density (range, approximately 900 and 27,000 eggs per 100 cm3 soil), and to investigate the effect of this pest complex on soybean productivity. Alate (winged) soybean aphid colonization of soybean was negatively correlated to soybean cyst nematode egg density (r = -0.363, P = 0.0095) at the end of July, at the onset of peak alate colonization. However, both a manipulative cage study and openly colonized plants showed that soybean cyst nematode density below ground was unrelated to variation in aphid population growth (r approximately -0.01). Based on regression analyses, soybean aphids and cyst nematodes had independent effects on soybean yield through effects on different yield components. High soybean cyst nematode density was associated with a decline in soybean yield (kg ha(-1)), whereas increasing soybean aphid density (both alate and apterous) significantly decreased seed weight (g 100 seeds(-1)). PMID:22066186

  17. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  18. Efficient free fatty acid production in engineered Escherichia coli strains using soybean oligosaccharides as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wu, Hui; Thakker, Chandresh; Beyersdorf, Jared; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    To be competitive with current petrochemicals, microbial synthesis of free fatty acids can be made to rely on a variety of renewable resources rather than on food carbon sources, which increase its attraction for governments and companies. Industrial waste soybean meal is an inexpensive feedstock, which contains soluble sugars such as stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, glucose, galactose, and fructose. Free fatty acids were produced in this report by introducing an acyl-ACP carrier protein thioesterase and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase into E. coli. Plasmid pRU600 bearing genes involved in raffinose and sucrose metabolism was also transformed into engineered E. coli strains, which allowed more efficient utilization of these two kinds of specific oligosaccharide present in the soybean meal extract. Strain ML103 (pRU600, pXZ18Z) produced ~1.60 and 2.66 g/L of free fatty acids on sucrose and raffinose, respectively. A higher level of 2.92 g/L fatty acids was obtained on sugar mixture. The fatty acid production using hydrolysate obtained from acid or enzyme based hydrolysis was evaluated. Engineered strains just produced ~0.21 g/L of free fatty acids with soybean meal acid hydrolysate. However, a fatty acid production of 2.61 g/L with a high yield of 0.19 g/g total sugar was observed on an enzymatic hydrolysate. The results suggest that complex mixtures of oligosaccharides derived from soybean meal can serve as viable feedstock to produce free fatty acids. Enzymatic hydrolysis acts as a much more efficient treatment than acid hydrolysis to facilitate the transformation of industrial waste from soybean processing to high value added chemicals. PMID:25919701

  19. ASSESSING GLYCININ (11S) AND BETA-CONGLYCININ (7S) FRACTIONS OF SOYBEAN STORAGE PROTEIN BY NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean breeding programs underway today are addressing the goal of improving the protein profile to benefit the human diet as well as that of livestock. Glycinin, a globulin storage protein of the meal and designated as the 11S size fraction by ultracentrifugation, is desirable because of its rela...

  20. On-line continuous measurement of blood glucose and meal pattern in free-feeding rats: the role of glucose in meal initiation.

    PubMed

    Campfield, L A; Brandon, P; Smith, F J

    1985-06-01

    Louis-Sylvestre and LeMagnen have suggested that the premeal decline in blood glucose is or reflects a signal for meal initiation in rats. In order to extend and test this hypothesis, a computer controlled system for continuously and concurrently measuring blood glucose and food intake in free-feeding rats was developed. In 18 experiments (with and without intravenous saline infusions), blood glucose declined about 12 minutes prior to meal onset. During 2-1/2 hours of observation, no decline in blood glucose and no meal occurred in 19 other experiments. In 7 experiments in which 10 percent glucose was infused IV to partially block the premeal decline (average blockade = 46.5%), the subsequent meal was significantly delayed. These results suggest that the pre-meal decline in blood glucose is not only correlated with but is also caudally related to meal onset. These studies suggest that the premeal decline in blood glucose is among the signals for meal initiation. PMID:4027699

  1. Camelina meal supplementation to beef cattle: I. Effects on performance, DMI, and acute-phase protein response of feeder steers following transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty Angus x Hereford steers were ranked by BW on d -28 of the study and allocated to 20 drylot pens which were randomly assigned to receive: 1) supplement containing (as-fed basis) 84% corn, 14% soybean meal, and 2% mineral mix (CO) offered during preconditioning (PC; d -28 to 0) and feedlot recei...

  2. Measurement of single soybean seed attributes by near infrared technologies. A comparative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four near infrared spectrophotometers, and their associated spectral collection methods, were tested and compared for measuring three soybean single seed attributes: weight (g), protein (%), and oil (%). Using partial least squares (PLS) and 4 preprocessing methods, the attribute which was significa...

  3. Effect of soybean variety and processing on growth performance of young chicks and pigs.

    PubMed

    Palacios, M F; Easter, R A; Soltwedel, K T; Parsons, C M; Douglas, M W; Hymowitz, T; Pettigrew, J E

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether soybeans without the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and lectins could be fed effectively to young chicks and pigs. Specifically, we compared the growth performance of chicks and pigs fed diets containing modified soybeans: Kunitz trypsin inhibitor-free (KF), lectin-free (LF), lectin and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor-free (LFKF), conventional soybeans (CSB), and commercially obtained, dehulled, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM). A 7-d chick experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of CSB, KF, LF, LFKF, and SBM. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with four replicates, five treatments, and six male chicks per pen (n = 120). The five treatments consisted of 23% CP dextrose-soybean-based diets containing KF, LF, LFKF, CSB, or SBM as the source of dietary protein. A 28-d pig experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of CSB, LF, LFKF, and SBM. Pens of four pigs were assigned randomly to a control, corn-SBM, or one of six corn-soybean diets containing raw or extruded soybean varieties as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with five blocks per treatment (n = 140). Chicks fed diets containing any of the raw soybean varieties gained less weight (P < 0.05) than chicks fed SBM (22.81 g/d for SBM vs. 14.17 g/d for the raw soybeans combined). Among the raw soybean treatments, there was a greater effect on growth performance (P < 0.05) by removing both lectins and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (ADG of 16.56 g for LFKF) than by removing each antinutritional factor separately (ADG of 14.38 and 14.11 g for KF and LF, respectively). Pig growth performance was different (P < 0.001) for SBM (ADG of 409 g) and all the varieties when extruded (ADG of 450 g for CSB, 417 g for LF, and 408 g for LFKF) compared with the raw soybean treatments (ADG of 101 g for CSB, 165 g for LF, and 266 g for LFKF). Among the raw soybean treatments, growth

  4. Dissecting the molecular response of soybean to Asian soybean rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) is now a threat to soybean production in all major growing regions in the world. This potentially devastating disease is caused by the obligate fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi and resistance in soybean germplasm is limited. Moreover, this resistance is generally obse...

  5. Relationships between soybean shoot nitrogen components and soybean aphid populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defining the relationships between soybean (Glycine max [L.] merr.) shoot nitrogen (N) components and soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) populations will increase understanding of the biology of this important insect pest. In this 2-year field study, caged soybean plants were infested with so...

  6. Soybean Aphid Feeding Injury and Soybean Yield and Seed Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate prediction of the level of yield loss caused by soybean aphid feeding is considered to be the crux of integrated pest management for these pests. Despite the accumulating literature on the soybean aphid, there are currently few published data on the effects of soybean aphid populations on ...

  7. Prediction of gross energy and digestible energy in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Son, A R; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    Many of the available prediction equations for feed energy value may not be applicable for ingredients such as copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR). Therefore, we developed novel equations for estimating GE and DE concentrations in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. Data for GE and DE concentrations were obtained from previous experiments in which the chemical composition in the ingredients and diets were determined. In addition, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) values in 3 samples of ingredients including CM, PKM, and CR and 4 samples of diets including a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-based diet and 3 diets containing CM, PKM, and CR were determined. Based on the model R(2), conceptual predictive criterion, and the P-value of the equation, the best equation for GE concentration (kcal/kg) was GE = 3313 + (24.81 × CP) + (9.83 × NDF) with R(2) = 0.93, root mean square error = 102, and P = 0.005 (CP and NDF values are percentages). Regression analysis was conducted between the DE:GE ratio and IVDMD (%). The DE:GE ratio was 0.81, 0.73, 0.83, 0.89, 0.84, 0.82, and 0.88 in CM, PKM, CR, a corn-soybean meal-based diet, and diets containing CM, PKM, or CR, respectively. The values for IVDMD were 70.3, 42.6, 88.2, 93.4, 86.7, 75.5, and 91.3%, respectively. The DE:GE ratio may be calculated by (0.0030 × IVDMD) + 0.5986 (R(2) = 0.91; P = 0.001). Using the estimated GE concentration and IVDMD, the prediction equation for DE concentration (kcal/kg) was DE = -1965 + (1.02 × GE) + (15.33 × IVDMD) with R(2) = 0.88 and P = 0.007. In conclusion, IVDMD values are useful in estimating energy digestibility in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. PMID:23365336

  8. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2011-04-26

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  9. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  10. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.

    PubMed

    Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance. PMID:20420922

  11. Effect of including canola meal and supplemental iodine in diets of dairy cows on short-term changes in iodine concentrations in milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J; Kleinschmit, D H; Socha, M T

    2015-07-01

    The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce the transfer of I into milk. We hypothesized that including canola meal in diets would allow high supplementation rates of I without producing milk with unacceptable concentrations of I. Thirty midlactation Holstein cows were fed a diet with all supplemental protein from soybean meal (0% of diet dry matter as canola meal) or with all supplemental protein from canola meal (13.9% canola meal). A third treatment has a mix of soybean meal and canola meal (3.9% canola meal). Within canola-meal treatment, cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg of supplemental I per kilogram of diet dry matter from ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Cows were maintained on the canola treatment for the duration of the experiment but were changed from one I treatment to the other after 13d of receiving the treatment. Milk I concentration before the treatments started (cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I) averaged 272μg/L and increased within 22h after cows were first fed diets with 2mg/kg of I. As inclusion rate of canola meal increased, the concentration of I in milk decreased linearly. After 12d of supplementation, milk from cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I had 358, 289, and 169μg of I/L for the 0, 3.9%, and 13.9% canola-meal treatments. For cows fed 2.0mg/kg of I, milk I concentrations were 733, 524, and 408μg/L, respectively. Concentrations of I in serum increased with increased I supplementation, but the effect of canola meal was opposite of what was observed for milk I. Cows fed the highest canola-meal diets had the highest serum I whether cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg/kg of I. Feeding dairy cows diets with 13.9% canola meal maintained milk I concentrations below 500μg/L when

  12. Fractionation studies on a factor in linseed meal protecting against selenosis in chicks.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L S; Chang, C H

    1976-03-01

    Growth rate of Single Combe White Leghorn cockerels fed a casein-gelatin-glucose diet was significantly depressed at two weeks when 10 p.p.m. or more selenium was added to the diet. When 20% linseed meal was included in the diet, growth was not reduced with 10 p.p.m. selenium and only slightly reduced with 20 p.p.m. selenium. Including 20% soybean meal failed to modify the toxicity. Levels of 5 and 10% linseed meal were less effective in counteracting selenosis than was 20%. Fractionation studies showed that a protective factor in linseed meal was extracted by methanol and ethanol and was not destroyed by autoclaving. Ashing the ethanol extract destroyed its activity. The factor was readily extracted by chlorform:methanol (2:1) but less effectively by acetone and diethyl ether. Washed chloroform:methanol extract was inactive but the washings contained the factor. Concentrates of the factor were active at less than 1% of the dry matter of the diet. The results of these studies show that linseed meal contains a heat stable, organic, polar factor that modified selenium toxicity in the chick. PMID:947092

  13. Effect of ruminally undegradable protein from fish meal on growth and reproduction of peripuberal Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Rocha, A; Carpena, M; Triplett, B; Forrest, D W; Randel, R D

    1995-04-01

    Thirty-nine Brahman bulls (301.7 +/- 4.1 d; 202.7 +/- 4.7 kg) were allotted to one of two treatments and fed soybean meal (SBM)- or fish meal (FIS)-based supplements and hay to examine the effects of source of protein on growth and reproductive development. The fish meal supplement had 72% ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) and the soybean meal supplement had 47% RUP. Bulls assigned to the FIS treatment had higher (P < .01) total weight gain (81.2 +/- 1.4 vs 71.2 +/- 2.2 kg), higher (P < .01) ADG (.97 +/- .02 vs .85 +/- .03 kg), and better (P < .05) feed:gain ratio (7.6 +/- .1 vs 8.6 +/- .1 feed/BW gain for FIS vs SBM, respectively). Age at first motile spermatozoa was not affected (P > .05) by source of protein (429.9 +/- 9.6 vs 427.2 +/- 9.5 d, for bulls receiving FIS or SBM supplements, respectively). Likewise, age at puberty (473.3 +/- 21.7 d vs 465.9 +/- 12.9 d for bulls receiving FIS and SBM supplements, respectively) was similar for both treatment groups. There were no differences between treatments in scrotal circumference at those stages. At puberty semen quality was similar for bulls receiving FIS or SBM treatments, and no differences existed in LH and testosterone concentrations between treatments. We conclude that fish meal supplement increased growth but did not alter reproductive parameters in Brahman bulls. PMID:7628971

  14. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating children in…

  15. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1194 Ivermectin meal. (a) Specifications. Each gram of meal contains 6 milligrams ivermectin (0.6 percent). (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135...

