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Sample records for participatory management

  1. Structural Management with Participatory Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Judy

    Administrative managers who have the trust of their employees, who listen to their employees openly, and who share power with their employees are better equipped to confront and overcome obstacles. This paper discusses models for structural management that include participatory reforms. It identifies four common models of administration--rational,…

  2. Teacher Motivation and Satisfaction: Impact on Participatory Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frase, Larry E.; Sorenson, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Uses the Job Characteristics Model and Job Diagnostic Survey instrument to study the effects of 73 San Diego teachers' motivation and satisfaction on participatory management. Teachers are generally dissatisfied by the absence of feedback, autonomy, and task-related interaction. Participatory management opportunities must be differentiated…

  3. Participatory Management: An Alternative in Human Service Delivery Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Kenneth P., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Studies show that participatory management in the business field tends to improve employees' attitudes and performance, to lower costs, and to increase production. This paper describes the process of setting up democratic decision making in the welfare field. (SDH)

  4. Participatory management at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, M T; Avakian, L

    1992-05-01

    In the mid-1980s, the senior management of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital became concerned that continuous cost-cutting efforts could lower the quality of the hospital's services and the morale of its staff. This led them to investigate organizational approaches to "participatory management" to determine whether any of these might be of value to the hospital. They decided that an approach developed in the 1930s called the "Scanlon Plan" would be compatible with the workplace culture of Beth Israel, could help the hospital meet the ongoing problems of change, and could help the staff at all levels develop a sense that they owned the problems of quality, productivity, and efficiency, which would motivate them to address these problems constructively in the face of necessary budget constraints. This plan has two mechanisms to foster employees' positive participation: (1) a process to ensure that all members of the organization have the opportunity to improve productivity, primarily through an open suggestion system and a responsive committee structure, and (2) a means of providing equitable rewards for all members of the organization as productivity and quality improve. This essay describes in some detail the plan and why it was selected, explains how it was adapted, prepared for, and finally implemented in 1989, and reports its success, lessons learned, and future plans as of early 1992. The authors believe Beth Israel's experience with the Scanlon Plan is noteworthy as an example of a leading teaching hospital's taking a quality improvement program seriously and making it work. PMID:1575858

  5. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  6. Evaluation in health: participatory methodology and involvement of municipal managers

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. METHODS Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR – Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. RESULTS With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user’s perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. CONCLUSIONS Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay

  7. Participatory approaches to understanding practices of flood management across borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was

  8. Participatory Management in Organizations of Higher Education: Leadership Mandate for the 80's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; Bryson, J. Richard

    1982-01-01

    The participatory management philosophy is alive and well at numerous institutions of higher education. Results, both objective and subjective, are in evidence at many colleges and universities and lend validity to the perception that participatory management can, and does, work if properly nurtured by top administrators in a collegial…

  9. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. PMID:26040608

  10. Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  11. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  12. Comprehensive change management concepts. Development of a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Zink, Klaus J; Steimle, Ulrich; Schröder, Delia

    2008-07-01

    During the last years, many change projects in organizations did not have the planned success. Therefore at first, the causes for these failures and the success factors contributing to organizational change have to be discussed. To get better results, a comprehensive change management concept has been developed and tested in an ongoing research project. By using concepts for an integrated assessment and design of organizations, an approach for analyzing the current situation has been elaborated to identify "lack of integration" in the change initiatives of a company. To realize an integrated overall approach of modernization by harmonizing different methods and concepts, first, one has to prove their relationship to policy and strategy (vertical harmonization). The second step is to take into account the fact that there has to be a logical fit between the single concepts (horizontal harmonization). But even if all elements are logically coherent, that does not mean that the people working in the company also see this coherence. Therefore, in addition to the "logical fit", one has to examine the "psychological fit". In the end, a concept for analyzing the status quo in an organization as a result of "objective data" and "subjective data" originated. Subsequently, instruments for harmonizing different modernizing concepts have been applied. As part of the comprehensive change management concept participatory ergonomic approaches have been used during the project. The present study shows this approach in the case of one company. PMID:18395184

  13. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  14. Managing frame diversity in environmental participatory processes - Example from the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Brugnach, Marcela; Cullen, Beth; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-07-15

    Many participatory processes fail to generate social change and collaborative outcomes. This failure can partly be explained by how divergent stakeholders' frames are handled. This paper builds on the framing and participation literature to explain how facilitators can manage frame diversity and foster collaborative outcomes. It suggests two pragmatic steps: identifying frames and managing frames. The two steps are applied to a participatory process for natural resource management in Fogera, Ethiopia. Effectiveness of facilitators' strategies to manage frame diversity in the Fogera case is discussed. Two main elements challenging effectiveness are identified: counter-strategies used by facilitators and most-powerful stakeholders, and the constraining factors knowledge, champions and frame sponsorship. We argue that these elements need to be taken into account by participatory process facilitators when managing frame diversity. PMID:27107955

  15. Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Helm, R.

    Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful

  16. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  17. Empowering Communities in Educational Management: Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon

    2015-01-01

    The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…

  18. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. PMID:23860379

  19. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  20. Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

  1. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  2. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  3. Making Participatory Management Work. Leadership of Consultive Decision Making in Academic Administration. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, David R.; Powers, Mary F.

    Participatory management (PM) is discussed in this step-by-step guide that shows how PM can be made to work effectively on a daily basis in academe. Suggestions are offered for helping higher education administrators consult efficiently with representatives of campus groups--faculty, other administrators, advisory board members, policy council…

  4. Ensuring Community and Staff Support in Budget Adjustments: Participatory Management in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Ruth E.; DeLong, James

    A school district in Rosemont, Minnesota, cut 2.4 million dollars from its general fund budget in 1982-83, a cut of almost 10 percent. Instead of splitting the community, the district emerged from the process stronger than before. This was accomplished through a 4-month participatory management process involving staff, citizens, parents, and…

  5. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

  6. Building Trust among Educational Stakeholders through Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of implementing Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management (PSALM) on the levels of trust among the educational stakeholders in Philippine public secondary schools. After an introductory section, the research context is provided by briefly reviewing relevant literature on PSALM and on trust and by…

  7. PSALM for Empowering Educational Stakeholders: Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to examine the effect of implementing participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) on the levels of empowerment among the educational stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach, combining the experimental design with empirical surveys, interviews and documentary analysis,…

  8. Can a School Really Be Administered Through Participatory Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Willard

    Participative management includes a wide range of behavior in the education enterprise. It incorporates an involvement of more people in the educational process - people who are becoming more aware of the management problems in the education arena and who are actually changing what happens to students, teachers, and administrators. Where there is…

  9. Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo

    SciTech Connect

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Fantoni, Moris; Busto, Mirko; Genon, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

  10. Participatory geographic information systems for agricultural water management scenario development: A Tanzanian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinderby, Steve; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Kongo, Victor; Barron, Jennie

    One of the keys to environmental management is to understand the impact and interaction of people with natural resources as a means to improve human welfare and the consequent environmental sustainability for future generations. In terms of water management one of the on-going challenges is to assess what impact interventions in agriculture, and in particularly different irrigation strategies, will have on livelihoods and water resources in the landscape. Whilst global and national policy provide the overall vision of desired outcomes for environmental management, agricultural development and water use strategies they are often presented with local challenges to embed these policies in the reality on the ground, with different stakeholder groups. The concept that government agencies, advocacy organizations, and private citizens should work together to identify mutually acceptable solutions to environmental and water resource issues is increasing in prominence. Participatory spatial engagement techniques linked to geographic information systems (commonly termed participatory GIS (PGIS)) offers one solution to facilitate such stakeholder dialogues in an efficient and consultative manner. In the context of agricultural water management multi-scale PGIS techniques have recently been piloted as part of the ‘Agricultural Water Management Solutions’ project to investigate the current use and dependencies of water by small-holder farmers a watershed in Tanzania. The piloted approach then developed PGIS scenarios describing the effects on livelihoods and water resources in the watershed when introducing different management technologies. These relatively rapid PGIS multi-scale methods show promise for assessing current and possible future agriculture water management technologies in terms of their bio-physical and socio-economic impacts at the watershed scale. The paper discusses the development of the methodology in the context of improved water management decision

  11. Challenges in the participatory assessment of sustainable management practices in dryland ecosystems under regime shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jucker Riva, Matteo; Schwilch, Gudrun; Liniger, Hanspeter

    2015-04-01

    Regime shifts, defined as a radical and persistent reconfiguration of an ecosystem following a disturbance, have been acknowledged by scientists as a very important aspect of the dynamic of ecosystems. However, their consideration in land management planning remains marginal and limited to specific processes and systems. Current research focuses on mathematical modeling and statistical analysis of spatio-temporal data for specific environmental variables. These methods do not fulfill the needs of land managers, who are confronted with a multitude of processes and pressure types and require clear and simple strategies to prevent regime shift or to increase the resilience of their environment. The EU-FP7 CASCADE project is looking at regime shifts of dryland ecosystems in southern Europe and specifically focuses on rangeland and forest systems which are prone to various land degradation threats. One of the aims of the project is to evaluate the impact of different management practices on the dynamic of the environment in a participatory manner, including a multi-stakeholder evaluation of the state of the environment and of the management potential. To achieve this objective we have organized several stakeholder meetings and we have compiled a review of management practices using the WOCAT methodology, which enables merging scientific and land users knowledge. We highlight here the main challenges we have encountered in applying the notion of regime shift to real world socio-ecological systems and in translating related concepts such as tipping points, stable states, hysteresis and resilience to land managers, using concrete examples from CASCADE study sites. Secondly, we explore the advantages of including land users' knowledge in the scientific understanding of regime shifts. Moreover, we discuss useful alternative concepts and lessons learnt that will allow us to build a participatory method for the assessment of resilient management practices in specific socio

  12. Community-Based Participatory Research With Native American Communities: The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses the translation of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, using a CBPR approach, with an urban Native American community. This article highlights not only how the CBPR process facilitates the successful translation of the Stanford program but also how CBPR is used within this community to build community capacity. PMID:19376928

  13. The logic of participation: critical perspectives on the 'participatory turn' in river and catchment management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Both academic research and catchment management practice have now placed considerable emphasis upon the ways in which participation might be used with the objective of improving water management. It is often predicated upon the observation that, historically, water management decisions have been dominated by those who hold certain kinds of expertise, to the detriment of the expertise of others. Participation, then, is a means of opening up decision-making to capture a greater range of those implicated in water management. Scholars of Science Technology Studies have traditionally advocated participation as involving a diversified set of ideals and approaches, ones that are sensitive to the context within which they are practiced and the logics that surround them. But, STS scholars have also argued that as soon as participation, notably participation in a particular form, becomes proscribed, it loses its very raison d'être, that is as a space within which slightly different understandings of a problem may form, grow and take on meaning oustide of the institutional systems of decision-making that all to often dominate our lives. Here I argue that this implies a need to think through what can be called a 'logic of participation' in water management, that is why certain individuals or institutions advocate it, and under what conditions, for whom and with what end. In short, we need a political science analysis of who participation in water management might serve. This paper is motivated by one element of such an analysis linked to the observation that many models of how participation in water management might be done have developed without sufficient attention to the sometimes sophisticated and advanced levels of participation that already exist in many water management systems. Interventions to improve participation in such cases may be as much about displacing and replacing existing participatory systems, whether: intentional, because of concerns held by authorities

  14. The logic of participation: critical perspectives on the 'participatory turn' in river and catchment management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Both academic research and catchment management practice have now placed considerable emphasis upon the ways in which participation might be used with the objective of improving water management. It is often predicated upon the observation that, historically, water management decisions have been dominated by those who hold certain kinds of expertise, to the detriment of the expertise of others. Participation, then, is a means of opening up decision-making to capture a greater range of those implicated in water management. Scholars of Science Technology Studies have traditionally advocated participation as involving a diversified set of ideals and approaches, ones that are sensitive to the context within which they are practiced and the logics that surround them. But, STS scholars have also argued that as soon as participation, notably participation in a particular form, becomes proscribed, it loses its very raison d'être, that is as a space within which slightly different understandings of a problem may form, grow and take on meaning oustide of the institutional systems of decision-making that all to often dominate our lives. Here I argue that this implies a need to think through what can be called a 'logic of participation' in water management, that is why certain individuals or institutions advocate it, and under what conditions, for whom and with what end. In short, we need a political science analysis of who participation in water management might serve. This paper is motivated by one element of such an analysis linked to the observation that many models of how participation in water management might be done have developed without sufficient attention to the sometimes sophisticated and advanced levels of participation that already exist in many water management systems. Interventions to improve participation in such cases may be as much about displacing and replacing existing participatory systems, whether: intentional, because of concerns held by authorities

