Counterfactual quantuminformation transfer without transmitting any physical particles.
Guo, Qi; Cheng, LiuYong; Chen, Li; Wang, HongFu; Zhang, Shou
20150101
We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936
Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics
None
20111006
Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.
Quantum Particles From Quantum Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Görnitz, T.; Schomäcker, U.
20120801
Many problems in modern physics demonstrate that for a fundamental entity a more general conception than quantum particles or quantum fields are necessary. These concepts cannot explain the phenomena of dark energy or the mindbodyinteraction. Instead of any kind of "small elementary building bricks", the Protyposis, an abstract and absolute quantum information, free of special denotation and open for some purport, gives the solution in the search for a fundamental substance. However, as long as at least relativistic particles are not constructed from the Protyposis, such an idea would remain in the range of natural philosophy. Therefore, the construction of relativistic particles without and with rest mass from quantum information is shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rae, Alastair
20120301
Preface to the second edition; Preface to the first edition; 1. Quantum physics; 2. Which way are the photons pointing?; 3. What can be hidden in a pair of photons?; 4. Wonderful Copenhagen?; 5. Is it all in the mind?; 6. Many worlds; 7. Is it a matter of size?; 8. Backwards and forwards; 9. Only one way forward?; 10. Can we be consistent?; 11. Illusion or reality?; Further reading.
Quantum Physics for Beginners.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strand, J.
19810101
Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the threepart "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)
SelfLocalized QuasiParticle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feranchuk, Ilya D.; Feranchuk, Sergey I.
20071201
The selflocalized quasiparticle excitation of the electronpositron field (EPF) is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron) and it allows one to solve the following problems: i) to express the ''primary'' charge e0 and the mass m0 of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of e and m of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii) to consider μmeson as another selflocalized EPF state and to estimate the ratio mμ/m; iii) to prove that the selflocalized state is Lorentzinvariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass m; iv) to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge e << 1 corresponds to the strong coupling e! xpansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge e10 ~ e when the interaction between the ``physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, Necia Grant; West, Geoffrey B.
19880601
Preface; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Scale and dimension  From animals to quarks Geoffrey B. West; 2. Particle physics and the standard model Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky and Geoffrey B. West; QCD on a Cray: the masses of elementary particles Gerald Guralnik, Tony Warnock and Charles Zemach; Lecture Notes  From simple field theories to the standard model; 3. Toward a unified theory: an essay on the role of supergravity in the search for unification Richard C. Slansky; 4. Supersymmetry at 100 GeV Stuart Raby; 5. The family problem T. Goldman and Michael Martin Nieto; Part II. Experimental Developments: 6. Experiments to test unification schemes Gary H. Sanders; 7. The march toward higher energies S. Peter Rosen; LAMPF II and the HighIntensity Frontier Henry A. Thiessen; The SSC  An engineering challenge Mahlon T. Wilson; 8. Science underground  the search for rare events L. M. Simmons, Jr; Part III. Personal Perspectives: 9. Quarks and quirks among friends Peter A. Carruthers, Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky, Geoffrey B. West and George Zweig; Index.
Research in theoretical particle physics
McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.
19920501
This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and SchwingerDyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)
"Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The biannual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi loop and multileg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future highenergy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including largescale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5loop calculations in QCD and a like wise impressive development in massive nexttoleading order and nexttonexttoleading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain stateoftheart theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, I.
19960101
Discusses a teaching strategy for introducing quantum ideas into the school classroom using modern devices. Develops the concepts of quantization, waveparticle duality, nonlocality, and tunneling. (JRH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LévyLeblond, JeanMarc
19880701
A novel theory, when it appears, cannot but use old words to label new concepts. In some cases, the extension in meaning thus conferred to standard terminology is natural enough so that the transfer may not lead to too many misunderstandings. Most often, however, and especially when the conceptual gap between the old and the new theory is a wide one, a casual transfer of términology may lead to epistemological and pedagogical difficulties. This situation has been and still is particularly serious in quantum theory. Here, the careless use of words taken from classical physics  such as quantum “mechanics”, “uncertainty”, etc.  , is compounded by the uncritical use of interpretative terms linked to a definite, if implicit, philosophical point of view  such as “complementarity”, “waveparticle duality”, “observables”, etc. While these words and the ideas they represent have played a major role in the birth of quantum physics more than half a century ago, they are no longer necessarily the best ones to be used today. It is not argued here that we should start afresh and create from scratch a supposedly adequate vocabulary for quantum physics. Abuse of language certainly is unavoidable in science as it is in any human communication; without it, language would not live and evolve. But, at the very least, let us recognize it for what it is, so that it does not add its troubles to already complicated issues. And in some definite instances, still, a willing effort to replace specially ambiguous words might be worthwhile.
Statistical Physics of Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kardar, Mehran
20060601
Statistical physics has its origins in attempts to describe the thermal properties of matter in terms of its constituent particles, and has played a fundamental role in the development of quantum mechanics. Based on lectures for a course in statistical mechanics taught by Professor Kardar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this textbook introduces the central concepts and tools of statistical physics. It contains a chapter on probability and related issues such as the central limit theorem and information theory, and covers interacting particles, with an extensive description of the van der Waals equation and its derivation by mean field approximation. It also contains an integrated set of problems, with solutions to selected problems at the end of the book. It will be invaluable for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in statistical physics. A complete set of solutions is available to lecturers on a password protected website at www.cambridge.org/9780521873420. Based on lecture notes from a course on Statistical Mechanics taught by the author at MIT Contains 89 exercises, with solutions to selected problems Contains chapters on probability and interacting particles Ideal for graduate courses in Statistical Mechanics
TEACHING PHYSICS: Teaching particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanley, Phil
20000901
Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current Alevel syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students.
The Birth of ElementaryParticle Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Laurie M.; Hoddeson, Lillian
19820101
Traces the origin and development of particle physics, concentrating on the roles of cosmic rays and theory. Includes charts highlighting significant events in the development of cosmicray physics and quantum field theory. (SK)
Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.
20140831
The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (coPI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors  in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare  they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded  and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haag, Rudolf
We review conceptual structures met in quantum physics and note changes of basic concepts and language partly due to a maturing process in the 80 odd years since their first evocation by the founding fathers in Copenhagen, partly demanded or suggested by the passage from quantum mechanics to relativistic quantum field theory, local quantum physics and high energy experiments. It is in particular the concept of "observable" which lost its central role as a description of the measurement of some hypothetical property of a "physical system" under investigation and shifted to an auxiliary position as referring to a detector whose signals serve for the reconstruction of a history described in equations like (9.6), (9.7). The primary role is taken over by the notion of a (microscopic) event constituting the bridge to reality and to finer features of spacetime.
Finite groups and quantum physics
Kornyak, V. V.
20130215
Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolutiononly information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbersa minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theoriesin particular, within the Standard Model.
Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko
20090101
Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a worldview of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a “pedestrian guide” to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future “quantum biology,” its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena. PMID:20234806
Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mashhadi, Azam
This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…
Quantum entanglement and entropy in particle creation
Lin, S.Y.; Chou, C.H.; Hu, B. L.
20100415
We investigate the basic theoretical issues in the quantum entanglement of particle pairs created from the vacuum in a timedependent background field or spacetime. Similar to entropy generation from these processes which depends on the choice of physical variables and how certain information is coarse grained, entanglement dynamics hinges on the choice of measurable quantities and how the two parties are selected as well as the background dynamics of the field or spacetime. We discuss the conditions of separability of quantum states in particle creation processes and point out the differences in how the von Neumann entropy is used as a measure of entropy generation versus for entanglement dynamics. We show by an explicit construction that adoption of a different set of physical variables yields a different entanglement entropy. As an application of these theoretical considerations we show how the particle number and the quantum phase enter the entanglement dynamics in cosmological particle production.
Research program in particle physics
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.
19920701
This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perkins, D. H.
