Quantum Particle Motion in Physical Space
A. Yu. Samarin
2015-07-26
Using Feynman's representation of the quantum evolution and considering a quantum particle as a matter field (continuous medium), it is shown that individual particles of the field have unique paths of the motion. This allows describing motion of the quantum particle continuous medium by Lagrange's method. It is shown that form of the real individual particle path is determined by classical minimum action principle.
Presenting particle physics and quantum mechanics to the general public
Strauss, J
2015-01-01
The job of a physicist is to describe Nature. General features, hypotheses and theories help to describe physics phenomena at a more abstract, fundamental level, and are sometimes tacitly assigned some sort of real existence; doing so appears to be of little harm in most of classical physics. However, missing any tangible connection to everyday experience, one better always bears in mind the descriptive nature of any efforts to grasp the quantum. And elementary particles interact in the quantum world, of course. When communicating the world of elementary particles to the general public, the Bayesian approach of an ever ongoing updating of the depiction of reality turns out to be virtually indispensable. The human experience of providing a series of increasingly better descriptions generates plenty of personal pleasures, for researchers as well as for amateurs. A suggestive analogy for improving our understanding of the world, even the seemingly paradoxical quantum world, may be found in recent insight into ho...
Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2015-02-01
We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants.
Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles.
Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2015-01-01
We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936
Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics
None
2011-10-06
Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.
Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics
None
2009-08-07
Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.
Physics 216 Spring 2012 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field
California at Santa Cruz, University of
time-dependence by virtue of the fact that the charged particle moves on a trajectory r = r(t). NotingPhysics 216 Spring 2012 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field These notes present the Schrodinger equation for a charged particle in an external electromagnetic field
Physics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field
California at Santa Cruz, University of
) implicit timeÂdependence by virtue of the fact that the charged particle moves on a trajectory #r = #rPhysics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field These notes present the motivation for the Schrodinger equation for a charged particle in an external
Physics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field
California at Santa Cruz, University of
of the fact that the charged particle moves on a trajectory r = r(t). Noting that vi dxi/dt [where r (x1 , xPhysics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field These notes present the motivation for the Schrodinger equation for a charged particle in an external
Physical qubits from charged particles: Infrared divergences in quantum information
Leon, Juan; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo
2009-05-15
We consider soft-photon effects (ir structure of QED) on the construction of physical qubits. Soft photons appear when we build charged qubits from the asymptotic states of QED. This construction is necessary in order to include the effect of soft photons on entanglement measures. The nonexistence of free charged particles (due to the long range of QED interactions) leads us to question the sense of the very concept of free charged qubit. In this work, using the ''dressing'' formalism, we build physical charged qubits from dressed fields which have the correct asymptotic behavior, are gauge invariant, have propagators with a particle pole structure, and are free from infrared divergences. Finally, we discuss the impact of the soft corrections on the entanglement measures.
Physical qubits from charged particles: IR divergences in quantum information
J. Leon; E. Martin-Martinez
2009-05-14
We consider soft photons effects (IR structure of QED) on the construction of physical qubits. Soft-photons appear when we build charged qubits from the asymptotic states of QED. This construction is necessary in order to include the effect of soft photons on entanglement measures. The nonexistence of free charged particles (due to the long range of QED interactions) lead us to question the sense of the very concept of free charged qubit. In this letter, using the "dressing" formalism, we build physical charged qubits from dressed fields which have the correct asymptotic behavior, are gauge invariant, their propagators have a particle pole structure and are free from infrared divergences. Finally, we discuss the impact of the soft corrections on the entanglement measures.
Nuclear and particle physics applications of the Bohm picture of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miranda, A.
2009-04-01
Aproximation methods for calculating individual particle/field motions in spacetime at the quantum level of accuracy (a key feature of the Bohm picture (BP) of quantum mechanics) are studied. This sharply illuminates not only the deep quantum structures underlying any observable quantum statistical laws of motion of particles and fields in spacetime, but also how the continuous merging of the so-called classical and quantal modes of description actually occurs, with no breaks anywhere. Modern textbook presentations of Quantum Theory are used throughout, but only to provide the necessary, already existing, tested formalisms and calculational techniques. New coherent insights, reinterpretations of old solutions and results, and new (in principle testable) quantitative and qualitative predictions can be obtained on the basis of the BP that complete the standard type of postdictions and predictions. Most of the dead wood still cluttering discussions on the meaning of Quantum Theory and the role of the BP is by-passed. We shall try to draw attention to the physics of this unfortunately hardly known novel formulation of Quantum Theory by giving additional illustrative examples inspired from the daily practices of contemporary Nuclear and Particle Physics, subjects that as yet have not been thoroughly reinterpreted within the BP. These fields of research offer excellent oppurtunities for explaining and illustrating the significance of time in quantum transitions, as well as the closely related features of quantum non-locality and quantum wholeness, as hard physical facts. We claim that in addition we can obtain a substantial gain in predictive powers of the underlying, all-encompassing, Quantum Theory.
Y. Aoki; Z. Fodor; S. D. Katz; K. K. Szabo
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron - and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low
Y. Aoki; G. Endrodi; Z. Fodor; S. D. Katz; K. K. Szabó
2006-01-01
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron-and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low temperatures, the
Quantum Physics: An Introduction
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Introduction to Quantum Physics concepts with an activity demonstrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, wave/particle duality, Planck's Constant, de Broglie wavelength, and how Newton's Laws go right out the window on a quantum level.
Quantum particles from classical statistics
C. Wetterich
2010-02-11
Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, Necia Grant; West, Geoffrey B.
1988-06-01
Preface; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Scale and dimension - From animals to quarks Geoffrey B. West; 2. Particle physics and the standard model Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky and Geoffrey B. West; QCD on a Cray: the masses of elementary particles Gerald Guralnik, Tony Warnock and Charles Zemach; Lecture Notes - From simple field theories to the standard model; 3. Toward a unified theory: an essay on the role of supergravity in the search for unification Richard C. Slansky; 4. Supersymmetry at 100 GeV Stuart Raby; 5. The family problem T. Goldman and Michael Martin Nieto; Part II. Experimental Developments: 6. Experiments to test unification schemes Gary H. Sanders; 7. The march toward higher energies S. Peter Rosen; LAMPF II and the High-Intensity Frontier Henry A. Thiessen; The SSC - An engineering challenge Mahlon T. Wilson; 8. Science underground - the search for rare events L. M. Simmons, Jr; Part III. Personal Perspectives: 9. Quarks and quirks among friends Peter A. Carruthers, Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky, Geoffrey B. West and George Zweig; Index.
Particle physics and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, M. S.; Schramm, D. N.
1987-01-01
A brief summary of research carried out since January 1985 is given. Topics covered include inflationary universe models; cosmology in extra dimensions/superstrings; particle emission from the direction of Cygnus X-3; ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics; astrophysical/cosmological constraints on particle physics; quantum fields in curved space-time, dark matter, exotic relics, and structure formation in the universe; and resonant neutrino oscillations (RNO). A list of publications resulting from this research during the period from 1985 through 1986 is also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beringer, J.; Arguin, J.-F.; Barnett, R. M.; Copic, K.; Dahl, O.; Groom, D. E.; Lin, C.-J.; Lys, J.; Murayama, H.; Wohl, C. G.; Yao, W.-M.; Zyla, P. A.; Amsler, C.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baer, H.; Band, H. R.; Basaglia, T.; Bauer, C. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Belousov, V. I.; Bergren, E.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bethke, S.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Buchmueller, O.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M.-C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; de Florian, D.; de Gouvêa, A.; DeGrand, T.; de Jong, P.; Dissertori, G.; Dobrescu, B.; Doser, M.; Drees, M.; Edwards, D. A.; Eidelman, S.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gerbier, G.; Gherghetta, T.; Golwala, S.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grünewald, M.; Gurtu, A.; Gutsche, T.; Haber, H. E.; Hagiwara, K.; Hagmann, C.; Hanhart, C.; Hashimoto, S.; Hayes, K. G.; Heffner, M.; Heltsley, B.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hikasa, K.; Höcker, A.; Holder, J.; Holtkamp, A.; Huston, J.; Jackson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Junk, T.; Karlen, D.; Kirkby, D.; Klein, S. R.; Klempt, E.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Krauss, F.; Kreps, M.; Krusche, B.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Kwon, Y.; Lahav, O.; Laiho, J.; Langacker, P.; Liddle, A.; Ligeti, Z.; Liss, T. M.; Littenberg, L.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, S. B.; Mannel, T.; Manohar, A. V.; Marciano, W. J.; Martin, A. D.; Masoni, A.; Matthews, J.; Milstead, D.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Moortgat, F.; Nakamura, K.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Navas, S.; Neubert, M.; Nevski, P.; Nir, Y.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Parsons, J.; Patrignani, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Petcov, S. T.; Piepke, A.; Pomarol, A.; Punzi, G.; Quadt, A.; Raby, S.; Raffelt, G.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Richardson, P.; Roesler, S.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Rosner, J. L.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sakai, Y.; Salam, G. P.; Sarkar, S.; Sauli, F.; Schneider, O.; Scholberg, K.; Scott, D.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharpe, S. R.; Silari, M.; Sjöstrand, T.; Skands, P.; Smith, J. G.; Smoot, G. F.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Stone, S. L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Syphers, M. J.; Takahashi, F.; Tanabashi, M.; Terning, J.; Titov, M.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Tovey, D.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Venanzoni, G.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, P.; Vogt, A.; Walkowiak, W.; Walter, C. W.; Ward, D. R.; Watari, T.; Weiglein, G.; Weinberg, E. J.; Wiencke, L. R.; Wolfenstein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Workman, R. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Zeller, G. P.; Zenin, O. V.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Harper, G.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Schaffner, P.
2012-07-01
This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Vcb & Vub, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter.A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov/.The 2012 edition of Review of Particle Physics is published for the Particle Data Group as article 010001 in volume 86 of Physical Review D.This edition should be cited as: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), Phys. Rev. D 86, 010001 (2012).
The particle invariance in particle physics
H. Y. Cui
2002-05-08
Since the particles such as molecules, atoms and nuclei are composite particles, it is important to recognize that physics must be invariant for the composite particles and their constituent particles, this requirement is called particle invariance in this paper. But difficulties arise immediately because for fermion we use Dirac equation, for meson we use Klein-Gordon equation and for classical particle we use Newtonian mechanics, while the connections between these equations are quite indirect. Thus if the particle invariance is held in physics, i.e., only one physical formalism exists for any particle, we can expect to find out the differences between these equations by employing the particle invariance. As the results, several new relationships between them are found, the most important result is that the obstacles that cluttered the path from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics are found, it becomes possible to derive the quantum wave equations from relativistic mechanics after the obstacles are removed. An improved model is proposed to gain a better understanding on elementary particle interactions. This approach offers enormous advantages, not only for giving the first physically reasonable interpretation of quantum mechanics, but also for improving quark model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longair, Malcolm
2013-01-01
Part I. The Discovery of Quanta: 1. Physics and theoretical physics in 1895; 2. Planck and black-body radiation; 3. Einstein and quanta, 1900-1911; Part II. The Old Quantum Theory: 4. The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom; 5. Sommerfield and Ehrenfest - generalising the Bohr model; 6. Einstein coefficients, Bohr's correspondence principle and the first selection rules; 7. Understanding atomic spectra - additional quantum numbers; 8. Bohr's model of the periodic table and the origin of spin; 9. The wave-particle duality; Part III. The Discovery of Quantum Mechanics; 10. The collapse of the old quantum theory and the seeds of its regeneration; 11. The Heisenberg breakthrough; 12. Matrix mechanics; 13. Dirac's quantum mechanics; 14. Schrödinger and wave mechanics; 15. Reconciling matrix and wave mechanics; 16. Spin and quantum statistics; 17. The interpretation of quantum mechanics; 18. The aftermath; 19. Epilogue; Indices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rae, Alastair
2012-03-01
Preface to the second edition; Preface to the first edition; 1. Quantum physics; 2. Which way are the photons pointing?; 3. What can be hidden in a pair of photons?; 4. Wonderful Copenhagen?; 5. Is it all in the mind?; 6. Many worlds; 7. Is it a matter of size?; 8. Backwards and forwards; 9. Only one way forward?; 10. Can we be consistent?; 11. Illusion or reality?; Further reading.
6.728 Applied Quantum and Statistical Physics, Fall 2002
Bulovic, Vladimir, 1970-
Elementary quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Introduces applied quantum physics. Emphasizes experimental basis for quantum mechanics. Applies Schrodinger's equation to the free particle, tunneling, the harmonic ...
Aoki, Y; Endrodi, G; Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Szabó, K K
2006-10-12
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron--and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low temperatures, the dominant degrees of freedom are colourless bound states of hadrons (such as protons and pions). However, QCD is asymptotically free, meaning that at high energies or temperatures the interaction gets weaker and weaker, causing hadrons to break up. This behaviour underlies the predicted cosmological transition between the low-temperature hadronic phase and a high-temperature quark-gluon plasma phase (for simplicity, we use the word 'phase' to characterize regions with different dominant degrees of freedom). Despite enormous theoretical effort, the nature of this finite-temperature QCD transition (that is, first-order, second-order or analytic crossover) remains ambiguous. Here we determine the nature of the QCD transition using computationally demanding lattice calculations for physical quark masses. Susceptibilities are extrapolated to vanishing lattice spacing for three physical volumes, the smallest and largest of which differ by a factor of five. This ensures that a true transition should result in a dramatic increase of the susceptibilities. No such behaviour is observed: our finite-size scaling analysis shows that the finite-temperature QCD transition in the hot early Universe was not a real phase transition, but an analytic crossover (involving a rapid change, as opposed to a jump, as the temperature varied). As such, it will be difficult to find experimental evidence of this transition from astronomical observations. PMID:17035999
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Y.; Endr?di, G.; Fodor, Z.; Katz, S. D.; Szabó, K. K.
2006-10-01
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron-and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low temperatures, the dominant degrees of freedom are colourless bound states of hadrons (such as protons and pions). However, QCD is asymptotically free, meaning that at high energies or temperatures the interaction gets weaker and weaker, causing hadrons to break up. This behaviour underlies the predicted cosmological transition between the low-temperature hadronic phase and a high-temperature quark-gluon plasma phase (for simplicity, we use the word `phase' to characterize regions with different dominant degrees of freedom). Despite enormous theoretical effort, the nature of this finite-temperature QCD transition (that is, first-order, second-order or analytic crossover) remains ambiguous. Here we determine the nature of the QCD transition using computationally demanding lattice calculations for physical quark masses. Susceptibilities are extrapolated to vanishing lattice spacing for three physical volumes, the smallest and largest of which differ by a factor of five. This ensures that a true transition should result in a dramatic increase of the susceptibilities. No such behaviour is observed: our finite-size scaling analysis shows that the finite-temperature QCD transition in the hot early Universe was not a real phase transition, but an analytic crossover (involving a rapid change, as opposed to a jump, as the temperature varied). As such, it will be difficult to find experimental evidence of this transition from astronomical observations.
Nuclear and Particle Physics applications of the Bohm Picture of Quantum Mechanics
A. Miranda
2009-01-09
Approximation methods for calculating individual particle/ field motions in spacetime at the quantum level of accuracy (a key feature of the Bohm Picture of Quantum Mechanics (BP)), are studied. Modern textbook presentations of Quantum Theory are used throughout, but only to provide the necessary, already existing, tested formalisms and calculational techniques. New coherent insights, reinterpretations of old solutions and results, and new (in principle testable) quantitative and qualitative predictions, can be obtained on the basis of the BP that complete the standard type of postdictions and predictions.
Quantum Physics Einstein's Gravity
Visser, Matt
Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 13 October 2001 #12; Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Abstract: The search for an overall master theory that is compatible both with quantum physics
Particle Physics and Introduction to Field Theory
T. D. Lee; Sidney Drell
1981-01-01
The gamut of modern particle physics is presented. Topics included are a self-contained introduction to standard quantum field theory, a discussion of solitons, a detailed discussion of symmetry principles in particle physics, including symmetry breaking, and the formalism and physical ideas of non-Abelain gauge theories and Quantum Chromodynamics. Recent original research by the author is presented. The book concludes with
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Particle Data Group of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The particle physics group of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory presents and award winning interactive tour of quarks, neutrinos, antimatter, extra dimensions, dark matter, accelerators, and particle detectors.
TEACHING PHYSICS: Teaching particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanley, Phil
2000-09-01
Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students.
Quantum Scent Dynamics (QSD): A new composite model of physical particles
György Darvas; Tamás F. Farkas
2008-03-17
The paper introduces an alternative rishon model for a composite structure of quarks and leptons. The model builds matter from six basic blocks (and their antiparticles). For this reason it introduces new properties of rishons, called "scents", that can take two values, called masculine and feminine scents, which can appear in three colours both. The Quantum Scent Dynamics (QSD) model calculates new electric charges for the rishons. Then it discusses the construction of the known families of particles from scents, as well as the constraints and advantages of the proposed hypothetic model.
2006-01-01
This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2633 new measurements from 689 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed
R. M. Barnett; C. D. Carone; D. E. Groom; T. G. Trippe; C. G. Wohl; B. Armstrong; P. S. Gee; G. S. Wagman; F. James; M. Mangano; K. Mönig; L. Montanet; J. L. Feng; H. Murayama; J. J. Hernández; A. Manohar; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Caso; R. L. Crawford; M. Roos; N. A. Törnqvist; K. G. Hayes; K. Hagiwara; K. Nakamura; M. Tanabashi; K. Olive; K. Honscheid; P. R. Burchat; R. E. Shrock; S. Eidelman; R. H. Schindler; A. Gurtu; K. Hikasa; G. Conforto; R. L. Workman; C. Grab; C. Amsler
1996-01-01
This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 1900 new measurements from 700 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed
K. Nakamura
2010-01-01
This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2158 new measurements from 551 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed
C. Amsler; M. Doser; M. Antonelli; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; H. Baer; H. R. Band; R. M. Barnett; E. Bergren; J. Beringer; G. Bernardi; W. Bertl; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; S. Blusk; R. N. Cahn; M. Carena; C. Caso; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; M.-C. Chen; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; T. Damour; A. de Gouvêa; T. DeGrand; B. Dobrescu; M. Drees; D. A. Edwards; S. Eidelman; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; J. L. Feng; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; T. Gherghetta; G. F. Giudice; M. Goodman; C. Grab; A. V. Gritsan; J.-F. Grivaz; D. E. Groom; M. Grünewald; A. Gurtu; T. Gutsche; H. E. Haber; K. Hagiwara; C. Hagmann; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; J. Huston; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; T. Junk; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; I. G. Knowles; C. Kolda; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Krusche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; Y. Kwon; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; C.-J. Lin; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; H. Mahlke; M. L. Mangano; T. Mannel; A. V. Manohar; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; A. Masoni; D. Milstead; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; M. Narain; P. Nason; S. Navas; P. Nevski; Y. Nir; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; J. A. Peacock; G. Punzi; A. Quadt; S. Raby; G. Raffelt; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; A. Romaniouk; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; F. Sauli; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; J. G. Smith; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; S. L. Stone; T. Sumiyoshi; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; M. Titov; N. P. Tkachenko; N. A. Törnqvist; D. Tovey; G. H. Trilling; T. G. Trippe; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; P. Vogel; D. R. Ward; T. Watari; B. R. Webber; G. Weiglein; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; A. Wheeler; C. G. Wohl; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; R. L. Workman; A. Yamamoto; W.-M. Yao; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu; P. A. Zyla; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner
2008-01-01
This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
Up to now, we have only considered "non-relativistic" systems, where the velocities of massive particles such as electrons, protons, atoms, and so forth, are small with respect to the speed of light, c. Being massless, photons travel, of course, at the speed of light. This chapter is going to combine quantum physics with relativity, at first with special relativity (Einstein 1905) in Sections 7.1 and 7.2, and then in Section 7.3 with general relativity (Einstein 1915). In the first case, we obtain relativistic quantum field theory which is needed for elementary particle physics, and the first two sections will describe the present status of the theory which is known as the standard model of elementary particle physics, the standard model for short. The second case is that of quantum gravity and, with the example of length measurement, we shall try to understand the difficulties which this theory encounters and which have not yet been overcome today.
Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina
2014-08-31
The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.
Walter Smilga
2005-02-08
Bohr's dictum "Physical phenomena are observed relative to different experimental setups" is applied to a set of binary elements that represent the smallest units of information. A description relative to "macroscopic" setups of such elements is formulated. This requires the introduction of a Hilbert space formalism. It is shown, that the Hilbert space is symmetric with respect to the de Sitter group SO(3,2). For macroscopic setups SO(3,2) is approximated by the Poincare group. A space-time manifold is obtained that expresses the orientation of macroscopic setups relative to each other. Individual binary elements can then be given a "position" relative to macroscopic reference frames. To an observer binary elements will then exhibit properties of massive particles. This informational approach to particle physics determines a mass scale, delivers interaction terms for all four interactions and is, in principle, capable of fixing coupling constants and masses. Despite its simplicity it forms a promising basis for a theoretical model that leads beyond the standard model.
Open Source Physics: Quantum Spins
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Christian, Wolfgang
OSP Spins is an interactive computer program that simulates Stern-Gerlach-type measurements on spin-1/2 and spin-1 particles. This package provides the user with a sequence of tutorials and exercises to help them explore the physics of quantum spin. Fundamental issues such as incompatible observables, eigenstate expansions, interference, and quantum dynamics are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lévy-Leblond, Jean-Marc
1988-07-01
A novel theory, when it appears, cannot but use old words to label new concepts. In some cases, the extension in meaning thus conferred to standard terminology is natural enough so that the transfer may not lead to too many misunderstandings. Most often, however, and especially when the conceptual gap between the old and the new theory is a wide one, a casual transfer of términology may lead to epistemological and pedagogical difficulties. This situation has been and still is particularly serious in quantum theory. Here, the careless use of words taken from classical physics - such as quantum “mechanics”, “uncertainty”, etc. - , is compounded by the uncritical use of interpretative terms linked to a definite, if implicit, philosophical point of view - such as “complementarity”, “wave-particle duality”, “observables”, etc. While these words and the ideas they represent have played a major role in the birth of quantum physics more than half a century ago, they are no longer necessarily the best ones to be used today. It is not argued here that we should start afresh and create from scratch a supposedly adequate vocabulary for quantum physics. Abuse of language certainly is unavoidable in science as it is in any human communication; without it, language would not live and evolve. But, at the very least, let us recognize it for what it is, so that it does not add its troubles to already complicated issues. And in some definite instances, still, a willing effort to replace specially ambiguous words might be worthwhile.
Physics within a quantum reference frame
Renato M. Angelo; Nicolas Brunner; Sandu Popescu; Anthony J. Short; Paul Skrzypczyk
2011-08-23
We investigate the physics of quantum reference frames. Specifically, we study several simple scenarios involving a small number of quantum particles, whereby we promote one of these particles to the role of a quantum observer and ask what is the description of the rest of the system, as seen by this observer? We highlight the interesting aspects of such questions by presenting a number of apparent paradoxes. By unravelling these paradoxes we get a better understanding of the physics of quantum reference frames.
Particle Physics and Cosmology
Andrei Linde
1985-01-01
An interplay between elementary particle physics and cosmology is discussed with a special emphasis on the theory of scalar meson fields and the inflationary universe scenario. It is shown that the chaotic inflation scenario, unlike the new inflationary universe scenario, can be realized in a wide class of realistic theories of elementary particles under some natural assumptions concerning initial conditions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, I.
1996-01-01
Discusses a teaching strategy for introducing quantum ideas into the school classroom using modern devices. Develops the concepts of quantization, wave-particle duality, nonlocality, and tunneling. (JRH)
m anchester particle physics MAN/HEP/97Â1 3rd January, 1997 FourÂfermion events in electron of Physics Manchester University Manchester M13 9PL England Abstract A study of neutralÂcurrent four,Â¯) events are found than expected from Standard Model predictions. No significant deviation from expectation
Particle Physics and Cosmology
Jonathan Richard Ellis
2003-01-01
In the first Lecture, the Big Bang and the Standard Model of particle physics are introduced, as well as the structure of the latter and open issues beyond it. Neutrino physics is discussed in the second Lecture, with emphasis on models for neutrino masses and oscillations. The third Lecture is devoted to supersymmetry, including the prospects for discovering it at
Cosmology and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steigman, G.
1982-01-01
The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses. In the last few years we have witnessed the birth and growth to healthy adolescence of a new collaboration between astrophysicists and particle physicists. The most notable success of this cooperative effort has been to provide the framework for understanding, within the context of GUTs and the hot big-bang cosmology, the universal baryon asymmetry. The most exciting new predictions this effort has spawned are that exotic relics may exist in detectable abundances. In particular, we may live in a neutrino-dominated Universe. In the next few years, accummulating laboratory data (for example proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations) coupled with theoritical work in particle physics and cosmology will ensure the growth to maturity of this joint effort.
Particle physics and cosmology
Kolb, E.W.
1986-10-01
This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.
Quantum Algebras and Quantum Physics
E. Celeghini; M. A. del Olmo
2001-09-04
In Quantum Mechanics operators must be hermitian and, in a direct product space, symmetric. These properties are saved by Lie algebra operators but not by those of quantum algebras. A possible correspondence between observables and quantum algebra operators is suggested by extending the definition of matrix elements of a physical observable, including the eventual projection on the appropriate symmetric space. This allows to build in the Lie space of representations one-parameter families of operators belonging to the enveloping Lie algebra that satisfy an approximate symmetry and have the properties required by physics.
Particle Physics and Cosmology
John Ellis
2003-05-02
In the first Lecture, the Big Bang and the Standard Model of particle physics are introduced, as well as the structure of the latter and open issues beyond it. Neutrino physics is discussed in the second Lecture, with emphasis on models for neutrino masses and oscillations. The third Lecture is devoted to supersymmetry, including the prospects for discovering it at accelerators or as cold dark matter. Inflation is reviewed from the viewpoint of particle physics in the fourth Lecture, including simple models with a single scalar inflaton field: the possibility that this might be a sneutrino is proposed. Finally, the fifth Lecture is devoted to topics further beyond the Standard Model, such as grand unification, baryo- and leptogenesis - that might be due to sneutrino inflaton decays - and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays - that might be due to the decays of metastable superheavy dark matter particles.
Quantum Physics and Nanotechnology
Vladimir K. Nevolin
2011-06-06
Experimental studies of infinite (unrestricted at least in one direction) quantum particle motion using probe nanotechnologies have revealed the necessity of revising previous concepts of their motion. Particularly, quantum particles transfer quantum motion nonlocality energy beside classical kinetic energy, in other words, they are in two different kinds of motion simultaneously. The quantum component of the motion energy may be quite considerable under certain circumstances. Some new effects were predicted and proved experimentally in terms of this phenomenon. A new prototype refrigerating device was tested, its principle of operation being based on the effect of transferring the quantum component of the motion energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, K.; Particle Data Group
2010-07-01
This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2158 new measurements from 551 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on neutrino mass, mixing, and oscillations, QCD, top quark, CKM quark-mixing matrix, Vud & Vus, Vcb & Vub, fragmentation functions, particle detectors for accelerator and non-accelerator physics, magnetic monopoles, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: pdg.lbl.gov.
Quantum Physics in a different ontology
Nalin de Silva
2010-06-24
It is shown that neither the wave picture nor the ordinary particle picture offers a satisfactory explanation of the double-slit experiment. The Physicists who have been successful in formulating theories in the Newtonian Paradigm with its corresponding ontology find it difficult to interpret Quantum Physics which deals with particles that are not sensory perceptible. A different interpretation of Quantum Physics based in a different ontology is presented in what follows. According to the new interpretation Quantum particles have different properties from those of Classical Newtonian particles. The interference patterns are explained in terms of particles each of which passes through both slits.
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
H. Kröger
2003-02-21
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group
2014-08-01
The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat PDF (1.77 MB) Kinematics, Cross-Section Formulae, and PlotsAcrobat PDF (3.57 MB) Particle Listings Illustrative key and abbreviationsAcrobat PDF (325 KB) Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (2.38 MB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (2.03 MB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (1.51 MB) Mesons: Light unflavored and strangeAcrobat PDF (4.91 MB) Mesons: Charmed and bottomAcrobat PDF (9.03 MB) Mesons: OtherAcrobat PDF (4.03 MB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (4.54 MB) Miscellaneous searchesAcrobat PDF (3.98 MB) IndexAcrobat PDF (276 KB)
Y. Aoki; G. Endrodi; Z. Fodor; S. D. Katz; K. K. Szabo
2006-11-10
We determine the nature of the QCD transition using lattice calculations for physical quark masses. Susceptibilities are extrapolated to vanishing lattice spacing for three physical volumes, the smallest and largest of which differ by a factor of five. This ensures that a true transition should result in a dramatic increase of the susceptibilities.No such behaviour is observed: our finite-size scaling analysis shows that the finite-temperature QCD transition in the hot early Universe was not a real phase transition, but an analytic crossover (involving a rapid change, as opposed to a jump, as the temperature varied). As such, it will be difficult to find experimental evidence of this transition from astronomical observations.
Quantum entanglement and entropy in particle creation
Shih-Yuin Lin; Chung-Hsien Chou; B. L. Hu
2010-04-30
We investigate the basic theoretical issues in the quantum entanglement of particle pairs created from the vacuum in a time-dependent background field or spacetime. Similar to entropy generation from these processes which depends on the choice of physical variables and how certain information is coarse-grained, entanglement dynamics hinges on the choice of measurable quantities and how the two parties are selected as well as the background dynamics of the field or spacetime. We discuss the conditions of separability of quantum states in particle creation processes and point out the differences in how the von Neumann entropy is used as a measure of entropy generation versus for entanglement dynamics. We show by an explicit construction that adoption of a different set of physical variables yields a different entanglement entropy. As an application of these theoretical considerations we show how the particle number and the quantum phase enter the entanglement dynamics in cosmological particle production.
Markus Arndt; Thomas Juffmann; Vlatko Vedral
2009-11-01
Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.
Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko
2009-01-01
Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a “pedestrian guide” to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future “quantum biology,” its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena. PMID:20234806
Physics 129 Nuclear and Particle Physics
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Physics 129 Nuclear and Particle Physics Winter Quarter 2008 Instructor: David A. Williams (office Physics by W. S. C. Williams, Oxford University Press, 1991. Course materials Homework assignments materials will be distributed on the web site above. Nine texts on nuclear and particle physics, all
Particle physics -- Future directions
Chris Quigg
2001-11-29
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. Here I have in mind the work of the B factories and the Tevatron collider on CP violation and the weak interactions of the b quark; the wonderfully sensitive experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, Fermilab, and Frascati on CP violation and rare decays of kaons; the prospect of definitive accelerator experiments on neutrino oscillations and the nature of the neutrinos; and a host of new experiments on the sensitivity frontier. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment. I describe some of the great questions before us and the challenges of providing the instruments that will be needed to define them more fully and eventually to answer them.
