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1

Prof. C. N. Yang and Quantum Entanglement in Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of Prof. C. N. Yang's works are related to quantum entangled states in particle physics. Quantum entanglement leads to quantum information, which has been discussed in almost all areas of physics reigned by quantum mechanics, except particle physics. Here we demonstrate that the concept of quantum information can be extended to the regime of particle physics. Specifically, we will describe a scheme of quantum teleportation using neutral kaons. We also explain an idea on how to define quantum entanglement in the setting of relativistic quantum field theory. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Shi, Yu

2008-12-01

2

Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles.

We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936

Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

2015-01-01

3

Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles

We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936

Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

2015-01-01

4

Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants.

Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

2015-02-01

5

Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics

Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

None

2011-10-06

6

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum physics allows us to understand the nature of the physical phenomena which govern the behavior of solids, semi-conductors, lasers, atoms, nuclei, subnuclear particles and light. In Quantum Physics, Le Bellac provides a thoroughly modern approach to this fundamental theory. Throughout the book, Le Bellac teaches the fundamentals of quantum physics using an original approach which relies primarily on an algebraic treatment and on the systematic use of symmetry principles. In addition to the standard topics such as one-dimensional potentials, angular momentum and scattering theory, the reader is introduced to more recent developments at an early stage. These include a detailed account of entangled states and their applications, the optical Bloch equations, the theory of laser cooling and of magneto-optical traps, vacuum Rabi oscillations, and an introduction to open quantum systems. This is a textbook for a modern course on quantum physics, written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Completely original and contemporary approach, using algebra and symmetry principles Introduces recent developments at an early stage, including many topics that cannot be found in standard textbooks. Contains 130 physically relevant exercises

Le Bellac, Michel

2006-03-01

7

Quantum Physics: An Introduction

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to Quantum Physics concepts with an activity demonstrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, wave/particle duality, Planck's Constant, de Broglie wavelength, and how Newton's Laws go right out the window on a quantum level.

8

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The revered quantum physicist Richard Feynman once quipped, â??I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.â? And yet, the study of quantum mechanics has given birth to the laser, the microchip, and the electron microscope. Whatâ??s going on here? You can find out by taking Quantum Physics I, a completely free online class from MIT. The Syllabus is a great way to get situated with the course offerings and the Readings section offers links to help purchase the necessary books. When ready, strap yourself into your office chair and launch into the 24 one-hour-long Lecture Videos. Donâ??t forget the Lecture Notes (youâ??ll need those!), as well as Assignments, Exams, and Study Materials. If you have ever longed to understand the Higgs Boson or wondered how a photon can act as either a particle or a wave, this incredible, knowledge packed course from one of the top scientific universities in the world is for you.

Adams, Allan

2013-01-01

9

Quantum Particles From Quantum Information

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many problems in modern physics demonstrate that for a fundamental entity a more general conception than quantum particles or quantum fields are necessary. These concepts cannot explain the phenomena of dark energy or the mind-body-interaction. Instead of any kind of "small elementary building bricks", the Protyposis, an abstract and absolute quantum information, free of special denotation and open for some purport, gives the solution in the search for a fundamental substance. However, as long as at least relativistic particles are not constructed from the Protyposis, such an idea would remain in the range of natural philosophy. Therefore, the construction of relativistic particles without and with rest mass from quantum information is shown.

Görnitz, T.; Schomäcker, U.

2012-08-01

10

Quantum particles from classical statistics

Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.

C. Wetterich

2010-02-11

11

In Quantum Mechanics operators must be hermitian and, in a direct product space, symmetric. These properties are saved by Lie algebra operators but not by those of quantum algebras. A possible correspondence between observables and quantum algebra operators is suggested by extending the definition of matrix el- ements of a physical observable, including the eventual projection on the appro- priate

E. Celeghini; M. A. del Olmo

1969-01-01

12

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Vcb & Vub, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter.A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov/.The 2012 edition of Review of Particle Physics is published for the Particle Data Group as article 010001 in volume 86 of Physical Review D.This edition should be cited as: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), Phys. Rev. D 86, 010001 (2012).

Beringer, J.; Arguin, J.-F.; Barnett, R. M.; Copic, K.; Dahl, O.; Groom, D. E.; Lin, C.-J.; Lys, J.; Murayama, H.; Wohl, C. G.; Yao, W.-M.; Zyla, P. A.; Amsler, C.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baer, H.; Band, H. R.; Basaglia, T.; Bauer, C. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Belousov, V. I.; Bergren, E.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bethke, S.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Buchmueller, O.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M.-C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; de Florian, D.; de Gouvêa, A.; DeGrand, T.; de Jong, P.; Dissertori, G.; Dobrescu, B.; Doser, M.; Drees, M.; Edwards, D. A.; Eidelman, S.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gerbier, G.; Gherghetta, T.; Golwala, S.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grünewald, M.; Gurtu, A.; Gutsche, T.; Haber, H. E.; Hagiwara, K.; Hagmann, C.; Hanhart, C.; Hashimoto, S.; Hayes, K. G.; Heffner, M.; Heltsley, B.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hikasa, K.; Höcker, A.; Holder, J.; Holtkamp, A.; Huston, J.; Jackson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Junk, T.; Karlen, D.; Kirkby, D.; Klein, S. R.; Klempt, E.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Krauss, F.; Kreps, M.; Krusche, B.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Kwon, Y.; Lahav, O.; Laiho, J.; Langacker, P.; Liddle, A.; Ligeti, Z.; Liss, T. M.; Littenberg, L.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, S. B.; Mannel, T.; Manohar, A. V.; Marciano, W. J.; Martin, A. D.; Masoni, A.; Matthews, J.; Milstead, D.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Moortgat, F.; Nakamura, K.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Navas, S.; Neubert, M.; Nevski, P.; Nir, Y.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Parsons, J.; Patrignani, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Petcov, S. T.; Piepke, A.; Pomarol, A.; Punzi, G.; Quadt, A.; Raby, S.; Raffelt, G.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Richardson, P.; Roesler, S.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Rosner, J. L.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sakai, Y.; Salam, G. P.; Sarkar, S.; Sauli, F.; Schneider, O.; Scholberg, K.; Scott, D.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharpe, S. R.; Silari, M.; Sjöstrand, T.; Skands, P.; Smith, J. G.; Smoot, G. F.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Stone, S. L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Syphers, M. J.; Takahashi, F.; Tanabashi, M.; Terning, J.; Titov, M.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Tovey, D.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Venanzoni, G.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, P.; Vogt, A.; Walkowiak, W.; Walter, C. W.; Ward, D. R.; Watari, T.; Weiglein, G.; Weinberg, E. J.; Wiencke, L. R.; Wolfenstein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Workman, R. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Zeller, G. P.; Zenin, O. V.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Harper, G.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Schaffner, P.