  1. Corn gluten meal application equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has determined that corn gluten meal (CGM) produces an inhibitory effect and reduces root formation in several weed species. One limitation to further evaluation of CGM in field vegetable production is the difficulty in achieving a uniform application to the soil surface. The use o...

  2. Antagonistic effects of soybean viruses on soybean aphid performance.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jack R; Gratton, Claudio

    2007-08-01

    Although there is long-standing recognition that pest complexes require different management approaches than individual pests, relatively little research has explored how pests interact. In particular, little is known of how herbivorous insects and plant pathogens interact when sharing the same host plant. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Mastumura, a recently introduced pest of soybean in the upper midwestern United States, and a complex of plant viruses vectored to soybean by insects have become a major concern for growers in the region. Given the abundance of soybean aphid and the increase in virus incidence in recent years, soybean aphids often use soybean infected by plant viral pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that soybean aphid performance is affected by virus infection of soybean plants. We conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments that examined how infection of soybeans with the common plant viruses, alfalfa mosaic, soybean mosaic, and bean pod mottle viruses, influenced soybean aphid performance. Soybean plants (in the field and laboratory) were hand inoculated with individual viruses, and aphids were allowed to colonize plants naturally in field experiments or added to the plants in clip-cages or within mesh bags in laboratory assays. In the field, aphid density on uninfected control soybean plants was nearly double that on infected plants. In laboratory assays, aphid population growth rates were on average 20% lower for aphids on virus infected compared with uninfected plants. Life table analyses showed that increased mortality on virus-infected plants likely explain differences in aphid population growth. Although there was some heterogeneity in the significance of treatment effects among different experiments, when independent experiments are taken together, there is on average an overall negative effect of these viruses on soybean aphids. PMID:17716484

  3. Effect of Protein Additives on Acetylene Reduction (Nitrogen Fixation) by Rhizobium in the Presence and Absence of Soybean Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stephen J.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of protein additives on acetylene reduction (N2 fixation) by Rhizobium associated with soybean cells (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) in vitro was studied. Acetylene reduction was promoted on the basal medium supplemented with 1.4 mg of N/ml supplied as aqueous extracts of hexane-extracted soybean, red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), or peas (Pisum sativum L.). Commercial samples of α-casein, or bovine serum albumin also promoted acetylene reduction at a concentration of 1.4 mg of N/ml of basal medium, but egg albumin supplying an equal amount of nitrogen to the basal medium completely suppressed acetylene reduction. Autoclaving the aqueous extract of hexane-extracted soybean meal had no effect on its ability to promote acetylene reduction. The presence of 40 mm succinate decreased acetylene reduction with leguminous proteins supplying 1.4 mg of N/ml but promoted acetylene reduction by Rhizobium 32H1-soybean cell associations on media containing α-casein, bovine serum albumin, or egg albumin suppling 1.4 mg of N/ml. Similar results were obtained with both cowpea Rhizobium 32H1 and Rhizobium japonicum 61A96. Pure cultures of Rhizobium 32H1 developed acetylene-reducing activity in the presence of soybean extract on basal agar medium and in vermiculite supplied with N-free mineral salts plus crude soybean meal. The results suggest that in certain situations, free living Rhizobium may reduce N2 under field conditions. PMID:16659592

  4. Management Affects Soybean Nodulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation may contribute 40 – 70% of the nitrogen required by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] during the growing season. Therefore, sustaining nitrogen input is critical for profitable grain yield and sustaining long-term soil productivity. We evaluated management practices used...

  5. Sunflowers versus soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.D.C.

    1980-10-01

    While both soybeans and sunflowers provide oil and protein, sunflowers offer the higher potential yield of oil per hectare. Research to modify vegetable oils to improve their fuel properties is suggested, particularly on improving the characteristics of the oil as a fuel for diesel engines.

  6. Soybean Molecular Genetic Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of the various DNA marker types used in the assessment of molecular genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is followed by a description of a number of studies on the assessment of genetic diversity. These studies include a review of reports on 1) the quantification and comp...

  7. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  8. SOYBEAN APHID ABUNDANCE AMONG CONTEMPORARY SOYBEAN LINES IN A GROWTH-CHAMBER TEST, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance of soybean aphid was compared among eight contemporary soybean lines in a growth chamber test. All soybean lines had >500 soybean aphids per plant 2 wks after infestation. The number of soybean aphids per plant differed among lines, with Surge and 91B91 having more soybean aphids tha...

  9. Evaluation of detoxification methods on toxic and antinutritional composition and nutritional quality of proteins in Jatropha curcas meal.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui; Niu, Liya; Wang, Xingguo; Lu, Xia

    2011-04-27

    The Jatropha curcas meal was detoxified by different methods, and the effect of detoxification was evaluated in this study. The method that hydrolysis of enzymes (cellulase plus pectinase) followed by washing with ethanol (65%) had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the toxin, antinutritional components, and nutritional quality of proteins. After this treatment, the phorbolesters (PEs) were decreased by 100%. The antinutritional components (phytates, tannins, saponins, protease inhibitor, and lectin activities) were decreased to tolerable levels, which were lower than those in soybean meal. The crude protein in detoxified meal was 74.68%, and the total content of amino acids was 66.87 g/100 g of dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) increased from 82.14 to 92.37%. The pepsin-insoluble nitrogen was only 4.57% of the total nitrogen, and about 90% of the protein was true protein. The protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal was 0.75. The results showed that this treatment was a promising way to detoxify J. curcas meal, and the nutritional quality of detoxified meal can be simultaneously enriched and improved. PMID:21410262

  10. Mothers and meals. The effects of mothers' meal planning and shopping motivations on children's participation in family meals.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, William Alex; Kubena, Karen S; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley R; Jan, Jie-sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2010-12-01

    Participation in family meals has been associated with benefits for health and social development of children. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of mothers' work of caring through planning regularly scheduled meals, shopping and cooking, on children's participation in family meals. Parents of children aged 9-11 or 13-15 years from 300 Houston families were surveyed about parents' work, meal planning for and scheduling of meals, motivations for food purchases, importance of family meals, and children's frequency of eating dinner with their families. The children were interviewed about the importance of eating family meals. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis to calculate indirect and total effects of variables on the outcome variable of frequency of children eating dinner with their family. Mothers' belief in the importance of family meals increased likelihood of children eating dinner with families by increasing likelihood that mothers planned dinner and that dinners were regularly scheduled. Mothers' perception of time pressures on meal preparation had a negative, indirect effect on the frequency of children's participation in family dinners by reducing mothers' meal planning. PMID:20870001

  11. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  12. TLR4, IL-1, AND iNOS EXPRESSION IN COCONUT MEAL-FED BROILERS AFTER AN ORAL CHALLENGE WITH SALMONELLA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coconut meal is a potential immunomodulator, partially because of its lauric acid content. Chickens are commonly raised in confinement buildings, but a growing trend is to house birds in pasture systems where they may encounter different immunological challenges. Whether feeding coconut meal would ...

  13. Effect of soy-fortification method on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of fermented maize meal.

    PubMed

    Plahar, W A; Nti, C A; Annan, N T

    1997-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an appropriate household/small-scale enterprise level technique for the production of soy-fortified fermented maize dough (or meal) by comparing different treatments, processing methods and fortification levels. The effects of fortification method of the Ghanaian traditional fermented maize dough with raw or heat-treated whole soybeans and full-fat soyflour at 0%, 10% and 20% replacement levels, on the rate of fermentation and product quality were investigated. Sensory characteristics, trypsin inhibitor activity, amino acid pattern, proximate composition and hot paste viscosity were used as the indices of quality. Addition of whole soybeans to maize before milling and fermentation reduced the fermentation time by 60% while increasing the protein content by 24% and 70% respectively for 10% and 20% levels of fortification. A significant improvement was also achieved in the amino acids pattern of the fortified dough. However, raw whole soybeans imparted an undesirable color and beany flavor and an appreciable concentration of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) to the dough. Boiling soybeans for 20 min before incorporation into the maize for milling and fermentation was found necessary for desirable flavor and low levels of TIA. Little or no changes in the pasting viscosity characteristics occurred in samples containing boiled soybeans, while the usual method of fortifying maize meal with soy flour was found to severely depress the pasting viscosity characteristics and drastically reduced the acidity of the fermented dough. Based on the findings of the study, the most appropriate technique for the production of soy-fortified high protein fermented maize dough has been suggested to involve incorporation of boiled whole soybeans in soaked maize before milling and fermentation for improved sensory characteristics, enhanced nutritive value and optimal functional properties. PMID:9650729

  14. Dietary camelina meal versus flaxseed with and without supplemental copper for broiler chickens: live performance and processing yield.

    PubMed

    Pekel, A Y; Patterson, P H; Hulet, R M; Acar, N; Cravener, T L; Dowler, D B; Hunter, J M

    2009-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the responses of young broiler chickens to corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with flaxseed or camelina meal versus a corn-soybean meal control and the factorial effect of 150 mg/kg of Cu supplementation on performance and processing yield. A randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was used with 7 replicates from hatch to 21 d of age (n = 294; 7 chicks per replicate). Body weight of birds fed 10% camelina meal or 10% flaxseed was significantly reduced compared with the control birds. Addition of Cu significantly increased BW and feed consumption of the birds fed the control diet throughout the study. Copper supplementation to the 10% camelina meal diet also increased BW (P < 0.001) with no effect on feed consumption or feed conversion at 21 d. In addition, hot carcass weight, yield, and carcass parts were significantly improved among birds fed the Cu-supplemented control diet. A significant Cu x diet interaction was observed for hot carcass weight and yield, indicating Cu supplementation to the control diet was superior for carcass weight to the other treatments. However, yield was greater for the camelina diets and the control + Cu versus the other treatments. Results from the present study demonstrated that either 10% camelina meal or 10% flaxseed diets will reduce broiler BW when fed the first 3 wk of life. However, birds fed the camelina diet responded to Cu sulfate supplementation with improved live performance and carcass characteristics. Birds fed the 10% flaxseed diets showed no beneficial effect resulting from Cu supplements. PMID:19834091

  15. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  16. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  17. Evaluation of growth, nutrient retention, health, and resistance to bacterial challenge in sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of meals made from new strains of soybeans with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on hybrid striped bass ("Sunshine bass", Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) nutrient availability, growth rates, nutrient retention, gut histology, non-specific immune respo...

