For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.

1

Quantum Particle Motion in Physical Space

Using Feynman's representation of the quantum evolution and considering a quantum particle as a matter field (continuous medium), it is shown that individual particles of the field have unique paths of the motion. This allows describing motion of the quantum particle continuous medium by Lagrange's method. It is shown that form of the real individual particle path is determined by classical minimum action principle.

Samarin A. Yu

2014-07-14

2

Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles

We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936

Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

2015-01-01

3

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 024102 (2014) Tracing the past of a quantum particle

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 024102 (2014) Tracing the past of a quantum particle L. Vaidman Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel (Received 29 December 2013; published 13 February 2014) The question "Where was a quantum particle between pre

Vaidman, Lev

4

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 052104 (2013) Past of a quantum particle

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 052104 (2013) Past of a quantum particle L. Vaidman Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel (Received 25 November there is no consensus regarding the "reality" of the past of a quantum particle, in situations where there is only one

Vaidman, Lev

5

Physics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field

Physics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field These notes present the motivation for the Schrodinger equation for a charged particle in an external of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. We then use this result to obtain the Schrodinger equation

California at Santa Cruz, University of

6

Physics 216 Spring 2012 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field

Physics 216 Spring 2012 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field These notes present the Schrodinger equation for a charged particle in an external electromagnetic field. In order to obtain the relevant equation, we first examine the classical Hamiltonian of a charged particle

California at Santa Cruz, University of

7

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum physics allows us to understand the nature of the physical phenomena which govern the behavior of solids, semi-conductors, lasers, atoms, nuclei, subnuclear particles and light. In Quantum Physics, Le Bellac provides a thoroughly modern approach to this fundamental theory. Throughout the book, Le Bellac teaches the fundamentals of quantum physics using an original approach which relies primarily on an algebraic treatment and on the systematic use of symmetry principles. In addition to the standard topics such as one-dimensional potentials, angular momentum and scattering theory, the reader is introduced to more recent developments at an early stage. These include a detailed account of entangled states and their applications, the optical Bloch equations, the theory of laser cooling and of magneto-optical traps, vacuum Rabi oscillations, and an introduction to open quantum systems. This is a textbook for a modern course on quantum physics, written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Completely original and contemporary approach, using algebra and symmetry principles Introduces recent developments at an early stage, including many topics that cannot be found in standard textbooks. Contains 130 physically relevant exercises

Le Bellac, Michel

2006-03-01

8

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron-and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low temperatures, the

Y. Aoki; G. Endrodi; Z. Fodor; S. D. Katz; K. K. Szabó

2006-01-01

9

Quantum Physics: An Introduction

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to Quantum Physics concepts with an activity demonstrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, wave/particle duality, Planck's Constant, de Broglie wavelength, and how Newton's Laws go right out the window on a quantum level.

10

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The revered quantum physicist Richard Feynman once quipped, â??I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.â? And yet, the study of quantum mechanics has given birth to the laser, the microchip, and the electron microscope. Whatâ??s going on here? You can find out by taking Quantum Physics I, a completely free online class from MIT. The Syllabus is a great way to get situated with the course offerings and the Readings section offers links to help purchase the necessary books. When ready, strap yourself into your office chair and launch into the 24 one-hour-long Lecture Videos. Donâ??t forget the Lecture Notes (youâ??ll need those!), as well as Assignments, Exams, and Study Materials. If you have ever longed to understand the Higgs Boson or wondered how a photon can act as either a particle or a wave, this incredible, knowledge packed course from one of the top scientific universities in the world is for you.

Adams, Allan

2013-01-01

11

Quantum particles from classical statistics

Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.

C. Wetterich

2010-02-11

12

Research in theoretical particle physics

This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and Schwinger-Dyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)

McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.

1992-05-01

13

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. The Discovery of Quanta: 1. Physics and theoretical physics in 1895; 2. Planck and black-body radiation; 3. Einstein and quanta, 1900-1911; Part II. The Old Quantum Theory: 4. The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom; 5. Sommerfield and Ehrenfest - generalising the Bohr model; 6. Einstein coefficients, Bohr's correspondence principle and the first selection rules; 7. Understanding atomic spectra - additional quantum numbers; 8. Bohr's model of the periodic table and the origin of spin; 9. The wave-particle duality; Part III. The Discovery of Quantum Mechanics; 10. The collapse of the old quantum theory and the seeds of its regeneration; 11. The Heisenberg breakthrough; 12. Matrix mechanics; 13. Dirac's quantum mechanics; 14. Schrödinger and wave mechanics; 15. Reconciling matrix and wave mechanics; 16. Spin and quantum statistics; 17. The interpretation of quantum mechanics; 18. The aftermath; 19. Epilogue; Indices.

Longair, Malcolm

2013-01-01

14

The particle invariance in particle physics

Since the particles such as molecules, atoms and nuclei are composite particles, it is important to recognize that physics must be invariant for the composite particles and their constituent particles, this requirement is called particle invariance in this paper. But difficulties arise immediately because for fermion we use Dirac equation, for meson we use Klein-Gordon equation and for classical particle we use Newtonian mechanics, while the connections between these equations are quite indirect. Thus if the particle invariance is held in physics, i.e., only one physical formalism exists for any particle, we can expect to find out the differences between these equations by employing the particle invariance. As the results, several new relationships between them are found, the most important result is that the obstacles that cluttered the path from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics are found, it becomes possible to derive the quantum wave equations from relativistic mechanics after the obstacles are removed. An improved model is proposed to gain a better understanding on elementary particle interactions. This approach offers enormous advantages, not only for giving the first physically reasonable interpretation of quantum mechanics, but also for improving quark model.

H. Y. Cui

2002-05-08

15

We discuss the implementation of quantum logic in a system of strongly interacting particles. The implementation is qubitless since ``logical qubits'' don't correspond to any physical two-state subsystems. As an illustration, we present the results of simulations of the quantum controlled-NOT gate and Shor's algorithm for a chain of spin-1/2 particles with Heisenberg coupling. Our proposal extends the current theory of quantum information processing to include systems with permanent strong coupling between the two-state subsystems.

Kassman, R B; Tsifrinovich, V I; López, G V; Kassman, Richard B.; Berman, Gennady P.; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I.; Lopez, Gustavo V.

2002-01-01

16

6.728 Applied Quantum and Statistical Physics, Fall 2002

Elementary quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Introduces applied quantum physics. Emphasizes experimental basis for quantum mechanics. Applies Schrodinger's equation to the free particle, tunneling, the harmonic ...

Bulovic, Vladimir, 1970-

17

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron--and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low temperatures, the dominant degrees of freedom are colourless bound states of hadrons (such as protons and pions). However, QCD is asymptotically free, meaning that at high energies or temperatures the interaction gets weaker and weaker, causing hadrons to break up. This behaviour underlies the predicted cosmological transition between the low-temperature hadronic phase and a high-temperature quark-gluon plasma phase (for simplicity, we use the word 'phase' to characterize regions with different dominant degrees of freedom). Despite enormous theoretical effort, the nature of this finite-temperature QCD transition (that is, first-order, second-order or analytic crossover) remains ambiguous. Here we determine the nature of the QCD transition using computationally demanding lattice calculations for physical quark masses. Susceptibilities are extrapolated to vanishing lattice spacing for three physical volumes, the smallest and largest of which differ by a factor of five. This ensures that a true transition should result in a dramatic increase of the susceptibilities. No such behaviour is observed: our finite-size scaling analysis shows that the finite-temperature QCD transition in the hot early Universe was not a real phase transition, but an analytic crossover (involving a rapid change, as opposed to a jump, as the temperature varied). As such, it will be difficult to find experimental evidence of this transition from astronomical observations. PMID:17035999

Aoki, Y; Endrodi, G; Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Szabó, K K

2006-10-12

18

Particle Physics and Introduction to Field Theory

The gamut of modern particle physics is presented. Topics included are a self-contained introduction to standard quantum field theory, a discussion of solitons, a detailed discussion of symmetry principles in particle physics, including symmetry breaking, and the formalism and physical ideas of non-Abelain gauge theories and Quantum Chromodynamics. Recent original research by the author is presented. The book concludes with

T. D. Lee; Sidney Drell

1981-01-01

19

"Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and excellent working conditions. We would like to thank Martina Mende for all her work in helping to organize this conference. Details of the conference can be found under: https://indico.desy.de/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=8107

20

Particle Statistics in Quantum Information Processing

Particle statistics is a fundamental part of quantum physics, and yet its role and use in the context of quantum information have been poorly explored so far. After briefly introducing particle statistics and the Symmetrization Postulate, I will argue that this fundamental aspect of Nature can be seen as a resource for quantum information processing and I will present examples showing how it is possible to do useful and efficient quantum information processing using only the effects of particles statistics.

Y. Omar

2004-12-29

21

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, we have only considered "non-relativistic" systems, where the velocities of massive particles such as electrons, protons, atoms, and so forth, are small with respect to the speed of light, c. Being massless, photons travel, of course, at the speed of light. This chapter is going to combine quantum physics with relativity, at first with special relativity (Einstein 1905) in Sections 7.1 and 7.2, and then in Section 7.3 with general relativity (Einstein 1915). In the first case, we obtain relativistic quantum field theory which is needed for elementary particle physics, and the first two sections will describe the present status of the theory which is known as the standard model of elementary particle physics, the standard model for short. The second case is that of quantum gravity and, with the example of length measurement, we shall try to understand the difficulties which this theory encounters and which have not yet been overcome today.

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

22

The Birth of Elementary-Particle Physics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the origin and development of particle physics, concentrating on the roles of cosmic rays and theory. Includes charts highlighting significant events in the development of cosmic-ray physics and quantum field theory. (SK)

Brown, Laurie M.; Hoddeson, Lillian

1982-01-01

23

Open Source Physics: Quantum Spins

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OSP Spins is an interactive computer program that simulates Stern-Gerlach-type measurements on spin-1/2 and spin-1 particles. This package provides the user with a sequence of tutorials and exercises to help them explore the physics of quantum spin. Fundamental issues such as incompatible observables, eigenstate expansions, interference, and quantum dynamics are included.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-08-12

24

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

C. Amsler; M. Doser; M. Antonelli; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; H. Baer; H. R. Band; R. M. Barnett; E. Bergren; J. Beringer; G. Bernardi; W. Bertl; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; S. Blusk; R. N. Cahn; M. Carena; C. Caso; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; M.-C. Chen; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; T. Damour; A. de Gouvęa; T. DeGrand; B. Dobrescu; M. Drees; D. A. Edwards; S. Eidelman; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; J. L. Feng; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; T. Gherghetta; G. F. Giudice; M. Goodman; C. Grab; A. V. Gritsan; J.-F. Grivaz; D. E. Groom; M. Grünewald; A. Gurtu; T. Gutsche; H. E. Haber; K. Hagiwara; C. Hagmann; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; J. Huston; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; T. Junk; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; I. G. Knowles; C. Kolda; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Krusche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; Y. Kwon; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; C.-J. Lin; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; H. Mahlke; M. L. Mangano; T. Mannel; A. V. Manohar; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; A. Masoni; D. Milstead; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; M. Narain; P. Nason; S. Navas; P. Nevski; Y. Nir; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; J. A. Peacock; G. Punzi; A. Quadt; S. Raby; G. Raffelt; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; A. Romaniouk; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; F. Sauli; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; J. G. Smith; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; S. L. Stone; T. Sumiyoshi; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; M. Titov; N. P. Tkachenko; N. A. Törnqvist; D. Tovey; G. H. Trilling; T. G. Trippe; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; P. Vogel; D. R. Ward; T. Watari; B. R. Webber; G. Weiglein; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; A. Wheeler; C. G. Wohl; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; R. L. Workman; A. Yamamoto; W.-M. Yao; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu; P. A. Zyla; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner

2008-01-01

25

This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 1900 new measurements from 700 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

R. M. Barnett; C. D. Carone; D. E. Groom; T. G. Trippe; C. G. Wohl; B. Armstrong; P. S. Gee; G. S. Wagman; F. James; M. Mangano; K. Mönig; L. Montanet; J. L. Feng; H. Murayama; J. J. Hernández; A. Manohar; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Caso; R. L. Crawford; M. Roos; N. A. Törnqvist; K. G. Hayes; K. Hagiwara; K. Nakamura; M. Tanabashi; K. Olive; K. Honscheid; P. R. Burchat; R. E. Shrock; S. Eidelman; R. H. Schindler; A. Gurtu; K. Hikasa; G. Conforto; R. L. Workman; C. Grab; C. Amsler

1996-01-01

26

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2633 new measurements from 689 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

2006-01-01

27

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2158 new measurements from 551 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

K. Nakamura

2010-01-01

28

The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina] (ORCID:0000000338571223); Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

2014-08-31

29

Subatomic (Particle) Physics in Canada The Canadian particle physics community

Subatomic (Particle) Physics in Canada Âˇ The Canadian particle physics community Âˇ Our subatomic physics facilities Âˇ Our particle physics program Âˇ Connections with the international community William Physics Âˇ Founded in forty years ago to: Â Promote and coordinate particle physics research in Canada

30

Particle Physics and Cosmology

An interplay between elementary particle physics and cosmology is discussed with a special emphasis on the theory of scalar meson fields and the inflationary universe scenario. It is shown that the chaotic inflation scenario, unlike the new inflationary universe scenario, can be realized in a wide class of realistic theories of elementary particles under some natural assumptions concerning initial conditions

Andrei Linde

1985-01-01

31

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Fermilab website offers physicists the chance to educate individuals about the "fundamental particles and forces of our universe." The website offers a database containing over 250 hands-on activities, special events, research participation, and other educational and outreach programs. The information can be searched by state, audience, and institution. The database offers a brief description of each program and a link to its website. Students can learn about the basics of particle physics through a concise article. Educators can discover why particle physics education is important.

32

Particle Physics and Cosmology

In the first Lecture, the Big Bang and the Standard Model of particle physics are introduced, as well as the structure of the latter and open issues beyond it. Neutrino physics is discussed in the second Lecture, with emphasis on models for neutrino masses and oscillations. The third Lecture is devoted to supersymmetry, including the prospects for discovering it at

Jonathan Richard Ellis

2003-01-01

33

Particle physics and cosmology

This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

Kolb, E.W.

1986-10-01

34

Cosmology and Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses. In the last few years we have witnessed the birth and growth to healthy adolescence of a new collaboration between astrophysicists and particle physicists. The most notable success of this cooperative effort has been to provide the framework for understanding, within the context of GUTs and the hot big-bang cosmology, the universal baryon asymmetry. The most exciting new predictions this effort has spawned are that exotic relics may exist in detectable abundances. In particular, we may live in a neutrino-dominated Universe. In the next few years, accummulating laboratory data (for example proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations) coupled with theoritical work in particle physics and cosmology will ensure the growth to maturity of this joint effort.

Steigman, G.

1982-01-01

35

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, this website was created to educate everyone about particle physics. Individuals can find archived press releases, news articles, and particle physics pictures. The website summarizes the role of particle physics in industry and offers links to educational and employment opportunities. Students and educators can find out about famous physicists and the principles of particle physics and its history. Scientists can locate high energy physics universities, groups, and experiments.

2007-04-30

36

Particle Physics and Cosmology

In the first Lecture, the Big Bang and the Standard Model of particle physics are introduced, as well as the structure of the latter and open issues beyond it. Neutrino physics is discussed in the second Lecture, with emphasis on models for neutrino masses and oscillations. The third Lecture is devoted to supersymmetry, including the prospects for discovering it at accelerators or as cold dark matter. Inflation is reviewed from the viewpoint of particle physics in the fourth Lecture, including simple models with a single scalar inflaton field: the possibility that this might be a sneutrino is proposed. Finally, the fifth Lecture is devoted to topics further beyond the Standard Model, such as grand unification, baryo- and leptogenesis - that might be due to sneutrino inflaton decays - and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays - that might be due to the decays of metastable superheavy dark matter particles.

John Ellis

2003-05-02

37

Non-accelerator Particle Physics

Non-accelerator Particle Physics and Neutrino Physics Research programs of: Prof. Martin that often connect particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology Some questions: - What particles of the neutrino? #12;The techniques: Laboratory experiments, in the style of particle physics Âˇ High energy

Wechsler, Risa H.

38

Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

Markus Arndt; Thomas Juffmann; Vlatko Vedral

2009-11-01

39

Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena. PMID:20234806

Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

2009-01-01

40

The Quantum Gravity wars: Quantum Physics confronts

#12;Reality: Âˇ Quantum physics is part of everyday technology. Âˇ Special relativity -- speed of lightThe Quantum Gravity wars: Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser #12;Phoenix Society 3 October 2004 #12;Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Abstract: The search

Visser, Matt

41

Physics 129 Nuclear and Particle Physics

Physics 129 Nuclear and Particle Physics Winter Quarter 2008 Instructor: David A. Williams (office materials will be distributed on the web site above. Nine texts on nuclear and particle physics, all: Wednesdays, 1:30Â3 pm, and by appointment. Text: The required text for the course is Âˇ Nuclear and Particle

California at Santa Cruz, University of

42

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction; 2. Underlying concepts; 3. Decay rates and cross sections; 4. The Dirac equation; 5. Interaction by particle exchange; 6. Electron-positron annihilation; 7. Electron-proton elastic scattering; 8. Deep inelastic scattering; 9. Symmetries and the quark model; 10. Quantum chromodynamics; 11. The weak interaction; 12. The weak interactions of leptons; 13. Neutrinos and neutrino oscillations; 14. CP violation and weak hadronic interactions; 15. Electroweak unification; 16. Tests of the Standard Model; 17. The Higgs boson; 18. The Standard Model and beyond; Appendixes; References; Further reading; Index.

Thomson, Mark

2013-09-01

43

The Review of Particle Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Physics Group (PDG) is an "international collaboration that reviews particle physics and related areas of Astrophysics, and compiles/analyzes data on particle properties." The Web site features the 2002 publication, The Review of Particle Physics, which is described as "the most cited publication in particle physics during the last decade." Visitors have access to summary tables and conservation laws; reviews, tables, and plots; and particle listings, which list, average, evaluate, and reference various data used. Other features include a link to particle physics information and databases, archives of past reports, and other helpful resources.

1995-01-01

44

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of eight linked web pages provide a non-mathematical introduction to atomic theory from a historical perspective. The foundations of quantum physics are traced from the discovery of atoms up to quantum tunneling. Other topics include atomic spectra and blackbody radiation. This is part of "From Stargazers to Starships", an extensive web site covering introductory topics in physics and astronomy. Spanish and French translations are available.

Stern, David

2005-11-09

45

Introduction to experimental particle physics

Particle physics is the study of the properties of subatomic particles and of the interactions that occur among them. This book is concerned with the experimental aspects of the subject, including the characteristics of various detectors and considerations in the design of experiments. The book includes a description of the particles and interactions studied in particle physics. Material from relativistic

R. Fernow

1986-01-01

46

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OnScreen Particle Physics, developed by OnScreen Science, Inc., is a Macintosh, and Windows 95/NT particle-chamber simulation, that lets instructors and students do real modern physics without advanced math. OnScreen Particle Physics is also great for independent study.

Science, Onscreen

2003-10-10

47

Cosmology and particle physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

Turner, Michael S.

1988-01-01

48

Physics of windblown particles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory facility proposed for the Space Station to investigate fundamental aspects of windblown particles is described. The experiments would take advantage of the environment afforded in earth orbit and would be an extension of research currently being conducted on the geology and physics of windblown sediments on earth, Mars, and Venus. Aeolian (wind) processes are reviewed in the planetary context, the scientific rational is given for specific experiments to be conducted, the experiment apparatus (the Carousel Wind Tunnel, or CWT) is described, and a plan presented for implementing the proposed research program.

Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman; Marshall, John R.; White, Bruce; Iversen, James D.; Nickling, William G.; Gillette, Dale; Sorensen, Michael

1987-01-01

49

Elementary particle physics: Experimental

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A research program was performed in high energy experimental particle physics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions and leptoproduction processes continue using several experimental techniques. Progress was made on the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. Ultra-high energy cosmic ray nucleus-nucleus interactions were investigated by the Japanese American Cosmic Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) using balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors. In the area of particle astrophysics, studies of cosmic ray nuclear interactions made possible the use of the world's most accurate determination of the comparison of the cosmic rays above 10(exp 13)eV. It is the only detector that can observe interaction vertices and identify particles at energies up to 10 to 15 eV. The observations are getting close to placing limits on the acceleration mechanisms postulated for pulsars in which the spin and magnetic moment axes are at different angles. In June, 1989 approval was given by NASA for our participation in the Space Station program. The SCINATT experiment will make use of emulsion chamber detectors, similar to the planned JACEE hybrid balloon flight detectors. These detector will permit precise determination of secondary particle charges, momenta and rapidities, and the accumulation of data will be at least a factor of 10 to 100 greater than in balloon experiments. Emulsion chamber techniques are also employed in an experiment using accelerator heavy ion beams at CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate particle production processes in central collisions of nuclei in the energy range 15 to 200A GeV. The study of hadroproduction in lepton interactions is continuing with approval of another 8 months run for deep inelastic muon scattering experiment E665 at Fermilab.

Lord, Jere J.; Burnett, T. H.; Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

1989-09-01

50

Quantum teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle

Quantum teleportation provides a "disembodied" way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by priorly shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. In addition to its fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons, and superconducting circuits. Yet, all the previous experiments were limited to teleportation of one degree of freedom (DoF) only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various DoFs -- internal and external -- and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to simultaneously teleport multiple DoFs, which is necessary to fully describe a quantum particle, thereby truly teleporting it intactly. Here, we demonstrate the first teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both the spin and orbital angular momentum. We develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more DoFs. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled state, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work moves a step toward teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an enhanced capability for scalable quantum technologies.

Xi-Lin Wang; Xin-Dong Cai; Zu-En Su; Ming-Cheng Chen; Dian Wu; Li Li; Nai-Le Liu; Chao-Yang Lu; Jian-Wei Pan

2014-09-27

51

Physical Models for Quantum Computers

We discuss the impact of the physical implementation of a quantum computer on its computational efficiency, using computer simulations of physical models of quantum computer hardware. We address the computational efficiency of practical procedures to extract the results of a quantum computation from the wave function respresenting the final state of the quantum computer.

H. De Raedt; K. Michielsen; S. Miyashita; K. Saito

2002-01-01

52

Particle Physics: a Progress Report

We present a concise review of where we stand in particle physics today. First we discuss QCD, then the electroweak sector and finally the motivations and the avenues for new physics beyond the Standard Model.

Guido Altarelli

2006-09-11

53

Elementary particle physics: Experimental

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint U.S./Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with balloon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of (32)S and (16)O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the greater than TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

Lord, Jere J.; Burnett, T. H.; Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

1990-09-01

54

Computer Algebra in Particle Physics

These lectures given to graduate students in theoretical particle physics, provide an introduction to the ``inner workings'' of computer algebra systems. Computer algebra has become an indispensable tool for precision calculations in particle physics. A good knowledge of the basics of computer algebra systems allows one to exploit these systems more efficiently.

Stefan Weinzierl

2002-09-20

55

An Introduction to Particle Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Physics Department at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) provides the Introduction to Particle Physics homepage. Particle physics is defined as "the study of the basic elements of matter and the forces acting among them...to determine the fundamental laws that control the make-up of matter and the physical universe." The Introduction provides more information on Accelerators, Detectors, Antimatter, Big Bang Science, and Dark Matter. Further information can be found in The Big Bang and The Top Quark sections, both of which provide images and in-depth summaries. Users can navigate via a contents page or through links at the bottom of the page.

56

Quantum physics: Frustrated trio mimicked

Quantum simulation is a promising tool for navigating the complex world of many-body physics. The technique has now been employed to simulate a frustrated network of three quantum magnets by using trapped ions.

Hartmut Häffner

2010-01-01

57

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical #12;This thesis entitled Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical Thesis directed by Associate

Colorado at Boulder, University of

58

Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

Helio Takai

2010-01-08

59

Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

Helio Takai

2009-04-10

60

Low-mass particles, such as neutrinos, axions, other Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and gravitons, are produced in the hot and dense interior of stars. Therefore, astrophysical arguments constrain the properties of these particles in ways that are often complementary to cosmological arguments and to laboratory experiments. This review provides an update on the most important stellar-evolution limits and discusses them in the context

Georg G. Raffelt

1999-01-01

61

The Cosmology - Particle Physics Connection

Modern cosmology poses deep and unavoidable questions for fundamental physics. In this plenary talk, delivered in slightly different forms at the {\\it Particles and Nuclei International Conference} (PANIC05) in Santa Fe, in October 2005, and at the {\\it CMB and Physics of the Early Universe International Conference}, on the island of Ischia, Italy, in April 2006, I discuss the broad connections between cosmology and particle physics, focusing on physics at the TeV scale, accessible at the next and future generations of colliders

Mark Trodden

2006-05-26

62

Lithography using quantum entangled particles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)

2001-01-01

63

Lithography using quantum entangled particles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)

2003-01-01

64

An advance report on particle invariance in particle physics

Since particle such as molecule, atom and nucleus are composite particle, it is important to recognize that physics must be invariant for both the composite particle and its constituent particles, this requirement is called particle invariance. But difficulties arise immediately because for fermion we use the Dirac equation, for boson we use the Klein-Gordon equation. Therefore, the particle invariance demands there is a general wave equation for describing particle motion regardless particle class. In this paper, three advances in this subject are reported: (1) momentum-wavefunction relation is a general relation shared by both fermion and boson, meets the requirement of the particle invaiance. As a test, the momentum-wavefunction relation was directly applied to hydrogen atom, and get the correct fine structure and spin effect for the electron. (2) the Dirac equation and Klein-Gordon equation can be derived out from the momentum-wavefunction relation when we abandon some higher order terms. (3) according to the momentum-wavefunction relation a path integral method was developed, differing from Feynman's path integral, it simplfies quantum computation.

H. Y. Cui

2004-09-02

65

Particle Physics UK: Strange Nuclei

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Picture of the Month" from Particle Physics UK shows an image of the nuclear disintegration that occurs when a nucleus is struck by a particle containing a strange quark. The site includes commentary on the tracks in the reaction. The 1952 discovery in Poland was celebrated on a stamp, a postcard, and a postmark, which are pictured.

2007-02-08

66

Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).

Machacek, A. C.

2014-01-01

67

Searching for the unknown in Particle Physics

Searching for the unknown in Particle Physics: past discoveries and present challenges QuarkNet 2002, FSU Laura Reina #12; Outline #15; What is Particle Physics? #15; The origins of Particle Physics and future experimental facilities ! example: the search for the Higgs particle #12; What is Particle Physics

McQuade, D. Tyler

68

Physics 125: Elementary Particle Spring 2008

1 Physics 125: Elementary Particle Physics Syllabus Spring 2008 Professor Jeffrey D. Richman Broida 2.5 m. #12;2 What is particle physics? Particle physics addresses fundamental and challenging routinely. Finally, let me repeat a sentiment of a physicist I know. She said that doing particle physics

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

69

The Physics of Quantum Computation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.

Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette

2015-10-01

70

Geophysics guides particles physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When geophysicists from the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., presented evidence of a sixth fundamental force at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco last month, an uncommon thing happened. Particle physicists responded, in t h e press and elsewhere, to a potential scientific breakthrough made by a group of earth scientists.The event is uncommon because theoretical physicists have been leading the game of leapfrog between the theoreticians, who use mathematics to present new hypotheses and provide rigor for observations, and the experimentalists, who use measurements to test old theories or demonstrate the need for new ones. In recent years, particle physicists have published dozens of theories to explain the behavior of matter and energy on a subatomic scale, according to Purdue physicist Ephraim Fischbach. Some theories, with names like supersymmetry or supergravity, predict the existence of fundamental forces in addition to the four now known to exist: electromagnetism, gravity, and the strong and weak nuclear forces

Maggs, William Ward

71

PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics

PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics BOOKS ON RESERVE IN CRERAR LIBRARY to High Energy Physics QC793.2 .P47 2000 E. SegrĂŠ Nuclei and Particles QC776.S40 A. Seiden Particle Physics: A Comprehensive Introduction QC793.2 .S42 2005 W. S. C. Williams Nuclear and Particle Physics QC

72

Physics 926 Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics

Physics 926 Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics Spring 2008 Course Description We will explore particle physics from a modern perspective, with an eye towards the new physics that we expect Physics (4th Edition), Perkins Quarks and Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics

Farritor, Shane

73

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Neve Shalom, October, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A for the elementary particle masses. Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;Higgs Discovery; LHC

California at Santa Cruz, University of

74

Physics of Particle Detection 1 Claus Grupen

Physics of Particle Detection 1 Claus Grupen Department of Physics, University of Siegen D-57068-energy, cosmic-ray, and nuclear physics [1{7]. Iden- ti#12;cation means that the mass of the particle and its charge is determined. In elementary particle physics most particles have unit charge. But in the study e

Siegen, UniversitĂ¤t

75

In order to calculate the average value of a physical quantity containing also many-particle interactions in a system of N antisymmetric particles, a set of generalized density matrices are defined. In order to permit the investigation of the same physical situation in two complementary spaces, the Hermitean density matrix of order k has two sets of indices of each k

Per-Olov Löwdin

1955-01-01

76

Physics 219: Quantum Computation

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the course web page for an undergraduate Quantum Computation course at Caltech. A course outline, extensive lecture notes, and homework sets, some with solutions, are provided. Links to recent versions of the course are included. There are also links to important references and other web resources in quantum information theory and quantum computation.

Preskill, John

2005-04-16

77

REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS* ParticleDataGroup

, Office of Science, Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, the Division of High Energy Physics; and by the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). #12;2 Particle Data Group K. Nakamura,1,2 K1 REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS* ParticleDataGroup Abstract This biennial Review summarizes much

78

A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

2013-07-25

79

Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the resolution to the wave-particle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in

Hobson, Art

2007-01-01

80

Topics in Elementary Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four different topics in elementary particle physics are discussed. Models with N = 2 supersymmetry are constructed. The CP violation properties of a class of N = 1 supergravity models are analysed. The structure of a composite higgs model is investigated. The implications of a 17 kev neutrino are considered.

Dugan, Michael John

81

Higher-dimensional oscillations of quantum particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework is developed in which elementary particles have a component of their wave function extending into higher spatial dimensions, based on an extension of the Schr"odinger equation to include 4^th and 5^th spatial components [E. R. Hedin, Physics Essays 25, 2 (2012)]. A higher-dimensional harmonic oscillator confining potential localizes particles into 3-d space (characterizing the ``brane tension'' which confines Standard Model particles to the sub-manifold). Several consistency checks of this model are: a match with the quantum phenomenon of ``zitterbewegung''; the predicted intrinsic spin angular momentum is of order h/2?; the magnetic moment of the electron is determined (with a gyromagnetic ratio of 2); the nuclear force ``hard core'' radius is accurately predicted; the ratio of quark masses (of the up and down quarks) is found to be consistent with QCD theory; and possible explanations of the Planck mass and Planck length. An application of higher-dimensional particle effects to the astrophysics of stars shows that radical physical inconsistencies are not evident. Finally, this model suggests a possible explanation of dark matter as the fractional probability manifestations of a ladder of the higher-dimensional symmetric excited states of ordinary particles.

Hedin, Eric

2013-04-01

82

Student Perspectives in Quantum Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introductory courses in classical physics are promoting in students a realist perspective, made up in part by the belief that all physical properties of a system can be simultaneously specified, and thus determined at all future times. Such a perspective can be problematic for introductory quantum physics students, who must develop new framings of epistemic and ontological resources in order to properly interpret what it means to have knowledge of quantum systems. We document this evolution in student thinking in part through pre/post instruction evaluations using the CLASS attitude survey. We further characterize variations in student epistemic and ontological commitments by examining responses to an essay question, coupled with responses to supplemental quantum attitude statements. We find that, after instruction in modern physics, many students are still exhibiting a realist perspective in contexts where a quantum perspective is needed. We also find that this effect can be significantly influenced by instruction, where we observe variations for courses with differing learning goals.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2008-09-15

83

8.04 Quantum Physics I, Spring 2003

Experimental basis of quantum physics: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, photons, Franck-Hertz experiment, the Bohr atom, electron diffraction, deBroglie waves, and wave-particle duality of matter and light. ...

Lee, Young S.

84

Connections Between LSST Science and Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in the midst of a revolution in physics. Observing the cosmos has provided compelling evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics: non-zero neutrino masses, non-baryonic dark matter, dark energy and primordial inflation. Together with ordinary matter these constituents determine the structure of the Universe. The necessary, but puzzling, connection between the inner space of quantum reality and outer space of cosmic reality will enable the discovery of new particle physics through astrophysical observations and may reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity in a new synthesis: a Standard Model of the Universe. LSST will significantly contribute to answering the following questions: What is dark energy? What is dark matter? What are the neutrino masses? Was primordial inflation responsible for the origin of large-scale structure (LSS)? Did it leave observable imprints that can shed light on the unification of the fundamental forces? Can gravity be described in a unified quantum framework with the other forces? Precision cosmological observations will enable falsification of models covering the inflationary epoch, through the dark ages, to the first generation of stars and galaxies, and the current cosmic acceleration. LSST will study the impact of dark energy on both the history of cosmic expansion and growth of LSS using diverse techniques based on: weak-lensing, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae, galaxy cluster counts and strong lensing of quasars. Inconsistencies in the results may signal deficiencies in General Relativity and the need for a new theory of gravity. Properties of dark matter will be gleaned by studying the evolution of structure and by strong-lensing of galaxies, quasars and supernovae. Precision measurements of the matter power spectra vs cosmic time will constrain the sum of neutrino masses. LSST will probe inflation using cosmic shear and the spatial power spectrum of galaxies.

Tyson, J. A.; Burchat, P.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Kahn, S. M.; Shipsey, I.; Thaler, J.

2013-01-01

85

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University for Particle Physics #12;A Moment to Celebrate: The Higgs Discovery The past year has been a historic one for physics. The LHC has discovered a scalar particle, probably the Higgs of the simplest version

California at Santa Cruz, University of

86

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior the appearance of a single Higgs particle, with a mass not much above the LEP exclusions. In high energy physics

California at Santa Cruz, University of

87

Numerical Simulations in Particle Physics

Numerical simulations have become an important tool to understand and predict non-perturbative phenomena in particle physics. In this article we attempt to present a general overview over the field. First, the basic concepts of lattice gauge theories are described, including a discussion of currently used algorithms and the reconstruction of continuum physics from lattice results. We then proceed to present some results for QCD, both at low energies and at high temperatures, as well as for the electro-weak sector of the standard model.

F. Karsch; E. Laermann

1993-04-14

88

Cosmic Inflation Meets Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there exists a large multitude of inflationary models, the connection of inflation to particle physics is still an unsolved puzzle. In particular, in supergravity theories, where the so-called ?-problem tends to spoil slow-roll inflation, the construction of convincing and technically natural models of inflation is challenging. We discuss some recent developments regarding the quest for particle physics models of inflation in supergravity. One such development is provided by a new class of inflationary models, referred to as "tribrid inflation", which is taylor-made for solving the ?-problem by shift symmetry or Heisenberg symmetry. Based on this approach, it has recently been shown that inflation can be consistently realised with a gauge non-singlet inflaton field (residing e.g. in a GUT representation), with, simultaneously, the ?-problem solved by a Heisenberg symmetry.

Antusch, S.; Baumann, J. P.; Dutta, K.; Kostka, P. M.

2011-03-01

89

Signal Significance in Particle Physics

The concept of the "statistical significance" of an observation, and how it is used in particle physics experiments is reviewed. More properly known as a "p-value," the statistical foundations for this concept are reviewed from a freqentist perspective. The discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and a more recent analysis of data recorded at Fermilab are used to illustrate practical applications of these concepts.

Pekka K. Sinervo

2002-08-05

90

Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics

These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2008-02-05

91

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Manuel Joffre, Jean-Louis Basdevant, and Jean Dalibard at France's Ecole Polytechnique, this Web site covers topics in introductory quantum mechanics through a series of animations and simulations. Topics covered include Wave Mechanics, Quantization in one and three dimensions, Quantum Superposition in one and two dimensions, and Spin 1/2. Students will find these difficult concepts easily and intuitively illustrated. Most of the simulations are interactive, allowing visitors to change the parameters in order to better grasp the concepts.

Basdevant, Jean-Louis

92

Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program

We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.

Karchin, Paul E.

2011-09-01

93

Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vision of solving the nuclear many-body problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and many-body methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadership-class parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quark-gluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed.

Vary, James P.

2014-06-01

94

Particle staining: physically based texture generation

generated particle system in a phenomenological model. The motion of these particles is controlled by physically based constraints, such as wind, gravity, mass, etc. The way in which each particle interacts with or modifies the look of the surface...

Mistrot, Jean Michael

2004-09-30

95

Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

Not Available

1992-09-01

96

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides small-group learning materials for teaching wave physics and modern physics to non-science-majors. To match student skills, observation, qualitative analysis, and graphical representations are used to introduce interference, discuss energy and probability, and develop an understanding of bound states, spectroscopy, modeling of molecules, and tunneling.

Wittmann, Michael C.; Morgan, Jeffrey T.

2007-07-20

97

Enrico Fermi and the Old Quantum Physics

We outline Fermi's early attitude towards old quantum physics. We sketch out the context from which his interest for quantum physics arose, and we deal with his work on quantum statistics. We also go through the first two courses on theoretical physics he held in Rome, and his 1928 book on atomic physics.

Alberto De Gregorio; Fabio Sebastiani

2009-01-01

98

Model of a quantum particle in spacetime

Doplicher, Fredenhagen, and Roberts (1994, 1995) proposed a simple model of a particle in quantum spacetime. We give a new formulation of the model and propose some small changes and additions which improve the physical interpretation. In particular, we show that the internal degrees of freedom e and m of the particle represent external forces acting on the particle. To obtain this result we follow a constructive approach. The model is formulated as a covariance system. It has projective representations in which not only the spacetime coordinates but also the conjugated momenta are two-by-two noncommuting. These momenta are of the form P_mu-(b/c)A_mu, where b is the charge of the particle. The electric and magnetic fields obtained from the vector potential A_mu coincide with the variables e and m postulated by DFR. Similarly, the spacetime position operators are of the form Q_mu-(al^2/hbar c) Omega_mu where a is a generalized charge, l a fundamental length, and with vector potentials Omega_mu which are in some sense dual w.r.t. the A_mu.

Jan Naudts; Maciej Kuna

2000-12-21

99

Quantum simulations of physics problems

If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not efficiently simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical 'questions' more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin-1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed, and we show quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.

Somma, R. D. (Rolando D.); Ortiz, G. (Gerardo); Knill, E. H. (Emanuel H.); Gubernatis, J. E.

2003-01-01

100

Micro-Macro Duality in Quantum Physics

Micro-Macro Duality means here the universal mutual relations between the microscopic quantum world and various macroscopic classical levels, which can be formulated mathematically as categorical adjunctions. It underlies a unified scheme for generalized sectors based upon selection criteria proposed by myself in 2003 to control different branches of physics from a unified viewpoint, which has played essential roles in extending the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts superselection theory to various situations with spontaneously as well as explicitly broken symmetries. Along this line of thought, the state correlations between a system and a measuring apparatus necessary for measurements can canonically be formulated within the context of group duality; the obtained measurement scheme is not restricted to the quantum mechanical situations with finite number of particles but can safely be applied to quantum field theory with infinite degrees of freedom whose local subalgebras are given by type III von Neumann algebras.

Izumi Ojima

2005-02-14

101

Topics in particle physics and cosmology

The Standard Model of particle physics, together with the Big Bang model of the early universe, constitute a framework which encompasses our current understanding of fundamental laws and beginning of our universe. Despite recent speculative trends, quantum field theory remains the theoretical tool of choice for investigating new physics either at high energy colliders, or in the early universe. In this dissertation, several field theoretic phenomena relevant to cosmology or particle physics are explored. A common theme in these explorations is the structure of the vacuum state in quantum field theory. First, we discuss first-order phase transitions in the early universe, in which the effective vacuum state of the universe shifts discontinuously as the temperature drops below some critical point. We find that the dynamics of a certain type of first-order phase transition can lead to production of primordial black holes, which could constitute the dark matter of our universe. Alternatively, supercooled first-order phase transitions may be the cause of an extended inflationary epoch in the early universe, which is generally regarded as necessary to solve several cosmological puzzles. We derive limits on such scenarios based on nearly model-independent percolation properties of the transition. We also study some nonperturbative aspects of the field theory vacuum. We show that non-topological solitons of a single fermion and Higgs fields can only exist in strongly coupled theories. In particular, we find that at the lowest fermionic excitations in the Standard Model are single fermions, and not bound states of fermion plugs Higgs. Finally, we investigate the intriguing behavior of instanton-induced cross sections. We discover Higgs-Higgs cross sections which increase exponentially with center of mass energy due to the presence of instanton solutions related to vacuum instability.

Hsu, S.D.H.

1991-08-02

102

Black hole horizons and quantum charged particles

We point out a structural similarity between the characterization of black hole apparent horizons as stable marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) and the quantum description of a non-relativistic charged particle moving in given magnetic and electric fields on a closed surface. Specifically, the spectral problem of the MOTS-stability operator corresponds to a stationary quantum particle with a formal fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ of negative sign. We discuss how such analogy enriches both problems, illustrating this with the insights into the MOTS-spectral problem gained from the analysis of the spectrum of the quantum charged particle Hamiltonian.

José Luis Jaramillo

2014-10-02

103

The dialogue between particle physics and cosmology

In the last decade, a very close relationship has developed between particle physics and cosmology. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to the many scientific connections between the two fields. Before entering into the discussion of specific topics, it will first be shown that particle physics and cosmology are completely interdependent. 173 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

Sadoulet, B.

1988-04-01

104

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1 Giacomo Mauro D Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia Abstract. Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

105

Programming physical realizations of quantum computers

We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a

Hans De Raedt; Kristel Michielsen; Anthony Hams; Seiji Miyashita; Keiji Saito

2001-01-01

106

Energetic particle physics: progressEnergetic particle physics: progress and plansand plans

Energetic particle physics: progressEnergetic particle physics: progress and plansand plans Office by #12;NSTX 2009-13 5 year Plan Â Energetic Particles (Fredrickson) 2July 28, 2008 NSTX is uniquely positioned to study energetic particle physics required for next-step devices Âˇ For ITER/future STs, we need

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

107

Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Greens function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. Exact Greens function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldańa, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

2013-08-15

108

Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and Ką -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vvŻ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physi

Studenikin, Alexander I.

2009-01-01

109

Physical Propositions and Quantum Languages

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The word proposition is used in physics with different meanings, which must be distinguished to avoid interpretational problems. We construct two languages ? * ( x) and ?( x) with classical set-theoretical semantics which allow us to illustrate those meanings and to show that the non-Boolean lattice of propositions of quantum logic (QL) can be obtained by selecting a subset of p-testable propositions within the Boolean lattice of all propositions associated with sentences of ?( x). Yet, the aforesaid semantics is incompatible with the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) because of known no-go theorems. But if one accepts our criticism of these theorems and the ensuing SR (semantic realism) interpretation of QM, the incompatibility disappears, and the classical and quantum notions of truth can coexist, since they refer to different metalinguistic concepts ( truth and verifiability according to QM, respectively). Moreover one can construct a quantum language ? TQ ( x) whose Lindenbaum Tarski algebra is isomorphic to QL, the sentences of which state (testable) properties of individual samples of physical systems, while standard QL does not bear this interpretation.

Garola, Claudio

2008-01-01

110

Physical transformations between quantum states

Given two sets of quantum states {A_1, ..., A_k} and {B_1, ..., B_k}, represented as sets of density matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a physical transformation T, represented as a trace-preserving completely positive map, such that T(A_i) = B_i for i = 1, ..., k. General completely positive maps without the trace-preserving requirement, and unital completely positive maps transforming the states are also considered.

Zejun Huang; Chi-Kwong Li; Edward Poon; Nung-Sing Sze

2012-10-26

111

Quantum resonances in physical tunneling

It has recently been emphasized that the probability of quantum tunneling is a critical function of the shape of the potential. Applying this observation to physical systems, we point out that in principal information on potential surfaces can be obtained by studying tunneling rates. This is especially true in cases where only spectral data is known, since many potentials yield the same spectrum. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Nieto, M.M.; Truax, D.R.

1985-01-01

112

Quantum Black Holes As Elementary Particles

Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin-1/2, spin-1, and the Planckcharge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmic rays from distant sources. They could also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.

Yuan K. Ha

2008-01-01

113

Quantum Cryptography Using Single Particle Entanglement

A quantum cryptography scheme based on entanglement between a single particle state and a vacuum state is proposed. The scheme utilizes linear optics devices to detect the superposition of the vacuum and single particle states. Existence of an eavesdropper can be detected by using a variant of Bell's inequality.

Jae-Weon Lee; Eok Kyun Lee; Yong Wook Chung; Hai-Woong Lee; Jaewan Kim

2003-01-23

114

Research in theoretical particle physics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and Schwinger-Dyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)

McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.

1992-05-01

115

Particle Physics Town Meeting 2010 John Womersley

Particle Physics Town Meeting 2010 John Womersley Director, Science Programmes March 2010 #12 Support (at reduced funding levels) the following projects: Âˇ Particle Physics Â ATLAS + upgrade, CMS at FAIR #12;Programme Prioritisation Âˇ Astronomy Â ESO telescopes (VLT, VISTA and ALMA), R&D for ELT

Crowther, Paul

116

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a

Hobson, Art

2011-01-01

117

Particle Physics: From School to University.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching of particle physics as part of the A-level physics course in British secondary schools. Utilizes the quark model of hadrons and the conceptual kinematics of particle collisions, as examples, to demonstrate practical instructional possibilities in relation to student expectations. (JJK)

Barlow, Roger

1992-01-01

118

Quarked!--Adventures in Particle Physics Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike--with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not

MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice

2009-01-01

119

Graphene: from materials science to particle physics

Since its discovery in 2004, graphene, a two-dimensional hexagonal carbon allotrope, has generated great interest and spurred research activity from materials science to particle physics and vice versa. In particular, graphene has been found to exhibit outstanding electronic and mechanical properties, as well as an unusual low-energy spectrum of Dirac quasiparticles giving rise to a fractional quantum Hall effect when freely suspended and immersed in a magnetic field. One of the most intriguing puzzles of graphene involves the low-temperature conductivity at zero density, a central issue in the design of graphene-based nanoelectronic components. While suspended graphene experiments have shown a trend reminiscent of semiconductors, with rising resistivity at low temperatures, most theories predict a constant or even decreasing resistivity. However, lattice field theory calculations have revealed that suspended graphene is at or near the critical coupling for excitonic gap formation due to strong Coulomb interactions, which suggests a simple and straightforward explanation for the experimental data. In this contribution we review the current status of the field with emphasis on the issue of gap formation, and outline recent progress and future points of contact between condensed matter physics and Lattice QCD.

Joaquín E. Drut; Timo A. Lähde; Eero Tölö

2010-11-02

120

Topics in elementary particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics:

Jin, Xiang

121

Standard Model of Particle Physics--a health physics perspective.

The Standard Model of Particle Physics is reviewed with an emphasis on its relationship to the physics supporting the health physics profession. Concepts important to health physics are emphasized and specific applications are presented. The capability of the Standard Model to provide health physics relevant information is illustrated with application of conservation laws to neutron and muon decay and in the calculation of the neutron mean lifetime. PMID:20938231

Bevelacqua, J J

2010-11-01

122

Quantum Gravity: physics from supergeometries

We show that the metric (line element) is the first geometrical object to be associated to a discrete (quantum) structure of the spacetime without necessity of black hole-entropy-area arguments, in sharp contrast with other attempts in the literature. To this end, an emergent metric solution obtained previously in [Physics Letters B 661, 186-191 (2008)] from a particular non-degenerate Riemmanian superspace is introduced. This emergent metric is described by a physical coherent state belonging to the metaplectic group Mp (n) with a Poissonian distribution at lower n (number basis) restoring the classical thermal continuum behaviour at large n (n ! 1), or leading to non-classical radiation states, as is conjectured in a quite general basis by mean the Bekenstein- Mukhanov effect. Group-dependent conditions that control the behavior of the macroscopic regime spectrum (thermal or not), as the relationship with the problem of area / entropy of the black hole are presented and discussed.

Diego Julio Cirilo-Lombardo; Thiago Prudencio

2014-06-13

123

Quantum vortices and trajectories in particle diffraction

We investigate the phenomenon of the diffraction of charged particles by thin material targets using the method of the de Broglie-Bohm quantum trajectories. The particle wave function can be modeled as a sum of two terms $\\psi=\\psi_{ingoing}+\\psi_{outgoing}$. A thin separator exists between the domains of prevalence of the ingoing and outgoing wavefunction terms. The structure of the quantum-mechanical currents in the neighborhood of the separator implies the formation of an array of \\emph{quantum vortices}. The flow structure around each vortex displays a characteristic pattern called `nodal point - X point complex'. The X point gives rise to stable and unstable manifolds. We find the scaling laws characterizing a nodal point-X point complex by a local perturbation theory around the nodal point. We then analyze the dynamical role of vortices in the emergence of the diffraction pattern. In particular, we demonstrate the abrupt deflections, along the direction of the unstable manifold, of the quantum trajectories approaching an X-point along its stable manifold. Theoretical results are compared to numerical simulations of quantum trajectories. We finally calculate the {\\it times of flight} of particles following quantum trajectories from the source to detectors placed at various scattering angles $\\theta$, and thereby propose an experimental test of the de Broglie - Bohm formalism.

N. Delis; C. Efthymiopoulos; G. Contopoulos

2011-03-14

124

Compact Stars: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics and General Relativity

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graduate level textbook which explores the areas of astrophysics and cosmology where nuclear physics, particle physics and general relativity combine. Included is material on the application of these divisions of physics in white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes while providing background information on stellar formation, pulsars and the strange-matter hypothesis.

Glendenning, Norman

2009-06-12

125

Modelling, Algorithms and Simulation for Wave Motion in Quantum and Plasma Physics

Modelling, Algorithms and Simulation for Wave Motion in Quantum and Plasma Physics Weizhu Bao & collapse in BEC Â Transport of cold atoms Â Quantized vortices Â Wave interaction in plasma physics Collaborators & Acknowledges #12;Waves in quantum & plasma physics Wave-type particle behaviour Â Wave function

Bao, Weizhu

126

A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching

Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.

2007-01-01

127

A Theory of Physical Quantum Computation: The Quantum Computer Condition

In this paper we present a new unified theoretical framework that describes the full dynamics of quantum computation. Our formulation allows any questions pertaining to the physical behavior of a quantum computer to be framed, and in principle, answered. We refer to the central organizing principle developed in this paper, on which our theoretical structure is based, as the *Quantum

Gerald Gilbert; Michael Hamrick; F. Javier Thayer

2005-01-01

128

Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; 1. Preliminary notions; 2. Nucleons, leptons and mesons; 3. Symmetries; 4. Hadrons; 5. Quantum electrodynamics; 6. Chromodynamics; 7. Weak interactions; 8. The neutral mesons oscillations and CP violation; 9. The standard model; 10. Neutrinos; 11. Epilogue; Appendixes; References; Index.

Bettini, Alessandro

2014-02-01

129

A Brief Introduction to Particle Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Senior Research Associate Nari Mistry at Cornell University, this 23-page pdf gives a brief but thorough introduction to particle physics. Complete with illustrations, this document covers sub-atomic particles (quarks and leptons) as well as the Big Bang, matter and anti-matter, and physics experiments. There is also material which discusses the fundamental forces that govern sub-atomic particles - gravity, the Weak Force, electromagnetism, and the Strong Force â?? and how scientists have been working toward a theory of unification that combines these four forces to create a universal force. This is a great resource for physics teachers, as it is a ready-to-go tutorial to introduce students to particle physics before the discussion in the classroom becomes more in-depth.

Mistry, Nari

130

Quantum Gravity (Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics)

The most difficult unsolved problem in fundamental theoretical physics is the consistent implementation of the gravitational interaction into a quantum framework, which would lead to a theory of quantum gravity. Although a final answer is still pending, several promising attempts do exist. Despite the general title, this book is about one of them - loop quantum gravity. This approach proceeds

C Kiefer

2005-01-01

131

Quantum Security for the Physical Layer

The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.

Travis S. Humble

2014-07-16

132

QUANTUM METHODS FOR INTERACTING PARTICLE SYSTEMS II,

of observables for the system. The following analysis involves a finite size system whose kinematical environQUANTUM METHODS FOR INTERACTING PARTICLE SYSTEMS II, GLAUBER DYNAMICS FOR ISING SPIN SYSTEMS M in dimension two coincides with the one computed with equilibrium statistical mechanics techniques. 1

133

Photonic dark matter portal and quantum physics

To identify the nature and properties of dark matter is one of the most serious open problems in modern physics. We study a model of dark matter in which the hidden sector interacts with ordinary matter (standard model particles) via photonic portal(hidden photonic portal). We search for the effects of this new interaction in quantum physics, therefore we study its effects on hydrogen atom because it is a simple and a well-studied quantum system so it can be considered as an outstanding test for dark matter signatures. Using the accuracy of the measurement of energy, we obtain an upper bound for the coupling constant of the model. We also calculate the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of muon due to the hidden photonic portal. At the moment there is a deviation between the standard model prediction for muon anomalous magnetic moment and its experimental value so the anomalous magnetic moment of muon can provide an important test of the standard model and the theories beyond it.

S. A. Alavi; F. S. Kazemian

2015-01-22

134

Medium energy elementary particle physics

This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)

Not Available

1991-01-01

135

Process Physics Inertia, Gravity and the Quantum

Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational or semantic information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This generalises the traditional non-process syntactical modelling of reality by taking account of the limitations and characteristics of self-referential syntactical information systems, discovered by Goedel and Chaitin, and the analogies with the standard quantum formalism and its limitations. In process physics space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and time is a distinct non-geometric process. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space. Various features of the emergent physics are briefly discussed including: quantum gravity, quantum field theory, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the...

Cahill, R T

2001-01-01

136

The Standard Model of Particle Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to the standard model of particle physics, the theory which is currently most widely accepted to describe what matter is made of. All of the elementary particles of matter and the fundamental forces are characterized and classified. The site also provides information about the testing of the standard model.

2007-12-10

137

Particle Localization by Decoherence and Classical Lensing Ivo Knittel, Experimental Physics of a particle wavepacket is presented that is subject to scattering event with small momentum transfer sense notions about the quantum-classical transition are readily obtained: Decoherent free particle

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

138

Particle tunneling in a quantum corrected spacetime

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle tunneling from a quantum corrected black hole in the gravity's rainbow was investigated by the radial trajectory method of the tunneling framework. Using the thermodynamic property of the event horizon, a simpler method for calculating the tunneling probability was shown. In this method, the Painleve coordinate transformation of spacetime and the radial trajectory equation of the tunneling particles used in the previous radial trajectory method was not used. Using the simpler method, the tunneling probability of outgoing particles, regardless of whether they are massless or massive, were calculated in a unified way. The emission rates were related to the changes of the black hole entropies before and after the emission. This implies that the emission spectrum agrees with the underling unitary theory. In addition, the Bekenstein-Hawking area for the modified black hole was established and the emission spectrum with quantum corrections was discussed.