  15. A participatory assessment of post-fire management alternatives in eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Transformational socio-economic changes during the last decades of the 20th century led to the abandonment of mountainous areas in western Mediterranean countries (Puigdefábregas and Mendizábal, 1998). This process was accelerated in the Ayora Valley (inland Valencia province, E Spain) by a major forest fire in 1979. Restoration and management actions were implemented through the 1990's to promote the recovery of the area affected by this fire. In 2010 these past actions were assessed using an integrated and participatory evaluation protocol (IAPro). The selected actions were shrubland regenerated after the fire (no-action); pine plantation over the shrubland; pine forest regenerated after the fire (no-action); and thinning of densely regenerated pines. The assessment involved the identification and engagement of a comprehensive and representative set of local and regional stakeholders who provided a baseline assessment, identified and prioritized essential indicators, considered data collected against those indicators, and participated in re-assessment of actions after an outranking multi-criteria decision aiding integration (MCDA) conducted by the expert team (Roy and Bertier, 1973). This process facilitated a collaborative integration of biophysical indicators (i.e. carbon sequestration, water and soil conservation, soil quality, biodiversity, fire risk and forest health) and socio-economic indicators (i.e. productive, recreational and touristic, aesthetic, and cultural values, cost of the actions, and impact on family finances). It was completed with activities for exchanging experiences and sharing knowledge with the platform of stakeholders. Stakeholder platform suggested that fire risk was the most important indicator, followed by water conservation and soil conservation. Least important indicators were cost of actions, aesthetic value, and recreational and touristic value. Data collected on each action showed the thinned pine forest action with the lowest

  16. A participatory assessment of post-fire management alternatives in eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Transformational socio-economic changes during the last decades of the 20th century led to the abandonment of mountainous areas in western Mediterranean countries (Puigdefábregas and Mendizábal, 1998). This process was accelerated in the Ayora Valley (inland Valencia province, E Spain) by a major forest fire in 1979. Restoration and management actions were implemented through the 1990's to promote the recovery of the area affected by this fire. In 2010 these past actions were assessed using an integrated and participatory evaluation protocol (IAPro). The selected actions were shrubland regenerated after the fire (no-action); pine plantation over the shrubland; pine forest regenerated after the fire (no-action); and thinning of densely regenerated pines. The assessment involved the identification and engagement of a comprehensive and representative set of local and regional stakeholders who provided a baseline assessment, identified and prioritized essential indicators, considered data collected against those indicators, and participated in re-assessment of actions after an outranking multi-criteria decision aiding integration (MCDA) conducted by the expert team (Roy and Bertier, 1973). This process facilitated a collaborative integration of biophysical indicators (i.e. carbon sequestration, water and soil conservation, soil quality, biodiversity, fire risk and forest health) and socio-economic indicators (i.e. productive, recreational and touristic, aesthetic, and cultural values, cost of the actions, and impact on family finances). It was completed with activities for exchanging experiences and sharing knowledge with the platform of stakeholders. Stakeholder platform suggested that fire risk was the most important indicator, followed by water conservation and soil conservation. Least important indicators were cost of actions, aesthetic value, and recreational and touristic value. Data collected on each action showed the thinned pine forest action with the lowest

  17. Participatory methods of incorporating scientific with traditional knowledge for volcanic hazard management on Ambae Island, Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Shane J.; Gaylord, David R.; Charley, Douglas; Alloway, Brent V.; Wallez, Sandrine; Esau, Job W.

    2004-10-01

    Ambae Island is the largest of Vanuatu’s active volcanoes. It is also one of the nation’s potentially most dangerous, with 60 million m3 of lake-water perched at over 1340 m in the summit caldera and over the active vent. In 1995, small phreatic explosions, earthquake swarms and heightened gas release led to calls for evacuation preparation and community volcanic hazard awareness programs for the ~9500 inhabitants. Differences in perspective or world-view between the island dwellers adhering to traditional beliefs (Kastom) and external scientists and emergency managers led to a climate of distrust following this crisis. In an attempt to address these issues, rebuild dialogue and respect between communities, outside scientists and administrators, and move forward in volcanic hazard education and planning for Ambae, we adapted and applied Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approaches. Initial gender-segregated PRA exercises from two representative communities provided a mechanism for cataloguing local traditional viewpoints and hazard perceptions. Ultimately, by combining elements of these viewpoints and perceptions with science-based management structures, we derived volcanic hazard management guidelines, supported by an alert system and map that were more readily accepted by the test communities than the earlier “top-down” plans imposed by outside governmental and scientific agencies. The strength of PRA approaches is that they permit scientists to understand important local perspective issues, including visualisations of volcanic hazards, weaknesses in internal and external communication systems, and gender and hierarchy conflicts, all of which can hinder community emergency management. The approach we describe has much to offer both developing and industrialised communities that wish to improve their awareness programs and mitigative planning. This approach should also enhance communication and understanding between volcanologists and the communities

  18. Empowering marginalized communities in water resources management: addressing inequitable practices in Participatory Model Building.

    PubMed

    Butler, Cameron; Adamowski, Jan

    2015-04-15

    Within the field of water resource management, Group Model Building (GMB) is a growing method used to engage stakeholders in the development of models that describe environmental and socioeconomic systems to create and test policy alternatives. While there is significant focus on improving stakeholder engagement, there is a lack of studies specifically looking at the experiences of marginalized communities and the barriers that prevent their fuller participation in the decision-making process. This paper explores the common issues and presents recommended improved practices, based on anti-oppression, related to the stages of problem framing, stakeholder identification and selection, workshop preparation, and workshop facilitation. For problem defining and stakeholder selection, the major recommendations are to engage diverse stakeholder communities from the earliest stages and give them control over framing the project scope. With regards to planning the model building workshops, it is recommended that the facilitation team work closely with marginalized stakeholders to highlight and address barriers that would prevent their inclusion. With the actual facilitation of the workshops, it is best to employ activities that allow stakeholders to provide knowledge and input in mediums that are most comfortable to them; additionally, the facilitation team needs to be able to challenge problematic interpersonal interactions as they manifest within conversations. This article focuses on building comfortability with political language so that the systemic oppression in which existing participatory processes occur can be understood, thus allowing GMB practitioners to engage in social justice efforts. PMID:25697902

  19. A Participatory Water Management Tool for the Determination of Groundwater Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, M. M.; Edmunds, W.; Sharma, O.; Davis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture currently accounts for 70% of global water consumption, resulting in excessive groundwater pumping that surpasses the rate of groundwater renewal in many places. There is a pressing need for farmers to have a way to monitor water resources, so that they can manage and utilize water more sustainably to mitigate hardship and sustain water-related livelihoods. One of the most promising methods for quantifying groundwater supplies is the Chloride Mass Balance (CMB) approach. Although chloride can be easily quantified with ion chromatography in a laboratory, its application in developing countries remains a logistical challenge. The high costs and complexity associated with the current methodology limits its application in practice, since it requires highly specialized personnel to make advanced measurements and interpretations. In an effort to mitigate these caveats and simplify the CMB methodology such that spatial and temporal resolution can increase, this study exemplifies the use of Total Dissolved Solutes (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) meters as surrogates for ion chromatography as an extension of an on-going participatory watershed monitoring program in the Jaisamand Lake Basin, a UNESCO G-WADI pilot basin located in Rajasthan, India. Weekly EC measurements collected from 20 farmers within the Gangeshwar Watershed and Household data collection were collected in 2012 to elucidate well-well scale differences in groundwater recharge.

  20. Strengthening local health care management in Bolivian districts through participatory operational research.

    PubMed

    Ferrelli, R; Serrano, C R; Balladelli, P P; Cortinois, A; Quinteros, J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the use of a participatory health care management and problem-related research methodology may help strengthen health service management and the capacities of local health care personnel. The text refers to five studies carried out in three Bolivian health districts from 1993-1995, in an Operational Research Project, conducted by an Italian N.G.O. (Cooperazione Internazionale) in agreement with the local Ministry of Health and P.A.H.O./W.H.O. The object of these studies was to assess the main problems in health care delivery and to define and implement appropriate solutions. The studies utilized a methodology based on the principles of operational research and continuous quality improvement. During the process some positive aspects and difficulties were met. The positive aspects were: the applied character of the research focused on the solution of a problem; the study of a problem related to health service management; the use of modern and simple techniques adapted to local knowledge; on-the-job training of health care personnel during the research process. Lack of a generic 'culture of research' and poor health personnel training were the main difficulties encountered. National health authorities should take these points into account to define or readjust policies on health service research, health workers' academic education and in-service training. Insisting on developing human resources and allowing them to achieve and expand their potential is the key factor for getting developing countries out of their current crisis and toward reaching a truly human and sustainable development. PMID:10167612

  1. Community-based participatory research helps farmers and scientists to manage invasive pests in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F

    2010-06-01

    Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people. PMID:20799682

  2. An Assessment of Participatory Integrated Vector Management for Malaria Control in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mbogo, Charles; Mwangangi, Joseph; Imbahale, Susan; Kibe, Lydia; Orindi, Benedict; Girma, Melaku; Njui, Annah; Lwande, Wilber; Affognon, Hippolyte; Gichuki, Charity; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integrated vector management (IVM) as a strategy to improve and sustain malaria vector control. However, this approach has not been widely adopted. Objectives We comprehensively assessed experiences and findings on IVM in Kenya with a view to sharing lessons that might promote its wider application. Methods The assessment used information from a qualitative external evaluation of two malaria IVM projects implemented between 2006 and 2011 and an analysis of their accumulated entomological and malaria case data. The project sites were Malindi and Nyabondo, located in coastal and western Kenya, respectively. The assessment focused on implementation of five key elements of IVM: integration of vector control methods, evidence-based decision making, intersectoral collaboration, advocacy and social mobilization, and capacity building. Results IVM was more successfully implemented in Malindi than in Nyabondo owing to greater community participation and multistakeholder engagement. There was a significant decline in the proportion of malaria cases among children admitted to Malindi Hospital, from 23.7% in 2006 to 10.47% in 2011 (p < 0.001). However, the projects’ operational research methodology did not allow statistical attribution of the decline in malaria and malaria vectors to specific IVM interventions or other factors. Conclusions Sustaining IVM is likely to require strong participation and support from multiple actors, including community-based groups, non-governmental organizations, international and national research institutes, and various government ministries. A cluster-randomized controlled trial would be essential to quantify the effectiveness and impact of specific IVM interventions, alone or in combination. Citation Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Mukabana WR. 2015. An assessment of participatory integrated vector

  3. Learning How to Manage Bias: A Case Study of Youth Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…

  4. Participatory scenario development for environmental management: a methodological framework illustrated with experience from the UK uplands.

    PubMed

    Reed, M S; Kenter, J; Bonn, A; Broad, K; Burt, T P; Fazey, I R; Fraser, E D G; Hubacek, K; Nainggolan, D; Quinn, C H; Stringer, L C; Ravera, F

    2013-10-15

    A methodological framework is proposed for participatory scenario development on the basis of evidence from the literature, and is tested and refined through the development of scenarios for the future of UK uplands. The paper uses a review of previous work to justify a framework based around the following steps: i) define context and establish whether there is a basis for stakeholder engagement in scenario development; ii) systematically identify and represent relevant stakeholders in the process; iii) define clear objectives for scenario development with stakeholders including spatial and temporal boundaries; iv) select relevant participatory methods for scenario development, during initial scenario construction, evaluation and to support decision-making based on scenarios; and v) integrate local and scientific knowledge throughout the process. The application of this framework in case study research suggests that participatory scenario development has the potential to: i) make scenarios more relevant to stakeholder needs and priorities; ii) extend the range of scenarios developed; iii) develop more detailed and precise scenarios through the integration of local and scientific knowledge; and iv) move beyond scenario development to facilitate adaptation to future change. It is argued that participatory scenario development can empower stakeholders and lead to more consistent and robust scenarios that can help people prepare more effectively for future change. PMID:23774752

  5. Development of a Methodology for Selecting Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management: A Case Study on Participatory Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Guillermo A.; Prabhu, Ravi

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes an application of multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in assessing criteria and indicators adapted for a particular forest management unit. The methods include: ranking, rating, and pairwise comparisons. These methods were used in a participatory decision-making environment where a team representing various stakeholders and professionals used their expert opinions and judgements in assessing different criteria and indicators (C&I) on the one hand, and how suitable and applicable they are to a forest management unit on the other. A forest concession located in Kalimantan, Indonesia, was used as the site for the case study. Results from the study show that the multicriteria methods are effective tools that can be used as structured decision aids to evaluate, prioritize, and select sets of C&I for a particular forest management unit. Ranking and rating approaches can be used as a screening tool to develop an initial list of C&I. Pairwise comparison, on the other hand, can be used as a finer filter to further reduce the list. In addition to using these three MCA methods, the study also examines two commonly used group decision-making techniques, the Delphi method and the nominal group technique. Feedback received from the participants indicates that the methods are transparent, easy to implement, and provide a convenient environment for participatory decision-making.

  6. Participatory innovation process for testing new practices for soil fertility management in Chókwè Irrigation Scheme (Mozambique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Reparaz, Maite; de Vente, Joris; Famba, Sebastiao; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Barberá, Gonzalo G.

    2015-04-01

    Integrated water and nutrient management are key factors to increase productivity and to reduce the yield gap in irrigated systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. These two elements are affected by an ensemble of abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors that need to be taken into account to reduce the yield gap, as well as farmers' perceptions and knowledge. In the framework of the project European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we are carrying out a participatory innovation process in Chókwè irrigation scheme (Mozambique) based on stakeholders engagement, to test new practices for soil fertility management that can increase yields reducing costs. Through a method combining interviews with three farmers' associations and other relevant stakeholders and soil sampling from the interviewed farmers' plots with the organization of Communities of Practices, we tried to capture how soil fertility is managed by farmers, the constraints they find as well as their perceptions about soil resources. This information was the basis to design and conduct a participatory innovation process where compost made with rice straw and manure is being tested by a farmers' association. Most important limitations of the method are also evaluated. Our results show that socio-economic characteristics of farmers condition how they manage soil fertility and their perceptions. The difficulties they face to adopt new practices for soil fertility management, mainly related to economic resources limitations, labour availability, knowledge time or farm structure, require a systemic understanding that takes into account abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors and their implication as active stakeholders in all phases of the innovation process.