  18. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  19. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  20. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, G A; Fuertes, A B; Sevilla, M

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g(-1) in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm(-3) in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g(-1) in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg(-1) at a high power density of ~2 kW kg(-1). PMID:26568473

  1. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-11-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g-1 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm-3 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1 in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg-1 at a high power density of ~2 kW kg-1.

  2. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250–260 and 176 F g−1 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150–210 and 102 F cm−3 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g−1 in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg−1 at a high power density of ~2 kW kg−1. PMID:26568473

  3. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... exclude meal time from hours worked if all the tests in § 785.19 of this title are met. (b) If a...

  4. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... exclude meal time from hours worked if all the tests in § 785.19 of this title are met. (b) If a...

  5. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... exclude meal time from hours worked if all the tests in § 785.19 of this title are met. (b) If a...

  6. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  7. Inheritance of soybean aphid resistance in 21 soybean plant introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid [Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] is one of the most important insect pests on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] in the northern USA and southern Canada, and four resistance loci (Rag1 to 4) have been discovered since the pest was identified in the USA in 2000. The ob...

  8. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  9. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  10. The Endosymbiont Arsenophonus Provides a General Benefit to Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Regardless of Host Plant Resistance (Rag).

    PubMed

    Wulff, Jason A; White, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), invokes substantial chemical treatment and economic cost in North America. Resistant soybean genotypes hold promise as a low-impact control methodology, but soybean aphid "biotypes" capable of development on resistant soy cast doubt on the durability of soy resistance. We hypothesized that variation in soybean aphid ability to colonize resistant soy is partially attributable to a bacterial symbiont of soybean aphid, Arsenophonus. We used microinjection to manipulate Arsenophonus infection in both virulent and avirulent aphid biotypes, resulting in five pairs of infected versus uninfected isolines. These isolines were subjected to various population growth rate assays on resistant Rag versus susceptible soybean. We found that aphid virulence on Rag soybean was not dependent on Arsenophonus: virulent aphid biotypes performed well on Rag soybean, and avirulent aphid biotypes performed poorly on Rag soybean, regardless of whether Arsenophonus was present or not. However, we did find that Arsenophonus-infected clones on average performed significantly better than their paired uninfected isolines. This pattern was not consistently evident on every date for every clone, either in the population assays nor when we compared lifetime fecundity of individual aphids in a separate experiment. Nevertheless, this overall benefit for infected aphids may be sufficient to explain the high frequency of Arsenophonus infection in soybean aphids. PMID:26313962

  11. Release of allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed meal powder.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruyan; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2014-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a wide-spectrum antimicrobial compound found in mustard seeds, produced when their tissues are disrupted. The formation of AITC in mustard seed is mediated by the myrosinase enzyme which catalyzes the release of volatile AITC from a glucosinolate-sinigrin. Since water is a substrate in the reaction, humidity from the air can be used to activate the release of AITC from mustard seed. In this study, defatted and partially defatted mustard seed meals were ground into powders with particle size ranging from 5 to 300 μm. The mustard seed meal powder (MSMP) samples were enclosed within hermetically sealed glass jars wherein the headspace air was adjusted to 85% or 100% relative humidity at 5, 20, or 35 °C. Data from gas chromatography analysis showed that AITC release rate and amount increased with increasing relative humidity and temperature. Moreover, the release rate can be manipulated by particle size and lipid content of the MSMP samples. The amount of AITC released ranged from 2 to 17 mg/g MSMP within 24 h under the experimental conditions tested. In view of the antimicrobial properties of AITC, the mustard meal powder may be used as a natural antimicrobial material for extending the shelf life of food products. PMID:24313968

  12. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  13. EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS, 'WILLIAMS' ISOGENIC LINES, AND OTHER SELECTED SOYBEAN LINES FOR RESISTANCE TO TWO SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS STRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cultivars grown in the U.S. have a relatively narrow genetic base. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most common soybean viruses worldwide. The resistance/susceptibility of most commercial cultivars to SMV is not known. Commercial and pre-commercial soybean cultivars were screene...

  14. Food Use of Whole Soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is a chapter for a book entitled “Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing and Utilization”, edited by L.A. Johnson, P.J. White and R. Galloway, to be published by AOCS Press, Champaign, IL. According to the book outline, this book is a monograph on every things about soybeans, ...

  15. DISEASES OF SOYBEAN: CHARCOAL ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield losses due to charcoal rot occur regularly. Yield losses of 20-30% due to root and stem infections of soybean caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus Macrophomina phaseolina have been reported in some fields in years highly favorable for disease development. This bulletin summarizes the...

  16. SOYBEAN.APHID.LH.2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of soybean aphid (SA) resistance was characterized among 496 soybean lines in a twice-replicated field-plot test at the Eastern South Dakota Soil and Water Research Farm near Brookings, SD, in 2009. Natural infestations of SA occurred but were supplemented by placing individual stems of ...

  17. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  18. A Sulfur Amino Acid–Free Meal Increases Plasma Lipids in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J.; Lee, Kichun S.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR (1H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (18–36 y, 5 males and 3 females) were equilibrated for 3 d to adequate SAA, fed chemically defined meals without SAA for 5 d (depletion), and then fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous meals containing 56 mg·kg−1·d−1 SAA for 4.5 d (repletion). On the first and last day of consuming the chemically defined meals, a morning meal containing 60% of the daily food intake was given and plasma samples were collected over an 8-h postprandial time course for characterization of metabolic changes by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. SAA-free food increased peak intensity in the plasma 1H-NMR spectra in the postprandial period. Orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed changes in signals associated with lipids, some amino acids, and lactate, with notable increases in plasma lipid signals (TG, unsaturated lipid, cholesterol). Conventional lipid analyses confirmed higher plasma TG and showed an increase in plasma concentration of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, apoC-III. The results show that plasma 1H-NMR spectra can provide useful macronutrient profiling following a meal challenge protocol and that a single meal with imbalanced SAA content alters postprandial lipid metabolism. PMID:21677075

  19. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  20. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in N retention and ME. There was a linear increase in DM, N, and energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P < 0.05) with age. Regression-derived MEn of bakery meal linearly increased (P < 0.05) as the age of birds increased, with values of 2,710, 2,820, and 2,923 kcal/kg DM for 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Based on these results, utilization of energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens. PMID:26944962

  1. Pilot Fullerton prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communications kit assembly (assy) mini headset (HDST), prepares meal on middeck. Fullerton clips corner of rehydratable food (cereal) package with scissors. The opening will allow Fullerton to insert JSC water dispenser kit water gun in order to heat contents with hot water. Meal tray assembly is secured to forward middeck locker and holds additional food packages and beverage containers.

  2. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    PubMed

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed. PMID:23551143

  3. Meal and Snacking Patterns of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Nan; Rhoads, Dianne S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the responses of 3,309 Louisiana students was used to determine students' meal and snacking habits at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Student responses concerned: (1) where and why food was consumed; (2) vitamin supplements; (3) reasons meals were omitted; and (4) reaction to school lunches. (PP)

  4. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  19. THE ZONES PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING SOYBEAN YIELD VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...

  20. Soybean aphids making their summer appearance early

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two small, soft-bodied insects have begun showing up in South Dakota soybean. One is the soybean aphid, and the other is a mealybug. Soybean aphids are yellow to yellow/green and are usually found feeding on the underside of leaves. Incidence of soybean aphid has been a bit higher than typical fo...

  1. Airflow resistance in soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenghe, R. N.; Nimkar, P. M.; Shirkole, S. S.; Shinde, K. J.

    2012-04-01

    Resistance of material to airflow is an important factor to consider in the design of a dryer or an aeration system. The airflow resistance of soybean was determined with the modified airflow resistance apparatus. It was found that pressure drop increased with increase in airflow rate, bulk density, bed depth and decreased with moisture content. Modified Shedd equation, Hukill and Ives equation and modified Ergun equation were examined for pressure drop prediction. Airflow resistance was accurately described by modified Shedd equation followed by Hukill and Ives equation and modified Ergun equation. The developed statistical model comprised of airflow rate, moisture content and bulk density could fit pressure drop data reasonably well.

  2. Plastid transformation in soybean.

    PubMed

    Dubald, Manuel; Tissot, Ghislaine; Pelissier, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The biotechnological potential of plastid genetic engineering has been illustrated in a limited number of higher plant species. We have developed a reproducible method to generate plastid transformants in soybean (Glycine max), a crop of major agronomic importance. The transformation vectors are delivered to embryogenic cultures by the particle gun method and selection performed using the aadA antibiotic resistance gene. Homoplasmy is established rapidly in the selected events without the need for further selection or regeneration cycles, and genes of interest can be expressed at a high level in green tissues. This is a significant step toward the commercial application of this technology. PMID:24599865

  3. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  4. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. PMID:26994739

  5. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Bruns, H R; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-10-01

    Whereas most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, a lack of information exists regarding steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB). This research evaluated various inclusion rates of SFSB in diets for lactating dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (103 ± 39 d in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment consisting of 28-d periods, 14 d for diet transitioning followed by a 14-d sampling period. Treatments were inclusion of SFSB at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary dry matter (DM), replacing a mixture of soybean meal, soy hulls, calcium salts of fatty acids, and choice white grease. Animals were fed lactating dairy cow diets formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic, containing 60% of DM as forage and 40% of DM as concentrate. Dry matter intake (mean = 28.8 kg/d), milk production (42.2 kg/d), milk fat percentage (3.52%), and feed efficiency (1.43 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DM intake) were similar across all treatments. Milk protein (2.98%) and lactose (4.87%) were also unaffected by the amount of SFSB in the diet. Milk urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly as the amount of SFSB in the diet increased. Unlike some other soybean supplements, feeding SFSB did not increase trans-11 C18:1 or cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, but instead resulted in increased cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 and α-C18:3. Body weights (752 kg) and body condition scores (3.17) were similar with all diets. This research demonstrated that SFSB can be substituted for soybean meal and commercial fat sources while maintaining milk and milk component production and decrease milk urea nitrogen concentration. PMID:26277308

  6. Cognitive control of meal onset and meal size: Role of dorsal hippocampal-dependent episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Parent, Marise B

    2016-08-01

    There is a large gap in our understanding of how top-down cognitive processes, such as memory, influence energy intake. Similarly, there is limited knowledge regarding how the brain controls the timing of meals and meal frequency. Understanding how cognition influences ingestive behavior and how the brain controls meal frequency will provide a more complete explanation of the neural mechanisms that regulate energy intake and may also increase our knowledge of the factors that contribute to diet-induced obesity. We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal neurons, which are critical for memory of personal experiences (i.e., episodic memory), form a memory of a meal, inhibit meal onset during the period following a meal, and limit the amount ingested at the next meal. In support, we describe evidence from human research suggesting that episodic memory of a meal inhibits intake and review data from human and non-human animals showing that impaired hippocampal function is associated with increased intake. We then describe evidence from our laboratory showing that inactivation of dorsal hippocampal neurons decreases the interval between sucrose meals and increases intake at the next meal. We also describe our evidence suggesting that sweet orosensation is sufficient to induce synaptic plasticity in dorsal hippocampal neurons and raise the possibility that impaired dorsal hippocampal function and episodic memory deficits contribute to the development and/or maintenance of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we raise some critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:27083124