Liu, Cheng-Zhou; Cao, Qiao-Jun

2015-01-01

139

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida

This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

Not Available

1991-12-01

140

Quantum Many Particle Systems in Ring-Shaped Optical Lattices

In the present work we demonstrate how to realize a 1D closed optical lattice experimentally, including a tunable boundary phase twist. The latter may induce ''persistent currents,'' visible by studying the atoms' momentum distribution. We show how important phenomena in 1D physics can be studied by physical realization of systems of trapped atoms in ring-shaped optical lattices. A mixture of bosonic and/or fermionic atoms can be loaded into the lattice, realizing a generic quantum system of many interacting particles.

Amico, Luigi [CRS MATIS-INFM, via S. Sofia 64, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche (DMFCI), Universita di Catania, viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Osterloh, Andreas [CRS MATIS-INFM, via S. Sofia 64, 95125 Catania (Italy); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Cataliotti, Francesco [CRS MATIS-INFM, via S. Sofia 64, 95125 Catania (Italy); LNS-INFN Dipartimento di Fisica Scuola Superiore di Catania, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95125 Catania (Italy)

2005-08-05

141

To Photon Concept and to Physics of Quantum Absorption Process

The status of the photon in the modern physics was analysed. Within the frames of the Standard Model of particle physics the photon is considered to be the genuine elementary particle, being to be the messenger of the electromagnetic interaction to which are subject charged particles. In contrast, the experts in quantum electodynamics (in particular, in quantum optics) insist, that the description of an photon to be the particle is impossible. The given viewpoint was carefully analysed and its falseness was proved. The expression for a photon wave function is presented. So, the status of the photon in quantum electodynamics was restored. The physics of a quantum absorption process is analysed. It is argued in accordance with Dirac guess, that the photon revival takes place by its absorption. Being to be a soliton, it seems to be keeping safe after an energy absorption in a pinned state, possessing the only by spin. It is shown, that the time of the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is finite and moreover, that it can govern the stationary signal registered. The given result is significant for the all stationary spectroscopy, in which at present the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is considered to be instantaneous.

Dmitri Yerchuck; Yauhen Yerchak; Alla Dovlatova; Vyacheslav Stelmakh; Felix Borovik

2014-06-03

142

Automatic Signal Enhancement in Particle Physics Using Multivariate Classification and Physical the process of sig- nal enhancement in particle physics by relying on multi- variate classification techniques the particle physics community with computational tools that obviate manual and subjective interpretation

Vilalta, Ricardo

143

Discrete spacetime and relativistic quantum particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a single quantum particle in discrete spacetime evolving in a causal way. We see that in the continuum limit, any massless particle with a two-dimensional internal degree of freedom obeys the Weyl equation, provided that we perform a simple relabeling of the coordinate axes or demand rotational symmetry in the continuum limit. It is surprising that this occurs regardless of the specific details of the evolution: it would be natural to assume that discrete evolutions giving rise to relativistic dynamics in the continuum limit would be very special cases. We also see that the same is not true for particles with larger internal degrees of freedom, by looking at an example with a three-dimensional internal degree of freedom that is not relativistic in the continuum limit. In the process, we give a formula for the Hamiltonian arising from the continuum limit of massless and massive particles in discrete spacetime.

Farrelly, Terence C.; Short, Anthony J.

2014-06-01

144

Physics with Identified Particles at STAR

New physics results with identified particles at STAR are presented. Measurements at low $p_T$ address bulk properties of the collision, while those at high $p_T$ address jet energy loss in the bulk matter produced. Between these extremes, measurements at intermediate $p_T$ address the interplay between jets and the bulk. We highlight: measurements of $v_2$ fluctuations as a new, sensitive probe of the initial conditions and the equation of state; correlations involving multi-strange particles, along with ratios of identified particles to test coalescence as a mechanism of particle production at intermediate $p_T$; three particle azimuthal correlation to search for conical emission; and the energy and particle-type dependence of hadron production at high $p_T$ to study quark and gluon jet energy loss.

Lijuan Ruan

2007-01-29

145

Plato's TIMAIO? (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIO? (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

Machleidt, Ruprecht

2005-04-01

146

Theoretical particle physics, Task A

This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; Parity-Odd Spin-Dependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.

Not Available

1991-07-01

147

Basics of particle therapy I: physics

With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664

Park, Seo Hyun

2011-01-01

148

Quantum circuit physical design methodology with emphasis on physical synthesis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous works, we have introduced the concept of "physical synthesis" as a method to consider the mutual effects of quantum circuit synthesis and physical design. While physical synthesis can involve various techniques to improve the characteristics of the resulting quantum circuit, we have proposed two techniques (namely gate exchanging and auxiliary qubit selection) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the physical synthesis. However, the previous contributions focused mainly on the physical synthesis concept, and the techniques were proposed only as a proof of concept. In this paper, we propose a methodological framework for physical synthesis that involves all previously proposed techniques along with a newly introduced one (called auxiliary qubit insertion). We will show that the entire flow can be seen as one monolithic methodology. The proposed methodology is analyzed using a large set of benchmarks. Experimental results show that the proposed methodology decreases the average latency of quantum circuits by about 36.81 % for the attempted benchmarks.

Mohammadzadeh, Naser; Saheb Zamani, Morteza; Sedighi, Mehdi

2013-11-01

149

Quantum physics of molecular magnets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we focus on various aspects of quantum physics in molecular magnets, in particular, in Mn12-acetate. This thesis is divided into three parts. In the first part, we present a review on molecular magnets. Since Mn 12-acetate has a large spin (equal to 10), the theory of tunneling of a large spin is discussed as well as the early experiments that were performed two decades ago and which has shown spin tunneling, in particular, the ones that were performed on gamma-Fe2O3 and on antiferromagnetic ferritin. Then, the first experiments that presented evidence on spin tunneling in Mn12-acetate are outlined in detail. Magnetic hysteresis curves are shown and Landau-Zener effect in molecular magnets is discussed. Quantum classical crossover between thermally assisted and pure quantum tunneling regimes is described. Finally, magnetic avalanches are introduced: they are another feature of the magnetization curve in Mn12-Acetate where there is a sudden reversal in the magnetization. We exploit the first two experiments performed to elucidate the nature of magnetic avalanches in Mn12-acetate and the theory developed as a result of these experiments. In the second part of this thesis, we focus on three of my publications on quantum magneto-mechanical effects. First, a recent experiment on Einstein-de Haas effect in a NiFe film deposited on a microcantilever is discussed. The cantilever was placed inside a coil that generated an ac magnetic field. Oscillation of the cantilever was measured by a fiber-optic interferometer positioned above the tip of the cantilever. When the frequency of the ac field matched the resonance frequency of the cantilever the amplitude of the oscillations was about 3 nm. The data were analyzed within a model that replaced the mechanical torque due to change in the magnetization with the effect of the periodic force acting on the fictitious point mass at the free end of the cantilever so this model did not account for the microscopic dynamics of the Einstein-de Haas effect. This motivated us to develop a more rigorous theoretical framework for the description of the dynamics of the Einstein-de Haas effect that we applied to the problem of the magnetic cantilever. We then study the quantum dynamics of a magnetic molecule deposited on a microcantilever. Amplitude and frequencies of the coupled magneto-mechanical oscillations have been computed. We show that oscillations of the spin and the cantilever occur independently at frequencies Delta/h and o n respectively, unless these two frequencies come very close to each other. The results show that the splitting delta has no free parameters and that for a given resonance, Delta = hon, the relative splitting delta depends only on the position of the molecule on the cantilever. We then show that existing experimental techniques permit observation of the driven coupled oscillations of the spin and the cantilever, as well as of the splitting of the mechanical modes of the cantilever caused by spin tunneling. Finally, the dynamics of a magnetic molecule bridged between two conducting leads is investigated. We start by reviewing various experiments performed when there is a weak coupling between the molecule and the leads and when there is a strong coupling which results in the Kondo effect. Experimental efforts were mainly motivated to measure the electronic current through a single molecule. We study the dynamics of the total angular momentum that couples spin tunneling to the mechanical rotations. We show that the Landau-Zener spin transition produced by the time-dependent magnetic field generates a unique pattern of mechanical oscillations that can be detected by measuring the electronic tunneling current through the molecule. In the last and final part, we present our numerical work to describe quantum magnetic deflagration in Mn12-acetate. This part is related to magnetic deflagration as discussed in part I of this thesis. The focus is on the quantum features of magnetic deflagration which are exhibited by the maxima in the speed of deflagration front a

Jaafar, Reem

150

Particle physics with the LHC data

In this talk, I give reasons why we regard GUT as a part of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics that explain all phenomena observed at high energy experiments and in the universe, with a few notable exceptions. It is based on my introduction-to-elementary-particle-physics lectures for the first year graduate students at Sokendai, Graduate University for Advanced Studies. No new observation is made, but I think that it is important for us to examine the LHC data from the GUT viewpoint together with our fresh students.

Hagiwara, Kaoru [KEK Theory Center and Sokendai, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2012-07-27

151

Coherent Quantum Filtering for Physically Realizable Linear Quantum Plants

The paper is concerned with a problem of coherent (measurement-free) filtering for physically realizable (PR) linear quantum plants. The state variables of such systems satisfy canonical commutation relations and are governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations, dynamically equivalent to those of an open quantum harmonic oscillator. The problem is to design another PR quantum system, connected unilaterally to the output of the plant and playing the role of a quantum filter, so as to minimize a mean square discrepancy between the dynamic variables of the plant and the output of the filter. This coherent quantum filtering (CQF) formulation is a simplified feedback-free version of the coherent quantum LQG control problem which remains open despite recent studies. The CQF problem is transformed into a constrained covariance control problem which is treated by using the Frechet differentiation of an appropriate Lagrange function with respect to the matrices of the filter.

Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen

2013-01-14

152

Research in Theoretical Particle Physics

This document is the final report on activity supported under DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-13ER42024. The report covers the period July 15, 2013 March 31, 2014. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (1.0 FTE) and Hume Feldman (1% FTE). The grant partly supported University of Hawaii students, David Yaylali and Keita Fukushima, who are supervised by Jason Kumar. Both students are expected to graduate with Ph.D. degrees in 2014. Yaylali will be joining the University of Arizona theory group in Fall 2014 with a 3-year postdoctoral appointment under Keith Dienes. The groups research covered topics subsumed under the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Many theoretical results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The report contains brief project descriptions in Section 1. Sections 2 and 3 lists published and submitted work, respectively. Sections 4 and 5 summarize group activity including conferences, workshops and professional presentations.

Feldman, Hume A; Marfatia, Danny

2014-09-24

153

Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics PHY357 1 Better name is probably Introduction to Subatomic physics: Emphasis is on particle physics; nuclear physics is simply particle physics at relatively particle MX Force Effective Strength Physical Process Strong 100 Nuclear binding Electromagnetic 10

Krieger, Peter

154

Quantum Physics of Atoms and Materials

. Niels Bohr (1913) Physicists Dawn Meekhof and Steve Jefferts with their atomic clock, which would. Copyright Geoffrey Wheeler, 1999.) Niels Bohr, Danish physicist who in 1913 discovered the quantum model299 9 Quantum Physics of Atoms and Materials The first postulate enunciates the existence

Moeck, Peter

155

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper proposes the theory of temporal extension for fundamental particles as a key to intuitively interpret and understand quantum symmetries and related quantum and relativistic phenomena. While space-time as a principal world view is accepted and utilized in fundamental theories, certain traditional concepts of time have not been challenged before. Such a conception is the view that physical objects can only have a point like feature on the time line. When introducing a more space like quality of time, which allows the temporal extension for physical objects and particles, a fundamentally new world view arises. In this view quantum symmetries and certain relativistic phenomena become more intuitive to describe and deal with and "realism" gets a new definition. As a result the temporal length theory also offers to eliminate the tension between the nonlocality of quantum physics and the locality of relativistic phenomena. The paper provides a detailed description of the theory.

Szucs, Aron

2014-11-01

156

Abraham Seiden Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

Abraham Seiden Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department of Physics, Santa Cruz 1981-2010 Director, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics 1986-2008 Professor of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz 1985-1986 Visiting Scientist, European Laboratory for Particle Physics

California at Santa Cruz, University of

157

Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S

2013-04-01

158

Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics

Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.

Chris Quigg

2002-04-11

159

Particle physics probes of extra spacetime dimensions

The possibility that spacetime extends beyond the familiar 3 + 1 dimensions has intrigued physicists for a century. The consequences of a dimensionally richer spacetime would be profound. Recently, new theories with higher-dimensional spacetimes have been developed to resolve the hierarchy problem in particle physics. The distinct predictions of these scenarios allow experiment to probe the existence of extra dimensions

Joanne Hewett; Maria Spiropulu

2002-01-01

160

World publication output in particle Physics

To the extent that the assessment of scientific effort can be obtained from an analysis of publication records, only a limited amount of data has been readily available in the area of our consideration. Particle ~hysics was found %0 represent 6.1% of all entries in Physics Abstracts 1961 \\/13\\/, but the subfield merged into a broader subject group of nuclear

Jan Vlachý

1982-01-01

161

spectroscopy, ultrafast spectroscopy, semiconductor quantum wells. 1. INTRODUCTION The coherent ultrafast direct probes for many-body effects in the ultrafast dynamics of excitons in semiconductor quantum wellsProbing many-particle correlations in semiconductor quantum wells using double

Mukamel, Shaul

162

Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

1996-09-01

163

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group

and laboratories in order to increase and make fruitful the international collaboration of scientists in fields at national and international laboratories around the world. The most sophisticated experiments involved--02 21 st March 1996 Particle Physics in International Collaboration D.H. Saxon Talk given

Glasgow, University of

164

Multiple-Particle Interference and Quantum Error Correction

The concept of multiple-particle interference is discussed, using insights provided by the classical theory of error correcting codes. This leads to a discussion of error correction in a quantum communication channel or a quantum computer. Methods of error correction in the quantum regime are presented, and their limitations assessed. A quantum channel can recover from arbitrary decoherence of x qubits

Andrew Steane

1996-01-01

165

Energetic particle physics issues for ITER

This paper summarizes our present understanding of the following energetic/alpha particle physics issues for the 21 MA, 20 TF coil ITER Interim Design configuration and operational scenarios: (a) toroidal field ripple effects on alpha particle confinement, (b) energetic particle interaction with low frequency MHD modes, (c) energetic particle excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes, and (d) energetic particle transport due to MHD modes. TF ripple effects on alpha loss in ITER under a number of different operating conditions are found to be small with a maximum loss of 1%. With careful plasma control in ITER reversed-shear operation, TF ripple induced alpha loss can be reduced to below the nominal ITER design limit of 5%. Fishbone modes are expected to be unstable for {beta}{sub {alpha}} > 1%, and sawtooth stabilization is lost if the ideal kink growth rate exceeds 10% of the deeply trapped alpha precessional drift frequency evaluated at the q = 1 surface. However, it is expected that the fishbone modes will lead only to a local flattening of the alpha profile due to small banana size. MHD modes observed during slow decrease of stored energy after fast partial electron temperature collapse in JT-60U reversed-shear experiments may be resonant type instabilities; they may have implications on the energetic particle confinement in ITER reversed-shear operation. From the results of various TAE stability code calculations, ITER equilibria appear to lie close to TAE linear stability thresholds. However, the prognosis depends strongly on q profile and profiles of alpha and other high energy particles species. If TAE modes are unstable in ITER, the stochastic diffusion is the main loss mechanism, which scales with ({delta}B{sub r}/B){sup 2}, because of the relatively small alpha particle banana orbit size. For isolated TAE modes the particle loss is very small, and TAE modes saturate via the resonant wave-particle trapping process at very small amplitude.

Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Fu, G.Y. [and others

1996-12-31

166

Massive Elementary Particles and Black Holes in Resummed Quantum Gravity

We use exact results in a new approach to quantum gravity to show that the classical conclusion that a massive elementary point particle is a black hole is obviated by quantum loop effects. Further phenomenological implications are discussed.

B. F. L. Ward

2004-10-20

167

Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality

Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

Gibson, J. Murray (ANL) [ANL

2003-10-15

168

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.

Clarissa Ai Ling Lee

2014-06-21

169

Quantum physics: An atomic SQUID

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting quantum circuits are the core technology behind the most sensitive magnetometers. An analogous device has now been implemented using a gas of ultracold atoms, with possible applications for rotation sensing.

Sackett, Charles A.

2014-01-01

170

Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein imposed an observer-based epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified Lorentzian-Newtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wave-based theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.

Lindner, Henry H.

2011-09-01

171

Howard E. Haber Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

Howard E. Haber Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department., CERN Yellow Book, CERN-2006-009 (2006). 2. Particle Physics and Cosmology: The Quest for Physics Beyond Institute in Elementary Particle Physics, vols. I and II, H.E. Haber, editor, (World Scientific, Singapore

California at Santa Cruz, University of

172

Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Some Lessons from the Particle Physics and emergence in the physical sciences, more specificallythe relationship between particle physics and condensed the case for caution is at the interfacebetween particle physics and solidstate or condensed matter physics

Howard, Don

173

Current experiments in elementary particle physics

This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

1989-09-01

174

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1992-06-01

175

Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

Johnson, David Kelley

176

Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Gatti, E. [Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milano (Italy)

1992-12-31

177

Quantum Physics Online: Quantum superposition in one dimension

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of interactive Java applets illustrating time dependence and superposition in one-dimensional quantum states. Simulations are used to illustrate the time dependence (real and imaginary parts) of eigenstates states, and superposition of eigenstates. There is an application of these ideas to a two-level model of an ammonia molecule. There is also an illustration of a harmonic oscillator with multiple states occupied, and coherent states. These applets are part of an extensive collection of animations and simulations illustrating a large range of quantum topics, and an ongoing effort for developing a fully interactive quantum-physics class. Both French and English versions are available.

Joffre, Manuel

2004-03-28

178

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (ENL); CERN; DESY; Fermilab. (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMP. Also, summries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated.

Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

179

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandoraâs Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.

Baily, Charles

2012-01-20

180

Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics

''It was the best of times; it was the worst of times'' is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.

Richter, Burton

2007-02-20

181

Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-09-01

182

Thomas Banks Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

Thomas Banks Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department of Physics TO THIS PROPOSAL (Primary Author Only) 1. A Pyramid Scheme for Particle Physics, T. Banks, J-F Fortin, JHEP 0907 PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Reed College Physics/Math B.A. 1969 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Physics Ph

California at Santa Cruz, University of

183

Faculty Position in Experimental Particle Physics Department of Physics, Carleton University

Faculty Position in Experimental Particle Physics Department of Physics, Carleton University-track faculty position in experimental particle physics at the rank of Assistant Professor in the Department areas of experimental particle physics are encouraged to apply. The Department has a strong particle

184

FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

Singer, Isadore M.

2008-03-04

185

On Universal Physical Reality in the Light of Quantum Consciousness

In this paper, we have first given an intuitive definition of "Consciousness" as realized by us. Next, from this intuitive definition we derived the physical definition of quantum consciousness (Quantum Consciousness Parameter or QCP). This QCP is the elementary level of consciousness in quantum particles, which are the most elementary particles in nature. Thus QCP can explain both the perceptible and non-perceptible nature and some existing postulates of physics. We conceptualize that the level of human consciousness is most complex having highest fractal dimension of 4.85 in the electroencephalographs experiment done by other research groups. On the other hand, other species are having lesser consciousness level, which can be reflected by lesser fractal dimensions. We have also explored the bio informatics of consciousness from genome viewpoints where we tried to draw an analogy of neurons with electrons and photons. Lastly, we refine the quantum mechanics in terms of QCP; we all know that in Einstein's special theory of relativity, Einstein has used the postulate "Consistency of the velocity of light irrespective of all frames of reference (inertial or non-inertial frames)". In our theoretical revelation QCP can be directly applied to get a confirmatory proof of this postulate. Thus the postulate can be framed as a law.

Pabitra Pal Choudhury; Swapan Kumar Dutta; Sk. Sarif Hassan; Sudhakar Sahoo

2009-07-08

186

PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his life-long activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de Espańa (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J Clemente-Gallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan

A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA) |

L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain) |

I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany) |

G. F. Dell Antonio (Universitá di Roma La Sapienza, Italy) |

A. Galindo (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain) |

S. L. Glashow (Boston University, USA) |

A. M. Gleeson (University of Texas, Austin, USA) |

C. R. Hagen (Rochester University, NY, USA) |

J. Klauder (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA) |

A. Kossakowski (University of Torun, Poland) |

V.I. Manko (Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) |

G. Marmo (Universitá Federico II di Napoli e INFN Sezione di Napoli, Italy) |

N. Mukunda (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India) |

J. V. Narlikar (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India) |

J. Nilsson (University of Goteborg, Sweden) |

S. Okubo (Rochester University, NY, USA) |

T. Regge (Politecnico di Torino, Italy) |

W. Schleich (University of Ulm, Germany) |

M. Scully (Texas A& M University, USA) |

S. Weinberg (University of Texas, Austin, USA) |

Asorey, M.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Marmo, G.

2007-07-01

187

Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Schramm, D. N.

1981-01-01

188

Microscopic physics of quantum self-organisation of optical lattices in cavities

We study quantum particles at zero temperature in an optical lattice coupled to a resonant cavity mode. The cavity field substantially modifies the particle dynamics in the lattice, and for strong particle-field coupling leads to a quantum phase with only every second site occupied. We study the growth of this new order out of a homogeneous initial distribution for few particles as the microscopic physics underlying a quantum phase transition. Simulations reveal that the growth dynamics crucially depends on the initial quantum many-body state of the particles and can be monitored via the cavity fluorescence. Studying the relaxation time of the ordering reveals inhibited tunnelling, which indicates that the effective mass of the particles is increased by the interaction with the cavity field. However, the relaxation becomes very quick for large coupling.

András Vukics; Christoph Maschler; Helmut Ritsch

2007-03-23

189

A quantum particle in a box with moving walls

We analyze the non-relativistic problem of a quantum particle that bounces back and forth between two moving walls. We recast this problem into the equivalent one of a quantum particle in a fixed box whose dynamics is governed by an appropriate time-dependent Schroedinger operator.

Sara Di Martino; Fabio Anza'; Paolo Facchi; Andrzej Kossakowski; Giuseppe Marmo; Antonino Messina; Benedetto Militello; Saverio Pascazio

2013-08-22

190

Quantum particles from coarse grained classical probabilities in phase space

Quantum particles can be obtained from a classical probability distribution in phase space by a suitable coarse graining, whereby simultaneous classical information about position and momentum can be lost. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential follow from classical statistics. This includes interference, tunneling and the uncertainty relation.

Wetterich, C., E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-07-15

191

How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte

How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte Department of Philosophy and School in particle physics. Discovering conservation laws has posed various challenges concerning Model of particle physics, I show that the standard family laws are the only ones that determine

Schulte, Oliver

192

Particle Physics: A New Course for Schools and Colleges.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers questions relating to the introduction of particle physics into post-GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) courses. Describes a project that is producing teacher and student materials to support the teaching of particle physics at this level. Presents a proposed syllabus for a particle physics module. (KR)

Swinbank, Elizabeth

1992-01-01

193

Primer on Detectors and Electronics for Particle Physics Experiments

1 Primer on Detectors and Electronics for Particle Physics Experiments Alexander A. Grillo Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics University of California Santa Cruz 19-Jul-14 Abstract This primer the primer itself. I Background of Particle Physics Scattering Experiments Physicists have made the most

California at Santa Cruz, University of

194

A Particle Physics Tour with CompHEP

A Particle Physics Tour with CompHEP Jeffrey D. Richman April 26, 2006 #12;Outline" in particle physics: decay rates, cross sections,... Z-boson, t-quark, and Higgs decay in the SM Compton interactions: production of dijets, t-quarks, t t H Conclusions #12;A Tour of Particle Physics with CompHEP ee

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

195

An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics

An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics Sakir Kocabas1 and Pat Langley2. In this paper we describe BR-4, a computational model of scienti c discovery in particle physics. The system of particle physics, including the discovery of the neutrino and the postulation of baryon, lepton

Langley, Pat

196

A New Theorem in Particle Physics Enabled by Machine Discovery

A New Theorem in Particle Physics Enabled by Machine Discovery Raul E. Valdes-Perez Computer by these programs. The aim of this note is to document for the AI audience a novel nding in particle physics of this note is to document for the AI audience a novel nding in particle physics that was enabled

ValdĂŠs-PĂŠrez, RaĂşl E.

197

An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics

An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics Sakir Kocabas 1 and Pat Langley. In this paper we describe BRÂ4, a computational model of scientific discovery in particle physics. The system of particle physics, including the discovery of the neutrino and the postulation of baryon, lepton

Langley, Pat

198

TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the machines with which you will be involved in the years to come. Perhaps, we can even turn your frustration with the inadequacy of these machines into marvel at the performance of the accelerators. At the least, we hope to convince you that the accelerators are central, not peripheral, to our science and that the physics of such machines is both fascinating and sophisticated. The plan is the following: First I will give two lectures on basic accelerator physics; then you will hear two lectures on the state of the art, present limitations, the specific parameters of LEP, HERA, TEV2 and SLC, and some extrapolation to the next generation of machines such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), and Large Linear Colliders; finally, I will give two lectures on new acceleration methods.

Sessler, A.M.

1984-07-01

199

The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report

The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Grid-enabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Grid-based software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experiment-specific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, high-speed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.

Livny, Miron

2002-08-16

200

Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics

Particle Physics, often referred to as High Energy Physics (HEP), spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-Web era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peerreview system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs...

2007-01-01

201

School on Particle Physics, Gravity and Cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These lectures present a brief review of inflationary cosmology, provide an overview of the theory of cosmological perturbations, and then focus on the conceptual problems of the current paradigm of early universe cosmology, thus motivating an exploration of the potential of string theory to provide a new paradigm. Specifically, the string gas cosmology model is introduced, and a resulting mechanism for structure formation which does not require a period of cosmological inflation is discussed. The School consisted of level-up courses intended for PhD students, as well as updating courses for postdocs and researchers. In addition, a few propaedeutical crash courses were organized to bridge the gaps in the attendance and to facilitate an active participation. The courses were held mostly on the blackboard. The audience was assumed to have at least a PhD student level either in phenomenological particle theory, in astroparticle physics or in field and string theory. One of the aims of the School was to bring together researchers of these different areas and to update them on one another's discipline. The School was divided in two workshops: Interface between Cosmology and Particle Physics Courses: W. GRIMUS and S. PETCOV: Neutrino Phenomenology A. MASIERO and F. FERUGLIO: Beyond the Standard Model P. ULLIO: Introduction to Dark Matter N. BILIC: Black holes phenomenology 2) Particle Physics, Gravity and String Theory Courses: R. BRANDENBERGER: Topics in Cosmology J. ZANELLI: Black holes physics C. NUNEZ: StringsGauge Correspondence A. JEVICKI: AdS/CFT G. DALL'AGATA: String vacua and moduli stabilization C. BURGESS: Cosmology and Strings G. CARDOSO: Black Holes and String Theory Seminars were held during the School: Seminars: D. DENEGRI: New physics at LHC D. WARK: Neutrino Experiments C. BACCIGALUPI: Review on Cosmological Experiments A. MUELLER: Experimental evidence of Black Holes S. LIBERATI: Astrophysical constraints on Lorentz violation In addition the following introductory courses were given during the first week: Introductory courses: M. BERTOLINI: Propaedeutical course in supersymmetry T. PROKOPEC: Propaedeutical course in cosmology G. BONELLI: Propaedeutical course of string theory M. SERONE: Propaedeutical course on physics of extra dimensions

Brandenberger, Robert

202

Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 1993

This report is the progress report for DOE funded support of particle physics work at the University of Texas, Austin. Support was divided between theoretical and experimental programs, and each is reviewed separately in the report. Theoretical effort was divided between three general areas: quantum gravity and mathematical physics; phenomenology; and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Experimental effort was primarily directed toward AGS experiments at Brookhaven, to look for rare kaon decays. AGS experiments 791 and 871 are described, along with BNL experiment 888.

Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

1993-05-01

203

The Negative Binomial Distribution in Quantum Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give examples of situations where the negative binomial distribution has appeared in quantum physics since its debut in the work of Planck. Several of its properties are reviewed, and Mandel's Q-parameter is shown to play an interesting role. The photon-pair distributions of squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon states are identified as negative binomial.