19860101
Elementary particle physics is discussed. Status of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions; phenomena beyond the Standard Model; new accelerator projects; and possible contributions from nonaccelerator experiments are examined.
Kearns, Edward
20130712
This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at SuperKamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.
Quantum cellular automata without particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, David A.; Shakeel, Asif
20160101
Quantum cellular automata (QCA) constitute space and time homogeneous discrete models for quantum field theories (QFTs). Although QFTs are defined without reference to particles, computations are done in terms of Feynman diagrams, which are explicitly interpreted in terms of interacting particles. Similarly, the easiest QCA to construct are quantum lattice gas automata (QLGA). A natural question then is, which QCA are not QLGA? Here we construct a nontrivial example of such a QCA; it provides a simple model in 1 +1 dimensions with no particle interpretation at the scale where the QCA dynamics are homogeneous.
Particle physics and cosmology
Kolb, E.W.
19861001
This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryonnumber violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.
Cosmology and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steigman, G.
19820101
The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon nonconservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses. In the last few years we have witnessed the birth and growth to healthy adolescence of a new collaboration between astrophysicists and particle physicists. The most notable success of this cooperative effort has been to provide the framework for understanding, within the context of GUTs and the hot bigbang cosmology, the universal baryon asymmetry. The most exciting new predictions this effort has spawned are that exotic relics may exist in detectable abundances. In particular, we may live in a neutrinodominated Universe. In the next few years, accummulating laboratory data (for example proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations) coupled with theoritical work in particle physics and cosmology will ensure the growth to maturity of this joint effort.
Not Available
19930801
This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams  physics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {bar p}p collisions; MACRO Experiment  search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay  search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory  theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G2  measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal  calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
19930801
This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams  physics of e(sup +)e(sup (minus)) and (bar p)p collisions; MACRO Experiment  search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay  search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory  theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G2  measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal  calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment.
Quantum optics. Gravity meets quantum physics
Adams, Bernhard W.
20150227
Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity is a classical formulation but a quantum mechanical description of gravitational forces is needed, not only to investigate the coupling of classical and quantum systems but simply to give a more complete description of our physical surroundings. In this issue of Nature Photonics, WenTe Liao and Sven Ahrens reveal a link between quantum and gravitational physics. They propose that in the quantumoptical effect of superradiance, the world line of electromagnetic radiation is changed by the presence of a gravitational field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group
20140801
The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, HighEnergy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat
Field theory and particle physics
Eboli, O.J.P.; Gomes, M.; Santoro, A.
19900101
This book contains the proceedings of the topics covered during the fifth Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School. The first part of the book collects the material devoted to quantum field theory. There were four courses on methods in Field Theory; H. O. Girotti lectured on constrained dynamics, R. Jackiw on the Schrodinger representation in Field Theory, S.Y. Pi on the application of this representation to quantum fields in a RobertsonWalker spacetime, and L. Vinet on Berry Connections. There were three courses on Conformal Field Theory: I. Todorov focused on the problem of construction and classification of conformal field theories. Lattice models, twodimensional S matrices and conformal field theory were looked from the unifying perspective of the YangBaxter algebras in the lectures given by M. Karowski. Parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics was discussed in the lectures by L. Vinet. Besides those courses, there was an introduction to string field theory given by G. Horowitz. There were also three seminars: F. Schaposnik reported on recent applications of topological methods in field theory, P. Gerbert gave a seminar on three dimensional gravity and V. Kurak talked on two dimensional parafermionic models. The second part of this proceedings is devoted to phenomenology. There were three courses on Particle Physics: Dan Green lectured on collider physics, E. Predrazzi on strong interactions and G. CohenTanoudji on the use of strings in strong interactions.
Cosmology and particle physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, Michael S.
19880101
The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B, C, and CPviolating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryontophoton ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.
Lithography using quantum entangled particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
20030101
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Lithography using quantum entangled particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)
20010101
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
The Physics of Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette
20151001
Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of downscaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.
Physics of windblown particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman; Marshall, John R.; White, Bruce; Iversen, James D.; Nickling, William G.; Gillette, Dale; Sorensen, Michael
19870101
A laboratory facility proposed for the Space Station to investigate fundamental aspects of windblown particles is described. The experiments would take advantage of the environment afforded in earth orbit and would be an extension of research currently being conducted on the geology and physics of windblown sediments on earth, Mars, and Venus. Aeolian (wind) processes are reviewed in the planetary context, the scientific rational is given for specific experiments to be conducted, the experiment apparatus (the Carousel Wind Tunnel, or CWT) is described, and a plan presented for implementing the proposed research program.
Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feynman, Richard P.; Weinberg, Steven
19871101
Developing a theory that seamlessly combines relativity and quantum mechanics, the most important conceptual breakthroughs in twentieth century physics, has proved to be a difficult and ongoing challenge. This book details how two distinguished physicists and Nobel laureates have explored this theme in two lectures given in Cambridge, England, in 1986 to commemorate the famous British physicist Paul Dirac. Given for nonspecialists and undergraduates, the talks transcribed in Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics focus on the fundamental problems of physics and the present state of our knowledge. Professor Feynman examines the nature of antiparticles, and in particular the relationship between quantum spin and statistics. Professor Weinberg speculates on how Einstein's theory of gravitation might be reconciled with quantum theory in the final law of physics. Highly accessible, deeply thought provoking, this book will appeal to all those interested in the development of modern physics.
Parables of physics and a quantum romance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machacek, A. C.
20140101
Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the waveparticle duality in particular).
Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Machacek, A. C.
20140101
Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the waveparticle duality in particular).
Quantum hoop conjecture: Black hole formation by particle collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian; Scardigli, Fabio
20140501
We address the issue of (quantum) black hole formation by particle collision in quantum physics. We start by constructing the horizon wavefunction for quantum mechanical states representing two highly boosted noninteracting particles that collide in flat onedimensional space. From this wavefunction, we then derive a probability that the system becomes a black hole as a function of the initial momenta and spatial separation between the particles. This probability allows us to extend the hoop conjecture to quantum mechanics and estimate corrections to its classical counterpart.
Particle physicsExperimental
Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.
19910821
We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultrahigh cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloonborne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000  one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.
Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobson, Art
20070101
Although the resolution to the waveparticle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in…
Blind Analysis in Particle Physics
Roodman, A
20031216
A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.
Quantum evaporation of flavormixed particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, Mikhail V.
20140301
Particles whose propagation (mass) and interaction (flavor) bases are misaligned are mixed, e.g., neutrinos, quarks, Kaons, etc. We show that interactions (elastic scattering) of individual masseigenstates can result in their interconversions. Most intriguing and counterintuitive implication of this process is a new process, which we refer to as the ``quantum evaporation.'' Consider a mixed particle trapped in a gravitational potential. If such a particle scatters off something (e.g., from another mixed particle) elastically from time to time, this particle (or both particles, respectively) can eventually escape to infinity with no extra energy supplied. That is as if a ``flavormixed satellite'' hauled along a bumpy road puts itself in space without a rocket, fuel, etc. Of course, the process at hand is entirely quantum and has no counterpart in classical mechanics. It also has nothing to do with tunneling or other known processes. We discuss some implications to the dark matter physics, cosmology and cosmic neutrino background. Supported by grant DOE grant DEFG0207ER54940 and NSF grant AST1209665.
Research in elementary particle physics
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.
19920101
This report discusses research in the following areas of high energy physics: B meson mixing; CDF response to low energy jets; jet scaling behavior; search for pair produced leptoquarks at CDF; SSC program; quantum field theory; and neural networks. (LSP).