  7. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. PMID:24128586

  8. Application of low-gossypol cottonseed meal in laying hens' diet.

    PubMed

    He, T; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Qi, G H

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the application of dietary low-gossypol cottonseed meal (LCSM) in layers' diets. A total of 432 40-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were allocated to one of the six dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the 4 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 50, 98.3, 144.2, or 189 g/kg LCSM, respectively (correspondingly 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% dietary protein provided by soybean meal were replaced by LCSM). The sixth group was fed a basal diet supplemented with free gossypol (FG group). The feeding trial lasted for 12 weeks. The results showed that no significant difference was observed on egg production or feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed/egg, g/g) among all groups, but feed intake and egg weight were significantly decreased in the 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). A significant decrease was not observed in shell strength, shell thickness, and yolk color in all periods, but Haugh unit, albumen height, and egg white protein content were reduced in 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the control and FG group. There was no obvious difference on plasma levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and activities of albumen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and the histopathology of liver, kidney, and oviduct in all groups. In conclusion, decreasing feed intake, egg weight, and egg quality were observed in the 189 g/kg LCSM group. However, the adverse effect was not relevant to the presence of FG in LCSM. Dietary LCSM supplementation of 98.3 g/kg was recommended with optimum FCR and without adverse effect on egg production, quality, and health of layers. PMID:26287003

  9. Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-05-01

    Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (p<0.05) activity of ALP in the tissues. Contrarily, there were significant reductions (p<0.05) in the activities of ALP, ALT, AST and gamma-GT in the liver and heart of the broilers fed the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the serum of the broilers in this group. The data obtained showed that A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks. PMID:20170700

  10. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  11. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  12. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  13. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  14. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  15. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  16. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  18. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  19. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  20. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  1. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  2. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  3. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  4. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  5. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  6. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  7. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  8. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  9. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  10. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Luth, Diane; Warnberg, Katey; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we describe an Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation method of soybean that utilizes mature half seeds and regeneration from the cotyledonary node region. This method results in fertile transformed soybean plants and transgenic seed in approximately 9 months. Using mature half seeds as starting material has proven to be a reliable method that does not require additional wounding for infection to occur. We have continued to make improvements in the protocol, resulting in an efficient plant regeneration system. PMID:25300848

  11. Soybean Ferritin Forms an Iron-Containing Oligomer in Tofu Even after Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro

    2015-10-14

    Ferritin, a multimeric iron storage protein distributed in almost all living kingdoms, has been highlighted recently as a nutritional iron source in plant-derived foodstuffs, because ferritin iron is suggested to have high bioavailability. In soybean seeds, ferritin contributes largely to the net iron contents. Here, the oligomeric states and iron contents of soybean ferritin during food processing (especially tofu gel formation) were analyzed. Ferritin was purified from tofu gel as an iron-containing oligomer (approximately 1000 Fe atoms per oligomer), which was composed of two types of subunits similar to the native soybean seed ferritin. Circular dichroism spectra also showed no differences in α-helical structure between native soybean ferritin and tofu ferritin. The present data demonstrate that ferritin was stable during the heat treatment (boiling procedure) in food processing, although partial denaturation was observed at temperatures higher than 80 °C. PMID:26390371

  12. Effect of expanded cottonseed meal on laying performance, egg quality, concentrations of free gossypol in tissue, serum and egg of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Song, Hua-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Yuan-Jing; Zhang, Ai-Ting; Azzam, Mahmoud Mostafa; Zou, Xiao-Ting

    2014-05-01

    Three hundred and sixty Hy-Line Brown hens, 40 week of age, were allocated to five treatments, each of which included four replicates of 18 hens. After an expanded process of cottonseed meal (CSM), free gossypol content in CSM was decreased from 1.24 to 0.40 g/kg. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets including 6% CSM and 6%, 8% and 10% expanded cottonseed meal (ECSM). Hens fed 8% ECSM had higher (P<0.05) laying rate and average egg weight than those fed 6% CSM. The albumen height and Haugh unit in the control group, 6% and 8% ECSM groups were superior (P<0.05) to other treatments. Hens fed 6% CSM resulted in severe (P<0.05) egg yolk discoloration. Free gossypol (FG) concentrations in yolk and albumen and tissues of the 6% CSM group were greater (P<0.05) than those in any ECSM treatments. Hens fed 6% CSM and 10% ECSM had the highest (P<0.05) FG concentrations in the liver compared with those in the kidney and muscle, and higher (P<0.05) FG residues in yolk than those in albumen. In conclusion, FG in CSM can be reduced by 68% through an expanded process and ECSM can be available in laying hens at up to 10% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of soybean meal with ECSM may improve performance in laying hens. PMID:24428132

  13. Quantification of genistein and genistin in soybeans and soybean products.

    PubMed

    Fukutake, M; Takahashi, M; Ishida, K; Kawamura, H; Sugimura, T; Wakabayashi, K

    1996-05-01

    It has been suggested that the isoflavone, genistein,, may have some role as a chemopreventive agent against cancer in humans. Levels of genistein and its beta-glucoside conjugate, genistin, ingested in soybeans and related bean products by the Japanese were quantified by HPLC, to estimate daily intake of these compounds. Amounts of genistein and genistin in soybeans, soy nuts and soy powder were in the range of 4.6 to 18.2 and 200.6 to 968.1 micrograms/g food, respectively. The values for soy milk and tofu (bean curd) were 1.9 to 13.9 and 94.8 to 137.7 micrograms/g food, respectively. Levels of isoflavones in fermented soybean products, miso (bean paste) and natto (fermented soybeans), were 38.5 to 229.1 micrograms/g food for genistein and 71.7 to 492.8 micrograms/g food for genistin. Thus, the level of genistein in the fermented soybean products was higher than in soy beans and soybean products such as soy milk and tofu. From these observations, it is suggested that the beta-glycosyl bond of genistin is cleaved to produce genistein by microbes during fermentation to yield miso and natto. Soy sauce was also found to contain both isoflavones, but at levels lower than in miso and natto. On the basis of these data for average annual consumption of soybeans and related products, daily intake of genistein and genistin by the Japanese is calculated to be 1.5-4.1 and 6.3-8.3 mg/person, respectively. These levels are much higher than those for Americans or Western Europeans, whose mortality rates for breast, colon and prostate cancers are greater than the Japanese. PMID:8655094

  14. The role of chitosan in protection of soybean from sudden death syndrome caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kotchadat, Kanignun; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Visarathanonth, Niphon

    2007-05-01

    The in vitro antifungal properties of chitosan and its role in protection of soybean from a sudden death syndrome (SDS) were evaluated. Chitosan inhibited the radial and submerged growth of F. solani f. sp. glycines with a marked effect at concentrations up to 1mg/ml indicating antifungal property and at 3mg/ml was able to delay SDS symptoms expression on soybean leaves for over three days after fungal inoculation when applied preventively. Chitosan was able to induce the level of chitinase activity in soybean resulting in the retardation of SDS development in soybean leaves. However, the SDS symptoms gradually appeared and were associated with the reduction of chitinase activity level after five days of infection period. These results suggested the role of chitosan in partially protecting soybeans from F. solani f. sp. glycines infection. PMID:16828285

  15. High-fat meal induced postprandial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Herieka, Mohammed; Erridge, Clett

    2014-01-01

    Raised levels of circulating inflammatory markers are associated with coronary artery disease, obesity and type II diabetes. It has been proposed that the ingestion of high-fat meals may serve as a stimulus to raise systemic inflammatory tone, although interventional studies have yielded conflicting results. We here review 57 studies of high-fat meal induced acute postprandial inflammation to identify the most frequently reported markers of postprandial inflammation and to compare these results with the highly consistent low-grade endotoxaemia model in man. Most plasma borne markers of inflammation, such as cytokines and soluble adhesion molecules, were not consistently raised after a high-fat meal. However, pro-inflammatory leukocyte surface markers, mRNA and proteins were elevated in almost all studies in which they were measured. These markers followed kinetics similar to those observed following intravenous injection of low doses of endotoxin in man, were positively associated with likelihood of contamination of test meals with pro-inflammatory bacterial molecules and were reduced in several studies examining parallel meals supplemented with foodstuffs containing anti-inflammatory phytochemicals. Future studies of postprandial inflammation may yield more consistent evidence by focusing on leukocyte, rather than plasma-borne, markers of inflammation and by considering the test meal content of pro- and anti-inflammatory dietary constituents. PMID:23847095

  16. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  17. Registration of three soybean germplasm lines resistant to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (soybean rust)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.)Merr.]. Development of rust resistant lines is one objective of many soybean breeding programs. Three soybean germplasm lines esignated as TGx 1987-76F (Reg. No. xxx, PI 6577...

  18. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus and Soybean dwarf virus on soybean in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is the major oilseed crop in North Dakota with production concentrated in the eastern half of the state. Only one virus, Soybean mosaic virus, has been reported from soybean in North Dakota. In 2010, 200 soybean fields from 25 counties that have the majority of soybe...

  19. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem....

  5. WEIGHT LOSS WITH MEAL REPLACEMENT AND MEAL REPLACEMENT PLUS SNACKS: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To evaluate whether snacking would improve weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight individuals within the context of a structured meal replacement (MR) weight loss program. A prospective 24 week, 2 (snacking vs nonsnacking) x 2 (MR vs meal replacement augmented with snacks (MRPS)...

  6. Rumen fermentation and lactation performance of cows fed roasted soybeans and tallow.

    PubMed

    Grummer, R R; Luck, M L; Barmore, J A

    1993-09-01

    Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to examine the effects of incremental tallow addition to diets containing whole roasted soybeans on rumen fermentation and lactational performance. Total mixed rations were fed for ad libitum intake and contained, on a DM basis, 33% alfalfa silage, 12% corn silage, 14% roasted soybeans, and 41% concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal. Treatments were 0, 1, 2, or 3% supplemental tallow. Diets contained 20% CP and ranged from 1.68 to 1.82 Mcal NEL/kg of DM. The DMI, milk yield, milk protein and fat yields, milk fat percentage, rumen acetate: propionate ratio, and in situ forage DM disappearance did not differ among treatments. A small linear decrease occurred in milk protein percentage as tallow feeding was increased (2.89 to 2.86%). Tallow supplementation increased total VFA concentration in rumen fluid and resulted in a linear decrease in rumen pH (6.17 to 5.99). Supplementation of 1 to 3% tallow to diets containing 2.8% supplemental fat from whole roasted soybeans had minimal negative effects on rumen fermentation and did not influence lactational performance. PMID:8227669

  7. Analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jacob A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Hanelt, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. Mosquitoes were trapped at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. The distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. We found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. This is the first study in which the flight distance of wild mosquitoes has been assessed using blood meal analysis and the first in which zoo animals have served as the exclusive source of blood meals. PMID:22548540

  8. Proximate nutritional composition of celss crops grown at different CO2 partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    1994-11-01

    Two CELSS candidate crops, soybean (Glycine max) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), were grown hydroponically in controlled environments maintained at carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 kPa (500 to 10,000 ppm at 101 kPa atmospheric pressure). Plants were harvested at maturity (90 days for soybean and 105 days for potato) and all tissues analyzed for proximate nutritional composition (i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and ash content). Soybean seed ash and crude fiber were higher and carbohydrate was lower than values reported for field-grown seed. Potato tubers showed little difference from field-grown tubers. With the exception of increased crude fiber of soybean seed with increased CO2, no trends were apparent with regard to CO2 effects on proximate composition of soybean seed and potato tubers. Crude fiber of soybean stems and leaves increased with increased CO2, as did soybean leaf protein (total nitrogen). Potato leaf and stem (combined) protein levels also increased with increased CO2, while leaf and stem carbohydrates decreased. Values for leaf and stem protein and ash were higher than values generally reported for field-grown plants for both species. Results suggest that CO2 partial pressure should have little influence on proximate composition of potato tubers or soybean seed, but that high ash and protein levels might be expected from leaves and stems of crops grown in controlled environments of a CELSS.