Söderholm, Jonas; Inoue, Shuichiro

2009-06-01

204

The physics doped Quantum Dimer Models

range of applications Â Connections with frustrated magnets Â Valence bond crystals vs spin liquids --- Âˇ Look for simpler models than frustrated spin models still exhibiting quantum (magnetically Âˇ Cuprates & RVB physics Âˇ Josephson junction arrays Âˇ Spin orbital models Âˇ Frustrated magnets under

Paris-Sud 11, UniversitĂŠ de

205

Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.

1986-01-01

206

Particle physics in the very early universe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

Schramm, D. N.

1981-01-01

207

(Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report

Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

Nefkens, B.M.K.

1985-10-01

208

Bringing Bell's theorem back to the domain of Particle Physics & Cosmology

John St. Bell was a physicist working most of his time at CERN and contributing intensively and sustainably to the development of Particle Physics and Collider Physics. As a hobby he worked on so-called "foundations of quantum theory", that was that time very unpopular, even considered to be scientifically taboo. His 1964-theorem, showing that predictions of local realistic theories are different to those of quantum theory, initiated a new field in quantum physics: quantum information theory. The violation of Bell's theorem, for instance, is a necessary and sufficient criterion for generating a secure key for cryptography at two distant locations. This contribution shows how Bell's theorem can be brought to the realm of high energy physics and presents the first conclusive experimental feasible test for weakly decaying neutral mesons on the market. Strong experimental and theoretical limitations make a Bell test in weakly decaying systems such as mesons and hyperons very challenging, however, these systems sh...

Hiesmayr, Beatrix C

2015-01-01

209

9/16/2009 Andy Haas Stanford Student Orientation: Accelerator based Particle Physics 1 Accelerator-based Particle Physics Opportunities at SLAC/Stanford Andy Haas / SLAC Stanford Student Orientation Sept. 16, 2009 #12;9/16/2009 Andy Haas Stanford Student Orientation: Accelerator based Particle Physics 2

Wechsler, Risa H.

210

Physics on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature's laws in the domain where relativistic effects, gravitational effects and quantum effects are all comparatively strong are far from understood. This domain is called the Planck scale. Conceivably, a theory can be constructed where the quantum nature of phenomena at such scales can be attributed to something fundamentally simpler. However, arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there can't be physical laws that require "conspiracy". It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In the lecture we will show several such counterexamples. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. This theory is often portrayed as to underly the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles, including the "Standard Model". So now the question is asked: how can this model feature "conspiracy", and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations?

't Hooft, Gerard

2014-04-01

211

Physics Syllabi for INO Ph.D Program Particle Physics IPHY 201

Physics Syllabi for INO Ph.D Program Âˇ Particle Physics IPHY 201 Â Symmetries in particle physics, neutral current phenomena, The physics of W-and Z-bosons, physics of the Higgs boson. Âˇ Experimental of measuring resistance, temperature, pressure, magnetic field. Â Basic semiconductor device physics: p

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

212

Particle Simulation of Magnetically Confined Plasmas Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Particle Simulation of Magnetically Confined Plasmas W. W. Lee Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lewandowski Beams: H. Qin, R. C. Davidson 1 #12;OUTLINE PPPL ÂŻ Progress in Particle Simulation ÂŻ Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Microinstabilities ÂŻ Future of Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation ÂŻ Particle Simulation

213

Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs.

Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

1993-01-01

214

Interpretation in Quantum Physics as Hidden Curriculum

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prior research has demonstrated how the realist perspectives of classical physics students can translate into specific beliefs about quantum phenomena when taking an introductory modern physics course. Student beliefs regarding the interpretation of quantum mechanics often vary by context, and are most often in alignment with instructional goals in topic areas where instructors are explicit in promoting a particular perspective. Moreover, students are more likely to maintain realist perspectives in topic areas where instructors are less explicit in addressing interpretive themes, thereby making such issues part of a hidden curriculum. We discuss various approaches to addressing student perspectives and interpretive themes in a modern physics course, and explore the associated impacts on student thinking.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2011-01-01

215

Colloquium: Majorana Fermions in nuclear, particle and solid-state physics

Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own anti-particle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their anti-particles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can only exist if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence doesn't stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This review first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own anti-particle in nuclear, particle, and solid state physics.

S. R. Elliott; M. Franz

2014-03-19

216

Interference of identical particles and the quantum work distribution

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum-mechanical particles in a confining potential interfere with each other while undergoing thermodynamic processes far from thermal equilibrium. By evaluating the corresponding transition probabilities between many-particle eigenstates we obtain the quantum work distribution function for identical bosons and fermions, which we compare with the case of distinguishable particles. We find that the quantum work distributions for bosons and fermions significantly differ at low temperatures, while, as expected, at high temperatures the work distributions converge to the classical expression. These findings are illustrated with two analytically solvable examples, namely the time-dependent infinite square well and the parametric harmonic oscillator.

Gong, Zongping; Deffner, Sebastian; Quan, H. T.

2014-12-01

217

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre/m) Accelerator Research DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle science, particle physics and atto-second science. The position of a senior scientist in accelerator

218

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre science, particle physics and atto-second science. The position of a tenure track scientist in accelerator and XFEL Âˇ Study realistic applications of new accelerator technologies for photon science and particle

219

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association PARTICLE PHYSICSÂˇ DESY has openings for: DESY-Fellowships (f/m) DESY DESY is one accelerators and detectors for photon science and particle physics. The position Fellows in experimental

220

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association PARTICLE PHYSICSÂˇ DESY has openings for: DESY-Fellowships (f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle and astroparticle physics as well

221

Open Source Physics: Quantum Mechanical Measurement

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of quantum mechanics java applets, part of the Open Source Physics project, provides simulations that demonstrate the effect of measurement on the time-dependence of quantum states. Exercises are available that demonstrate the results of measurement of energy, position, and momentum on states in potential wells (square well, harmonic oscillator, asymmetric well, etc). Eigenstates, superpositions of eigenstates, and wave packets can all be studied. Tutorials are also available. The material stresses the measurement of a quantum-mechanical wave function. The simulations can be delivered either through the OSP Launcher interface or embedded in html pages. The source code is available, and users are invited to contribute to the collection's development by submitting improvements. The simulations are available through the "View attached documents" link below.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-02

222

Cyclic Polyynes as Examples of the Quantum Mechanical Particle on a Ring

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many quantum mechanical models are discussed as part of the undergraduate physical chemistry course to help students understand the connection between eigenvalue expressions and spectroscopy. Typical examples covered include the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. This article demonstrates that

Anderson, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

223

Some calculator programs for particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven calculator programs that do simple chores that arise in elementary particle physics are given. LEGENDRE evaluates the Legendre polynomial series. ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE evaluates the first associated Legendre polynomial series. CONFIDENCE calculates confidence levels for chi(2), Gaussian, or Poisson probability distributions. TWO BODY calculates the c.m. energy, the initial and final state c.m. momenta, and the extreme values of t and u for a two body reaction. ELLIPSE calculates coordinates of points for drawing an ellipse plot showing the kinematics of a two body reaction or decay. DALITZ RECTANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a rectangular Dalitz plot. DALITZ TRIANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a triangular Dalitz plot. There are short versions of CONFIDENCE (EVEN N and POISSON) that calculate confidence levels for the even degree of freedom chi(2) and the Poisson cases. The programs are written for the HP-97 calculator.

Whol, C. G.

1982-01-01

224

Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For example, Halliday, Resnick, and Walker describe the origin of atomic quantum numbers as such: "The restrictions on the values of the quantum number for the hydrogen atom, as listed in Table 39-2, are not arbitrary but come out of the solution to Schrödinger's equation." They give no further justification, but do point out the values are in conflict with the predictions of the Bohr model.

Schneider, Mark B.

2010-10-01

225

Kleinian groups in E (?) and their connection to particle physics and cosmology

The paper proposes that the geometry and topology of quantum spacetime is shadowed closely by quasi-Fuschian and Kleinian groups and that is the cause behind the phenomena of high energy particle physics. In addition, on the large scale measurement of, for instance, microwave background temperature, the universality of the Merger sponge provides an excellent limit set model for the CharlierZeldovich

M. S El Naschie

2003-01-01

226

Strings as multi-particle states of quantum sigma-models

We study the quantum Bethe ansatz equations in the O(2n) sigma-model for physical particles on a circle, with the interaction given by the Zamolodchikovs'S-matrix, in view of its application to quantization of the string on the S2n?1×Rt space. For a finite number of particles, the system looks like an inhomogeneous integrable O(2n) spin chain. Similarly to OSp(2m+n|2m) conformal sigma-model considered

Nikolay Gromov; Vladimir Kazakov; Kazuhiro Sakai; Pedro Vieira

2007-01-01

227

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandora's Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.

Charles Baily

2011-09-06

228

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research CentreD-Students (f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle and astroparticle physics as well as accelerator physics. The Photo Injector Test Facility PITZ in Zeuthen (near

229

Postdoctoral Position in Theoretical Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics

Postdoctoral Position in Theoretical Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics Indiana University The Nuclear Theory group at the Physics Department of Indiana University invites ap- plications for a postdoctoral position in the fields of Nuclear Theory and Elementary Particle Physics, broadly defined

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

230

Quantum Teleportation and Bell's Inequality Using Single-Particle Entanglement

A single-particle entangled state can be generated by illuminating a beam splitter with a single photon. Quantum teleportation utilizing such a single-particle entangled state can be successfully achieved with a simple setup consisting only of linear optical devices such as beam splitters and phase shifters. Application of the locality assumption to a single-particle entangled state leads to Bell's inequality, a violation of which signifies the nonlocal nature of a single particle.

Hai-Woong Lee; Jaewan Kim

2000-07-28

231

Hausdorff dimension of a particle path in a quantum manifold

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After recalling the concept of the Hausdorff dimension, we study the fractal properties of a quantum particle path. As a novelty we consider the possibility for the space where the particle propagates to be endowed with a quantum-gravity-induced minimal length. We show that the Hausdorff dimension accounts for both the quantum mechanics uncertainty and manifold fluctuations. In addition the presence of a minimal length breaks the self-similarity property of the erratic path of the quantum particle. Finally we establish a universal property of the Hausdorff dimension as well as the spectral dimension: They both depend on the amount of resolution loss which affects both the path and the manifold when quantum gravity fluctuations occur.

Nicolini, Piero; Niedner, Benjamin

2011-01-01

232

Quantum Zeno effect for a free-moving particle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the quantum Zeno effect takes its name from Zeno's arrow paradox, the effect of frequently observing the position of a freely moving particle on its motion has not been analyzed in detail in the frame of standard quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of a moving free particle while monitoring whether it lingers in a given region of space, and explain the dependence of the lingering probability on the frequency of the measurements and the initial momentum of the particle. Stopping the particle entails the emergence of Schrödinger cat states during the observed evolution, closely connected to the high-order diffraction modes in Fabry-Pérot optical resonators.

Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel

2014-12-01

233

Particle Physics in a Season of Change

A digest of the authors opening remarks at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. I have chosen my title to reflect the transitions we are living through, in particle physics overall and in hadron collider physics in particular. Data-taking has ended at the Tevatron, with {approx} 12 fb{sup -1} of {bar p}p interactions delivered to CDF and D0 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider has registered a spectacular first full-year run, with ATLAS and CMS seeing > 5 fb{sup -1}, LHCb recording {approx} 1 fb{sup -1}, and ALICE logging nearly 5 pb{sup -1} of pp data at {radical}s = 7 TeV, plus a healthy dose of Pb-Pb collisions. The transition to a new energy regime and new realms of instantaneous luminosity exceeding 3.5 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has brought the advantage of enhanced physics reach and the challenge of pile-up reaching {approx} 15 interactions per beam crossing. I am happy to record that what the experiments have (not) found so far has roused some of my theoretical colleagues from years of complacency and stimulated them to think anew about what the TeV scale might hold. We theorists have had plenty of time to explore many proposals for electroweak symmetry breaking and for new physics that might lie beyond established knowledge. With so many different theoretical inventions in circulation, it is in the nature of things that most will be wrong. Keep in mind that we learn from what experiment tells us is not there, even if it is uncommon to throw a party for ruling something out. Some non-observations may be especially telling: the persistent absence of flavor-changing neutral currents, for example, seems to me more and more an important clue that we have not yet deciphered. It is natural that the search for the avatar of electroweak symmetry breaking preoccupies participants and spectators alike. But it is essential to conceive the physics opportunities before us in their full richness. I would advocate a three-fold approach: Explore, Search, Measure! The first phase of running at the LHC has brought us to two new lands - in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions - and we may well enter other new lands with each change of energy or increase of sensitivity. I believe that it will prove very rewarding to spend some time simply exploring each new landscape, without strong preconceptions, to learn what is there and, perhaps, to encounter interesting surprises. Directed searches, for which we have made extensive preparations, are of self-evident interest. Here the challenge will be to broaden the searches over time, so the searches are not too narrowly directed. Our very successful conception of particles and forces is highly idealized. We have a great opportunity to learn just how comprehensive is our network of understanding by making precise measurements and probing for weak spots, or finding more sweeping accord between theory and experiment.

Quigg, Chris

2012-02-01

234

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation Dedicated to the memory of Itamar Pitowsky Abstract The feasibility of computationally superior quantum towards a negative answer. The first is a conjecture about physical realizations of quantum codes

Kalai, Gil

235

Particle astronomy and particle physics from the moon - The particle observatory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Promising experiments from the moon using particle detectors are discussed, noting the advantage of the large flux collecting power Pc offered by the remote, stable environment of a lunar base. An observatory class of particle experiments is presented, based upon proposals at NASA's recent Stanford workshop. They vary from neutrino astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic ray experiments to space physics and fundamental physics experiments such as proton decay and 'table-top' arrays. This research is background-limited on earth, and it is awkward and unrealistic in earth orbit, but is particularly suited for the moon where Pc can be quite large and the instrumentation is not subject to atmospheric erosion as it is (for large t) in low earth orbit.

Wilson, Thomas L.

1990-01-01

236

Particle astronomy and particle physics from the moon - The particle observatory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Promising experiments from the moon using particle detectors are discussed, noting the advantage of the large flux collecting power Pc offered by the remote, stable environment of a lunar base. An observatory class of particle experiments is presented, based upon proposals at NASA's recent Stanford workshop. They vary from neutrino astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic ray experiments to space physics and fundamental physics experiments such as proton decay and 'table-top' arrays. This research is background-limited on earth, and it is awkward and unrealistic in earth orbit, but is particularly suited for the moon where Pc can be quite large and the instrumentation is not subject to atmospheric erosion as it is (for large t) in low earth orbit.

Wilson, Thomas L.

1990-07-01

237

Equivalence Postulate and the Quantum Potential of Two Free Particles

Commutativity of the diagram of the maps connecting three one--particle\\u000astate, implied by the Equivalence Postulate (EP), gives a cocycle condition\\u000awhich unequivocally leads to the quantum Hamilton--Jacobi equation. Energy\\u000aquantization is a direct consequences of the local homeomorphicity of the\\u000atrivializing map. We review the EP and show that the quantum potential for two\\u000afree particles, which depends on

Marco Matone; G. Galilei

2002-01-01

238

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics 1.2 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TRANSFER MATRIX OF A QUANTUM DEVICE It is unquestionable that the current, processing, storing, or computing. The marriage of Quantum Physics and Information Technology -originally

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

239

The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

Jones, Goronwy Tudor

1991-01-01

240

Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.

2005-01-01

241

Emergence of particles from bosonic quantum field theory

An examination is made of the way in which particles emerge from linear, bosonic, massive quantum field theories. Two different constructions of the one-particle subspace of such theories are given, both illustrating the importance of the interplay between the quantum-mechanical linear structure and the classical one. Some comments are made on the Newton-Wigner representation of one-particle states, and on the relationship between the approach of this paper and those of Segal, and of Haag and Ruelle.

David Wallace

2001-12-23

242

Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

1998-12-14

243

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre develops, builds and operates large accelerator facilities for photon science and particle physics of the Helmholtz Association ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICSÂˇ DESY, Zeuthen location, is seeking: Scientist (f/m) DESY DESY

244

Experimental particle physics in Finland: Statistics and Overview

Experimental particle physics in Finland: Statistics and Overview P. Eerola University of Helsinki, Finland RÂECFA meeting Helsinki, Finland September 5, 1997 #12; History HighÂenergy physics research was established in Finland by the late Prof. emer. K.V. Laurikainen in the 60'sÂ70's. ffl 1960's Particle theory

Eerola, Paula

245

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because

Hobson, Art

2011-01-01

246

Auxiliary qubit selection: a physical synthesis technique for quantum circuits

Quantum circuit design flow consists of two main tasks: synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed\\u000a on optimization of the quantum circuit objectives because of no information sharing between synthesis and physical design\\u000a processes, we introduced the concept of physical synthesis for quantum circuit flow and proposed a technique for it. Following\\u000a that concept, in this paper we propose

Naser Mohammadzadeh; Morteza Saheb Zamani; Mehdi Sedighi

2011-01-01

247

Entanglement of indistinguishable particles in condensed matter physics

The concept of entanglement in systems where the particles are indistinguishable has been the subject of much recent interest and controversy. In this paper we study the notion of entanglement of particles introduced by Wiseman and Vaccaro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 097902 (2003)] in several specific physical systems, including some that occur in condensed matter physics. The entanglement of particles is relevant when the identical particles are itinerant and so not distinguished by their position as in spin models. We show that entanglement of particles can behave differently to other approaches that have been used previously, such as entanglement of modes (occupation-number entanglement) and the entanglement in the two-spin reduced density matrix. We argue that the entanglement of particles is what could actually be measured in most experimental scenarios and thus its physical significance is clear. This suggests entanglement of particles may be useful in connecting theoretical and experimental studies of entanglement in condensed matter systems.

Mark R. Dowling; Andrew C. Doherty; Howard M. Wiseman

2006-10-13

248

Quantum Criticality in Heavy Fermions: New Physics Near T = 0 (4/24/08) 1 Quantum Criticality in Heavy Fermions:Quantum Criticality in Heavy Fermions:Quantum Criticality in Heavy Fermions:Quantum Criticality in Heavy Fermions: New Physics NearNew Physics NearNew Physics NearNew Physics Near T = 0 Kevin

Ingersent, Kevin

249

Two decades of Mexican particle physics at Fermilab

This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories. Soon after becoming Fermilab director in 1979, Leon Lederman initiated a program to encourage experimental physics, especially experimental particle physics, in Latin America. At the time, Mexico had significant theoretical particle physics activity, but none in experiment. Following a visit by Lederman to UNAM in 1981, a conference ''Panamerican Symposium on Particle Physics and Technology'' was held in January 1982 at Cocoyoc, Mexico, with about 50 attendees from Europe, North America, and Latin America; these included Lederman, M. Moshinsky, J. Flores, S. Glashow, J. Bjorken, and G. Charpak. Among the conference outcomes were four subsequent similar symposia over the next decade, and a formal Fermilab program to aid Latin American physics (particularly particle physics); it also influenced a decision by Mexican physicist Clicerio Avilez to switch from theoretical to experimental particle physics. The first physics collaboration between Fermilab and Mexico was in particle theory. Post-docs Rodrigo Huerta and Jose Luis Lucio spent 1-2 years at Fermilab starting in 1981, and other theorists (including Augusto Garcia, Arnulfo Zepeda, Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez) also spent time at the Laboratory in the 1980s.

Roy Rubinstein

2002-12-03

250

Theoretical nuclear physics---elementary particles

This report briefly discusses the following topics: Thermodynamics with Wilson Fermions; beta function with Wilson Fermions; grand challenge; light flavors and nonperturbative QCD; the spin structure of the proton; the heavy Higgs Meson Problem; the heavy top quark problem; SU(2) Higgs Model; nontrivial quantum electrodynamics; vortex sheet dynamics; random surfaces and quantum gravity; strange baryon matter; supersymmetric model with the Higgs as a lepton; and Hamilton equations on group manifolds.

Kuti, J.

1989-01-01

251

PARTICLE PHYSICS: CERN Collider Glimpses Supersymmetry--Maybe.

Last week, particle physicists at the CERN laboratory in Switzerland announced that by smashing together matter and antimatter in four experiments, they detected an unexpected effect in the sprays of particles that ensued. The anomaly is subtle, and physicists caution that it might still be a statistical fluke. If confirmed, however, it could mark the long-sought discovery of a whole zoo of new particles--and the end of a long-standing model of particle physics. PMID:17750395

Seife, C

2000-07-14

252

Particle Physics Meets Cosmology -- The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)

Henry, Richard C.

1982-01-01

253

CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation ? for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form t2/3+?. Based on recent H(z) data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the ? parameter have been found as m = 1.6× 103 GeV, restricted to a 68.3% c.l. interval of 1.5 < m < 6.3× 107) GeV and ? = -0.250+0.15-0.096 at 68.3% c.l. For these best fit values the model correctly recovers a transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion and admits a positive creation rate near the present era. Contrary to recent works in CCDM models where the creation rate was phenomenologically derived, here we have used a quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called ``dark degeneracy'', where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.

Jesus, J. F.; Pereira, S. H.

2014-07-01

254

Quantum interference of particles and resonances

Though the phenomenon of quantum-mechanical interference has been known for many years, it still has many open questions. The present review discusses specifically how the interference of resonances may and does work. We collect data on the search for rare decay modes of well-known resonances that demonstrate a wide variety of possible different manifestations of interference. Some special kinds of resonance interference, not yet sufficiently studied and understood, are also briefly considered. The interference may give useful experimental procedures to search for new resonances with arbitrary quantum numbers, even with exotic ones, and to investigate their properties.

Ya. Azimov

2010-02-09

255

Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmic-ray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.

Stecker, F. W.

1990-01-01

256

Quantum Field Theories on a Noncommutative Euclidean Space: Overview of New Physics

In this talk I briefly review recent developments in quantum field theories on a noncommutative Euclidean space, with Heisenberg-like commutation relations between coordinates. I will be concentrated on new physics learned from this simplest class of non-local field theories, which has applications to both string theory and condensed matter systems, and possibly to particle phenomenology.

Yong-Shi Wu

2003-06-05

257

Quantum corrections to the gravitational interaction of massless particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Donoghue's effective field theory of quantum gravity is extended to include the interaction of massless particles. The collinear divergences which accompany massless particles are examined first in the context of QED and then in quantum gravity. A result of Weinberg is extended to show how these divergences vanish in the case of gravity. The scattering cross section for hypothetical massless scalar particles is computed first, because it is simpler, and the results are then extended to photons. Some terms in the cross section are shown to correspond to the Aichelburg-Sexl metric surrounding a massless particle and to quantum corrections to that metric. The scattering cross section is also applied to calculate quantum corrections to the bending of starlight, and though small, the result obtained is qualitatively different than in the classical case. Since effective field theory includes the low-energy degrees of freedom which generate collinear divergences, the results presented here will remain relevant in any future quantum theory of gravity.

Blackburn, Thomas J., Jr.

258

Critique of "Quantum Enigma:Physic encounters Consciousness"

The central claim that understanding quantum mechanics requires a conscious observer, which is made made by B. Rosenblum and F. Kuttner in their book "Quantum Enigma: Physics encounters consciousnes", is shown to be based on various misunderstandings and distortions of the foundations of quantum mechanics.

Michael Nauenberg

2007-05-14

259

FRONTIERS ARTICLE Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics

FRONTIERS ARTICLE Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics Robert F. Curl a,*, Federico Capasso b their first demonstration, quantum cascade lasers have become the most useful sources of tunable mid applications of quantum cascade lasers to infrared spectroscopy. We foresee the potential application

260

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize studentsâ depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of studentsâ descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured in-depth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map studentsâ depictions of the concept wave-particle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classical-quantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that studentsâ depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave- and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, this paper's findings are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the curricula are discussed.

Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie

2012-05-21

261

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of students descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured in-depth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map students depictions of the concept wave-particle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classical-quantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that students depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave- and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, the findings presented in this paper are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the curricula are discussed.

Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie

2011-12-01

262

Quantum principles and free particles. [evaluation of partitions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantum principles that establish the energy levels and degeneracies needed to evaluate the partition functions are explored. The uncertainty principle is associated with the dual wave-particle nature of the model used to describe quantized gas particles. The Schroedinger wave equation is presented as a generalization of Maxwell's wave equation; the former applies to all particles while the Maxwell equation applies to the special case of photon particles. The size of the quantum cell in phase space and the representation of momentum as a space derivative operator follow from the uncertainty principle. A consequence of this is that steady-state problems that are space-time dependent for the classical model become only space dependent for the quantum model and are often easier to solve. The partition function is derived for quantized free particles and, at normal conditions, the result is the same as that given by the classical phase integral. The quantum corrections that occur at very low temperatures or high densities are derived. These corrections for the Einstein-Bose gas qualitatively describe the condensation effects that occur in liquid helium, but are unimportant for most practical purposes otherwise. However, the corrections for the Fermi-Dirac gas are important because they quantitatively describe the behavior of high-density conduction electron gases in metals and explain the zero point energy and low specific heat exhibited in this case.

1976-01-01

263

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is composed of two parts. In the first part we summarize our study on implementation of quantum information processing (QIP) in optical cavity QED systems, while in the second part we present our numerical investigations on strongly interacting Fermi systems using a powerful numerical algorithm developed from the perspective of quantum information theory. We explore various possible applications of cavity QED in the strong coupling regime to quantum information processing tasks theoretically, including efficient preparation of Schrodinger-cat states for traveling photon pulses, robust implementation of conditional quantum gates on neutral atoms, as well as implementation of a hybrid controlled SWAP gate. We analyze the feasibility and performance of our schemes by solving corresponding physical models either numerically or analytically. We implement a novel numerical algorithm called Time Evolving Block Decimation (TEBD), which was proposed by Vidal from the perspective of quantum information science. With this algorithm, we numerically study the ground state properties of strongly interacting fermions in an anisotropic optical lattice across a wide Feshbach resonance. The interactions in this system can be described by a general Hubbard model with particle assisted tunneling. For systems with equal spin population, we find that the Luther-Emery phase, which has been known to exist only for attractive on-site interactions in the conventional Hubbard model, could also be found even in the case with repulsive on-site interactions in the general Hubbard model. Using the TEBD algorithm, we also study the effect of particle assisted tunneling in spin-polarized systems. Fermi systems with unequal spin population and attractive interaction could allow the existence of exotic superfluidity, such as the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. In the general Hubbard model, such exotic FFLO pairing of fermions could be suppressed by high particle assisted tunneling rates. However, at low particle assisted tunneling rates, the FFLO order could be enhanced. The effect of particle density inhomogeneity due to the presence of a harmonic trap potential is also discussed based on the local density approximation.

Wang, Bin

264

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because they respond to neither the EM force nor the strong force. For example, the mean free path (average penetration distance before it interacts) of a typical beta-decay neutrino moving through solid lead is about 1.5 light years! Enrico Fermi argued that neutrinos indicated a new force was at work. During the 1930s, he quickly adapted ideas from the developing new theory of QED to this new force, dubbed the weak force. Fermi's theory was able to predict the half-lives of beta-emitting nuclei and the range of energies of the emitted beta particles.

Hobson, Art

2011-03-01

265

Opinion particles: Classical physics and opinion dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for Opinion Particles, based on Bayesian-inspired models of Opinion Dynamics such as the CODA model, is presented. By extending the discrete time characteristic of those models to continuous time, a theory for the movement of opinion particles is obtained, based only on inference ideas. This will allow inertia to be obtained as a consequence of an extended CODA model. For the general case, we will see that the likelihoods are associated with variables such as velocity and acceleration of the particles. Newtonian forces are easily defined and the relationship between a force and the equivalent likelihood provided. The case of the harmonic oscillator is solved as an example, to illustrate clearly the relationship between Opinion Particles and Mechanics. Finally, possible paths to apply these results to General Relativity are debated.