  7. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  8. Participatory Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William S.

    1980-01-01

    A synopsis of a Planning Assistance Kit designed by the Council of Educational Facility Planners (CEFP) and Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL) to assist local communities in participatory planning. (MLF)

  9. [The Citizen Committee as a co-management strategy in participatory research in the field of mental health in Quebec].

    PubMed

    Passos, Eduardo; Otanari, Thais Mikie de Carvalho; Emerich, Bruno Ferrari; Guerini, Lorena

    2013-10-01

    The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss the effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights. PMID:24061018

  10. Assessing participatory practices in community-based natural resource management: experiences in community engagement from southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Leventon, J; Nshimbi, M; Chama, F; Kafwifwi, A; Muledi, J I; Kaumbu, J-M K; Falcao, M; Muhorro, S; Munyemba, F; Kalaba, G M; Syampungani, S

    2014-05-01

    The emphasis on participatory environmental management within international development has started to overcome critiques of traditional exclusionary environmental policy, aligning with shifts towards decentralisation and community empowerment. However, questions are raised regarding the extent to which participation in project design and implementation is meaningful and really engages communities in the process. Calls have been made for further local-level (project and community-scale) research to identify practices that can increase the likelihood of meaningful community engagement within externally initiated projects. This paper presents data from three community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) project case studies from southern Africa, which promote Joint Forest Management (JFM), tree planting for carbon and conservation agriculture. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, community-level meetings, focus groups and interviews. We find that an important first step for a meaningful community engagement process is to define 'community' in an open and participatory manner. Two-way communication at all stages of the community engagement process is shown to be critical, and charismatic leadership based on mutual respect and clarity of roles and responsibilities is vital to improve the likelihood of participants developing understanding of project aims and philosophy. This can lead to successful project outcomes through community ownership of the project goals and empowerment in project implementation. Specific engagement methods are found to be less important than the contextual and environmental factors associated with each project, but consideration should be given to identifying appropriate methods to ensure community representation. Our findings extend current thinking on the evaluation of participation by making explicit links between the community engagement process and project outcomes, and by

  11. Evaluation of participatory training in managing mental health for supervisory employees in the financial industry.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Toru; Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Industry-specific primary prevention measures for promoting mental health of workers were undertaken in 2008 and 2009 as a result of participatory training involving 130 supervisory employees in workplaces of the financial industry. These measures included the following five points suggested to be effective in the industry: 1) proper opportunities for training and career building, 2) control of work time and improving work organization, 3) standardization of tasks, 4) job rotation for sharing work responsibilities, and 5) increasing communication and mutual support. A post-training follow-up survey revealed that participatory, action-oriented training facilitated sharing of feasible measures and mutual support, leading to the development of measures easily introduced and established at each workplace. We concluded that mutually supportive group work of teams composed of members who held similar duty positions and were engaged in similar operations, using the Mental Health Action Checklist as a guiding tool, was effective for realizing implementation of optimally practical and specific measures. PMID:25647945

  12. Costa Rican environmental service payments: The use of a financial instrument in participatory forest management.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Miriam; Dieperink, Carel; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2006-10-01

    The core element of the Costa Rican forestry policy is a financial instrument called the environmental service payment. This instrument rewards forest owners for the environmental services (the mitigation of greenhouse gases, the protection of watersheds and scenic beauty, and the development of biodiversity) their forests provide. In this article, the experiences with this new instrument are analyzed by focusing on the way interests are represented and access is granted, the openness of information exchange, whether social learning occurred, and whether decision-making authority is shared. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in the Huetar Norte Region and on in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders. The Costa Rican case indicates that financial instruments can be used to share responsibilities and that stakeholders can successfully cooperate on forest issues. It also shows that such a participatory approach is only promising if certain cultural, economic, organizational, and political conditions are met. PMID:16933086

  13. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modeling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation.

    PubMed

    Stringer, L C; Fleskens, L; Reed, M S; de Vente, J; Zengin, M

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  14. Participatory telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  15. Participatory monitoring and evaluation to aid investment in natural resource manager capacity at a range of scales.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter R; Jacobs, Brent; Leith, Peat

    2012-12-01

    Natural resource (NR) outcomes at catchment scale rely heavily on the adoption of sustainable practices by private NR managers because they control the bulk of the NR assets. Public funds are invested in capacity building of private landholders to encourage adoption of more sustainable natural resource management (NRM) practices. However, prioritisation of NRM funding programmes has often been top-down with limited understanding of the multiple dimensions of landholder capacity leading to a failure to address the underlying capacity constraints of local communities. We argue that well-designed participatory monitoring and evaluation of landholder capacity can provide a mechanism to codify the tacit knowledge of landholders about the social-ecological systems in which they are embedded. This process enables tacit knowledge to be used by regional NRM bodies and government agencies to guide NRM investment in the Australian state of New South Wales. This paper details the collective actions to remove constraints to improved NRM that were identified by discrete groups of landholders through this process. The actions spanned geographical and temporal scales, and responsibility for them ranged across levels of governance. PMID:22270584

  16. How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

  17. Stakeholder discourse and water management - implementation of the participatory model CATCH in a Northern Italian alpine sub-catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo Stanghellini, P. S.; Collentine, D.

    2008-03-01

    participatory process. It provided a general framework consisting of a sequence of steps that helped the participants to reach the goal of the process: the identification and evaluation of measures to improve water management in the catchment. This test of the CATCH model showed it to be a dynamic and flexible tool, useful for structuring and guiding the participation process, without imposing undue restrictions on influencing the outcome of stakeholder participation in a small catchment.

  18. PARTICIPATORY STORM WATER MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY – WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, and there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. For areas which are already developed, decentralization of stormwater management involves private property and poss...

  19. STORMWATER, PARTICIPATORY ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND SUSTAINABILITY – WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, and there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens and r...

  20. Participatory Scenario Planning for the Cienega Watershed: Embracing Uncertainty in Public Lands Management in the U.S. Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H.; Morino, K.; Bodner, G.; Markstein, A.; McFarlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    extend and refine participatory scenario planning methods from the development of regional qualitative narratives to (1) development of scenario narratives that are relevant at the local management level, (2) creation and evaluation of portfolios of management options that can accommodate changes in management objectives, connect to formal agency planning processes, and that can be adjusted as the future evolves, and (3) explicit identification of the data and information that link qualitative narratives to quantitative scenario and adaptation assessments, which can be used to drive the timing and implementation of activities within the adaptation portfolios, and to prioritize monitoring and research activities to resolve near-term uncertainties. Project tasks are structured around four resource teams that focus on their specific management concerns (Montane, Riparian, Upland and Cultural), but that come together periodically to consider interaction and conflict among their scenarios or prospective adaptation. Participants are finding that embracing uncertainty enables them to approach climate change with a sense of empowerment rather than a sense of reacting to crises, and they appreciate the methods and opportunities for thinking differently and crossing boundaries that the scenario planning exercises provide.

  1. Coupling System Dynamics and Physically-based Models for Participatory Water Management - A Methodological Framework, with Two Case Studies: Water Quality in Quebec, and Soil Salinity in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert-Chouinard, J.; Halbe, J.; Baig, A. I.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The principles of Integrated Water Resource Management outline the importance of stakeholder participation in water management processes, but in practice, there is a lack of meaningful engagement in water planning and implementation, and participation is often limited to public consultation and education. When models are used to support water planning, stakeholders are usually not involved in their development and use, and the models commonly fail to represent important feedbacks between socio-economic and physical processes. This paper presents the development of holistic models of the Du Chêne basin in Quebec, and the Rechna Doab basin in Pakistan, that simulate socio-economic and physical processes related to, respectively, water quality management, and soil salinity management. The models each consists of two sub-components: a System Dynamics (SD) model, and a physically based model. The SD component was developed in collaboration with key stakeholders in the basins. The Du Chêne SD model was coupled with a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, while the Rechna Doab SD model was coupled with SahysMod, a soil salinity model. The coupled models were used to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of different management scenarios proposed by stakeholders. Results indicate that coupled SD - physically-based models can be used as effective tools for participatory water planning and implementation. The participatory modeling process provides a structure for meaningful stakeholder engagement, and the models themselves can be used to transparently and coherently assess and compare different management options.

  2. How does the context and design of participatory decision-making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and

  3. Overcoming limited information through participatory watershed management: Case study in Amhara, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benjamin M.; Abebe, Yitayew; McHugh, Oloro V.; Collick, Amy S.; Gebrekidan, Brhane; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    This study highlights two highly degraded watersheds in the semi-arid Amhara region of Ethiopia where integrated water resource management activities were carried out to decrease dependence on food aid through improved management of ‘green’ water. While top-down approaches require precise and centrally available knowledge to deal with the uncertainty in engineering design of watershed management projects, bottom-up approaches can succeed without such information by making extensive use of stakeholder knowledge. This approach works best in conjunction with the development of leadership confidence within local communities. These communities typically face a number of problems, most notably poverty, that prevent them from fully investing in the protection of their natural resources, so an integrated management system is needed to suitably address the interrelated problems. Many different implementing agencies were brought together in the two study watersheds to address water scarcity, crop production, and soil erosion, but the cornerstone was enabling local potential through the creation and strengthening of community watershed management organizations. Leadership training and the reinforcement of stakeholder feedback as a fundamental activity led to increased ownership and willingness to take on new responsibilities. A series of small short term successes ranging from micro-enterprise cooperatives to gully rehabilitation have resulted in the pilot communities becoming confident of their own capabilities and proud to share their successes and knowledge with other communities struggling with natural resource degradation.

  4. The Centrality of the "Mediation" Concept in the Participatory Management of Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Irenilda Angela; Berlinck, Christian Niel; de Santana Araujo, Symone Christine; Steinke, Ercilia Torres; Steinke, Valdir Adilson; Pianta, Taissa Ferreira; Graebner, Ivete Teresinha; Saito, Carlos Hiroo

    2005-01-01

    This work presents questions related to the viability and the requirements for the implementation of a National Policy of Water Resources in Brazil, and identifies the means to bring about active participation by the population in the management of water resources. While social inequalities may be an impediment to the implementation of full…

  5. Participatory Design of an Integrated Information System Design to Support Public Health Nurses and Nurse Managers

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Hills, Rebecca A.; Turner, Anne M.; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to use persona-driven and scenario-based design methods to create a conceptual information system design to support public health nursing. Design and Sample We enrolled 19 participants from two local health departments to conduct an information needs assessment, create a conceptual design, and conduct a preliminary design validation. Measures Interviews and thematic analysis were used to characterize information needs and solicit design recommendations from participants. Personas were constructed from participant background information, and scenario-based design was used to create a conceptual information system design. Two focus groups were conducted as a first iteration validation of information needs, personas, and scenarios. Results Eighty-nine information needs were identified. Two personas and 89 scenarios were created. Public health nurses and nurse managers confirmed the accuracy of information needs, personas, scenarios, and the perceived usefulness of proposed features of the conceptual design. Design artifacts were modified based on focus group results. Conclusion Persona-driven design and scenario-based design are feasible methods to design for common work activities in different local health departments. Public health nurses and nurse managers should be engaged in the design of systems that support their work. PMID:24117760

  6. Participatory Video in Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of participatory video in rural underdeveloped countries and describes a video project in Costa Rica that helped farmers with agricultural management and soil erosion problems. Video production considerations are described, and the use of role playing to supplement documentation is explained. (four references) (LRW)

  7. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  8. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  9. A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Ricardo

    Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau

  10. A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Ricardo

    Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau

  11. An approach for the anticipatory and participatory management of current and future flood risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, J.

    2012-04-01

    concepts and the application of respective techniques are thus reviewed and incorporated with regard to their suitability for an integrated management of current and future flood risks. In particular, "hybrid scenarios" with qualitative and quantitative components represented by nested models as well as assumptions across different spatiotemporal scales, respectively, are suggested for dealing with the uncertainties when assessing flood risks throughout a system's possible evolution. The (initially top-down developed) approach and its components will be briefly presented. These "scenario products" could later serve as a stimulus for discussions that bring together different actors and enhance - and eventually legitimise - the scenarios further in a "scenario process": (1) A first step is the conceptualisation of a flood risk system following the SPRC-model. Its physical geographical and anthropogenic factors may either be subject to autonomous trends, target-oriented control, or facultative system behaviour (e.g. dike breaches). With this concept, the integration of different processes and scales is aspired. (2) Secondly, it is conceptually shown how the risk cascade for present and future states of the flood risk system can be calculated based on coupled models ranging from climate change projections to a damage simulation models. (3) Thirdly, ways to develop socioeconomic storylines for the development frameworks and guiding principles for the strategic alternatives are presented and the futures are combined. This involves making plausible and consistent assumptions for many system factors and their drivers and finding ways to harmonise existing data for the same areas and time steps. (4) Fourthly, selected futures can be analysed and evaluated ex ante applying the coupled models of the second step to derive the emerging flood risks. The evaluation addresses, amongst other aspects, the identification of (i) the sensitivity of all scenarios against the current strategic

  12. Contrasting and not-so-contrasting perspectives between local stakeholders and scientists and across dryland sites in participatory assessment of land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Susana; Zucca, Claudio; Urghege, Anna M.; Ramón Vallejo, V.