  9. Proximate nutritional composition of CELSS crops grown at different CO2 partial pressures.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Mackowiak, C L; Sager, J C; Knott, W M; Berry, W L

    1994-11-01

    Two CELSS candidate crops, soybean (Glycine max) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), were grown hydroponically in controlled environments maintained at carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 kPa (500 to 10,000 ppm at 101 kPa atmospheric pressure). Plants were harvested at maturity (90 days for soybean and 105 days for potato) and all tissues analyzed for proximate nutritional composition (i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and ash content). Soybean seed ash and crude fiber were higher and carbohydrate was lower than values reported for field-grown seed. Potato tubers showed little difference from field-grown tubers. With the exception of increased crude fiber of soybean seed with increased CO2, no trends were apparent with regard to CO2 effects on proximate composition of soybean seed and potato tubers. Crude fiber of soybean stems and leaves increased with increased CO2, as did soybean leaf protein (total nitrogen). Potato leaf and stem (combined) protein levels also increased with increased CO2, while leaf and stem carbohydrates decreased. Values for leaf and stem protein and ash were higher than values generally reported for field-grown plants for both species. Results suggest that CO2 partial pressure should have little influence on proximate composition of potato tubers or soybean seed, but that high ash and protein levels might be expected from leaves and stems of crops grown in controlled environments of a CELSS. PMID:11540178

  10. Developing Metrics for Managing Soybean Aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stage-specific economic injury levels form the basis of integrated pest management for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in soybean (Glycine max L.). Experimental objectives were to develop a procedure for calculating economic injury levels of the soybean aphid specific to the R2 (full bloom...

  11. Response of Soybean to Halosulfuron Herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, halosulfuron injury in soybean through off-target movement of halosulfuron when applied to rice fields has been reported. Sulfonylurea-tolerant (ST) soybean varieties have enhanced tolerance for sulfonylurea herbicides and might provide an option of mitigating injury to soybean from halosu...

  12. SOYBEAN.APHID.2.SD.2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura) has been an important pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States since 2000. Identification and genetic characterization of SA resistance in early maturing soybean germplasm will facilitate development of aphid-resistant cultivars in no...

  13. Resistance to Phomopsis Seed Decay in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. This disease causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. Infected soybean seeds can be symptomless, but...

  14. QTL Mapping of Whitefly Resistance in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most damaging insects attacking crops in the world. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in addition to causing plant stress and reduced seed size, they also can be vectors of viruses, e.g. soybean crinkle mosaic, and soybean dwarf mosaic. Resistance...

  15. Nutritive content of college meals. II. Lipids.

    PubMed

    Walker, M A; Page, L

    1976-01-01

    Two samples, each consisting of two breakfasts, two lunches, and two dinners as offered to college students, were collected for seven consecutive days from each of fifty colleges. Two samples of the composited meals from each college were analyzed for fat and fatty acids. The fat content of the meals averaged 125.58 gm., with a range of 96.96 to 163.74 gm. This provided an average of 42.33 per cent of total calories, (range, 36.68 to 47.67 per cent). No college served meals with as little as 35 per cent of calories derived from fat. The meals contained an average of 46.3 gm. saturated fatty acids; 48.98 gm. mono-unsaturated fatty acids, of which 48.19 gm. were oleic acid; and 18.25 gm. polyunsaturated fatty acids, of which 17.22 gm. were linoleic acid. Four fatty acids--palmitic (C-16); stearic (C-18); oleic (C-18:1); and linoleic (C-18:2)--contributed approximately 92 per cent of the total fatty acids. The average ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was 0.39 (range, 0.22 to 0.69). Six colleges served meals with a P:S ratio of 0.30 or below; five colleges had a P:S ratio of 0.50 or above. PMID:1244379

  16. Generation of fertile transplastomic soybean.

    PubMed

    Dufourmantel, Nathalie; Pelissier, Bernard; Garçon, Frederic; Peltier, Gilles; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Tissot, Ghislaine

    2004-07-01

    We describe here the development of a plastid transformation method for soybean, a leguminous plant of major agronomic interest. Chloroplasts from embryogenic tissue of Glycine max have been successfully transformed by bombardment. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin resistance gene (aadA) under the control of tobacco plastid regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent soybean plastome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the trnV gene and the rps12/7 operon. All generated spectinomycin resistant plants were transplastomic and no remaining wild type plastome copies were detected. No spontaneous mutants were obtained. The transformation efficiency is similar to that of tobacco plastids. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and T1 progeny was uniformly spectinomycin resistant, showing the stability of the plastid transgene. This is the first report on the generation of fertile transplastomic soybean. PMID:15604694

  17. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G.

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  18. Ureide catabolism of soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, R.G.; Blevins, D.G.; Polacco, J.C.; Randall, D.D.

    1987-03-01

    Allantoin catabolism studies have been extended to intact leaf tissue of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Phenyl phosphordiamidate, one of the most potent urease inhibitors known does not inhibit /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ release from (2,7-/sup 14/C)allantoin (urea labeled), but inhibits urea dependent CO/sub 2/release greater than or equal to99.9% under similar conditions. Furthermore, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C) allantoate are the only detectable products of (2,7-/sup 14/C)allantoin catabolism. Neither urea nor any other product were detected by analysis on HPLC organic acid or organic base columns although urea and all commercially available metabolites that have been implicated in allantoin and glyoxylate metabolism can be resolved by a combination of these two columns. In contrast, when allantoin was labeled in the two central, nonureido carbons ((4,5-/sup 14/C)allantoin), its catabolism to (/sup 14/)allantoate, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/,(/sup 14/C)glyoxylate, (/sup 14/C)glycine, and (/sup 14/C)serine in leaf discs could be detected. These data are fully consistent with the metabolism of allantoate by two amidohydrolase reactions (neither of which is urease) that occur at similar rates to release glyoxylate, which in turn is metabolized via the photorespiratory pathway. This is the first evidence that allantoate is metabolized without urease action to NH/sub 4//sup +/ and CO/sub 2/ and that carbons 4 and 5 enter the photorespiratory pathway.

  19. Responses of metabolites in soybean shoot apices to changing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seedlings were grown in controlled environment chambers with chamber air CO2 partial pressures of 38 (ambient) and 72 (elevated) Pa. Samples were collected 21 to 24 days after sowing by harvesting five or six apices from the main shoot and from lateral branches on a single plant. Metabolit...

  20. Identification of QTL for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stem Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in Soybean Plant Introduction 194639

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a difficult disease to manage, although some gains have been made through breeding for quantitative resistance. The objective was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling partial ...

  1. [Transgenic technology and soybean quality improvement].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Jin, Hang-Xia; Gai, Jun-Yi; Yu, De-Yue

    2011-05-01

    Soybean is an important source of edible oil, protein and protein diet. The breeding process of high quality soybean can be accelerated via employment of transgenic technology, by which the key genes for soybean quality traits could be directly manipulated. Thus, various soybean varieties could be bred to fulfill different needs for specific consumers. Here, we reviewed the contribution of transgenic technology to improvement of soybean qualities in recent years. We also introduce some newly developed safe transgenic technologies and hope this information could relieve some concerns on the GM food. PMID:21586389

  2. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues. PMID:26598858

  3. Effects of selective genetic introgression from wild soybean to soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding in the U.S. currently relies on a narrow genetic base in which more than half of the genetic contribution, calculated by pedigree analysis, comes from only 5 ancestral lines. For decades, but more intensely in recent years, efforts have been made ...

  4. Photosynthetic responses of soybean to soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) injury.

    PubMed

    Macedo, T B; Bastos, C S; Higley, L G; Ostlie, K R; Madhavan, S

    2003-02-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumara, was discovered in the United States in the summer of 2000. Since that initial discovery, the aphid has spread across northern soybean production regions. In 2001, we examined the physiological responses of soybeans to low aphids densities (fewer than 50 aphids/leaf). In this study, we determined photosynthetic rates, leaf fluorescence responses, and photosynthetic responses to variable carbon dioxide and light levels. In addition, analyses for chlorophyll content and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to differentiate potential differences in stomatal versus mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis. We observed rate reductions of up to 50% on infested leaflets, including lealets with no apparent symptoms of aphid injury (such as chlorosis). Differences in fluorescence data indicated that photoelectron transport was not impaired. These results indicate that substantial physiological impact on soybean is possible even at low aphid densities. Also, the conventional view of aphid injury acting through reductions in chlorophyll content and light-harvesting reactions of photosynthesis is not supported by our findings in this system. PMID:12650361

  5. Epilepsy (partial)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy? What is the risk of relapse in people in remission when withdrawing antiepileptic drugs? What are the effects of behavioural and psychological treatments for people with epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiepileptic drugs after a single seizure; monotherapy for partial epilepsy using carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate, or topiramate; addition of second-line drugs for drug-resistant partial epilepsy (allopurinol, eslicarbazepine, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, losigamone, oxcarbazepine, retigabine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or zonisamide); antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with partial or

  6. Improving meal context in nursing homes. Impact of four strategies on food intake and meal pleasure.

    PubMed

    Divert, Camille; Laghmaoui, Rachid; Crema, Célia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Wymelbeke, Virginie Van; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In France, in most nursing homes, the composition of menus, the time and the place at which meals are served, the choice of one's place at the table are imposed on residents. Yet, the act of eating cannot be restricted to nutritional and sensory aspects alone. It also includes a psycho-affective dimension, which relates to the context in which the meal is served. We tested the impact of four contextual factors, considered individually, on food intake and meal pleasure in elderly people living in nursing homes: the way the main course was named on the menu, the size and the variety of portions of vegetables served to residents, the presence or not of condiments in the middle of the table and the presence or not of elements to modify the surroundings such as a decorative object on the table or background music. Twelve experimental meals were served to 42 nursing home residents. For each factor, we compared a control condition with two experimental conditions. Our study showed that changing a single contextual element of the meal in nursing homes could be sufficient to improve residents' satisfaction with their meals and increase the quantities of meat or vegetables consumed, as long as this factor had a direct impact on what was going to be consumed (increased variety on the plate, condiments on the table). Factors affecting the context of the meal (names of dishes, decor) proved to be ineffective. Given the budgetary constraints faced by nursing homes, this study proposes interesting and inexpensive ideas to increase satisfaction with meals and food intake in elderly people who are dependent on others for their meals. PMID:25445198

  7. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) with sorghum-based diets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed in apparent ileal digestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (P<0.001). Total tract digestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (P<0.001). Higher total tract digestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two

  8. Breast meat traits of Muscovy ducks fed on a microalga (Crypthecodinium cohnii) meal supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Chiarini, R; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Tassone, S; Romboli, I

    2007-10-01

    1. A trial was conducted in order to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in the meat of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domestica L.) fed on a diet supplemented with the microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii. 2. Two diets were provided to 48 male and 48 female ducks, belonging to an Italian rural strain during the last 3 weeks of life: a maize-soybean based diet as the control diet and the same diet supplemented with 5 g/kg microalga meal. 3. Dietary treatment did not induce differences in growth performances and slaughter traits. Similarly, chemical composition, colour, pH, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of breast muscle were not influenced by the diet. 4. A significant increase of DHA content in breast meat of ducks fed on the Crypthecodinium cohnii enriched diet was observed. PMID:17952729

  9. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  10. PHOSPHOLIPID AND TRIACYLGLYCEROL PROFILES MODIFIED BY PLD SUPPRESSION IN SOYBEAN SEED