Quantum physics and complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biamonte, Jacob
20140301
There is a widely used and successful theory of ``chemical reaction networks,'' which provides a framework describing systems governed by mass action kinetics. Computer science and population biology use the same ideas under a different name: ``stochastic Petri nets.'' But if we look at these theories from the perspective of quantum theory, they turn out to involve creation and annihilation operators, coherent states and other wellknown ideasyet in a context where probabilities replace amplitudes. I will explain this connection as part of a detailed analogy between quantum mechanics and stochastic mechanics which we've produced several results on recently, including the recent analytical results uniting quantum physics and complex networks. Our general idea is about merging concepts from quantum physics and complex network theory to provide a bidirectional bridge between both disciplines. Support is acknowledged from the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) and the Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation.
Quantum mechanics emerging from stochastic dynamics of virtual particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsekov, Roumen
20160301
It is shown how quantum mechanics emerges from the stochastic dynamics of force carriers. It is demonstrated that the Moyal equation corresponds to dynamic correlations between the real particle momentum and the virtual particle position, which are not present in classical mechanics. This new concept throws light on the physical meaning of quantum theory, showing that the Planck constant square is a secondsecond positionmomentum crosscumulant.
Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vary, James P.
20140601
The vision of solving the nuclear manybody problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and manybody methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadershipclass parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quarkgluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed.
Higherdimensional oscillations of quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedin, Eric
20130401
A theoretical framework is developed in which elementary particles have a component of their wave function extending into higher spatial dimensions, based on an extension of the Schr"odinger equation to include 4^th and 5^th spatial components [E. R. Hedin, Physics Essays 25, 2 (2012)]. A higherdimensional harmonic oscillator confining potential localizes particles into 3d space (characterizing the ``brane tension'' which confines Standard Model particles to the submanifold). Several consistency checks of this model are: a match with the quantum phenomenon of ``zitterbewegung''; the predicted intrinsic spin angular momentum is of order h/2π; the magnetic moment of the electron is determined (with a gyromagnetic ratio of 2); the nuclear force ``hard core'' radius is accurately predicted; the ratio of quark masses (of the up and down quarks) is found to be consistent with QCD theory; and possible explanations of the Planck mass and Planck length. An application of higherdimensional particle effects to the astrophysics of stars shows that radical physical inconsistencies are not evident. Finally, this model suggests a possible explanation of dark matter as the fractional probability manifestations of a ladder of the higherdimensional symmetric excited states of ordinary particles.
Helio Takai
20100108
Students from six local high schools  Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd  came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,
Helio Takai
20090410
Students from six local high schools  Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd  came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,
Towards testing quantum physics in deep space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaltenbaek, Rainer
20160701
MAQRO is a proposal for a mediumsized space mission to use the unique environment of deep space in combination with novel developments in space technology and quantum technology to test the foundations of physics. The goal is to perform matterwave interferometry with dielectric particles of up to 10^{11} atomic mass units and testing for deviations from the predictions of quantum theory. Novel techniques from quantum optomechanics with optically trapped particles are to be used for preparing the test particles for these experiments. The core elements of the instrument are placed outside the spacecraft and insulated from the hot spacecraft via multiple thermal shields allowing to achieve cryogenic temperatures via passive cooling and ultrahigh vacuum levels by venting to deep space. In combination with low forcenoise microthrusters and inertial sensors, this allows realizing an environment well suited for long coherence times of macroscopic quantum superpositions and long integration times. Since the original proposal in 2010, significant progress has been made in terms of technology development and in refining the instrument design. Based on these new developments, we submitted/will submit updated versions of the MAQRO proposal in 2015 and 2016 in response to CosmicVision calls of ESA for a mediumsized mission. A central goal has been to address and overcome potentially critical issues regarding the readiness of core technologies and to provide realistic concepts for further technology development. We present the progress on the road towards realizing this groundbreaking mission harnessing deep space in novel ways for testing the foundations of physics, a technology pathfinder for macroscopic quantum technology and quantum optomechanics in space.
Quantum simulations of physics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somma, Rolando D.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Knill, Emanuel H.; Gubernatis, James
20030801
If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical "questions" more efficiently. The existence of onetoone mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed showing quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.
Particle statistics affects quantum decay and Fano interference.
Crespi, Andrea; Sansoni, Linda; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Ciamei, Alessio; Ramponi, Roberta; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Longhi, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto
20150301
Quantum mechanical decay, Fano interference, and bound states with energy in the continuum are ubiquitous phenomena in different areas of physics. Here we experimentally demonstrate that particle statistics strongly affects quantum mechanical decay in a multiparticle system. By considering propagation of twophoton states in engineered photonic lattices, we simulate quantum decay of two noninteracting particles in a multilevel FanoAnderson model. Remarkably, when the system sustains a bound state in the continuum, fractional decay is observed for bosonic particles, but not for fermionic ones. Complete decay in the fermionic case arises because of the Pauli exclusion principle, which forbids the bound state to be occupied by the two fermions. Our experiment indicates that particle statistics can tune manybody quantum decay from fractional to complete. PMID:25793783
Not Available
19920930
This report discusses the following topics: heavy quark physics; Chiral Perturbation theory; Skyrmions; quarkonia and nuclear matter; parity violating nuclear matrix elements; how precisely can one determine M{sub U}/M{sub D}; weak scale baryogenesis; constraints of baryogenesis form neutrino masses; majorons, double beta decay, supernova 1987A; rare decays; chiral lattice fermions; PauliVillars regulator and the Higgs mass bound; and Higgs and Yukawa interactions.
Nuclear physics and particle therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battistoni, G.
20160501
The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.
Unifying Quantum Physics with Biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goradia, Shantilal
20140901
We find that the natural logarithm of the age of the universe in quantum mechanical units is close to 137. Since science is not religion, it is our moral duty to recognize the importance of this finding on the following ground. The experimentally obtained number 137 is a mystical number in science, as if written by the hand of God. It is found in cosmology; unlike other theories, it works in biology too. A formula by Boltzmann also works in both: biology and physics, as if it is in the heart of God. His formula simply leads to finding the logarithm of microstates. One of the two conflicting theories of physics (1) Einstein's theory of General Relativity and (2) Quantum Physics, the first applies only in cosmology, but the second applies in biology too. Since we have to convert the age of the universe, 13 billion years, into 1,300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Planck times to get close to 137, quantum physics clearly shows the characteristics of unifying with biology. The proof of its validity also lies in its ability to extend information system observed in biology.
Thermalization in ManyParticle Quantum Walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musumbu, Dibwe Pierrot; Przybylska, Maria; Maciejewski, Andrzej J.
20160301
Manyparticle quantum walks of particles obeying Bose statistics, moving on graphs of various topologies are introduced. A single coin tossing commands the conditional shift operation over the whole graph. Vertex particle densities, mean values of phase space variables, second order spatial correlations and counting statistics are evaluated and simulated. The evidence of universal dynamics is presented.
Event Generators for Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matchev, Konstantin
20140301
I will review recent progress in developing and automating the basic set of simulation tools in high energy particle physics, including programs which are capable of automatic implementation of new physics models and generating the corresponding Feynman rules, various matrix element calculators, and event generators producing both partonlevel and fully hadronized/showerted Monte Carlo event samples. I will also discuss methods for speeding up the generation of new physics samples, which could be useful in the upcoming new physics searches at the LHC.
Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shebeko, Alexander
20160301
The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT), put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR). In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3)) when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.
A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics
Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David
20130725
Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.
EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupczynski, M.
20160301
Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in faraway locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Belltype inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are produced
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
20080205
These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at highenergy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.
Quantum physics and the beam splitter mystery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hénault, François
20150901
Optical lossless beam splitters are frequently encountered in fundamental physics experiments regarding the nature of light, including "whichway" determination or the EPR paradox and their measurement apparatus. Although they look as common optical components at first glance, their behaviour remains somewhat mysterious since they apparently exhibit standalone particlelike features, and then wavelike characteristics when inserted into a MachZehnder interferometer. In this communication are examined and discussed some basic properties of these beamssplitters, both from a classical optics and quantum physics point of view. Herein the most evident convergences and contradictions are highlighted, and the results of a few emblematic experiments demonstrating photon existence are discussed. Alternative empirical models are also proposed in order to shed light on some remaining issues.