    2015-04-01

    The participation of stakeholders and the integration of scientific and local knowledge in the assessment of environmental problems and potential solutions have been increasingly demanded by international institutions. Participatory assessment has the potential to engender social learning among all stakeholders, including scientists, which then has the potential to increase collaboration and the probability for adoption of good practices. Using PRACTICE participatory assessment tool, IAPro, a number of assessment criteria were identified, selected and weighted by local stakeholder platforms (SHPs) and scientists in 18 dryland sites distributed across 11 countries. These criteria were then applied to the assessment of a variety of local land management actions. In total, around 50 criteria were proposed by the SHPs, ranging from 6 to 14 per platform. The proposed criteria represented a wide variety of social, economic, cultural, and environmental aspects. Many of them were proposed by many of the SHPs, stressing their potential as universal assessment criteria across drylands. In most cases, these repeatedly proposed criteria were the same criteria proposed by the scientific panel. The relative importance given to the variety of criteria by each SHP was evenly distributed among the economic wealth criterion and each of the main categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, supporting & regulating, and cultural). In general, African and American sites where local people economies heavily rely on natural lands gave higher weights than European sites to "economic-wealth", "provision of goods", and "supporting and regulating services" criteria, and also to "socio-cultural services". All European SHPs selected and gave great importance to criteria that are related to security, such hydrogeological hazard, flood prevention, and fire risk. The participatory assessment process in IAPro facilitated social learning among the stakeholders, including scientists, and promoted

  13. Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1997-04-03

    This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

  14. Participatory Planning for the improvement of water management in uncertain conditions: Case study of the Souss-Massa basin in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Slimani, Imane; Joyce, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Due to its geographical location and to the natural features of its climate, Morocco is known as a drought prone and water scarce country. However, the country now faces, in the current context of Climate Change, an increasing and alarming water scarcity due to the combined effects of a strong decline of precipitations and a growing pressure on water resources induced by the economic development and demographic growth. Aware of this pressing issue, Morocco implemented a national water strategy based on the decentralization of water management at the river basin level and the establishment of Integrated Water Resources Management master plans for each basin. Unfortunately, these plans often underestimate the impact of uncertainty and this may lead to inefficient and unsustainable water management strategies. In this context, the aim of this study is to develop an innovative approach for robust decision making in uncertain conditions by coupling the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) model and the "XLRM" robust decision making framework to support the evaluation of management options and promote long-term sustainable integrated water management strategies at the basin level. The Souss-Massa basin, located in the south-western part of the country was retained as a case study because of its strategic importance but also because it now faces, as a consequence of the irrational use of water resources during the last decades significant water resources management challenges mainly due to the overexploitation of ground water resources, the increased of water demand due to the irrigation development, the urban and industrial growth and the expansion of tourism. Thus, in this study, a three step methodology was developed. First, the WEAP model were developed and calibrated for the Souss-Massa basin. In a second step, a XLRM participatory workshop gathering the basin main stakeholders were organized in order to identify the EXogenous factors (key uncertainties

  15. Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Holkup, Patricia A.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Salois, Emily Matt; Weinert, Clarann

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also suggest criteria that will enable evaluation of the project. PMID:15455579

  16. Using participatory epidemiology to investigate management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases amongst transhumant zebu cattle in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D

    2015-12-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; p<0.001) in pairwise ranking indicated that the diseases were a common problem in selected districts. East Coast fever had the highest median score for incidence (18% [range: 2, 33]) in Moroto, followed by anaplasmosis (17.5% [8,32]) and CBPP (9% [1,21]). Most animals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed

  17. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alhaji, N. B.; Babalobi, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  18. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage. PMID:26464953

  19. Public Health Nursing Case Management for Women Receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Kairalla, John A.; Lutz, Barbara J.; Pereira, Deidre; Hall, Allyson G.; Flocks, Joan; Beeber, Linda; Schwartz, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based participatory research–grounded intervention among women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) with chronic health conditions in increasing (1) health care visits, (2) Medicaid knowledge and skills, and (3) health and functional status. Methods. We used a randomized controlled trial design to assign 432 women to a public health nurse case management plus Medicaid intervention or a wait-control group. We assessed Medicaid outcomes pre- and posttraining; other outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Results. Medicaid knowledge and skills improved (P < .001 for both). Intervention group participants were more likely to have a new mental health visit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92; P = .007), and this likelihood increased in higher-risk subgroups (OR = 2.03 and 2.83; P = .04 and .006, respectively). Depression and functional status improved in the intervention group over time (P = .016 for both). No differences were found in routine or preventive care, or general health. Conclusions. Health outcomes among women receiving TANF can be improved with public health interventions. Additional strategies are needed to further reduce health disparities in this population. PMID:21778474

  20. Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-07-01

    Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries. PMID:16756940

  1. Participatory Genomic Testing as an Educational Experience.

    PubMed

    Garber, Kathryn B; Hyland, Katherine M; Dasgupta, Shoumita

    2016-06-01

    Several institutions have incorporated participatory genomic testing into their curricula to engage students in experiential learning, and this has raised ethical concerns. We summarize strategies for managing these concerns and review evidence of the influence of this experiential approach on student knowledge and attitudes towards genomics. PMID:27117243

  2. Factors influencing performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital - participatory action research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. Methods This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya’s largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention consisted of dissemination of locally adapted CPGs. The PRECEDE-PROCEED health education model was used as the conceptual framework to guide and examine further reinforcement activities to improve the uptake of the CPGs. Activities focussed on introduction of routine clinical audits and tailored educational sessions. Data were collected by a participant observer who also facilitated the PAR over an eighteen-month period. Naturalistic inquiry was utilized to obtain information from all hospital staff encountered while theoretical sampling allowed in-depth exploration of emerging issues. Data were analysed using interpretive description. Results Relevance of the CPGs to routine work and emergence of a champion of change facilitated uptake of best-practices. Mobilization of basic resources was relatively easily undertaken while activities that required real intellectual and professional engagement of the senior staff were a challenge. Accomplishments of the PAR were largely with the passive rather than active involvement of the hospital management. Barriers to implementation of best-practices included i) mismatch between the hospital’s vision and reality, ii) poor communication, iii) lack of objective mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating quality of clinical care, iv) limited capacity for planning strategic change, v) limited management skills to introduce and manage change, vi) hierarchical relationships, and vii) inadequate adaptation of the interventions to the local

  3. Introducing Participatory Curriculum Development in China's Higher Education: The Case of Community-Based Natural Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubo, Qi; Xiuli, Xu; Ting, Zuo; Xiaoyun, Li; Keke, Chen; Xiaowei, Gao; Miao, Ji; Lin, Liu; Miankui, Mao; Jingsong, Li; Yiching, Song; Zhipu, Long; Min, Lu; Juanwen, Yuan; Vernooy, Ronnie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and reflects on a novel course developed at China Agricultural University to introduce Community-Based Natural Resource Management at the postgraduate level. This course, part of a larger educational renewal initiative addressing the current reform of China's higher education system, was developed through a participatory…

  4. Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity

  5. Queering Participatory Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  6. Participatory Practices at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Barker, Michelle; Hernon-Tinning, Bernie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses workplace participatory practices: the reciprocal process of engaging in and learning through work. The reciprocity between the affordance of the workplace (its invitational qualities) and individuals' engagement in the workplace is proposed as a means of understanding how learning through work proceeds. How workplaces…

  7. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  8. A framework for the selection of participatory approaches for SEA

    SciTech Connect

    Rauschmayer, Felix . E-mail: felix.rauschmayer@ufz.de; Risse, Nathalie . E-mail: nrisse@ulb.ac.be

    2005-08-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.

  9. Evaluating participatory research: Framework, methods and implementation results.

    PubMed

    Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a structured participatory process and associated evaluation protocol developed to detect systems learning by decision makers involved in the management of natural resources. A series of facilitated participatory workshops were conducted to investigate learning when decision makers and influencers were confronted with the multiple, complex interactions arising from decisions concerned with the nexus of water, food and energy security. The participatory process and evaluation of learning were trialled in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), where integrated scientific evidence was systematically presented to challenge existing beliefs concerned with the effectiveness of proposed policy actions and development investments. Consistent with theoretical propositions, individually held values, beliefs and attitudes were deployed as the primary factors (and psychometrics) that underpin and influence environmental management decision making. Observed and statistically significant changes in the three psychometrics expressed by decision makers in response to the facilitated presentation of scientific evidence during the participatory process, provided supportive evidence of systems learning and the evaluation protocol. PMID:25929196

  10. Expanding the Reach of Participatory Risk Management: Testing an Online Decision-Aiding Framework for Informing Internally Consistent Choices.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Douglas L; Campbell-Arvai, Victoria; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This article presents research aimed at developing and testing an online, multistakeholder decision-aiding framework for informing multiattribute risk management choices associated with energy development and climate change. The framework was designed to provide necessary background information and facilitate internally consistent choices, or choices that are in line with users' prioritized objectives. In order to test different components of the decision-aiding framework, a six-part, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted, yielding eight treatment scenarios. The three factors included: (1) whether or not users could construct their own alternatives; (2) the level of detail regarding the composition of alternatives users would evaluate; and (3) the way in which a final choice between users' own constructed (or highest-ranked) portfolio and an internally consistent portfolio was presented. Participants' self-reports revealed the framework was easy to use and providing an opportunity to develop one's own risk-management alternatives (Factor 1) led to the highest knowledge gains. Empirical measures showed the internal consistency of users' decisions across all treatments to be lower than expected and confirmed that providing information about alternatives' composition (Factor 2) resulted in the least internally consistent choices. At the same time, those users who did not develop their own alternatives and were not shown detailed information about the composition of alternatives believed their choices to be the most internally consistent. These results raise concerns about how the amount of information provided and the ability to construct alternatives may inversely affect users' real and perceived internal consistency. PMID:26381043

  11. Bodywork as systemic and inter-enactive competence: participatory process management in Feldenkrais® Method and Zen Shiatsu

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Michael; Irran, Christine; Luger, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Feldenkrais and Shiatsu enable somatic learning through continuous tactile coupling, a real-time interpersonal dynamic unfolding in a safe dyadic sphere. The first part of our micro-ethnographic study draws on process vignettes and subjective theories to demonstrate how bodywork is infused with systemic sensitivities and awareness for non-linear process management. Expressed in dynamic systems parlance, both disciplines foster metastability, adaptivity, and self-organization in the client's somato-personal system by progressively reconfiguring systemic dispositions, i.e., an attractor landscape. Doing so requires a keen embodied apperception of hierarchies of somato-systemic order. Bodyworkers learn to explore these in their eigenfunction (joints, muscles, fascia), discriminate coordinative organization in small ensembles, and monitor large-scale dynamic interplay. The practitioner's “extended body” reaching forth into the client's through a resonance loop eventually becomes part of this. Within a bodywork session, practitioners modulate this hierarchical functional architecture. Their ability for sensorially staying apace of systemic emergence allows them to respond to minute changes and customize reactions in a zone of proximal development (dynamic immediacy). They stimulate the client's system with a mix of perturbing and stabilizing interventions that oscillate between eigenfunctions and their coordinative integration. Practical knowledge for “soft-assembling” non-linear synergies is crucial for this (cumulative local effects, high-level functions “slaving” the system, etc.). The paper's second part inventorizes the bodyworker's operative tool-box—micro-skills providing the wherewithal for context-intelligent intervention. Practitioners deploy “educated senses” and a repertoire of hands-on techniques (grips, stretches, etc.) against a backdrop of somatic habits (proper posture, muscle activation, gaze patterns, etc.). At this level, our study

  12. Bodywork as systemic and inter-enactive competence: participatory process management in Feldenkrais® Method and Zen Shiatsu.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Michael; Irran, Christine; Luger, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Feldenkrais and Shiatsu enable somatic learning through continuous tactile coupling, a real-time interpersonal dynamic unfolding in a safe dyadic sphere. The first part of our micro-ethnographic study draws on process vignettes and subjective theories to demonstrate how bodywork is infused with systemic sensitivities and awareness for non-linear process management. Expressed in dynamic systems parlance, both disciplines foster metastability, adaptivity, and self-organization in the client's somato-personal system by progressively reconfiguring systemic dispositions, i.e., an attractor landscape. Doing so requires a keen embodied apperception of hierarchies of somato-systemic order. Bodyworkers learn to explore these in their eigenfunction (joints, muscles, fascia), discriminate coordinative organization in small ensembles, and monitor large-scale dynamic interplay. The practitioner's "extended body" reaching forth into the client's through a resonance loop eventually becomes part of this. Within a bodywork session, practitioners modulate this hierarchical functional architecture. Their ability for sensorially staying apace of systemic emergence allows them to respond to minute changes and customize reactions in a zone of proximal development (dynamic immediacy). They stimulate the client's system with a mix of perturbing and stabilizing interventions that oscillate between eigenfunctions and their coordinative integration. Practical knowledge for "soft-assembling" non-linear synergies is crucial for this (cumulative local effects, high-level functions "slaving" the system, etc.). The paper's second part inventorizes the bodyworker's operative tool-box-micro-skills providing the wherewithal for context-intelligent intervention. Practitioners deploy "educated senses" and a repertoire of hands-on techniques (grips, stretches, etc.) against a backdrop of somatic habits (proper posture, muscle activation, gaze patterns, etc.). At this level, our study addresses a host

  13. FuturICT: Participatory computing to understand and manage our complex world in a more sustainable and resilient way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.; Bishop, S.; Conte, R.; Lukowicz, P.; McCarthy, J. B.