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junghoon; Welti, Ruth; Schapaugh, William T.; Trick, Harold N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phospholipase D (PLD) is capable of hydrolyzing membrane phospholipids, producing phosphatidic acid. To alter phospholipid profiles in soybean seed, we attenuated PLD enzyme activity by an RNA interference construct using the partial sequence from a soybean PLDα gene. Two transgenic soybean lines were established by particle inflow gun bombardment by co-bombarding with pSPLDi and pHG1 vectors. The lines were evaluated for the presence and expression of transgenes thoroughly through the T4 generation. PLD-suppressed soybean lines were characterized by decreased PLDα enzyme activity and decreased PLDα protein both during seed development and in mature seeds. There was no change in total phospholipid amount; however the PLD-attenuated transgenic line, SW, had higher levels of di18:2 (dilinoleoyl)-phosphatidylcholine (PC) and -phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in seeds than the non-transgenic lines. The increased polyunsaturation was at the expense of PC and PE species containing monounsaturated or saturated fatty acids. In addition to increased unsaturation in the phospholipids, there was a decrease in unsaturation of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction of the soybean seeds. Considering recent evidence for the notion that desaturation of fatty acids occurs in the PC fraction and that the PC → DAG (diacylglycerol) → TAG pathway is the major route of TAG biosynthesis in developing soybean seed, the current data suggest that PLDα suppression slows the conversion of PC to TAG. This would be consistent with PLD playing a positive role in that conversion. The data indicate that soybean PLD attenuation is a potentially useful approach to altering properties of edible and industrial soybean lecithin. PMID:20796246

  11. Soybean Stem Fly, Melanagromyza sojae (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in the New World: detection of high genetic diversity from soybean fields in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arnemann, J A; Tay, W T; Walsh, T K; Brier, H; Gordon, K; Hickmann, F; Ugalde, G; Guedes, J V C

    2016-01-01

    Soybean Stem Fly (SSF), Melanagromyza sojae (Zehntner), belongs to the family Agromyzidae and is highly polyphagous, attacking many plant species of the family Fabaceae, including soybean and other beans. SSF is regarded as one of the most important pests in soybean fields of Asia (e.g., China, India), North East Africa (e.g., Egypt), parts of Russia, and South East Asia. Despite reports of Agromyzidae flies infesting soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil) in 1983 and 2009 and periodic interceptions of SSF since the 1940s by the USA quarantine authorities, SSF has not been officially reported to have successfully established in the North and South Americas. In South America, M. sojae was recently confirmed using morphology and its complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was characterized. In the present study, we surveyed the genetic diversity of M. sojae, collected directly from soybean host plants, using partial mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and provide evidence of multiple (>10) maternal lineages in SSF populations in South America, potentially representing multiple incursion events. However, a single incursion involving multiple-female founders could not be ruled out. We identified a haplotype that was common in the fields of two Brazilian states and the individuals collected from Australia in 2013. The implications of SSF incursions in southern Brazil are discussed in relation to the current soybean agricultural practices, highlighting an urgent need for better understanding of SSF population movements in the New World, which is necessary for developing effective management options for this significant soybean pest. PMID:27420989

  12. Optimizing chlorophyll content in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, leaf chlorophyll content has not been among the target traits for improving crop yield. However, current chlorophyll concentrations may be in excess of the amount that would maximize the season integral of photosynthesis in a crop monoculture, such as soybean, that achieves a high lea...

  13. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  14. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  15. Bioenergy and biofuels from soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils and animal fats provide some of nature’s most concentrated sources of energy. Plants and animals utilize this energy through metabolic process but non-food uses for these materials focus on combustion to produce heat or work. Historically, food uses have kept the price of soybean oi...

  16. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  17. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  18. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  19. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  20. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  1. Preparation and characterisation of protein hydrolysates from Indian defatted rice bran meal.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Misra, Gautam; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Rice bran meal is a very good source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates and respective protein hydrolysates for potential application in various food products. De-oiled rice bran meal, available from Indian rice bran oil extraction plants, was initially screened by passing through an 80-mesh sieve (yield about 70%). A fraction (yield-30%) rich in fibre and silica was initially discarded from the meal. The protein content of the through fraction increased from 20.8% to 24.1% whereas silica content reduced from 3.1% to 0.4%. Rice bran protein isolate (RPI) was prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation at isoelectric point. This protein isolate was hydrolysed by papain at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The peptides produced by partial hydrolysis had been evaluated by determining protein solubility, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam capacity and foam stability (FS). All protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original protein isolate. These improved functional properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates would make it useful for various application especially in food, pharmaceutical and related industries. PMID:18075222

  2. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  3. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  4. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  5. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  6. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  7. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  8. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  9. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  10. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  11. Cafeteria staff perceptions of the new USDA school meal standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of...

  12. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  13. Using Offer versus Serve in the School Meals Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, RoseAnna

    The goal of the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) option in the Healthy School Meals Initiative is to minimize plate waste and to encourage more food choices in school meal programs. This manual was designed for child nutrition programs as a tool in helping them meet the Healthy School Meals Initiative, in particular to assist them in identifying a…

  14. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  15. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  16. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  17. Cafeteria Staff Perceptions of the New USDA School Meal Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Brenda; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of this study was to assess…

  18. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein is limited. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins' thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties of lupin meal was studi...

  19. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  1. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  2. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  3. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  4. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  5. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  6. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  7. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  8. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  9. Mustard Seed Meal suppresses Weeds in Potato and Peppermint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is a co-product remaining after pressing mustard seed to remove the oil. Seed meals containing high glucosinolates have been reported to have herbicidal activity. Weed suppression with seed meal of Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold was evaluated in field trials on potatoes and peppermint in ...

  10. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking. PMID:27016830

  11. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  12. Nutritional Risk among Oklahoma Congregate Meal Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kimberly K.; Hermann, Janice R.; Warde, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there were differences by demographic variables in response rates to Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist statements reported by over 50% of Oklahoma Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) congregate meal participants categorized at high nutritional risk based on cumulative NSI Checklist scores. Design:…

  13. Parabrachial CGRP Neurons Control Meal Termination.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos A; Bowen, Anna J; Schwartz, Michael W; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-05-10

    The lateral parabrachial nucleus is a conduit for visceral signals that cause anorexia. We previously identified a subset of neurons located in the external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBel) that express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and inhibit feeding when activated by illness mimetics. We report here that in otherwise normal mice, functional inactivation of CGRP neurons markedly increases meal size, with meal frequency being reduced in a compensatory manner, and renders mice insensitive to the anorexic effects of meal-related satiety peptides. Furthermore, CGRP neurons are directly innervated by orexigenic hypothalamic AgRP neurons, and photostimulation of AgRP fibers supplying the PBel delays satiation by inhibiting CGRP neurons, thereby contributing to AgRP-driven hyperphagia. By establishing a role for CGRP neurons in the control of meal termination and as a downstream mediator of feeding elicited by AgRP neurons, these findings identify a node in which hunger and satiety circuits interact to control feeding behavior. PMID:27166945

  14. Guidelines for Equipment To Prepare Healthy Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.

    The National Food Service Management Institute (NFSMI) has conducted a project to develop guidelines on the type of preparation equipment needed in school kitchens to produce meals that meet the nutrition standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The guidelines provide detailed descriptions of food preparation equipment items,…

  15. Arsenic species in poultry feather meal.

    PubMed

    Nachman, K E; Raber, G; Francesconi, K A; Navas-Acien, A; Love, D C

    2012-02-15

    Organoarsenical drugs are widely used in the production of broiler chickens in the United States. Feathers from these chickens are processed into a meal product that is used as an animal feed additive and as an organic fertilizer. Research conducted to date suggests that arsenical drugs, specifically roxarsone, used in poultry production result in the accumulation of arsenic in the keratinous material of poultry feathers. The use of feather meal product in the human food system and in other settings may result in human exposures to arsenic. Consequently, the presence and nature of arsenic in twelve samples of feather meal product from six US states and China were examined. Since arsenic toxicity is highly species-dependent, speciation analysis using HPLC/ICPMS was performed to determine the biological relevance of detected arsenic. Arsenic was detected in all samples (44-4100 μg kg(-1)) and speciation analyses revealed that inorganic forms of arsenic dominated, representing 37 - 83% of total arsenic. Roxarsone was not detected in the samples (<20 μg As kg(-1)). Feather meal products represent a previously unrecognized source of arsenic in the food system, and may pose additional risks to humans as a result of its use as an organic fertilizer and when animal waste is managed. PMID:22244353

  16. Mustard meal as an organic herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings: unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact seedling survival of certain direct-seeded vegetable crops. Field research was conducted in s...

  17. Atherogenic potentials of some Nigerian meals.

    PubMed

    Eyong, E U; Umoh, I B; Ogu, T I; Edet, E E; Eteng, M U; Igiri, A O

    2007-01-01

    The atherogenic potentials of peeled grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa scot) "ekpang nkukwo", pounded yam (Discorea spp) with plain soup "afia efere", and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) "iwuk ukom" meals were investigated. The three meals were fed to three different groups of albino rats of Wistar strain for a period of twenty eight days. A fourth group which served as control was feed with normal rat pellet. The mean total plasma cholesterol level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control and peeled grated cocoyam fed groups. The mean total plasma triglyceride (MTPTG) level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control group. However the MTPTG level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups were comparable to control. The mean HDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain fed groups were comparable control. The mean LDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups was significantly lower [P < 0.05] than the control group. The LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to control. These findings suggest low atherogenic potentials of the pounded yam with plain soup meal compared to the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge meals. PMID:18379612

  18. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... completely relieved from duty for the purposes of eating regular meals. Ordinarily 30 minutes or more is long... employee is not relieved if he is required to perform any duties, whether active or inactive, while eating. For example, an office employee who is required to eat at his desk or a factory worker who is...

  19. School-Meals Makeover Stirs the Pot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    Proposed new federal rules governing the meals served to school children across the country each weekday are causing a stir among food industry groups, cafeteria managers, parents, and students. The skirmish is over the U.S. Department of Agriculture's efforts, prompted by the recent passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, to rewrite the…

  20. Gorp, Again? Alternate Camp Trail Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Layne

    1998-01-01

    By planning menus, repackaging food, packing the right spices, and being creative with aluminum foil and zip-top plastic bags, there is no reason to eat a bland trail meal again. Gives ten recipes, some with options for varying the dish. Eight of them serve two campers, two serve four to six. (TD)

  1. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. Methods National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Results Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Conclusions Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education. PMID:23642295

  2. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p < 0.05). All pulse treatments lowered BG immediately following consumption (at 20 min) (p < 0.05), but there was no effect of treatment on prepizza meal BG AUC (p = 0.07). Immediately after the pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). Postpizza meal BG AUC was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type. PMID:21957874

  3. Mind over platter: pre-meal planning and the control of meal size in humans.

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, J M

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that meal size is governed by psychological and physiological processes that generate fullness towards the end of a meal. However, observations of natural eating behaviour suggest that this preoccupation with within-meal events may be misplaced and that the role of immediate post-ingestive feedback (for example, gastric stretch) has been overstated. This review considers the proposition that the locus of control is more likely to be expressed in decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Consistent with this idea, we have discovered that people are extremely adept at estimating the 'expected satiety' and 'expected satiation' of different foods. These expectations are learned over time and they are highly correlated with the number of calories that end up on our plate. Indeed, across a range of foods, the large variation in expected satiety/satiation may be a more important determinant of meal size than relatively subtle differences in palatability. Building on related advances, it would also appear that memory for portion size has an important role in generating satiety after a meal has been consumed. Together, these findings expose the importance of planning and episodic memory in the control of appetite and food intake in humans. PMID:25033963