The Quantum Gravity wars: Quantum Physics confronts
Visser, Matt
The Quantum Gravity wars: Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser #12;Phoenix Society 3 October 2004 #12;Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Abstract: The search for an overall master theory that is compatible both with quantum physics and with Einstein's theory of gravity
Introduction to experimental particle physics
R. Fernow
1986-01-01
Particle physics is the study of the properties of subatomic particles and of the interactions that occur among them. This book is concerned with the experimental aspects of the subject, including the characteristics of various detectors and considerations in the design of experiments. The book includes a description of the particles and interactions studied in particle physics. Material from relativistic
Physicalism versus quantum mechanics
Henry P. Stapp
2008-03-11
In the context of theories of the connection between mind and brain, physicalism is the demand that all is basically purely physical. But the concept of "physical" embodied in this demand is characterized essentially by the properties of the physical that hold in classical physical theories. Certain of these properties contradict the character of the physical in quantum mechanics, which provides a better, more comprehensive, and more fundamental account of phenomena. It is argued that the difficulties that have plaged physicalists for half a century, and that continue to do so, dissolve when the classical idea of the physical is replaced by its quantum successor. The argument is concretized in a way that makes it accessible to non-physicists by exploiting the recent evidence connecting our conscious experiences to macroscopic measurable synchronous oscillations occurring in well-separated parts of the brain. A specific new model of the mind-brain connection that is fundamentally quantum mechanical but that ties conscious experiences to these macroscopic synchronous oscillations is used to illustrate the essential disparities between the classical and quantum notions of the physical, and in particular to demonstrate the failure in the quantum world of the principle of the causal closure of the physical, a failure that goes beyond what is entailed by the randomness in the outcomes of observations, and that accommodates the efficacy in the brain of conscious intent.
Finite groups and quantum physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornyak, V. V.
2013-02-01
Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive "finite" point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution—only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers—a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories—in particular, within the Standard Model.
Finite groups and quantum physics
Kornyak, V. V.
2013-02-15
Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.
Quantum Order: a Quantum Entanglement of Many Particles Xiao-Gang Wen
Wen, Xiao-Gang
, such as the theory of topolog- ical/quantum orders, to characterize the rich "color" in quantum world. We can also to characterize different quan- tum entanglements in many-qubit systems. The theory of topological/quantum order[6Quantum Order: a Quantum Entanglement of Many Particles Xiao-Gang Wen Department of Physics
Macroscopic Quantum State Analyzed Particle by Particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beduini, Federica A.; Zieli?ska, Joanna A.; Lucivero, Vito G.; de Icaza Astiz, Yannick A.; Mitchell, Morgan W.
2015-03-01
Macroscopic quantum phenomena, e.g., superconductivity and squeezing, are believed to result from entanglement of macroscopic numbers of particles. We report the first direct study of this kind of entanglement: we use discrete quantum tomography to reconstruct the joint quantum state of photon pairs extracted from polarization-squeezed light. Our observations confirm several predictions from spin-squeezing theory [Beduini et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 143601 (2013)], including strong entanglement and entanglement of all photon pairs within the squeezing coherence time. This photon-by-photon analysis may give insight into other macroscopic many-body systems, e.g., photon Bose-Einstein condensates.
Macroscopic quantum state analyzed particle by particle.
Beduini, Federica A; Zieli?ska, Joanna A; Lucivero, Vito G; de Icaza Astiz, Yannick A; Mitchell, Morgan W
2015-03-27
Macroscopic quantum phenomena, e.g., superconductivity and squeezing, are believed to result from entanglement of macroscopic numbers of particles. We report the first direct study of this kind of entanglement: we use discrete quantum tomography to reconstruct the joint quantum state of photon pairs extracted from polarization-squeezed light. Our observations confirm several predictions from spin-squeezing theory [Beduini et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 143601 (2013)], including strong entanglement and entanglement of all photon pairs within the squeezing coherence time. This photon-by-photon analysis may give insight into other macroscopic many-body systems, e.g., photon Bose-Einstein condensates. PMID:25860724
Quantum teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle
Wang, Xi-Lin; Su, Zu-En; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-01-01
Quantum teleportation provides a "disembodied" way to transfer quantum states of an object over arbitrarily long distance, without physical travelling of the object itself. A single quantum particle can possess various degrees of freedom-internal and external-and with coherent coupling among them. Yet, all the previous experiments were limited to teleportation of a single degree of freedom only. A fundamental open challenge is to simultaneously teleport multiple degrees of freedom which is necessary to fully describe an object, thereby truly teleporting it intactly. Here, we demonstrate the first quantum teleportation of both spin and orbital angular momentum of a single photon, in the form of spin-orbit hybrid entangled states. We use spin-orbit hyper-entangled photon pairs as quantum channel, and develop a new technique to discriminate hyper-entangled Bell state exploiting quantum non-demolition measurement. This work demonstrates an enhanced capability for quantum communications, and moves a step toward co...
Quantum Cellular Automata Without Particles
David A. Meyer; Asif Shakeel
2015-06-04
Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA) constitute a natural discrete model for quantum field theory (QFT). Although QFTs are defined without reference to particles, computations are done in terms of Feynman diagrams, which are explicitly interpreted in terms of interacting particles. Similarly, the easiest QCA to construct are Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). A natural question then is, "are all nontrivial QCA QLGA?". Here we show by construction that the answer is "no"; thus there are QCA, even in $1+1$ dimensions, that have no particle interpretation.
Quantum teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle
Xi-Lin Wang; Xin-Dong Cai; Zu-En Su; Ming-Cheng Chen; Dian Wu; Li Li; Nai-Le Liu; Chao-Yang Lu; Jian-Wei Pan
2014-12-12
Quantum teleportation provides a "disembodied" way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by priorly shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. In addition to its fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons, and superconducting circuits. Yet, all the previous experiments were limited to teleportation of one degree of freedom (DoF) only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various DoFs -- internal and external -- and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to simultaneously teleport multiple DoFs, which is necessary to fully describe a quantum particle, thereby truly teleporting it intactly. Here, we demonstrate the first teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both the spin and orbital angular momentum. We develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more DoFs. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled state, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work moves a step toward teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an enhanced capability for scalable quantum technologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haag, Rudolf
We review conceptual structures met in quantum physics and note changes of basic concepts and language partly due to a maturing process in the 80 odd years since their first evocation by the founding fathers in Copenhagen, partly demanded or suggested by the passage from quantum mechanics to relativistic quantum field theory, local quantum physics and high energy experiments. It is in particular the concept of "observable" which lost its central role as a description of the measurement of some hypothetical property of a "physical system" under investigation and shifted to an auxiliary position as referring to a detector whose signals serve for the reconstruction of a history described in equations like (9.6), (9.7). The primary role is taken over by the notion of a (microscopic) event constituting the bridge to reality and to finer features of space-time.
Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feynman, Richard P.; Weinberg, Steven
1987-11-01
Developing a theory that seamlessly combines relativity and quantum mechanics, the most important conceptual breakthroughs in twentieth century physics, has proved to be a difficult and ongoing challenge. This book details how two distinguished physicists and Nobel laureates have explored this theme in two lectures given in Cambridge, England, in 1986 to commemorate the famous British physicist Paul Dirac. Given for nonspecialists and undergraduates, the talks transcribed in Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics focus on the fundamental problems of physics and the present state of our knowledge. Professor Feynman examines the nature of antiparticles, and in particular the relationship between quantum spin and statistics. Professor Weinberg speculates on how Einstein's theory of gravitation might be reconciled with quantum theory in the final law of physics. Highly accessible, deeply thought provoking, this book will appeal to all those interested in the development of modern physics.
Particle physics---Experimental
Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.
1991-08-21
We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.
A macroscopic quantum state analysed particle by particle
Federica A. Beduini; Joanna A. Zielinska; Vito G. Lucivero; Yannick A. de Icaza Astiz; Morgan W. Mitchell
2014-10-26
Explaining how microscopic entities collectively produce macroscopic phenomena is a fundamental goal of many-body physics. Theory predicts that large-scale entanglement is responsible for exotic macroscopic phenomena, but observation of entangled particles in naturally occurring systems is extremely challenging. Synthetic quantum systems made of atoms in optical lattices have been con- structed with the goal of observing macroscopic quantum phenomena with single-atom resolution. Serious challenges remain in producing and detecting long-range quantum correlations in these systems, however. Here we exploit the strengths of photonic technology, including high coherence and efficient single-particle detection, to study the predicted large-scale entanglement underlying the macroscopic quantum phenomenon of polarization squeezing. We generate a polarization-squeezed beam, extract photon pairs at random, and make a tomographic reconstruction of their joint quantum state. We present experimental evidence showing that all photons arriving within the squeezing coherence time are entangled, that entanglement monogamy dilutes entanglement with increasing photon density and that, counterintuitively, increased squeezing can reduce bipartite entanglement. The results provide direct evidence for entanglement of macroscopic numbers of particles and introduce micro-analysis to the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena.
Particle Physics: a Progress Report
Guido Altarelli
2006-09-11
We present a concise review of where we stand in particle physics today. First we discuss QCD, then the electroweak sector and finally the motivations and the avenues for new physics beyond the Standard Model.
Particle Physics in Intense Electromagnetic Fields
Alexander V. Kurilin
2002-10-13
The quantum field theory in the presence of classical background electromagnetic fields is reviewed. We give a pedagogical introduction to the Feynman-Furry method of describing non-perturbative interactions with very strong electromagnetic fields. A particular emphasis is given to the case of the plane-wave electromagnetic field for which the charged particles' wave functions and propagators are presented. Some general features of quantum processes proceeding in the intense electromagnetic background are argued. We also discuss the possibilities of searching new physics through the investigations of quantum phenomena induced by the strong electromagnetic environment.
Physics 375 Introduction to Quantum Physics
Kioussis, Nicholas
227 Calculus based course on Thermodynamics, Waves, and Modern Physics Textbook Introductory QuantumPhysics 375 Introduction to Quantum Physics Fall 2006 Logistics Lecture Room: LO 1100 (Science I, 1 Phone: 818 677-7733 e-mail: nick.kioussis@csun.edu http://www.csun.edu/~nkioussi/ Prerequisites Physics
Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and
Colorado at Boulder, University of
Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction. Charles #12;This thesis entitled Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological
Computer Algebra in Particle Physics
Stefan Weinzierl
2002-09-20
These lectures given to graduate students in theoretical particle physics, provide an introduction to the ``inner workings'' of computer algebra systems. Computer algebra has become an indispensable tool for precision calculations in particle physics. A good knowledge of the basics of computer algebra systems allows one to exploit these systems more efficiently.
Research in elementary particle physics
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.
1992-01-01
This report discusses research in the following areas of high energy physics: B meson mixing; CDF response to low energy jets; jet scaling behavior; search for pair produced leptoquarks at CDF; SSC program; quantum field theory; and neural networks. (LSP).
Teaching Quantum Physics Without Paradoxes
Hobson, Art
Teaching Quantum Physics Without Paradoxes Art Hobson, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, especially not in the con- text of nonrelativistic quantum physics. The purpose of this paper is to provide that resolution and to suggest that we teach introductory quantum physics from this viewpoint. Most introductions
Helio Takai
2010-01-08
Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,
Helio Takai
2009-04-10
Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,
Georg G. Raffelt
1999-01-01
Low-mass particles, such as neutrinos, axions, other Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and gravitons, are produced in the hot and dense interior of stars. Therefore, astrophysical arguments constrain the properties of these particles in ways that are often complementary to cosmological arguments and to laboratory experiments. This review provides an update on the most important stellar-evolution limits and discusses them in the context
Nakamura, Kenzo
2010-01-01
string theory includes: basics, mathematics, experiments, cosmology, black holes,theory, it is possible that the production of string-balls [27] dominates over black holes.black-hole production are observed at the LHC, it is likely that signi?cant quantum-gravity (or string-theory)
An advance report on particle invariance in particle physics
H. Y. Cui
2004-09-02
Since particle such as molecule, atom and nucleus are composite particle, it is important to recognize that physics must be invariant for both the composite particle and its constituent particles, this requirement is called particle invariance. But difficulties arise immediately because for fermion we use the Dirac equation, for boson we use the Klein-Gordon equation. Therefore, the particle invariance demands there is a general wave equation for describing particle motion regardless particle class. In this paper, three advances in this subject are reported: (1) momentum-wavefunction relation is a general relation shared by both fermion and boson, meets the requirement of the particle invaiance. As a test, the momentum-wavefunction relation was directly applied to hydrogen atom, and get the correct fine structure and spin effect for the electron. (2) the Dirac equation and Klein-Gordon equation can be derived out from the momentum-wavefunction relation when we abandon some higher order terms. (3) according to the momentum-wavefunction relation a path integral method was developed, differing from Feynman's path integral, it simplfies quantum computation.
Lithography using quantum entangled particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)
2003-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Lithography using quantum entangled particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
The Cosmology - Particle Physics Connection
Mark Trodden
2006-05-26
Modern cosmology poses deep and unavoidable questions for fundamental physics. In this plenary talk, delivered in slightly different forms at the {\\it Particles and Nuclei International Conference} (PANIC05) in Santa Fe, in October 2005, and at the {\\it CMB and Physics of the Early Universe International Conference}, on the island of Ischia, Italy, in April 2006, I discuss the broad connections between cosmology and particle physics, focusing on physics at the TeV scale, accessible at the next and future generations of colliders
Quantum Energy Teleportation between Spin Particles in Thermal Equilibrium
Frey, Michael
2013-01-01
Quantum energy teleportation is the transfer of energy between two physically separated, but quantum correlated, sites, accomplished without an external energy carrier, using a three-step LOCC (local operations and classical communication) protocol. We apply this LOCC teleportation protocol to a Heisenberg spin particle pair initially in a quantum thermal state, making temperature an explicit parameter. The thermal states of the spin pair are quantum correlated (entangled or otherwise) at all temperatures. We find that energy teleportation is possible at any temperature, even at temperatures above the threshold where the particles' entanglement vanishes. This shows for thermal spin states that entanglement is not fundamentally necessary for energy teleportation; quantum correlation other than entanglement can suffice. This is a new instance in which quantum dissonance (quantum correlation without entanglement) is seen to act as a quantum resource. We compare energy teleportation to particle B with direct loca...
Quantum imitations of physical phenomena.
Ortiz, G.
2001-01-01
Quantum imitation is an attempt to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient simulation of physical phenomena. We discuss the fundamental concepts behind this new paradigm of information processing, such as the connection between models of computation and physical systems, along with the first imitation of a toy quantum many-body problem.
QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342
Rosner, Jonathan L.
QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342 KPTC 103 9:00 10:20 a.m. 1 Tues., Thurs. Winter Quarter 2011 quantum mechanics at the graduate level. The text for Quantum Mechanics II will be J. J. Sakurai and Jim Napolitano, Modern Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2011). For supplemental
#12; 1 1 Introduction The motivation for this work arose from a desire to represent and visualise by the CERN Application Systems Group, but at the time of the start of this work, they could, at most, fit with stochastic data. In October 1990 the Manchester High Energy Physics Group received support from Hewlett
the signal from a single primary ionisation in the gas and this may limit the efficiency of the thin gasÂgap Chambers S.Snow I.Duerdoth N.Lumb R.Thompson Department of Physics Manchester University Manchester M13 9PL England Abstract A problem that occurs with MicroStrip Gas Chambers(MSGCs) is breakdown between
Physics Today Demolishing quantum nondemolition
Monroe, Christopher
Physics Today Demolishing quantum nondemolition Christopher Monroe Citation: Physics Today 64(1), 8: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/magazine/physicstoday/64/1?ver=pdfcov Published by the AIP-0031-9228-1101-220-8 Most physicists are taught that quantum physics has two parts: coher- ent wave
Quantum evaporation of flavor-mixed particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, Mikhail V.
2014-03-01
Particles whose propagation (mass) and interaction (flavor) bases are misaligned are mixed, e.g., neutrinos, quarks, Kaons, etc. We show that interactions (elastic scattering) of individual mass-eigenstates can result in their inter-conversions. Most intriguing and counter-intuitive implication of this process is a new process, which we refer to as the ``quantum evaporation.'' Consider a mixed particle trapped in a gravitational potential. If such a particle scatters off something (e.g., from another mixed particle) elastically from time to time, this particle (or both particles, respectively) can eventually escape to infinity with no extra energy supplied. That is as if a ``flavor-mixed satellite'' hauled along a bumpy road puts itself in space without a rocket, fuel, etc. Of course, the process at hand is entirely quantum and has no counterpart in classical mechanics. It also has nothing to do with tunneling or other known processes. We discuss some implications to the dark matter physics, cosmology and cosmic neutrino background. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.
Increasing complexity with quantum physics.
Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline
2011-09-01
We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task. PMID:21974665
Particle Physics and Instrumentation - Physics and Technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipton, Ronald
2013-04-01
The impact of experimental science is defined by the capabilities of its instruments. Particle Physics, reaching to increasingly small scales, depends on advances both in accelerator and detector technology to explore high energies and rare processes. The importance of Instrumentation to the Particle Physics program has been recognized by the creation of an ``Instrumentation Frontier'' within the 2013 DPF ``Snowmass'' planning process. We give examples of how physics needs have guided development of technologies for the Energy and Intensity Frontiers. We describe how current technology has limited our reach and what new technologies may be on the horizon. We will also discuss the status of the Instrumentation Frontier work in preparation for the Community Summer Study this summer in Minneapolis.
Event Generators for Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matchev, Konstantin
2014-03-01
I will review recent progress in developing and automating the basic set of simulation tools in high energy particle physics, including programs which are capable of automatic implementation of new physics models and generating the corresponding Feynman rules, various matrix element calculators, and event generators producing both parton-level and fully hadronized/showerted Monte Carlo event samples. I will also discuss methods for speeding up the generation of new physics samples, which could be useful in the upcoming new physics searches at the LHC.
Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Machacek, A. C.
2014-01-01
Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).
Energetic particle physics in JET
S. E. Sharapov; B. Alper; D. Borba; L.-G. Eriksson; A. Fasoli; R. D. Gill; A. Gondhalekar; C. Gormezano; R. F. Heeter; G. T. A. Huysmans; J. Jacquinot; A. A. Korotkov; P. Lamalle; M. J. Mantsinen; D. C. McDonald; F. G. Rimini; D. F. H. Start; D. Testa; P. R. Thomas
2000-01-01
Results achieved on JET during the 1997-1999 experimental campaigns in the physics of energetic ions and runaway electrons are reviewed. Heating of deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas by fusion born alpha particles is found to be similar to that achieved by comparable ICRF heating of deuterium plasmas. The stability of alpha particle driven Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) in the highest fusion power ELM-free
Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Neve Shalom, October, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A for the elementary particle masses. Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;Higgs Discovery; LHC
Per-Olov Löwdin
1955-01-01
In order to calculate the average value of a physical quantity containing also many-particle interactions in a system of N antisymmetric particles, a set of generalized density matrices are defined. In order to permit the investigation of the same physical situation in two complementary spaces, the Hermitean density matrix of order k has two sets of indices of each k
A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics
Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David
2013-07-25
Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.
The Physics of Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette
2015-10-01
Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.
Quantum gloves: Physics and Information
Gisin, Nicolas
2004-01-01
The slogan information is physical has been so successful that it led to some excess. Classical and quantum information can be thought of independently of any physical implementation. Pure information tasks can be realized using such abstract c- and qu-bits, but physical tasks require appropriate physical realizations of c- or qu-bits. As illustration we consider the problem of communicating chirality.
Quantum gloves: Physics and Information
N. Gisin
2004-08-14
The slogan information is physical has been so successful that it led to some excess. Classical and quantum information can be thought of independently of any physical implementation. Pure information tasks can be realized using such abstract c- and qu-bits, but physical tasks require appropriate physical realizations of c- or qu-bits. As illustration we consider the problem of communicating chirality.
The past of a quantum particle
Lev Vaidman
2013-04-28
Although there is no consensus regarding the "reality" of the past of a quantum particle, in situations where there is only one trajectory with nonvanishing quantum wave of the particle between its emission and detection points, it seems "safe" to associate the past of the particle with this trajectory. A method for analyzing the past of a quantum particle according to the weak trace it leaves is proposed. Such a trace can be observed via measurements performed on an ensemble of identically pre- and post-selected particles. Examples, in which this method contradicts the above common sense description of the past of the particle are presented. It is argued that it is possible to describe the past of a quantum particle, but the naive approach has to be replaced by both forward and backward evolving quantum states.
Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata
Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano
2011-12-20
Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field is ultimately made of a numerable set of quantum systems that are unitarily interacting? A positive answer to these questions corresponds to substituting QFT with a theory of quantum cellular automata (QCA), and the present work is examining this hypothesis. These investigations are part of a large research program on a "quantum-digitalization" of physics, with Quantum Theory as a special theory of information, and Physics as emergent from the same quantum-information processing. A QCA-based QFT has tremendous potential advantages compared to QFT, being quantum "ab-initio" and free from the problems plaguing QFT due to the continuum hypothesis. Here I will show how dynamics emerges from the quantum processing, how the QCA can reproduce the Dirac-field phenomenology at large scales, and the kind of departures from QFT that that should be expected at a Planck-scale discreteness. I will introduce the notions of linear field quantum automaton and local-matrix quantum automaton, in terms of which I will provide the solution to the Feynman's problem about the possibility of simulating a Fermi field with a quantum computer.
Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior the appearance of a single Higgs particle, with a mass not much above the LEP exclusions. In high energy physics
Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University for Particle Physics #12;A Moment to Celebrate: The Higgs Discovery The past year has been a historic one for physics. The LHC has discovered a scalar particle, probably the Higgs of the simplest version
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues
2015-04-01
One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction of quantum physics, we identify two epistemological positions with respect to this problem: The first one (close to the so-called Copenhagen school) is termed the conservative position and the second one (associated with the work of Bunge and Lévy-Leblond) the innovative position. We then analyze French textbooks used by teachers, in order to reveal the implicit positions adopted. We conclude with the idea that highlighting these epistemological choices can help teachers reflect upon the historical and epistemological roots of quantum physics. Such an analysis can contribute to developing and implementing appropriate teaching sequences for quantum physics. We explore the application of these epistemological positions to Young's paradigmatic experiment using the double slits.
Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobson, Art
2007-01-01
Although the resolution to the wave-particle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in…
Numerical Simulations in Particle Physics
F. Karsch; E. Laermann
1993-04-14
Numerical simulations have become an important tool to understand and predict non-perturbative phenomena in particle physics. In this article we attempt to present a general overview over the field. First, the basic concepts of lattice gauge theories are described, including a discussion of currently used algorithms and the reconstruction of continuum physics from lattice results. We then proceed to present some results for QCD, both at low energies and at high temperatures, as well as for the electro-weak sector of the standard model.
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
2008-02-05
These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.
Signal Significance in Particle Physics
Pekka K. Sinervo
2002-08-05
The concept of the "statistical significance" of an observation, and how it is used in particle physics experiments is reviewed. More properly known as a "p-value," the statistical foundations for this concept are reviewed from a freqentist perspective. The discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and a more recent analysis of data recorded at Fermilab are used to illustrate practical applications of these concepts.
Particle Statistics Affects Quantum Decay and Fano Interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespi, Andrea; Sansoni, Linda; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Ciamei, Alessio; Ramponi, Roberta; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Longhi, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto
2015-03-01
Quantum mechanical decay, Fano interference, and bound states with energy in the continuum are ubiquitous phenomena in different areas of physics. Here we experimentally demonstrate that particle statistics strongly affects quantum mechanical decay in a multiparticle system. By considering propagation of two-photon states in engineered photonic lattices, we simulate quantum decay of two noninteracting particles in a multilevel Fano-Anderson model. Remarkably, when the system sustains a bound state in the continuum, fractional decay is observed for bosonic particles, but not for fermionic ones. Complete decay in the fermionic case arises because of the Pauli exclusion principle, which forbids the bound state to be occupied by the two fermions. Our experiment indicates that particle statistics can tune many-body quantum decay from fractional to complete.
8.04 Quantum Physics I, Spring 2003
Lee, Young S.
Experimental basis of quantum physics: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, photons, Franck-Hertz experiment, the Bohr atom, electron diffraction, deBroglie waves, and wave-particle duality of matter and light. ...
Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program
Karchin, Paul E.
2011-09-01
We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.
Particle staining: physically based texture generation
Mistrot, Jean Michael
2004-09-30
generated particle system in a phenomenological model. The motion of these particles is controlled by physically based constraints, such as wind, gravity, mass, etc. The way in which each particle interacts with or modifies the look of the surface...
R. Eugene Collins
1994-01-01
We show that defining the observed proper velocity and acceleration of a spin zero particle as the first and second derivatives of the classical expectation value for the space-time position vector, defined on a manifold carrying the Lorentz metric, with respect to a conditioning parameter tau, yields directly: a Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum mechanics, the Lorentz force, Maxwell's equations
R. Eugene Collins; Fort Collins
1994-01-01
We show that defining the observed proper velocity and acceleration of a spin zero particle as the first and second derivatives of the classical expectation value for the space-time position vector, defined on a manifold carrying the Lorentz metric, with respect to a conditioning parameter ?, yields directly: a Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum mechanics, the Lorentz force, Maxwell's equations
Scheduling Data Intensive Particle Physics Analysis Jobs
Hersch, Roger D.
Scheduling Data Intensive Particle Physics Analysis Jobs on Clusters of PCs S. Ponce European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) Information Technology Department CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland are proposed for parallelizing data intensive particle physics analysis ap- plications on computer clusters
Quantum Gravity of IED Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng-Johansson, J.
2009-05-01
The internally electrodynamic (IED) model, developed based on overall experimental observations since 2000, briefly states that a simple material particle like electron is composed of an oscillatory charge of a characteristic frequency ? and zero rest mass, generally also traveling at velocity v, and the resulting Doppler-effected electromagnetic waves (E,B)'s. Based on first principles solutions for the IED processes a range of basic particle equations/properties have become predictable. One prediction is: two IED particles of masses M,M2 (=?i/c, i=1,2) and charges q1,q2 separated at r apart in a dielectric vacuum act always on one another an attractive force F=?F12F21=C M1M24??0r^2, where Fi j=qjvpjxBi is the Lorentz or depolarization radiation force on qj due to the radiation depolarization field Epi=-?0^*Ei of qi, electric field Ei, and magnetic field Bi, with Epi driving qj into motion at velocity vpj= qjd EpiMj), i,j=1,2; C = ??0^*e^4 ?0^2 h^2?l with q1,q2=±e and e, ?0, h fundamental constants of the usual meaning. F resembles directly Newton's gravitational force. The fields Ei,Bi are by nature quantized at the scale of Planck constant h; consequently Epi and therefore F are each quantized at the scale h. The present work gives a formal quantum electrodynamic re-derivation of this force. See e.g. a) arxiv:0812.3951, b) J Phys Conf Ser128. 012019, 2008.
Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobson, Art
2011-01-01
I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called high energy physics, in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a great way to make a fascinating topic meaningless. Students need a conceptual framework from which to view the elementary particles. That conceptual framework is quantum field theory (QFT). Teachers and students alike tend to quake at this topic, but bear with me. We're talking here about concepts, not technicalities. My approach will be conceptual and suitable for non-scientists and scientists; if mathematical details are added in courses for future scientists, they should be simple and sparse. Introductory students should not be expected to do QFT, but only to understand its concepts. Those concepts take some getting used to, but they are simple and can be understood by any literate person, be she plumber, attorney, musician, or physicist.
Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ
Whitaker, Scott J.
1992-09-01
Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.
4 Quantum Algorithms: Applicable Algebra and Quantum Physics
Michigan, University of
4 Quantum Algorithms: Applicable Algebra and Quantum Physics Thomas Beth and Martin RÂ¨otteler 4 physics but, rather, use effects predicted by quantum mechanics. It has been realized that, by using the principles of quantum mechanics, there are problems for which a putative quantum computer could outperform
Computer tools in particle physics
Avelino Vicente
2015-07-27
The field of particle physics is living very exciting times with a plethora of experiments looking for new physics in complementary ways. This has made increasingly necessary to obtain precise predictions in new physics models in order to be ready for a discovery that might be just around the corner. However, analyzing new models and studying their phenomenology can be really challenging. Computing mass matrices, interaction vertices and decay rates is already a tremendous task. In addition, obtaining predictions for the dark matter relic density and its detection prospects, computing flavor observables or estimating the LHC reach in certain collider signals constitutes quite a technical work due to the precision level that is currently required. For this reason, computer tools such as SARAH, MicrOmegas, MadGraph, SPheno or FlavorKit have become quite popular, and many physicists use them on a daily basis. In this course we will learn how to use these computer tools to explore new physics models and get robust numerical predictions to probe them in current and future experiments.
Physicalism versus quantum mechanics
Stapp, Henry P; Theoretical Physics Group; Physics Division
2009-01-01
efficacious brain activity that possesses its causal power.power to causally effect the course of events in his or her quantum mechanically described brain, andbrain activity that causes its effects: “If anything is to exercize causal power
A Signed Particle Formulation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Jean Michel Sellier
2015-09-15
A formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in terms of Newtonian particles is presented in the shape of a set of three postulates. In this new theory, quantum systems are described by ensembles of signed particles which behave as field-less classical objects which carry a negative or positive sign and interact with an external potential by means of creation and annihilation events only. This approach is shown to be a generalization of the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method which reconstructs the time-dependent Wigner quasi-distribution function of a system and, therefore, the corresponding Schroedinger time-dependent wave-function. Its classical limit is discussed and a physical interpretation, based on experimental evidences coming from quantum tomography, is suggested. Moreover, in order to show the advantages brought by this novel formulation, a straightforward extension to relativistic effects is discussed. To conclude, quantum tunnelling numerical experiments are performed to show the validity of the suggested approach.
A Signed Particle Formulation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Sellier, Jean Michel
2015-01-01
A formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in terms of Newtonian particles is presented in the shape of a set of three postulates. In this new theory, quantum systems are described by ensembles of signed particles which behave as field-less classical objects which carry a negative or positive sign and interact with an external potential by means of creation and annihilation events only. This approach is shown to be a generalization of the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method which reconstructs the time-dependent Wigner quasi-distribution function of a system and, therefore, the corresponding Schroedinger time-dependent wave-function. Its classical limit is discussed and a physical interpretation, based on experimental evidences coming from quantum tomography, is suggested. Moreover, in order to show the advantages brought by this novel formulation, a straightforward extension to relativistic effects is discussed. To conclude, quantum tunnelling numerical experiments are performed to show the val...
AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS
Pinaud, Olivier
AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS FLORIAN MÃ?HATS AND OLIVIER PINAUD Abstract. We address the following inverse problem in quantum statistical physics: does the quantum free energy (von rigourously the notion of local quantum equilibrium, or quantum Maxwellian, which is at the basis of recently
Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vary, James P.
2014-06-01
The vision of solving the nuclear many-body problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and many-body methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadership-class parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quark-gluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed.
Nonlinear aspects of quantum plasma physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Padma K.; Eliasson, B.
2010-01-01
Dense quantum plasmas are ubiquitous in planetary interiors and in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the interior of white dwarf stars, in magnetars, etc.), in semiconductors and micromechanical systems, as well as in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments and in quantum X-ray free-electron lasers. In contrast to classical plasmas, quantum plasmas have extremely high plasma number densities and low temperatures. Quantum plasmas are composed of electrons, positrons and holes, which are degenerate. Positrons (holes) have the same (slightly different) mass as electrons, but opposite charge. The degenerate charged particles (electrons, positrons, and holes) obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics. In quantum plasmas, there are new forces associated with (i) quantum statistical electron and positron pressures, (ii) electron and positron tunneling through the Bohm potential, and (iii) electron and positron angular momentum spin. Inclusion of these quantum forces allows the existence of very high-frequency dispersive electrostatic and electromagnetic waves (e.g., in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray regimes) with extremely short wavelengths. In this review paper, we present theoretical backgrounds for some important nonlinear aspects of wave-wave and wave-electron interactions in dense quantum plasmas. Specifically, we focus on nonlinear electrostatic electron and ion plasma waves, novel aspects of three-dimensional quantum electron fluid turbulence, as well as nonlinearly coupled intense electromagnetic waves and localized plasma wave structures. Also discussed are the phase-space kinetic structures and mechanisms that can generate quasistationary magnetic fields in dense quantum plasmas. The influence of the external magnetic field and the electron angular momentum spin on the electromagnetic wave dynamics is discussed. Finally, future perspectives of the nonlinear quantum plasma physics are highlighted.