    2012-11-01

    We have built particle accelerators to understand the forces that make up our physical world. Yet, we do not understand the principles underlying our strongly connected, techno-socio-economic systems. We have enabled ubiquitous Internet connectivity and instant, global information access. Yet we do not understand how it impacts our behavior and the evolution of society. To fill the knowledge gaps and keep up with the fast pace at which our world is changing, a Knowledge Accelerator must urgently be created. The financial crisis, international wars, global terror, the spreading of diseases and cyber-crime as well as demographic, technological and environmental change demonstrate that humanity is facing serious challenges. These problems cannot be solved within the traditional paradigms. Moving our attention from a component-oriented view of the world to an interaction-oriented view will allow us to understand the complex systems we have created and the emergent collective phenomena characterising them. This paradigm shift will enable new solutions to long-standing problems, very much as the shift from a geocentric to a heliocentric worldview has facilitated modern physics and the ability to launch satellites. The FuturICT flagship project will develop new science and technology to manage our future in a complex, strongly connected world. For this, it will combine the power of information and communication technology (ICT) with knowledge from the social and complexity sciences. ICT will provide the data to boost the social sciences into a new era. Complexity science will shed new light on the emergent phenomena in socially interactive systems, and the social sciences will provide a better understanding of the opportunities and risks of strongly networked systems, in particular future ICT systems. Hence, the envisaged FuturICT flagship will create new methods and instruments to tackle the challenges of the 21st century. FuturICT could indeed become one of the most

  14. Participatory Multimedia Learning: Engaging Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a participatory multimedia learning model for use in designing multimedia learning environments that support an active learning process, creative participation, and learner engagement. Participatory multimedia learning can be defined as learning with systems that enable learners to produce part of the…

  15. Participatory Practices in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

    Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

  16. Evaluation criteria for participatory research: insights from coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution. PMID:24748238

  17. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  18. Participatory Action Research: A View from the ACTWU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanza, Anthony J.

    1989-01-01

    Reflects upon participatory action research as used by the cost study teams at Xerox Corporation. Discusses the evolving relationships between union and management and describes the changing role of the union during this process. Notes that even though management instability causes some problems, the program is beneficial in fostering employee…

  19. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  20. Participatory methods in pediatric participatory research: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2016-05-01

    Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was executed in five databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane. After careful screening of relevant papers, finally 24 documents were included in our analysis. Literature on participatory methods in pediatric research appears generally to be descriptive, whereby high-quality evidence is lacking. Overall, five groups of participatory methods for children could be distinguished: observational, verbal, written, visual, and active methods. The choice for one of these methods should be based on the child's age, on social and demographic characteristics, and on the research objectives. To date, these methods are still solely used for obtaining data, yet they are suitable for conducting meaningful participation. This may result in a successful partnership between children and researchers. Researchers conducting participatory research with children can use this systematic review in order to weigh the current knowledge about the participatory methods presented. PMID:26720607

  1. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  2. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  3. Assessing Social Learning Outcomes through Participatory Mind Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin G.; DuBois, Bryce; Corwin, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a method for using mind mapping to assess social learning outcomes in collaborative environmental restoration and participatory natural resource management initiatives. Using mind mapping for preassessment and postassessment can reveal changes in individual and collective thinking about critical social and ecological issues.…

  4. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in

  5. The role of participatory problem analysis in performance improvement and sustainable management of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems: A case study of Makanya village, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabu, Kossa R. M.

    Poor availability of water and pastures has been identified as the single most important factor constraining productivity of livestock in Tanzania. Many smallholder livestock keepers have responded to the problem of shortage of water by constructing charco dams (dug out ponds constructed in flat semi-arid areas to store surface runoff). However, most of these charco dams are performing poorly. A participatory problem analysis was carried out in Makanya village in Tanzania in 2001/2002 to identify causes of poor performance of privately owned charco dams and to design appropriate intervention measures for each charco dam. A total of twenty charco dams were investigated, with storage capacities ranging from 20 to 2000 m 3. The retention period of water in the investigated charco dams ranged from 2 to 7 months depending on the capacity of the charco dam, household size and the number of livestock kept. The analysis revealed that major problems causing poor performance of the charco dams were: (i) rapid siltation of the charco dams, (ii) low water retention period, and (iii) lack of or inadequate working tools to carry out maintenance works. Although most of the charco dam owners were aware of the first two problems they were not sure of their causes or their proper remedies. Evaluations done in 2003 and early 2004 has revealed that after improvement of the charco dams, the water retention period has increased by 2 months for the same household size and number of livestock. It was also noted that even those charco dam owners who were at first reluctant to join the initiative; have improved their charco dams accordingly through knowledge sharing with their neighbours. The study has shown that although farmers and pastoralists are endowed with vast indigenous knowledge, their technical know-how has some limitations. They therefore need to be supported by local institutions with the required technical know-how in order to sharpen their skills. This will enable them to

  6. Participatory Research in North America; A Perspective on Participatory Research in Latin America; Participatory Research in Southern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…

  7. Music Education for All through Participatory Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the participatory field can complement and enhance even successful music education programs. The participatory field, part of Thomas Turino's four-field framework, conceptualizes the musical values and practices of societies where musical participation is nearly universal. The participatory field contrasts with the…

  8. Inclusive Ownership of Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druin, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I…

  9. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  10. Participatory Budgeting in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Describes and analyzes a participatory approach to budgetary decision-making used by an exemplary high school. In spite of the budgetary forces dividing instructional departments, support units, and administration, an equitable division of resources provided to the school was consistently achieved each year. Includes 29 references. (MLH)

  11. Mobile Applications for Participatory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

  12. Principles for Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin

    1991-01-01

    Nine principles of participatory action research (PAR) are identification of individual and collective projects; changing power distribution; changing group and institutional culture; acting and reflecting; unifying intellectual and practical projects; producing knowledge; engaging the politics; using methodological resources; and creating theory.…

  13. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services. PMID:27563911

  14. The experience of participatory research: Perceptions of oncology employees participating in a workplace study

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Joanna E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Participatory research, a concept developed in the Third World, has been increasingly applied to community and health research in developed countries. However, little is known about attitudes to the participatory process in the context of workplace research, especially that carried out in health care settings. In this qualitative study, employees participating in a quality of work-life (QWL) project at a Canadian cancer centre were asked about their perceptions of the participatory research process. Using a phenomenological approach, the author interviewed 12 employees. The following themes emerged from the analysis of interview data: 1) The role of management and senior management was viewed as being important but employees were uncomfortable with the presence of management at meetings; 2) The desired composition of the committee was more complex than ensuring representation from workers and there may have been a natural process by which this composition was attained; 3) Participatory research without action was unacceptable; and 4) Full participation in all aspects of the project was difficult to achieve. These findings have important implications because they challenge some existing notions in the literature about participatory research. Recommendations regarding trust issues, membership recruitment, and the role of members in the participatory process are outlined. PMID:26526288

  15. Participatory design and an eligibility screening tool.

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, J. H.; Reddy, M.

    2000-01-01

    For most medical informatics software products, insufficient effort is spent on the design phase of production. However, poor design often leads to systems that are either not well accepted, or far less effective than they could be. In this paper, we describe the ideas of participatory design and discuss why these ideas are especially applicable to medical informatics systems. In particular, we present a case study in the area of clinical trial protocol management. We designed and developed a tool aimed at increasing accrual to clinical trial protocols at an oncology center. However, the design evolved over time, and features of this design were only discovered through iterative development and interaction with the users within the context of the workplace. PMID:11079891

  16. African Primary Care Research: Participatory action research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal. PMID:26245439

  17. Priority interventions to improve the management of chronic non-cancer pain in primary care: a participatory research of the ACCORD program

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Lyne; Choinière, Manon; Martin, Elisabeth; Lévesque, Lise; Hudon, Eveline; Bélanger, Danielle; Perreault, Sylvie; Lacasse, Anaïs; Laliberté, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is evidence that the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) in primary care is far from being optimal. A 1-day workshop was held to explore the perceptions of key actors regarding the challenges and priority interventions to improve CNCP management in primary care. Methods Using the Chronic Care Model as a conceptual framework, physicians (n=6), pharmacists (n=6), nurses (n=6), physiotherapists (n=6), psychologists (n=6), pain specialists (n=6), patients (n=3), family members (n=3), decision makers and managers (n=4), and pain researchers (n=7) took part in seven focus groups and five nominal groups. Results Challenges identified in focus group discussions were related to five dimensions: knowledge gap, “work in silos”, lack of awareness that CNCP represents an important clinical problem, difficulties in access to health professionals and services, and patient empowerment needs. Based on the nominal group discussions, the following priority interventions were identified: interdisciplinary continuing education, interdisciplinary treatment approach, regional expert leadership, creation and definition of care paths, and patient education programs. Conclusion Barriers to optimal management of CNCP in primary care are numerous. Improving its management cannot be envisioned without considering multifaceted interventions targeting several dimensions of the Chronic Care Model and focusing on both clinicians and patients. PMID:25995648

  18. Participatory sensing as an enabler for self-organisation in future cellular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Muhammad Ali; Imran, Ali; Onireti, Oluwakayode

    2013-12-01

    In this short review paper we summarise the emerging challenges in the field of participatory sensing for the self-organisation of the next generation of wireless cellular networks. We identify the potential of participatory sensing in enabling the self-organisation, deployment optimisation and radio resource management of wireless cellular networks. We also highlight how this approach can meet the future goals for the next generation of cellular system in terms of infrastructure sharing, management of multiple radio access techniques, flexible usage of spectrum and efficient management of very small data cells.

  19. Participatory Action Research and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.

    This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…

  20. Learning through Dignity: Participatory Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Dennis

    This paper describes an alternative approach to traditional instructional design models by suggesting that participatory communication theory (PCT) creates a process that values the learner's voice. As a student develops a critical awareness of his or her environment, participatory media becomes a catalyst for cognition. Learners use media tools…

  1. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  2. Participatory visual methodologies in global public health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Claudia M; Sommer, Marni

    2016-01-01

    This Introduction serves to map out a range of participatory visual approaches, as well as critical issues related to the use of participatory visual methodologies in global health. In so doing, it offers both an overview of these innovative practices in global health and a consideration of some of the key questions that researchers might ask themselves in design and implementation. PMID:27105078

  3. Participatory Action Research: International Contexts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin, Ed.

    The collection of essays in this book illustrate commonalties and differences among the theories, practices, and forms of organization of participatory action research in different countries. Participatory action research expresses the recognition that all research methodologies are implicitly political in nature, and this is reflected in the…

  4. Exploring Partnership Functioning within a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Improve Disaster Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Lane, Daniel E.; Paré, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Disasters happen worldwide, and it is necessary to engage emergency management agencies, health and social services, and community-based organizations in collaborative management activities to enhance community resilience. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been widely accepted in public health research as an approach to develop…

  5. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

    2007-01-01

    Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa. PMID:17784963

  6. Using Participatory Methods and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Prepare for an HIV Community-Based Trial in Vulindlela, South Africa (Project Accept-HPTN 043)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirowodza, Admire; van Rooyen, Heidi; Joseph, Philip; Sikotoyi, Sindisiwe; Richter, Linda; Coates, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Recent attempts to integrate geographic information systems (GIS) and participatory techniques, have given rise to terminologies such as "participatory GIS" and "community-integrated GIS". Although GIS was initially developed for physical geographic application, it can be used for the management and analysis of health and health care data.…

  7. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Groat, Michael; Forrest, Stephanie; Horey, James L; Edwards, Benjamin; He, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share local and personal data with others to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy is an important consideration, and lack of privacy could discourage widespread adoption of many exciting applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme for multidimensional data which uses negative surveys. Multidimensional data, such as vectors of attributes that include location and environment fields, pose a particular challenge for privacy protection and are common in participatory sensing applications. When reporting data in a negative survey, an individual participant randomly selects a value from the set complement of the sensed data value, once for each dimension, and returns the negative values to a central collection server. Using algorithms described in this paper, the server can reconstruct the probability density functions of the original distributions of sensed values, without knowing the participants actual data. As a consequence, complicated encryption and key management schemes are avoided, conserving energy. We study trade-offs between accuracy and privacy, and their relationships to the number of dimensions, categories, and participants. We introduce dimensional adjustment, a method that reduces the magnification of error associated with earlier work. Two simulation scenarios illustrate how the approach can protect the privacy of a participant's multidimensional data while allowing useful population information to be aggregated.