Martins, André C. R.

2015-01-01

266

Bringing Bell's theorem back to the domain of Particle Physics & Cosmology

John St. Bell was a physicist working most of his time at CERN and contributing intensively and sustainably to the development of Particle Physics and Collider Physics. As a hobby he worked on so-called "foundations of quantum theory", that was that time very unpopular, even considered to be scientifically taboo. His 1964-theorem, showing that predictions of local realistic theories are different to those of quantum theory, initiated a new field in quantum physics: quantum information theory. The violation of Bell's theorem, for instance, is a necessary and sufficient criterion for generating a secure key for cryptography at two distant locations. This contribution shows how Bell's theorem can be brought to the realm of high energy physics and presents the first conclusive experimental feasible test for weakly decaying neutral mesons on the market. Strong experimental and theoretical limitations make a Bell test in weakly decaying systems such as mesons and hyperons very challenging, however, these systems show an unexpected and puzzling relation to another big open question: why is our Universe dominated by matter, why did the antimatter slip off the map? This long outstanding problem becomes a new perspective via the very idea behind quantum information.

Beatrix C. Hiesmayr

2015-02-13

267

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states and transition moments in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

J. Carlson; S. Gandolfi; F. Pederiva; Steven C. Pieper; R. Schiavilla; K. E. Schmidt; R. B. Wiringa

2014-12-09

268

Interactions.org: Particle Physics News and Resources

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactions.org website serves as a hub for news, information, images, and links for particle physicists. Educators and students can find a sizeable image collection and short videos and animations describing the research and history of key physics institutions. Researchers can discover a global data grid and a database of talks in cosmic physics, linear collider, ethics and science, and other particle physics topics. The website offers links to various physics glossaries, universities, and societies. Individuals can learn about education and funding opportunities.

269

Particle physics meets cosmology - The search for decaying neutrinos

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental physical implications of the possible detection of massive neutrinos are discussed, with an emphasis on the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) of matter. The Newtonian and general-relativistic pictures of the fundamental forces are compared, and the reduction of electromagnetic and weak forces to one force in the GUTs is explained. The cosmological consequences of the curved-spacetime gravitation concept are considered. Quarks, leptons, and neutrinos are characterized in a general treatment of elementary quantum mechanics. The universe is described in terms of quantized fields, the noninteractive 'particle' fields and the force fields, and cosmology becomes the study of the interaction of gravitation with the other fields, of the 'freezing out' of successive fields with the expansion and cooling of the universe. While the visible universe is the result of the clustering of the quark and electron fields, the distribution of the large number of quanta in neutrino field, like the mass of the neutrino, are unknown. Cosmological models which attribute anomalies in the observed motions of galaxies and stars to clusters or shells of massive neutrinos are shown to be consistent with a small but nonzero neutrino mass and a universe near the open/closed transition point, but direct detection of the presence of massive neutrinos by the UV emission of their decay is required to verify these hypotheses.

Henry, R. C.

1982-01-01

270

Recent results in particle and nuclear physics from lattice QCD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected topics in lattice QCD applied to particle and nuclear physics are presented. Some emphases are placed on the determination of the baryon-baryon interaction from full QCD simulations and its future perspective.

Hatsuda, Tetsuo

2012-09-01

271

Making the Dark Matter Connection Between Particle Physics and Cosmology

be explained within the Standard Model of particle physics. However, models which extend the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, can explain dark matter. This dissertation investigates the signals of some supersymmetry models in the context of collider...

Krislock, Abram Michael

2012-10-19

272

The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

James D. Wells

2000-12-14

273

Quarks and Leptones: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics

This self-contained text describes breakthroughs in our understanding of the structure and interactions of elementary particles. It provides students of theoretical or experimental physics with the background material to grasp the significance of these developments.

Francis Halzen; Alan D. Martin

1984-01-01

274

Astro particle physics with AMS on the International Space Station

We review how AMS will study open issues on astro particle physics operating for three years on the International Space Station, complementary to searches done at underground and accelerator facilities.

R. Battiston

2003-01-01

275

Relativistic models in nuclear and particle physics

A comparative overview is presented of different approaches to the construction of phenomenological dynamical models that respect basic principles of quantum theory and relativity. Wave functions defined as matrix elements of products of field operators on one hand and wave functions that are defined as representatives of state vectors in model Hilbert spaces are related differently to observables and dynamical models for these wave functions have each distinct advantages and disadvantages 34 refs.

Coester, F.

1988-01-01

276

Modular Approach to Physics: Charged Particle in Capacitor

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation displays the motion of a charged particle in a capacitor. Users can adjust the strength of field, velocity and mass of the moving particle, and magnitude of the charge. The simulated path can be viewed in continuous or step mode, with or without vector display. Also available for display are bar graphs depicting kinetic and potential energy. This item is part of a larger collection of physics simulations sponsored by the MAP project (Modular Approach to Physics).

2007-11-09

277

Physical properties of soft repulsive particle fluids.

Molecular dynamics computer simulation has been applied to inverse power or soft-sphere fluids, in which the particles interact through the soft-sphere pair potential, phi(r) = epsilon(sigma/r)(n), where n measures the steepness or stiffness of the potential, and epsilon and sigma are a characteristic energy and distance, respectively. The focus of the study is on very soft particles with n values down to 4 considered, at densities up to and along the fluid-solid co-existence density. It is shown that in the soft-particle limit the local structure is dominated by the lengthscale associated with the average nearest neighbour distance of a random structure, which is proportional, variantrho(-1/3) and increasingly only very weakly dependent on n. This scaling is also manifest in the behaviour of the average energy per particle with density. The self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity are computed along the fluid-solid co-existence line as a function of n, for the first time. The product Deta(s) steadily increases with softness for n < 10, whereas the modified Stokes-Einstein relationship of Zwanzig, Deta(s)/rho(1/3), where rho is the number density, is within statistics constant over the same softness range. This is consistent with our observation that the static properties are determined by a characteristic lengthscale (i.e., l) which is proportional, variantrho(-1/3) in the soft-particle limit. The high frequency elastic moduli of these fluids are examined, which reveals that the mechanical properties become more 'rubbery' as the particles get softer. PMID:17957313

Heyes, D M; Bra?ka, A C

2007-11-01

278

Quantum Master Equation of a Particle in a Gas Environment

The evolution of the reduced density operator $\\\\rho$ of Brownian particle is discussed in single collision approach valid typically in low density gas environments. This is the first succesful derivation of quantum friction caused by {\\\\it local} environmental interactions. We derive a Lindblad master equation for $\\\\rho$, whose generators are calculated from differential cross section of a single collision between

L. Diósi

1995-01-01

279

Quantum Master Equation of Particle in Gas Environment

The evolution of the reduced density operatorof Brownian particle is discussed in single collision approach valid typically in low density gas environments. This is the first succesful derivation of quantum friction caused by local environmental interactions. We derive a Lindblad master equation for ?, whose generators are calculated from differential cross section of a single collision between Brownian and gas

Lajos Diosi

280

Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

1992-06-01

281

American particle and nuclear physics planning

In the United States the planning process relevant to future deep inelastic scattering involves both the high energy physics and nuclear physics funding and the two communities. In Canada there is no such split between the communities. Within the past two years there have been several planning initiatives and there may be more to come. We review the current status of both the planning and the plans.

Montgomery, Hugh E. [JLAB

2014-10-01

282

Quarks, Leptons, and Bosons: A Particle Physics Primer.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a non-technical introduction to particle physics. The material is adapted from chapter 3 of "Cosmic Horizons," (by Robert Wagoner and Don Goldsmith), a lay-person's introduction to cosmology. Among the topics considered are elementary particles, forces and motion, and higher level structures. (JN)

Wagoner, Robert; Goldsmith, Donald

1983-01-01

283

Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W

Farmelo, Graham

1992-01-01

284

Supersymmetry in Particle Physics: The Renormalization Group Viewpoint

An attempt is made to present modern hopes to find manifestation of supersymmetry, a new symmetry that relates bosons and fermions, in particle physics from the point of view of renormalization group flow. The Standard Model of particle interactions is briefly reviewed, the main notions of supersymmetry are introduced. In more detail the RG flow in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is considered. Predictions of particle spectrum are obtained based on the RG fixed points.

D. I. Kazakov

2000-01-25

285

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS (SCIPP)

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS (SCIPP) POSTDOCTORAL Scholar in the Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics under the direction of the Theory Group particle physics, astrophysics, or cosmology.PREFERRED QUALIFICATIONS: Substantial experience

California at Santa Cruz, University of

286

Online particle physics information 1 Updated Jan. 2012 by T. Basaglia (CERN), A. Holtkamp (CERN).

Online particle physics information 1 Updated Jan. 2012 by T. Basaglia (CERN), A. Holtkamp (CERN (PDG) resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. Particle Physics Information Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4. Literature Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5. Particle Physics

287

Online particle physics information 1 Written August 2009 by T. Basaglia (CERN).

Online particle physics information 1 Written August 2009 by T. Basaglia (CERN). 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5. Particle Physics Journals & Reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6. Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 10. Software Repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 11. Particle Physics

288

Classical physics of particles and fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate geodesics in terms of a parallel transfer of a particle state vector transformed by local Lorentz and Yang-Mills symmetry groups. This formulation is based on horizontal fields and requires a canonical distance form. Arguments are presented in favour of scaling distance in our space-time with a scalar field.

Grigorenko, A. N.

2014-12-01

289

Colloquium: Majorana Fermions in nuclear, particle and solid-state physics

Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own anti-particle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their anti-particles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can only exist if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this proces...

Elliott, S R

2014-01-01

290

Symmetry and Relativity : From Classical Mechanics to Modern Particle Physics

Symmetry and Relativity : From Classical Mechanics to Modern Particle Physics Z.J. Ajaltouni Symmetry in Physics and the Relativity Theory, particularly Special Relativity. After a brief historical in the clarification of many issues related to fundamental symmetries. Several examples from classical mechanics

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

291

Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics

How is mind related to matter? This ancient question inphilosophy is rapidly becoming a core problem in science, perhaps themost important of all because it probes the essential nature of manhimself. The origin of the problem is a conflict between the mechanicalconception of human beings that arises from the precepts of classicalphysical theory and the very different idea that arises from ourintuition: the former reduces each of us to an automaton, while thelatter allows our thoughts to guide our actions. The dominantcontemporary approaches to the problem attempt to resolve this conflictby clinging to the classical concepts, and trying to explain away ourmisleading intuition. But a detailed argument given here shows why, in ascientific approach to this problem, it is necessary to use the morebasic principles of quantum physics, which bring the observer into thedynamics, rather than to accept classical precepts that are profoundlyincorrect precisely at the crucial point of the role of humanconsciousness in the dynamics of human brains. Adherence to the quantumprinciples yields a dynamical theory of the mind/brain/body system thatis in close accord with our intuitive idea of what we are. In particular,the need for a self-observing quantum system to pose certain questionscreates a causal opening that allowsmind/brain dynamics to have threedistinguishable but interlocked causal processes, one micro-local, onestochastic, and the third experiential. Passing to the classical limit inwhich the critical difference between zero and the finite actual value ofPlanck's constant is ignored not only eliminates the chemical processesthat are absolutely crucial to the functioning of actual brains, itsimultaneously blinds the resulting theoretical construct to the physicalfine structure wherein the effect of mind on matter lies: the use of thislimit in this context is totally unjustified from a physicsperspective.

Stapp, H.P.

1999-05-01

292

FPGA-based Cherenkov Ring Recognition in Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

FPGA-based Cherenkov Ring Recognition in Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments Ming Liu adopted to identify particles flying through the detector systems in nuclear and particle physics for particle recognition. 1 Introduction Nuclear and particle physics is a branch of physics that studies

Jantsch, Axel

293

Topological approach toward quantum codes with realistic physical constraints

The following open problems, which concern a fundamental limit on coding properties of quantum codes with realistic physical constraints, are analyzed and partially answered here: (a) the upper bound on code distances of quantum error-correcting codes with geometrically local generators, (b) the feasibility of a self-correcting quantum memory. To investigate these problems, we study stabilizer codes supported by local interaction terms with translation and scale symmetries on a $D$-dimensional lattice. Our analysis uses the notion of topology emerging in geometric shapes of logical operators, which sheds a surprising new light on theory of quantum codes with physical constraints.

Beni Yoshida

2010-10-15

294

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report

This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

Not Available

1991-12-01

295

Multiparty quantum key agreement with single particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two conditions must be satisfied in a secure quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol: (1) outside eavesdroppers cannot gain the generated key without introducing any error; (2) the generated key cannot be determined by any non-trivial subset of the participants. That is, a secure QKA protocol can not only prevent the outside attackers from stealing the key, but also resist the attack from inside participants, i.e. some dishonest participants determine the key alone by illegal means. How to resist participant attack is an aporia in the design of QKA protocols, especially the multi-party ones. In this paper we present the first secure multiparty QKA protocol against both outside and participant attacks. Further more, we have proved its security in detail.

Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-yan

2013-04-01

296

Single particle in quantum gravity and Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini entropy of a spin network

Passerini and Severini have recently shown that the Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini (BGS) entropy S(Gamma) = -Tr[rho(Gamma) log rho(Gamma)] of a certain density matrix rho(Gamma) naturally associated to a graph Gamma, is maximized, among all graphs with a fixed number of links and nodes, by regular graphs. We ask if this result can play a role in quantum gravity, and be related to the apparent regularity of the physical geometry of space. We show that in Loop Quantum Gravity the matrix rho(Gamma) is precisely the Hamiltonian operator (suitably normalized) of a non-relativistic quantum particle interacting with the quantum gravitational field, if we restrict elementary area and volume eigenvalues to a fixed value. This operator provides a spectral characterization of the physical geometry, and can be interpreted as a state describing the spectral information about the geometry available when geometry is measured by its physical interaction with matter. It is then tempting to interpret its BGS entropy S(Gamma) as a genuine physical entropy: we discuss the appeal and the difficulties of this interpretation.

Carlo Rovelli; Francesca Vidotto

2009-05-18

297

Single particle in quantum gravity and Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini entropy of a spin network

Passerini and Severini have recently shown that the Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini (BGS) entropy S{sub {Gamma}}=-Tr[{rho}{sub {Gamma}}log{rho}{sub {Gamma}}] of a certain density matrix {rho}{sub {Gamma}} naturally associated to a graph {Gamma}, is maximized, among all graphs with a fixed number of links and nodes, by regular graphs. We ask if this result can play a role in quantum gravity, and be related to the apparent regularity of the physical geometry of space. We show that in loop quantum gravity the matrix {rho}{sub {Gamma}} is precisely the Hamiltonian operator (suitably normalized) of a nonrelativistic quantum particle interacting with the quantum gravitational field, if we restrict elementary area and volume eigenvalues to a fixed value. This operator provides a spectral characterization of the physical geometry, and can be interpreted as a state describing the spectral information about the geometry available when geometry is measured by its physical interaction with matter. It is then tempting to interpret its BGS entropy S{sub {Gamma}} as a genuine physical entropy: we discuss the appeal and the difficulties of this interpretation.

Rovelli, Carlo [Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France); Vidotto, Francesca [Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

2010-02-15

298

Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)

This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cutting-edge measurements from proton-antiproton collisions at the energy frontier.

Dittmann, J.R.

2012-08-25

299

Insights and puzzles in particle physics

I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

H. Leutwyler

2014-10-15

300

Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics

Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a forty-year long history, black hole physics is a fully-blossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This write-up, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.

Cardoso, Vitor

2013-01-01

301

Interpretive themes in quantum physics: Curriculum development and outcomes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our prior work has shown that student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics can be characterized, and are differentially influenced by the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. We report how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) has positively impacted student perspectives on quantum physics, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of the course, but also by making the beliefs of students (and not just those of scientists) an explicit topic of discussion.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2012-02-01

302

J-PARC Status, Nuclear and Particle Physics

J-PARC accelerator research complex, consisting of LINAC, RCS and MR synchrotron, has successfully produced neutron, muons, kaons, and neutrinos by steady commissioning since November 2006. There are three experimental facilities, and for nuclear and particle physics, nine experiments are approved in a hadron physics facility, and one experiment is approved in a neutrino physics facility. Those experiments and status of J-PARC are described in this paper.

Sato, Susumu [Advanced Science Research Center/J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2011-06-01

303

Statistical mechanics of confined quantum particles

We develop statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of Bose and Fermi systems in relativistic harmonic oscillator (RHO) confining potential, which may be applicable in quark gluon plasma (QGP), astrophysics, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), condensed matter physics etc. Detailed study of QGP system is carried out and compared with lattice results. Further, as an application, our equation of state (EoS) of QGP is used to study compact stars like quark star.

Vishnu M. Bannur; K. M. Udayanandan

2006-02-02

304

Black Holes and Massive Elementary Particles in Resummed Quantum Gravity

Einstein's general theory of relativity poses many problems to the quantum theory of point particle fields. Among them is the fate of a massive point particle. Since its rest mass exists entirely within its Schwarzschild radius, in the classical solutions of Einstein's theory, the respective system should be a black hole. We address this issue using exact results in a new approach to quantum gravity based upon well-tested resummation methods in point particle quantum field theory. We show that the classical conclusion is obviated by quantum loop effects. We show that our new approach already passes two theoretical checks with the published literature; for, it reproduces known results on the one-loop correction to the graviton self-energy in scaler matter coupled to Einstein's gravity as analyzed by 't Hooft and Veltman and it is consistent with the asymptotic safety results of Bonnanno and Reuter on the behavior of Newton's constant in the deep Euclidean regime. Indeed, our approach is consistent with the black hole phenomenology of the latter authors, including their results on the final state of the Hawking radiation for an originally massive black hole. Further black hole related phenomenological implications are also discussed.

B. F. L. Ward

2005-02-10

305

Statistical Challenges with Massive Data Sets in Particle Physics

The massive data sets from today's particle physics experiments present a variety of challenges amenable to the tools developed by the statistics community. From the real-time decision of what subset of data to record on permanent storage, to the reduction of millions of channels of electronics to a few dozen high-level variables of primary interest, to the interpretation of these high-level observables in the context of an underlying physical theory, there are many problems that could benefit from a higher-bandwidth exchange of ideas between our fields. Examples of interesting problems from various stages in the collection and interpretation of particle physics data are provided in an attempt to whet the appetite of future collaborators with knowledge of potentially helpful techniques, and to encourage fruitful discussion between the particle physics and statistics communities.

Bruce Knuteson; Paul Padley

2003-05-21

306

Quantum physics explains Newton's laws of motion

Newton was obliged to give his laws of motion as fundamental axioms. But today we know that the quantum world is fundamental, and Newton's laws can be seen as consequences of fundamental quantum laws. This article traces this transition from fundamental quantum mechanics to derived classical mechanics.

Jon Ogborn; Edwin F. Taylor

2005-01-01

307

Particle physics at the Pierre Auger Observatory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest detector of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the world. These particles, presumably protons or heavier nuclei of energies up to 1020 eV, initiate extensive air showers which can be detected by sampling the particles that arrive at ground level or observing the fluorescence light generated during the passage of showers through the atmosphere - the Pierre Auger Observatory employs both these techniques. As the center-of-mass energies of the first interactions in the showers can be several orders of magnitude beyond the reach of the LHC, the UHECR provide an unique opportunity to study hadronic interactions. While the uncertainty in modeling these interactions is somewhat degenerate with the unknown composition of the primary beam, interaction models can be tested using data such as the depths of the maxima of the longitudinal development of the showers or their muon content. Particular sensitivity to interaction models is achieved when several observables are combined. Moreover, using careful data selection, proton-air cross section at the c.m.s. energy of 57 TeV per nucleon-nucleon pair can be obtained.

Ebr, Jan

2014-11-01

308

A Pyramid Scheme for Particle Physics

We introduce a new model, the Pyramid Scheme, of direct mediation of SUSY breaking, which is compatible with the idea of Cosmological SUSY Breaking (CSB). It uses the trinification scheme of grand unification and avoids problems with Landau poles in standard model gauge couplings. It also avoids problems, which have recently come to light, associated with rapid stellar cooling due to emission of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Boson (PNGB) of spontaneously broken hidden sector baryon number. With a certain pattern of R-symmetry breaking masses, a pattern more or less required by CSB, the Pyramid Scheme leads to a dark matter candidate that decays predominantly into leptons, with cross sections compatible with a variety of recent observations. The dark matter particle is not a thermal WIMP but a particle with new strong interactions, produced in the late decay of some other scalar, perhaps the superpartner of the QCD axion, with a reheat temperature in the TeV range. This is compatible with a variety of scenarios for baryogenesis, including some novel ones which exploit specific features of the Pyramid Scheme.

Tom Banks; Jean-François Fortin

2009-01-22

309

Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

1992-01-01

310

Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

1992-11-01

311

Detectors for probing relativistic quantum physics beyond perturbation theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a general formalism for a nonperturbative treatment of harmonic-oscillator particle detectors in relativistic quantum field theory using continuous-variable techniques. By means of this we forgo perturbation theory altogether and reduce the complete dynamics to a readily solvable set of first-order, linear differential equations. The formalism applies unchanged to a wide variety of physical setups, including arbitrary detector trajectories, any number of detectors, arbitrary time-dependent quadratic couplings, arbitrary Gaussian initial states, and a variety of background spacetimes. As a first set of concrete results, we prove nonperturbativelyand without invoking Bogoliubov transformationsthat an accelerated detector in a cavity evolves to a state that is very nearly thermal with a temperature proportional to its acceleration, allowing us to discuss the universality of the Unruh effect. Additionally we quantitatively analyze the problems of considering single-mode approximations in cavity field theory and show the emergence of causal behavior when we include a sufficiently large number of field modes in the analysis. Finally, we analyze how the harmonic particle detector can harvest entanglement from the vacuum. We also study the effect of noise in time-dependent problems introduced by suddenly switching on the interaction versus ramping it up slowly (adiabatic activation).

Brown, Eric G.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Mann, Robert B.

2013-04-01

312

Time and a physical Hamiltonian for quantum gravity.

We present a nonperturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable, leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The surprising feature is that the Hamiltonian is not a square root. This property, together with the kinematical structure of loop quantum gravity, provides a complete theory of quantum gravity, and puts applications to cosmology, quantum gravitational collapse, and Hawking radiation within technical reach. PMID:22540782

Husain, Viqar; Paw?owski, Tomasz

2012-04-01

313

Estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and statistical physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and statistical physics. We are able to obtain reliable error bars for each estimate. The results are in excellent agreement with known exact calculation.

Samuel, Mark A.

1995-07-01

314

Quantum Master Equation of Particle in Gas Environment

The evolution of the reduced density operator $\\rho$ of Brownian particle is discussed in single collision approach valid typically in low density gas environments. This is the first succesful derivation of quantum friction caused by {\\it local} environmental interactions. We derive a Lindblad master equation for $\\rho$, whose generators are calculated from differential cross section of a single collision between Brownian and gas particles, respectively. The existence of thermal equilibrium for $\\rho$ is proved. Master equations proposed earlier are shown to be particular cases of our one.

Lajos Diosi

1994-03-23

315

Physical Modeling of economic systems: Classical and Quantum Economies

Methods of theoretical physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are used to develop classical and quantum models of economies and to derive their equations of motion that describe economy evolution in time, namely, Lagrange and Schrödinger equations correspondingly. The book is intended to economists and physicists interested in formal economics background.

Anatoly Kondratenko

2005-01-01

316

Master of Science Thesis in Physics Random Quantum Billiards

Master of Science Thesis in Physics Random Quantum Billiards Henrik J. Pedersen The Niels Bohr july 1997 #12; 2 Abstract We construct a random matrix model suitable for the quantum mechanicalÂorthogonal basis. Our random matrix model consists of drawing the elements of this matrix at random. Numerical

Jackson, Andrew D.

317

Finite-particle-number approach to physics

Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

Noyes, H.P.

1982-10-01

318

Exotic Statistics for Ordinary Particles in Quantum Gravity

Objects exhibiting statistics other than the familiar Bose and Fermi ones are natural in theories with topologically nontrivial objects including geons, strings, and black holes. It is argued here from several viewpoints that the statistics of ordinary particles with which we are already familiar are likely to be modified due to quantum gravity effects. In particular, such modifications are argued to be present in loop quantum gravity and in any theory which represents spacetime in a fundamentally piecewise-linear fashion. The appearance of unusual statistics may be a generic feature (such as the deformed position-momentum uncertainty relations and the appearance of a fundamental length scale) which are to be expected in any theory of quantum gravity, and which could be testable.

John Swain

2008-05-15

319

Shock Physics Simulation Using a Hybrid Particle-Element Method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some important shock physics applications have motivated the development of numerical methods based on mixed particle-finite element formulations. Although pure continuum and pure particle based methods are well suited for use in many shock physics problems, their underlying kinematic schemes limit their utility in selected applications. An example is hypervelocity impact simulation, which requires both accurate modeling of strength effects and general descriptions of contact-impact dynamics for all structures and material fragments. In recent research the hybrid particle-element method of Shivarama and Fahrenthold (Int. J. for Num. Methods in Eng., 2004, Vol. 59, pp. 737-753) has been extended and validated in simulations of one and three dimensional shock physics problems.

Fahrenthold, Eric

2005-07-01

320

Physics 10 Particle Physics in the LHC Era. Professor Dine Fall, 2006. Homework Set. Due Tues., Oct in particle physics are important if we are ever to understand the history of the universe at times very close to the big bang. #12;Some References 1. National Academy Report on particle physics, EPP2010, Executive

Deutsch, Josh

321

NATURE PHYSICS | VOL 9 | AUGUST 2013 | www.nature.com/naturephysics 447 editorial Particle physics in the recent update to the European Strategy for Particle Physics1 , the Higgs discovery is only "the start for the European particle physics community. That programme will also include a substantial upgrade in the LHC

Loss, Daniel

322

The Second Law and Quantum Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, I discuss the mystery of the second law and its relation to quantum information. There are many explanations of the second law, mostly satisfactory and not mutually exclusive. Here, I advocate quantum mechanics and quantum information as something that, through entanglement, helps resolve the paradox or the puzzle of the origin of the second law. I will discuss the interpretation called quantum Darwinism and how it helps explain why our world seems so classical, and what it has to say about the permanence or transience of information. And I will discuss a simple model illustrating why systems away from thermal equilibrium tend to be more complicated.

Bennett, Charles H.

2008-08-01

323

Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.

Hahne, Gerhard

2012-01-01

324

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber O#ce: ISB, Room 326 Phone OUTSIDE READING: Quantum Physics, by Stephen Gasiorowicz Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J to Quantum Mechanics, by John S. Townsend PREREQUISITES: Physics 116C and Physics 139A. It is assumed

California at Santa Cruz, University of

325

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber Office: ISB, Room 326 Phone OUTSIDE READING: Quantum Physics, by Stephen Gasiorowicz Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J to Quantum Mechanics, by John S. Townsend PREREQUISITES: Physics 116C and Physics 139A. It is assumed

California at Santa Cruz, University of

326

UK Particle Physics, Astronomy, and Space Science (PPARC): Frontiers

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Frontiers publication offers the latest news and activities of the Research Council's funded projects and the UK Particle Physics, Astronomy, and Space Science's (PPARC) funded scientists. Produced three times a year, each issue is easy to navigate with quick links to the space science and particle physics articles on the Contents page as well as a keyword search. The website offers archives of the publication since 1997. Each issue contains five sections: the Contents, Editorial, Update, Features, and News. While the other sections contain brief synopses, the Features section offers comprehensive descriptions of stimulating endeavors.

327

PPARC: The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the United Kingdom's science investment agency, developed this extensive website to illustrate its work to promote the scientific research and public interest in astronomy, space science, and particle physics. Visitors can find out about the council's numerous projects including the e-science program and the KITE club. Students and researchers can find out about fellowships, training programs, grants, and post-doctoral careers. The website features the educational and public outreach program, Science and Society.