Black hole horizons and quantum charged particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaramillo, José Luis
2015-07-01
We point out a structural similarity between the characterization of black hole apparent horizons as stable, marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) and the quantum description of a non-relativistic charged particle moving in given magnetic and electric fields on a closed surface. Specifically, the spectral problem of the MOTS-stability operator corresponds to a stationary quantum particle with a formal fine-structure constant ? of negative sign. We discuss how such analogy enriches both problems, illustrating this with the insights into the MOTS-spectral problem gained from the analysis of the spectrum of the quantum charged particle Hamiltonian.
Black hole horizons and quantum charged particles
José Luis Jaramillo
2014-10-02
We point out a structural similarity between the characterization of black hole apparent horizons as stable marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) and the quantum description of a non-relativistic charged particle moving in given magnetic and electric fields on a closed surface. Specifically, the spectral problem of the MOTS-stability operator corresponds to a stationary quantum particle with a formal fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ of negative sign. We discuss how such analogy enriches both problems, illustrating this with the insights into the MOTS-spectral problem gained from the analysis of the spectrum of the quantum charged particle Hamiltonian.
The dialogue between particle physics and cosmology
Sadoulet, B.
1988-04-01
In the last decade, a very close relationship has developed between particle physics and cosmology. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to the many scientific connections between the two fields. Before entering into the discussion of specific topics, it will first be shown that particle physics and cosmology are completely interdependent. 173 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.
Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles
Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)
2013-08-15
A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.
Quantum simulations of physics problems
Somma, R. D. (Rolando D.); Ortiz, G. (Gerardo); Knill, E. H. (Emanuel H.); Gubernatis, J. E.
2003-01-01
If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not efficiently simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical 'questions' more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin-1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed, and we show quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.
Quantum Simulation of the Dirac Particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostrowski, Marcin
2015-03-01
In this paper, we examine whether a quantum computer can efficiently simulate time evolution of the Dirac particle. We consider a Gaussian wave packet scattered by a step potential. We compare the results obtained from a quantum algorithm with the results of classical simulations (Cayley's method) and analytical calculations.
Quantum convolution and quantum correlation algorithms are physically impossible
Chris Lomont
2003-12-03
The key step in classical convolution and correlation algorithms, the componentwise multiplication of vectors after initial Fourier Transforms, is shown to be physically impossible to do on quantum states. Then this is used to show that computing the convolution or correlation of quantum state coefficients violates quantum mechanics, making convolution and correlation of quantum coefficients physically impossible.
Physics as quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo
2011-10-01
The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm—It from Bit— prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) emerging from a quantum-information processing. The resulting theory is a discrete version of QFT with automatic relativistic invariance, and without fields, Hamiltonian, and quantization rules. In this paper I review some recent advances on these lines. In particular: i) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; ii) The derivation of the Dirac equation as free information flow, without imposing Lorentz covariance; iii) the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant; iv) An observable consequence of the theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will then conclude with two possible routes to Quantum Gravity.
Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Studenikin, Alexander I.
2009-01-01
Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and K± -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vv¯ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physi
Quantum teleportation using three-particle entanglement
Ye Yeo
2003-02-04
We investigate the teleportation of a quantum state using a three-particle entangled W state. We compare and contrast our results with those in Ref.[11] where a three-particle entangled GHZ state was used. The effects of white noise on the average teleportation fidelities are also studied.
Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement
Lee, Jae-Weon; Lee, Eok Kyun; Chung, Yong Wook; Lee, Hai-Woong; Kim, Jaewan [Department of Chemistry, School of Molecular Science (BK 21), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701, Korea (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701, Korea (Korea, Republic of); School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43 Cheongryangri-dong, Dongdaemun-gu Seoul 130-012, Korea (Korea, Republic of)
2003-07-01
A quantum cryptography scheme based on entanglement between a single-particle state and a vacuum state is proposed. The scheme utilizes linear optics devices to detect the superposition of the vacuum and single-particle states. Existence of an eavesdropper can be detected by using a variant of Bell's inequality.
Quantum Physics Chronology Protection
Visser, Matt
Louis USA Stephen 60 Cambridge, England January 2002 #12; Why is chronology even an issue? Observation't change recorded history". 3. Hawking: chronology protection conjecture. 4. Boring physics conjecture (1998) 023501] 6 #12; Having your cake and eating it too: #15; Stephen's chronology protection permits
Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1 Giacomo Mauro D Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia Abstract. Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field
Physical implementations of quantum computing Andrew Daley
Griffiths, Robert B.
Physical implementations of quantum computing Andrew Daley Department of Physics and Astronomy Implementation of Quantum Computation", Fortschritte der Physik 48, p. 771 (2000) arXiv:quant-ph/0002077 Requirements for the implementation of quantum computation 1. A scalable physical system with well
Analysis of the two-particle controlled interacting quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dan; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Xiu-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2013-06-01
We have recently proposed the two-particle controlled interacting quantum walks for building quantum Hash schemes (Li et al. Quantum Inf Proc, 2012. doi:10.1007/s11128-012-0421-8). In this paper, we adopt the mutual information, the measurement-induced disturbance and the quantum mutual information to measure the classical correlation, the quantum correlation and the total correlation between two particles respectively. Our conclusion is that the correlation between the particles of the two-particle controlled interacting quantum walks is similar to that of the two-particle interacting quantum walks. It is superb for keeping the quantum Hash scheme safe.
The Quantum Geometer's Universe: Particles, Interactions and Topology
Jan Govaerts
2002-07-31
With the two most profound conceptual revolutions of XXth century physics, quantum mechanics and relativity, which have culminated into relativistic spacetime geometry and quantum gauge field theory as the principles for gravity and the three other known fundamental interactions, the physicist of the XXIst century has inherited an unfinished symphony: the unification of the quantum and the continuum. As an invitation to tomorrow's quantum geometers who must design the new rulers by which to size up the Universe at those scales where the smallest meets the largest, these lectures review the basic principles of today's conceptual framework, and highlight by way of simple examples the interplay that presently exists between the quantum world of particle interactions and the classical world of geometry and topology.
Photos: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab Particle physics benefits
Crowther, Paul
Stories abound about how particle physics benefits education, the economy, and society as a whole that an objective and rigorous study of the benefits of particle physics on the nation's economy could help make to the economy. In a report published in May 2008, the panel stated: "At this time there exist few quantitative
Education and Outreach in Particle Physics
R. Michael Barnett
2011-09-30
There are many varied programs of education and outreach in particle physics. This report for the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society 2001 meeting reviews the impact of these programs in general, and also gives several examples of ongoing programs with a primary focus on those in the US.
Programming physical realizations of quantum computers
Hans De Raedt; Kristel Michielsen; Anthony Hams; Seiji Miyashita; Keiji Saito
2001-04-18
We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum computation are unstable with respect to the physical realization of the quantum computer. We discuss the origin of these instabilities and discuss possibilities to overcome this, for practical purposes, fundamental limitation of quantum computers.
Quantum Particles as Conceptual Entities: A Possible Explanatory Framework for Quantum Theory
Aerts, Diederik
2010-01-01
We put forward a possible new interpretation and explanatory framework for quantum theory. The basic hypothesis underlying this new framework is that quantum particles are conceptual entities. More concretely, we propose that quantum particles interact with ordinary matter, nuclei, atoms, molecules, macroscopic material entities, measuring apparatuses, ..., in a similar way to how human concepts interact with memory structures, human minds or artificial memories. We analyze the most characteristic aspects of quantum theory, i.e. entanglement and non-locality, interference and superposition, identity and individuality in the light of this new interpretation, and we put forward a specific explanation and understanding of these aspects. The basic hypothesis of our framework gives rise in a natural way to a Heisenberg uncertainty principle which introduces an understanding of the general situation of 'the one and the many' in quantum physics. A specific view on macro and micro different from the common one follow...
Unifying Quantum Physics with Biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goradia, Shantilal
2014-09-01
We find that the natural logarithm of the age of the universe in quantum mechanical units is close to 137. Since science is not religion, it is our moral duty to recognize the importance of this finding on the following ground. The experimentally obtained number 137 is a mystical number in science, as if written by the hand of God. It is found in cosmology; unlike other theories, it works in biology too. A formula by Boltzmann also works in both: biology and physics, as if it is in the heart of God. His formula simply leads to finding the logarithm of microstates. One of the two conflicting theories of physics (1) Einstein's theory of General Relativity and (2) Quantum Physics, the first applies only in cosmology, but the second applies in biology too. Since we have to convert the age of the universe, 13 billion years, into 1,300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Planck times to get close to 137, quantum physics clearly shows the characteristics of unifying with biology. The proof of its validity also lies in its ability to extend information system observed in biology.
International Particle Physics Masterclasses with LHC data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foka, Panagiota
2014-04-01
The International Particle Physics Masterclasses is an educational activity developed by the International Particle Physics Outreach Group with the aim to bring the excitement of cutting-edge particle-physics research into the classroom. Since 2005, every year, thousands of pupils in many countries all over the world become "scientists for a day" in research centres or universities close to their schools as they are introduced to the mysteries of particle physics. In 2012, 10 000 students from 148 institutions in 31 countries took part in this popular event over a month period. The program of a typical day includes lectures that give insight to topics and methods of fundamental research followed by a "hands-on" session where students perform measurements on real data from particle-physics experiments themselves. The last two years LHC data from the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments were used. A overview of the performed measurements and the employed methodology is presented.
PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics
PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics BOOKS ON RESERVE IN CRERAR LIBRARY 1987 K. S. Krane Introductory Nuclear Physics QC777.K730 1988 Useful references P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences QA278 .B48 2003 J. M. Blatt
Topics in elementary particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Xiang
The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics:
Quantum counting algorithm and its application in mesoscopic physics
Lesovik, G. B.; Suslov, M. V.; Blatter, G.
2010-07-15
We discuss a quantum counting algorithm which transforms a physical particle-number state (and superpositions thereof) into a binary number. The algorithm involves two quantum Fourier transformations. One transformation is in physical space, where a stream of n
Quantum teleportation with identical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzolino, Ugo; Buchleitner, Andreas
2015-03-01
We study teleportation with identical massive particles. Indistinguishability imposes that the relevant degrees of freedom to be teleported are not particles, but rather addressable orthogonal modes. We discuss the performances of teleportation under the constraint of conservation of the total number of particles. The latter inevitably decreases the teleportation fidelity. Moreover, even though a phase reference, given by the coupling to a reservoir, circumvents the constraint, it does not restore perfect deterministic teleportation. The latter is only achievable with some special resource entangled states and when the number of particles tends to infinity. Interestingly, some of such states are the many-particle atomic coherent states and the ground state of cold atoms loaded into a double well potential, which are routinely prepared in experiments.
Quantum Physics and Human Language
James B. Hartle
2006-12-19
Human languages employ constructions that tacitly assume specific properties of the limited range of phenomena they evolved to describe. These assumed properties are true features of that limited context, but may not be general or precise properties of all the physical situations allowed by fundamental physics. In brief, human languages contain `excess baggage' that must be qualified, discarded, or otherwise reformed to give a clear account in the context of fundamental physics of even the everyday phenomena that the languages evolved to describe. The surest route to clarity is to express the constructions of human languages in the language of fundamental physical theory, not the other way around. These ideas are illustrated by an analysis of the verb `to happen' and the word `reality' in special relativity and the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems.
Quantum computing implementations with neutral particles
Negretti, Antonio; Calarco, Tommaso
2011-01-01
We review quantum information processing with cold neutral particles, that is, atoms or polar molecules. First, we analyze the best suited degrees of freedom of these particles for storing quantum information, and then we discuss both single- and two-qubit gate implementations. We focus our discussion mainly on collisional quantum gates, which are best suited for atom-chip-like devices, as well as on gate proposals conceived for optical lattices. Additionally, we analyze schemes both for cold atoms confined in optical cavities and hybrid approaches to entanglement generation, and we show how optimal control theory might be a powerful tool to enhance the speed up of the gate operations as well as to achieve high fidelities required for fault tolerant quantum computation.
Quantum resonances in physical tunneling
Nieto, M.M.; Truax, D.R.
1985-01-01
It has recently been emphasized that the probability of quantum tunneling is a critical function of the shape of the potential. Applying this observation to physical systems, we point out that in principal information on potential surfaces can be obtained by studying tunneling rates. This is especially true in cases where only spectral data is known, since many potentials yield the same spectrum. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS QUANTUM CIRCUIT DESIGN BY MEANS
Fernandez, Thomas
COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS QUANTUM CIRCUIT DESIGN BY MEANS OF GENETIC PROGRAMMING ANDREI BÃ?UTU1, ELENA in quantum technology has shown that quantum computers can provide dramatic advantages over classical computers for some problems. The effi- ciency of quantum computing is considered to become so significant
Quantum Canonical Transformations: Physical Equivalence of Quantum Theories
Arlen Anderson
1993-02-15
Two quantum theories are physically equivalent if they are related, not by a unitary transformation, but by an isometric transformation. The conditions under which a quantum canonical transformation is an isometric transformation are given.
Quantum Particles as Conceptual Entities: A Possible Explanatory Framework for Quantum Theory
Diederik Aerts
2010-04-15
We put forward a possible new interpretation and explanatory framework for quantum theory. The basic hypothesis underlying this new framework is that quantum particles are conceptual entities. More concretely, we propose that quantum particles interact with ordinary matter, nuclei, atoms, molecules, macroscopic material entities, measuring apparatuses, ..., in a similar way to how human concepts interact with memory structures, human minds or artificial memories. We analyze the most characteristic aspects of quantum theory, i.e. entanglement and non-locality, interference and superposition, identity and individuality in the light of this new interpretation, and we put forward a specific explanation and understanding of these aspects. The basic hypothesis of our framework gives rise in a natural way to a Heisenberg uncertainty principle which introduces an understanding of the general situation of 'the one and the many' in quantum physics. A specific view on macro and micro different from the common one follows from the basic hypothesis and leads to an analysis of Schrodinger's Cat paradox and the measurement problem different from the existing ones. We reflect about the influence of this new quantum interpretation and explanatory framework on the global nature and evolutionary aspects of the world and human worldviews, and point out potential explanations for specific situations, such as the generation problem in particle physics, the confinement of quarks and the existence of dark matter.
[Elementary particle physics. Annual report
Izen, J.M.; Lou, X.
1998-12-31
The BABAR construction phase is ending and first data is expected during May, 1999. During construction, UTD has developed analysis framework software, contributed to the BABAR Physics Book, assembled a first rate computing facility, and pioneered Internet-based video techniques for the collaboration. The authors are now defining the physics goals, and are participating in the formation physics analysis groups. They are starting to use their computing facility for BABAR production jobs.
Unstable particles in non-relativistic quantum mechanics?
Hernandez-Coronado, H. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2011-10-14
The Schroedinger equation is up-to-a-phase invariant under the Galilei group. This phase leads to the Bargmann's superselection rule, which forbids the existence of the superposition of states with different mass and implies that unstable particles cannot be described consistently in non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). In this paper we claim that Bargmann's rule neglects physical effects and that a proper description of non-relativistic quantum mechanics requires to take into account this phase through the Extended Galilei group and the definition of its action on spacetime coordinates.
Quantum stirring of particles Doron Cohen
Cohen, Doron
Quantum stirring of particles Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Tsampikos Kottos (Wesleyan) Moritz. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 68, 155303 (2003). [9] D. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 68, 201303(R) (2003). [10] D. Cohen, T. Kottos and H. Schanz, Phys. Rev. E 71, 035202(R) (2005). [11] G. Rosenberg and D. Cohen, J. Phys. A 39
Quantum stirring of particles Doron Cohen
Cohen, Doron
Quantum stirring of particles Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Maya Chuchem (BGU) Tsampikos Kottos (1998) [8] D. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 68, 155303 (2003). [9] D. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 68, 201303(R) (2003). [10] D. Cohen, T. Kottos and H. Schanz, Phys. Rev. E 71, 035202(R) (2005). [11] G. Rosenberg and D
Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibarra-Sierra, V. G.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J. L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.
2013-08-01
A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green's function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail.
A Quantum Particle Undergoing Continuous Observation
V. P. Belavkin; P. Staszewski
2005-12-17
A stochastic model for the continuous nondemolition ohservation of the position of a quantum particle in a potential field and a boson reservoir is given. lt is shown that any Gaussian wave function evolving according to the posterior wave equation with a quadratic potential collapses to a Gaussian wave packet given by the stationary solution of this equation.
Particle creation from the quantum stress tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F. R.
2015-05-01
Among the different methods to derive particle creation, finding the quantum stress tensor expectation value gives a covariant quantity which can be used for examining the backreaction issue. However this tensor also includes vacuum polarization in a way that depends on the vacuum chosen. Here we review different aspects of particle creation by looking at energy conservation and at the quantum stress tensor. We show that in the case of general spherically symmetric black holes that have a dynamical horizon, as occurs in a cosmological context, one cannot have pair creation on the horizon because this violates energy conservation. This confirms the results obtained in other ways in a previous paper [J. T. Firouzjaee and G. F. R. Ellis, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 47, 6 (2015)]. Looking at the expectation value of the quantum stress tensor with three different definitions of the vacuum state, we study the nature of particle creation and vacuum polarization in black hole and cosmological models, and the associated stress-energy tensors. We show that the thermal temperature that is calculated from the particle flux given by the quantum stress tensor is compatible with the temperature determined by the affine null parameter approach. Finally, we show that in the spherically symmetric dynamic case, we can neglect the backscattering term and only consider the s-wave term near the future apparent horizon.
Analysis of Astrophysics and Particle Physics Data
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Analysis of Astrophysics and Particle Physics Data using Optimal Segmentation Jeffrey #12;Outline Goal: Detect/Characterize Local Structures Data Cells Piecewise Constant Models Fitness Functions Optimization Error analysis Interpretation Extension to Higher Dimensions #12;The Main Goal
Physical Cost of Erasing Quantum Correlation
Arun Kumar Pati
2012-08-23
Erasure of information stored in a quantum state requires energy cost and is inherently an irreversible operation. If quantumness of a system is physical, does erasure of quantum correlation as measured by discord also need some energy cost? Here, we show that change in quantum correlation is never larger than the total entropy change of the system and the environment. The entropy cost of erasing correlation has to be at least equal to the amount of quantum correlation erased. Hence, quantum correlation can be regarded as genuinely physical. We show that the new bound leads to the Landauer erasure. The physical cost of erasing quantum correlation is well respected in the case of bleaching of quantum information, thermalization, and can have potential application for any channel leading to erasure of quantum correlation.
Physical realizations of quantum operations
Buscemi, Francesco; D'Ariano, G. Mauro; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2003-10-01
Quantum operations (QO's) describe any state change allowed in quantum mechanics, such as the evolution of an open system or the state change due to a measurement. We address the problem of which unitary transformations and which observables can be used to achieve a QO with generally different input and output Hilbert spaces. We classify all unitary extensions of a QO and give explicit realizations in terms of free-evolution direct-sum dilations and interacting tensor-product dilations. In terms of Hilbert space dimensionality the free-evolution dilations minimize the physical resources needed to realize the QO, and for this case we provide bounds for the dimension of the ancilla space versus the rank of the QO. The interacting dilations on the other hand, correspond to the customary ancilla-system interaction realization, and for these we derive a majorization relation which selects the allowed unitary interactions between system and ancilla.
Quantum Measurement, Complexity and Discrete Physics
Martin Leckey
2003-10-06
This paper presents a new modified quantum mechanics, Critical Complexity Quantum Mechanics, which includes a new account of wavefunction collapse. This modified quantum mechanics is shown to arise naturally from a fully discrete physics, where all physical quantities are discrete rather than continuous. I compare this theory with the spontaneous collapse theories of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle and discuss some implications of these theories and CCQM for a realist view of the quantum realm.
How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte
Schulte, Oliver
How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte Department of Philosophy and School in particle physics. Discovering conservation laws has posed various challenges concerning of generalizations, and unifying particle ontology and particle dynamics. The connection between conservation laws
On Universal Physical Reality in the Light of Quantum Consciousness
Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Hassan, Sk Sarif; Sahoo, Sudhakar
2009-01-01
In this paper, we have first given an intuitive definition of "Consciousness" as realized by us. Next, from this intuitive definition we derived the physical definition of quantum consciousness (Quantum Consciousness Parameter or QCP). This QCP is the elementary level of consciousness in quantum particles, which are the most elementary particles in nature. Thus QCP can explain both the perceptible and non-perceptible nature and some existing postulates of physics. We conceptualize that the level of human consciousness is most complex having highest fractal dimension of 4.85 in the electroencephalographs experiment done by other research groups. On the other hand, other species are having lesser consciousness level, which can be reflected by lesser fractal dimensions. We have also explored the bio informatics of consciousness from genome viewpoints where we tried to draw an analogy of neurons with electrons and photons. Lastly, we refine the quantum mechanics in terms of QCP; we all know that in Einstein's spe...
Relativistic-particle quantum mechanics (applications and approximations) II
Coester, F.
1981-01-01
In this lecture I hope to show that relativistic-particle quantum mechanics with direct interactions is a useful tool for building models applicable to hadron systems at intermediate energies. To do this I will first describe a class of models designed to incorporate nucleon-nucleon interactions, pion production, absorption and scattering into a single dynamical framework without dressing the nucleons with pion clouds. The second major topic concerns electromagnetic interactions. In the previous lecture I specifically excluded long-rang forces and zero-mass particles. Since many of the experimental data in hadron physics involve electromagnetic interactions this limitation is a major defect which must be addressed.
Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics
Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S.; Butler, James P.
2015-01-01
The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin air-blood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. Whereas the particle-lung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drug. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this chapter. A large portion of this chapter deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: 1) the physical characteristics of particles, 2) particle behavior in gas flow, and 3) gas flow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The chapter concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research. PMID:24265235
Medium energy elementary particle physics
Not Available
1991-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)
Equality of Inertial and Gravitational Masses for Quantum Particle
Jaroslaw Wawrzycki
2002-01-01
We investigate the interaction of the gravitational field with a quantum particle. First, we give the proof of the equality of the inertial and the gravitational mass for the nonrelativistic quantum particle, independently of the equivalence principle. Second, we show that the macroscopic body cannot be described by the many-particle Quantum Mechanics. As an important tool we generalize the Bargmann's
Quantum Measurements of Scattered Particles
Marco Merkli; Mark Penney
2015-03-20
We investigate the process of quantum measurements on scattered probes. Before scattering, the probes are independent, but they become entangled afterwards, due to the interaction with the scatterer. The collection of measurement results (the history) is a stochastic process of dependent random variables. We link the asymptotic properties of this process to spectral characteristics of the dynamics. We show that the process has decaying time correlations and that a zero-one law holds. We deduce that if the incoming probes are not sharply localized with respect to the spectrum of the measurement operator, then the process does not converge. Nevertheless, the scattering modifies the measurement outcome frequencies, which are shown to be the average of the measurement projection operator, evolved for one interaction period, in an asymptotic state. We illustrate the results on a truncated Jaynes-Cummings model.
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida
Not Available
1991-12-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).
Vollmayr-Lee, Ben
Physics 212E Classical and Modern Physics Spring 2012 Python Class 11: Classical Limit of a Quantum System 1 Introduction We know what happens in classical mechanics if we put a particle into an infinite, and that this classical behavior is just some limit of a quantum mechanical system. But which limit do you need to take
Particle Simulation of Magnetically Confined Plasmas Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Particle Simulation of Magnetically Confined Plasmas W. W. Lee Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lewandowski Beams: H. Qin, R. C. Davidson 1 #12;OUTLINE PPPL ¯ Progress in Particle Simulation ¯ Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Microinstabilities ¯ Future of Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation ¯ Particle Simulation
Quantum Energy Teleportation between Spin Particles in a Gibbs State
Michael Frey; Karl Gerlach; Masahiro Hotta
2013-08-15
Energy in a multipartite quantum system appears from an operational perspective to be distributed to some extent non-locally because of correlations extant among the system's components. This non-locality allows users to transfer, in effect, locally accessible energy between sites of different system components by LOCC (local operations and classical communication). Quantum energy teleportation is a three-step LOCC protocol, accomplished without an external energy carrier, for effectively transferring energy between two physically separated, but correlated, sites. We apply this LOCC teleportation protocol to a model Heisenberg spin particle pair initially in a quantum thermal Gibbs state, making temperature an explicit parameter. We find in this setting that energy teleportation is possible at any temperature, even at temperatures above the threshold where the particles' entanglement vanishes. This shows for Gibbs spin states that entanglement is not fundamentally necessary for energy teleportation; correlation other than entanglement can suffice. Dissonance---quantum correlation in separable states---is in this regard shown to be a quantum resource for energy teleportation, more dissonance being consistently associated with greater energy yield. We compare energy teleportation from particle A to B in Gibbs states with direct local energy extraction by a general quantum operation on B and find a temperature threshold below which energy extraction by a local operation is impossible. This threshold delineates essentially two regimes: a high temperature regime where entanglement vanishes and the teleportation generated by other quantum correlations yields only vanishingly little energy relative to local extraction and a second low-temperature teleportation regime where energy is available at B only by teleportation.
"Classical-ish": Negotiating the boundary between classical and quantum particles
Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2015-01-01
Quantum mechanics can seem like a departure from everyday experience of the physical world, but constructivist theories assert that learners build new ideas from their existing ones. To explore how students can navigate this tension, we examine video of a focus group completing a tutorial about the "particle in a box." In reasoning about the properties of a quantum particle, the students bring in elements of a classical particle ontology, evidenced by students' language and gestures. This reasoning, however, is modulated by metacognitive moments when the group explicitly considers whether classical intuitions apply to the quantum system. The students find some cases where they can usefully apply classical ideas to quantum physics, and others where they explicitly contrast classical and quantum mechanics. Negotiating this boundary with metacognitive awareness is part of the process of building quantum intuitions. Our data suggest that (some) students bring productive intellectual resources to this negotiation.
"Classical-ish": Negotiating the boundary between classical and quantum particles
Benjamin W. Dreyfus; Erin Ronayne Sohr; Ayush Gupta; Andrew Elby
2015-07-02
Quantum mechanics can seem like a departure from everyday experience of the physical world, but constructivist theories assert that learners build new ideas from their existing ones. To explore how students can navigate this tension, we examine video of a focus group completing a tutorial about the "particle in a box." In reasoning about the properties of a quantum particle, the students bring in elements of a classical particle ontology, evidenced by students' language and gestures. This reasoning, however, is modulated by metacognitive moments when the group explicitly considers whether classical intuitions apply to the quantum system. The students find some cases where they can usefully apply classical ideas to quantum physics, and others where they explicitly contrast classical and quantum mechanics. Negotiating this boundary with metacognitive awareness is part of the process of building quantum intuitions. Our data suggest that (some) students bring productive intellectual resources to this negotiation.
Quantum Random Walks with General Particle States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belton, Alexander C. R.
2014-06-01
A convergence theorem is obtained for quantum random walks with particles in an arbitrary normal state. This unifies and extends previous work on repeated-interactions models, including that of Attal and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré 7:59-104 2006) and Belton (J Lond Math Soc 81:412-434, 2010; Commun Math Phys 300:317-329, 2010). When the random-walk generator acts by ampliation and either multiplication or conjugation by a unitary operator, it is shown that the quantum stochastic cocycle which arises in the limit is driven by a unitary process.
Vilalta, Ricardo
Automatic Signal Enhancement in Particle Physics Using Multivariate Classification and Physical the process of sig- nal enhancement in particle physics by relying on multi- variate classification techniques the particle physics community with computational tools that obviate manual and subjective interpretation
Physics with Identified Particles at STAR
Lijuan Ruan
2007-01-29
New physics results with identified particles at STAR are presented. Measurements at low $p_T$ address bulk properties of the collision, while those at high $p_T$ address jet energy loss in the bulk matter produced. Between these extremes, measurements at intermediate $p_T$ address the interplay between jets and the bulk. We highlight: measurements of $v_2$ fluctuations as a new, sensitive probe of the initial conditions and the equation of state; correlations involving multi-strange particles, along with ratios of identified particles to test coalescence as a mechanism of particle production at intermediate $p_T$; three particle azimuthal correlation to search for conical emission; and the energy and particle-type dependence of hadron production at high $p_T$ to study quark and gluon jet energy loss.
Plato's TIMAIO? (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machleidt, Ruprecht
2005-04-01
It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIO? (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).
Artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the ? problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alfonso-Faus, Antonio
2009-05-01
It is shown that the usual choice of units obtained by taking G= c= ?=1, giving the Planck’s units of mass, length and time, introduces an artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem that we associate with ?. We note that the choice of ?=1 does not correspond to the scale of quantum physics. For this scale we prove that the correct value is ??1/10122, while the choice of ?=1 corresponds to the cosmological scale. This is due to the scale factor of 1061 that converts the Planck scale to the cosmological scale. By choosing the ratio G/ c 3=constant=1, which includes the choice G= c=1, and the momentum conservation mc=constant, we preserve the derivation of the Einstein field equations from the action principle. Then the product Gm/ c 2= r g , the gravitational radius of m, is constant. For a quantum black hole we prove that ?? r {/g 2}?( mc)2. We also prove that the product ? ? is a general constant of order one, for any scale. The cosmological scale implies ?? ??1, while the Planck scale gives ??1/ ??10122. This explains the ? problem. We get two scales: the cosmological quantum black hole (QBH), size ˜1028 cm, and the quantum black hole (qbh) that includes the fundamental particles scale, size ˜10-13 cm, as well as the Planck’ scale, size ˜10-33 cm.
Universal computation by multi-particle quantum walk
Andrew M. Childs; David Gosset; Zak Webb
2013-02-15
A quantum walk is a time-homogeneous quantum-mechanical process on a graph defined by analogy to classical random walk. The quantum walker is a particle that moves from a given vertex to adjacent vertices in quantum superposition. Here we consider a generalization of quantum walk to systems with more than one walker. A continuous-time multi-particle quantum walk is generated by a time-independent Hamiltonian with a term corresponding to a single-particle quantum walk for each particle, along with an interaction term. Multi-particle quantum walk includes a broad class of interacting many-body systems such as the Bose-Hubbard model and systems of fermions or distinguishable particles with nearest-neighbor interactions. We show that multi-particle quantum walk is capable of universal quantum computation. Since it is also possible to efficiently simulate a multi-particle quantum walk of the type we consider using a universal quantum computer, this model exactly captures the power of quantum computation. In principle our construction could be used as an architecture for building a scalable quantum computer with no need for time-dependent control.
Quantum Security for the Physical Layer
Humble, Travis S
2013-01-01
The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.