  8. Participatory Citizenship in the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, JoAnn C.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Student Advisory Council which was established to address the problems of the Cottage Lane Elementary School (Blauvelt, New York) and its students. Contends that through this participatory activity, students are learning how to solve public problems. (SLM)

  9. Getting Involved: Communication for Participatory Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ad

    1992-01-01

    Communication activities in participatory development programs include (1) theater for development in Africa; (2) workshops on cultural identity and politics in Colombia; and (3) Project DELSILIFE, improving the quality of life in Manila. (SK)

  10. A Vygotskian Perspective on Youth Participatory Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Applies Lev Vygotsky's concept of developmental learning to youth-led evaluation projects and discusses the role of participatory evaluation in supporting youth to move beyond socially determined roles to become active participants in evaluation and their own growth. (SLD)

  11. RESEARCH: Theory in Practice: Applying Participatory Democracy Theory to Public Land Planning

    PubMed

    Moote; Mcclaran; Chickering

    1997-11-01

    / Application of participatory democracy theory to public participation in public land planning, while widely advocated, has not been closely examined. A case study is used here to explicate the application of participatory democracy concepts to public participation in public land planning and decision making. In this case, a Bureau of Land Management resource area manager decided to make a significant shift from the traditional public involvement process to a more participatory method-coordinated resource management (CRM). This case was assessed using document analysis, direct observation of CRM meetings, questionnaires, and interviews of key participants. These sources were used to examine the CRM case using participatory democracy concepts of efficacy, access and representation, continuous participation throughout planning, information exchange and learning, and decision-making authority. The case study suggests that social deliberation in itself does not ensure successful collaboration and that establishing rules of operation and decision making within the group is critical. Furthermore, conflicts between the concept of shared decision-making authority and the public land management agencies' accountability to Congress, the President, and the courts need further consideration.KEY WORDS: Case study; Coordinated resource management; Public participation; Administrative discretion; Representation; Consensus; Collaboration PMID:9336486

  12. A functional-dynamic reflection on participatory processes in modeling projects.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Roman

    2015-12-01

    The participation of nonscientists in modeling projects/studies is increasingly employed to fulfill different functions. However, it is not well investigated if and how explicitly these functions and the dynamics of a participatory process are reflected by modeling projects in particular. In this review study, I explore participatory modeling projects from a functional-dynamic process perspective. The main differences among projects relate to the functions of participation-most often, more than one per project can be identified, along with the degree of explicit reflection (i.e., awareness and anticipation) on the dynamic process perspective. Moreover, two main approaches are revealed: participatory modeling covering diverse approaches and companion modeling. It becomes apparent that the degree of reflection on the participatory process itself is not always explicit and perfectly visible in the descriptions of the modeling projects. Thus, the use of common protocols or templates is discussed to facilitate project planning, as well as the publication of project results. A generic template may help, not in providing details of a project or model development, but in explicitly reflecting on the participatory process. It can serve to systematize the particular project's approach to stakeholder collaboration, and thus quality management. PMID:25999270

  13. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  14. Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

  15. Participatory Learning in Residential Weekends: Benefit or Barrier to Learning for the International Student?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Fiona; Forster, Gillian; Powell, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The context for this research is a residential learning weekend which is embedded into all postgraduate programmes at Newcastle Business School via a management development module entitled "Developing Self". The objective of this study was to identify and explore how participatory learning in multicultural groups enables international…

  16. "Stop Photoshopping!": A Visual Participatory Inquiry into Students' Responses to a Body Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura; Simon, Mara; Marttinen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    In today's school climate of accountability, researchers in Physical Education (PE) pedagogy have contested current fitness curricula that aim to manage, control, and normalize young people's bodies. This participatory visual research incorporated a Body Curriculum into a fitness unit in a secondary school (a) to assist young people critically…

  17. Post-Its and Priorities: A Participatory Exercise for Understanding Perspectives of Diverse Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChance, James; Hunter, Mitch; Finney, Denise

    2015-01-01

    We describe a participatory co-learning exercise that can help elucidate and navigate the unique perspectives of farmers, researchers, Extension personnel, and other agricultural professionals engaged in managing complex systems. We developed the exercise to help a diverse advisory panel collaboratively identify and prioritize ecosystem services…

  18. Promoting participatory research by family physicians.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Ann C

    2007-01-01

    In the past, researchers have inadvertently caused stigmatization of various populations, first by not involving community members and then through publishing negative findings. In contrast, participatory research, which is based on a partnership between researchers and those affected by the issue being studied, promotes the voice of those being researched. This essay highlights key principles, processes, complexities, and challenges of participatory research and outlines when participatory research is not appropriate. It also reflects on the training and skills of family physicians that make them especially suited to participatory research. Family physicians have established clinical partnerships with their patients and sometimes entire communities, are trained in patient-centered care-a good basis for community centered research-and are accustomed to working with uncertainty. In addition, they are frequently pragmatic, interested in questions arising from their patients and communities, and likely to respond well to community requests. The main challenges to participatory research are lack of funding, expertise, and time, which may improve as more funding agencies and universities support this approach to research. PMID:18025494

  19. Mobile Phone Based Participatory Sensing in Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.; Böhlen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Although many observations in the hydrologic sciences are easy to obtain, requiring very little training or equipment, spatial and temporally-distributed data collection is hindered by associated personnel and telemetry costs. Lack of data increases the uncertainty and can limit applications of both field and modeling studies. However, modern society is much more digitally connected than the past, which presents new opportunities to collect real-time hydrologic data through the use of participatory sensing. Participatory sensing in this usage refers to citizens contributing distributed observations of physical phenomena. Real-time data streams are possible as a direct result of the growth of mobile phone networks and high adoption rates of mobile users. In this research, we describe an example of the development, methodology, barriers to entry, data uncertainty, and results of mobile phone based participatory sensing applied to groundwater and surface water characterization. Results are presented from three participatory sensing experiments that focused on stream stage, surface water temperature, and water quality. Results demonstrate variability in the consistency and reliability across the type of data collected and the challenges of collecting research grade data. These studies also point to needed improvements and future developments for widespread use of low cost techniques for participatory sensing.

  20. Reverse auction results for implementation of decentralized retrofit best management practices in a small urban watershed (Cincinnati OH)Participatory storm water management and sustainability – what are the connections?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, and there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens and r...

  1. Four challenges in selecting and implementing methods to monitor and evaluate participatory processes: Example from the Rwenzori region, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Ducrot, Raphaëlle; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Anne Daniell, Katherine; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-09-15

    Participatory approaches are now increasingly recognized and used as an essential element of policies and programs, especially in regards to natural resource management (NRM). Most practitioners, decision-makers and researchers having adopted participatory approaches also acknowledge the need to monitor and evaluate such approaches in order to audit their effectiveness, support decision-making or improve learning. Many manuals and frameworks exist on how to carry out monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for participatory processes. However, few provide guidelines on the selection and implementation of M&E methods, an aspect which is also often obscure in published studies, at the expense of the transparency, reliability and validity of the study. In this paper, we argue that the selection and implementation of M&E methods are particularly strategic when monitoring and evaluating a participatory process. We demonstrate that evaluators of participatory processes have to tackle a quadruple challenge when selecting and implementing methods: using mixed-methods, both qualitative and quantitative; assessing the participatory process, its outcomes, and its context; taking into account both the theory and participants' views; and being both rigorous and adaptive. The M&E of a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori Region, Uganda, is used as an example to show how these challenges unfold on the ground and how they can be tackled. Based on this example, we conclude by providing tools and strategies that can be used by evaluators to ensure that they make utile, feasible, coherent, transparent and adaptive methodological choices when monitoring and evaluating participatory processes for NRM. PMID:27288554

  2. Moving interdisciplinary science forward: integrating participatory modelling with mathematical modelling of zoonotic disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Grant, Catherine; Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Bett, Bernard; Winnebah, Thomas R A; Atkinson, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines the benefits of using multiple approaches to improve model design and facilitate multidisciplinary research into infectious diseases, as well as showing and proposing practical examples of effective integration. It looks particularly at the benefits of using participatory research in conjunction with traditional modelling methods to potentially improve disease research, control and management. Integrated approaches can lead to more realistic mathematical models which in turn can assist with making policy decisions that reduce disease and benefit local people. The emergence, risk, spread and control of diseases are affected by many complex bio-physical, environmental and socio-economic factors. These include climate and environmental change, land-use variation, changes in population and people's behaviour. The evidence base for this scoping review comes from the work of a consortium, with the aim of integrating modelling approaches traditionally used in epidemiological, ecological and development research. A total of five examples of the impacts of participatory research on the choice of model structure are presented. Example 1 focused on using participatory research as a tool to structure a model. Example 2 looks at identifying the most relevant parameters of the system. Example 3 concentrates on identifying the most relevant regime of the system (e.g., temporal stability or otherwise), Example 4 examines the feedbacks from mathematical models to guide participatory research and Example 5 goes beyond the so-far described two-way interplay between participatory and mathematical approaches to look at the integration of multiple methods and frameworks. This scoping review describes examples of best practice in the use of participatory methods, illustrating their potential to overcome disciplinary hurdles and promote multidisciplinary collaboration, with the aim of making models and their predictions more useful for decision-making and policy

  3. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  4. Teaching Writing: A Multilayered Participatory Scaffolding Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to the research on teachers' writing pedagogy. It reviews and challenges the research literature on scaffolding as an instructional practice and presents a more inclusive framework for analysis. As student participation and voice were absent from much of the literature, a participatory scaffolding framework was developed to…

  5. Using Participatory Photo Novels to Teach Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Kallol

    2012-01-01

    Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…

  6. Traditional Planetarium Programming versus Participatory Planetarium Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that, for the astronomical concepts used, no significant difference in the cognitive domain will occur between the achievement of students who experience a participatory planetarium program and students who experience a traditional lecture-demonstration program. (Author/MK)

  7. Using Participatory Action Research to Address Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.

    2014-01-01

    Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…

  8. Can Public Education Coexist with Participatory Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,…

  9. 24 CFR 700.140 - Participatory agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Participatory agreement. 700.140 Section 700.140 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HOUSING ASSISTANCE...

  10. Meanings and Mess in Collaborative Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Eleri

    2015-01-01

    Participatory research can be seen as providing affordances for "listening" to student voices. This study contributes to the debate around its affordances in ameliorating democratic processes in schools. Students in a northern city secondary school in England used multimodal methods to research questions based on "where do students…

  11. Principled Challenges for a Participatory Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The ideals that are central to action research are not often explicitly addressed in writing about action research and participation. This article argues for a more explicit dialogue about the ideals of participation and how those ideals relate to participatory practices. The lack of such a dialogue can obscure both the process of participation…

  12. Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Given their positions in communities across the United States, Extension educators are poised to have meaningful partnerships with the communities they serve. This article presents a case for the use of participatory research, which is a departure from more conventional forms of research based on objectivity, researcher distance, and social…

  13. Participatory Pedagogy: A Compass for Transformative Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola; Barnard, Michelle; Fennema, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In the Fall 2009 term, we participated as students and instructor in a graduate education course modeled after participatory pedagogy. Siemens (2008) defines this approach as "one that does not fully define all curricular needs in advance of interacting with learners...Multiple perspectives, opinions, and active creation on the part of…

  14. Productive Tensions in Youth Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) brings young people together with adult researchers to identify, study, and act on relevant social problems. In this chapter, the author draws on examples from a recent YPAR project, called Tracing Transitions, whose aim was to study the impact of school closure on students. After defining YPAR in terms…

  15. Participatory Action Research: A View from Xerox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…

  16. A participatory approach to sanitation: experience of Bangladeshi NGOs.

    PubMed

    Hadi, A

    2000-09-01

    This study assesses the role of participatory development programmes in improving sanitation in rural Bangladesh. Data for this study came from a health surveillance system of BRAC covering 70 villages in 10 regions of the country. In-depth interviews were conducted with one adult member of a total of 1556 randomly selected households that provided basic socioeconomic information on the households and their involvement with NGO-led development programmes in the community. The findings reveal that households involved with credit programmes were more likely to use safe latrines than others who were equally poor but not involved in such programmes. The study indicates that an unmet need to build or buy safe and hygienic latrines existed among those who did not own one. Such latent need could be raised further if health education at the grassroots level along with supervised credit supports were provided to them. Unlike conventional belief, the concept of community-managed jointly owned latrines did not seem a very attractive alternative. The study argues that social and behavioural aspects of the participatory development programmes can significantly improve environmental sanitation in a traditional community. PMID:11012409

  17. The value and limitations of Participatory Action Research methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, John; Tan, Poh-Ling; Hoverman, Suzanne; Baldwin, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThis article describes the Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology used to trial and evaluate a suite of planning tools to improve the engagement process for statutory water planning in Australia, and assesses its value and limitations in the Australian context. We argue that the strength of this method is its consistency with a social learning and adaptive management approach. We owe the success of this research approach to five key factors: a high degree of access to the project setting; clear demarcation of roles and responsibilities between researchers and participants; considerable effort spent building and maintaining informal networks and relationships; sensitivity to the relationship between 'insiders' (the participants or owners of the issue i.e. government and community) and 'outsiders' (the research project team); and continual review of project planning and willingness to adapt timeframes and processes to suit the situation. The value and challenges of Participatory Action Research are discussed with key lessons emerging for improving its practice, as well as the transferability of this knowledge to engagement practice for water planning.

  18. Scenario workshops: A useful method for participatory water resources planning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzilacou, Dionyssia; Kallis, Giorgos; Mexa, Alexandra; Coccosis, Harris; Svoronou, Eleni

    2007-06-01

    This article reports on a scenario workshop (SW) for water resources management at the island of Naxos, Greece. The workshop was part of a European research project studying the advantages and limitations of different participatory methods in the context of the Water Framework Directive. It involved policy makers, scientists, business representatives, and citizens from different parts of the island. On the first day, participants worked to envision a sustainable development future for the island and its water resources. Discussion was inspired by four alternative water development scenarios prepared by the organizers. Participants' vision statements emphasized a diversified development path and balanced water solutions. On the second day, participants worked to plan the actions needed to realize their common vision. The SW turned out to be a good method to initiate a multipartner dialogue, to include new stakeholders in the water policy debate, and to a certain extent, to promote learning between participants. On the other hand, it did not appear well suited to resolve conflicts and aid decisions in the face of scientific complexity and uncertainty. SW seems to be a good method for the "upstream," preparatory, capacity-building tasks of a planning process but not for the production of substantive decision outputs such as consensual agreements or action plans. The Naxos experiment also raised the centrality of framing, participant selection, and facilitation in participatory processes.