Physical synthesis of quantum circuits using templates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirkhani, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Naser
20160601
Similar to traditional CMOS circuits, quantum circuit design flow is divided into two main processes: logic synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed on optimization of the quantum circuit metrics because of no information sharing between logic synthesis and physical design processes, the concept of "physical synthesis" was introduced for quantum circuit flow, and a few techniques were proposed for it. Following that concept, in this paper a new approach for physical synthesis inspired by template matching idea in quantum logic synthesis is proposed to improve the latency of quantum circuits. Experiments show that by using template matching as a physical synthesis approach, the latency of quantum circuits can be improved by more than 23.55 % on average.
Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ
Whitaker, Scott J.
19920901
Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new fieldtheoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.
Quantum teleportation with identical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzolino, Ugo; Buchleitner, Andreas
20150301
We study teleportation with identical massive particles. Indistinguishability imposes that the relevant degrees of freedom to be teleported are not particles, but rather addressable orthogonal modes. We discuss the performances of teleportation under the constraint of conservation of the total number of particles. The latter inevitably decreases the teleportation fidelity. Moreover, even though a phase reference, given by the coupling to a reservoir, circumvents the constraint, it does not restore perfect deterministic teleportation. The latter is only achievable with some special resource entangled states and when the number of particles tends to infinity. Interestingly, some of such states are the manyparticle atomic coherent states and the ground state of cold atoms loaded into a double well potential, which are routinely prepared in experiments.
Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobson, Art
20110101
I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called high energy physics, in high school or introductory college courses for nonscientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a great way to make a fascinating topic meaningless. Students need a conceptual framework from which to view the elementary particles. That conceptual framework is quantum field theory (QFT). Teachers and students alike tend to quake at this topic, but bear with me. We're talking here about concepts, not technicalities. My approach will be conceptual and suitable for nonscientists and scientists; if mathematical details are added in courses for future scientists, they should be simple and sparse. Introductory students should not be expected to do QFT, but only to understand its concepts. Those concepts take some getting used to, but they are simple and can be understood by any literate person, be she plumber, attorney, musician, or physicist.
Quantum Security for the Physical Layer
Humble, Travis S
20130101
The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for nonlocality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.
Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program
Karchin, Paul E.
20110901
We describe recent progress in acceleratorbased experiments in highenergy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.
Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kierk, I. K.
20020101
This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.
Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.
20010101
This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.
Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles
IbarraSierra, V.G.; AnzaldoMeneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; HernándezSaldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; RoaNeri, J.A.E.
20130815
A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail.  Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.
Simulating physical phenomena with a quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Gerardo
20030301
In a keynote speech at MIT in 1981 Richard Feynman raised some provocative questions in connection to the exact simulation of physical systems using a special device named a ``quantum computer'' (QC). At the time it was known that deterministic simulations of quantum phenomena in classical computers required a number of resources that scaled exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom, and also that the probabilistic simulation of certain quantum problems were limited by the socalled sign or phase problem, a problem believed to be of exponential complexity. Such a QC was intended to mimick physical processes exactly the same as Nature. Certainly, remarks coming from such an influential figure generated widespread interest in these ideas, and today after 21 years there are still some open questions. What kind of physical phenomena can be simulated with a QC?, How?, and What are its limitations? Addressing and attempting to answer these questions is what this talk is about. Definitively, the goal of physics simulation using controllable quantum systems (``physics imitation'') is to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient imitation. Fundamental is the connection between a quantum computational model and a physical system by transformations of operator algebras. This concept is a necessary one because in Quantum Mechanics each physical system is naturally associated with a language of operators and thus can be considered as a possible model of quantum computation. The remarkable result is that an arbitrary physical system is naturally simulatable by another physical system (or QC) whenever a ``dictionary'' between the two operator algebras exists. I will explain these concepts and address some of Feynman's concerns regarding the simulation of fermionic systems. Finally, I will illustrate the main ideas by imitating simple physical phenomena borrowed from condensed matter physics using quantum algorithms, and present experimental
Nonaccelerator particle physics
Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.
19910901
The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics such as grand unification and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large area underground detector to search for grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low and high energy neutrinos: the {nu}IMB project, which seeks to refurbish and upgrade the IMB water Cerenkov detector to perform an improved proton decay search together with a long baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment using a kiloton liquid scintillator (the Perry experiment); and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very low background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments. 21 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.
Research in Elementary Particle Physics
White, Andrew Paul; De, Kaushik; Brandt, Andrew; Yu, Jaehoon; Farbin, Amir
20150202
This report details the accomplishments and research results for the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington at the Energy and Intensity Frontiers. For the Energy Frontier we have made fundamental contributions in the search for supersymmetric particles, proposed to explain the stabilization of the mass of the Higgs Boson – the agent giving mass to all known particles. We have also made major contributions to the search for additional Higgs Bosons and to the planning for future searches. This work has been carried out in the context of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN (European Nuclear Research Laboratory) and for which we have made major contributions to computing and data distribution and processing, and have worked to calibrate the detector and prepare upgraded electronics for the future. Our other contribution to the Energy Frontier has been to the International Linear Collider (ILC) project, potentially hosted by Japan, and to the Silicon Detector Concept (SiD) in particular. We have lead the development of the SiD Concept and have worked on a new form of precise energy measurement for particles from the high energy collisions of electrons and positrons at the ILC. For the Intensity Frontier, we have worked to develop the concept of Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment(s) (LBNE) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Our contributions to detector development, neutrino beam studies, particle identification, software development will facilitate future studies of the oscillation of one type of neutrino into other type(s), establish the order of the neutrino masses, and, through an innovative new idea, allow us to create a beam of dark matter particles.
Quantum physics: Teleportation for two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tittel, Wolfgang
20150201
The 'nocloning' theorem of quantum mechanics forbids the perfect copying of properties of photons or electrons. But quantum teleportation allows their flawless transfer  now even for two properties simultaneously. See Letter p.516
A proposed physical analog for a quantum probability amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, Jeffrey
What is the physical analog of a probability amplitude? All quantum mathematics, including quantum information, is built on amplitudes. Every other science uses probabilities; QM alone uses their square root. Why? This question has been asked for a century, but no one previously has proposed an answer. We will present cylindrical helices moving toward a particle source, which particles follow backwards. Consider Feynman's book QED. He speaks of amplitudes moving through space like the hand of a spinning clock. His hand is a complex vector. It traces a cylindrical helix in Cartesian space. The Theory of Elementary Waves changes direction so Feynman's clock faces move toward the particle source. Particles follow amplitudes (quantum waves) backwards. This contradicts wave particle duality. We will present empirical evidence that wave particle duality is wrong about the direction of particles versus waves. This involves a paradigm shift; which are always controversial. We believe that our model is the ONLY proposal ever made for the physical foundations of probability amplitudes. We will show that our ``probability amplitudes'' in physical nature form a Hilbert vector space with adjoints, an inner product and support both linear algebra and Dirac notation.
Particle creation from the quantum stress tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F. R.
20150501
Among the different methods to derive particle creation, finding the quantum stress tensor expectation value gives a covariant quantity which can be used for examining the backreaction issue. However this tensor also includes vacuum polarization in a way that depends on the vacuum chosen. Here we review different aspects of particle creation by looking at energy conservation and at the quantum stress tensor. We show that in the case of general spherically symmetric black holes that have a dynamical horizon, as occurs in a cosmological context, one cannot have pair creation on the horizon because this violates energy conservation. This confirms the results obtained in other ways in a previous paper [J. T. Firouzjaee and G. F. R. Ellis, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 47, 6 (2015)]. Looking at the expectation value of the quantum stress tensor with three different definitions of the vacuum state, we study the nature of particle creation and vacuum polarization in black hole and cosmological models, and the associated stressenergy tensors. We show that the thermal temperature that is calculated from the particle flux given by the quantum stress tensor is compatible with the temperature determined by the affine null parameter approach. Finally, we show that in the spherically symmetric dynamic case, we can neglect the backscattering term and only consider the swave term near the future apparent horizon.