2007-09-21

328

Are quantum-mechanical-like models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantum-mechanical-like mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantum-mechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.

Plotnitsky, Arkady

2014-12-01

329

Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

330

Energy Requirement for Lignocellulosic Feedstock Densifications in Relation to Particle Physical the energy consumption of herbaceous feedstock compression in relation to particle physical properties was a function of the particle size, moisture content, and feedstock type. During pelletization, where all

331

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

Not Available

1990-11-30

332

Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed.1-8 Here we present an approach to quantum physics based on the simplest quantum mechanical systemthe quantum bit (qubit).1 Like its classical counterpartthe bita qubit corresponds to a two-level system, i.e., some system with a physical property that can admit two possible values. While typically a physical system has more than just one property or the property can admit more than just two values, in many situations most degrees of freedom can be considered to be fixed or frozen. Hence a variety of systems can be effectively described as a qubit. For instance, one may consider the spin of an electron or atom, with spin up and spin down as two possible values, and where other properties of the particle such as its mass or its position are fixed. Further examples include the polarization degree of freedom of a photon (horizontal and vertical polarization), two electronic degrees of freedom (i.e., two energy levels) of an atom, or the position of an atom in a double well potential (atom in left or right well). In all cases, only two states are relevant to describe the system.

Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

2014-11-01

333

Novel quantization properties related to the state vectors and the energy spectrum of a two-dimensional system of free particles are obtained in the framework of noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics (QM) supported by the Weyl-Wigner formalism. Besides reproducing the magnetic field aspect of a Zeeman-like effect, the momentum space NC parameter introduces mutual information properties quantified by the quantum purity related to the relevant coordinates of the corresponding Hilbert space. Supported by the QM in the phase-space, the thermodynamic limit is obtained, and the results are extended to three-dimensional systems. The noncommutativity imprints on the thermodynamic variables related to free particles are identified and, after introducing some suitable constraints to fix an axial symmetry, the analysis is extended to two- and- three dimensional quantum rotor systems, for which the quantization aspects and the deviation from standard QM results are verified.

Catarina Bastos; Alex E. Bernardini; Jonas F. G. Santos

2014-11-11

334

This study evaluates the influence of particle size, PEGylation, and surface coating on the quantitative biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots (QDs) in mice. Polymer- or peptide-coated 64Cu-labeled QDs 2 or 12 nm in diameter, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 2000, are studied by serial micropositron emission tomography imaging and region-of-interest analysis, as well as transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PEGylation and peptide coating slow QD uptake into the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), liver and spleen, by a factor of 69 and 23, respectively. Small particles are in part renally excreted. Peptide-coated particles are cleared from liver faster than physical decay alone would suggest. Renal excretion of small QDs and slowing of RES clearance by PEGylation or peptide surface coating are encouraging steps toward the use of modified QDs for imaging living subjects. PMID:19051182

Schipper, Meike L.; Iyer, Gopal; Koh, Ai Leen; Cheng, Zhen; Ebenstein, Yuval; Aharoni, Assaf; Keren, Shay; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Li, Jianquing; Rao, Jianghong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Banin, Uri; Wu, Anna M.; Sinclair, Robert; Weiss, Shimon

2011-01-01

335

Quantum divisibility test and its application in mesoscopic physics

Quantum divisibility test and its application in mesoscopic physics G.B. Lesovik (a, speaker), M.V. Suslov (b), G. Blatter (c) a. L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS b. Moscow Institute and a sequential read out. Applications include a divisibility check to experimentally test the size of a finite

Fominov, Yakov

336

Twenty-Five Centuries of Quantum Physics: From Pythagoras to Us, and from Subjectivism to Realism

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three main theses are proposed. The first is that the idea of a quantum or minimal unit is not peculiar to quantum theory, since it already occurs in the classical theories of elasticity and electrolysis. Second, the peculiarities of the objects described by quantum theory are the following: their basic laws are probabilistic; some of their properties, such as position and energy, are blunt rather than sharp; two particles that were once together continue to be associated even after becoming spatially separated; and the vacuum has physical properties, so that it is a kind of matter. Third, the orthodox or Copenhagen interpretation of the theory is false, and may conveniently be replaced with a realist (though not classicist) interpretation. Heisenberg's inequality, Schrödinger's cat and Zeno's quantum paradox are discussed in the light of the two rival interpretations. It is also shown that the experiments that falsified Bell's inequality do not refute realism but the classicism inherent in hidden variables theories.

Bunge, Mario

337

Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement Jae-Weon Lee and Eok Kyun Lee

Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement Jae-Weon Lee and Eok Kyun Lee Department; published 23 July 2003 A quantum cryptography scheme based on entanglement between a single-particle state,2 and quan- tum cryptography 3 . Discussion on the nonlocal nature en- tanglement of quantum systems

Lee, EokKyun

338

Current experiments in elementary particle physics, revision 1-85

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T. G.; Yost, G. P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D. C.; Grudtsin, S. N.; Ryabov, Y. G.; Frosch, R.

1985-01-01

339

Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

Matthaeus, W.

1992-01-01

340

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

1985-01-01

341

Chemical and physical aggregation of small-functionality particles

aggregation. The diffusion-controlled regime sets in well-beyond percolation and the effectChemical and physical aggregation of small- functionality particles Silvia Corezzi,*ab Daniele by the chemistry of the system, and to the encounter rate of clusters, controlled by cluster diffusion

Sciortino, Francesco

342

Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

This article reviews the progress made over the last 20years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type

E. Aprile; T. Doke

2010-01-01

343

Research in elementary particle physics. [Ohio State Univ. , Columbus

Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.

Not Available

1992-01-01

344

PREFACE: The EPS High Energy Particle Physics Conference

HEPP2007, the EPS High Energy Particle Physics Conference, was held in Manchester from July 19-26 2007. It brought together 580 delegates across the whole subject: from string theorists to detector technologists, from young postgraduate students to senior professors. Geographically they came from the UK, from the rest of Europe, from North America, and from the rest of the world. It

Roger Barlow

2008-01-01

345

My 50 years of research in particle physics.

Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

Sugawara, Hirotaka

2010-01-01

346

Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Physical theory and techniques.

Body tissues are not ferromagnetic, but ferromagnetic particles can be present as contaminants or as probes in the lungs and in other organs. The magnetic domains of these particles can be aligned by momentary application of an external magnetic field; the magnitude and time course of the resultant remanent field depend on the quantity of magnetic material and the degree of particle motion. The interpretation of magnetometric data requires an understanding of particle magnetization, agglomeration, random motion, and both rotation and translation in response to magnetic fields. We present physical principles relevant to magnetometry and suggest models for intracellular particle motion driven by thermal, elastic, or cellular forces. The design principles of instrumentation for magnetizing intracellular particles and for detecting weak remanent magnetic fields are described. Such magnetic measurements can be used for noninvasive studies of particle clearance from the body or of particle motion within body tissues and cells. Assumptions inherent to this experimental approach and possible sources of artifact are considered and evaluated. PMID:3676435

Valberg, P A; Butler, J P

1987-01-01

347

Physical principle for optimizing electrophoretic separation of charged particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrophoresis is one of the most important methods for separating colloidal particles, carbohydrates, pharmaceuticals, and biological molecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, in terms of their charge (or size). This method relies on the correlation between the particle drift velocity and the charge (or size). For a high-resolution separation, we need to minimize fluctuations of the drift velocity of particles or molecules. For a high throughput, on the other hand, we need a concentrated solution, in which many-body electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions may increase velocity fluctuations. Thus, it is crucial to reveal what physical factors destabilize the coherent electrophoretic motion of charged particles. However, this is not an easy task due to complex dynamic couplings between particle motion, hydrodynamic flow, and motion of ion clouds. Here we study this fundamental problem using numerical simulations. We reveal that addition of salt screens both electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions, but in a different manner. This allows us to minimize the fluctuations of the particle drift velocity for a particular salt concentration. This may have an impact not only on the basic physical understanding of dynamics of driven charged colloids, but also on the optimization of electrophoretic separation.

Araki, Takeaki; Tanaka, Hajime

2008-04-01

348

Quantum Bit Commitment from a Physical Assumption

Mayers and independently Lo and Chau have shown that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is impossible. In this\\u000a paper we show that under the assumption that the sender is not able to perform generalized measurements involving more than\\u000a n qubits coherently (n-coherent measurements) then quantum bit commitment is possible. A commitment scheme is ?-binding if for each execution there is

Louis Salvail

1998-01-01

349

Probing Particle Physics from Top Down with Cosmic Strings

Making use of the wealth of new observational data coming from the sky it is possible to constrain particle physics theories beyond the Standard Model. One way to do this is illustrated in this article: a subset of theories admits cosmic string solutions, topologically stable matter field configurations. In these models, a network of cosmic strings inevitably forms in the early universe and persists to the present time. The gravitational effects of these strings leads to cosmological signatures which could be visible in current and future data. The magnitude of these signatures increases as the energy scale of the new physics involved in cosmic string formation increases. Thus, searching for cosmological signatures of strings is a way to probe particle physics model "from top down", as opposed to "from bottom up" as is done using data from accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider. Different ways of searching for cosmic strings are illustrated in this article. They include Cosmic Microwave Background tem...

Brandenberger, Robert H

2014-01-01

350

Helmholtz wave trajectories in classical and quantum physics

The behavior of classical and quantum wave beams in stationary media is shown to be ruled by a "Wave Potential" function encoded in Helmholtz-like equations, determined by the structure itself of the beam and taking, in the quantum case, the form of Bohm's "Quantum Potential", which is therefore not so much a "quantum" as a "wave" property. Exact, deterministic motion laws, mutually coupled by this term and describing wave-like features such as diffraction and interference, are obtained in terms of well defined Hamiltonian trajectories, and shown to reduce to the laws of usual geometrical optics and/or classical dynamics when this coupling term is neglected. As far as the quantum case is concerned, the approach proposed in the present paper, suggested by the direct extension of the treatment holding for classical waves, describes the motion of classical-looking, point-like particles, without resorting to the use of travelling wave-packets.

A. Orefice; R. Giovanelli; D. Ditto

2011-05-25

351

Particle radiosurgery: a new frontier of physics in medicine.

Radiosurgery was introduced over half a century ago for treatment of intracranial lesions. In more recent years, stereotactic radiotherapy has rapidly advanced and is now commonly used for treatments of both cranial and extracranial lesions with high doses delivered in a few, down to a single fraction. The results of a workshop on Particle radiosurgery: A new frontier of physics in medicine held at Obergurgl, Austria during August 25-29 2013 are summarized in this issue with an overview presented in this paper. The focus was laid on particle radiosurgery but the content also includes current practice in x-ray radiosurgery and the overarching research in radiobiology and motion management for extracranial lesions. The results and discussions showed that especially research in radiobiology of high-dose charged-particles and motion management are necessary for the success of particle radiosurgery. PMID:24889154

Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco

2014-07-01

352

Quantum dot-containing polymer particles with thermosensitive fluorescence.

Composite polymer particles consisting of a solid poly(acrolein-co-styrene) core and a poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) polymer shell doped with CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were fabricated. The temperature response of the composite particles was observed as a decrease in their hydrodynamic diameter upon heating above the lower critical solution temperature of the thermosensitive PVCL polymer. Embedding QDs in the PVCL shell yields particles whose fluorescence is sensitive to temperature changes. This sensitivity was determined by the dependence of the QD fluorescence intensity on the distances between them in the PVCL shell, which reversibly change as a result of the temperature-driven conformational changes in the polymer. The QD-containing thermosensitive particles were assembled with protein molecules in such a way that they retained their thermosensitive properties, including the completely reversible temperature dependence of their fluorescence response. The composite particles developed can be used as local temperature sensors, as carriers for biomolecules, as well as in biosensing and various bioassays employing optical detection schemes. PMID:22884648

Generalova, Alla N; Oleinikov, Vladimir A; Sukhanova, Alyona; Artemyev, Mikhail V; Zubov, Vitaly P; Nabiev, Igor

2013-01-15

353

Quantum particle statistics on the holographic screen leads to modified Newtonian dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing a thermodynamic interpretation of gravity based on the holographic principle and assuming underlying particle statistics, fermionic or bosonic, for the excitations of the holographic screen leads to modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). A connection between the acceleration scale a0 appearing in MOND and the Fermi energy of the holographic fermionic degrees of freedom is obtained. In this formulation the physics of MOND results from the quantum-classical crossover in the fermionic specific heat. However, due to the dimensionality of the screen, the formalism is general and applies to two-dimensional bosonic excitations as well. It is shown that replacing the assumption of the equipartition of energy on the holographic screen by a standard quantum-statistical-mechanics description wherein some of the degrees of freedom are frozen out at low temperatures is the physical basis for the MOND interpolating function ?. The interpolating function ? is calculated within the statistical mechanical formalism and compared to the leading phenomenological interpolating functions, most commonly used. Based on the statistical mechanical view of MOND, its cosmological implications are reinterpreted: the connection between a0 and the Hubble constant is described as a quantum uncertainty relation; and the relationship between a0 and the cosmological constant is better understood physically.

Pazy, E.; Argaman, N.

2012-05-01

354

Variance of the quantum dwell time for a nonrelativistic particle

Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular, those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N= 1, 2, 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N= 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N= 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle's time flux and others) is derived.

Hahne, G. E. [NASA/Ames Research Center, M. S. 258-6, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)] [NASA/Ames Research Center, M. S. 258-6, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

2013-01-15

355

Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics. Technical progress report, [1991--1992

Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs.

Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

1993-01-01

356

Energetic Particle Physics with Applications in Fusion and Space C. Z. Cheng

Energetic Particle Physics with Applications in Fusion and Space Plasmas C. Z. Cheng Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 Abstract Energetic particle phenomena studies com- plex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small

357

Energetic Particle Physics with Applications in Fusion and Space C. Z. Cheng

Energetic Particle Physics with Applications in Fusion and Space Plasmas C. Z. Cheng Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 Abstract Energetic particle phenomena studies comÂ plex waveÂparticle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small

358

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics

The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physicsrelativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

Briggs, G. A. D.; Butterfield, J. N.; Zeilinger, A.

2013-01-01

359

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics.

The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics-relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

Briggs, G A D; Butterfield, J N; Zeilinger, A

2013-09-01

360

Quantum Hall Physics Equals Noncommutive Field Theory

In this note, we study a matrix-regularized version of non-commutative U(1) Chern-Simons theory proposed recently by Polychronakos. We determine a complete minimal basis of exact wavefunctions for the theory at arbitrary level k and rank N and show that these are in one-to-one correspondence with Laughlin-type wavefunctions describing excitations of a quantum Hall droplet composed of N electrons at filling fraction 1/k. The finite matrix Chern-Simons theory is shown to be precisely equivalent to the theory of composite fermions in the lowest Landau level, believed to provide an accurate description of the filling fraction 1/k fractional quantum Hall state. In the large N limit, this implies that level k noncommutative U(1) Chern-Simons theory is equivalent to the Laughlin theory of the filling fraction 1k quantum Hall fluid, as conjectured recently by Susskind.

Rammsdonk , Mark van

2001-08-09

361

The Constitution of Objects in Classical Physics and in Quantum Physics

In quantum physics as well as in classical physics we are usually concerned with observable quantities and their time dependence,\\u000a but not with objects as carriers of observable properties. However, for establishing objectivity of our cognition in addition\\u000a to the observable properties objects must be constituted in classical mechanics as well as in quantum mechanics. This problem\\u000a can be traced

Peter Mittelstaedt

362

Quantum dynamics of non-relativistic particles and isometric embeddings

It is considered, in the framework of constrained systems, the quantum dynamics of non-relativistic particles moving on a d-dimensional Riemannian manifold M isometrically embedded in $R^{d+n}$. This generalizes recent investigations where M has been assumed to be a hypersurface of $R^{d+1}$. We show, contrary to recent claims, that constrained systems theory does not contribute to the elimination of the ambiguities present in the canonical and path integral formulations of the problem. These discrepancies with recent works are discussed.

Alberto Saa

1996-11-08

363

Non-Extensive Quantum Statistics with Particle - Hole Symmetry

Based on Tsallis entropy and the corresponding deformed exponential function, generalized distribution functions for bosons and fermions have been used since a while. However, aiming at a non-extensive quantum statistics further requirements arise from the symmetric handling of particles and holes (excitations above and below the Fermi level). Naive replacements of the exponential function or cut and paste solutions fail to satisfy this symmetry and to be smooth at the Fermi level at the same time. We solve this problem by a general ansatz dividing the deformed exponential to odd and even terms and demonstrate that how earlier suggestions, like the kappa- and q-exponential behave in this respect.

Biro, T S; Zhang, B W

2015-01-01

364

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight projects in high energy physics research are reviewed: study of high energy electron-positron annihilation, using SLD detector at SLAC. Development of integrated transition radiation detection and tracking for an SSC detector; Development of new concepts for particle accelerator components, including design and prototyping of high-precision electrostatic and magnetic elements; Development of a new underground detector facility in the Gran Saso Laboratory in Italy to search for magnetic monopoles and to study astrophysical muons and neutrinos; Search for proton decay and neutrinos from point astrophysical sources, and the study of cosmic ray muons and neutrinos in the IMB detector; Study of theoretical particle physics, including lattice gauge theories, string theories, phenomenology of the Standard Model and its extensions, and application of particle physics concepts to the early universe, cosmology and astrophysics, as well as the extension of these techniques into computational physics; Preparation of an experiment to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon in a new superconducting storage ring and detector system at BNL; Fabrication (with M.I.T. and Princeton) of the BGO endcaps and associated tracking chambers for the L3 detector at LEP. Development of a central tracker for the SSC; and this new tasks requests support for research, development, and beam testing of a prototype SSC calorimeter featuring a tower geometry and composed of lead alloy and scintillating fibers.

1990-01-01

365

A guide to experimental particle physics literature, 1991-1996

We present an indexed guide to experimental particle physics literature for the years 1991 - 1996. Approximately 4200 papers are indexed by (1) Beam/Target/Momentum (2) Reaction/Momentum/Data-Descriptor (including the final state) (3) Particle/Decay (4) Accelerator/Experiment/Detector. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and references in the ID/Reference/Title index. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly-updated DATAGUIDE database from the World Wide Web.

Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1996-10-01

366

Particle physics it matters A forward look at UK research into the building blocks

Particle physics Â it matters A forward look at UK research into the building blocks physics benefits society Particle physics and healthcare Communications Manufacturing and business Global challenges Helping industry Underpinning the knowledge-based economy Particle physics in the UK Further

Crowther, Paul

367

why we need it Particle physics is the study of the smallest

why we need it Particle physics is the study of the smallest and most fundamental constituents that occurred fractions of a second after the Big Bang that created our universe. Particle physics and cosmology by increasing the number of children interested in physics. PRodUcing tRained PeoPle Particle physics, astronomy

Crowther, Paul

368

These are lecture notes of an introduction to quantum integrability given at the Tenth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics, 2014, aimed at PhD candidates and junior researchers in theoretical physics. We introduce spin chains and discuss the coordinate Bethe Ansatz (CBA) for a representative example: the Heisenberg XXZ model. The focus lies on the structure of the CBA and on its main results, deferring a detailed treatment of the CBA for the general $M$-particle sector of the XXZ model to an appendix. Subsequently the transfer-matrix method is discussed for the six-vertex model, uncovering a relation between that model and the XXZ spin chain. Equipped with this background the quantum inverse-scattering method (QISM) and algebraic Bethe Ansatz (ABA) are treated. We emphasize the use of graphical notation for algebraic quantities as well as computations. Finally we turn to quantum integrability in the context of theoretical high-energy physics. We discuss factorized scattering in two-dimensional QFT, and conclude with a qualitative introduction to one current research topic relating quantum integrability to theoretical high-energy physics: the Bethe/gauge correspondence.

J. Lamers

2015-01-27

369

A Medical Application of Nuclear Physics: Particle Radiotherapy with Protons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of radiation, applications have been made to medicine. The advent of higher energy particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century enabled modern tele-therapy using relatively high energy x-rays and particles. Today mega-voltage (MV) x-rays are the most common modality of delivering high doses of potentially life saving radiation to a wide variety of disease, mostly malignant cancers. However, the maximum radiation dose that can be delivered is always limited by the effects to critical surrounding biologic structures. In many cases, due to their physical properties, ``heavy'' particle radiotherapy with protons and light ions may provide an advantage in this respect over MV x-rays allowing either a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the volume or, for the same dose, reducing the concomitant damage to critical structures. This motivation, together with recent advances in particle therapy systems that are making the technology more readily available, is serving to grow the field of particle therapy. In particular, treatment with fast protons is becoming more widespread with over 20 facilities operating worldwide and more under construction. This presentation will provide an introduction to heavy particle therapy and additional details specifically on proton therapy.

Farr, Jonathan B.

2006-10-01

370

Classical and Quantum Mechanical Models of Many-Particle Systems

The topic of this meeting were non-linear partial differential and integro-differential equations (in particular kinetic equations and their macroscopic\\/fluid-dynamical limits) modeling the dynamics of many-particle systems with applications in physics, engineering, and mathematical biol- ogy. Typical questions of interest were the derivation of macro-models from micro-models, the mathematical analysis (well-posedness, stability, asymp- totic behavior of solutions), and -to a lesser

Anton Arnold; Carlo Cercignani; Laurent Desvillettes

2006-01-01

371

Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For

Schneider, Mark B.

2010-01-01

372

Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students

The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For example, Halliday, Resnick, and Walker1 describe the origin

Mark B. Schneider

2010-01-01

373

Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken

2013-04-01

374

UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

Nefkens, B.M.K.

1983-11-01

375

Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

Lam, N.Q.

1989-12-01

376

Novel quantization properties related to the state vectors and the energy spectrum of a two-dimensional system of free particles are obtained in the framework of noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics (QM) supported by the Weyl-Wigner formalism. Besides reproducing the magnetic field aspect of the Zeeman effect, the momentum space NC parameter introduces mutual information properties quantified by the linear entropy related to the relevant Hilbert space coordinates. Supported by the QM in the phase-space, the thermodynamic limit is obtained, and the results are extended to three-dimensional systems. The noncommutativity imprints on the thermodynamic variables related to free particles are identified and, after introducing some suitable constraints to fix an axial symmetry, the analysis is extended to two- and- three dimensional quantum rotor systems, for which the quantization aspects and the deviation from standard QM results are verified.

Bastos, Catarina; Santos, Jonas F G

2014-01-01

377

Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

Geesaman, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [ed.

1993-11-01

378

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

379

Particle physics models at the electroweak scale and beyond

We consider various particle physics models constructed to address issues in electroweak-scale supersymmetry, grand unification, and inflation. We begin by exploring the phenomenology of a supersymmetric SU(5) theory living in a truncated, warped 5-dimensional spacetime, with the gauge group broken down to the Standard Model at both ends. The low-energy spectrum of this setup is exotic, and in particular includes

Brock Adam Tweedie

2007-01-01

380

Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.

We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X- does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X- particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX-/s less, approximately <3x10(-17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date. PMID:17677895

Pospelov, Maxim

2007-06-01

381

Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular ?-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch-Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general ?-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of ?. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points Hc of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved.

Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

2014-12-01

382

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In quantum physics the free particle and the harmonically trapped particle are arguably the most important systems a physicist needs to know about. It is little known that, mathematically, they are one and the same. This knowledge helps us to understand either from the viewpoint of the other. Here we show that all general time-dependent solutions of the free-particle Schrödinger equation can be mapped to solutions of the Schrödinger equation for harmonic potentials, both the trapping oscillator and the inverted "oscillator". This map is fully invertible and therefore induces an isomorphism between both types of system, they are equivalent. A composition of the map and its inverse allows us to map from one harmonic oscillator to another with a different spring constant and different center position. The map is independent of the state of the system, consisting only of a coordinate transformation and multiplication by a form factor, and can be chosen such that the state is identical in both systems at one point in time. This transition point in time can be chosen freely, the wave function of the particle evolving in time in one system before the transition point can therefore be linked up smoothly with the wave function for the other system and its future evolution after the transition point. Such a cut-and-paste procedure allows us to describe the instantaneous changes of the environment a particle finds itself in. Transitions from free to trapped systems, between harmonic traps of different spring constants or center positions, or, from harmonic binding to repulsive harmonic potentials are straightforwardly modelled. This includes some time-dependent harmonic potentials. The mappings introduced here are computationally more efficient than either state-projection or harmonic oscillator propagator techniques conventionally employed when describing instantaneous (non-adiabatic) changes of a quantum particle's environment.

Steuernagel, Ole

2014-06-01

383

Cherenkov light imaging in astro-particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cherenkov light emission plays a key role in contemporary science; it is widely used in high energy, nuclear, and numerous astro-particle physics experiments. Most astro-particle physics experiments are based on the detection of light, and a vast majority of them on the measurement of Cherenkov light. Cherenkov light emission is measured in gases (used in air-Cherenkov technique), in water (for example, neutrino experiments BAIKAL, Super-Kamiokande, NESTOR, ANTARES, future KM3NeT; cosmic and ?-ray experiments Milagro, HAWC, AUGER) and in ice (IceCube). In this report our goal is not limited to simply listing the multitude of experiments that are based on using Cherenkov emission, but we will clarify the reasons making this emission so important and so frequently used. For completeness we will first give a short historical overview on the discovery and evolution of Cherenkov emission and then we will dwell on its main features and numerous applications in astro-particle physics experiments.

Mirzoyan, Razmik

2014-12-01

384

Synthesis of quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics

The asymptotic freedom behavior of quantum chromodynamics allows the rigorous calculation of hadronic and nuclear amplitudes at short distances by perturbative methods. The implications of QCD for large-momentum-transfer nuclear form factors and scattering processes, as well as for the structure of nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions at short distances, are discussed. The necessity for color-polarized internal nuclear states is also discussed. 6 figures.

Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

1980-08-01

385

A quasi-unified description of the classical and quantum fields, which defines the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions, but does not include gravity, is currently possible only in the frame of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) in terms of the gauge symmetry breaking. Part I of the present study has developed the theoretical background for unified description of the all-known classical and quantum fields in terms of the interference between particles and the respective cross-correlation energy, which do not exist from the point of view of quantum mechanics and SM. Part II uses this background for unification of the electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational fields and interactions. The unification is performed by generalization of the Einstein energy-mass relation for the interfering unit-fields associated with the interacting particles. The unit-fields obey properties of the point particles and waves of quantum mechanics, the point particles of SM, the strings of theories of strings and the 3-D waves of theories of classical fields.

S. V. Kukhlevsky

2010-10-12

386

Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wave-to-particle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particle-wave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor 1-n2, in terms of magnitude n?[0,1]. of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact wave-particle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particle-to-wave ratio as well as of the free-evolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function. PMID:21152325

Putz, Mihai V.

2010-01-01

387

Path-integral approach to 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics

We present a path-integral formulation of 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics. The crucial ingredient of this formulation is Gozzi et al.'s supersymmetric path integral of classical mechanics. We quantize explicitly two simple classical systems: the planar mathematical pendulum and the Roessler dynamical system.

Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via S.Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Jizba, Petr [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan) and FNSPE, Czech Technical University, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Kleinert, Hagen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14 D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

2005-05-15

388

Loop Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: Linking Loops to Observational Physics

Research during the last decade demonstrates that effects originating on the Planck scale are currently being tested in multiple observational contexts. In this review we discuss quantum gravity phenomenological models and their possible links to loop quantum gravity. Particle frameworks, including kinematic models, broken and deformed Poincar\\'e symmetry, non-commutative geometry, relative locality and generalized uncertainty principle, and field theory frameworks, including Lorentz violating operators in effective field theory and non-commutative field theory, are discussed. The arguments relating loop quantum gravity to models with modified dispersion relations are reviewed, as well as, arguments supporting the preservation of local Lorentz invariance. The phenomenology related to loop quantum cosmology is briefly reviewed, with a focus on possible effects that might be tested in the near future. As the discussion makes clear, there remains much interesting work to do in establishing the connection between the fundamental theory of loop quantum gravity and these specific phenomenological models, in determining observational consequences of the characteristic aspects of loop quantum gravity, and in further refining current observations. Open problems related to these developments are highlighted. characteristic aspects of loop quantum gravity, and in further refining current observations. Open problems related to these developments are highlighted.