  19. Measuring participatory strategies: instrument development for worksite populations.

    PubMed

    Linnan, L A; Fava, J L; Thompson, B; Emmons, K; Basen-Engquist, K; Probart, C; Hunt, M K; Heimendinger, J

    1999-06-01

    A participatory strategies approach which involves employees in the planning and delivery of worksite health promotion programs was utilized in the 55 experimental worksites included in the national, NCI-funded Working Well Trial. According to study protocol, Employee Advisory Boards (EABs) were organized in each experimental worksite. This paper describes two substudies designed to develop and measure participatory strategies associated with the EABs in the Working Well Trial. Study 1 determined characteristics of the EABs, developed subscales and assessed the internal consistency of the scales. Study 2 used a confirmatory factor analysis to examine the structure of the developed questionnaire. The four subscales include: Autonomy/Independence, Management Involvement, Institutionalization/Commitment and Others Involvement. Results from Study 1 indicate that the four subscales of the 24-item instrument demonstrated strong internal consistency and three were sensitive enough to register differences by Study Center at the baseline. Study 2 results found that the EAB subscales again demonstrated good internal consistency, structural stability and acceptable sensitivity. An initial validity analysis was performed and yielded results which supported some but not all of the hypothesized associations. Implications for further refinement and application of this new instrument in worksite settings are explored. PMID:10539228

  20. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st

  1. Introduction of Participatory Conservation in Croatia, Residents' Perceptions: A Case Study from the Istrian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  2. Participatory research methods: people with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Richardson, M

    The use of participatory research methods as a means of empowering disadvantaged and oppressed groups or individuals has attracted increasing interest in recent years. This article critically examines the use of such methods to empower people with learning difficulties as co-researchers. Emancipatory research would, by definition, be led and processed by people with learning difficulties. For the time being, however, the possibility of engaging people with learning difficulties in truly emancipatory nursing research is regarded as highly problematic, since it assumes empowerment as a precondition. As a step towards emancipatory research, participatory research represents a radical shift in the research process. It may potentially strengthen the voice of people with learning difficulties and enable them to express their views on nursing. The author proposes a methodology which addresses a number of critical issues facing the nurse researcher. It is a step towards developing more liberating and emancipatory methodologies. PMID:9392243

  3. Investigating Geosparql Requirements for Participatory Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.

    2015-06-01

    We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.

  4. Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others

  5. 78 FR 13868 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... catch (ABC) risk policy for New England fisheries through structured and participatory discussions. It... opportunity for communications between participants about management and science issues that relate to the...

  6. Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

    2014-05-01

    The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction/Management

  7. Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a

  8. Popular Theatre: A Technique for Participatory Research. Participatory Research Project. Working Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Ross; Byram, Martin

    Popular theatre that speaks to the common man in his own language and deals with directly relevant problems can be an effective adult education tool in the process Paulo Freire calls conscientization--a process aiming to radically transform social reality and improve people's lives. It can also serve as a medium for participatory research. Popular…

  9. Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly? Participatory Research in Development. Participatory Research Network Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd, Ed.; And Others

    This book, consisting of 13 papers, deals with the theory, practice, and reactions to participatory research in the area of social research for development. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Breaking the Monopoly of Knowledge: Research Methods, Participation, and Development," by Budd Hall; "Creating Alternative Research Methods:…

  10. Participatory Research: An Emerging Alternative Methodology in Social Science Research. Participatory Research Network Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam, Yusuf, Ed.; Mustafa, Kemal, Ed.

    This book, consisting of a series of discussion papers and case studies, is a compilation of the papers presented at a region 1 workshop on participatory research in Africa. Included in the volume are the following discussion papers: "The Concept of Development in the Social Sciences," by Kemal Mustafa and Deborah Bryceson; "The Politics of…

  11. Care and Concern: An Ethical Journey in Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Carol A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the four basic principles of an ethical framework as outlined by the Code of Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans in light of the requirements of a participatory action research approach. Discusses the ethics of participatory action research in regard to care and concern. Argues that the ethics of morality and justice are…

  12. Participatory Research: New Approaches to the Research to Practice Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…

  13. Reinvigorating Multicultural Education through Youth Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Jason G.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and outcomes…

  14. Teachers' Stories: Expanding the Boundaries with the Participatory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Lee; And Others

    Compiled by a group of teachers new to the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) field, this volume contains writing samples from teachers involved in the participatory approach to ESL classroom instruction. Introductory notes by Lee Hewitt cite the participatory approach as the most compelling method for teaching ESL adult learners. The "teaching…

  15. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  16. Popular Theatre and Participatory Research. Bosele Tshwaraganang Publications No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraai, Ziki; And Others

    The use of popular theatre to overcome community development problems in underdeveloped countries through adult education is introduced and its relationship to the concept of participatory research is explored. Material is arranged in four sections. The first of these presents an introduction to popular theatre and participatory research. Stemming…

  17. The Challenges of Participatory Research with "Tech-Savvy" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallan, Kerry Margaret; Singh, Parlo; Giardina, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on participatory research and how it can be understood and employed when researching children and youth. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretically and empirically grounded discussion of participatory research methodologies with respect to investigating the dynamic and evolving phenomenon of young people growing up in…

  18. Two explanations of nurse practitioner interactions and participatory decision making with physicians.

    PubMed

    Lamb, G S

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model that integrated two explanations of nurse practitioner interaction and participatory decision making with physicians. The two explanations were derived from technology theory and social exchange theory. Nurse practitioners (N = 38) responded to a four-scale magnitude estimation instrument measuring each of four concepts in the model: complexity, expected benefit-cost ratio of interaction, interaction, and participatory decision making. Predictions derived from both theories were supported. Nurse practitioner decisions about interaction with physicians were influenced by the dynamics of social exchange with physicians, as well as the technological requirements of primary care. The findings offer nurse practitioners new strategies for managing professional exchanges on behalf of their patients. PMID:1909808

  19. Participatory planning in river catchments, an innovative toolkit tested in Southern Africa and North West England.

    PubMed

    Tippett, J

    2005-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) offers an unparalleled opportunity for improving river basin management. Active participation is essential for its delivery. "End-of-pipe" solutions will not deliver the improvements needed to achieve its ambitious goals. This research tested DesignWays, a toolkit for participatory planning, as a mechanism for maximizing the long-term social and environmental benefits of such stakeholder and community participation. It examined the emerging role of "planning for sustainability" in the context of river catchments. Sustainable management of water requires integration, and recognition of interconnections between systems at different levels of scale. This is an endeavour in which systems thinking provides useful tools. The development of DesignWays was a conscious attempt to embed 'new paradigm' living systems metaphors into a practical planning tool. This paper begins with a description of DesignWays and its development in Southern Africa. An outline of the context of the action research in North-West England is followed by a description of the stages of the process, with highlights of the outcomes. This research had two major outcomes: a contribution to theory through an in-depth exploration of the theoretical basis of participatory, ecologically informed design; and a contribution to practice through investigating DesignWays' potential to meet key challenges of the WFD. This research points to the importance of understanding participatory planning as a societal process, aiming to make the process engaging and meaningful. It has pointed to the need to see participatory planning and education for sustainability as an integrated process. It demonstrated the benefits of an iterative process in which planning at the landscape level of scale informs, and is informed by, work at the site level. It has shown that an approach consistent with a living systems paradigm can contribute to the development of more integrated

  20. Peer Education: Participatory Qualitative Educational Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    DJALALINIA, Shirin; RAMEZANI TEHRANI, Fahimeh; MALEKAFZALI, Hossein; PEYKARI, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Methods Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. Results The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. Conclusion The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers. PMID:26060644

  1. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  2. A Review of Herbal Medicine in Iranian Traditional Manuscripts for Treatment of Participatory Gastric Headache

    PubMed Central

    Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Hamedi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Participatory gastric headache is a type of headache described in Iranian traditional medicine. It is defined as a headache not originated from the head and neck disorders; rather the pain in the head is caused by gastric dysfunction and its disorders. Treatment of this type of headache is completely reliant on the treatment of the gastric complaint. Reviewing Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) literature, a broad spectrum of herbal medicines that could be useful in the treatment of this type of headache is described. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the therapeutic management of this disorder in ITM and evaluating related characteristics of each medicinal herb. Methods: In this study, medicinal plants prescribed for gastric headache from different ancient Iranian literature is documented. The botanical name, family name, part used, temperaments, rout of administration and dosage forms are provided in this article. Results: About 40 plants, mainly used orally, were prescribed for the treatment of participatory gastric headache. Most of them have the astringent effect, which is related to their dryness temperament. Therefore, they could strengthen the stomach and prevent ascending vapors into the brain that in turn helps to get relief from headache. In addition, they possess reinforcement effect on the brain. Conclusion: In general, herbal medicines with tonic characteristics could be effective in participatory gastric headache. PMID:27516651

  3. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. PMID:26251479

  4. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems

  5. Improving hazard communication through collaborative participatory workshops: challenges and opportunities experienced at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for

  6. Using participatory methods to examine policy and women prisoners' health.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Diane C; Fisher, Anastasia A

    2011-05-01

    This article describes how community-based participatory research (CBPR) led to the discovery of the unintended consequences of jail and prison copayment policy on women prisoners' health. The article addresses (a) a working definition of participatory research; (b) the importance of research with women prisoners; (c) the origins and development of our work and its grounding in CBPR; (d) issues related to research with prisoners; and (e) recommendations for using participatory methods to bring women prisoners into the discourse about the practices and policies that impact their lives. These methods have the potential to minimize the invisibility of prisoners and their health disparities. PMID:21903718

  7. A participatory modelling approach to developing a numerical sediment dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas; McEwen, Lindsey; Parker, Chris; Staddon, Chad

    2016-04-01

    Fluvial geomorphology is recognised as an important consideration in policy and legislation in the management of river catchments. Despite this recognition, limited knowledge exchange occurs between scientific researchers and river management practitioners. An example of this can be found within the limited uptake of numerical models of sediment dynamics by river management practitioners in the United Kingdom. The uptake of these models amongst the applied community is important as they have the potential to articulate how, at the catchment-scale, the impacts of management strategies of land-use change affect sediment dynamics and resulting channel quality. This paper describes and evaluates a new approach which involves river management stakeholders in an iterative and reflexive participatory modelling process. The aim of this approach was to create an environment for knowledge exchange between the stakeholders and the research team in the process of co-constructing a model. This process adopted a multiple case study approach, involving four groups of river catchment stakeholders in the United Kingdom. These stakeholder groups were involved in several stages of the participatory modelling process including: requirements analysis, model design, model development, and model evaluation. Stakeholders have provided input into a number of aspects of the modelling process, such as: data requirements, user interface, modelled processes, model assumptions, model applications, and model outputs. This paper will reflect on this process, in particular: the innovative methods used, data generated, and lessons learnt.

  8. [Participatory research : Meaning, concept, objectives and methods].

    PubMed

    Brütt, Anna Levke; Buschmann-Steinhage, Rolf; Kirschning, Silke; Wegscheider, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Shaping one's own life and feeling equal in society is an essential aspect of participation. Based on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Social Security Code IX and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), participation is relevant for the German health system. The cross-sectional discipline of participation research investigates conditions for self-determined and equal participation in society. Research results can reinforce and promote the participation of humans with disabilities. Participation research uses established quantitative and qualitative approaches. Moreover, participatory research is a relevant approach that demands involving persons with disabilities in decisions in the research process. In the future, it will be important to concentrate findings and to connect researchers. The participation research action alliance (Aktionsbündnis Teilhabeforschung), which was established in 2015, aims to make funding accessible as well as strengthen and profile participation research. PMID:27503496

  9. Participatory Games: Experiential learning to bridge disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.

    2014-12-01

    While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.

  10. Participatory ergonomic improvement in nursing home.

    PubMed

    Udo, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Mikio; Udo, Akihiro; Branlund, Ben

    2006-01-01

    The number of nursing home has increased largely in Japan since 1990. The Long-term Care Insurance in 2000 has accelerated the increase of nursing homes. The care giving and cooking in nursing homes have high risk factors of muscle-skeletal diseases (MSDs). However, the working conditions have not yet been improved. Thus, the incidence of low back pain and cervico-brachial disorder is very high among the care workers and cooks. Therefore, it is important to prevent the MSDs among the care workers and cooks. This study has been conducted to make a model of the participatory improvement focusing on low back pain in a nursing home for three years. As a result of the study, many improvements have been implemented and the incidence of low back pain has been reduced. PMID:16610548

  11. La Investigacion Participativa en America Latina: Retablo de Papel, 10 (Participatory Research in Latin America: Series, 10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.

    The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory Research"; "The Researcher and the…

  12. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work. PMID:25665213

  13. Introduction to the Special Series on Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Sook; Meyer, Luanna; Goetz, Lori

    1998-01-01

    This introductory article discusses the benefits of participatory action research (PAR), including the empowerment of participants in research and the research process, the difficulties PAR presents, and summarizes following articles in a special series on the facets of PAR. (CR)

  14. Community Intervention Development Using Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition needs assessment and program planning requires involvement of community members in order to yield programs that address local priorities. The Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) approach emphasizes direct, active participation of community members in assessment, plan...