Undergraduate computational physics projects on quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Candela, D.
20150801
Computational projects on quantum computing suitable for students in a juniorlevel quantum mechanics course are described. In these projects students write their own programs to simulate quantum computers. Knowledge is assumed of introductory quantum mechanics through the properties of spin 1/2. Initial, more easily programmed projects treat the basics of quantum computation, quantum gates, and Grover's quantum search algorithm. These are followed by more advanced projects to increase the number of qubits and implement Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. The projects can be run on a typical laptop or desktop computer, using most programming languages. Supplementing resources available elsewhere, the projects are presented here in a selfcontained format especially suitable for a short computational module for physics students.
Unstable particles in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics?
HernandezCoronado, H.
20111014
The Schroedinger equation is uptoaphase invariant under the Galilei group. This phase leads to the Bargmann's superselection rule, which forbids the existence of the superposition of states with different mass and implies that unstable particles cannot be described consistently in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). In this paper we claim that Bargmann's rule neglects physical effects and that a proper description of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics requires to take into account this phase through the Extended Galilei group and the definition of its action on spacetime coordinates.
A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.
20070101
The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…
Quantum turbulence visualized by particle dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Mantia, M.; Skrbek, L.
20140701
The Lagrangian dynamics of micrometersized solid particles of hydrogen and deuterium is investigated in thermal counterflow of superfluid He4 at length scales ℓexp straddling about two orders of magnitude across the average distance ℓ between quantized vortices by using the particle tracking velocimetry technique. The normalized probability distribution functions of the particle velocities and accelerations change from the shapes typical of quantum turbulence, characterized by powerlaw tails, at length scales ℓexp≲ℓ, to forms similar to those obtained in classical turbulent flows, at ℓexp≳ℓ, although the powerlaw behavior of the acceleration distribution tails is less clear than that observed for the particle velocities. Moreover, the acceleration distribution follows a nearly lognormal, classicallike shape, at ℓ ≲ℓexp≲Lint, where Lint denotes the integral length scale, providing thus, within the just defined inertial range, experimental evidence of the existence of classicallike, macroscopic vortical structures in thermal counterflow of superfluid He4, which is traditionally regarded as a quantum flow with no obvious classical analog. Additionally, we report our observations of the added mass effect in quantum turbulence and discuss them in the framework of a developed model of particle dynamics.
Particle identification for beauty physics
Ludlam, T.
19870101
We look briefly at the requirements for particle identification for possible beauty experiments at the Tevatron, both in the fixed target and the collider mode. Techniques presently in use in high energy physics experiments, and under development, should make sensitive experiments feasible. However, in all cases the present state of the art must be advanced to meet the necessary requirements for segmentation andor rate capability. The most fundamentally difficult challenges appear to be the efficient tagging of soft electrons (for the collider experiment) and the need to handle interaction rates up to /approximately/ 10/sub 9/ HZ in the fixed target mode. In both cases we can find ''in principle'' demonstrations that the requirements can be met. We have considered only the most basic prooperties of detectors, however, and the real answers will come from careful studies of details. 20 refs., 10 figs.
NonPerturbative, Unitary QuantumParticle Scattering Amplitudes from ThreeParticle Equations
Lindesay, James V
20020319
We here use our nonperturbative, cluster decomposable relativistic scattering formalism to calculate photonspinor scattering, including the related particleantiparticle annihilation amplitude. We start from a threebody system in which the unitary pair interactions contain the kinematic possibility of single quantum exchange and the symmetry properties needed to identify and substitute antiparticles for particles. We extract from it unitary twoparticle amplitude for quantumparticle scattering. We verify that we have done this correctly by showing that our calculated photonspinor amplitude reduces in the weak coupling limit to the usual lowest order, manifestly covariant (QED) result with the correct normalization. That we are able to successfully do this directly demonstrates that renormalizability need not be a fundamental requirement for all physically viable models.
Research in theoretical particle physics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1991April 30, 1992
McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.
19920501
This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and SchwingerDyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)
Quantum Random Walks with General Particle States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belton, Alexander C. R.
20140601
A convergence theorem is obtained for quantum random walks with particles in an arbitrary normal state. This unifies and extends previous work on repeatedinteractions models, including that of Attal and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré 7:59104 2006) and Belton (J Lond Math Soc 81:412434, 2010; Commun Math Phys 300:317329, 2010). When the randomwalk generator acts by ampliation and either multiplication or conjugation by a unitary operator, it is shown that the quantum stochastic cocycle which arises in the limit is driven by a unitary process.
Lesovik, G B; Lebedev, A V; Sadovskyy, I A; Suslov, M V; Vinokur, V M
20160101
Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that datatransmitting or dataprocessing occurs with a nonnegative entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the quantum Htheorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of energyisolated quantum systems occurs with nondiminishing entropy. PMID:27616571
The dialogue between particle physics and cosmology
Sadoulet, B.
19880401
In the last decade, a very close relationship has developed between particle physics and cosmology. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to the many scientific connections between the two fields. Before entering into the discussion of specific topics, it will first be shown that particle physics and cosmology are completely interdependent. 173 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.
Localization and Entanglement in Relativistic Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yngvason, Jakob
These notes are a slightly expanded version of a lecture presented in February 2012 at the workshop "The Message of Quantum Science—Attempts Towards a Synthesis" held at the ZIF in Bielefeld. The participants were physicists with a wide range of different expertise and interests. The lecture was intended as a survey of a small selection of the insights into the structure of relativistic quantum physics that have accumulated through the efforts of many people over more than 50 years. (Including, among many others, R. Haag, H. Araki, D. Kastler, H.J. Borchers, A. Wightman, R. Streater, B. Schroer, H. Reeh, S. Schlieder, S. Doplicher, J. Roberts, R. Jost, K. Hepp, J. Fröhlich, J. Glimm, A. Jaffe, J. Bisognano, E. Wichmann, D. Buchholz, K. Fredenhagen, R. Longo, D. Guido, R. Brunetti, J. Mund, S. Summers, R. Werner, H. Narnhofer, R. Verch, G. Lechner, ….) This contribution discusses some facts about relativistic quantum physics, most of which are quite familiar to practitioners of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) [Also known as Local Quantum Physics (Haag, Local quantum physics. Springer, Berlin, 1992).] but less well known outside this community. No claim of originality is made; the goal of this contribution is merely to present these facts in a simple and concise manner, focusing on the following issues: Explaining how quantum mechanics (QM) combined with (special) relativity, in particular an upper bound on the propagation velocity of effects, leads naturally to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (relativistic quantum fields).
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniscalco, Sabrina
20160401
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Studenikin, Alexander I.
20090101
Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun  Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electronproton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg  Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. OchoaRicoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Betabeams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Nonstandard neutrino physics probed by TokaitoKamiokaKorea twodetector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric
Elementary particle physicsExperimental
Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.
19900920
We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballonborne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quarkgluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.
A signed particle formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics
Sellier, Jean Michel
20150915
A formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in terms of Newtonian particles is presented in the shape of a set of three postulates. In this new theory, quantum systems are described by ensembles of signed particles which behave as fieldless classical objects which carry a negative or positive sign and interact with an external potential by means of creation and annihilation events only. This approach is shown to be a generalization of the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method which reconstructs the timedependent Wigner quasidistribution function of a system and, therefore, the corresponding Schrödinger timedependent wavefunction. Its classical limit is discussed and a physical interpretation, based on experimental evidences coming from quantum tomography, is suggested. Moreover, in order to show the advantages brought by this novel formulation, a straightforward extension to relativistic effects is discussed. To conclude, quantum tunnelling numerical experiments are performed to show the validity of the suggested approach.