Florian Girelli; Franz Hinterleitner; Seth A. Major

2012-10-04

389

are often employed in nuclear and particle physics experimental facilities to accelerate application recognition, nuclear and particle physics ! 1 INTRODUCTION Nuclear and particle physics is a branch of physics energy physics because many elementary particles do not occur under normal circumstances in nature

Jantsch, Axel

390

Ionic conductivity in a quantum lattice gas model with three-particle interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of mesoscopic ions with dominant three-particle interactions is modeled by a quantum lattice liquid on the planar kagomé lattice. The two-parameter Hamiltonian contains localized attractive triplet interactions as potential energy and nearest neighbor hopping-type terms as kinetic energy. The dynamic ionic conductivity ?(?) is theoretically investigated for weak hopping via a quantum many-body perturbation expansion of the thermal (Matsubara) Green function (current-current correlation). A simple analytic continuation and mapping of the thermal Green function provide the temporal Fourier transform of the physical retarded Green function in the Kubo formula. Substituting pertinent exact solutions for static multi-particle correlations known from previous work, Arrhenius relations are revealed in zeroth-order approximation for the dc ionic conductivity ?dc along special trajectories in density-temperature space. The Arrhenius plots directly yield static activation energies along the latter loci. Experimental possibilities relating to ?dc are discussed in the presence of equilibrium aggregation. This article is part of Lattice models and integrability, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.

Barry, J. H.; Muttalib, K. A.; Tanaka, T.

2012-12-01

391

"Physical quantity" and " Physical reality" in Quantum Mechanics: an epistemological path

We reconsider briefly the relation between "physical quantity" and "physical reality in the light of recent interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. We argue, that these interpretations are conditioned from the epistemological relation between these two fundamental concepts. In detail, the choice as ontic level of the concept affect, the relative interpretation. We note, for instance, that the informational view of quantum mechanics (primacy of the subjectivity) is due mainly to the evidence of the "random" physical quantities as ontic element. We will analyze four positions: Einstein, Rovelli, d'Espagnat and Zeilinger.

David Vernette; Michele Caponigro

2006-12-05

392

Experimental particle physics at the University of Pittsburgh

The University of Pittsburgh High Energy Physics Group has begun in 1970 under a National Science Foundation Science Development Grant, and NSF support of the research activities of this group was provided during the period 1972 through 1981. The activities supported by the contract, completed or continuing on beyond the contract, have included both instrumentation development and high energy physics experiments. Instrumentation development has included an optical trigger processor, a silicon microstrip detector system, silicon drift chamber development, and SSC ionization calorimetry and trigger strategy studies. Experiments supported by the contract that have been completed or are still in progress are: (1) axial field spectrometer experiment at CERN; (2) HELIOS experiment NA34 at the CERN SPS; (3) Novosibirsk Phi Factory; (4) BNL experiment E865 -- rare kaon decays; (5) Fermilab E706 -- direct photon production in Hadron-Hadron collisions; (6) Fermilab CDF -- physics at 2 TeV; and, (7) search for fractionally charged particles in semiconductors.

Cleland, W.E.; Engels, E. Jr.; Humanic, T.J.; Perera, U.; Shepard, P.F.; Thompson, J.A.

1992-05-01

393

Research in particle physics beyond the standard model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the DOE funding period from 1987 to 1991 for Task A, research was carried out in fundamental particle physics in the areas of string field theory, string phenomenology, physics beyond the standard model, and TEV physics. During this five year period, more than 40 articles were published, including contributions to conference proceedings. The overall performance should be regarded as highly successful. The proposed research projects were either discovered to be unfeasible or were successfully completed within a six month period. More than 50 percent of the proposed projects fell into the later category. In addition, many projects were successfully achieved that were not part of DOE proposals, simply because they could not be foreseen. A summary of the research is presented.

Samuel, S.

394

Neutrino-less Double Beta Decay and Particle Physics

We review the particle physics aspects of neutrino-less double beta decay. This process can be mediated by light massive Majorana neutrinos (standard interpretation) or by something else (non-standard interpretations). The physics potential of both interpretations is summarized and the consequences of future measurements or improved limits on the half-life of neutrino-less double beta decay are discussed. We try to cover all proposed alternative realizations of the decay, including light sterile neutrinos, supersymmetric or left-right symmetric theories, Majorons, and other exotic possibilities. Ways to distinguish the mechanisms from one another are discussed. Experimental and nuclear physics aspects are also briefly touched, alternative processes to double beta decay are discussed, and an extensive list of references is provided.

Werner Rodejohann

2011-10-17

395

We consider information transmission through a noiseless quantum channel, where the information is encoded into massive indistinguishable particles: bosons or fermions. We study the situation in which the particles are noninteracting. The encoding input states obey a set of physically motivated constraints on the mean values of the energy and particle number. In such a case, the determination of both classical and quantum capacity reduces to a constrained maximization of entropy. In the case of noninteracting bosons, signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation can be observed in the behavior of the capacity. A major motivation for these considerations is to compare the information-carrying capacities of channels that carry bosons with those that carry fermions. We show analytically that fermions generally provide higher channel capacity, i.e., they are better suited for transferring bits as well as qubits, in comparison to bosons. This holds for a large range of power-law potentials, and for moderate to high temperatures. Numerical simulations seem to indicate that the result holds for all temperatures. Also, we consider the low-temperature behavior for the three-dimensional box and harmonic trap, and again we show that the fermionic capacity is higher than the bosonic one for sufficiently low temperatures.

Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Gromek, Bartosz [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Lodz, ul. Pomorska 149/153, PL-90236 Lodz (Poland); Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Lewenstein, Maciej [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); ICREA and ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

2007-02-15

396

Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain, by virtue of mathematical and computational models that may be transferred from the macroscopic domain to the microscopic. A consequence of this multi-faceted thesis is that there may be mature analytical tools and techniques that have heretofore not been adequately recognized for their value to quantum physics. These may include adaptations of neural networks, cellular automata, chaotic attractors, and parallel processing systems. Conceptual and practical architectures are presented for the development of software and hardware environments to employ massively parallel computing for the modeling of large populations of dynamic processes.

Dudziak, Martin Joseph

397

We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG (ref. 1) to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on

Tom Ostoma; Mike Trushyk

398

Estimating perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and statistical physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to estimate perturbative coefficients in quantum field theory and statistical physics. We show that our method works in a large number of cases and in a wide variety of areas. The method is so reliable that it has enabled us to find several errors in various publications.

Samuel, Mark A.; Li, Guowen; Steinfelds, Eric

1995-05-01

399

Is there a Jordan geometry underlying quantum physics?

Is there a Jordan geometry underlying quantum physics? Wolfgang Bertram # January 19, 2008 Abstract of Jordan algebra theory might give new strength to such approaches: there is a ``Jordan geometry'' belonging to the Jordan part of the algebra of observables, in the same way as Lie groups belong to the Lie

400

Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach

space is ad hoc, in the sense that there are no physically obvious and plausible reasons why the Hilbert of the Hilbert spaces, by introducing a new completed quantum mechanics in Hilbert space, were new `pure' states are introduced, not represented by rays of the Hilbert space. Published as: Aerts, D., 1999, "Foundations

Aerts, Diederik

401

Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

2014-04-01

402

Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

Alexandru Paler; Simon J. Devitt; Kae Nemoto; Ilia Polian

2014-03-10

403

Research in particle physics. Progress report, June 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron{endash}positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the ``electrostatic muon kicker``; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

Not Available

1992-09-01

404

Atom Smasher: An Educational Game for Teaching About Accelerators, Detectors and Particle Physics

An innovative multimedia game called Atom Smasher is being developed to introduce precollege students to the world of particle accelerators, particle detectors, and elementary particle physics. The game includes an animated accelerator facility introduction that places the player in the role of a scientist conducting experiments. Live animated tutorials, movies, a particle physics game show, slide show tutorials and a

Nathan Brown; George Lancaster; George Gillespie; Barrey Hill

1998-01-01

405

On the Justification of Multiple Selection Rules of Conservation in Particle Physics Phenomenology

On the Justification of Multiple Selection Rules of Conservation in Particle Physics Phenomenology the logic of postulating selection rules of conservation in particle physics phenomenology, and wrote of postulating selection rules of conservation in the phenomenology of particle physics [2]. The starting point

ValdĂŠs-PĂŠrez, RaĂşl E.

406

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS Postdoctoral Scholar for Particle Physics (SCIPP) invites applications for a Postdoctoral Scholar in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics and particle physics for work on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission (formerly named GLAST

California at Santa Cruz, University of

407

The International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) on Elementary Particle Physics in Munich, Germany invites applications for Ph.D. Fellowships in Elementary Particle Physics. The IMPRS is a joint initiative of the Max Planck Institute of Physics (Werner Heisenberg Institute) and the particle

408

Chengdu 10/18/2006 Theory of Alfvn waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas

Chengdu 10/18/2006 Theory of AlfvĂŠn waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas 1 IAEA FEC 2006 Liu Chen Theory of AlfvĂŠn waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas* 21.st IAEA and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas 2 IAEA FEC 2006 Liu Chen Outlines (I) Introduction (II) Linear

409

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS (SCIPP)

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS (SCIPP) POSTDOCTORAL Scholar in the Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics under the direction of the Theory Group fields and a minimum of one published or submitted manuscript in theoretical particle physics

California at Santa Cruz, University of

410

Positions for PhD Students (Theoretical Particle Physics, Siegen University)

qf ett qf e Positions for PhD Students (Theoretical Particle Physics, Siegen University" at Siegen and Dortmund Universities invites applications for PhD positions in theoretical particle physics of theoretical particle physics. The Research Unit aims at improving our understanding of fundamental flavour

Siegen, UniversitĂ¤t

411

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report

This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s high-resolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.

Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P. [and others

1995-12-01

412

Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the progress made over the last 20years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ??e? decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

Aprile, E.; Doke, T.

2010-07-01

413

Liquid Xenon Detectors for Particle Physics and Astrophysics

This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics and medical imaging experiments. We begin with a summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information. After a brief introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, we continue with a review of past, current and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine. We will introduce each application with a brief survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements, before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From experiments like MEG, currently the largest liquid xenon scintillation detector in operation, dedicated to the rare mu -> e + gamma decay, to the future XMASS which also exploits only liquid xenon scintillation to address an ambitious program of rare event searches, to the class of time projection chambers like XENON and EXO which exploit both scintillation and ionization of liquid xenon for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay, respectively, we anticipate unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years.

E. Aprile; T. Doke

2009-10-26

414

Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

Aprile, E.; Doke, T. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2010-07-15

415

Major detectors in elementary-particle physics. [Portfolio

With the 1983 issue of LBL-91 we introduce a supplement - a folio of descriptions of the world's major elementary particle physics detectors. Modern high energy physics usually involves the use of massive, costly, carefully engineered, large solid angle detectors. These detectors require a long lead time for construction, are often integrated with an accelerator, accumulate data over many years, and are in reality a combination of numerous subsystems. As was the case with bubble chambers, many experiments are performed with the same data, or with data taken after relatively minor changes or additions to the detector configuration. These experiments are often reported in journals whose space limitations make repeated full descriptions of the detector impossible. The detailed properties and performance of the detector are usually described in a fragmented series of papers in more specialized, technologically oriented journals. New additions are often not well documented. Several detectors often make similar measurements and physicists want to make quick comparisons of their respective capabilities. Designers of new large detectors and even of smaller experiments need to know what already exists and what performance has been achieved. To aid the physics community, the Particle Data Group has produced this brief folio of the world's major large detectors. This first edition has some notable omissions: in particular, the bubble chambers and any associated spectrometers, and the still somewhat tentative LEP, SLC, and TRISTAN detectors.

Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

416

Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;

Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

2008-01-01

417

The Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics at the Department of Physics in the Faculty-accelerator Particle Physics) The successful applicant should investigate current problems of particle physics using to participate in teaching of the advanced level specialisation branch "Nuclear and Particle Physics

418

Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

Sime, Ruth Lewin

2013-03-01

419

Physical Models for Quantum Computers Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 145, ??? -??? (2002)

, using computer simulations of physical models of quantum com- puter hardware. We address1 Physical Models for Quantum Computers Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 145, ??? - ??? (2002) H. De Raedt discuss the impact of the physical implementation of a quantum computer on its computational efficiency

420

Implications of computer science principles for quantum physics

The Church-Turing thesis is one of the pillars of computer science; it postulates that every classical system has equivalent computability power to the so-called Turing machine. While this thesis is crucial for our understanding of computing devices, its implications in other scientific fields have hardly been explored. Here we start this research programme in the context of quantum physics and show that computer science laws have profound implications for some of the most fundamental results of the theory. We first show how they question our knowledge on what a mixed quantum state is, as we identify situations in which ensembles of quantum states defining the same mixed state, indistinguishable according to the quantum postulates, do become distinguishable when prepared by a computer. We also show a new loophole for Bell-like experiments: if some of the parties in a Bell-like experiment use a computer to decide which measurements to make, then the computational resources of an eavesdropper have to be limited in order to have a proper observation of non-locality. Our work opens a new direction in the search for a framework unifying computer science and quantum physics.

Ariel Bendersky; Gonzalo de la Torre; Gabriel Senno; Santiago Figueira; Antonio Acin

2014-07-02

421

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest a mathematical construction to define an individual state of a quantum particle which enables one to eliminate a contradiction between quantum mechanics of correlated particles and the Relativity Theory.

Koganov, A. V.

2014-04-01

422

Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

Adams, P. J.

1983-05-01

423

Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

Adams, P. J.

1983-01-01

424

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wav...

Baily, Charles

2011-01-01

425

A Simple Introduction to Particle Physics Part II

This is the second in a series of papers intended to provide a basic overview of some of the major ideas in particle physics. Part I [arXiv:0810.3328] was primarily an algebraic exposition of gauge theories. We developed the group theoretic tools needed to understand the basic construction of gauge theory, as well as the physical concepts and tools to understand the structure of the Standard Model of Particle Physics as a gauge theory. In this paper (and the paper to follow), we continue our emphasis on gauge theories, but we do so with a more geometrical approach. We will conclude this paper with a brief discussion of general relativity, and save more advanced topics (including fibre bundles, characteristic classes, etc.) for the next paper in the series. We wish to reiterate that these notes are not intended to be a comprehensive introduction to any of the ideas contained in them. Their purpose is to introduce the "forest" rather than the "trees". The primary emphasis is on the algebraic/geometric/mathematical underpinnings rather than the calculational/phenomenological details. The topics were chosen according to the authors' preferences and agenda. These notes are intended for a student who has completed the standard undergraduate physics and mathematics courses, as well as the material contained in the first paper in this series. Having studied the material in the "Further Reading" sections of would be ideal, but the material in this series of papers is intended to be self-contained, and familiarity with the first paper will suffice.

Matthew B. Robinson; Tibra Ali; Gerald B. Cleaver

2009-08-10

426

String theory and the crisis of particle physics II or the ascent of metaphoric arguments

This is a completely reformulated presentation of a previous paper with the same title; this time with a much stronger emphasis on conceptual aspects of string theory and a detailed review of its already more than four decades lasting history within a broader context, including some little-known details. Although there have been several books and essays on the sociological impact and its philosophical implications, there is yet no serious attempt to scrutinize its claims about particle physics using the powerful conceptual arsenal of contemporary local quantum physics. I decided to leave the previous first version on the arXiv because it may be interesting to the reader to notice the change of viewpoint and the reason behind it. Other reasons for preventing my first version to go into print and to rewrite it in such a way that its content complies with my different actual viewpoint can be found at the end of the article. The central message, contained in sections 5 and 6, is that string theory is not what string theorists think and claim it is. The widespread acceptance of a theory whose interpretation has been obtained by metaphoric reasoning had a corroding influence on the rest of particle physics theory as will be illustrated in several concrete cases. The work is dedicated to the memory of Juergen Ehlers with whom I shared many critical ideas, but their formulation in this essay is fully within my responsibility.

Bert Schroer

2008-05-13

427

FOREWORD: Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These are the Proceedings of the Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005) (http://corfu2005.physics.uoi.gr), which took place in Corfu, Greece from 4 - 26 September 2005. The Corfu Summer Institute has a very long, interesting and successful history, some elements of which can be found in http://www.corfu-summer-institute.gr. In short, the Corfu Meeting started as a Summer School on Elementary Particle Physics (EPP) mostly for Greek graduate students in 1982 and has developed into a leading international Summer Institute in the field of EPP, both experimental and theoretical, providing in addition a very rich outreach programme to teachers and school students. The CORFU2005 Summer Institute on EPP, although based on the general format that has been developed and established in the Corfu Meetings during previous years, is characterized by the fact that it was a full realization of a new idea, which started experimentally in the previous two Corfu Meetings. The successful new ingredient was that three European Marie Curie Research Training Networks decided to hold their Workshops in Corfu during September 2005 and they managed to coordinate the educational part of their meetings to a huge Summer School called `The 8th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics' (4 - 11 September). The European Networks which joined forces to materialize this project and the corresponding dates of their own Workshops are:

Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Fanourakis, George; Kehagias, Alexandros; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Wess, Julius; Zoupanos, George

2006-12-01

428

Physical theories, eternal inflation, and the quantum universe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infinities in eternal inflation have long been plaguing cosmology, making any predictions highly sensitive to how they are regulated. The problem exists already at the level of semi-classical general relativity, and has a priori nothing to do with quantum gravity. On the other hand, we know that certain problems in semi-classical gravity, for example physics of black holes and their evaporation, have led to understanding of surprising, quantum natures of spacetime and gravity, such as the holographic principle and horizon complementarity. In this paper, we present a framework in which well-defined predictions are obtained in an eternally inflating multiverse, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. We propose that the entire multiverse is described purely from the viewpoint of a single "observer," who describes the world as a quantum state defined on his/her past light cones bounded by the (stretched) apparent horizons. We find that quantum mechanics plays an essential role in regulating infinities. The framework is "gauge invariant," i.e. predictions do not depend on how spacetime is parametrized, as it should be in a theory of quantum gravity. Our framework provides a fully unified treatment of quantum measurement processes and the multiverse. We conclude that the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics are the same. Other important implications include: global spacetime can be viewed as a derived concept; the multiverse is a transient phenomenon during the world relaxing into a supersymmetric Minkowski state. We also present a model of "initial conditions" for the multiverse. By extrapolating our framework to the extreme, we arrive at a picture that the entire multiverse is a fluctuation in the stationary, fractal "mega-multiverse," in which an infinite sequence of multiverse productions occurs. The framework discussed here does not suffer from problems/paradoxes plaguing other measures proposed earlier, such as the youngness paradox and the Boltzmann brain problem.

Nomura, Yasunori

2011-11-01

429

Two-particle quantum walks applied to the graph isomorphism problem

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the quantum dynamics of interacting and noninteracting quantum particles are fundamentally different in the context of solving a particular computational problem. Specifically, we consider the graph isomorphism problem, in which one wishes to determine whether two graphs are isomorphic (related to each other by a relabeling of the graph vertices), and focus on a class of graphs with particularly high symmetry called strongly regular graphs (SRGs). We study the Greens functions that characterize the dynamical evolution single-particle and two-particle quantum walks on pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs and show that interacting particles can distinguish nonisomorphic graphs that noninteracting particles cannot. We obtain the following specific results. (1) We prove that quantum walks of two noninteracting particles, fermions or bosons, cannot distinguish certain pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs. (2) We demonstrate numerically that two interacting bosons are more powerful than single particles and two noninteracting particles, in that quantum walks of interacting bosons distinguish all nonisomorphic pairs of SRGs that we examined. By utilizing high-throughput computing to perform over 500 million direct comparisons between evolution operators, we checked all tabulated pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs, including graphs with up to 64 vertices. (3) By performing a short-time expansion of the evolution operator, we derive distinguishing operators that provide analytic insight into the power of the interacting two-particle quantum walk.

Gamble, John King; Friesen, Mark; Zhou, Dong; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.

2010-05-01

430

Early developments: Particle physics aspects of cosmic rays

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays is the birthplace of elementary particle physics. The 1936 Nobel prize was shared between Victor Hess and Carl Anderson. Anderson discovered the positron in a cloud chamber. The positron was predicted by Dirac several years earlier. In subsequent cloud chamber investigations Anderson and Neddermeyer saw the muon, which for some time was considered to be a candidate for the Yukawa particle responsible for nuclear binding. Measurements with nuclear emulsions by Lattes, Powell, Occhialini and Muirhead clarified the situation by the discovery of the charged pions in cosmic rays. The cloud chamber continued to be a powerful instrument in cosmic ray studies. Rochester and Butler found V's, which turned out to be shortlived neutral kaons decaying into a pair of charged pions. Also ?'s, ?'s, and ?'s were found in cosmic rays. But after that accelerators and storage rings took over. The unexpected renaissance of cosmic rays started with the search for solar neutrinos and the observation of the supernova 1987A. Cosmic ray neutrino results were best explained by the assumption of neutrino oscillations opening a view beyond the standard model of elementary particles. After 100 years of cosmic ray research we are again at the beginning of a new era, and cosmic rays may contribute to solve the many open questions, like dark matter and dark energy, by providing energies well beyond those of accelerators.

Grupen, Claus

2014-01-01

431

Hilbert space, the number of Higgs particles and the quantum two-slit experiment

Rigorous mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics requires the introduction of a Hilbert space. By contrast, the Cantorian E-infinity approach to quantum physics was developed largely without any direct reference to the afore mentioned mathematical spaces. In the present work we present a novel reinterpretation of basic ?(?) Cantorian spacetime relations in terms of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics. In

M. S. El Naschie

2006-01-01

432

Open Source and Open Access Resources for Quantum Physics Education

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quantum mechanics is both a topic of great importance to modern science, engineering, and technology, and a topic with many inherent barriers to learning and understanding. Computational resources are vital tools for developing deep conceptual understanding of quantum systems for students new to the subject. This article outlines two projects that are taking an open source/open access approach to create and share teaching and learning resources for quantum physics. The Open Source Physics project provides program libraries, programming tools, example simulations, and pedagogical resources for instructors wishing to give a rich experience to their students. These simulations and student activities are, in turn, being integrated into a world?wide collection of teaching and learning resources available through the Quantum Exchange, a part of the ComPADRE Portal to the National Science Digital Library. Both of these projects use technologies that encourage community development and collaboration. Using these tools, faculty can create learning experiences, share and discuss their content with others, and combine resources in new ways. Examples of the available content and tools are given, along with an introduction to accessing and using these resources.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Mason, Bruce

2008-04-28

433

These are lecture notes of an introduction to quantum integrability given at the Tenth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics, 2014, aimed at PhD candidates and junior researchers in theoretical physics. We introduce spin chains and discuss the coordinate Bethe Ansatz (CBA) for a representative example: the Heisenberg XXZ model. The focus lies on the structure of the CBA and on its main results, deferring a detailed treatment of the CBA for the general $M$-particle sector of the XXZ model to an appendix. Subsequently the transfer-matrix method is discussed for the six-vertex model, uncovering a relation between that model and the XXZ spin chain. Equipped with this background the quantum inverse-scattering method (QISM) and algebraic Bethe Ansatz (ABA) are treated. We emphasize the use of graphical notation for algebraic quantities as well as computations. Finally we turn to quantum integrability in the context of theoretical high-energy physics. We discuss factorized scattering in two-dimensional QFT, a...

Lamers, J

2015-01-01

434

Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.

The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a power-law singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge. PMID:24766003

Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E

2014-04-11

435

[Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics

The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from non-perturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC.

Not Available

1993-02-01

436

Searching for new physics at the frontiers with lattice quantum chromodynamics.

Numerical lattice-quantum chromodynamics (QCD) simulations, when combined with experimental measurements, allow the determination of fundamental parameters of the particle-physics Standard Model and enable searches for physics beyond-the-Standard Model. We present the current status of lattice-QCD weak matrix element calculations needed to obtain the elements and phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix and to test the Standard Model in the quark-flavor sector. We then discuss evidence that may hint at the presence of new physics beyond the Standard Model CKM framework. Finally, we discuss two opportunities where we expect lattice QCD to play a pivotal role in searching for, and possibly discovery of, new physics at upcoming high-intensity experiments: rare decays and the muon anomalous magnetic moment. The next several years may witness the discovery of new elementary particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The interplay between lattice QCD, high-energy experiments at the LHC, and high-intensity experiments will be needed to determine the underlying structure of whatever physics beyond-the-Standard Model is realized in nature. PMID:22697613

Van de Water, Ruth S

2012-07-01

437

Scattering of Ice Particles at Microwave Frequencies: A Physically Based Parameterization

Scattering of Ice Particles at Microwave Frequencies: A Physically Based Parameterization MIN, in final form 6 July 2006) ABSTRACT This paper presents a new, purely physical approach to simulate ice-particle scattering at microwave frequencies. Temperature-dependent ice particle size distributions measured

Houze Jr., Robert A.

438

European Particle Physics Masterclasses Make Students into Scientists for a Day

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005 the European particle physics masterclasses attracted 3000 students from 18 European countries to visit one of 58 universities and education centres. The participants worked with data from real high energy particle collisions, learned about particle physics, and experienced research and education environments at European universities. In

Johansson, K. E.; Kobel, M.; Hillebrandt, D.; Engeln, K.; Euler, M.

2007-01-01

439

Energetic-Particle-Induced Geodesic Acoustic Mode G. Y. Fu* Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Understanding of energetic particle physics in tokamaks is of fundamental importance for burning plasmas. Recent, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, USA (Received 24 June 2008; published 30 October 2008) A new energetic particle

440

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 026608 (2012) Dipole interaction of the Quincke rotating particles

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 026608 (2012) Dipole interaction of the Quincke rotating particles Yu are the importance of fluid-particle suspensions subjected to an external electric field in various fields of physics 25 November 2011; published 27 February 2012) We study the behavior of particles having a finite

Elperin, Tov

441

Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included.

Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

1991-05-01

442

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the

Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David

2004-01-01

443

Multi-Color Single Particle Tracking with Quantum Dots

Quantum dots (QDs) have long promised to revolutionize fluorescence detection to include even applications requiring simultaneous multi-species detection at single molecule sensitivity. Despite the early promise, the unique optical properties of QDs have not yet been fully exploited in e. g. multiplex single molecule sensitivity applications such as single particle tracking (SPT). In order to fully optimize single molecule multiplex application with QDs, we have in this work performed a comprehensive quantitative investigation of the fluorescence intensities, fluorescence intensity fluctuations, and hydrodynamic radii of eight types of commercially available water soluble QDs. In this study, we show that the fluorescence intensity of CdSe core QDs increases as the emission of the QDs shifts towards the red but that hybrid CdSe/CdTe core QDs are less bright than the furthest red-shifted CdSe QDs. We further show that there is only a small size advantage in using blue-shifted QDs in biological applications because of the additional size of the water-stabilizing surface coat. Extending previous work, we finally also show that parallel four color multicolor (MC)-SPT with QDs is possible at an image acquisition rate of at least 25 Hz. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the lateral dynamics of a lipid, biotin-cap-DPPE, in the cellular plasma membrane of live cells using four different colors of QDs; QD565, QD605, QD655, and QD705 as labels. PMID:23155388

Arnspang, Eva C.; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer

2012-01-01

444

Physics at Small Numbers of Particles Within the Frame of a Horizon

The Einstein equations are non-linear and the particles of which the gravitational e?ect is described by these equations are lastly un- known. If renormalizable ?elds are assumed, then results are obtained only in the case of a at space. Therefore, there is still no generally recognized quantum theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. In this work the solution of these quantum mechanic problems are forced in some sense: the metric tensor is linearized, and it is required that the entire system of equations is invariant with respect to the symmetry group of the linearized Einstein equations. The ?eld which represents this symmetry group only allows a measurement within the horizon to simulate the event horizon. It is shown that the num- ber of quants of this ?eld is constant. There are 4 types of solutions in the 2-quantum space, of which one has particle-like properties. This particular solution has a gravitational e?ect which can be externally arbitrarily small, as compared to its electromagnetic e?ect. In con- trast, this does not apply to the other 3 solutions. The model might be used to explain why gravitation is so much weaker than the elec- tromagnetic interaction in real physics. Accordingly, the Higgs boson is possibly not necessarily be required for the mass scale. Likewise, an explanation could be made why gravitation and electromagnetic inter- actions had the same intensity during the early stages of the universe. A pecularity of the model provides a mechanism for the Big Bang in all four types of solutions, although there is no singularity. As a consequence of the inferred change in the microstructure, a change in the macrostructure of the cosmos is suggested, allowing an understanding of the particular properties of the Dark Matter and the accelerated expansion of the cosmos.