  15. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  16. Participatory rural appraisal in smallholder dairy systems in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Rekhis, J; Saaidane, F; Laamouri, M; Ben Hamida, K; Mabrouk, W; Slimane, N

    2007-12-01

    Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out by a multidisciplinary team on a total of 60 smallholder dairy farms in three different geographical areas of Tunisia. Farms with less than three cows were excluded. Those participating had between three and 10 cows. Average milk production ranged between 8 and 32 litres per cow per day. 70% or over of milk produced was sold off the farms. Average intercalving intervals--measured from month of calving only--ranged from 12.9 months to 19. Age at first calving varied from two to nearly three years. Most work was done by the families. PRA revealed that the farmers in all three regions perceived unbalanced nutrition, which included availability of forages, to be the most important constraint, followed by poor reproductive efficiency. Reseeding with new species was instituted for grazing and hay. Farmers from the different regions were taken on exchange visits to see how these approaches worked. Training in reproductive management and milking hygiene was introduced. Seasonal ration formulation depending on local forage analysis was instituted. Two farms are participating in a programme of evaluation of olive oil extraction by-product as a ruminant feed. Partial budget analysis of these interventions will be carried out. PMID:18265871

  17. Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety: A Farm and Research Team Participatory Model.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Kit; Krenz, Jen; Harrington, Marcy; Palmández, Pablo; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and evaluate solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were (1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and (2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded in self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five criteria: practicality, adaptability, health and safety, novelty, and regulatory compliance. Research activities that had more personal contact provided better outcomes. The Expert Working Group, composed of farm managers and pesticide handlers, was key to the identification of solutions, as were farm site visits. Audience participation, hands-on testing, and orchard field trials were particularly effective in the evaluation of potential solutions. Small work groups in a Regional Advisory Committee provided the best direction and guidance for a "user-friendly" translational document that provided evidence-based practical solutions. The "farmer to farmer" format of the guide was endorsed by both the Expert Working Group and the Regional Advisory Committee. Managers and pesticide handlers wanted to share their solutions in order to "help others stay safe," and they appreciated attribution in the guide. The guide is now being used in educational programs across the region. The fundamental concept that farmers and farmworkers are innovators and experts in agricultural production was affirmed by this study. The success of this process demonstrates the value of participatory industrial hygiene in agriculture. PMID:26488540

  18. Participatory development and implementation of a community research workshop: Experiences from a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...

  19. Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved

  20. Workplace Participatory Occupational Health/Health Promotion Program: Facilitators and Barriers Observed in Three Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; Kotejoshyer, Rajashree; Fleishman, Jane; Henning, Robert; Punnett, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Nursing home employees experience high physical and psychosocial workloads, resulting in poor health outcomes. An occupational health/health promotion program, designed to facilitate employee participation, was initiated in three nursing homes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate facilitators and barriers of the program after 3-year implementation. Focus groups with employees and in-depth interviews with top and middle managers were conducted. The Social Ecological Model was used to organize the evaluation. Facilitators and barriers were reported from both managers' and employees' perspectives, and were categorized as intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and corporate level. Management support, financial resources, and release time for participation were identified as the three most important factors. Supports from multiple levels including both human and environment, and managers and employees, are important for a successful participatory occupational health/health promotion program. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 34-42.]. PMID:26977705

  1. Use of Q Methodology to Analyze Divergent Perspectives on Participatory Action Research as a Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Caribbean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Keiko; Tiffany, Jennifer; Pelto, Gretel; Pelletier, David

    2008-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to examine perspectives regarding participatory action research (PAR) among participants in a UNICEF initiative aimed at enhancing HIV/AIDS prevention among youth in the Caribbean. We interviewed 20 youth PAR researchers and 12 project managers from youth organizations about their attitudes and experiences. Statements…

  2. Participatory Gis: Experimentations for a 3d Social Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-08-01

    The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.

  3. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain. PMID:25884891

  4. Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  5. Awareness and learning in participatory noise sensing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D P; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  6. Weighing the evidence: Risks and benefits of participatory documentary in corporatized clinics

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic’s shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on “evidence based” treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends. PMID:23932854

  7. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  8. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2015-10-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  9. Weighing the evidence: risks and benefits of participatory documentary in corporatized clinics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Helena

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic's shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on "evidence based" treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends. PMID:23932854

  10. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. PMID:27475055

  11. A participatory approach to healing and transformation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morkel, Elize

    2011-12-01

    In this article I describe my personal journey from working as private practitioner to participating in the wider South African society. Post-apartheid South African society struggles with overwhelming problems related to poverty, illness, violence, sexism, and racism. Moreover, in those communities where the trauma is most severe, professional resources are scarce. I propose a participatory approach which invites therapists to respond to these socio-economic and political challenges and the problems that arise from them by thinking and acting outside the constraints of their consultation rooms and of traditional therapeutic conversations, into active participation in ways that might support healing and social transformation. I use two examples to illustrate and discuss the participatory approach with which I have engaged for over 10 years. The illustrative examples show how a participatory approach can create ripples that impact communities in healing and transformative ways. PMID:22145721

  12. [An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cristina; Torres, Yisel; Cruz, Ana Margarita de la; Alvarez, Angel M; Piquero, María Eugenia; Valero, Aida; Fuentes, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process. PMID:19287867

  13. Integrating Participatory Action Research and GIS Education: Negotiating Methodologies, Politics and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…

  14. Making Games after School: Participatory Game Design in Non-Formal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kevin; Brandt, Jami; Hopkins, Rhonda; Wilhelm, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Participatory design principles were used with primarily African-American and Latino children in the Washington, DC area in the development of sports-themed digital game prototypes in an after-school program. The three stages in participatory design are the discovery stage, the evaluative stage, and prototyping. Within the participatory design…

  15. Images and the Ethics of Inclusion and Exclusion: Learning through Participatory Photography in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Ian; Miles, Susie; Howes, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Participatory research methods directly engage with the topics that they set out to address. It is therefore no surprise that participatory research practice on the topic of educational inclusion and exclusion raises ethical issues for the participatory researcher that are themselves about inclusion and exclusion. This paper describes and analyses…

  16. Theory Building through Praxis Discourse: A Theory- and Practice-Informed Model of Transformative Participatory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnar, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…

  17. Assessing Vital Signs: Applying Two Participatory Evaluation Frameworks to the Evaluation of a College of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…

  18. Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together

  19. Management Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Ivan D.

    Management systems have been adapted for educational administration in response to the need for quality of educational opportunity, collective bargaining, school district consolidation, decreasing enrollments, accountability laws, limited financial resources, and participatory decision-making. Management systems adapted, not adopted, from business…

  20. Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this course challenges traditional research by introducing a collaborative process meant to encourage increased participation by special populations, and narrow the parity gap in effective mental health treatment and services delivery. PMID:20186257

  1. Enhancing Privacy in Participatory Sensing Applications with Multidimensional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephanie; He, Wenbo; Groat, Michael; Edwards, Benjamin; Horey, James L

    2013-01-01

    Participatory sensing applications rely on individuals to share personal data to produce aggregated models and knowledge. In this setting, privacy concerns can discourage widespread adoption of new applications. We present a privacy-preserving participatory sensing scheme based on negative surveys for both continuous and multivariate categorical data. Without relying on encryption, our algorithms enhance the privacy of sensed data in an energy and computation efficient manner. Simulations and implementation on Android smart phones illustrate how multidimensional data can be aggregated in a useful and privacy-enhancing manner.

  2. Participatory Development Strategies for Open Source Content Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panke, Stefanie; Kohls, Christian; Gaiser, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    Stefanie Panke, Christian Kohls, and Birgit Gaiser maintain that effective strategies for the development of educational technology can only arise when the process is understood, analyzed, and assessed as a social phenomenon, and when the experience of users is integrated within the design process. To illustrate, they describe the early…

  3. Researching Photographic Participatory Inquiry in an E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grushka, Kathryn Meyer; Bellette, Aaron; Holbrook, Allyson

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Photographic Participatory Inquiry (PPI) in researching the teaching and learning of photography in the e-learning environment. It is an arts-informed method drawing on digital tools to capture collective information as digital artefacts, which can then be accessed and harnessed to build critical and reflective…

  4. Participatory Learning Theories: A Framework for Early Childhood Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…

  5. "Picturing" Lay Ministry: Photovoice and Participatory Group Spiritual Gifts Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefz, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The "Picturing Lay Ministry" project uses the visual methodology of photovoice as a way of generating participatory laity discernment around the topics of calling, rural ministry, and spiritual gifts. The project involves working with curriculum action research embedded within one-day ministry discernment events for laity. Measurement…

  6. Participatory Strategies, Facilitators and Community Development in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Roberto Diego

    2004-01-01

    During the 80s and 90s in Mexico there was a boost in participatory strategies developed, in order to solve serious deficiencies in community development programmes and projects. The mere existence of such methodologies, "per se," does not guarantee the conscious and voluntary participation of rural inhabitants. The social energy mobilisation of…

  7. Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2012-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions…

  8. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  9. Participatory Action Research: Practical Theology for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at participatory action research (PAR) as a means for a religious educator to unite scholarship and teaching with the purpose of building up community and moving toward social justice. A definition of this term is offered as well as short examples of how different religious educators have engaged in doing PAR in their respective…

  10. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  11. Participatory Culture Gets Schooled: Reflections on a Digital Literacies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, JuliAnna

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a course description of a Digital Literacies class offered to both undergraduate and graduate students at an American university. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the pedagogical bones of this course, drawing upon theories of learning in a participatory culture, including a discussion of how, and where, the course fell…

  12. Community Writing, Participatory Research, and an Anthropological Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Janise

    2008-01-01

    Participatory research is a radical praxis through which marginalized people acquire research capabilities that they use to transform their own lives. In this article, I examine how parent writers incorporated facets of community writing into their research practice as they developed their practices and identities as researchers. I also consider…

  13. Rethinking Gaps: Literacies and Languages in Participatory Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocson, Korina; Rosa, Jonathan; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2015-01-01

    Growing efforts in the study of digital literacies push for continued (re)shaping of policy and pedagogical interventions. In this column, we take up concerns in participatory cultures to revisit a longstanding issue pertaining to language. Evident in the literature on digital literacies is an implicit treatment of language, particularly around…

  14. Collaborative Language Learning in Co-Constructed Participatory Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This article expands upon themes addressed in the 2012 CALICO opening plenary that I delivered at the University of Notre Dame. This extended interpretation allows me the opportunity to further explore the nature of participatory human communication and collaboration and offer some clarification of the proposed instructional model for promoting…

  15. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  16. Participatory Video: Toward a Method, Advocacy and Voice (MAV) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitter, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    Using the new conceptual framework of participatory visual media as method, advocacy and voice (MAV), the author explores an action research study using an exemplar in which advocates from the disability community created and distributed a series of videos about love and sexuality as a critical human rights issue in the disability community. The…

  17. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  18. A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

  19. Digital Game Building: Learning in a Participatory Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…

  20. Participatory Action Research: Collective Reflections on Gender, Culture, and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Alice; Chatzopoulos, Nikolaos; Politi, Anastasia; Roz, Julieta

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is the experiences of three undergraduate students who engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project with a group of preadolescent Latina girls attending a public school in Boston, MA, USA. The aim of the 2-year project was to explore how the girls constructed knowledge about girlhood and other gender-related…

  1. Teaming from Three Perspectives: Interviews with Participatory Action Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Taking part in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project was a genuine team effort for the group of people supporting Rose, a primary school student with Asperger syndrome. The following excerpts are from interviews with some of Rose's team. This is a collaborative approach to telling the story of the team's…

  2. Participatory Photography: Can It Help Adult Learners Develop Agency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…

  3. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  4. Critical Participatory Looping: Dialogic Member Checking with Whole Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Tim; Falout, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Results from research about language learners can be strengthened by including the learners themselves in the data analysis, and inviting them to check researcher interpretations to confirm the validity of the data, to search for alternative interpretations, and to delve deeper into their beliefs. Using critical participatory looping (CPL), the…

  5. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Martin; Linde, Per

    2005-01-01

    Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic…

  6. Participatory Culture at the Echo Park Film Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Echo Park Film Center, a Los Angeles nonprofit media education organization, teaches underprivileged youth how to comprehend and make media in order to empower them to speak and be heard. Due to the organization's nonmainstream media courses and its connection to its community, the Center is able to create a participatory and socially…

  7. Participatory and Dialogue Democracy in U.S. Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhyay, Shiuli

    2009-01-01

    Teaching math to reflect values of democracy has to begin with some consideration of how democracy is conceptualized. A review of various theories of democracy conducted by Hagen (1992) provides everyone with a good starting point as it identifies three primary forms of democracy: competitive, participatory, and dialogue. In this essay, the author…

  8. Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dezhi; Bieber, Michael; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne

    2008-01-01

    The online participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning experience. Students learn from designing and answering exam questions, from evaluating their peers' performance, and from reading questions, answers and evaluations. This paper, aimed at faculty who teach online and at…

  9. Maculate Conceptions: Power, Process, and Creativity in Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael; Croll, Nora Swan; Jackson, Randall; Gratton, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Justifiably concerned about power dynamics between researchers and participants in participatory research, much of the literature proposes guidelines for including participant voices at every step of the research process. We find these guidelines insufficient for dealing with constraints set up by the social organizational structures in which…

  10. Participatory Evaluation of an Educational Game for Social Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…