Theoretical particle physics. Progress report, FY 1993
Not Available
1993-09-30
This report discusses the following topics: Heavy Quark Physics; Chiral Perturbation Theory; Skyrmions; Large-N Limit; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Supersymmetry; Rare Decays; Technicolor; Chiral Lattice Fermions; Pauli-Villars Regulator and the Higgs Mass Bound; Higgs and Yukawa Interactions; Gauge Fixing; and Quantum Beables.
Theoretical particle physics, Task A
Not Available
1991-07-01
This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; Parity-Odd Spin-Dependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.
An Asymmetric Grating for Large Quantum Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boži?, Mirjana; Arsenovi?, Dušan; Vuškovi?, L.
2004-05-01
Inspired by current efforts to perform diffraction and interference experiments with objects of size that is equal or even larger than the diffraction structure, we develop an approach to investigate how the particle diameter influences the interference pattern in an asymmetric double slit interferometer. The approachfootnote D. Arsenovi?, M. Boži?, and L. Vu\\vskovi?, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 4, S358 (2002). is based on the use of the time dependent wave function of particle's transverse motion and the probability amplitude of transverse momentum. Similar functions were determined and applied by Dubetsky and Bermanfootnote B. Dubetsky and P. A. Berman, in Atom Interferometry, edited by P. R. Berman (Academic Press, New York, 1997), p. 407. for infinite periodic gratings. For the asymmetric double slit grating we identify three characteristic cases for the ratio of slit widths ?1 and ?2 and the diameter D of the particle: a) D??1 and D??_2, b) ?_1>D>?_2, c) D> ?_1>?_2. Taking into account the influence of both slits on the particle wave function, regardless through which slit the particle did passed, we treat the particle-wall interaction in the simple fashion, such that if the particle size is greater that the slit opening there is no transmission. The results show that the interference should be in cases a) and b), while it is absent in case c).
Process Physics: Inertia, Gravity and the Quantum
Reginald T. Cahill
2001-10-29
Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational or semantic information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This generalises the traditional non-process syntactical modelling of reality by taking account of the limitations and characteristics of self-referential syntactical information systems, discovered by Goedel and Chaitin, and the analogies with the standard quantum formalism and its limitations. In process physics space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and time is a distinct non-geometric process. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space. Various features of the emergent physics are briefly discussed including: quantum gravity, quantum field theory, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality.
Particle creation from the quantum stress tensor
Firouzjaee, Javad T
2015-01-01
Among the different methods to derive particle creation, finding the quantum stress tensor expectation value gives a covariant quantity which can be used for examining the back-reaction issue. However this tensor also includes vacuum polarization in a way that depends on the vacuum chosen. Here we review different aspects of particle creation by looking at energy conservation and at the quantum stress tensor. It will be shown that in the case of general spherically symmetric black holes that have a \\emph{dynamical horizon}, as occurs in a cosmological context, one cannot have pair creation on the horizon because this violates energy conservation. This confirms the results obtained in other ways in a previous paper [25]. Looking at the expectation value of the quantum stress tensor with three different definitions of the vacuum state, we study the nature of particle creation and vacuum polarization in black hole and cosmological models, and the associated stress energy tensors. We show that the thermal tempera...
Simulating physical phenomena with a quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Gerardo
2003-03-01
In a keynote speech at MIT in 1981 Richard Feynman raised some provocative questions in connection to the exact simulation of physical systems using a special device named a ``quantum computer'' (QC). At the time it was known that deterministic simulations of quantum phenomena in classical computers required a number of resources that scaled exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom, and also that the probabilistic simulation of certain quantum problems were limited by the so-called sign or phase problem, a problem believed to be of exponential complexity. Such a QC was intended to mimick physical processes exactly the same as Nature. Certainly, remarks coming from such an influential figure generated widespread interest in these ideas, and today after 21 years there are still some open questions. What kind of physical phenomena can be simulated with a QC?, How?, and What are its limitations? Addressing and attempting to answer these questions is what this talk is about. Definitively, the goal of physics simulation using controllable quantum systems (``physics imitation'') is to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient imitation. Fundamental is the connection between a quantum computational model and a physical system by transformations of operator algebras. This concept is a necessary one because in Quantum Mechanics each physical system is naturally associated with a language of operators and thus can be considered as a possible model of quantum computation. The remarkable result is that an arbitrary physical system is naturally simulatable by another physical system (or QC) whenever a ``dictionary'' between the two operator algebras exists. I will explain these concepts and address some of Feynman's concerns regarding the simulation of fermionic systems. Finally, I will illustrate the main ideas by imitating simple physical phenomena borrowed from condensed matter physics using quantum algorithms, and present experimental quantum simulations performed in a liquid NMR QC.
Basics of particle therapy I: physics
Park, Seo Hyun
2011-01-01
With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664
Quarked! - Adventures in Particle Physics Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice
2009-01-01
Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike-with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not introduced until high school or university.1,2 Many of these concepts can be made accessible to younger students when presented in a fun and engaging way. Informal science institutions are in an ideal position to communicate new and challenging science topics in engaging and innovative ways and offer a variety of educational enrichment experiences for students that support and enhance science learning.3 Quarked!™ Adventures in the Subatomic Universe, a National Science Foundation EPSCoR-funded particle physics education program, provides classroom programs and online educational resources.
The Concept of Particle Weights in Local Quantum Field Theory
Martin Porrmann
2000-05-06
The concept of particle weights has been introduced by Buchholz and the author in order to obtain a unified treatment of particles as well as (charged) infraparticles which do not permit a definition of mass and spin according to Wigner's theory. Particle weights arise as temporal limits of physical states in the vacuum sector and describe the asymptotic particle content. Following a thorough analysis of the underlying notion of localizing operators, we give a precise definition of this concept and investigate the characteristic properties. The decomposition of particle weights into pure components which are linked to irreducible representations of the quasi-local algebra has been a long-standing desideratum that only recently found its solution. We set out two approaches to this problem by way of disintegration theory, making use of a physically motivated assumption concerning the structure of phase space in quantum field theory. The significance of the pure particle weights ensuing from this disintegration is founded on the fact that they exhibit features of improper energy-momentum eigenstates, analogous to Dirac's conception, and permit a consistent definition of mass and spin even in an infraparticle situation.
The Concept of Particle Weights in Local Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porrmann, Martin
2000-05-01
The concept of particle weights has been introduced by Buchholz and the author in order to obtain a unified treatment of particles as well as (charged) infraparticles which do not permit a definition of mass and spin according to Wigner's theory. Particle weights arise as temporal limits of physical states in the vacuum sector and describe the asymptotic particle content. Following a thorough analysis of the underlying notion of localizing operators, we give a precise definition of this concept and investigate the characteristic properties. The decomposition of particle weights into pure components which are linked to irreducible representations of the quasi-local algebra has been a long-standing desideratum that only recently found its solution. We set out two approaches to this problem by way of disintegration theory, making use of a physically motivated assumption concerning the structure of phase space in quantum field theory. The significance of the pure particle weights ensuing from this disintegration is founded on the fact that they exhibit features of improper energy-momentum eigenstates, analogous to Dirac's conception, and permit a consistent definition of mass and spin even in an infraparticle situation.
Hyperon particle physics at JHF
Mischke, R.E.
1998-12-01
This paper discusses the possibility of a program in hyperon decay physics at the Japan Hadron Facility. The study of hyperon decays has a history of over 40 years of experimental results. However, many of the earliest results are still the best available and there are many gaps in the data. The static properties of hyperons (masses, magnetic moments) are in relatively good shape. Much work remains to be done on the decays of hyperons and hyperon resonances. There are current experiments at the major accelerator facilities that address various hyperon decays, but no comprehensive program. This presents an excellent opportunity for such a program to be considered at JHF. The high-intensity beams of {pi}, K, and p beams will allow experiments to be designed that optimize the properties of the hyperons being studied. It is possible to envision experiments with samples of 10{sup 9} hyperon decays in 10{sup 7} sec runs.
Particle Dark Matter Physics: An Update
Manuel Drees
1998-04-04
This write--up gives a rather elementary introduction into particle physics aspects of the cosmological Dark Matter puzzle. A fairly comprehensive list of possible candidates is given; in each case the production mechanism and possible ways to detect them (if any) are described. I then describe detection of the in my view most promising candidates, weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs, in slightly more detail. The main emphasis will be on recent developments.
8.05 Quantum Physics II, Fall 2004
Stewart, Iain
Together, this course and 8.06: Quantum Physics III cover quantum physics with applications drawn from modern physics. Topics covered in this course include the general formalism of quantum mechanics, harmonic oscillator, ...
Gerhard Groessing
2008-08-01
Einstein's objection against both the completeness claim of the orthodox version and the Bohmian interpretation of quantum theory, using the example of a 'particle in a box', is reiterated and resolved. This is done by proving that the corresponding quantum mechanical states exactly match classical analogues. The latter are shown to result from the recently elaborated physics of diffusion waves.
Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultansoy, Saleh
2007-04-01
The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle ``massless'' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan? ~ mt/mb ~ 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ``massless'' composite objects within preonic models.
Quasi-Particles Fractional Quantum Hall Systems
van Elburg, Ronald A.J.
-particles in c = 1 CFT', accepted for publication in Journal of Physics A. In preparation: K. Schoutens, E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.3.2 Hall Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 4 Jack Polynomial Technology 59 4.1 Jack Polynomials and Jack Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4.1.1 Partitions
Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education
Bardeen, Marjorie G.; Johansson, K.Erik; Young, M.Jean
2011-11-21
This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.
Krieger, Peter
Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics PHY357 1 Better name is probably Introduction to Subatomic physics: Emphasis is on particle physics; nuclear physics is simply particle physics at relatively particle MX Force Effective Strength Physical Process Strong 100 Nuclear binding Electromagnetic 10
Computer Visualization of Many-Particle Quantum Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozhigov, A. Y.
2009-03-01
In this paper I show the importance of computer visualization in researching of many-particle quantum dynamics. Such a visualization becomes an indispensable illustrative tool for understanding the behavior of dynamic swarm-based quantum systems. It is also an important component of the corresponding simulation framework, and can simplify the studies of underlying algorithms for multi-particle quantum systems.
Computer Visualization of Many-Particle Quantum Dynamics
Ozhigov, A. Y. [Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation)
2009-03-10
In this paper I show the importance of computer visualization in researching of many-particle quantum dynamics. Such a visualization becomes an indispensable illustrative tool for understanding the behavior of dynamic swarm-based quantum systems. It is also an important component of the corresponding simulation framework, and can simplify the studies of underlying algorithms for multi-particle quantum systems.
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre, particle and astroparticle physics as well as accelerator physics. The theoretical astroparticle physics Â· Particle acceleration processes Requirements Â· Ph.D. in physics or astronomy Â· Experience with modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szucs, Aron
2014-11-01
The paper proposes the theory of temporal extension for fundamental particles as a key to intuitively interpret and understand quantum symmetries and related quantum and relativistic phenomena. While space-time as a principal world view is accepted and utilized in fundamental theories, certain traditional concepts of time have not been challenged before. Such a conception is the view that physical objects can only have a point like feature on the time line. When introducing a more space like quality of time, which allows the temporal extension for physical objects and particles, a fundamentally new world view arises. In this view quantum symmetries and certain relativistic phenomena become more intuitive to describe and deal with and "realism" gets a new definition. As a result the temporal length theory also offers to eliminate the tension between the nonlocality of quantum physics and the locality of relativistic phenomena. The paper provides a detailed description of the theory.
Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics
Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S
2013-04-01
This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.
Particle physics probes of extra spacetime dimensions
Joanne Hewett; Maria Spiropulu
2002-01-01
The possibility that spacetime extends beyond the familiar 3 + 1 dimensions has intrigued physicists for a century. The consequences of a dimensionally richer spacetime would be profound. Recently, new theories with higher-dimensional spacetimes have been developed to resolve the hierarchy problem in particle physics. The distinct predictions of these scenarios allow experiment to probe the existence of extra dimensions
World publication output in particle Physics
Jan Vlachý
1982-01-01
To the extent that the assessment of scientific effort can be obtained from an analysis of publication records, only a limited amount of data has been readily available in the area of our consideration. Particle ~hysics was found %0 represent 6.1% of all entries in Physics Abstracts 1961 \\/13\\/, but the subfield merged into a broader subject group of nuclear
Is Particle Physics Ready for the LHC
Lykken, Joseph
2009-09-01
The advent of the Large Hadron Collider in 2007 entails daunting challenges to particle physicists. The first set of challenges will arise from trying to separate new physics from old. The second set of challenges will come in trying to interpret the new discoveries. I will describe a few of the scariest examples.
Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics
Chris Quigg
2002-04-11
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.
1987-03-01
This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellison, Mark D.
2008-01-01
The one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model used to introduce quantum mechanics to students suffers from a tenuous connection to a real physical system. This article presents a two-dimensional model, the particle confined within a ring, that directly corresponds to observations of surface electrons in a metal trapped inside a circular barrier.…
Dissipative quantum metrology in manybody systems of identical particles
F. Benatti; S. Alipour; A. T. Rezakhani
2013-08-24
Estimation of physical parameters is a must in almost any part of science and technology. The enhancement of the performances in this task, e.g., beating the standard classical shot-noise limit, using available physical resources is a major goal in metrology. Quantum metrology in closed systems has indicated that entanglement in such systems may be a useful resource. However, it is not yet fully understood whether in open quantum systems such enhancements may still show up. Here, we consider a dissipative (open) quantum system of identical particles in which a parameter of the open dynamics itself is to be estimated. We employ a recently-developed dissipative quantum metrology framework, and investigate whether the entanglement produced in the course of the dissipative dynamics may help the estimation task. Specifically, we show that even in a Markovian dynamics, in which states become less distinguishable in time, at small enough times entanglement generated by the dynamics may offer some advantage over the classical shot-noise limit.
Undergraduate computational physics projects on quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Candela, D.
2015-08-01
Computational projects on quantum computing suitable for students in a junior-level quantum mechanics course are described. In these projects students write their own programs to simulate quantum computers. Knowledge is assumed of introductory quantum mechanics through the properties of spin 1/2. Initial, more easily programmed projects treat the basics of quantum computation, quantum gates, and Grover's quantum search algorithm. These are followed by more advanced projects to increase the number of qubits and implement Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. The projects can be run on a typical laptop or desktop computer, using most programming languages. Supplementing resources available elsewhere, the projects are presented here in a self-contained format especially suitable for a short computational module for physics students.
Quantum physics: Teleportation for two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-02-01
The 'no-cloning' theorem of quantum mechanics forbids the perfect copying of properties of photons or electrons. But quantum teleportation allows their flawless transfer -- now even for two properties simultaneously. See Letter p.516
Energetic particle physics issues for ITER
Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Fu, G.Y. [and others
1996-12-31
This paper summarizes our present understanding of the following energetic/alpha particle physics issues for the 21 MA, 20 TF coil ITER Interim Design configuration and operational scenarios: (a) toroidal field ripple effects on alpha particle confinement, (b) energetic particle interaction with low frequency MHD modes, (c) energetic particle excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes, and (d) energetic particle transport due to MHD modes. TF ripple effects on alpha loss in ITER under a number of different operating conditions are found to be small with a maximum loss of 1%. With careful plasma control in ITER reversed-shear operation, TF ripple induced alpha loss can be reduced to below the nominal ITER design limit of 5%. Fishbone modes are expected to be unstable for {beta}{sub {alpha}} > 1%, and sawtooth stabilization is lost if the ideal kink growth rate exceeds 10% of the deeply trapped alpha precessional drift frequency evaluated at the q = 1 surface. However, it is expected that the fishbone modes will lead only to a local flattening of the alpha profile due to small banana size. MHD modes observed during slow decrease of stored energy after fast partial electron temperature collapse in JT-60U reversed-shear experiments may be resonant type instabilities; they may have implications on the energetic particle confinement in ITER reversed-shear operation. From the results of various TAE stability code calculations, ITER equilibria appear to lie close to TAE linear stability thresholds. However, the prognosis depends strongly on q profile and profiles of alpha and other high energy particles species. If TAE modes are unstable in ITER, the stochastic diffusion is the main loss mechanism, which scales with ({delta}B{sub r}/B){sup 2}, because of the relatively small alpha particle banana orbit size. For isolated TAE modes the particle loss is very small, and TAE modes saturate via the resonant wave-particle trapping process at very small amplitude.
Massive Elementary Particles and Black Holes in Resummed Quantum Gravity
B. F. L. Ward
2004-10-20
We use exact results in a new approach to quantum gravity to show that the classical conclusion that a massive elementary point particle is a black hole is obviated by quantum loop effects. Further phenomenological implications are discussed.
Shu Tanaka; Ryo Tamura
2012-04-13
In this paper, we review some features of quantum annealing and related topics from viewpoints of statistical physics, condensed matter physics, and computational physics. We can obtain a better solution of optimization problems in many cases by using the quantum annealing. Actually the efficiency of the quantum annealing has been demonstrated for problems based on statistical physics. Then the quantum annealing has been expected to be an efficient and generic solver of optimization problems. Since many implementation methods of the quantum annealing have been developed and will be proposed in the future, theoretical frameworks of wide area of science and experimental technologies will be evolved through studies of the quantum annealing.
Eugene V. Stefanovich
2015-02-16
This book is an attempt to build a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting particles. In the first part of the book "Quantum electrodynamics" we follow rather traditional approach to particle physics. Our discussion proceeds systematically from the principle of relativity and postulates of quantum measurements to the renormalization in quantum electrodynamics. In the second part of the book "Quantum theory of particles" this traditional approach is reexamined. We find that formulas of special relativity should be modified to take into account particle interactions. We also suggest reinterpreting quantum field theory in the language of physical "dressed" particles. This formulation eliminates the need for renormalization and opens up a new way for studying dynamical and bound state properties of quantum interacting systems. The developed theory is applied to realistic physical objects and processes including the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the decay law of moving unstable particles, and the electric field of relativistic electron beams. These results force us to take a fresh look at some core issues of modern particle theories, in particular, the Minkowski space-time unification, the role of quantum fields and renormalization as well as the alleged impossibility of action-at-a-distance. A new perspective on these issues is suggested. It can help to solve the old problem of theoretical physics -- a consistent unification of relativity and quantum mechanics.
Coherent Quantum Filtering for Physically Realizable Linear Quantum Plants
Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen
2013-01-14
The paper is concerned with a problem of coherent (measurement-free) filtering for physically realizable (PR) linear quantum plants. The state variables of such systems satisfy canonical commutation relations and are governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations, dynamically equivalent to those of an open quantum harmonic oscillator. The problem is to design another PR quantum system, connected unilaterally to the output of the plant and playing the role of a quantum filter, so as to minimize a mean square discrepancy between the dynamic variables of the plant and the output of the filter. This coherent quantum filtering (CQF) formulation is a simplified feedback-free version of the coherent quantum LQG control problem which remains open despite recent studies. The CQF problem is transformed into a constrained covariance control problem which is treated by using the Frechet differentiation of an appropriate Lagrange function with respect to the matrices of the filter.
Quantum mechanics of a constrained particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Costa, R. C. T.
1981-04-01
The motion of a particle rigidly bounded to a surface is discussed, considering the Schrödinger equation of a free particle constrained to move, by the action of an external potential, in an infinitely thin sheet of the ordinary three-dimensional space. Contrary to what seems to be the general belief expressed in the literature, this limiting process gives a perfectly well-defined result, provided that we take some simple precautions in the definition of the potentials and wave functions. It can then be shown that the wave function splits into two parts: the normal part, which contains the infinite energies required by the uncertainty principle, and a tangent part which contains "surface potentials" depending both on the Gaussian and mean curvatures. An immediate consequence of these results is the existence of different quantum mechanical properties for two isometric surfaces, as can be seen from the bound state which appears along the edge of a folded (but not stretched) plane. The fact that this surface potential is not a bending invariant (cannot be expressed as a function of the components of the metric tensor and their derivatives) is also interesting from the more general point of view of the quantum mechanics in curved spaces, since it can never be obtained from the classical Lagrangian of an a priori constrained particle without substantial modifications in the usual quantization procedures. Similar calculations are also presented for the case of a particle bounded to a curve. The properties of the constraining spatial potential, necessary to a meaningful limiting process, are discussed in some detail, and, as expected, the resulting Schrödinger equation contains a "linear potential" which is a function of the curvature.
Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality
Gibson, J. Murray (ANL) [ANL
2003-10-15
Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.
Differential Evolution for Many-Particle Adaptive Quantum Metrology
Neil B. Lovett; Cécile Crosnier; Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Barry C. Sanders
2013-06-01
We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods based on particle-swarm optimization. We apply our method to the binary-decision-tree model for quantum-enhanced phase estimation as well as to a new problem: a decision tree for adaptive estimation of the unknown bias of a quantum coin in a quantum walk and show how this latter case can be realized experimentally.
Category:Quantum chaos Quantum Chaos emerged as a new field of physics from the
Shepelyansky, Dima
Category:Quantum chaos Quantum Chaos emerged as a new field of physics from the efforts in number theory, fractal and complex spectra, atomic and molecular physics, clusters and nuclei, quantum billiards and quantum chaos Categories: Chaos Physics Quantum Mechanics Dynamical Systems Category:Quantum
Localization and Entanglement in Relativistic Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yngvason, Jakob
These notes are a slightly expanded version of a lecture presented in February 2012 at the workshop "The Message of Quantum Science—Attempts Towards a Synthesis" held at the ZIF in Bielefeld. The participants were physicists with a wide range of different expertise and interests. The lecture was intended as a survey of a small selection of the insights into the structure of relativistic quantum physics that have accumulated through the efforts of many people over more than 50 years. (Including, among many others, R. Haag, H. Araki, D. Kastler, H.-J. Borchers, A. Wightman, R. Streater, B. Schroer, H. Reeh, S. Schlieder, S. Doplicher, J. Roberts, R. Jost, K. Hepp, J. Fröhlich, J. Glimm, A. Jaffe, J. Bisognano, E. Wichmann, D. Buchholz, K. Fredenhagen, R. Longo, D. Guido, R. Brunetti, J. Mund, S. Summers, R. Werner, H. Narnhofer, R. Verch, G. Lechner, ….) This contribution discusses some facts about relativistic quantum physics, most of which are quite familiar to practitioners of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) [Also known as Local Quantum Physics (Haag, Local quantum physics. Springer, Berlin, 1992).] but less well known outside this community. No claim of originality is made; the goal of this contribution is merely to present these facts in a simple and concise manner, focusing on the following issues: Explaining how quantum mechanics (QM) combined with (special) relativity, in particular an upper bound on the propagation velocity of effects, leads naturally to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (relativistic quantum fields).
Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD
J. Reuter; F. Bach; B. Chokoufe Nejad; W. Kilian; T. Ohl; M. Sekulla; C. Weiss
2014-10-16
We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.
Clarissa Ai Ling Lee
2014-06-21
The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised
Galic, H.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Olin, A.; Frosch, R.
1992-06-01
This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla
1989-09-01
This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
The search for supersymmetry in particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patrick, Richard J., II
Experimental high energy physics (HEP) techniques are applied to accurate simulated collider data in search for existence or exclusion of supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Supersymmetry is a leading candidate to resolve the hierarchy problem in particle physics as well as offer a stable dark matter candidate. Techniques and practices are explored and applied to the leptonic decay process production followed by and where is the proton, is the chargino, , are neutralinos and , are the standard model W and Higgs Bosons respectively. Signal yields are in general agreement with other researchers and ranged from 0.5 to 62.6 events. Reduction in the background to signal ratio is demonstrated through isolating the SUSY process and applying theoretical knowledge of the signal and associated dominant backgrounds. Results from this study establish procedures for future work with actual data, offer a benchmark for this specific leptonic decay process and may motivate variable selection and cut criteria choices in future analysis of similar signal processes.
Anderson Localization for a Multi-Particle Quantum Graph
Sabri, Mostafa
2012-01-01
We prove strong dynamical localization near the lower edge of the spectrum for a multi-particle quantum graph with random potential. To this end, we adapt the multi-particle multi-scale analysis to the quantum graph setting. Apart from the results on multi-particle systems, we also prove Lifshitz-type asymptotics for single-particle systems. This shows in particular that localization for single-particle quantum graphs can be proven under a weaker assumption on the random potential than previously known.
Applications of Particle Accelerators in Medical Physics
Cuttone, G
2008-01-01
Particle accelerators are often associated to high energy or nuclear physics. As well pointed out in literature [1] if we kindly analyse the number of installation worldwide we can easily note that about 50% is mainly devoted to medical applications (radiotherapy, medical radioisotopes production, biomedical research). Particle accelerators are also playing an important indirect role considering the improvement of the technical features of medical diagnostic. In fact the use of radionuclide for advanced medical imaging is strongly increasing either in conventional radiography (CT and MRI) and also in nuclear medicine for Spect an PET imaging. In this paper role of particle accelerators for medical applications will be presented together with the main solutions applied.
Heim Quantum Theory for Space Propulsion Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dröscher, Walter; Häuser, Jochem
2005-02-01
This paper describes a novel space propulsion technique, based on an extension of a unified field theory in a quantized, higher-dimensional space, developed by the late B. Heim (1977) in the 50s and 60s of the last century, termed Heim Quantum Theory (HQT). As a consequence of the unification, HQT predicts six fundamental interactions. The two additional interactions should enable a completely different type of propulsion, denoted gravitophoton field propulsion. The fifth interaction, termed gravitophoton force, would accelerate a material body without the need of propellant. Gravitophoton interaction is a gravitational like force, mediated by gravitophoton particles that come in both types, attractive and repulsive. Gravitophoton particles are generated in pairs from the vacuum itself by the effect of vacuum polarization (virtual electrons), under the presence of a very strong magnetic field (photons). Due to gravitophoton pair production, the total energy extracted from the vacuum is zero. Attractive gravitophotons interact with matter, and thus can become real particles, exacting a force on a material body. Repulsive gravitophotons have a much smaller cross section and do not interact with matter. Consequently, the kinetic energy of the accelerated material body would come from the vacuum, satisfying the second condition, i.e., a low energy budget for space propulsion. The name gravitophoton has been chosen because a transformation of photons into gravitational energy should take place. The third condition for advanced spaceflight, superluminal speed, may be realized by transition into a parallel space, in which covariant laws of physics are valid, with a limiting speed of light nc, where n is an integer and c is the vacuum speed of light. In order to achieve such a transition, the sixth fundamental interaction would be needed, termed vacuum field (or quintessence), which is a weakly repulsive gravitational like force, mediated by the vacuum particle, being formed by the interaction of repulsive gravitophotons with the gravitons of the spacecraft. The paper discusses the source of the two predicted interactions, the concept of parallel space, and presents the physical model along with an experimental setup to measure and estimate the gravitophoton force. Estimates for the magnitude of magnetic fields are presented, and trip times for lunar and Mars missions are given.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision
Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.
1994-08-01
This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Scaling Laws in Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Rudolf Muradyan
2011-06-07
Disclosure of scaling relationship between observable quantities gives direct information about dynamics of natural phenomenon. This is the main reason why scaling plays a key role in the methodology of natural sciences. In this talk, Part I will consider several diverse scaling laws in particle physics. Part II is dedicated to the to the extension of Chew-Frautschi hadronic spin/mass scaling relation to the realm of astronomical objects.
Quantum Physics and Fluctuating Topologies: Survey
M. Asorey; A. P. Balachandran; G. Marmo; I. P. Costa e Silva; A. R. de Queiroz; P. Teotonio-Sobrinho; S. Vaidya
2012-11-29
The spin-statistics connection, quantum gravity and other physical considerations suggest that classical space-time topology is not an immutable attribute and can change in quantum physics. The implementation of topology change using quantum principles has been studied for over two decades by a few of us. There has been a recent revival of interest in some of our work, dating back to as early as 1995. The present paper is meant as a resource article to our major relevant papers. It contains summaries of the contents of the cited papers and the corresponding links wherever available.
Artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem
Antonio Alfonso-Faus
2009-04-06
It is shown that the usual choice of units obtained by taking G = c = Planck constant = 1, giving the Planck units of mass, length and time, introduces an artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem that we associate with Planck constant. We note that the choice of Planck constant = 1 does not correspond to the scale of quantum physics. For this scale we prove that the correct value is Planck constant \\hbar; 1/10^122, while the choice of Planck constant = 1 corresponds to the cosmological scale. This is due to the scale factor of 10^61 that converts the Planck scale to the cosmological scale. By choosing the ratio G/c^3 = constant = 1, which includes the choice G = c = 1, and the momentum conservation mc = constant, we preserve the derivation of the Einstein field equations from the action principle. Then the product Gm/c^2 = rg, the gravitational radius of m, is constant. For a quantum black hole we prove that Planck constant \\hbar; rg^2 \\hbar; (mc)^2. We also prove that the product lambda x Planck constant is a general constant of order one, for any scale. The cosmological scale implies lambda \\hbar; Planck constant \\hbar; 1, while the Planck scale gives lambda \\hbar; 1/Planck constant \\hbar; 10^122. This explains the lambda problem. We get two scales: the cosmological quantum black hole (QBH), size \\Lambda; 10^28 cm, and the quantum black hole (qbh) that includes the fundamental particles scale, size \\Lambda; 10^-13 cm, as well as the Planck scale, size \\Lambda; 10^-33 cm.
An Introduction to the Neutrosophic Probability Applied in Quantum Physics
Florentin Smarandache
2000-10-10
In this paper one generalizes the classical probability and imprecise probability to the notion of "neutrosophic probability" in order to be able to model Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle of a particle's behavior, Schr"dinger's Cat Theory, and the state of bosons which do not obey Pauli's Exclusion Principle (in quantum physics). Neutrosophic probability is close related to neutrosophic logic and neutrosophic set, and etymologically derived from "neutrosophy".
Hobson, Art
quantum physics in introductory general physics courses Art Hobson Department of Physics, University-particle nature of radiation and matter that is central to quantum physics, but also the symmetry between-relativistic quantum mechanics in introductory courses, including non-mathematical courses for non-scientists, math
The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics
Quigg, Chris
2009-09-01
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electron-positron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.
The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics
Quigg, Chris
2004-04-28
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electron-positron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.
Chinese Physics C Vol. 38, No. 9 (2014) 090001 1 REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS*
California at Santa Cruz, University of
2014-01-01
Chinese Physics C Vol. 38, No. 9 (2014) 090001 1 REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS* ParticleDataGroup Abstract The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions://pdg.lbl.gov. DOI: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/9/090001 The 2014 edition of Review of Particle Physics is published
Summary of the particle physics and technology working group
Stephan Lammel et al.
2002-12-10
Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leading-edge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.