  4. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  5. Identification of Fusarium virguliforme FvTox1-Interacting Synthetic Peptides for Enhancing Foliar Sudden Death Syndrome Resistance in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most important crops grown across the globe. In the United States, approximately 15% of the soybean yield is suppressed due to various pathogen and pests attack. Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is an emerging fungal disease caused by Fusarium virguliforme. Although growing SDS resistant soybean cultivars has been the main method of controlling this disease, SDS resistance is partial and controlled by a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL). A proteinacious toxin, FvTox1, produced by the pathogen, causes foliar SDS. Earlier, we demonstrated that expression of an anti-FvTox1 single chain variable fragment antibody resulted in reduced foliar SDS development in transgenic soybean plants. Here, we investigated if synthetic FvTox1-interacting peptides, displayed on M13 phage particles, can be identified for enhancing foliar SDS resistance in soybean. We screened three phage-display peptide libraries and discovered four classes of M13 phage clones displaying FvTox1-interacting peptides. In vitro pull-down assays and in vivo interaction assays in yeast were conducted to confirm the interaction of FvTox1 with these four synthetic peptides and their fusion-combinations. One of these peptides was able to partially neutralize the toxic effect of FvTox1 in vitro. Possible application of the synthetic peptides in engineering SDS resistance soybean cultivars is discussed. PMID:26709700

  6. Identification of Fusarium virguliforme FvTox1-Interacting Synthetic Peptides for Enhancing Foliar Sudden Death Syndrome Resistance in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most important crops grown across the globe. In the United States, approximately 15% of the soybean yield is suppressed due to various pathogen and pests attack. Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is an emerging fungal disease caused by Fusarium virguliforme. Although growing SDS resistant soybean cultivars has been the main method of controlling this disease, SDS resistance is partial and controlled by a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL). A proteinacious toxin, FvTox1, produced by the pathogen, causes foliar SDS. Earlier, we demonstrated that expression of an anti-FvTox1 single chain variable fragment antibody resulted in reduced foliar SDS development in transgenic soybean plants. Here, we investigated if synthetic FvTox1-interacting peptides, displayed on M13 phage particles, can be identified for enhancing foliar SDS resistance in soybean. We screened three phage-display peptide libraries and discovered four classes of M13 phage clones displaying FvTox1-interacting peptides. In vitro pull-down assays and in vivo interaction assays in yeast were conducted to confirm the interaction of FvTox1 with these four synthetic peptides and their fusion-combinations. One of these peptides was able to partially neutralize the toxic effect of FvTox1 in vitro. Possible application of the synthetic peptides in engineering SDS resistance soybean cultivars is discussed. PMID:26709700

  7. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  8. Nutritional characteristics of camelina meal for 3-week-old broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pekel, A Y; Kim, J I; Chapple, C; Adeola, O

    2015-03-01

    Limited information on nutritional characteristics on camelina meal for broiler chickens limits its use in diets of broiler chickens. The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of 2 different camelina meal (CM1 and CM2) samples for 3-wk-old broiler chickens using the regression method and to determine glucosinolate compounds in the camelina meal samples. The CM1 and CM2 were incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at 3 levels (0, 100, or 200 g/kg) by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. These 5 diets (reference diet, and 100 and 200 g/kg camelina meal from each of CM1 and CM2) were fed to 320 male Ross 708 broilers from d 21 to 28 post hatching with 8 birds per cage and 8 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Excreta were collected twice daily from d 25 to 28, and jejunal digesta and ileal digesta from the Meckel's diverticulum to approximately 2 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction were collected on d 28. The total glucosinolate content for CM1 and CM2 were 24.2 and 22.7 nmol/mg, respectively. Jejunal digesta viscosity was linearly increased (P<0.001) from 2.2 to 4.1 cP with increasing dietary camelina meal levels. There were linear effects (P<0.001) of CM1 and CM2 substitution on final weight, weight gain, feed intake, and G:F. The inclusion of CM1 and CM2 linearly decreased (P<0.001) ileal digestibility of DM, energy, and IDE. The supplementation of CM1 and CM2 linearly decreased (P<0.001) the retention of DM, nitrogen, and energy; ME, and MEn. By regressing the CM1 and CM2-associated IDE intake in kilocalories against kilograms of CM1 and CM2 intake, the IDE regression equation was Y=-10+1,429×CM1+2,125×CM2, r2=0.55, which indicates that IDE values were 1,429 kcal/kg of DM for CM1 and 2,125 kcal/kg of DM for CM2. The ME regression was Y=5+882×CM1+925×CM2, r2=0.54, which implies ME values of 882 kcal/kg of DM for CM1 and 925 kcal/kg of DM for CM2

  9. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  10. Effect of refined coconut oil or copra meal on methane output and on intake and performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, E; Lovett, D K; Monahan, F J; Callan, J; Flynn, B; O'Mara, F P

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish the effect of feeding either refined coconut oil (CO) or copra meal containing CO to beef heifers on DMI, animal performance, enteric CH4 emissions, diet digestibility, and the fatty acid profile of the resulting meat. Forty-one Charolais and Limousin crossbred beef heifers (474 +/- 29 kg; 661 +/- 89 d of age) were blocked by BW before being assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (n = 12) or to a pretrial slaughter group (n = 5) used to determine the initial carcass weight. The experimental period lasted for 93 d. Enteric CH4 output was recorded for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days from d 14 to 18 and from d 70 to 74. The 3 dietary treatments were 1) control, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 0 g of CO/ d; 2) RCO, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from refined coconut oil; and 3) CM, a copra meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from copra meal. Each diet had a 50:50 forage:concentrate using grass silage as the forage source. There was no effect of diet on DMI (P = 0.734) or GE intake (P = 0.486). The addition of RCO increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The CM treatment decreased (P < 0.05) average daily carcass gain compared with the RCO treatment only. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in the digestibility of the DM, OM, CP, and GE fractions of the diet only with the CM treatment. Both the RCO and CM concentrates decreased (P < 0.001) daily enteric CH4 output when expressed in terms of liters per day, liters per kilogram of DMI, percentage of GE intake, liters per kilogram of ADG, and liters per kilogram of average daily carcass gain. The RCO treatment produced the greatest numerical response for all measures. Ruminal protozoa numbers on the RCO treatment were lower (P < 0.05) than on the control treatment. The concentrations of the fatty acid methyl esters, lauric (P < 0.001) and myristic (P < 0.002) acids, were

  11. First report of Soybean dwarf virus in soybean in Northern Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV) is transmitted persistently by colonizing aphids and causes significant yield losses in soybean in Japan. In the United States, SbDV is endemic in red and white clover, but has been detected in soybean only in Virginia and Wisconsin. During August 2006, two surveys for vir...

  12. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  13. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host-plant resistance a...

  14. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  15. Identification and molecular mapping of two soybean aphid resistance genes in soybean PI 587732

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] continues to be plagued by the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura: SA) in North America. New soybean resistance sources are needed to combat the four identified SA biotypes. The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance of SA resistance in PI 58...

  16. Gene expression profiling of resistant and susceptible soybean lines infected with soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Information about the molecular basis of soybean–SCN interactions is needed to assist future development of effective management tools against this pathogen. Toward this end, soybean transcript abundance was measured using th...

  17. First report of soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Ohio soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV), a newly discovered tospovirus that infects soybean, was first described as widespread in a number of southern and midwestern states, but so far has not been reported in Ohio. Here we describe its occurrence in six different soybean leaf samples collect...

  18. Soybean transcriptome analysis using the SoyBase soybean metabolic database SoyCyc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SoyBase, the USDA-ARS soybean genetics and genomic database is a resource for soybean breeders and geneticists. It incorporates both genetic maps and genomic sequence for soybean , as well as marker data, gene models, EST mappings from other legumes, and other genome features. Transcriptome analys...

  19. THE SOYBEAN BREEDER'S TOOLBOX: INTEGRATION OF GENETIC AND MOLECULAR DATA FOR SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean genetic data has been compiled and stored in the soybean genetic database SoyBase. This data has been retrieved from an AceDB database and used to compile a new database called the Soybean Breeder’s Toolbox (SBT). The toolbox is a relational database utilizing the MySQL RDMS. The use of a...

  20. Soybean germplasm accession seedling reactions to soybean rust isolates from Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a threat to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production in regions of the world where winters are not cold enough to completely eliminate the many hosts of the fungus, so resistant soybean cultivars would be useful in managing this disease. Res...

  1. Occurrences of soybean viruses, fungal diseases, and pests in Illinois soybean rust sentinel plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Illinois in 2006, 2007 and 2008, soybean sentinel sites that were established to monitor spread of soybean rust were sampled for additional diseases and pests. Leaf samples were sent to the University of Illinois for analysis for virus, fungal and bacterial diseases, soybean aphid, and whiteflies...

  2. Fine Mapping the Soybean Aphid Resistance Gene Rag1 in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid [Aphis glycines Matsumura] is an important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] pest in North America. The dominant aphid resistance gene Rag1 was previously mapped from the cultivar ‘Dowling’ to a 12 centiMorgan (cM) marker interval on soybean chromosome 7 [formerly linkage group (LG)...

  3. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses of different equine breeds adapted to meals containing micronized maize.

    PubMed

    Bamford, N J; Baskerville, C L; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2015-07-01

    The enteroinsular axis is a complex system that includes the release of incretin hormones from the gut to promote the absorption and utilization of glucose after a meal. The insulinogenic effect of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) remains poorly characterized in the horse. The aim of this study was to compare postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 responses of different equine breeds adapted to twice-daily meals containing micronized maize. Four Standardbred horses, 4 mixed-breed ponies, and 4 Andalusian cross horses in moderate BCS (5.5 ± 0.2 out of 9) were fed meals at 0800 and 1600 h each day. The meals contained micronized maize (mixed with soaked soybean hulls and lucerne chaff), with the amount of maize gradually increased over 12 wk to reach a final quantity of 1.7 g/kg BW (1.1 g/kg BW starch) in each meal. Animals had ad libitum access to the same hay throughout. After 12 wk of acclimation, serial blood samples were collected from all animals over a 14-h period to measure concentrations of glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, with meals fed immediately after the 0 and 8 h samples. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) values were similar between breed groups (P = 0.41); however, ponies and Andalusian horses exhibited significantly higher insulin AUC values after both meals compared with Standardbred horses (both P < 0.005). Postprandial GLP-1 AUC values were also significantly higher in ponies and Andalusian horses compared with Standardbred horses (breed × time interaction; P < 0.001). Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong positive association between concentrations of insulin and GLP-1 over time (rs = 0.752; P < 0.001). The increased insulin concentrations in ponies and Andalusian horses may partly reflect lower insulin sensitivity but could also be attributed to increased GLP-1 release. Given that hyperinsulinemia is a recognized risk factor for the development of laminitis in domestic equids, this study provides evidence that the

  4. Distribution of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Sandall, L. J.; Wysong, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 552 soybean fields in 20 counties in Nebraska in 1986-88 revealed 35 fields infested with the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Identification was confirmed with a greenhouse bioassay, using 'Lee 74' soybean, and by the application of a DNA hybridization probe derived from SCN mitochondrial DNA. Most of the SCN-infested fields were located on the Missouri River floodplain and in the southeastern corner of the state. PMID:19287657

  5. Effects of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and serum parameters in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Wang, Jianping; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. A total of 72 growing pigs (body weight = 40.8 ± 2.1 kg) were used in feeding trials, lasting for up to 42 days, and were randomly allotted to one of three diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet as well as two experimental diets containing 10% unfermented rapeseed meal (RSM) or 10% FRSM. The results showed that average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of pigs fed FRSM were superior (P < 0.05) to that of pigs fed unfermented RSM and did not differ from the control. Pigs fed control diet had higher (P < 0.05) total tract apparent digestibility for dry matter, protein, calcium and phosphorus than pigs fed unfermented RSM diet and did not differ from the FRSM diet. Pigs fed FRSM had lower levels (P < 0.05) of serum aspartate transaminase compared to unfermented RSM. In conclusion, solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger may improve the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of RSM for pigs and FRSM is a promising alternative protein for pig production. PMID:26434567

  6. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. RESULTS Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). CONCLUSION Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias. PMID:26634054

  7. BREEDING SOYBEANS FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At Chazy, NY yields of forage soybeans varied from 14.3 Mg ha-1 to 5.6 Mg ha-1 over three years with CP ranging from 169 g kg-1 to 116 g kg-1 and NDF ranging from 513 g kg-1 to 445 g kg-1. At Ames, IA, IVDMD declined from 700 g kg-1 46 days after planting then increased at seasons end as seed incre...