Alfred Kording

2014-04-29

445

[Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics. Final report

This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the high-resolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks.

NONE

1998-11-01

446

GLAST: A partnership in astro and particle physics

The Gamma Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a {gt}8000 cm{sup 2} effective area (at {gt}1 GeV) pair conversion telescope using silicon strip detectors that is scheduled to be launched in the year 2005. GLAST will record photons from 20 MeV to 300 GeV with a point spread function of .4{degree} at 1 GeV. Because of its large effective area, almost 2{pi} solid angle of view, and long experimental life (no expendables), GLAST will accumulate {approximately}50 times more photons than EGRET (2) from any point in the sky. The collaboration presently consists of both astro and particle physicists from 28 international institutions. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Godfrey Glast Collaboration, G.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

1999-07-01

447

Active optical fibres in modern particle physics experiments

In modern particle physics experiments wavelength-shifting and scintillating fibres based on plastic polymers are used for tracking and calorimetry. In this review the role of photon trapping efficiencies, transmission functions and signal response times for common multimode active fibres is discussed. Numerical simulations involving three dimensional tracking of skew rays through curved fibres demonstrate the characteristics of trapped light. Of practical interest are the parametrisations of transmission functions and the minimum permissible radius of curvature. These are of great importance in today's experiments where high count rates and small numbers of photoelectrons are encountered. Special emphasis has been placed on the timing resolution of fibre detectors and its limitation due to variations in the path length of generated photons.

C. P. Achenbach

2004-04-05

448

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 73 (2013) 134 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 73 (2013) 1Â34 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ppnp Review Geo field between Geology and Physics: the study of the Earth's geo-neutrino flux. We describe competing

Mcdonough, William F.

449

Hidden Symmetries of Dynamics in Classical and Quantum Physics

This article reviews the role of hidden symmetries of dynamics in the study of physical systems, from the basic concepts of symmetries in phase space to the forefront of current research. Such symmetries emerge naturally in the description of physical systems as varied as non-relativistic, relativistic, with or without gravity, classical or quantum, and are related to the existence of conserved quantities of the dynamics and integrability. In recent years their study has grown intensively, due to the discovery of non-trivial examples that apply to different types of theories and different numbers of dimensions. Applications encompass the study of integrable systems such as spinning tops, the Calogero model, systems described by the Lax equation, the physics of higher dimensional black holes, the Dirac equation, supergravity with and without fluxes, providing a tool to probe the dynamics of non-linear systems.

Marco Cariglia

2014-11-05

450

Hidden symmetries of dynamics in classical and quantum physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the role of hidden symmetries of dynamics in the study of physical systems, from the basic concepts of symmetries in phase space to the forefront of current research. Such symmetries emerge naturally in the description of physical systems as varied as nonrelativistic, relativistic, with or without gravity, classical or quantum, and are related to the existence of conserved quantities of the dynamics and integrability. In recent years their study has grown intensively, due to the discovery of nontrivial examples that apply to different types of theories and different numbers of dimensions. Applications encompass the study of integrable systems such as spinning tops, the Calogero model, systems described by the Lax equation, the physics of higher-dimensional black holes, the Dirac equation, and supergravity with and without fluxes, providing a tool to probe the dynamics of nonlinear systems.

Cariglia, Marco

2014-10-01

451

How to upload a physical quantum state into correlation space

In the framework of the computational tensor network [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220503 (2007)], the quantum computation is performed in a virtual linear space called the correlation space. It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)] that a state in a correlation space can be downloaded to the real physical space. In this paper, conversely, we study how to upload a state from a real physical space to the correlation space. After showing the impossibility of cloning a state between a real physical space and the correlation space, we propose a simple teleportation-like method of uploading. This method also enables the Gottesman-Chuang gate teleportation trick and entanglement swapping in the virtual-real hybrid setting. Furthermore, compared with the inverse of the downloading method by Cai et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 050503 (2009)], which also works to upload, the proposed uploading method has several advantages.

Morimae, Tomoyuki [Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Universite Paris-Est Marne-la Vallee, F-77454 Cedex 2 (France)

2011-04-15

452

We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which experiences random collisions with gas particles. Previous studies on this topic applied scattering theory to momentum eigenstates. We present a supplementary approach, where we develop a rigorous measurement interpretation of the collision process to derive a master equation. Finally, we study the collisional decoherence process in terms of the Wigner function. We restrict ourselves to one spatial dimension. Nevertheless, we find some interesting new insight, including that the previously celebrated quantum contribution to position diffusion is not real, but a consequence of the Markovian approximation. Further, we discover that the leading decoherence process is due to phase averaging, rather than induced by the information transfer between the colliding particles.

Ingo Kamleitner

2010-09-22

453

Review of lattice results concerning low energy particle physics

We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K -> pi transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio fK/fpi of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements Vus and Vud. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)LxSU(2)R and SU(3)LxSU(3)R Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, for this review, we focus on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_s.

Sinya Aoki; Yasumichi Aoki; Claude Bernard; Tom Blum; Gilberto Colangelo; Michele Della Morte; Stephan Dürr; Aida X. El Khadra; Hidenori Fukaya; Roger Horsley; Andreas Jüttner; Takeshi Kaneko; Jack Laiho; Laurent Lellouch; Heinrich Leutwyler; Vittorio Lubicz; Enrico Lunghi; Silvia Necco; Tetsuya Onogi; Carlos Pena; Christopher T. Sachrajda; Stephen R. Sharpe; Silvano Simula; Rainer Sommer; Ruth S. Van de Water; Anastassios Vladikas; Urs Wenger; Hartmut Wittig

2013-10-31

454

Compactified String Theories -- Generic Predictions for Particle Physics

In recent years it has been realized that in string/$M$ theories compactified to four dimensions which satisfy cosmological constraints, it is possible to make some generic predictions for particle physics and dark matter: a non-thermal cosmological history before primordial nucleosynthesis, a scale of supersymmetry breaking which is "high" as in gravity mediation, scalar superpartners too heavy to be produced at the LHC (although gluino production is expected in many cases), and a significant fraction of dark matter in the form of axions. When the matter and gauge spectrum below the compactification scale is that of the MSSM, a robust prediction of about 125 GeV for the Higgs boson mass, predictions for various aspects of dark matter physics, as well as predictions for future precision measurements, can be made. As a prototypical example, $M$ theory compactified on a manifold of $G_2$ holonomy leads to a good candidate for our "string vacuum", with the TeV scale emerging from the Planck scale, a de Sitter vacuum, robust electroweak symmetry breaking, and solutions of the weak and strong CP problems. In this article we review how these and other results were derived, from the key theoretical ideas to the final phenomenological predictions.

Bobby Samir Acharya; Gordon Kane; Piyush Kumar

2012-04-12

455

GENIUS - a new facility of non-accelerator particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GENIUS ( Germanium in Liquid Nitrogen Underground Setup) project has been proposed in 1997 [1] as first third generation double beta decay project, with a sensitivity aiming down to a level of an effective neutrino mass of < m > 0.01 - 0.001 eV. Such sensitivity has been shown to be indispensable to solve the question of the structure of the neutrino mass matrix which cannot be solved by neutrino oscillation experiments alone [2]. It will allow broad access also to many other topics of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics at the multi-TeV scale. For search of cold dark matter GENIUS will cover almost the full range of the parameter space of predictions of SUSY for neutralinos as dark matter [3,4]. Finally, GENIUS has the potential to be the first real-time detector for low-energy (pp and 7Be) solar neutrinos [6,5]. A GENIUS-Test Facility has just been funded and will come into operation by end of 2001.

KlapdorKleingrothaus, H. V.

2001-05-01

456

Probing the Vacuum of Particle Physics with Precise Laser Interferometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC confirms that what we experience as empty space should actually be thought as a condensate of elementary quanta. This condensate characterizes the physically realized form of relativity and could play the role of preferred reference frame in a modern Lorentzian approach. This observation suggests a new interpretative scheme to understand the unexplained residuals in the old ether-drift experiments where light was still propagating in gaseous systems. Differently from present vacuum experiments, where anyhow deviations from Special Relativity are expected to be at the limit of visibility, these now acquire a crucial importance and become consistent with the Earth's velocity of 370 km/s which characterizes the CMB anisotropy. In the same scheme, one can also understand the difference with the other experiments where light propagates in strongly bound systems such as solid or liquid transparent media. This non-trivial level of consistency motivates a new generation of precise laser interferometry experiments which explore the same particle physics vacuum and, in this sense, are complementary to those with high-energy accelerators.

Consoli, Maurizio

2015-01-01

457

Compactified String Theories Generic Predictions for Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years it has been realized that in string/M theories compactified to four dimensions which satisfy cosmological constraints, it is possible to make some generic predictions for particle physics and dark matter: a nonthermal cosmological history before primordial nucleosynthesis, a scale of supersymmetry breaking which is "high" as in gravity mediation, scalar superpartners too heavy to be produced at the LHC (although gluino production is expected in many cases), and a significant fraction of dark matter in the form of axions. When the matter and gauge spectrum below the compactification scale is that of the MSSM, a robust prediction of about 125 GeV for the Higgs boson mass, predictions for various aspects of dark matter physics, as well as predictions for future precision measurements, can be made. As a prototypical example, M theory compactified on a manifold of G2 holonomy leads to a good candidate for our "string vacuum," with the TeV scale emerging from the Planck scale, a de Sitter vacuum, robust electroweak symmetry breaking, and solutions of the weak and strong CP problems. In this article we review how these and other results were derived, from the key theoretical ideas to the final phenomenological predictions.

Acharya, Bobby Samir; Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush

2012-05-01

458

The Generation Model of Particle Physics and Galactic Dark Matter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galactic dark matter is matter hypothesized to account for the discrepancy of the mass of a galaxy determined from its gravitational effects, assuming the validity of Newton's law of universal gravitation, and the mass calculated from the "luminous matter", stars, gas, dust, etc. observed to be contained within the galaxy. The conclusive observation from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies that the mass discrepancy is greater, the larger the distance scales involved implies that either Newton's law of universal gravitation requires modification or considerably more mass (dark matter) is required to be present in each galaxy. Both the modification of Newton's law of gravitation and the hypothesis of the existence of considerable dark matter in a galaxy are discussed. It is shown that the Generation Model (GM) of particle physics, which leads to a modification of Newton's law of gravitation, is found to be essentially equivalent to that of Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theory, with the GM providing a physical understanding of the MOND theory. The continuing success of MOND theory in describing the extragalactic mass discrepancy problems constitutes a strong argument against the existence of undetected dark matter haloes, consisting of unknown nonbaryonic matter, surrounding spiral galaxies.

Robson, B. A.

2013-09-01

459

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS General Syllabus

and solid-state physics. 13. The variational principle. Class schedule: 4 LECT HR./WK. (55100, 4 CRDEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS General Syllabus Physics 55100 Quantum Physics I Designation: Required material: Eisberg, R. and Resnick, R., Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles

Lombardi, John R.

460

Testing quantum physics in space using optically trapped nanospheres

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in space technology like micro-propulsion systems for drag-free control, thermal shielding, ultra-stable laser sources and stable optical cavities set an ideal platform for quantum optomechanical exper- iments with optically trapped dielectric spheres. Here, we will provide an overview of the results of recent studies aiming at the realization of the space mission MAQRO to test the foundations of quantum physics in a parameter regime orders of magnitude beyond existing experiments. In particular, we will discuss DECIDE, which is an experiment to prepare and then study a Schrodinger-cat-type state, where a dielectric nanosphere of around 100 nm radius is prepared in a superposition of being in two clearly distinct positions at the same time. This superposition leads to double-slit-type interference, and the visibility of the interference pattern will be compared to the predictions of quantum theory. This approach allows for testing for possible deviations from quantum theory as our test objects approach macroscopic dimensions. With DECIDE, it will be possible to distinctly test several prominent theoretical models that predict such deviations, for example: the Diósi-Pensrose model, the continuous-spontaneous-localization model of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle, and the model of Károlyházy.

Kaltenbaek, R.

2013-09-01

461

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides interactive representations of quantum optics experiments. The illustrations show the setup, operation, and results of real experiments that demonstrate fundamental phenomena of quantum physics such as quantum particles, randomness, and entanglement as well as prospective applications such as quantum number generation and quantum cryptography. Extensive supplemental materials, with text, pictures, and video, explain the physics being studied in the experiments. An extensive bibliography is also included.

Meyn, Jan-Peter; Bronner, Patrick

2009-02-17

462

Fractional quantum Hall physics with ultracold Rydberg gases in artificial gauge fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study ultracold Rydberg-dressed Bose gases subject to artificial gauge fields in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. The characteristics of the Rydberg interaction give rise to interesting many-body ground states different from standard FQH physics in the lowest Landau level. The nonlocal but rapidly decreasing interaction potential favors crystalline ground states for very dilute systems. While a simple Wigner crystal becomes energetically favorable compared to the Laughlin liquid for filling fractions ?<1/12, a correlated crystal of composite particles emerges already for ??1/6 with a large energy gap to the simple Wigner crystal. The presence of a new length scale, the Rydberg blockade radius aB, gives rise to a bubble crystal phase for ??1/4 when the average particle distance becomes less than aB, which describes the region of saturated, almost constant interaction potential. For larger fillings indications for strongly correlated cluster liquids are found.

Grusdt, F.; Fleischhauer, M.

2013-04-01

463

in Particle Physics Executive Summary The fundamental questions that Particle Physics research is addressing, sustainable energy and security. In this document, we summarise the science questions that Particle Physics in isolation. High Energy Particle Physics Group #12;2 FUNDAMENTAL IMPACTS A Study of the Cross

Crowther, Paul

464

Guide to QSPIRES and the particle physics databases on SLACVM

SLAC, in collarboration with DESY, LBL, and several other institutions, maintains many databases of interest to the high energy physics community. You do not to have a computer account at SLAC to search through some of these databases, they can be reached via the remote server QSPIRES, set at the BITNET node SLACVM. This text describes, in great detail, how to search in the popular HEP database via QSPIRES, HEP contains bibliographic summaries of more than 200,000 particle physics papers. Other databases available remotely are also reviewed, and the registration procedure for those who would like to use QSPIRES is explained. To utilize QSPIRES, you must have access to a large computer network. It is not necessary that the network be BITNET; it may be a different one. However, a gateway must exist between your network and BITNET. It should be mentioned at BITNET users have some advantages in searching, e.g., the possibility of interactive communication with QSPIRES. Therefore, if you have a choice, let a BITNET machine be your base for QSPIRES searches. You will also need an authorization to use HEP and other databases; and should know the set of relevant commands and rules. The authorization is free, the commands are simple, and BITNET can be reached from all over the world. Join, therefore, the group of thousands of satisfied users, log on to your local computer, and from the comfort of your office or home fine, e.g., the number of citations of your most famous high energy physics paper.

Galic, H.

1992-06-01

465

Parameter estimation for fractional-order chaotic systems is an important issue in fractional-order chaotic control and synchronization and could be essentially formulated as a multidimensional optimization problem. A novel algorithm called quantum parallel particle swarm optimization (QPPSO) is proposed to solve the parameter estimation for fractional-order chaotic systems. The parallel characteristic of quantum computing is used in QPPSO. This characteristic increases the calculation of each generation exponentially. The behavior of particles in quantum space is restrained by the quantum evolution equation, which consists of the current rotation angle, individual optimal quantum rotation angle, and global optimal quantum rotation angle. Numerical simulation based on several typical fractional-order systems and comparisons with some typical existing algorithms show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25603158

Huang, Yu; Guo, Feng; Li, Yongling; Liu, Yufeng

2015-01-01

466

Parameter estimation for fractional-order chaotic systems is an important issue in fractional-order chaotic control and synchronization and could be essentially formulated as a multidimensional optimization problem. A novel algorithm called quantum parallel particle swarm optimization (QPPSO) is proposed to solve the parameter estimation for fractional-order chaotic systems. The parallel characteristic of quantum computing is used in QPPSO. This characteristic increases the calculation of each generation exponentially. The behavior of particles in quantum space is restrained by the quantum evolution equation, which consists of the current rotation angle, individual optimal quantum rotation angle, and global optimal quantum rotation angle. Numerical simulation based on several typical fractional-order systems and comparisons with some typical existing algorithms show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25603158

Huang, Yu; Guo, Feng; Li, Yongling; Liu, Yufeng

2015-01-01

467

Quantum theory of magnetic quadrupole lenses for spin-1\\/2 particles

General guidelines for constructing a quantum theory of charged-particle beam\\u000aoptics starting ab initio from the basic equations of quantum mechanics,\\u000aappropriate to the situation under study. In the context of spin-1\\/2 particles,\\u000athese guidelines are used starting with the Dirac equation. The spinor theory\\u000ajust constructed is used to obtain the transfer maps for normal and skew\\u000amagnetic quadrupoles

Sameen Ahmed Khan; Galileo Galilei

1998-01-01

468

Atom Smasher: An Educational Game for Teaching About Accelerators, Detectors and Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative multimedia game called Atom Smasher is being developed to introduce precollege students to the world of particle accelerators, particle detectors, and elementary particle physics. The game includes an animated accelerator facility introduction that places the player in the role of a scientist conducting experiments. Live animated tutorials, movies, a particle physics game show, slide show tutorials and a fast- action game will all be demonstrated as elements of Atom Smasher.

Brown, Nathan; Lancaster, George; Gillespie, George; Hill, Barrey

1998-04-01

469

The ontology of Bohmian mechanics includes both the universal wave function (living in 3N-dimensional configuration space) and particles (living in ordinary 3-dimensional physical space). Proposals for understanding the physical significance of the wave function in this theory have included the idea of regarding it as a physically-real field in its 3N-dimensional space, as well as the idea of regarding it as a law of nature. Here we introduce and explore a third possibility in which the configuration space wave function is simply eliminated -- replaced by a set of single-particle pilot-wave fields living in ordinary physical space. Such a re-formulation of the Bohmian pilot-wave theory can exactly reproduce the statistical predictions of ordinary quantum theory. But this comes at the rather high ontological price of introducing an infinite network of interacting potential fields (living in 3-dimensional space) which influence the particles' motion through the pilot-wave fields. We thus introduce an alternative approach which aims at achieving empirical adequacy (like that enjoyed by GRW type theories) with a more modest ontological complexity, and provide some preliminary evidence for optimism regarding the (once popular but prematurely-abandoned) program of trying to replace the (philosophically puzzling) configuration space wave function with a (totally unproblematic) set of fields in ordinary physical space.

Travis Norsen; Damiano Marian; Xavier Oriols

2014-10-14

470

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

he hallmark of a good book of problems is that it allows you to become acquainted with an unfamiliar topic quickly and efficiently. The Quantum Mechanics Solver fits this description admirably. The book contains 27 problems based mainly on recent experimental developments, including neutrino oscillations, tests of Bell's inequality, Bose Einstein condensates, and laser cooling and trapping of atoms, to name a few. Unlike many collections, in which problems are designed around a particular mathematical method, here each problem is devoted to a small group of phenomena or experiments. Most problems contain experimental data from the literature, and readers are asked to estimate parameters from the data, or compare theory to experiment, or both. Standard techniques (e.g., degenerate perturbation theory, addition of angular momentum, asymptotics of special functions) are introduced only as they are needed. The style is closer to a non-specialist seminar rather than an undergraduate lecture. The physical models are kept simple; the emphasis is on cultivating conceptual and qualitative understanding (although in many of the problems, the simple models fit the data quite well). Some less familiar theoretical techniques are introduced, e.g. a variational method for lower (not upper) bounds on ground-state energies for many-body systems with two-body interactions, which is then used to derive a surprisingly accurate relation between baryon and meson masses. The exposition is succinct but clear; the solutions can be read as worked examples if you don't want to do the problems yourself. Many problems have additional discussion on limitations and extensions of the theory, or further applications outside physics (e.g., the accuracy of GPS positioning in connection with atomic clocks; proton and ion tumor therapies in connection with the Bethe Bloch formula for charged particles in solids). The problems use mainly non-relativistic quantum mechanics and are organised into three sections: Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms; Quantum Entanglement and Measurement; and Complex Systems. The coverage is not comprehensive; there is little on scattering theory, for example, and some areas of recent interest, such as topological aspects of quantum mechanics and semiclassics, are not included. The problems are based on examination questions given at the École Polytechnique in the last 15 years. The book is accessible to undergraduates, but working physicists should find it a delight.

Robbin, J. M.

2007-07-01

471

The XXth International Workshop High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Workshop continues a series of workshops started by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in 1985 and conceived with the purpose of presenting topics of current interest and providing a stimulating environment for scientific discussion on new developments in theoretical and experimental high energy physics and physical programs for future colliders. Traditionally the list of workshop attendees includes a great number of active young scientists and students from Russia and other countries. This year Workshop is organized jointly by the SINP MSU and the Southern Federal University (SFedU) and will take place in the holiday hotel "Luchezarniy" (Effulgent) situated on the Black Sea shore in a picturesque natural park in the suburb of the largest Russian resort city Sochi - the host city of the XXII Olympic Winter Games to be held in 2014. The main topics to be covered are: Experimental results from the LHC. Tevatron summary: the status of the Standard Model and the boundaries on BSM physics. Future physics at Linear Colliders and super B-factories. Extensions of the Standard Model and their phenomenological consequences at the LHC and Linear Colliders: SUSY extensions of the Standard Model; particle interactions in space-time with extra dimensions; strings, quantum groups and new ideas from modern algebra and geometry. Higher order corrections and resummations for collider phenomenology. Automatic calculations of Feynman diagrams and Monte Carlo simulations. LHC/LC and astroparticle/cosmology connections. Modern nuclear physics and relativistic nucleous-nucleous collisions.

472

Physics - Particle and Nuclear Physics | Theory of Nuclear Fission ÂŠ Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media Theory of Nuclear Fission A Textbook Series: Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 838 v arious aspects of the nuclear f ission phenomenon discov ered by Hahn, Strassmann and Meitner

Pomorski, Krzysztof

473

Quantum readout of Physical Unclonable Functions: Remote authentication without trusted readers and

. Pappu et al. also used the term Physical One-Way Function (POWF). Although the use of hardQuantum readout of Physical Unclonable Functions: Remote authentication without trusted readers and authenticated Quantum Key Exchange without initial shared secrets B. SkoriÂ´c Abstract Physical Unclonable

474

Physics 832: Quantum Many-Body Physics Fall 2011 Lecture: TuTh 2:00Â3:15 in Phy 2202 by Michael Levin (Office: Phy 2220). Prerequisites: Quantum mechanics (Physics 402), Statistical physics (Physics 404). Philosophy: This course will introduce some of the basic tools and physical pictures nec- essary

Lathrop, Daniel P.

475

Physics 551: Quantum Field Theory I (Relativistic Quantum Mechanics) Professor: Claude Bernard

, the Lorentz group, and discrete symmetries will be discussed in detail. Regularization and renormalization comprehensive coverage, with a lot of emphasis on connection to experiment and nitty-gritty particle physics up and read. A good book to read first to get an idea what field theory is about. Don't worry about

Bernard, Claude

476

Experimental particle physics at the University of Pittsburgh

During the past year Task A completed the HELIOS single and pair electron analyses and found no anomalous production or multiplicity dependence. The HELIOS electron-muon pair analysis continued in its search for lepton physics beyond the expected charm yields. Data taking began at the CMD2 detector at Novosibirsk. Measurements of the U. V. reflectivity and photomultiplier tests for the first Cerenkov counter to be used in the E865 experiment at BNL were carried out, along with the development of a general ray-tracing code. The design of the Cerenkov counter for E865 along with development of light mirror fabrication techniques were a major part of the Task A program. The principal efforts of Task B, the Fermilab program, have been the completion of the analysis of the 1987--1988 data with resulting publications, completion of the 1990--1991 data run, and the beginning of the analysis of the 1990--1991 data. In addition, the Task B group is taking a leadership role in developing a proposal to Fermilab for the upgrade of the CDF silicon vertex detector in preparation for the 1995 data run. This proposal is to be presented to the laboratory management in time for the fall Fermilab Program Advisory Committee meeting. Task C has recently submitted results of its fractionally charged particle searches, placing new upper limits on the abundance of naturally-occurring fractionally-charged particles in various materials. This group has recently been approved by the Brookhaven management for an exposure of their p-i-n diodes in a high intensity proton beam. This measurement, along with its subsequent analysis, will complete the program.

Engels, E. Jr.; Perera, U.; Shepard, P.F.; Thompson, J.A.

1992-04-01

477

White noise approach to the low density limit of a quantum particle in a gas

The white noise approach to the investigation of the dynamics of a quantum particle interacting with a dilute and in general non-equilibrium gaseous environment in the low density limit is outlined. The low density limit is the kinetic Markovian regime when only pair collisions (i.e., collisions of the test particle with one particle of the gas at one time moment) contribute to the dynamics. In the white noise approach one first proves that the appropriate operators describing the gas converge in the sense of appropriate matrix elements to certain operators of quantum white noise. Then these white noise operators are used to derive quantum white noise and quantum stochastic equations describing the approximate dynamics of the total system consisting of the particle and the gas. The derivation is given ab initio, starting from the exact microscopic quantum dynamics. The limiting dynamics is described by a quantum stochastic equation driven by a quantum Poisson process. This equation then applied to the derivation of quantum Langevin equation and linear Boltzmann equation for the reduced density matrix of the test particle. The first part of the paper describes the approach which was developed by L. Accardi, I.V. Volovich and the author and uses the Fock-antiFock (or GNS) representation for the CCR algebra of the gas. The second part presents the approach to the derivation of the limiting equations directly in terms of the correlation functions, without use of the Fock-antiFock representation. This approach simplifies the derivation and allows to express the strength of the quantum number process directly in terms of the one-particle $S$-matrix.

Alexander Pechen

2006-07-19

478

Introduction to Statistical Issues in Particle Physics Roger Barlow Manchester University, UK and Stanford University, USA An account is given of the methods of working of Experimental High Energy Particle Physics, techniques, and hot topics are introduced and discussed. 1. Particle Physics 1.1. The Subject Particle

479

A theory is developed for the interaction of an electromagnetic field with one-particle quantum-confined states of charge carriers in semiconductor quantum dots. It is shown that the oscillator strengths and dipole moments for the transitions involving one-particle states in quantum dots are rather large, exceeding the corresponding typical parameters of bulk semiconductor materials. In the context of dipole approximation it is established that the large optical absorption cross sections and attenuation coefficients in the quasi-zero-dimensional systems make it possible to use the systems as new efficient absorbing materials.

Pokutnii, S. I. [Mechnikov National University, Center of Science and Education (Ilyichevsk Branch) (Ukraine)], E-mail: univer@ivt.ilyichevsk.odessa.ua

2006-02-15

480

Conservation-Law-Induced Quantum Limits for Physical Realizations of the Quantum NOT Gate

In recent investigations, it has been found that conservation laws generally lead to precision limits on quantum computing. Lower bounds of the error probability have been obtained for various logic operations from the commutation relation between the noise operator and the conserved quantity or from t

M. Asorey (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain) |