The Physical Renormalization of Quantum Field Theories
Binger, Michael William.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2007-02-20
The profound revolutions in particle physics likely to emerge from current and future experiments motivates an improved understanding of the precise predictions of the Standard Model and new physics models. Higher order predictions in quantum field theories inevitably requires the renormalization procedure, which makes sensible predictions out of the naively divergent results of perturbation theory. Thus, a robust understanding of renormalization is crucial for identifying and interpreting the possible discovery of new physics. The results of this thesis represent a broad set of investigations in to the nature of renormalization. The author begins by motivating a more physical approach to renormalization based on gauge-invariant Green's functions. The resulting effective charges are first applied to gauge coupling unification. This approach provides an elegant formalism for understanding all threshold corrections, and the gauge couplings unify in a more physical manner compared to the usual methods. Next, the gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex is studied in detail, revealing an interesting and rich structure. The effective coupling for the three-gluon vertex, {alpha}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}), depends on three momentum scales and gives rise to an effective scale Q{sub eff}{sup 2}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}) which governs the (sometimes surprising) behavior of the vertex. The effects of nonzero internal masses are important and have a complicated threshold and pseudo-threshold structure. The pinch-technique effective charge is also calculated to two-loops and several applications are discussed. The Higgs boson mass in Split Supersymmetry is calculated to two-loops, including all one-loop threshold effects, leading to a downward shift in the Higgs mass of a few GeV. Finally, the author discusses some ideas regarding the overall structure of perturbation theory. This thesis lays the foundation for a comprehensive multi-scale analytic renormalization scheme based on gauge-invariant Green's functions, in which the scale ambiguity problem is reduced since physical kinematic invariants determine the arguments of the couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobson, Ken; Lawrence, Ian; Britton, Philip
2000-11-01
The authors describe the way in which quantum physics is introduced in the new AS (Advanced Subsidiary) course Advancing Physics. It is based on the sum over many paths approach developed by Richard Feynman and described at an appropriate level in his book, from which the following quotation is drawn.
PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asorey, M.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Marmo, G.
2007-07-01
This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his life-long activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J Clemente-Gallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan
A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA) |
L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain) |
I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany) |
G. F. Dell Antonio (Universitá di Roma La Sapienza, Italy) |
A. Galindo (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain) |
S. L. Glashow (Boston University, USA) |
A. M. Gleeson (University of Texas, Austin, USA) |
C. R. Hagen (Rochester University, NY, USA) |
J. Klauder (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA) |
A. Kossakowski (University of Torun, Poland) |
V.I. Manko (Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) |
G. Marmo (Universitá Federico II di Napoli e INFN Sezione di Napoli, Italy) |
N. Mukunda (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India) |
J. V. Narlikar (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India) |
J. Nilsson (University of Goteborg, Sweden) |
S. Okubo (Rochester University, NY, USA) |
T. Regge (Politecnico di Torino, Italy) |
W. Schleich (University of Ulm, Germany) |
M. Scully (Texas A& M University, USA) |
S. Weinberg (University of Texas, Austin, USA) |
(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium
?umer, Slobodan
(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium: Introducing the group for Non-equilibrium quantum and statistical physics Tomaz Prosen Department of physics, Faculty of mathematics and physics, University of Ljubljana July, 2011 Tomaz Prosen Non-equilibrium quantum and statistical physics group #12
Quantum particles from coarse grained classical probabilities in phase space
Wetterich, C.
2010-07-15
Quantum particles can be obtained from a classical probability distribution in phase space by a suitable coarse graining, whereby simultaneous classical information about position and momentum can be lost. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential follow from classical statistics. This includes interference, tunneling and the uncertainty relation.
A quantum particle in a box with moving walls
Sara Di Martino; Fabio Anza'; Paolo Facchi; Andrzej Kossakowski; Giuseppe Marmo; Antonino Messina; Benedetto Militello; Saverio Pascazio
2013-08-22
We analyze the non-relativistic problem of a quantum particle that bounces back and forth between two moving walls. We recast this problem into the equivalent one of a quantum particle in a fixed box whose dynamics is governed by an appropriate time-dependent Schroedinger operator.
FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS
Singer, Isadore M.
2008-03-04
The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.
A New Theorem in Particle Physics Enabled by Machine Discovery
Valdés-Pérez, Raúl E.
A New Theorem in Particle Physics Enabled by Machine Discovery Raul E. Valdes-Perez Computer by these programs. The aim of this note is to document for the AI audience a novel nding in particle physics of this note is to document for the AI audience a novel nding in particle physics that was enabled
An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics
Langley, Pat
An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics Sakir Kocabas1 and Pat Langley2. In this paper we describe BR-4, a computational model of scienti c discovery in particle physics. The system of particle physics, including the discovery of the neutrino and the postulation of baryon, lepton
Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindner, Henry H.
2011-09-01
Albert Einstein imposed an observer-based epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified Lorentzian-Newtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wave-based theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.
PHYSICS 726 { Introduction to Quantum Field Theory { Fall 2004 Lecturer: Maarten Golterman
Golterman, Maarten
if you get stuck! Textbook: B. de Wit and J. Smith: Field Theory in Particle Physics Prerequisites: GoodPHYSICS 726 { Introduction to Quantum Field Theory { Fall 2004 Lecturer: Maarten Golterman OÆce: Thornton 305 Phone: 405-0903 E-mail: maarten@stars.sfsu.edu Webpage: http://www.physics.sfsu.edu/#24
Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, David Kelley
In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.
Quantum-Mechanical Description of Spin-1/2 Particles and Nuclei Channeled in Bent Crystals
A. J. Silenko
2015-08-02
General quantum-mechanical description of relativistic particles and nuclei with spin 1/2 channeled in bent crystals is performed with the use of the cylindrical coordinate system. The previously derived Dirac equation in this system is added by terms characterizing anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments. A transformation to the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation, a derivation of the quantum-mechanical equations of motion for particles and their spins, and a determination of classical limit of these equations are fulfilled in the general case. A physical nature of main peculiarities of description of particles and nuclei in the cylindrical coordinate system is ascertained.
Quantum-Mechanical Description of Spin-1/2 Particles and Nuclei Channeled in Bent Crystals
Silenko, A J
2015-01-01
General quantum-mechanical description of relativistic particles and nuclei with spin 1/2 channeled in bent crystals is performed with the use of the cylindrical coordinate system. The previously derived Dirac equation in this system is added by terms characterizing anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments. A transformation to the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation, a derivation of the quantum-mechanical equations of motion for particles and their spins, and a determination of classical limit of these equations are fulfilled in the general case. A physical nature of main peculiarities of description of particles and nuclei in the cylindrical coordinate system is ascertained.
The Diffractive Quantum Limits of Particle Colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, C. T.
2002-04-01
Quantum Mechanics places limits on achievable transverse beam spot sizes of particle accelerators. We estimate this limit for a linear collider to be ?x ? \\hstrok cf/E?0 where f is the final focal length, E the beam energy, and ?0 the intrinsic transverse Gaussian width of the electron wave-function. ?0 is determined in the phase space damping rings, and for a linear focusing channel, is the Gaussian width of the transverse groundstate wave-function. A crude estimate in a circular damping ring yields ? 0 ? ? \\hbar c/eB} where B is the typical (wiggler) magnetic field strength in this system. For the NLC ?0 25nm, and ? x ˜ { O} (0.06) nm, about two orders of magnitude smaller than the design goal. We can recover an estimate of the classical result when we include radiative relaxation effects. We also consider a self-replicating solution in a synchrotron and obtain ? x>= ? {\\hbar cf/E} ˜ { O} (1.0) nm, We discuss formulation of quantum beam optics relevant to these issues.
Noisy channel effect on quantum correlations of two relativistic particles
M. Mahdian; T. Makaremi; Sh. Salimi
2012-06-09
We study the quantum correlation dynamics of two relativistic particles which is transmitted through one of the Pauli channels $ \\sigma_{x}, \\sigma_{y},$ and $\\sigma_{z}$. We compare sudden death and robustness of entanglement and geometric discord and quantum discord of two relativistic particles under noisy Pauli channels. we find out geometric discord and quantum discord may be more robust than entanglement against decoherence.
Measurement and the Disunity of Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Hasok
I present philosophical reflections arising from a study of laboratory measurement methods in quantum physics. More specifically, I investigate three major methods of measuring kinetic energy, from the period during which quantum physics was developed and came to be widely accepted: magnetic deflection, electrostatic retardation, and material retardation. The historical material serves as a provocative focus at which many broader philosophical topics come together: the empirical testing of theories, the universal validity of physical laws, the interaction between theoretical and experimental traditions, incommensurability, meaning and definition, realism and instrumentalism, the process of scientific change, and the unity of science. I begin the discussion by noting that the measurement methods in question were based on classical theory. Chapter 1 asks how the classical reasoning in measurements can be interpreted in quantum-mechanical terms, and concludes that only a "surface interpretation" is possible, since the classical methods involve many assumptions that conflict with quantum mechanics. Chapter 2 attempts to give a quantitative assessment of the inaccuracies that might result from using the "incorrect" classical theory in the design of measurement methods. Chapter 3 asks how we can know whether a measurement method is reliable, and investigates how different methods of measuring the same quantity can ground each other; this mutual grounding is also seen as a process of concept-formation. Chapter 4 argues that the customary quantum theories of measurement do not describe actual measurements well, and originate from an overly literal interpretation of the operator formalism of quantum mechanics. Chapter 5 examines how the classically reasoned measurement methods were incorporated into quantum physics; that history suggests a model of scientific development which can introduce fundamental changes while preserving much continuity with the old tradition. Chapter 6 develops a philosophical framework which allows a synthetic view of the concrete results presented in the earlier chapters: my work is an attempt to establish "conceptual coherence," creating and clarifying noncontradictory connections among the various conceptual activities that make up quantum physics.
TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS
Sessler, A.M.
1984-07-01
High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the machines with which you will be involved in the years to come. Perhaps, we can even turn your frustration with the inadequacy of these machines into marvel at the performance of the accelerators. At the least, we hope to convince you that the accelerators are central, not peripheral, to our science and that the physics of such machines is both fascinating and sophisticated. The plan is the following: First I will give two lectures on basic accelerator physics; then you will hear two lectures on the state of the art, present limitations, the specific parameters of LEP, HERA, TEV2 and SLC, and some extrapolation to the next generation of machines such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), and Large Linear Colliders; finally, I will give two lectures on new acceleration methods.
The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report
Livny, Miron
2002-08-16
The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Grid-enabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Grid-based software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experiment-specific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, high-speed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.
Fundamental Quantum Physics under weightlessness conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laemmerzahl, Claus; Dittus, Hansjoerg; Herrmann, Sven
The realization of a Bose-Einstein condensate in free fall by the QUANTUS collaboration demonstrated the possibility of doing quantum physics experiments under weightlessness con-ditions. Contrary to Earth bound laboratory tests one can now study freely evolving quantum objects like ultracold atoms and degenerate quantum gases at largely extended evolution times. Here we present some ideas on fundamental quantum physics experiments that could be done with such quantum object under these unique conditions: (i) Test of the Universality of Free Fall, (ii) search for a fundamental decoherence, (iii) the spreading of wave packets what seems to have been never studied in a dedicated experiment, (iv) search for a nonlinearity of quantum mechanics, (v) testing the neutrality of atoms, (vi) testing the equality of active and passive charges, (vi) search for a violation of Lorentz invariance in terms of a Finslerian model of space-time, (vi) search for a quantum gravity motivated modification of the dispersion relation linear in the momentum, (vii) quantum reflection, (viii) topological phase shift of moving electric multipoles, and others.
Tests of the particle physics-physical cosmology interface
Schramm, D.N. |
1993-01-01
Three interrelated interfaces of particle physics and physical cosmology are discussed: (1) inflation and other phase transitions; (2) Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (and also the quark-hadron transition); and (3) structure formation (including dark matter). Recent observations that affect each of these topics are discussed. Topic number 1 is shown to be consistent with the COBE observations but not proven and it may be having problems with some age-expansion data. Topic number 2 has now been well-tested and is an established ``pillar`` of the Big Bang. Topic number 3 is the prime arena of current physical cosmological activity. Experiments to resolve the current exciting, but still ambiguous, situation following the COBE results are discussed.
Tests of the particle physics-physical cosmology interface
Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )
1993-01-01
Three interrelated interfaces of particle physics and physical cosmology are discussed: (1) inflation and other phase transitions; (2) Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (and also the quark-hadron transition); and (3) structure formation (including dark matter). Recent observations that affect each of these topics are discussed. Topic number 1 is shown to be consistent with the COBE observations but not proven and it may be having problems with some age-expansion data. Topic number 2 has now been well-tested and is an established pillar'' of the Big Bang. Topic number 3 is the prime arena of current physical cosmological activity. Experiments to resolve the current exciting, but still ambiguous, situation following the COBE results are discussed.
School on Particle Physics, Gravity and Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenberger, Robert
These lectures present a brief review of inflationary cosmology, provide an overview of the theory of cosmological perturbations, and then focus on the conceptual problems of the current paradigm of early universe cosmology, thus motivating an exploration of the potential of string theory to provide a new paradigm. Specifically, the string gas cosmology model is introduced, and a resulting mechanism for structure formation which does not require a period of cosmological inflation is discussed. The School consisted of level-up courses intended for PhD students, as well as updating courses for postdocs and researchers. In addition, a few propaedeutical crash courses were organized to bridge the gaps in the attendance and to facilitate an active participation. The courses were held mostly on the blackboard. The audience was assumed to have at least a PhD student level either in phenomenological particle theory, in astroparticle physics or in field and string theory. One of the aims of the School was to bring together researchers of these different areas and to update them on one another's discipline. The School was divided in two workshops: Interface between Cosmology and Particle Physics Courses: W. GRIMUS and S. PETCOV: Neutrino Phenomenology A. MASIERO and F. FERUGLIO: Beyond the Standard Model P. ULLIO: Introduction to Dark Matter N. BILIC: Black holes phenomenology 2) Particle Physics, Gravity and String Theory Courses: R. BRANDENBERGER: Topics in Cosmology J. ZANELLI: Black holes physics C. NUNEZ: StringsGauge Correspondence A. JEVICKI: AdS/CFT G. DALL'AGATA: String vacua and moduli stabilization C. BURGESS: Cosmology and Strings G. CARDOSO: Black Holes and String Theory Seminars were held during the School: Seminars: D. DENEGRI: New physics at LHC D. WARK: Neutrino Experiments C. BACCIGALUPI: Review on Cosmological Experiments A. MUELLER: Experimental evidence of Black Holes S. LIBERATI: Astrophysical constraints on Lorentz violation In addition the following introductory courses were given during the first week: Introductory courses: M. BERTOLINI: Propaedeutical course in supersymmetry T. PROKOPEC: Propaedeutical course in cosmology G. BONELLI: Propaedeutical course of string theory M. SERONE: Propaedeutical course on physics of extra dimensions
Physical and optical properties of dust particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patterson, E. M.
1983-01-01
Historically, atmospheric aerosol particles have been described as smokes, fumes, hazes, mists, and dusts. Smokes and fumes are particles, formed by secondary or combustion processes, which are generally smaller than 0.5 micrometer radius, while dusts are generally larger than 0.5 micrometer radius. Airborne dusts from industrial, agricultural and natural sources are major contributors to pollution on local, regional, and continental scales. Such dusts can cause visibility reduction, performance degradation of IR sensors, health impacts, and both short and long term climatological effects. From an aerospace point of view, the most important effects will generally be optical effects. Two important classes of atmospheric dusts are considered, including soil derived crustal aerosols and volcanic ash. These dusts are discussed in terms of sources, generation process, and physical and optical properties.
On the Quantum-Classical Character of the Quantum Wavefunction of Material Particles
Daniela Dragoman
2006-04-12
We show that the quantum wavefunction, interpreted as the probability density of finding a single non-localized quantum particle, which evolves according to classical laws of motion, is an intermediate description of a material quantum particle between the quantum and classical realms. Accordingly, classical and quantum mechanics should not be treated separately, a unified description in terms of the Wigner distribution function being possible. Although defined on classical phase space coordinates, the Wigner distribution function accommodates the nonlocalization property of quantum systems, and leads to both the Schrodinger equation for the quantum wavefunction and to the definition of position and momentum operators.
A MODEL OF A QUANTUM PARTICLE IN A QUANTUM ENVIRONMENT: A NUMERICAL STUDY
Negulescu, Claudia
bubbles arranging themselves around a possible classical trajectory of the particle. Keywords: SchrA MODEL OF A QUANTUM PARTICLE IN A QUANTUM ENVIRONMENT: A NUMERICAL STUDY RAFFAELE CARLONE, RODOLFO the following situation: or the particle is going to the left and a large number of spins on the left side
Discrete mathematical physics and particle modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenspan, D.
The theory and application of the arithmetic approach to the foundations of both Newtonian and special relativistic mechanics are explored. Using only arithmetic, a reformulation of the Newtonian approach is given for: gravity; particle modeling of solids, liquids, and gases; conservative modeling of laminar and turbulent fluid flow, heat conduction, and elastic vibration; and nonconservative modeling of heat convection, shock-wave generation, the liquid drop problem, porous flow, the interface motion of a melting solid, soap films, string vibrations, and solitons. An arithmetic reformulation of special relativistic mechanics is given for theory in one space dimension, relativistic harmonic oscillation, and theory in three space dimensions. A speculative quantum mechanical model of vibrations in the water molecule is also discussed.
Progress in Grid Computing for Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardner, Robert
2006-04-01
We discuss progress in building and exploiting distributed Grid computing infrastructures with an emphasis on capabilities required for the next generation of particle physics experiments at the LHC. Associated with a persistent and reliable Grid infrastructure linking compute, storage and network resources together, experiments, organized as Virtual Organizations (VOs), are building information architectures that allow discovery, access, and manipulation of datasets and algorithms. We use the ATLAS experiment as a context for describing the scale and complexity of the processing tasks associated with large scale data analysis relevant to the LHC.
The Inverse Puzzle in Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobach, Andrew C.
In this thesis, I present my attempts to address the Inverse Puzzle in particle physics, i.e., the challenges associated with determining the phenomenological implications of experimental data. In particular, this thesis discusses (1) the limitations of measuring the mass of dark matter at the LHC, (2) new methods for searching for heavy neutrinos, (3) relationships between lepton- and baryon-number violating processes from the perspective of grand unified theories, (4) possible indications of connections between dark matter and lepton flavor, and (5) the possibility of observing additional sources of CP-invariance violation at neutrino oscillation experiments.
From Branes at Singularities to Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldazabal, G.; Ibáñez, L. E.; Quevedo, F.; Uranga, A. M.
2002-12-01
We propose a bottom-up approach to particle physics model building from string theory, by using configurations of Type IIB D3- and D7-branes located at singularities, properly combined to reproduce phenomenologically desirable features. We construct brane configurations at ZN orbifold singularities leading to three-family SM or LR symmetric gauge sectors, and discuss their phenomenological features. By embedding the above local structures into compact models, one obtains large classes of D = 4 realistic string models, with gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking, unbroken supersymmetry, or non-supersymmetric SM sectors.
Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 1993
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.
1993-05-01
This report is the progress report for DOE funded support of particle physics work at the University of Texas, Austin. Support was divided between theoretical and experimental programs, and each is reviewed separately in the report. Theoretical effort was divided between three general areas: quantum gravity and mathematical physics; phenomenology; and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Experimental effort was primarily directed toward AGS experiments at Brookhaven, to look for rare kaon decays. AGS experiments 791 and 871 are described, along with BNL experiment 888.
Quantum physics: Two-atom bunching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leblanc, Lindsay J.
2015-04-01
The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, whereby two identical quantum particles launched into the two input ports of a 'beam-splitter' always bunch together in the same output port, has now been demonstrated for helium-4 atoms. See Letter p.66
Quantum physics in inertial and gravitational fields
G. Papini
2003-04-22
Covariant generalizations of well-known wave equations predict the existence of inertial-gravitational effects for a variety of quantum systems that range from Bose-Einstein condensates to particles in accelerators. Additional effects arise in models that incorporate Born reciprocity principle and the notion of a maximal acceleration. Some specific examples are discussed in detail.
(Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report
Nefkens, B.M.K.
1985-10-01
Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.
Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN
Wurtele, Jonathan
Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN M.C. Fujiwaraa , G. B discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial
Quantum physics of classical waves in plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodin, I. Y.
2012-10-01
The Lagrangian approach to plasma wave physics is extended to a universal nonlinear theory which yields generic equations invariant with respect to the wave nature. The traditional understanding of waves as solutions of the Maxwell-Vlasov system is abandoned. Oscillations are rather treated as physical entities, namely, abstract vectors |?> in a specific Hilbert space. The invariant product is the total action and has the sign of the oscillation energy. The action density is then an operator. Projections of the corresponding operator equation generate assorted wave kinetic equations; the nonlinear Wigner-Moyal equation is just one example and, in fact, may be more delicate than commonly assumed. The linear adiabatic limit of this classical theory leads to quantum mechanics in its general form. The action conservation theorem, together with its avatars such as Manley-Rowe relations, then becomes manifest and in partial equilibrium can modify statistical properties of plasma fluctuations. In the quasi-monochromatic limit geometrical optics (GO) is recovered and can as well be understood as a particular field theory in its own right. For linear waves, the energy-momentum equations, in both canonical and (often) kinetic form, then follow automatically, even without a reference to electromagnetism. Yet for waves in plasma the general GO Lagrangian is also derived explicitly, in terms of single-particle oscillation-center Hamiltonians. Applications to various plasma waves are then discussed with an emphasis on the advantages of an abstract theory. Specifically covered are nonlinear dispersion, dynamics, and stability of BGK modes, and also other wave transformations in laboratory and cosmological plasmas.
Quantum Gravity: A Mathematical Physics Perspective
Abhay Ashtekar
1994-04-05
This article is based on an invited talk given at the Workshop on Mathematical Physics Towards XXIst Century, held at Beer-Sheva, Israel in 1993. It contains an introduction to quantum gravity for mathematical physicists with an emphasis on the difference between the structure of this theory from more familiar, Minkowskian quantum field theories which arise due to the absence of a background space-time geometry.
On Universal Physical Reality in the Light of Quantum Consciousness
Pabitra Pal Choudhury; Swapan Kumar Dutta; Sk. Sarif Hassan; Sudhakar Sahoo
2009-07-08
In this paper, we have first given an intuitive definition of "Consciousness" as realized by us. Next, from this intuitive definition we derived the physical definition of quantum consciousness (Quantum Consciousness Parameter or QCP). This QCP is the elementary level of consciousness in quantum particles, which are the most elementary particles in nature. Thus QCP can explain both the perceptible and non-perceptible nature and some existing postulates of physics. We conceptualize that the level of human consciousness is most complex having highest fractal dimension of 4.85 in the electroencephalographs experiment done by other research groups. On the other hand, other species are having lesser consciousness level, which can be reflected by lesser fractal dimensions. We have also explored the bio informatics of consciousness from genome viewpoints where we tried to draw an analogy of neurons with electrons and photons. Lastly, we refine the quantum mechanics in terms of QCP; we all know that in Einstein's special theory of relativity, Einstein has used the postulate "Consistency of the velocity of light irrespective of all frames of reference (inertial or non-inertial frames)". In our theoretical revelation QCP can be directly applied to get a confirmatory proof of this postulate. Thus the postulate can be framed as a law.
Two-dimensional topological order of kinetically constrained quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kourtis, Stefanos
2015-03-01
Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical work on driven optical lattices, we investigate how imposing kinetic restrictions on quantum particles that would otherwise hop freely on a two-dimensional lattice can lead to topologically ordered states. The kinetically constrained models introduced here are derived as an approximate generalization of strongly interacting particles hopping on Haldane and equivalent lattices and are pertinent to systems irradiated by circularly polarized light. After introducing a broad class of models, we focus on particular realizations and show numerically that they exhibit topological order, by observing topological ground-state degeneracies and the quantization of corresponding invariants. Apart from potentially being crucial for the interpretation of forthcoming cold-atom experiments, our results also hint at unexplored possibilities for the realization of topologically ordered matter. A further implication, relevant to fractional quantum Hall (FQH) physics, is that the correlations responsible for FQH-like states can arise from processes other than density-density interactions. Financial support from EPSRC (Grant No. EP/K028960/1) and ICAM Branch Contributions.
Topics in theoretical particle physics and cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salem, Michael Phillip
We first delve into particle phenomenology with a study of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), an effective theory for Quantum Chromodynamics for when all particles are approximately on their light-cones. In particular, we study the matching of SCET(I) involving ultrasoft and collinear particles onto SCET(II) involving soft and collinear particles. We show that the modes in SCET(II) are sufficient to reproduce all of the infrared divergences of SCET(I), a result that was previously in contention.Next we move into early universe cosmology and study alternative mechanisms for generating primordial density perturbations. We study the inhomogeneous reheating mechanism and extend it to describe the scenario where the freeze-out process for a heavy particle is modulated by sub-dominant fields that received fluctuations during inflation. This scenario results in perturbations that are comparable to those generated by the original inhomogeneous reheating scenarios. In addition, we study yet another alternative to single field inflation whereby the curvature perturbation is generated by interactions at the end of inflation, as opposed to when inflaton modes exit the horizon. We clarify the circumstances under which this process can dominate over the standard one and we show that it may result in a spectrum with an observable level of non-Gaussianities.We then turn to studies of the landscape paradigm, which hypothesizes that the observed universe is just one among a multitude of possibilities that are realized in separate causal regions. Such a landscape has been used to explain the smallness of the cosmological constant, at least when only it scans across the landscape. We study the scenario where both the cosmological constant and the strength of gravity, parameterized by the effective Planck mass, scan across the landscape. We find that selection effects acting on the cosmological constant are significantly weaker in this scenario and we find the measured value of the Planck mass to be exponentially unlikely under certain plausible assumptions about the landscape. Finally, we study some other models of the landscape as part of a possible explanation for quark-sector flavor parameters in the Standard Model. In this picture quark Yukawa couplings result from overlap integrals involving quark and Higgs wavefunctions in compactified extra dimensions, and the values we measure result from random selection from a landscape of possibilities. We find that many of the salient features of the measured flavor parameters are typical of the landscape distribution.
Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity
Xiaodong Chen
2005-10-03
Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable, Interpreting of quantum physics, Berry phase, three dimensional time, unified theory
Two-particle quantum walks: Entanglement and graph isomorphism testing
Berry, Scott D.; Wang, Jingbo B.
2011-04-15
We study discrete-time quantum walks on the line and on general undirected graphs with two interacting or noninteracting particles. We introduce two simple interaction schemes and show that they both lead to a diverse range of probability distributions that depend on the correlations and relative phases between the initial coin states of the two particles. We investigate the characteristics of these quantum walks and the time evolution of the entanglement between the two particles from both separable and entangled initial states. We also test the capability of two-particle discrete-time quantum walks to distinguish nonisomorphic graphs. For strongly regular graphs, we show that noninteracting discrete-time quantum walks can distinguish some but not all nonisomorphic graphs with the same family parameters. By incorporating an interaction between the two particles, all nonisomorphic strongly regular graphs tested are successfully distinguished.
Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
2009-09-22
It is generally acknowledged that neither the Klein-Gordon equation nor the Dirac Hamiltonian can produce sound solitary-particle relativistic quantum mechanics due to the ill effects of their negative-energy solutions; instead their field-quantized wavefunctions are reinterpreted as dealing with particle and antiparticle simultaneously--despite the clear physical distinguishability of antiparticle from particle and the empirically known slight breaking of the underlying CP invariance. The natural square-root Hamiltonian of the free relativistic solitary particle is iterated to obtain the Klein-Gordon equation and linearized to obtain the Dirac Hamiltonian, steps that have calculational but not physical motivation, and which generate the above-mentioned problematic negative-energy solutions as extraneous artifacts. Since the natural square root Hamiltonian for the free relativistic solitary particle contrariwise produces physically unexceptionable quantum mechanics, this article focuses on extending that Hamiltonian to describe a solitary particle (of either spin 0 or spin one-half) in relativistic interaction with an external electromagnetic field. That is achieved by use of Lorentz-covariant solitary-particle four momentum techniques together with the assumption that well-known nonrelativistic dynamics applies in the particle's rest frame. Lorentz-invariant solitary particle actions, whose formal Hamiltonization is an equivalent alternative approach, are as well explicitly displayed. It is proposed that two separate solitary-particle wavefunctions, one for a particle and the other for its antiparticle, be independently quantized in lieu of "reinterpreting" negative energy solutions--which indeed don't even afflict proper solitary particles.
Experimental particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Drexel Univ
Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.
1992-09-01
The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics beyond the standard model and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large-area underground detector to search fore grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low- and high-energy neutrinos; the Chooz experiment to search for reactor neutrino oscillations at a distance of 1 km from the source; a new proposal (the Perry experiment) to construct a one-kiloton liquid scintillator in the Fairport, Ohio underground facility IMB to study neutrino oscillations with a 13 km baseline; and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very-low-background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments.
C. M. Chandrashekar
2006-10-28
In most widely discussed discrete time quantum walk model, after every unitary shift operator, the particle evolves into the superposition of position space and settles down in one of its basis states, loosing entanglement in the coin space in the new position. The Hadamard operation is applied to let the particle to evolve into the superposition in the coin space and the walk is iterated. We present a model with a additional degree of freedom for the unitary shift operator $U^{\\prime}$. The unitary operator with additional degree of freedom will evolve the quantum particle into superposition of position space retaining the entanglement in coin space. This eliminates the need for quantum coin toss (Hadamard operation) after every unitary displacement operation as used in most widely studied version of the discrete time quantum walk model. This construction is easily extended to a multiple particle quantum walk and in this article we extend it for a pair of particles in pure state entangled in coin degree of freedom by simultaneously subjecting it to a pair of unitary displacement operators which were constructed for single particle. We point out that unlike for single particle quantum walk, upon measurement of its position after $N$ steps, the entangled particles are found together with 1/2 probability and at different positions with 1/2 probability. This can act as an advantage in applications of the quantum walk. A special case is also treated using a complex physical system such as, inter species two-particle entangled Bose-Einstein condensate, as an example.
Equality of Inertial and Gravitational Masses for Quantum Particle
Jaroslaw Wawrzycki
2003-10-17
We investigate the interaction of the gravitational field with a quantum particle. First, we give the proof of the equality of the inertial and the gravitational mass for the nonrelativistic quantum particle, independently of the equivalence principle. Second, we show that the macroscopic body cannot be described by the many-particle Quantum Mechanics. As an important tool we generalize the Bargmann's theory of ray representations and explain the connection with the state vector reduction problem. The Penrose's hypothesis is discussed, i.e. the hypothesis that the gravitational field may influence the state vector reduction.
Colloquium: Majorana Fermions in nuclear, particle and solid-state physics
S. R. Elliott; M. Franz
2014-12-01
Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own anti-particle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their anti-particles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can only exist if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence doesn't stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This review first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own anti-particle in nuclear, particle, and solid state physics.
JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS 52, 082202 (2011) Extremal quantum protocols
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2011-01-01
then provide the mathematical description for any quantum protocol including games, communicationsJOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS 52, 082202 (2011) Extremal quantum protocols Giacomo Mauro D including games, communications, and algorithms. The set of generalized quantum instruments with a given
Physical Interpretations of Nilpotent Quantum Mechanics
Peter Rowlands
2010-04-09
Nilpotent quantum mechanics provides a powerful method of making efficient calculations. More importantly, however, it provides insights into a number of fundamental physical problems through its use of a dual vector space and its explicit construction of vacuum. Physical interpretation of the nilpotent formalism is discussed with respect to boson and baryon structures, the mass-gap problem, zitterbewgung, Berry phase, renormalization, and related issues.
Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture III
Marcolli, Matilde
Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture III Matilde Marcolli Villa de Leyva school, July 2011 Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, III #12;This in the noncommutative geometry approach to particle physics and cosmology, Phys. Lett. B, Vol.693 (2010) 166174, ar
Synthesis and optical properties of quantum-size metal sulfide particles in aqueous solution
Nedeljkovic, J.M.; Patel, R.C.; Kaufman, P.; Joyce-Pruden, C.; O'Leary, N. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States))
1993-04-01
During the past decade, small-particle' research has become quite popular in various fields of chemistry and physics. The recognition of quantum-size effects in very small colloidal particles has led to renewed interest in this area. Small particles' are clusters of atoms or molecules ranging in size from 1 nm to almost 10 nm or having agglomeration numbers from 10 up to a few hundred. In other words, small particles fall in size between single atoms or molecules and bulk materials. The agglomeration number specifies the number of individual atoms or molecules in a given cluster. The research in this area is interdisciplinary, and it links colloidal science and molecular chemistry. The symbiosis of these two areas of research has revealed some intriguing characteristics of small particles. This experiment illustrates the following: simple colloidal techniques for the preparation of two different types of quantum-size metal sulfide particles; the blue shift of the measured optical absorption spectra when the particle size is decreased in the quantum-size regime; and use of a simple quantum mechanical model to calculate the particle size from the absorption onset measured for CdS.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of Dirac particles - quantum field theory approach
Pawel Caban; Jakub Rembielinski
2006-12-15
We calculate correlation function in the Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen type of experiment with massive relativistic Dirac particles in the framework of the quantum field theory formalism. We perform our calculations for states which are physically interesting and transforms covariantly under the full Lorentz group action, i.e. for pseudoscalar and vector state.
Quantum Inferential Leaps: The Rhetoric of Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McPhail, Mark Lawrence
1992-01-01
Considers the epistemological implications of a changing understanding of reality, based on contemporary connections between rhetoric as epistemic (questioning underlying assumptions about modernist conceptualizations of science and language) and quantum physics (rejecting the notion of an objective reality existing independent of observers).…
Department of physics Quantum Cheshire Cat
?umer, Slobodan
Department of physics Seminar Ia Quantum Cheshire Cat Author: Tadej Meznarsic Mentor: prof. dr Cheshire Cat. It starts by de- scribing its paradoxical nature in the regime of regular measurement measurement into Cheshire Cat experiment for photons and ends with presentation of another experiment, prov
Physics on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
't Hooft, Gerard
2014-04-01
Nature's laws in the domain where relativistic effects, gravitational effects and quantum effects are all comparatively strong are far from understood. This domain is called the Planck scale. Conceivably, a theory can be constructed where the quantum nature of phenomena at such scales can be attributed to something fundamentally simpler. However, arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there can't be physical laws that require "conspiracy". It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In the lecture we will show several such counterexamples. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. This theory is often portrayed as to underly the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles, including the "Standard Model". So now the question is asked: how can this model feature "conspiracy", and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations?
Nuclear Physics from Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics
Savage, Martin J
2015-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics and Quantum Electrodynamics, both renormalizable quantum field theories with a small number of precisely constrained input parameters, dominate the dynamics of the quarks and gluons - the underlying building blocks of protons, neutrons, and nuclei. While the analytic techniques of quantum field theory have played a key role in understanding the dynamics of matter in high energy processes, they encounter difficulties when applied to low-energy nuclear structure and reactions, and dense systems. Expected increases in computational resources into the exascale during the next decade will provide the ability to determine a range of important strong interaction processes directly from QCD using the numerical technique of Lattice QCD. This will complement the nuclear physics experimental program, and in partnership with new thrusts in nuclear many-body theory, will enable unprecedented understanding and refinement of nuclear forces and, more generally, the visible matter in our universe. In th...
Bert Schroer
2003-05-15
After recalling episodes from Pascual Jordan's biography including his pivotal role in the shaping of quantum field theory and his much criticized conduct during the NS regime, I draw attention to his presentation of the first phase of development of quantum field theory in a talk presented at the 1929 Kharkov conference. He starts by giving a comprehensive account of the beginnings of quantum theory, emphasising that particle-like properties arise as a consequence of treating wave-motions quantum-mechanically. He then goes on to his recent discovery of quantization of ``wave fields'' and problems of gauge invariance. The most surprising aspect of Jordan's presentation is however his strong belief that his field quantization is a transitory not yet optimal formulation of the principles underlying causal, local quantum physics. The expectation of a future more radical change coming from the main architect of field quantization already shortly after his discovery is certainly quite startling. I try to answer the question to what extent Jordan's 1929 expectations have been vindicated. The larger part of the present essay consists in arguing that Jordan's plea for a formulation without ``classical correspondence crutches'', i.e. for an intrinsic approach (which avoids classical fields altogether), is successfully addressed in past and recent publications on local quantum physics.
Quantum Zeno effect for a free-moving particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel
2014-12-01
Although the quantum Zeno effect takes its name from Zeno's arrow paradox, the effect of frequently observing the position of a freely moving particle on its motion has not been analyzed in detail in the frame of standard quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of a moving free particle while monitoring whether it lingers in a given region of space, and explain the dependence of the lingering probability on the frequency of the measurements and the initial momentum of the particle. Stopping the particle entails the emergence of Schrödinger cat states during the observed evolution, closely connected to the high-order diffraction modes in Fabry-Pérot optical resonators.
Size and temperature dependent plasmons of quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Mufei; Rakov, Nikifor
2015-08-01
This work reports on the influences of temperature changes on plasmons of metallic particles that are so small that electric carriers in the conduction band are forced to be at discrete sub-bands due to quantum confinement. In the framework of the electron-in-a-box model and with an every-electron-count computational scheme, the spatial electric distribution inside the particle is calculated. In the calculations, the intra-subband fluctuations are taken into account. The numerical results have shown that the small-particle plasmon frequency shifts with the temperature. The findings suggest that it would be possible to control the plasmons of quantum particles externally.
Alpha-particle-induced luminescence from multiple quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuntrotas, J. K.; Dargys, Adolfas; Granja, S. C.; Koehler, Klaus; Pospisil, Stanislav; Remeikis, V.; Smith, K. M.
2001-03-01
The luminescence induced by alpha particles in GaAs/Al0.35Ga0.65As multiple quantum well (MQW) semiconductor was detected and investigated. The luminescence was observed at liquid nitrogen and at room temperatures as light flashes induced by individual (alpha) -particles. The MQW samples studied, in addition, were investigated using standard photoluminescence method to show that (alpha) - particle created flashes are associated with a radiative decay of 2D excitons in quantum wells. Since the number of detected light quanta in a flash is critical, a discussion of the collection efficiency of photons created by a single (alpha) -particle is presented.
Some calculator programs for particle physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whol, C. G.
1982-01-01
Seven calculator programs that do simple chores that arise in elementary particle physics are given. LEGENDRE evaluates the Legendre polynomial series. ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE evaluates the first associated Legendre polynomial series. CONFIDENCE calculates confidence levels for chi(2), Gaussian, or Poisson probability distributions. TWO BODY calculates the c.m. energy, the initial and final state c.m. momenta, and the extreme values of t and u for a two body reaction. ELLIPSE calculates coordinates of points for drawing an ellipse plot showing the kinematics of a two body reaction or decay. DALITZ RECTANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a rectangular Dalitz plot. DALITZ TRIANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a triangular Dalitz plot. There are short versions of CONFIDENCE (EVEN N and POISSON) that calculate confidence levels for the even degree of freedom chi(2) and the Poisson cases. The programs are written for the HP-97 calculator.
Particle physics confronts the solar neutrino problem
Pal, P.B.
1991-06-01
This review has four parts. In Part I, we describe the reactions that produce neutrinos in the sun and the expected flux of those neutrinos on the earth. We then discuss the detection of these neutrinos, and how the results obtained differ from the theoretical expectations, leading to what is known as the solar neutrino problem. In Part II, we show how neutrino oscillations can provide a solution to the solar neutrino problem. This includes vacuum oscillations, as well as matter enhanced oscillations. In Part III, we discuss the possibility of time variation of the neutrino flux and how a magnetic moment of the neutrino can solve the problem. WE also discuss particle physics models which can give rise to the required values of magnetic moments. In Part IV, we present some concluding remarks and outlook for the recent future.
How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation
Kalai, Gil
How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation towards a negative answer. The first is a conjecture about physical realizations of quantum codes superior compared to digital computers. The idea was that since computations in quantum physics require
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle and astroparticle physics as well life science to the study of fundamental physical processes in various areas. DESY offers several
Thomas Banks Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP)
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Thomas Banks Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department of Physics TO THIS PROPOSAL (Primary Author Only) 1. A Pyramid Scheme for Particle Physics, T. Banks, J-F Fortin, JHEP 0907 (2009) 046 2. Holographic Space-time and its Phenomenological Implications, T. Banks, Int. J. Mod. Phys
Primer on Detectors and Electronics for Particle Physics Experiments
California at Santa Cruz, University of
1 Primer on Detectors and Electronics for Particle Physics Experiments Alexander A. Grillo Santa physics experiments. The intended readers are students, especially undergraduates, starting to work in our the primer itself. I Background of Particle Physics Scattering Experiments Physicists have made the most
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research CentreD-Students (f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle and astroparticle physics as well as accelerator physics. The Photo Injector Test Facility PITZ in Zeuthen (near
MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES' CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES' CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES T. B. Onasch1, 2, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Accurate measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties on the chemical, physical, and optical properties of black carbon particles measured in the laboratory in order
Kleinian groups in E (?) and their connection to particle physics and cosmology
M. S El Naschie
2003-01-01
The paper proposes that the geometry and topology of quantum spacetime is shadowed closely by quasi-Fuschian and Kleinian groups and that is the cause behind the phenomena of high energy particle physics. In addition, on the large scale measurement of, for instance, microwave background temperature, the universality of the Merger sponge provides an excellent limit set model for the Charlier–Zeldovich
Abraham Seiden Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP)
California at Santa Cruz, University of
PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Columbia University Applied Physics B.S. 1967 California Institute of TechnologyAbraham Seiden Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department of Physics Physics M.S. 1970 University of California, Santa Cruz Physics Ph.D. 1974 POST DOCTORAL APPOINTMENTS 1975
Particle physics---Experimental. Annual progress report
Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.
1991-08-21
We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.
Particles, Waves, and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christoudouleas, N. D.
1975-01-01
Presents an explanation, without mathematical equations, of the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Includes wave-particle duality, the probability character of the wavefunction, and the uncertainty relations. (MLH)
Howard, Don
Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Some Lessons from the Particle PhysicsCondensed Matter Physics Debate Don Howard Department of Philosophy and History and Philosophy of Science Graduate and emergence in the physical sciences, more specificallythe relationship between particle physics and condensed
Physical state for non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics
Fumio Hiroshima; Akito Suzuki
2008-07-31
A physical subspace and physical Hilbert space associated with asymptotic fields of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics are constructed through the Gupta-Bleuler procedure. Asymptotic completeness is shown and a physical Hamiltonian is defined on the physical Hilbert space.
Quantum physics reimagined for the general public
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobroff, Julien
2015-03-01
Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined'' (Paris-Sud University/Air Liquide).
Quantum kinetics of spinning neutral particles: General theory and Spin wave dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, P. A.
2015-08-01
Plasma physics gives an example of physical system of particles with the long-range interaction. At the small velocities of particles we can consider the plasmas approximately as the systems of particles with the Coulomb interaction. The Coulomb interaction is an isotropic interaction. Systems of spinning neutral particles are involved in the spin-spin interaction, which is a long-range anisotropic interparticle interaction. Therefore they can reveal more rich properties than the Coulomb plasmas. Furthermore, to study the systems of spinning particles we can develop the kinetic and hydrodynamic methods similar to the methods applying in the plasma physics. We derive the kinetic equations by a new method, which is the generalization of the many-particle quantum hydrodynamics. Obtained set of the kinetic equations is truncated, so we have a closed set of two equations. First of them is the kinetic equation for the quantum distribution function. The second equation is the equation for the spin-distribution function, which describes the spin kinetic evolution and contributes to the time evolution of the distribution function. Our method allows one to obtain equations for both the three dimensional systems of particles and the low dimensional systems. Hence we consider the spin waves in the three- and the two-dimensional systems of neutral spinning particles.
A Physics-Free Introduction to the Quantum Computation Model
Fenner, Stephen
A Physics-Free Introduction to the Quantum Computation Model #3; Stephen A. Fenner y University of knowledge in the #12;eld. Expositions of quantum computation often use physical concepts to explain such things as qubits (quantum bits), and so tacitly assume some physical background, leading nonphysicists
DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL
Sites, James R.
DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS;#12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR. This dissertation will focus on the use of quantum-efficiency (QE) measurements to deduce the device physics of thin
Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics
Neumaier, Arnold
Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics Arnold Neumaier Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik classical physics and quantum physics should be as small as possible. We argue that the differences between://www.mat.univie.ac.at/neum/ Abstract. A philosophically consistent axiomatic approach to classical and quantum mechanics is given
A classical particle in a quantum box Michael Wiechers
van Suijlekom, Walter
A classical particle in a quantum box Michael Wiechers July 15, 2009 Abstract Coherent states for a high expectation value for the energy of the system. The resulting function shows classical behavior that there is classical behavior. The final result is that a quasiclassical state can be created in an infinite quantum
H. J. de Vega; N. G. Sanchez
2007-01-01
We uncover the general mechanism producing the dark energy(DE).This is only based on well known quantum physics and cosmology. We show that the observed DE originates from the cosmological quantum vacuum of light particles which provides a continuous energy distribution able to reproduce the data. Bosons give positive contributions to the DE while fermions yield negative contri- butions. As usual
Physical Diffeomorphisms in Loop Quantum Gravity
Tim Koslowski
2006-10-05
We investigate the action of diffeomorphisms in the context of Hamiltonian Gravity. By considering how the diffeomorphism-invariant Hilbert space of Loop Quantum Gravity should be constructed, we formulate a physical principle by demanding, that the gauge-invariant Hilbert space is a completion of gauge- (i.e. diffeomorphism-)orbits of the classical (configuration) variables, explaining which extensions of the group of diffeomorphisms must be implemented in the quantum theory. It turns out, that these are at least a subgroup of the stratified analytic diffeomorphisms. Factoring these stratified diffeomorphisms out, we obtain that the orbits of graphs under this group are just labelled by their knot classes, which in turn form a countable set. Thus, using a physical argument, we construct a separable Hilbert space for diffeomorphism invariant Loop Quantum Gravity, that has a spin-knot basis, which is labelled by a countable set consisting of the combination of knot-classes and spin quantum numbers. It is important to notice, that this set of diffeomorphism leaves the set of piecewise analytic edges invariant, which ensures, that one can construct flux-operators and the associated Weyl-operators. A note on the implications for the treatment of the Gauss- and the Hamilton-constraint of Loop Quantum Gravity concludes our discussion.
There are no quantum jumps, nor are there particles!
H. D. Zeh
1993-01-01
Quantum theory does not require the existence of discontinuities: neither in time (quantum jumps), nor in space (particles), nor in spacetime (quantum events). These apparent discontinuities are readily described objectively by the continuous process of decoherence occurring locally on a very short time scale according to the Schršdinger equation for interacting systems, while the observerÕs Ôincrease of informationÕ is appropriately
Information from quantum blackhole physics
T R Govindarajan
2003-08-14
The study of BTZ blackhole physics and the cosmological horizon of 3D de Sitter spaces are carried out in unified way using the connections to the Chern Simons theory on three manifolds with boundary. The relations to CFT on the boundary is exploited to construct exact partition functions and obtain logarithmic corrections to Bekenstein formula in the asymptotic regime. Comments are made on the dS/CFT correspondence frising from these studies.
Quantum walk on a line with two entangled particles
Omar, Y.; Paunkovic, N.; Sheridan, L.; Bose, S. [SQIG, Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and CEMAPRE, ISEG, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1200-781 Lisbon (Portugal); SQIG, Instituto de Telecomunicacoes and Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2006-10-15
We introduce the concept of a quantum walk with two particles and study it for the case of a discrete time walk on a line. A quantum walk with more than one particle may contain entanglement, thus offering a resource unavailable in the classical scenario and which can present interesting modifications on quantum walks with single particles. In this work, we show both numerically and analytically how the entanglement and the relative phase between the states describing the coin degree of freedom of each particle will influence the evolution of the quantum walk. In particular, the probability to find at least one particle in a certain position after N steps of the walk, as well as the average distance and the squared distance between the two particles, can be larger or smaller than the case of two unentangled particles, depending on the initial conditions we choose. This resource can then be tuned according to our needs to modify the features of a quantum walk. Experimental implementations are briefly discussed.
Relaxation dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle in an ideal gas
Bassano Vacchini; Klaus Hornberger
2007-06-29
We show how the quantum analog of the Fokker-Planck equation for describing Brownian motion can be obtained as the diffusive limit of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation. The latter describes the quantum dynamics of a tracer particle in a dilute, ideal gas by means of a translation-covariant master equation. We discuss the type of approximations required to obtain the generalized form of the Caldeira-Leggett master equation, along with their physical justification. Microscopic expressions for the diffusion and relaxation coefficients are obtained by analyzing the limiting form of the equation in both the Schroedinger and the Heisenberg picture.
Quantum Theory over a Galois Field and Applications to Gravity and Particle Theory
Felix M. Lev
2014-04-30
We argue that the main reason of crisis in quantum physics is that nature, which is fundamentally discrete, is described by continuous mathematics. Moreover, no ultimate physical theory can be based on continuous mathematics because, as follows from G\\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems, that mathematics is not self-consistent. In the first part of the work we discuss inconsistencies in standard approach to quantum theory and reformulate the theory such that it can be naturally generalized to a formulation based on discrete mathematics. It is shown that the cosmological acceleration and gravity can be treated simply as {\\it kinematical} manifestations of de Sitter symmetry on quantum level ({\\it i.e. for describing those phenomena the notions of dark energy, space-time background and gravitational interaction are not needed}). In the second part of the work we argue that fundamental quantum theory should be based on a Galois field with a large characteristic $p$. In this approach the de Sitter gravitational constant depends on $p$ and disappears in the formal limit $p\\to\\infty$, i.e. gravity is a consequence of finiteness of nature. The application of the approach to particle theory gives the following results: a) no neutral elementary particles can exist; b) the electric charge and the baryon and lepton quantum numbers can be only approximately conserved (i.e. the notion of a particle and its antiparticle is only approximate). We also consider a possibility that only Dirac singletons can be true elementary particles.
Wave theories of non-laminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; Jovanovi?, Dusan; de Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ronsivalle
2014-04-01
The standard classical description of non-laminar charged particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory that we discuss (Fedele R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045. Tanjia, F. et al. 2011 Proceedings of the 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Vol. 35G. Strasbourg, France: European Physical Society) is based on the Thermal Wave Model (TWM) (Fedele, R. and Miele, G. 1991 Nuovo Cim. D 13, 1527.) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of beam particles as the analog of quantum diffraction. The other theory is based on a recently developed model (Fedele, R. et al. 2012a Phys. Plasmas 19, 102106; Fedele, R. et al. 2012b AIP Conf. Proc. 1421, 212), hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides collective description of beam transport in the presence of quantum paraxial diffraction. Both in quantum and quantum-like regimes, the beam transport is governed by a 2D non-local Schrödinger equation, with self-interaction coming from the nonlinear charge- and current-densities. An envelope equation of the Ermakov-Pinney type, which includes collective effects, is derived for both TWM and QWM regimes. In TWM, such description recovers the well-known Sacherer's equation (Sacherer, F. J. 1971 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 1105). Conversely, in the quantum regime and in Hartree's mean field approximation, one recovers the evolution equation for a single-particle spot size, i.e. for a single quantum ray spot in the transverse plane (Compton regime). We demonstrate that such quantum evolution equation contains the same information as the evolution equation for the beam spot size that describes the beam as a whole. This is done heuristically by defining the lowest QWM state accessible by a system of non-overlapping fermions. The latter are associated with temperature values that are sufficiently low to make the single-particle quantum effects visible on the beam scale, but sufficiently high to make the overlapping of the single-particle wave functions negligible. This lowest QWM state constitutes the border between the fundamental single-particle Compton regime and the collective quantum and thermal regimes at larger (nano- to micro-) scales. Comparing it with the beam parameters in the existing accelerators, we find that it is feasible to achieve nano-sized beams in advanced compact machines.
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre-entry positions", preferably by E-Mail: Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY Human Resources Department
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre electronic application System: Online-Application or by email recruitment@desy.de Deutsches Elektronen
Towards a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics providing a model of the physical world
Emilio Santos
2014-10-03
It is argued that a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is possible and useful. Current interpretations, from Copenhagen to many worlds are critically revisited. The difficulties for intuitive models of quantum physics are pointed out and possible solutions proposed. In particular the existence of discrete states, the quantum jumps, the alleged lack of objective properties, measurement theory, the probabilistic character of quantum physics, the wave-particle du- ality and the Bell inequalities are analyzed. The sketch of a realistic picture of the quantum world is presented. It rests upon the assump- tion that quantum mechanics is a stochastic theory whose randomness derives from the existence of vacuum fields. They correspond to the vacuum fluctuations of quantum field theory, but taken as real rather than virtual.
The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Goronwy Tudor
1991-01-01
Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)
Applications of particle physics to the early universe
Senatore, Leonardo
2006-01-01
In this thesis, I show some of the results of my research work in the field at the crossing between Cosmology and Particle Physics. The Cosmology of several models of the Physics Beyond the Standard Model is studied. These ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baily, Charles Raymond
A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandora's Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.
Quantum algorithms for computational nuclear physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viš?ák, Jakub
2015-07-01
While quantum algorithms have been studied as an efficient tool for the stationary state energy determination in the case of molecular quantum systems, no similar study for analogical problems in computational nuclear physics (computation of energy levels of nuclei from empirical nucleon-nucleon or quark-quark potentials) have been realized yet. Although the difference between the above mentioned studies might seem negligible, it will be examined. First steps towards a particular simulation (on classical computer) of the Iterative Phase Estimation Algorithm for deuterium and tritium nuclei energy level computation will be carried out with the aim to prove algorithm feasibility (and extensibility to heavier nuclei) for its possible practical realization on a real quantum computer.
The straw man of quantum physics
Peter Morgan
2008-10-15
The violation of Bell inequalities by experiment has convinced physicists that we cannot maintain a classical view of the world. When we argue against the possibility of local realist hidden-variable models, however, the ubiquitous requirement of realism, that "measurement results depend on pre-existing properties of objects that are independent of the measurement", reduces classical theory to a straw man. When our most successful physical theories have been field theories for well over a century, and probabilistic for almost as long, the proper comparison is between quantum fields and random fields, for which there are no sharply defined objects and no properties, so that realism is inapplicable. If we model quantum fluctuations explicitly, we can construct random field models as alternatives to quantum field models.
Quantum graphs with two-particle contact interactions
Jens Bolte; Joachim Kerner
2012-07-24
We construct models of many-particle quantum graphs with singular two-particle contact interactions, which can be either hardcore- or delta-interactions. Self-adjoint realisations of the two-particle Laplacian including such interactions are obtained via their associated quadratic forms. We prove discreteness of spectra as well as Weyl laws for the asymptotic eigenvalue counts. These constructions are first performed for two distinguishable particles and then for two identicle bosons. Furthermore, we extend the models to N bosons with two-particle interactions, thus implementing the Lieb-Liniger model on a graph.
A quantum interface to charged particles in a vacuum
Hiroshi Okamoto
2015-05-10
A superconducting qubit device suitable for interacting with a flying electron has recently been proposed [H. Okamoto and Y. Nagatani, Appl. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{104}, 062604 (2014)]. Either a clockwise or counter clockwise directed loop of half magnetic flux quantum encodes a qubit, which naturally interacts with any single charged particle with arbitrary kinetic energy. Here, the device's properties, sources of errors and possible applications are studied in detail. In particular, applications include detection of a charged particle without applying a force to it. Furthermore, quantum states can be transferred between an array of the proposed devices and the charged particle.
HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS LABORATORIES AND AGENCIES Particle Data Group
´orica, Depto. de F´isica; CC 67; 1900 La Plata (Phone #1 is Theor. Physics Lab; #2 is Physics) Fax: (221HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS LABORATORIES AND AGENCIES Particle Data Group Lawrence Berkeley National, write to: List of Addresses of High-Energy Physics Institutes Scientific Information Service CERN
Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, Mark B.
2010-10-01
The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For example, Halliday, Resnick, and Walker describe the origin of atomic quantum numbers as such: "The restrictions on the values of the quantum number for the hydrogen atom, as listed in Table 39-2, are not arbitrary but come out of the solution to Schrödinger's equation." They give no further justification, but do point out the values are in conflict with the predictions of the Bohr model.
Nuclear Physics from Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics
Martin J. Savage
2015-10-07
Quantum Chromodynamics and Quantum Electrodynamics, both renormalizable quantum field theories with a small number of precisely constrained input parameters, dominate the dynamics of the quarks and gluons - the underlying building blocks of protons, neutrons, and nuclei. While the analytic techniques of quantum field theory have played a key role in understanding the dynamics of matter in high energy processes, they encounter difficulties when applied to low-energy nuclear structure and reactions, and dense systems. Expected increases in computational resources into the exascale during the next decade will provide the ability to determine a range of important strong interaction processes directly from QCD using the numerical technique of Lattice QCD. This will complement the nuclear physics experimental program, and in partnership with new thrusts in nuclear many-body theory, will enable unprecedented understanding and refinement of nuclear forces and, more generally, the visible matter in our universe. In this presentation, I will discuss the state-of-the-art Lattice QCD calculations of quantities of interest in nuclear physics, progress that is expected in the near future, and the anticipated impact.
Two-particle quantum correlations at graphene edges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gräfe, Markus; Szameit, Alexander
2015-09-01
Its remarkable properties render graphene—in its pure and artificial forms—one of the most attractive materials in current research, with major attention given to the topological edge states at the bearded and zigzag edge. In our work, we exploit these quasi-one-dimensional (1D) systems in terms of quantum transport and quantum random walks and investigate how two-particle quantum states evolve at these edges. We find that their quantum correlation dynamics are clearly influenced by the lattice geometry and elaborate on the differences to those in genuine 1D lattices.
Energy related applications of elementary particle physics
Rafelski, J.
1989-10-30
Study of muon catalysis of nuclear fusion and phenomena commonly referred to as cold fusion has been central to our effort. Muon catalyzed fusion research concentrated primarily on the identification of energy efficient production of muons, and the understanding and control of the density dependence of auto-poisoning (sticking) of the catalyst. We have also developed the in-flight fusion description of the t{mu}-d reaction, and work in progress shows promise in explaining the fusion cycle anomalies and smallness of sticking as a consequence of the dominant role of such reactions. Our cold fusion work involved the exploration of numerous environments for cold fusion reactions in materials used in the heavy water electrolysis, with emphasis on reactions consistent with the conventional knowledge of nuclear physics reactions. We then considered the possibility that a previously unobserved ultra-heavy particle X{sup {minus}} is a catalyst of dd fusion, explaining the low intensity neutrons observed by Jones et. al. 29 refs.
Modeling quantum physics with machine learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Arsenault, Louis-Francois; Millis, Andrew; Littlewood, Peter; von Lilienfeld, Anatole
2014-03-01
Machine Learning (ML) is a systematic way of inferring new results from sparse information. It directly allows for the resolution of computationally expensive sets of equations by making sense of accumulated knowledge and it is therefore an attractive method for providing computationally inexpensive 'solvers' for some of the important systems of condensed matter physics. In this talk a non-linear regression statistical model is introduced to demonstrate the utility of ML methods in solving quantum physics related problem, and is applied to the calculation of electronic transport in 1D channels. DOE contract number DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor
Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.
1998-12-14
Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.
NONLOCALITY IN QUANTUM PHYSICS NICOLAS BRUNNER
Vallette, Bruno
NONLOCALITY IN QUANTUM PHYSICS AND BEYOND NICOLAS BRUNNER Grenoble Nov 2012 #12;1. WHAT INEQUALITY ALICE BOB Bell 64,Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt 69 #12;TWO QUESTIONS X0 or X1 (Alice) Y0 or Y1 (Bob) TWO ANSWERS +1 or -1 GAME Â BELL INEQUALITY ALICE BOB X0 X1 Y0 Y1 X0 SAME OPPOSITE Bell 64,Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt
Colloquium: Majorana fermions in nuclear, particle, and solid-state physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elliott, Steven R.; Franz, Marcel
2015-01-01
Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own antiparticle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1 /2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their antiparticles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can exist only if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence does not stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid-state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This Colloquium first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own antiparticle in nuclear, particle, and solid-state physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majorana-Fermi-Segre, E.-L.; Antonoff-Overhauser-Salam, Marvin-Albert-Abdus; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2013-03-01
Majorana-fermions, being their own antiparticles, following non-Abelian anyon/semion quantum-statistics: in Zhang et.al.-...-Detwiler et.al.-...``Worlds-in-Collision'': solid-state/condensed-matter - physics spin-orbit - coupled topological-excitations in superconductors and/or superfluids -to- particle-physics neutrinos: ``When `Worlds' Collide'', analysis via Siegel[Schrodinger Centenary Symp., Imperial College, London (1987); in The Copenhagen-Interpretation Fifty-Years After the Como-Lecture, Symp. Fdns. Mod.-Phys., Joensu(1987); Symp. on Fractals, MRS Fall-Mtg., Boston(1989)-5-papers!!!] ``complex quantum-statistics in fractal-dimensions'', which explains hidden-dark-matter(HDM) IN Siegel ``Sephirot'' scenario for The Creation, uses Takagi[Prog.Theo.Phys. Suppl.88,1(86)]-Ooguri[PR D33,357(85)] - Picard-Lefschetz-Arnol'd-Vassil'ev[``Principia Read After 300 Years'', Not.AMS(1989); quantum-theory caveats comment-letters(1990); Applied Picard-Lefschetz Theory, AMS(2006)] - theorem quantum-statistics, which via Euler- formula becomes which via de Moivre- -formula further becomes which on unit-circle is only real for only, i.e, for, versus complex with imaginary-damping denominator for, i.e, for, such that Fermi-Dirac quantum-statistics for
Iyengar, Srinivasan S.
Quantum Mechanics Course Number: C668 C668: Special topics in physical chemistry: Advanced Quantum will rationalize "complicated ideas" in quantum mechanics using physically in- tuitive arguments (I think@gmail.com Chemistry, Indiana University i c 2014, Srinivasan S. Iyengar (instructor) #12;Quantum Mechanics Course
Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobson, Art
2011-01-01
In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because…
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association THEORETICAL ASTRO- PARTICLE PHYSICS· DESY, Zeuthen location, is seeking: Two Postdoctoral Researchers (f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science
Quantum mechanical tunneling of composite particle systems: Linkage to sub-barrier nuclear reactions
Shotter, A. C.; Shotter, M. D.
2011-05-15
A variety of physical phenomena have at their foundation the quantum tunneling of particles through potential barriers. Many of these phenomena can be associated with the tunneling of single inert particles. The tunneling of composite systems is more complex than for single particles due to the coupling of the tunneling coordinate with the internal degrees of freedom of the tunneling system. Reported here are the results of a study for the tunneling of a two-component projectile incident on a potential energy system which differs for the two components. A specific linkage is made to sub-Coulomb nuclear reactions.
Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture II
Marcolli, Matilde
Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture II Matilde Marcolli Villa de Leyva school, July 2011 Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, II #12;This Diff(M) 1. Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, II #12;Symmetries viewpoint: can
Entanglement of indistinguishable particles in condensed-matter physics
Dowling, Mark R.; Doherty, Andrew C. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Wiseman, Howard M. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, Centre for Quantum Dynamics, School of Science, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia)
2006-05-15
The concept of entanglement in systems where the particles are indistinguishable has been the subject of much recent interest and controversy. In this paper we study the notion of entanglement of particles introduced by Wiseman and Vaccaro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 097902 (2003)] in several specific physical systems, including some that occur in condensed-matter physics. The entanglement of particles is relevant when the identical particles are itinerant and so not distinguished by their position as in spin models. We show that entanglement of particles can behave differently than other approaches that have been used previously, such as entanglement of modes (occupation-number entanglement) and the entanglement in the two-spin reduced density matrix. We argue that the entanglement of particles is what could actually be measured in most experimental scenarios and thus its physical significance is clear. This suggests that entanglement of particles may be useful in connecting theoretical and experimental studies of entanglement in condensed-matter systems.
Entanglement of indistinguishable particles in condensed matter physics
Mark R. Dowling; Andrew C. Doherty; Howard M. Wiseman
2006-10-13
The concept of entanglement in systems where the particles are indistinguishable has been the subject of much recent interest and controversy. In this paper we study the notion of entanglement of particles introduced by Wiseman and Vaccaro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 097902 (2003)] in several specific physical systems, including some that occur in condensed matter physics. The entanglement of particles is relevant when the identical particles are itinerant and so not distinguished by their position as in spin models. We show that entanglement of particles can behave differently to other approaches that have been used previously, such as entanglement of modes (occupation-number entanglement) and the entanglement in the two-spin reduced density matrix. We argue that the entanglement of particles is what could actually be measured in most experimental scenarios and thus its physical significance is clear. This suggests entanglement of particles may be useful in connecting theoretical and experimental studies of entanglement in condensed matter systems.
Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment and Wave-Particle Superposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2015-08-01
We propose a simple implementation scheme of quantum delayed-choice experiment in linear optical system without initial entanglement resource. By choosing different detecting devices, one can selectively observe the photon's different behaviors after the photon has been passed the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The scheme shows that the photon's wave behavior and particle behavior can be observed with a single experimental setup by postselection, that is, the photon can show the superposition behavior of wave and particle. Especially, we compare the wave-particle superposition behavior and the wave-particle mixture behavior in detail, and find the quantum interference effect between wave and particle behavior, which may be helpful to reveal the nature of photonessentially.
Physics Today A quantum switch routes photons one by one
Dayan, Barak
Physics Today A quantum switch routes photons one by one Ashley G. Smart Citation: Physics Today 67 will need switches that can direct the flow of quantum bits between nodes. In networks linked by photons--say, communication networks that use photons to transmit quantum encrypted data or parallel computing schemes
Optical Physics of Quantum Wells David A. B. Miller
Miller, David A. B.
Optical Physics of Quantum Wells David A. B. Miller Rm. 4B-401, AT&T Bell Laboratories Holmdel, NJ quantum wells, and will concentrate on some of the physical effects that are seen in optical experiments07733-3030 USA 1 Introduction Quantum wells are thin layered semiconductor structures in which we can
A PROBLEM OF MOMENT REALIZABILITY IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS
Pinaud, Olivier
A PROBLEM OF MOMENT REALIZABILITY IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS FLORIAN MÃ?HATS AND OLIVIER PINAUD realizability was investigated in [14]. In the quantum setting, physical situations involving min- imization-dimensional setting: we revisit the problem of the minimization of the quantum free energy (entropy + energy) under
Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues
2015-01-01
One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction…
Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach
Aerts, Diederik
Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach Diederik Aerts FUND of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach", International Journal of Theoretical examples in detail in the light of this formalism: a classical deterministic entity and a quantum entity
Precision observables for particle physics experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jankowski, Ernest
2005-11-01
The objective of this thesis is to develop tools for interpretation of the upcoming particle physics experiments. We implement and test Optimal Jet Finder (OJF), a jet finding algorithm that is based on the global energy flow in the event. OJF is infrared and collinear safe and resolves overlapping jets dynamically. The shapes of jets are determined dynamically and are not geometrical cones. However, they are more regular than those resulting from k?, which should facilitate detector calibration of OJF. We compare the statistical uncertainties of the W-boson mass when using three different jet finding algorithms: k? . JADE, and OJF. We find that OJF gives the same accuracy as k ? but is faster than k? if a large number of calorimeter cells is analyzed. We present the details of FORTRAN 77 and object-oriented C++ implementations of OJF. We calculate the rate of the lepton flavour violating mu ? e + gamma decay in a particular Grand Unification SO(10) model by Albright and Barr. We assume the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model framework. We interpret the results in view of the recent cosmological observations from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We find that the SO(10) model is consistent with the experimental limits on the mu ? e + gamma branching ratio over a large volume of the supersymmetric parameter space. However, if the branching ratio is further constrained by the MEG experiment, carried out in the Paul Scherrer Institute, below 10 -13, the available volume of the parameter space will be significantly reduced. We calculate the QED suppression of the rate of the lepton flavour violating mu ? e + gamma decay. The result, does not depend on the details of the mechanism that, is responsible for the lepton flavour violation, except for the mass scale that enters the final expression. If this mass scale is between 100 and 1000 GeV, the numerical value of the decrease in the decay rate is between 12% and 17%. If the rare muon decay is observed in the MEG experiment, our result will enhance the precision with which the parameters of the new physics models responsible for this decay can be extracted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huggett, Nick
1995-01-01
This work first explicates the philosophy of classical and quantum fields and particles. I am interested in determining how science can have a metaphysical dimension, and then with the claim that the quantum revolution has an important metaphysical component. I argue that the metaphysical implications of a theory are properties of its models, as classical mechanics determines properties of atomic diversity and temporal continuity with its representations of distinct, continuous trajectories. It is often suggested that classical statistical physics requires that many particle states be represented so that permuting properties leads to distinct states; this implies that individuals can be reidentified across possible worlds in a non-qualitative way. I show there is no evidence for this conclusion, an important result, for it is claimed that quantum particles are not individuals. This claim is based on the misconception about classical statistics, but also on a conflation of notions of identity; I show that, while transworld identity is incompatible with quantum mechanics, other classical notions may be consistently ascribed. I also give a field-particle distinction that applies usefully in both quantum and classical domains. In the former the distinction helps defeat claims of underdetermined by data, in the latter it helps provide a minimal field metaphysics. Next I tackle renormalisation: I show how divergences occur in approximate, perturbative calculations, and demonstrate how finite, empirically verified, answers are obtained. These techniques seem to show that the predictions are not logical consequences of the exact theory. I use the techniques of the renormalisation group to establish that perturbative renormalised quantum field theory does indeed approximate the consequences of field theory. Finally, I discuss the idea (Cao and Schweber, 1994) that renormalisation proves that there can be no quantum theory of everything, only a patchwork of effective theories. The preceding chapter shows that renormalisation demonstrates only that the picture is consistent, and this is insufficient to show that physics must be phenomenological.
On an example of genuine quantum chaos Department of Physics
On an example of genuine quantum chaos M. Kuna Department of Physics Pedagogical College of S@halina.univ.gda.pl Abstract: The first example of a quantum system with the genuine quantum chaos is presented. PACS numbers the definition of ``quantum chaos''. Several defiÂ nitions exist and their interconnections have not been fully
Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics 1, processing, storing, or computing. The marriage of Quantum Physics and Information Technology -originally.2 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TRANSFER MATRIX OF A QUANTUM DEVICE It is unquestionable that the current
Bao, Lei
Understanding probabilistic interpretations of physical systems: A prerequisite to learning quantum Association of Physics Teachers. DOI: 10.1119/1.1447541 I. INTRODUCTION A student's first course in quantum the difficulties students have in learning quantum physics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the highlights
Analysis, 66 (2006) pp.52-63. Are quantum particles objects?
Saunders, Simon
2006-01-01
Analysis, 66 (2006) pp.52-63. Are quantum particles objects? Simon Saunders It is widely believed that particles in quantum mechanics are metaphysically strange; they are not individuals (the view of Cassirer of quantum particles as indistinguishable, accounts for the di¤erence between classical and quantum
PARTICLE PHYSICS: CERN Collider Glimpses Supersymmetry--Maybe.
Seife, C
2000-07-14
Last week, particle physicists at the CERN laboratory in Switzerland announced that by smashing together matter and antimatter in four experiments, they detected an unexpected effect in the sprays of particles that ensued. The anomaly is subtle, and physicists caution that it might still be a statistical fluke. If confirmed, however, it could mark the long-sought discovery of a whole zoo of new particles--and the end of a long-standing model of particle physics. PMID:17750395
Entanglement dynamics of two-particle quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carson, G. R.; Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.
2015-06-01
This paper explores the entanglement dynamics generated by interacting two-particle quantum walks on degree-regular and degree-irregular graphs. We performed spectral analysis of the time-evolution of both the particle probability distribution and the entanglement between the two particles for various interaction strength. While the particle probability distributions are stable and not sensitive to perturbations in the interaction strength, the entanglement dynamics are found to be much more sensitive to system variations. This property may be utilised to probe small differences in the system parameters.
Entanglement dynamics of two-particle quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carson, G. R.; Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.
2015-09-01
This paper explores the entanglement dynamics generated by interacting two-particle quantum walks on degree-regular and degree-irregular graphs. We performed spectral analysis of the time-evolution of both the particle probability distribution and the entanglement between the two particles for various interaction strength. While the particle probability distributions are stable and not sensitive to perturbations in the interaction strength, the entanglement dynamics are found to be much more sensitive to system variations. This property may be utilised to probe small differences in the system parameters.
Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.
2005-01-01
There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.
Quantum statistical physics of glasses at low temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Baardewijk, J.; Kühn, R.
2010-02-01
We present a quantum statistical analysis of a microscopic mean-field model of structural glasses at low temperatures. The model can be thought of as arising from a random Born von Karman expansion of the full interaction potential. The problem is reduced to a single-site theory formulated in terms of an imaginary-time path integral using replicas to deal with the disorder. We study the physical properties of the system in thermodynamic equilibrium and develop both perturbative and nonperturbative methods to solve the model. The perturbation theory is formulated as a loop expansion in terms of two-particle irreducible diagrams, and is carried to three-loop order in the effective action. The nonperturbative description is investigated in two ways, (i) using a static approximation and (ii) via quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Results for the Matsubara correlations at two-loop order perturbation theory are in good agreement with those of the quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Characteristic low-temperature anomalies of the specific heat are reproduced, both in the nonperturbative static approximation, and from a three-loop perturbative evaluation of the free energy. In the latter case the result so far relies on using Matsubara correlations at two-loop order in the three-loop expressions for the free energy, as self-consistent Matsubara correlations at three-loop order are still unavailable. We propose to justify this by the good agreement of two-loop Matsubara correlations with those obtained nonperturbatively via quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Theoretical nuclear physics---elementary particles
Kuti, J.
1989-01-01
This report briefly discusses the following topics: Thermodynamics with Wilson Fermions; beta function with Wilson Fermions; grand challenge; light flavors and nonperturbative QCD; the spin structure of the proton; the heavy Higgs Meson Problem; the heavy top quark problem; SU(2) Higgs Model; nontrivial quantum electrodynamics; vortex sheet dynamics; random surfaces and quantum gravity; strange baryon matter; supersymmetric model with the Higgs as a lepton; and Hamilton equations on group manifolds.
Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.
2005-01-01
An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.
Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory
Murayama, Hitoshi
Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory 1) Bosonic Grand-Partition Function The solution to this problem is outlined clearly in the beginning of the lecture notes `Quantum Field Theory II
Discussion of Alpha Particle Physics Issues for AT Burning Plasmas
Physics Lab. For the PPPL Science Focus Group Gratefully acknowledge: J.W. Vandam (IFS) FIRE Workshop, MayDiscussion of Alpha Particle Physics Issues for AT Burning Plasmas R. Nazikian Princeton Plasma Issues in Collective Instabilities v The physics of the Beta Induced Alfvén Eigenmodes not well
Particle Physics Meets Cosmology -- The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henry, Richard C.
1982-01-01
Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)
Eulerian and Newtonian dynamics of quantum particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashkovskiy, S. A.
2013-06-01
We derive the classical equations of hydrodynamics (the Euler and continuity equations), from which the Schrödinger equation follows as a limit case. It is shown that the statistical ensemble corresponding to a quantum system and described by the Schrödinger equation can be considered an inviscid gas that obeys the ideal gas law with a quickly oscillating sign-alternating temperature. This statistical ensemble performs the complex movements consisting of smooth average movement and fast oscillations. It is shown that the average movements of the statistical ensemble are described by the Schrödinger equation. A model of quantum motion within the limits of classical mechanics that corresponds to the hydrodynamic system considered is suggested.
Many-particle quantum graphs and Bose-Einstein condensation
Jens Bolte; Joachim Kerner
2013-09-24
In this paper we propose quantum graphs as one-dimensional models with a complex topology to study Bose-Einstein condensation and phase transitions in a rigorous way. We fist investigate non-interacting many-particle systems on quantum graphs and provide a complete classification of systems that exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation. We then consider models of interacting particles that can be regarded as a generalisation of the well-known Tonks-Girardeau gas. Here our principal result is that no phase transitions occur in bosonic systems with repulsive hardcore interactions, indicating an absence of Bose-Einstein condensation.
Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
2010-01-01
The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…
Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.
2012-01-01
This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…
Molecular Imaging: Physics and Bioapplications of Quantum Dots
Michalet, Xavier
textbooks on solid-state physics for a thorough presentation (Ashcroft and Mermin 1987; Ziman 1979CHAPTER 8 Molecular Imaging: Physics and Bioapplications of Quantum Dots Xavier Michalet, Laurent A. Bentolila, and Shimon Weiss 111 8.1 Introduction 112 8.2 Brief Overview of Quantum Dot Physics 112 8
Quantum principles and free particles. [evaluation of partitions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The quantum principles that establish the energy levels and degeneracies needed to evaluate the partition functions are explored. The uncertainty principle is associated with the dual wave-particle nature of the model used to describe quantized gas particles. The Schroedinger wave equation is presented as a generalization of Maxwell's wave equation; the former applies to all particles while the Maxwell equation applies to the special case of photon particles. The size of the quantum cell in phase space and the representation of momentum as a space derivative operator follow from the uncertainty principle. A consequence of this is that steady-state problems that are space-time dependent for the classical model become only space dependent for the quantum model and are often easier to solve. The partition function is derived for quantized free particles and, at normal conditions, the result is the same as that given by the classical phase integral. The quantum corrections that occur at very low temperatures or high densities are derived. These corrections for the Einstein-Bose gas qualitatively describe the condensation effects that occur in liquid helium, but are unimportant for most practical purposes otherwise. However, the corrections for the Fermi-Dirac gas are important because they quantitatively describe the behavior of high-density conduction electron gases in metals and explain the zero point energy and low specific heat exhibited in this case.
Quantum Electrodynamics of Confined Nonrelativistic Particles
Volker Bach; Jürg Fröhlich; Israel Michael Sigal
1998-01-01
We consider a system of finitely many nonrelativistic, quantum mechanical electrons bound to static nuclei. The electrons are minimally coupled to the quantized electromagnetic field; but we impose an ultraviolet cutoff on the electromagnetic vector potential appearing in covariant derivatives, and the interactions between the radiation field and electrons localized very far from the nuclei are turned off. For a
Quantum Marginal Problem and its Physical Relevance
Christian Schilling
2015-07-01
The Pauli exclusion principle as constraint on fermionic occupation numbers is a consequence of the much deeper fermionic exchange statistics. Just recently, it was shown by Klyachko that this antisymmetry of fermionic wave functions leads to further restrictions on natural occupation numbers. These so-called generalized Pauli constraints (GPC) significantly strengthen Pauli's exclusion principle. Our first goal is to develop an understanding of the mathematical concepts behind Klyachko's work, in the context of quantum marginal problems. Afterwards, we explore the physical relevance of GPC and study concrete physical systems from that new viewpoint. In the first part of this thesis we review Klyachko's solution of the univariate quantum marginal problem. In particular we break his abstract derivation based on algebraic topology down to a more elementary level and reveal the geometrical picture behind it. The second part explores the possible physical relevance of GPC. We review the effect of pinning, i.e. the saturation of some GPC by given natural occupation numbers and explain its consequences. Although this effect would be quite spectacular we argue that pinning is unnatural. Instead, we conjecture the effect of quasipinning, defined by occupation numbers close to (but not exactly on) the boundary of the allowed region. In the third part we study concrete fermionic quantum systems from the new viewpoint of GPC. In particular, we compute the natural occupation numbers for the ground state of a family of interacting fermions in a harmonic potential. Intriguingly, we find that the occupation numbers are strongly quasipinned, even up to medium interaction strengths. We identify this as an effect of the lowest few energy eigenstates, which provides first insights into the mechanism behind quasipinning.
Unified statistical distribution of quantum particles and Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abutaleb, Ahmad Adel
2014-11-01
In this paper we propose a unified statistics of Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics by suggesting that every particle can be associated with matter or fundamental forces with certain probability. The main Justification for this proposal is the possibility of extension of the spin-statistics theory to include a hypothetical quantum particles have fractional spin. The concept of Supersymmetry can be related to this unified statistics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie
2011-12-01
Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students’ depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of students’ descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured in-depth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map students’ depictions of the concept wave-particle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classical-quantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that students’ depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave- and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, the findings presented in this paper are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the curricula are discussed.
Quantum Theory of Non-Relativistic Particles Interacting with Gravity
C. Anastopoulos
1995-11-02
We investigate the effects of the gravitational field on the quantum dynamics of non-relativistic particles. We consider N non-relativistic particles, interacting with the linearized gravitational field. Using the Feynman - Vernon influence functional technique, we trace out the graviton field, to obtain a master equation for the system of particles to first order in $G$. The effective interaction between the particles, as well as the self-interaction is non-local in time and in general non-markovian. We show that the gravitational self-interaction cannot be held responsible for decoherence of microscopic particles due to the fast vanishing of the diffusion function. For macroscopic particles though, it leads to diagonalization to the energy eigenstate basis, a desirable feature in gravity induced collapse models. We finally comment on possible applications.
Andrei P. Kirilyuk
2004-01-01
This report provides a brief review of recently developed extended framework\\u000afor fundamental physics, designated as Quantum Field Mechanics and including\\u000acausally complete and intrinsically unified theory of explicitly emerging\\u000aelementary particles, their inherent properties, quantum and relativistic\\u000abehaviour, interactions and their results. Essential progress with respect to\\u000ausual theory is attained due to the unreduced, nonperturbative analysis of\\u000aarbitrary
Particle physics: Positrons ride the wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piot, Philippe
2015-08-01
Experiments reveal that positrons -- the antimatter equivalents of electrons -- can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron-positron particle colliders. See Letter p.442
MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
Onasch, T.B.; Sedlacek, A.; Cross, E. S.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahern, A.; Lack, D. A.; Cappa, C. D.; Trimborn, A.; Freedman, A.; Olfert, J. S.; Jayne, J. T.; Massoli, P.; Williams, L. R.; Mazzoleni, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Thornhill, D. A.; Slowik, J. G.; Kok, G. L.; Brem, B. T.; Subramanian, R.; Spackman, J. R.; Freitag, S.; and Dubey, M. K.
2009-12-14
Accurate measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosol particles containing black carbon are necessary to improve current estimates of the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. A collaborative research effort between Aerodyne Research, Inc. and Boston College has focused on conducting field and laboratory experiments on carbonaceous particles and the development and characterization of new particulate instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the chemical, physical, and optical properties of black carbon particles measured in the laboratory in order to understand the effects of atmospheric processing on black carbon particles. Results from a three-week study during July 2008 of mass- and optical-based black carbon measurements will be presented. The project utilized the Boston College laboratory flame apparatus and aerosol conditioning and characterization equipment. A pre-mixed flat flame burner operating at controlled fuel-to-air ratios produced stable and reproducible concentrations of soot particles with known sizes, morphologies, and chemical compositions. In addition, other black carbon particle types, including fullerene soot, glassy carbon spheres, oxidized flame soot, Regal black, and Aquadag, were also atomized, size selected, and sampled. The study covered an experimental matrix that systematically selected particle mobility size (30 to 300 nm) and black carbon particle mass, particle number concentration, particle shape (dynamic shape factor and fractal dimension), and particle chemistry and density (changed via coatings). Particles were coated with a measured thickness (few nm to {approx}150 nm) of sulfuric acid or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate and passed through a thermal denuder to remove the coatings. Highlights of the study to be presented include: (1) Characterization of the chemical and physical properties of various types of black carbon particles, (2) Mass specific absorption measurements as a function of fuel-to-air ratio and carbon particle type, (3) Optical absorption nhancement measurements as a function of coatings, and (4) Particle shape determination as a function of fuel-to-air ratio and collapse observed due to coatings.
Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN
ALPHA Collaboration; M. C. Fujiwara; G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; A. J. Humphries; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; W. Lai; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; L. Wasilenko; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki
2008-05-27
We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre: Online-Application or by email recruitment@desy.de Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY Human Resources
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre@desy.de Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY Human Resources Department | Code: EM065/2014 Notkestraße 85 | 22607
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre System: Online-Application or by email recruitment@desy.de Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY Human
www.uslhc.us Particle Physics at Discovery's Horizon
Quigg, Chris
www.uslhc.us Particle Physics at Discovery's Horizon September 2012 Discoveries from the Compact, ultimately, make discoveries. CMS Scientific Goals CMS scientists will use the unprecedented amount of data
The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics
Wells, James D.
2000-12-14
Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.
Quarks and Leptones: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics
Francis Halzen; Alan D. Martin
1984-01-01
This self-contained text describes breakthroughs in our understanding of the structure and interactions of elementary particles. It provides students of theoretical or experimental physics with the background material to grasp the significance of these developments.
EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERN--PPE/9353
EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERN--PPE/9353 CERN SL/9317 March 16, 1993 Measurementpositron collider, LEP, at CERN is the ideal place to measure it precisely. Although the precision of present tests
Celebrating 40 years of research in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adcock, Colin D.; Martin, Alan D.; Schwenk, Achim
2015-09-01
2015 marks the 40th anniversary of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. This editorial provides a brief history of the journal, and introduces a unique collection of invited articles from leading authors to celebrate the occasion.
Quantum heat fluctuations of single-particle sources.
Battista, F; Moskalets, M; Albert, M; Samuelsson, P
2013-03-22
Optimal single electron sources emit regular streams of particles, displaying no low-frequency charge current noise. Because of the wave packet nature of the emitted particles, the energy is, however, fluctuating, giving rise to heat current noise. We investigate theoretically this quantum source of heat noise for an emitter coupled to an electronic probe in the hot-electron regime. The distribution of temperature and potential fluctuations induced in the probe is shown to provide direct information on the single-particle wave function properties and display strong nonclassical features. PMID:25166830
Relativistic Quantum Newton's Law For A Spinless Particle
A. Bouda; F. Hammad
2002-05-17
For a one-dimensional stationary system, we derive a third order equation of motion representing a first integral of the relativistic quantum Newton's law. We then integrate this equation in the constant potential case and calculate the time spent by a particle tunneling through a potential barrier.
A computational introduction to quantum statistics using harmonically trapped particles
Ligare, Martin
in a common harmonic potential, and use a computer to enumerate all possible occupation-number configurations and multiplicities. The examples illustrate the effect of quantum statistics on the sharing of energy between weakly and Schroeder. I first consider a gas with a fixed number of weakly-interacting particles trapped together
A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge
2014-04-01
We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.
Quantum Field Theories on a Noncommutative Euclidean Space: Overview of New Physics
Yong-Shi Wu
2003-06-05
In this talk I briefly review recent developments in quantum field theories on a noncommutative Euclidean space, with Heisenberg-like commutation relations between coordinates. I will be concentrated on new physics learned from this simplest class of non-local field theories, which has applications to both string theory and condensed matter systems, and possibly to particle phenomenology.
High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy: Opportunities for Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooper, D.
2004-06-01
In this article, based on the talk given at the Cracow Epiphany Conference on Astroparticle Physics, I discuss some of the opportunities provided by high-energy and ultra-high energy neutrino astronomy in probing particle physics beyond the standard model. Following a short summary of current and next generation experiments, I review the prospects for observations of high-energy neutrino interactions, searches for particle dark matter, and measurements of absolute neutrino masses, lifetimes and pseudo-Dirac mass splittings.
Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas
Cheng, C.Z.
1997-05-01
Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma.
Supersymmetry in Particle Physics: The Renormalization Group Viewpoint
D. I. Kazakov
2000-01-25
An attempt is made to present modern hopes to find manifestation of supersymmetry, a new symmetry that relates bosons and fermions, in particle physics from the point of view of renormalization group flow. The Standard Model of particle interactions is briefly reviewed, the main notions of supersymmetry are introduced. In more detail the RG flow in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is considered. Predictions of particle spectrum are obtained based on the RG fixed points.
Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture I
Marcolli, Matilde
Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture I Matilde Marcolli Villa de Leyva school, July 2011 Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, I #12;Plan handed neutrinos; cosmological timeline and the inflation epoch; effective gravitational and cosmological
Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture IV
Marcolli, Matilde
Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture IV Matilde Marcolli Villa de Leyva school, July 2011 Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, IV #12;This, The coupling of topology and inflation in noncommutative cosmology, arXiv:1012.0780 Branimir ´Ca´ci´c, Matilde
(Physics and chemistry of van der Waals particles)
Klots, C.E.
1990-10-08
Accounts are given of the two major international conferences on the physics and chemistry of small particles, commonly referred to as van der Waals particles. Details of special interest to Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel are cited. Information exchanges at Freiburg and Paris are described.
Exploring flocking via quantum many-body physics techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souslov, Anton; Loewe, Benjamin; Goldbart, Paul M.
2015-03-01
Flocking refers to the spontaneous breaking of spatial isotropy and time-reversal symmetries in collections of bodies such as birds, fish, locusts, bacteria, and artificial active systems. The transport of matter along biopolymers using molecular motors also involves the breaking of these symmetries, which in some cases are known to be broken explicitly. We study these classical nonequilibrium symmetry-breaking phenomena by means of models of many strongly interacting particles that hop on a periodic lattice. We employ a mapping between the classical and quantum dynamics of many-body systems, combined with tools from many-body theory. In particular, we examine the formation and properties of nematic and polar order in low-dimensional, strongly-interacting active systems using techniques familiar from fermionic systems, such as self-consistent field theory and bosonization. Thus, we find that classical active systems can exhibit analogs of quantum phenomena such as spin-orbit coupling, magnetism, and superconductivity. The models we study connect the physics of asymmetric exclusion processes to the spontaneous emergence of transport and flow, and also provide a soluble cousin of Vicsek's model system of self-propelled particles.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS (SCIPP)
California at Santa Cruz, University of
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS (SCIPP) POSTDOCTORAL Scholar in the Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics under the direction of the Theory Group particle physics, astrophysics, or cosmology. PREFERRED QUALIFICATIONS: Substantial experience
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics
Colorado at Boulder, University of
, both at CU and in high school, motivations for enrolling in the course ASK STUDENTS TO DESCRIBE23 SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics. INTERVIEW PROTOCOL BACKGROUND INFORMATION Name, declared major, previous physics and mathematics courses
Gouy Phase for Relativistic Quantum Particles
Robert J. Ducharme; Irismar Gonçalves da Paz
2015-03-01
Recently Gouy rotation was observed with focused non-relativistic electron vortex beams. If the electrons in vortex beams are very fast we have to take into account relativistic effects to completely describe the Gouy phase on them. Exact Hermite-Gaussian solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation for particle beams are obtained here that make explicit the 4-position of the focal point of the beam. These are Bateman-Hillion solutions with modified phase factors to take into account the rest mass of the particles. They enable a relativistic expression for the Gouy phase to be determined. It is in fact shown all the solutions are form invariant under Lorentz transformations. It is further shown for the exact solutions to correspond to those of the Schr\\"odinger equation the relative time between the focal point and any point in the beam must be constrained to be a specific function of the relative spatial coordinates.
Elementary Particles in a Quantum Theory Over a Galois Field
Felix Lev
2008-10-26
We consider elementary particles in a quantum theory based on a Galois field. In this approach infinities cannot exist, the cosmological constant problem does not arise and one irreducible representation of the symmetry algebra necessarily describes a particle and its antiparticle simultaneously. {\\it In other words, the very existence of antiparticles is a strong indication that nature is described rather by a finite field (or at least a field with a nonzero characteristic) than by complex numbers.} As a consequence, the spin-statistics theorem is simply a requirement that standard quantum theory should be based on complex numbers and elementary particles cannot be neutral. The Dirac vacuum energy problem has a natural solution and the vacuum energy (which in the standard theory is infinite and negative) equals zero as it should be.
Alternating-color quantum dot nanocomposites for particle tracking.
Ruan, Gang; Winter, Jessica O
2011-03-01
Because of their extraordinary brightness and photostability, quantum dots (QDs) have tremendous potential for long-term, particle tracking in heterogeneous systems (e.g., living cells, microfluidic flow). However, one of their major limitations is blinking, an intermittent loss of fluorescence, characteristic of individual and small clusters of QDs, that interrupts particle tracking. Recently, several research groups have reported "nonblinking QDs". However, blinking is the primary method used to confirm nanoparticle aggregation status in situ, and single or small clusters of nanoparticles with continuous fluorescence emission are difficult to discern from large aggregates. Here, we describe a new class of quantum dot-based composite nanoparticles that solve these two seemingly irreconcilable problems by exhibiting near-continuous, alternating-color fluorescence, which permits aggregation status discrimination by observable color changes even during motion across the focal plane. These materials will greatly enhance particle tracking in cell biology, biophysics, and fluid mechanics. PMID:21322589
Photonic dark matter portal and quantum physics
S. A. Alavi; F. S. Kazemian
2015-06-14
We study a model of dark matter in which the hidden sector interacts with standard model particles via a hidden photonic portal. We investigate the effects of this new interaction on the hydrogen atom, including the Stark, Zeeman and hyperfine effects. Using the accuracy of the measurement of energy, we obtain an upper bound for the coupling constant of the model. We also calculate the contribution from the hidden photonic portal to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, which provides an important probe of physics beyond the standard model.
Uses of particle identification for supercollider physics
Quigg, C.
1989-05-01
I summarize the basic characteristics of the Superconducting Super Collider and describe the experimental environment of its high- luminosity interaction regions. I then review some of the discovery possibilities opened by the SSC, with special attention to the advantages conferred by particle identification. 16 refs., 8 figs.
Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena
Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.
1992-06-01
This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).
American particle and nuclear physics planning
Montgomery, Hugh E. [JLAB
2014-10-01
In the United States the planning process relevant to future deep inelastic scattering involves both the high energy physics and nuclear physics funding and the two communities. In Canada there is no such split between the communities. Within the past two years there have been several planning initiatives and there may be more to come. We review the current status of both the planning and the plans.