Studies in theoretical particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, D. B.
19910701
This proposal focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: (1) Nonperturbative QCD. I tend to continue work on analytic modelling of nonperturbative effects in the strong interactions. I have been investigating the theoretical connection between the nonrelativistic quark model and QCD. The primary motivation has been to understand the experimental observation of nonzero matrix elements involving current strange quarks in ordinary matter, which in the quark model has no strange quark component. This has led to my present work on understanding constituent (quark model) quarks as collective excitations of QCD degrees of freedom. (2) Weak Scale Baryogenesis. A continuation of work on baryogenesis in the early universe from weak interactions. In particular, an investigation of baryogenesis occurring during the weak phase transition through anomalous baryon violating processes in the standard model of weak interactions. (3) Flavor and Compositeness. Further investigation of a new mechanism that I recently discovered for dynamical mass generation for fermions, which naturally leads to a family hierarchy structure. A discussion of recent past work is found in the next section, followed by an outline of the proposed research. A recent publication from each of these three areas is attached to this proposal.
Studies in theoretical particle physics
Kaplan, D.B.
19910701
This proposal focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: (1) Nonperturbative QCD. I tend to continue work on analytic modelling of nonperturbative effects in the strong interactions. I have been investigating the theoretical connection between the nonrelativistic quark model and QCD. The primary motivation has been to understand the experimental observation of nonzero matrix elements involving current strange quarks in ordinary matter  which in the quark model has no strange quark component. This has led to my present work on understanding constituent (quark model) quarks as collective excitations of QCD degrees of freedom. (2) Weak Scale Baryogenesis. A continuation of work on baryogenesis in the early universe from weak interactions. In particular, an investigation of baryogenesis occurring during the weak phase transition through anomalous baryon violating processes in the standard model of weak interactions. (3) Flavor and Compositeness. Further investigation of a new mechanism that I recently discovered for dynamical mass generation for fermions, which naturally leads to a family hierarchy structure. A discussion of recent past work is found in the next section, followed by an outline of the proposed research. A recent publication from each of these three areas is attached to this proposal.
Quantum simulations of relativistic quantum physics in circuit QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedernales, J. S.; Di Candia, R.; Ballester, D.; Solano, E.
20130501
We present a scheme for simulating relativistic quantum physics in circuit quantum electrodynamics. By using three classical microwave drives, we show that a superconducting qubit strongly coupled to a resonator field mode can be used to simulate the dynamics of the Dirac equation and Klein paradox in all regimes. Using the same setup we also propose the implementation of the FoldyWouthuysen canonical transformation, after which the time derivative of the position operator becomes a constant of the motion.
Computer Visualization of ManyParticle Quantum Dynamics
Ozhigov, A. Y.
20090310
In this paper I show the importance of computer visualization in researching of manyparticle quantum dynamics. Such a visualization becomes an indispensable illustrative tool for understanding the behavior of dynamic swarmbased quantum systems. It is also an important component of the corresponding simulation framework, and can simplify the studies of underlying algorithms for multiparticle quantum systems.
Computer Visualization of ManyParticle Quantum Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozhigov, A. Y.
20090301
In this paper I show the importance of computer visualization in researching of manyparticle quantum dynamics. Such a visualization becomes an indispensable illustrative tool for understanding the behavior of dynamic swarmbased quantum systems. It is also an important component of the corresponding simulation framework, and can simplify the studies of underlying algorithms for multiparticle quantum systems.
Topics in elementary particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Xiang
The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics:
On foundation of quantum physics
Solov'ev, E. A.
20090515
Some aspects of the interpretation of quantum theory are discussed. It is emphasized that quantum theory is formulated in the Cartesian coordinate system; in other coordinates the result obtained with the help of the Hamiltonian formalism and commutator relations between 'canonically conjugated' coordinate and momentum operators leads to a wrong version of quantum mechanics. The origin of time is analyzed by the example of atomic collision theory in detail; it is shown that the timedependent Schroedinger equation is meaningless since in the highimpactenergy limit it transforms into an equation with two timelike variables. Following the EinsteinRozenPodolsky experiment and Bell's inequality, the wave function is interpreted as an actual field of information in the elementary form. The concept 'measurement' is also discussed.
Studies in Elementary Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appell, David Allen
Three studies in elementary particle physics are presented. In the first, titled "Jets as a probe of quark gluon plasmas", we investigate the propagation of jets through a quarkgluon plasma. The transversemomentum imbalance of a jet pair is shown to be sensitive to multiple scattering off the constituents of the plasma for expected values of the plasma temperature and size. This raises the possibility that such transversemomentum imbalance could be used as a probe of a quarkgluon plasma produced by partonic interactions in ultrarelativistic nucleusnucleus collisions. The second topic considered is "Soft gluon effects and the normalization of the DrellYan cross section." There we analyze the sensitivity of the inclusive Drell Yan cross section to soft gluon effects, using a previously developed summation procedure which includes nonleading logarithmic effects. By varying an infrared cutoff in gluon energies, we study the importance of soft, but still perturbative, gluons to the normalization of the cross section or, equivalently, the "Kfactor." The result is strongly dependent on the kinematic range being considered, as well as on the parton distributions of the incoming hadrons. Finally, in "Problems of dimensional reduction and inflationary cosmology", we discuss various aspects of the relationship between KaluzaKlein theories and cosmology, with particular emphasis on the process of dimensional reduction. Some features of higherdimensional Friedman RobertsonWalkertype universes are considered, such as the compatibility of the Einstein equations, their connection with the inflationary scenarios, and their consequences for the critical density of the observable universe. The role of the Casimir effect as a possible mechanism for dimensional compactification is noted, and the absence of the Casimir effect for supersymmetric theories is noted. Various subtleties of the Casimir effect make it difficult to decide at this point whether the Casimir effect
Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobson, Art
20110101
I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for nonscientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a…
Particle Physics: From School to University.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barlow, Roger
19920101
Discusses the teaching of particle physics as part of the Alevel physics course in British secondary schools. Utilizes the quark model of hadrons and the conceptual kinematics of particle collisions, as examples, to demonstrate practical instructional possibilities in relation to student expectations. (JJK)
Quarked!Adventures in Particle Physics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice
20090101
Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alikewith visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not…
Quantum Mesoscopic Physics of Electrons and Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akkermans, Eric
20130301
We first review basic notions of coherent quantum transport at the mesoscopic scale for both electronic and photonic systems. We then show that successful descriptions developed for coherent electronic transport (e.g. weak localization and UCF) and thermodynamics (persistent currents), noise and full counting statistics can be extended and applied to the study of Quantum Electrodynamics of quantum conductors and of quantum optics based on photons emitted by such conductors. In this context, we discuss the two following specific problems : (1) Ramsey fringes and time domain interference for particle creation form a quantum vacuum with a specific application to dynamical Coulomb blockade. In that setup, the current noise of a coherent conductor is biased by two successive voltage pulses. An interference pattern between photon assisted processes is observed which is explained by the contribution of several processes to the probability to emit photons after each pulse. Recent experiments in this context will be discussed. (2) Quantum emitter coupled to a fractal environment. A new and unexpected type of oscillatory structures for the probability of spontaneous emission has been obtained which results from the fractal nature of the quantum vacuum. When applied to the case of a tunnel junction as a quantum emitter of photons, the same oscillatory structure arises for the conductance of the tunnel junction. This work was supported by the Israel Science Foundation Grant No.924/09
Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindner, Henry H.
20110901
Albert Einstein imposed an observerbased epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified LorentzianNewtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wavebased theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.