  8. Metabolism of carbon in soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; McManus, E.E.; Conboy, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The distribution and metabolism of {sup 14}C-carboxin [5,6 dihydro-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxamide] in the food and feed commodities of soybean were determined. Soybeans were grown to maturity indoors from seeds treated with {sup 14}C-carboxin at the normal use rate (1X) and two exaggerated rates (5X and 10X). The level of radioactivity was highest in the foliage, (12.5 ppm, 110 ppm, and 169 ppm for the low to high dose groups, respectively), and lowest in the seeds, (0.51 ppm, 2.077 ppm and 4.63 ppm, respectively). Extractable radioactivity accounted for approx. 75, 80, and 90% in the pods, seed, and foliage, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the post extracted solids released an additional 10, 15, and 5% radioactivity for the sum matrices, respectively. The major routes of metabolism were characterized by the oxidation of sulfur, cleavage of the oxathiim ring, and conjugation with glucose as shown below. These metabolites in soybean represent the most extensive modifications of carboxin observed in any plant system studied.

  9. The Potential for Engineering Enhanced Functional-Feed Soybeans for Sustainable Aquaculture Feed

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean’s anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin. PMID:27092158

  10. Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

  11. Solution Spinning and Characterization of Poly (vinyl alcohol) /Soybean Polyblend Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiefei; Kumar, Satish

    2002-03-01

    Solution Spinning and Characterization of Poly (vinyl alcohol) /Soybean Polyblend Fibers Xiefei Zhang and Satish Kumar School of Textile and Fiber Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta GA 30032 During 1930s and 40s there was significant research activity in processing fibers from regenerated proteins. However, due to development of synthetic fibers and partially due to low tensile strength of the regenerated protein fibers, there has not been much interest in this field over last half a century. To improve strength of the regenerated protein, an attempt has been made to process PVA /soybean protein polyblend fibers. PVA/Soybean protein ratio of 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 have been utilized. This has been done in an attempt to take advantage of the PVA/soybean interaction. Urea, sodium sulfite, as well as heat, were used to make denatured soybean protein solution, which was suitable for solution spinning. The polyblend fibers underwent post-spinning treatment, such as crosslinking, washing, drying and heat treatment. The fibers have been characterized for thermal behavior and tensile as well as dynamic mechanical properties. Blend fiber morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy and fiber structure characterized using wide angle X-ray diffraction. Effects of draw ratio, crosslinking time, crosslinking agent, heat treatment conditions as well as PVA/soybean composition on the mechanical properties of polyblend fibers have been studied. Dynamic mechanical analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy exhibit PVA /soybean protein compatibility.

  12. Comparison of broiler chicken performance when fed diets containing meals of Bollgard II hybrid cotton containing Cry-X gene (Cry1Ac and Cry2ab gene), parental line or commercial cotton.

    PubMed

    Mandal, A B; Elangovan, A V; Shrivastav, A K; Johri, A K; Kaur, S; Johri, T S

    2004-10-01

    (1) Total and free gossypol contents were 6.2 and 0.8, 5.4 and 0.5, and 6.1 and 0.7 g/kg in meals processed (solvent extracted) from Bollgard (BG) II, non-BG II or commercial cottonseeds, respectively. (2) Broiler chicks were given one of 7 dietary treatments (iso-nitrogenous, 220 and 195 g crude protein/ kg diet at 0 to 21 and 21 to 42 d, respectively, at a metabolisable energy concentration of 12.15 MJ/kg). The treatments were: D1 (control, soybean meal [SBM] based), D2 and D3 (commercial CSM at 100 g/kg of diet with and without additional iron), D4 and D5 (BG II CSM with and without additional iron), and D6 and D7 (non-BG II parental CSM with or without additional iron). (3) Body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, nutrient utilisation, certain blood constituents and carcase traits were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. (4) Weights of bursa and thymus were significantly higher in groups given diets containing BG II or non-BG diets containing added iron. (5) The results suggest that low free gossypol content cottonseed meals, for example, BG II, non-BG II and commercial solvent-extracted CSM could be included at 100 g/kg in broiler diets, safely replacing soybean meal without additional iron. PMID:15623220

  13. Roles of dorsomedial hypothalamic cholecystokinin signaling in the controls of meal patterns and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangjing; Yan, Jianqun; Smith, Wanli W; Moran, Timothy H; Bi, Sheng

    2012-01-18

    A role for dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) cholecystokinin (CCK) signaling in feeding control has been proposed. Administration of CCK into the DMH reduces food intake and OLETF rats lacking CCK1 receptors (CCK1R) become hyperphagic and obese. We hypothesized that site specific replenishment of CCK1R in the DMH of OLETF rats would attenuate aspects of their feeding deficits. Recombinant vectors of adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated expression of CCK1R (AAVCCK1R) were bilaterally delivered into the DMH of OLETF. OLETF rats with AAVCCK1R injections demonstrated a 65% replenishment of Cck1r mRNA expression in the DMH relative to lean LETO control rats. Although this level of replenishment did not significantly affect overall food intake or body weight through 14 weeks following viral injections, meal patterns were partially normalized in OLETF rats receiving AAVCCK1R with a significant decrease in dark cycle meal size and a small but significant decrease in daily food intake in the meal analysis chambers. Importantly, the elevation in blood glucose level of OLETF rats was attenuated by the AAVCCK1R injections (p=0.03), suggesting a role for DMH CCK signaling in glucose homeostasis. In support of this role, administration of CCK into the DMH of intact rats enhanced glucose tolerance, as this occurred through activation of CCK1R but not CCK2R signaling. In conclusion, partial replenishment of CCK1R in the DMH of OLETF rats, although insufficient for altering overall food intake and body weight, normalizes meal pattern changes and reduces blood glucose levels. Our study also shows a novel role of DMH CCK signaling in glucose homeostasis. PMID:21871472

  14. Skylab-4 Mission Onboard Photograph - Meal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-4 mission onboard photograph shows Astronaut Ed Gibson getting ready to prepare his meal in the crew wardroom. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste.

  15. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Meal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the Skylab-3 mission (2nd marned mission), showing Astronaut Owen Garriott enjoying his meal in the Orbital Workshop crew wardroom. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste.

  16. Unusual RNA plant virus integration in the soybean genome leads to the production of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Guilherme Cordenonsi; de Oliveira, Luiz Felipe Valter; de Morais, Guilherme Loss; Abdelnor, Ricardo Vilela; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Waterhouse, Peter M; Farinelli, Laurent; Margis, Rogerio

    2016-05-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is known to be a major force in genome evolution. The acquisition of genes from viruses by eukaryotic genomes is a well-studied example of HGT, including rare cases of non-retroviral RNA virus integration. The present study describes the integration of cucumber mosaic virus RNA-1 into soybean genome. After an initial metatranscriptomic analysis of small RNAs derived from soybean, the de novo assembly resulted a 3029-nt contig homologous to RNA-1. The integration of this sequence in the soybean genome was confirmed by DNA deep sequencing. The locus where the integration occurred harbors the full RNA-1 sequence followed by the partial sequence of an endogenous mRNA and another sequence of RNA-1 as an inverted repeat and allowing the formation of a hairpin structure. This region recombined into a retrotransposon located inside an exon of a soybean gene. The nucleotide similarity of the integrated sequence compared to other Cucumber mosaic virus sequences indicates that the integration event occurred recently. We described a rare event of non-retroviral RNA virus integration in soybean that leads to the production of a double-stranded RNA in a similar fashion to virus resistance RNAi plants. PMID:26993236

  17. Pressurized water extraction of isoflavones by experimental design from soybean flour and Soybean Protein Isolate.

    PubMed

    Moras, Benjamin; Rey, Stéphane; Vilarem, Gérard; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Doehlert experimental design was conducted and surface response methodology was used to determine the effect of temperature, contact time and solid liquid ratio on isoflavone extraction from soybean flour or Soybean Protein Isolate in pressurized water system. The optimal conditions conducted gave an extraction yield of 85% from soybean flour. For Soybean Protein Isolate compared to soybean flour, the isoflavone extraction yield is 61%. This difference could be explained by higher aglycon content, while aglycon appears to be the least extracted isoflavone by pressurized water. The solid liquid ratio in the ASE cell was the overriding factor in obtaining high yields with both soybean products, while temperature has less influence. A high temperature causes conversion of the malonyls-glucosides and glucosides isoflavone derivatives into glucosides or aglycons forms. pressurized water extraction showed a high solubilization of protein material up to 95% of inserted Soybean Protein Isolate. PMID:27507441

  18. Energy value of distillers dried grains with solubles and oilseed meals for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Kong, C

    2014-01-01

    The energy values of 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from corn, triticale, and sorghum and 3 oil seed meals including canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and sunflower meal (SFM) were determined in 2 experiments. For both of experiments, 24 crossbred barrows (initial BW: 28.0 ± 1.60 and 28.0 ± 2.0 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were grouped by weight into 6 blocks and placed in a metabolism crate with 1 pig per crate. There were 4 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 3 test diets. The test diet consisted of each of 3 DDGS (Exp. 1) or 3 oil seed meals (Exp. 2) that partly replaced the energy yielding sources in the reference diet at 300 (Exp. 1) or 200 g/kg (Exp. 2) such that same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The DE, apparent ME (AME), and N-corrected AME (AMEn) of the test ingredients were determined by the difference method in 2 experiments each consisting of a 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total but separate collection of feces and urine. The respective DM or GE of corn DDGS, triticale DDGS, sorghum DDGS, CM, CSM, and SFM were 918, 927, 904, 912, 907, and 898 g/kg or 5,429, 5,298, 5,295, 5,063, 5,327, and 4,589 kcal/kg of DM. Addition of DDGS to reference diet in Exp. 1 decreased (P < 0.01) dietary DE, AME, and AMEn of the test diet. However, in Exp. 2, the respective energy values of the test diet were not affected by the addition of oil seed meals to reference diet except for SFM, which decreased (P < 0.01) the energy values. The respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,751, 3,559, and 3,361 kcal/kg of DM for corn DDGS, 3,720, 3,537, and 3,315 kcal/kg of DM for triticale DDGS, and 3,520, 3,355, and 3,228 kcal/kg of DM for sorghum DDGS. There was no difference in any of energy values among 3 DDGS evaluated in the current study. Furthermore, the respective DE, AME, and AMEn were 3,577, 3,428, and 3,087 kcal/kg of DM for CM and 3,281, 3,139, and 2

  19. Soybean-based surfactants and their applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important source of two natural emulsifiers, i.e., soy lecithin and soy proteins. Crude soybean oil (SBO) contains 1 to 3% phospholipids. These phospholipids are extracted during the processing of crude SBO and are used as lecithin. Soy proteins are obtained after extraction of SBO. Ex...

  20. Soybean Rust – A Prime Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are 65 records of invasive and exotic diseases recorded in the U.S. (http://www.invasive.org). Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is one of those records. Soybean rust occurred throughout much of the Eastern Hemisphere for just over 100 years before it was confirmed in Hawaii in 1994. The ...