FRONTIERS ARTICLE Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics
FRONTIERS ARTICLE Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics Robert F. Curl a,*, Federico Capasso b their first demonstration, quantum cascade lasers have become the most useful sources of tunable mid applications of quantum cascade lasers to infrared spectroscopy. We foresee the potential application
Physics 3, 34 (2010) Quantum trajectories face a transition
Andrieux, David
2010-01-01
, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium Published April 19, 2010 Quantum jumps such as those Mechanics A Viewpoint on: Thermodynamics of Quantum Jump Trajectories Juan P. Garrahan and Igor LesanovskyPhysics 3, 34 (2010) Viewpoint Quantum trajectories face a transition David Andrieux Department
Critique of "Quantum Enigma:Physic encounters Consciousness"
Michael Nauenberg
2007-05-15
The central claim that understanding quantum mechanics requires a conscious observer, which is made made by B. Rosenblum and F. Kuttner in their book "Quantum Enigma: Physics encounters consciousnes", is shown to be based on various misunderstandings and distortions of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
ADVANCES IN IMAGING AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 128 Quantum Tomography
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
ADVANCES IN IMAGING AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 128 Quantum Tomography G. MAURO D'ARIANO, MATTEO G. A. PARIS, and MASSIMILIANO F. SACCHI Quantum Optics and Information Group, Istituto Nazionale per la ............................. 223 B. Conventional Tomographic Imaging ...................... 224 1. Extension to the Quantum Domain
Particle and Wave: Developing the Quantum Wave Accompanying a Classical Particle
C. L. Herzenberg
2008-12-04
The relationship between classical and quantum mechanics is explored in an intuitive manner by the exercise of constructing a wave in association with a classical particle. Using special relativity, the time coordinate in the frame of reference of a moving particle is expressed in terms of the coordinates in the laboratory frame of reference in order to provide an initial spatiotemporal function to work from in initiating the development of a quantum wave. When temporal periodicity is ascribed to the particle, a provisional spatiotemporal function for a particle travelling at constant velocity manifests itself as an running wave characterized by parameters associated with the moving particle. A wave description for bidirectional motion is generated based on an average time coordinate for a combination of oppositely directed elementary running waves, and the resulting spatiotemporal function exhibits wave behavior characteristic of a standing wave. Ascribing directional orientation to the intrinsic periodicity of the particle introduces directional sub-states; variations in the relative number of sub-states as a function of angle in combined states lead to spatially varying magnitudes for the associated waves. Further analysis leads to full mathematical expression for all waves representing free particle motion. A generalization for particles subject to force fields enables us to develop a governing differential equation identical in form to the Schroedinger equation.
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report
Not Available
1991-12-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).
Multiparty quantum key agreement with single particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-yan
2013-04-01
Two conditions must be satisfied in a secure quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol: (1) outside eavesdroppers cannot gain the generated key without introducing any error; (2) the generated key cannot be determined by any non-trivial subset of the participants. That is, a secure QKA protocol can not only prevent the outside attackers from stealing the key, but also resist the attack from inside participants, i.e. some dishonest participants determine the key alone by illegal means. How to resist participant attack is an aporia in the design of QKA protocols, especially the multi-party ones. In this paper we present the first secure multiparty QKA protocol against both outside and participant attacks. Further more, we have proved its security in detail.
Physics of compaction of fine cohesive particles.
Castellanos, A; Valverde, J M; Quintanilla, M A S
2005-02-25
Fluidized fractal clusters of fine particles display critical-like dynamics at the jamming transition, characterized by a power law relating consolidation stress with volume fraction increment [sigma--(c) proportional, variant(Deltaphi)(beta)]. At a critical stress clusters are disrupted and there is a crossover to a logarithmic law (Deltaphi = nu logsigma--(c)) resembling the phenomenology of soils. We measure lambda identical with- partial differentialDelta(1/phi)/ partial log(sigma--(c) proportional, variant Bo(0.2)(g), where Bo(g) is the ratio of interparticle attractive force (in the fluidlike regime) to particle weight. This law suggests that compaction is ruled by the internal packing structure of the jammed clusters at nearly zero consolidation. PMID:15783824
The engineering needed for particle physics.
Myers, Steve
2012-08-28
Today's particle accelerators and detectors are among the most complicated and expensive scientific instruments ever built, and they exploit almost every aspect of today's cutting-edge engineering technologies. In many cases, accelerator needs have been the driving force behind these new technologies, necessity being the mother of invention. This paper gives an overview of some engineering requirements for the construction and operation of present-day accelerators and detectors. PMID:22802495
Black Holes and Massive Elementary Particles in Resummed Quantum Gravity
B. F. L. Ward
2005-02-10
Einstein's general theory of relativity poses many problems to the quantum theory of point particle fields. Among them is the fate of a massive point particle. Since its rest mass exists entirely within its Schwarzschild radius, in the classical solutions of Einstein's theory, the respective system should be a black hole. We address this issue using exact results in a new approach to quantum gravity based upon well-tested resummation methods in point particle quantum field theory. We show that the classical conclusion is obviated by quantum loop effects. We show that our new approach already passes two theoretical checks with the published literature; for, it reproduces known results on the one-loop correction to the graviton self-energy in scaler matter coupled to Einstein's gravity as analyzed by 't Hooft and Veltman and it is consistent with the asymptotic safety results of Bonnanno and Reuter on the behavior of Newton's constant in the deep Euclidean regime. Indeed, our approach is consistent with the black hole phenomenology of the latter authors, including their results on the final state of the Hawking radiation for an originally massive black hole. Further black hole related phenomenological implications are also discussed.
Long-time behavior of many-particle quantum decay
Campo, A. del
2011-07-15
While exponential decay is ubiquitous in nature, deviations at both short and long times are dictated by quantum mechanics. Nonexponential decay is known to arise due to the possibility of reconstructing the initial state from the decaying products. We discuss the quantum decay dynamics by tunneling of a many-particle system, characterizing the long-time nonexponential behavior of the nonescape and survival probabilities. The effects of contact interactions and quantum statistics are described. It is found that, whereas for noninteracting bosons the long-time decay follows a power law with an exponent linear in the number of particles N, the exponent becomes quadratic in N in the fermionic case. The same results apply to strongly interacting many-body systems related by the generalized Bose-Fermi duality. The faster fermionic decay can be traced back to the effective hard-core interactions between particles, which are as well the decaying products, and exhibit spatial antibunching which hinders the reconstruction of the initial unstable state. The results are illustrated with a paradigmatic model of quantum decay from a trap allowing leaks by tunneling, whose dynamics is described exactly by means of an expansion in resonant states.
Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.
2010-01-01
Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…
Quantum Physics at the `Einstein meets Magritte' conference
Aerts, Diederik
Quantum Physics at the `Einstein meets Magritte' conference Diederik Aerts Center Leo Apostel: Aerts, D., 1996, "Quantum physics at the Einstein meets Magritte confer- ence", Int. J. Theor. Phys., 35 Herrnstein-Smith, Ilya Prigogine, Linda Schele, John Zimon. Workshop 2: The Nature of Life and Death. William
Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics
Vitor Cardoso
2013-08-30
Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a forty-year long history, black hole physics is a fully-blossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This write-up, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.
Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics
Cardoso, Vitor
2013-01-01
Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a forty-year long history, black hole physics is a fully-blossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This write-up, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.
J-PARC Status, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Sato, Susumu [Advanced Science Research Center/J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)
2011-06-01
J-PARC accelerator research complex, consisting of LINAC, RCS and MR synchrotron, has successfully produced neutron, muons, kaons, and neutrinos by steady commissioning since November 2006. There are three experimental facilities, and for nuclear and particle physics, nine experiments are approved in a hadron physics facility, and one experiment is approved in a neutrino physics facility. Those experiments and status of J-PARC are described in this paper.
Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)
Dittmann, J.R.
2012-08-25
This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cutting-edge measurements from proton-antiproton collisions at the energy frontier.
Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles
Maurício Richartz; Alberto Saa
2011-10-21
Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black-holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-1/2 fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-1/2 charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.
Statistical Challenges with Massive Data Sets in Particle Physics
Bruce Knuteson; Paul Padley
2003-05-21
The massive data sets from today's particle physics experiments present a variety of challenges amenable to the tools developed by the statistics community. From the real-time decision of what subset of data to record on permanent storage, to the reduction of millions of channels of electronics to a few dozen high-level variables of primary interest, to the interpretation of these high-level observables in the context of an underlying physical theory, there are many problems that could benefit from a higher-bandwidth exchange of ideas between our fields. Examples of interesting problems from various stages in the collection and interpretation of particle physics data are provided in an attempt to whet the appetite of future collaborators with knowledge of potentially helpful techniques, and to encourage fruitful discussion between the particle physics and statistics communities.
H. J. de Vega; N. G. Sanchez
2007-01-01
We uncover the general mechanism producing the dark energy(DE).This is only\\u000abased on well known quantum physics and cosmology. We show that the observed DE\\u000aoriginates from the cosmological quantum vacuum of light particles which\\u000aprovides a continuous energy distribution able to reproduce the data. Bosons\\u000agive positive contributions to the DE while fermions yield negative contri-\\u000abutions. As usual
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.
2014-10-19
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore »interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.
2015-07-01
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
J. Carlson; S. Gandolfi; F. Pederiva; Steven C. Pieper; R. Schiavilla; K. E. Schmidt; R. B. Wiringa
2015-04-29
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Process Physics: From Quantum Foam to General Relativity
Reginald T. Cahill
2002-03-05
Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality. Here general relativity and the technical language of general covariance is seen not to be fundamental but a phenomenological construct, arising as an amalgam of two distinct phenomena: the `gravitational' characteristics of the emergent quantum foam for which `matter' acts as a sink, and the classical `spacetime' measurement protocol, but with the later violated by quantum measurement processes. Quantum gravity, as manifested in the emergent Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of the process-space or quantum foam, is logically prior to the emergence of the general relativity phenomenology, and cannot be derived from it.
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, David
2004-05-01
To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly relaxed style with infectious enthusiasm for his subject, and readily combines formal instruction with physical insight. The result is a serious, pedagogical yet comprehensive guide to the fascinating and important field of one-dimensional quantum systems, for which many a graduate student (and not a few oldies) will be grateful. The first half of the book, chapters 1--5, is devoted to a coherent presentation of the essential concepts and theoretical methods of the field. After a basic introduction to the unique behaviour of interacting electrons in one dimension, and to early fermionic approaches to the problem, Giamarchi turns to the technique of bosonization, introducing chapter 3 with a Marxist quote: `A child of five would understand this. Send for a child of five.' This most powerful technique is presented in a step by step fashion, and serious perusal of the chapter will benefit all ages since bosonization is used extensively throughout the rest of the book. The same is true of chapter 3 where a phenomenological and physically insightful introduction is given to the Luttinger liquid---the key concept in the low-energy physics of one-dimensional systems, analogous to the Fermi liquid in higher dimensions. Chapter 4 deals with what the author calls `refinements', or complications of the sort theorists in particular welcome; such as how the Luttinger liquid description is modified by the presence of long-ranged interactions, the Mott transition (`we forgot the lattice Gromit'), and the effects of breaking spin rotational invariance on application of a magnetic field. Finally chapter 5 describes various microscopic methods for one dimension, including a brief discussion of numerical techniques but focussing primarily on the Bethe ansatz---the famous one-dimensional technique others seek to emulate but whose well known complexity necessitates a relatively brief discussion, confined in practice to the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model. In the second half of the book, chapters 6--11, a range of different physical realizations of one-dimensional quantum physics are dis
From Particle Physics to Astroparticle Physics: Proton Decay and the Rise of Non-accelerator Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Hinrich
The search for proton decay was motivated by simple questions about the content of the observable universe. Why is matter so stable and why do we not see antimatter of primordial origin? The symmetry of the standard model of particle physics would have required that matter and antimatter annihilated in the early universe. In 1968, Sacharov showed that the matter-antimatter asymmetry could have formed in a state of thermal non-equilibrium of the universe, as given in big bang cosmology, together with the well-confirmed C and CP violations, and proton decay. The latter phenomenon could be only investigated in large none-accelerator experiments. The SU(5) extension of the standard model implied a proton lifetime of about 1029 years. With detectors consisting of 1 000 tons of matter and located deep under the Earth surface, such as the French-German Fréjus iron-calorimeter, in the mid 1980s one expected to detect several proton decays per year. Here, we report on the way leading from accelerator laboratories to underground physics, which paradoxically enough turned out to studying cosmic rays. There has not been any evidence for the instability of protons, and lifetime limits of more than 1034 years have been obtained. However, great progress in particle physics and in the physics of cosmic rays could be achieved with neutrinos.
Lagrangian Formulation for Particle Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: Single-Particle Case
Roderick I. Sutherland
2015-08-28
A Lagrangian description is presented which can be used in conjunction with particle interpretations of quantum mechanics. A special example of such an interpretation is the well-known Bohm model. The Lagrangian density introduced here also contains a potential for guiding the particle. The advantages of this description are that the field equations and the particle equations of motion can both be deduced from a single Lagrangian density expression and that conservation of energy and momentum are assured. After being developed in a general form, this Lagrangian formulation is then applied to the special case of the Bohm model as an example. It is thereby demonstrated that such a Lagrangian description is compatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics.
Lagrangian Description for Particle Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: Single-Particle Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, Roderick I.
2015-06-01
A Lagrangian description is presented which can be used in conjunction with particle interpretations of quantum mechanics. A special example of such an interpretation is the well-known Bohm model. The Lagrangian density introduced here also contains a potential for guiding the particle. The advantages of this description are that the field equations and the particle equations of motion can both be deduced from a single Lagrangian density expression and that conservation of energy and momentum are assured. After being developed in a general form, this Lagrangian formulation is then applied to the special case of the Bohm model as an example. It is thereby demonstrated that such a Lagrangian description is compatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics.
Particle quantum states with indefinite mass and neutrino oscillations
Lobanov, A E
2015-01-01
Spaces of particle states are constructed in such a way that charged leptons, neutrinos, as well as down- and up-type quarks are combined in multiplets with their components being considered as different quantum states of a single particle. In the theory based on the Lagrangian of fermion sector of the Standard Model modified with this approach the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations appears. By example of pion decay it is shown that the states of the neutrino, arising in the process of decay may be described by a superposition of states with identical momenta with very high accuracy.
Particle quantum states with indefinite mass and neutrino oscillations
A. E. Lobanov
2015-07-05
Spaces of particle states are constructed in such a way that charged leptons, neutrinos, as well as down- and up-type quarks are combined in multiplets with their components being considered as different quantum states of a single particle. In the theory based on the Lagrangian of fermion sector of the Standard Model modified with this approach the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations appears. By example of pion decay it is shown that the states of the neutrino, arising in the process of decay may be described by a superposition of states with identical momenta with very high accuracy.
H. J. de Vega
2007-01-01
We show that the observed dark energy (DE) originates from the cosmological quantum vacuum of light particles which provides a continuous energy distribution able to reproduce the data.Bosons give positive contributions to the DE while fermions yield negative contributions. As usual in field theory, ultraviolet divergences are subtracted from the physical quantities. The subtractions respect the symmetries of the theory
Site-selective particle deposition in periodically driven quantum lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wulf, Thomas; Liebchen, Benno; Schmelcher, Peter
2015-04-01
We demonstrate that a site-dependent driving of a periodic potential allows for the controlled manipulation of a quantum particle on length scales of the lattice spacing. Specifically we observe for distinct driving frequencies a near depletion of certain sites which is explained by a resonant mixing of the involved Floquet-Bloch modes occurring at these frequencies. Our results could be exploited as a scheme for a site-selective loading of, e.g., ultracold atoms into an optical lattice.
Site-selective particle deposition in periodically driven quantum lattices
Thomas Wulf; Benno Liebchen; Peter Schmelcher
2015-02-05
We demonstrate that a site-dependent driving of a periodic potential allows for the controlled manipulation of a quantum particle on length scales of the lattice spacing. Specifically we observe for distinct driving frequencies a near depletion of certain sites which is explained by a resonant mixing of the involved Floquet-Bloch modes occurring at these frequencies. Our results could be exploited as a scheme for a site-selective loading of e.g. ultracold atoms into an optical lattices.
Classification of two-particle quantum channels of information transfer
Constantin V. Usenko
2007-02-10
Classification of states of two-particle quantum channels of information transfer is built on the basis of irreducible representations of qubit state space group of symmetry and properties of density matrix spectrum. It is shown that the reason of state disentanglement can be in degeneration of non-zero density matrix eigenvalues. Among the states with non-degenerate density matrix disentangled states form two-dimensional surface of special states.
The Concept of Particle Weights in Local Quantum Field Theory
Porrmann, M
2000-01-01
The concept of particle weights has been introduced by Buchholz and the author in order to obtain a unified treatment of particles as well as (charged) infraparticles which do not permit a definition of mass and spin according to Wigner's theory. Particle weights arise as temporal limits of physical states in the vacuum sector and describe the asymptotic particle content. Following a thorough analysis of the underlying notion of localizing operators, we give a precise definition of this concept and investigate the characteristic properties. The decomposition of particle weights into pure components which are linked to irreducible representations of the quasi-local algebra has been a long-standing desideratum that only recently found its solution...
Quantum walks and orbital states of a Weyl particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katori, Makoto; Fujino, Soichi; Konno, Norio
2005-07-01
The time-evolution equation of a one-dimensional quantum walker is exactly mapped to the three-dimensional Weyl equation for a zero-mass particle with spin 1/2 , in which each wave number k of the walker’s wave function is mapped to a point q(k) in the three-dimensional momentum space and q(k) makes a planar orbit as k changes its value in [-?,?) . The integration over k providing the real-space wave function for a quantum walker corresponds to considering an orbital state of a Weyl particle, which is defined as a superposition (curvilinear integration) of the energy-momentum eigenstates of a free Weyl equation along the orbit. Konno’s novel distribution function of a quantum walker’s pseudovelocities in the long-time limit is fully controlled by the shape of the orbit and how the orbit is embedded in the three-dimensional momentum space. The family of orbital states can be regarded as a geometrical representation of the unitary group U(2) and the present study will propose a new group-theoretical point of view for quantum-walk problems.
Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahne, Gerhard
2012-01-01
Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.
Finite-particle-number approach to physics
Noyes, H.P.
1982-10-01
Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.
Effects related to spacetime foam in particle physics
A. A. Kirillov
1999-11-22
It is found that the existence of spacetime foam leads to a situation in which the number of fundamental quantum bosonic fields is a variable quantity. The general aspects of an exact theory that allows for a variable number of fields are discussed, and the simplest observable effects generated by the foam are estimated. It is shown that in the absence of processes related to variations in the topology of space, the concept of an effective field can be reintroduced and standard field theory can be restored. However, in the complete theory the ground state is characterized by a nonvanishing particle number density. From the effective-field standpoint, such particles are "dark". It is assumed that they comprise dark matter of the universe. The properties of this dark matter are discussed, and so is the possibility of measuring the quantum fluctuation in the field potentials.
Relational particle models as toy models for quantum gravity and quantum cosmology
E. Anderson
2006-05-22
It is argued that substantial portions of both Newtonian particle mechanics and general relativity can be viewed as relational (rather than absolute) theories. I furthermore use the relational particle models as toy models to investigate the problem of time in closed-universe canonical quantum general relativity. I consider thus in particular the internal time, semiclassical and records tentative resolutions of the problem of time.
Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics
Stapp, H.P.
1999-05-01
How is mind related to matter? This ancient question inphilosophy is rapidly becoming a core problem in science, perhaps themost important of all because it probes the essential nature of manhimself. The origin of the problem is a conflict between the mechanicalconception of human beings that arises from the precepts of classicalphysical theory and the very different idea that arises from ourintuition: the former reduces each of us to an automaton, while thelatter allows our thoughts to guide our actions. The dominantcontemporary approaches to the problem attempt to resolve this conflictby clinging to the classical concepts, and trying to explain away ourmisleading intuition. But a detailed argument given here shows why, in ascientific approach to this problem, it is necessary to use the morebasic principles of quantum physics, which bring the observer into thedynamics, rather than to accept classical precepts that are profoundlyincorrect precisely at the crucial point of the role of humanconsciousness in the dynamics of human brains. Adherence to the quantumprinciples yields a dynamical theory of the mind/brain/body system thatis in close accord with our intuitive idea of what we are. In particular,the need for a self-observing quantum system to pose certain questionscreates a causal opening that allowsmind/brain dynamics to have threedistinguishable but interlocked causal processes, one micro-local, onestochastic, and the third experiential. Passing to the classical limit inwhich the critical difference between zero and the finite actual value ofPlanck's constant is ignored not only eliminates the chemical processesthat are absolutely crucial to the functioning of actual brains, itsimultaneously blinds the resulting theoretical construct to the physicalfine structure wherein the effect of mind on matter lies: the use of thislimit in this context is totally unjustified from a physicsperspective.
Deutsch, Josh
Physics 10 Particle Physics in the LHC Era. Professor Dine Fall, 2006. Homework Set. Due Tues., Oct in particle physics are important if we are ever to understand the history of the universe at times very close to the big bang. #12;Some References 1. National Academy Report on particle physics, EPP2010, Executive
CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass
Jesus, J.F.; Pereira, S.H. E-mail: shpereira@gmail.com
2014-07-01
In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation ? for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form t{sup 2/3+?}. Based on recent H(z) data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the ? parameter have been found as m = 1.6× 10{sup 3} GeV, restricted to a 68.3% c.l. interval of 1.5 < m < 6.3× 10{sup 7}) GeV and ? = -0.250{sup +0.15}{sub -0.096} at 68.3% c.l. For these best fit values the model correctly recovers a transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion and admits a positive creation rate near the present era. Contrary to recent works in CCDM models where the creation rate was phenomenologically derived, here we have used a quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called ''dark degeneracy'', where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.
A QuAntum DigitAl universe QuAntum informAtion helps founDAtions of physics
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
A QuAntum DigitAl universe QuAntum informAtion helps founDAtions of physics Giacomo mauro D but to probe the limits of quantum physics, pushing its boundaries both theoretically and experimentally. vol28 scienza in primo piano 1 Introduction: the lesson of Quantum Information Within the history of quantum
Particle physics in the cosmos - Readings from Scientific American Magazine
Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Trower, W.P.
1989-01-01
The cosmological implications of current particle-physics theory are explored in a collection of reviews for general readers, originally published during the period 1974-1986. Topics addressed include dark matter in the universe, the structure of the early universe, the large-scale structure of the universe, a unified theory of elementary particles and forces, and gauge theories of the forces between elementary particles. Consideration is given to theoretical models and observational searches for proton decay, superheavy magnetic monopoles, deuterium in the universe, the cosmic asymmetry between matter and antimatter, the inflationary universe, and the future of the universe. Diagrams, graphs, and sample images are provided.
Quantum Information and Paradoxes of Physics
Rosner, Jonathan L.
and the incompleteness of quantum mechanics - Schroedinger's Cat (1935) - Entanglement and macro-realism - Maxwell of these are at least as essential to the meaning of quantum theory as is solving the time-independent Schroedinger
Quantum physics: Watching the wavefunction collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Andrew N.
2013-10-01
The continuous random path of a superconducting system's quantum state has been tracked as the state changes during measurement. The results open the possibility of steering quantum systems into a desired state. See Letter p.211
Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review
Redondo, Antonio
2010-01-01
The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.
Single-particle spectroscopic measurements of fluorescent graphene quantum dots.
Xu, Qinfeng; Zhou, Qi; Hua, Zheng; Xue, Qi; Zhang, Chunfeng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Pan, Dengyu; Xiao, Min
2013-12-23
We have performed the first single-particle spectroscopic measurements on individual graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and revealed several intriguing fluorescent phenomena that are otherwise hidden in the optical studies of ensemble GQDs. First, despite noticeable differences in the size and the number of layers from particle to particle, all of the GQDs studied possess almost the same spectral lineshapes and peak positions. Second, GQDs with more layers are normally brighter emitters but are associated with shorter fluorescent lifetimes. Third, the fluorescent spectrum of GQDs was red-shifted upon being aged in air, possibly due to the water desorption effect. Finally, the missing emission of single photons and stable fluorescence without any intermittent behavior were observed from individual GQDs. PMID:24251867
Quantum graphs with singular two-particle interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolte, Jens; Kerner, Joachim
2013-02-01
We construct quantum models of two particles on a compact metric graph with singular two-particle interactions. The Hamiltonians are self-adjoint realizations of Laplacians acting on functions defined on pairs of edges in such a way that the interaction is provided by boundary conditions. In order to find such Hamiltonians closed and semi-bounded quadratic forms are constructed, from which the associated self-adjoint operators are extracted. We provide a general characterization of such operators and, furthermore, produce certain classes of examples. We then consider identical particles and project to the bosonic and fermionic subspaces. Finally, we show that the operators possess purely discrete spectra and that the eigenvalues are distributed following an appropriate Weyl asymptotic law.
Howard E. Haber Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Howard E. Haber Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department-Higgs Doublet Model up to the Planck scale, P. Fer- reira, H. E. Haber and E. Santos, arXiv:1505.04001 [hep-ph], submitted to Physical Review D. Books 1. The Higgs Hunter's Guide, J.F. Gunion, H.E. Haber, G.L. Kane, and S
Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics
Not Available
1990-11-30
This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.
On the calculation rule of probability of relativistic free particle in quantum mechanics
T. Mei
2008-08-05
As is well known, in quantum mechanics, the calculation rule of the probability that an eigen-value a_n is observed when the physical quantity A is measured for a state described by the state vector |> is P(a_n)= . However, in Ref.[1], based on strict logical reasoning and mathematical calculation, it has been pointed out, replacing , one should use a new rule to calculate P(a_n) for particle satisfying the Dirac equation. In this paper, we first state some results given by Ref.[1]. And then, we present a proof for the new calculation rule of probability according to Dirac sea of negative energy particles, hole theory and the principle "the vacuum is not observable". Finally, we discuss simply the case of particle satisfying the Klein-Gordon equation.
Schipper, Meike L.; Iyer, Gopal; Koh, Ai Leen; Cheng, Zhen; Ebenstein, Yuval; Aharoni, Assaf; Keren, Shay; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Li, Jianquing; Rao, Jianghong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Banin, Uri; Wu, Anna M.; Sinclair, Robert; Weiss, Shimon
2011-01-01
This study evaluates the influence of particle size, PEGylation, and surface coating on the quantitative biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots (QDs) in mice. Polymer- or peptide-coated 64Cu-labeled QDs 2 or 12 nm in diameter, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 2000, are studied by serial micropositron emission tomography imaging and region-of-interest analysis, as well as transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PEGylation and peptide coating slow QD uptake into the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), liver and spleen, by a factor of 6–9 and 2–3, respectively. Small particles are in part renally excreted. Peptide-coated particles are cleared from liver faster than physical decay alone would suggest. Renal excretion of small QDs and slowing of RES clearance by PEGylation or peptide surface coating are encouraging steps toward the use of modified QDs for imaging living subjects. PMID:19051182
W. A. Hofer
1997-06-23
Considering the recently established arbitrariness the Schroedinger equation has to be interpreted as an equation of motion for a statistical ensemble of particles. The statistical qualities of individual particles derive from the unknown intrinsic energy components, they depend on the physical environment by way of external potentials. Due to these statistical qualities and wave function normalization, non-locality is inherent to the fundamental relations of Planck, de Broglie and Schroedinger. A local formulation of these statements is introduced and briefly assessed, the modified and local Schroedinger equation is non-linear. Quantum measurements are analyzed in detail, the exact interplay between causal and statistical reasons in a measurement process can be accounted for. Examples of individual measurement effects in quantum theory are given, the treatment of diffraction experiments, neutron interferences, quantum erasers, the quantum Zeno effect, and interaction-free measurements can be described consistent with the suggested framework. The paper additionally provides a strictly local and deterministic calculation of interactions in a magnetic field. The results suggest that quantum theory is a statistical formalism which derives its validity in measurements from considering every possible measurement of a given system. It can equally be established, that the framework of quantum physics is theoretically incomplete, because a justification of ensemble qualities is not provided.
Linking Quantum Mechanics to Freshman Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandegrift, Guy
1998-10-01
First-year quantum mechanics can be linked to introductory physics. One example is the Mossbauer effect, which is explained using a simple solution to Schrodinger's equation involving the Dirac delta function. Generalization to N coupled harmonic oscillators shows that the equality of the forces exerted by winner and loser in the game of "tug-of-war" is only an approximation because Newton's third law of motion is not valid (unless phonon momentum is considered). Another example is a treatment of the Gaussian wavepacket which involves less algebra than found in standard textbooks, yet shows that the peak moves according to the familiar equation of motion x = vt + (1/2)at^2 when the applied force is uniform. Finally, a rendition of "Turkey in the Straw" on the viola illustrates Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which can be written in the less mysterious form, f=(N+-.1)/T , where N cycles are counted in T seconds. Students experience this uncertainty as they try to measure the frequency of a stretched slinky.
Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement Jae-Weon Lee and Eok Kyun Lee
Lee, EokKyun
Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement Jae-Weon Lee and Eok Kyun Lee Department; published 23 July 2003 A quantum cryptography scheme based on entanglement between a single-particle state Entanglement could be exploited in many interesting ap- plications, including quantum teleportation 1
Heisenberg Operators of a Dirac Particle Interacting with the Quantum Radiation
of the quantum radiation field is taken to be the boson Fock space Frad := n=0 n sym L2 (R3 ; C2 ) (1.3) over Hamiltonian of the quantum radiation field (see (2.2) below). The Hilbert space of the Dirac particleHeisenberg Operators of a Dirac Particle Interacting with the Quantum Radiation Field Asao Arai
Equality of the Inertial and the Gravitational Masses for a Quantum Particle
J. Wawrzycki
2004-01-01
We investigate the interaction of the gravitational field with a quantum particle. We derive the wave equation in the curved Galilean space-time from the very broad Quantum Mechanical assumptions and from covariance under the Milne group. The inertial and gravitational masses are equal in that equation. So, we give the proof of the equality for the non-relativistic quantum particle, without
Common non-Fermi liquid phases in quantum impurity physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logan, David E.; Tucker, Adam P.; Galpin, Martin R.
2014-08-01
We study correlated quantum impurity models that undergo a local quantum phase transition (QPT) from a strong coupling, Fermi liquid phase to a non-Fermi liquid phase with a globally doubly degenerate ground state. Our aim is to establish what can be shown exactly about such "local moment" (LM) phases, of which the permanent (zero-field) local magnetization is a hallmark, and an order parameter for the QPT. A description of the zero-field LM phase is shown to require two distinct self-energies, which reflect the broken symmetry nature of the phase and together determine the single self-energy of standard field theory. Distinct Friedel sum rules for each phase are obtained, via a Luttinger theorem embodied in the vanishing of appropriate Luttinger integrals. By contrast, the standard Luttinger integral is nonzero in the LM phase but found to have universal magnitude. A range of spin susceptibilites are also considered, including that corresponding to the local order parameter, whose exact form is shown to be RPA-like, and to diverge as the QPT is approached. Particular attention is given to the pseudogap Anderson model, including the basic physical picture of the transition, the low-energy behavior of single-particle dynamics, the quantum critical point itself, and the rather subtle effect of an applied local field. A two-level impurity model that undergoes a QPT ("singlet-triplet") to an underscreened LM phase is also considered, for which we derive on general grounds some key results for the zero-bias conductance in both phases.
Quantum Phase and Quantum Phase Operators: Some Physics and Some History
Michael Martin Nieto
1993-04-08
After reviewing the role of phase in quantum mechanics, I discuss, with the aid of a number of unpublished documents, the development of quantum phase operators in the 1960's. Interwoven in the discussion are the critical physics questions of the field: Are there (unique) quantum phase operators and are there quantum systems which can determine their nature? I conclude with a critique of recent proposals which have shed new light on the problem.
M. Asorey (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain) |