Quantum dynamics and topological excitations in interacting dipolar particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey, Ana
20160501
Dipoledipole interactions, longrange and anisotropic interactions that arise due to the virtual exchange of photons, are of fundamental importance in optical physics, and are enabling a range of new quantum technologies including quantum networks and optical lattice atomic clocks. In this talk I will first discuss how arrays of dipolar particles with a simple J = 0 J = 1 internal level structure can naturally host topological and chiral excitations including Weyl quasiparticles. Weyl fermions were first predicted to exist in the context of high energy physics but only recently have been observed in solid state systems. I will discuss a proposal of using Mott insulators of Sr atoms to observe and probe the Weyl excitation spectrum and its nontrivial chirality. Finally I will report on a recent experiment done at JILA which validates the underlying microscopic model that predicts the existence of these excitations. The experiment measured the collective emission from a coherently driven gas of ultracold 88 Sr atoms and observed a highly directional and anisotropic emission intensity and a substantial broadening of the atomic spectral lines. All of the measurements are well reproduced by the theoretical model. These investigations open the door for the exploration of novel quantum manybody systems involving strongly interacting atoms and photons, and are useful guides for further developments of optical atomic clocks and other applications involving dense atomic ensembles. AFOSR, MURIAFOSR, ARO,NSFPHY1521080, JILANSFPFC1125844.
The Physical Renormalization of Quantum Field Theories
Binger, Michael William.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
20070220
The profound revolutions in particle physics likely to emerge from current and future experiments motivates an improved understanding of the precise predictions of the Standard Model and new physics models. Higher order predictions in quantum field theories inevitably requires the renormalization procedure, which makes sensible predictions out of the naively divergent results of perturbation theory. Thus, a robust understanding of renormalization is crucial for identifying and interpreting the possible discovery of new physics. The results of this thesis represent a broad set of investigations in to the nature of renormalization. The author begins by motivating a more physical approach to renormalization based on gaugeinvariant Green's functions. The resulting effective charges are first applied to gauge coupling unification. This approach provides an elegant formalism for understanding all threshold corrections, and the gauge couplings unify in a more physical manner compared to the usual methods. Next, the gaugeinvariant threegluon vertex is studied in detail, revealing an interesting and rich structure. The effective coupling for the threegluon vertex, {alpha}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}), depends on three momentum scales and gives rise to an effective scale Q{sub eff}{sup 2}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}) which governs the (sometimes surprising) behavior of the vertex. The effects of nonzero internal masses are important and have a complicated threshold and pseudothreshold structure. The pinchtechnique effective charge is also calculated to twoloops and several applications are discussed. The Higgs boson mass in Split Supersymmetry is calculated to twoloops, including all oneloop threshold effects, leading to a downward shift in the Higgs mass of a few GeV. Finally, the author discusses some ideas regarding the overall structure of perturbation theory. This thesis lays the foundation for a comprehensive multi
Preparation and measurement in quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, James L.; Band, William
19920501
To honor Henry Margenau on the occasion of his 90th birthday, we attempt in this essay to integrate certain aspects of the physics, philosophy, and pedagogy of quantum mechanics in a manner very much inspired by Margenau's idealist scientific epistemology. Over half a century ago, Margenau was perhaps the first philosopher of science to recognize and elaborate upon the essential distinction between the preparation of a quantum state and the measurement of an observable associated with a system in that state; yet in contemporary quantum texts that distinction rarely receives adequate emphasis even though, as we demonstrate, it may be explicated through a series of simple illustrations.
Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.
Takahashi, Taiki
20140101
Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's threestage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed. PMID:24482329
Thermal equilibrium of two quantum Brownian particles
Valente, D. M.; Caldeira, A. O.
20100115
The influence of the environment in the thermal equilibrium properties of a bipartite continuous variable quantum system is studied. The problem is treated within a systemplusreservoir approach. The considered model reproduces the Brownian motion when the two particles are isolated and induces an effective interaction between them, depending on the choice of the spectral function of the bath. The coupling between the system and the environment guarantees the translational invariance of the system in the absence of an external potential. The entanglement between the particles is measured by the logarithmic negativity, which is shown to monotonically decrease with the increase of the temperature. A range of finite temperatures is found in which entanglement is still induced by the reservoir.
Two Dimensional ParticleInCell Code for Simulation of Quantum Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decyk, V. K.; Tonge, J.; Dauger, D. E.
20021101
We have developed a two dimensional code for simulating quantum plasmas (1). This unique code propagates many quantum particles forward in time selfconsistently using the semiclassical approximation. Because of this it can model the statistical properties of interacting quantum particles. We are currently testing this code using small numbers of particles with model problems which we can use to verify the accuracy of the code. The goal is to model from first principles the statistical properties of plasmas where quantum mechanics plays a role such as hot high density plasmas found in stellar interiors (2). (1) D. Dauger, Semiclassical Modeling of QuantumMechanical Multiparticle Systems using Parallel ParticleInCell Methods, PHD Thesis (2) M. Opher et. al. , Nuclear reaction rates and energy in stellar plasmas: The effect of highly damped modes, Physics of Plasma, 8, No. 5, p. 2454 Sponsored by NSF
[Elementary particle physics. Annual report
Izen, J.M.; Lou, X.
19981231
The BABAR construction phase is ending and first data is expected during May, 1999. During construction, UTD has developed analysis framework software, contributed to the BABAR Physics Book, assembled a first rate computing facility, and pioneered Internetbased video techniques for the collaboration. The authors are now defining the physics goals, and are participating in the formation physics analysis groups. They are starting to use their computing facility for BABAR production jobs.
Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, David Kelley
In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.
Frontiers of particle beam physics
Sessler, A.M.
19891101
First, a review is given of various highlydeveloped techniques for particle handling which are, nevertheless, being vigorously advanced at the present time. These include soft superconductor radio frequency cavities, hard superconductor magnets, cooling rings for ions and antiprotons, and damping rings for electrons. Second, attention is focused upon novel devices for particle generation, acceleration, and focusing. These include relativistic klystrons and free electron laser power sources, binary power multipliers, photocathodes, switchedpower linacs, plasma beatwave accelerators, plasma wakefield accelerators, plasma lenses, plasma adiabatic focusers and plasma compensators. 12 refs.
Medium energy elementary particle physics
Not Available
19910101
This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g2 value; measurement of the spindependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)
Research in elementary particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirsch, L. E.; Schnitzer, H. J.
Research in theoretical and experimental properties of elementary particles is described. This includes measurements made at the multiparticle spectrometer facility at Brookhaven, studies of baryonium production, inclusive hyperon production, and E(0) production. Theoretical work included extended field theories, subconstituent models, finite temperature quatum chromodynamics, grad unified theories, and calculational techniques in gauge theories.
Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Studenikin, Alexander I.
20090101
Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun  Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electronproton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg  Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. OchoaRicoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Betabeams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Nonstandard neutrino physics probed by TokaitoKamiokaKorea twodetector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellison, Mark D.
20080101
The onedimensional particleinabox model used to introduce quantum mechanics to students suffers from a tenuous connection to a real physical system. This article presents a twodimensional model, the particle confined within a ring, that directly corresponds to observations of surface electrons in a metal trapped inside a circular barrier.…
Quantum mechanics of lattice gas automata: Oneparticle plane waves and potentials
Meyer, D.A.
19970501
Classical lattice gas automata effectively simulate physical processes, such as diffusion and fluid flow (in certain parameter regimes), despite their simplicity at the microscale. Motivated by current interest in quantum computation we recently defined {ital quantum} lattice gas automata; in this paper we initiate a project to analyze which physical processes these models can effectively simulate. Studying the single particle sector of a onedimensional quantum lattice gas we find discrete analogs of plane waves and wave packets, and then investigate their behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous potentials. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Introduction to Statistical Issues in Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barlow, Roger
An account is given of the methods of working of Experimental High Energy Particle Physics, from the viewpoint of statisticians and others unfamiliar with the field. Current statistical problems, techniques, and hot topics are introduced and discussed.
The Negative Binomial Distribution in Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Söderholm, Jonas; Inoue, Shuichiro
20090601
We give examples of situations where the negative binomial distribution has appeared in quantum physics since its debut in the work of Planck. Several of its properties are reviewed, and Mandel's Qparameter is shown to play an interesting role. The photonpair distributions of squeezed vacuum and squeezed singlephoton states are identified as negative binomial.
Beams for the Intensity Frontier of Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tschirhart, Robert S.
20140201
Advances in high intensity beams have driven particle physics forward since the inception of the field. Stateoftheart and next generation high intensity beams will drive experiments searching for ultrarare processes sensitive through quantum corrections to new particle states far beyond the reach of direct production in foreseeable beam colliders. The recent discovery of the ultrarare B meson decay Bs → μμ, with a branching fraction of 3 × 109 for example, has set stringent limits on new physics within direct reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Today, even in the context of the Higgs boson discovery, observation of finite neutrino masses is the only laboratory evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The tiny mass scale of neutrinos may foretell and one day expose physics that connects quarks and leptons together at the "grand unification" scale and may be the portal through which our world came to the matterdominated state so different from conditions we expect in the early universe. Here we describe next generation neutrino and rare processes experiments that will deeply probe these and other questions central to the field of particle physics.
Quantum physics reimagined for the general public
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobroff, Julien
20150301
Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, nonintuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with webillustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, BoseEinstein condensation, decoherence, pumpprobe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stopmotion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined
Quantum chaos and thermalization in isolated systems of interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borgonovi, F.; Izrailev, F. M.; Santos, L. F.; Zelevinsky, V. G.
20160401
This review is devoted to the problem of thermalization in a small isolated conglomerate of interacting constituents. A variety of physically important systems of intensive current interest belong to this category: complex atoms, molecules (including biological molecules), nuclei, small devices of condensed matter and quantum optics on nano and microscale, cold atoms in optical lattices, ion traps. Physical implementations of quantum computers, where there are many interacting qubits, also fall into this group. Statistical regularities come into play through interparticle interactions, which have two fundamental components: mean field, that along with external conditions, forms the regular component of the dynamics, and residual interactions responsible for the complex structure of the actual stationary states. At sufficiently high level density, the stationary states become exceedingly complicated superpositions of simple quasiparticle excitations. At this stage, regularities typical of quantum chaos emerge and bring in signatures of thermalization. We describe all the stages and the results of the processes leading to thermalization, using analytical and massive numerical examples for realistic atomic, nuclear, and spin systems, as well as for models with random parameters. The structure of stationary states, strength functions of simple configurations, and concepts of entropy and temperature in application to isolated mesoscopic systems are discussed in detail. We conclude with a schematic discussion of the time evolution of such systems to equilibrium.
A synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujol, O.; Pérez, J. P.
20070701
The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching would benefit by using the abcdmatrix which in addition is easy to implement on a personal computer.
Physics on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
't Hooft, Gerard
20140401
Nature's laws in the domain where relativistic effects, gravitational effects and quantum effects are all comparatively strong are far from understood. This domain is called the Planck scale. Conceivably, a theory can be constructed where the quantum nature of phenomena at such scales can be attributed to something fundamentally simpler. However, arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there can't be physical laws that require "conspiracy". It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In the lecture we will show several such counterexamples. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. This theory is often portrayed as to underly the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles, including the "Standard Model". So now the question is asked: how can this model feature "conspiracy", and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations?
PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asorey, M.; ClementeGallardo, J.; Marmo, G.
20070701
This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his lifelong activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J ClementeGallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan
A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA)  
L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)  
I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching
Research in Theoretical Particle Physics Ralston, John P. 20130728 This document is the final report on activity of the University of Kansas theory group supported under DOE Grant Number DEFG0204ER14308, ending April 30, 3013. The report covers the most recent three year period period May 1, 2010April 30, 2013. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (coI), Douglas McKay (emeritus) and John Ralston (PI). The group's research topics and accomplishments covered numerous different topics subsumed under the {\\it the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier}, and {\\it the Cosmic Frontier}. Many theoretical and experimental results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The group's research emphasis has been on challenging and confronting {\\it Anything that is Observable} about the physical Universe. Research on elementary particle physics Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A. 19920501 This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p{bar p} collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a {tau}charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development. Theoretical particle physics, Task A Not Available 19910701 This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice HiggsYukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; ParityOdd SpinDependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics. Quantum supremacy of manyparticle thermal machines NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Jaramillo, J.; Beau, M.; del Campo, A. 20160701 While the emergent field of quantum thermodynamics has the potential to impact energy science, the performance of thermal machines is often classical. We ask whether quantum effects can boost the performance of a thermal machine to reach quantum supremacy, i.e., surpassing both the efficiency and power achieved in classical thermodynamics. To this end, we introduce a nonadiabatic quantum heat engine operating an Otto cycle with a manyparticle working medium, consisting of an interacting Bose gas confined in a timedependent harmonic trap. It is shown that thanks to the interplay of nonadiabatic and manyparticle quantum effects, this thermal machine can outperform an ensemble of singleparticle heat engines with same resources, demonstrating the quantum supremacy of manyparticle thermal machines. Quantum particles from coarse grained classical probabilities in phase space Wetterich, C. 20100715 Quantum particles can be obtained from a classical probability distribution in phase space by a suitable coarse graining, whereby simultaneous classical information about position and momentum can be lost. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential follow from classical statistics. This includes interference, tunneling and the uncertainty relation. Counting statistics of manyparticle quantum walks Mayer, Klaus; Tichy, Malte C.; Buchleitner, Andreas; Mintert, Florian; Konrad, Thomas 20110615 We study quantum walks of many noninteracting particles on a beam splitter array as a paradigmatic testing ground for the competition of single and manyparticle interference in a multimode system. We derive a general expression for multimode particlenumber correlation functions, valid for bosons and fermions, and infer pronounced signatures of manyparticle interferences in the counting statistics. Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S.; Butler, James P. 20150101 The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin airblood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. Whereas the particlelung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drug. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this chapter. A large portion of this chapter deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: 1) the physical characteristics of particles, 2) particle behavior in gas flow, and 3) gas flow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The chapter concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research. PMID:24265235 Discrimination of physical states in quantum systems NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) ShinguYano, Mayumi; Shibata, Fumiaki 20010401 Quantum mechanical relaxation and decoherence processes are studied from a view point of discrimination problem of physical states. This is based on an information statistical mechanical method, where concept of a probability density and an entropy is to be generalized. We use a quasiprobability density of Qfunction (Husimi function) and the corresponding entropy (WehrlLieb entropy) and apply the method to a Brownian motion of an oscillator and a nonlinear spin relaxation process. Our main concern lies in obtaining a discrimination probability Pd as a function of time and temperature. Quantum mechanical fluctuation causes profound effects than the thermal fluctuation. Master Equation for a Quantum Particle in a Gas Hornberger, Klaus 20060811 The equation for the quantum motion of a Brownian particle in a gaseous environment is derived by means of Smatrix theory. This quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation accounts nonperturbatively for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics and describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. As a completely positive master equation it incorporates both the known equation for an infinitely massive Brownian particle and the classical linear Boltzmann equation as limiting cases. Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions Hazi, A 20050920 In one of those interesting intersections of particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the University of Florida (UF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have joined together to try to pin down an elusive particle. This particle, called the axion, if it is found to exist and is not just a hypothesis, would be a longsought relic from the first fractional second of the birth of the universe and one of the most weakly interacting particles known. Experimental verification of the existence of the axion would not only help ''balance the budget'' for the missing mass of the universe but also clear up one of the thorniest issues in particle physics. Nuclear and Particle Physics Simulations: The Consortium of UpperLevel Physics Software NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Bigelow, Roberta; Moloney, Michael J.; Philpott, John; Rothberg, Joseph 19950601 The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.