2012-07-01

13

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the second edition; Preface to the first edition; 1. Quantum physics; 2. Which way are the photons pointing?; 3. What can be hidden in a pair of photons?; 4. Wonderful Copenhagen?; 5. Is it all in the mind?; 6. Many worlds; 7. Is it a matter of size?; 8. Backwards and forwards; 9. Only one way forward?; 10. Can we be consistent?; 11. Illusion or reality?; Further reading.

Rae, Alastair

2012-03-01

14

Quantum Physics for Beginners.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

Strand, J.

1981-01-01

15

Nuclear and Particle Physics applications of the Bohm Picture of Quantum Mechanics

Approximation methods for calculating individual particle/ field motions in spacetime at the quantum level of accuracy (a key feature of the Bohm Picture of Quantum Mechanics (BP)), are studied. Modern textbook presentations of Quantum Theory are used throughout, but only to provide the necessary, already existing, tested formalisms and calculational techniques. New coherent insights, reinterpretations of old solutions and results, and new (in principle testable) quantitative and qualitative predictions, can be obtained on the basis of the BP that complete the standard type of postdictions and predictions.

A. Miranda

2009-01-09

16

The Birth of Elementary-Particle Physics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the origin and development of particle physics, concentrating on the roles of cosmic rays and theory. Includes charts highlighting significant events in the development of cosmic-ray physics and quantum field theory. (SK)

Brown, Laurie M.; Hoddeson, Lillian

1982-01-01

17

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2633 new measurements from 689 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

W.-M. Yao; C. Amsler; D. Asner; R. M. Barnett; J. Beringer; P. R. Burchat; C. D. Carone; C. Caso; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; A. De Gouvea; M. Doser; S. Eidelman; J. L. Feng; T. Gherghetta; M. Goodman; C. Grab; D. E. Groom; A. Gurtu; K. Hagiwara; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; H. Jawahery; C. Kolda; Y. Kwon; M. L. Mangano; A. V. Manohar; A. Masoni; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; S. Navas; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; A. Piepke; G. Punzi; G. Raffelt; J. G. Smith; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; N. A. Törnqvist; T. G. sTrippe; P. Vogel; T. Watari; C. G. Wohl; R. L. Workman; P. A. Zyla; B. Armstrong; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner; M. Artuso; K. S. Babu; H. R. Band; E. Barberio; M. Battaglia; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; R. N. Cahn; D. Casper; A. Cattai; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; T. Damour; T. DeGrand; K. Desler; M. A. Dobbs; M. Drees; A. Edwards; D. A. Edwards; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; D. Froidevaux; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; L. Gibbons; F. J. Gilman; G. F. Giudice; A. V. Gritsan; M. Grünewald; H. E. Haber; C. Hagmann; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. JAckson; K. F. Johnson; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; K. Kleinknecht; I. G. Knowles; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Kursche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; s. B. Lugovsky; T. Mannel; D. M. Manley; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; D. Milstead; M. Narain; P. Nason; Y. Nir; J. A. Peacock; S. A. Prell; A. Quadt; S. Raby; B. N. Ratcliff; E. A. Razuvaev; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; G. Rolandi; M. T. Ronan; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; M. Schmitt; O. Schneider; D. Scott; T. Sjöstrand; G. F. Smoot; P. Sokolsky; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; R. E. Streitmatter; T. Sumiyoshi; N. P. Tkachenko; G. H. Trilling; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; D. R. Ward; B. R. Webber; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; L. Wolfenstsein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; A. Yamamoto; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu

2006-01-01

18

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

C. Amsler; M. Doser; M. Antonelli; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; H. Baer; H. R. Band; R. M. Barnett; E. Bergren; J. Beringer; G. Bernardi; W. Bertl; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; S. Blusk; R. N. Cahn; M. Carena; C. Caso; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; M.-C. Chen; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; T. Damour; A. de Gouvêa; T. DeGrand; B. Dobrescu; M. Drees; D. A. Edwards; S. Eidelman; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; J. L. Feng; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; T. Gherghetta; G. F. Giudice; M. Goodman; C. Grab; A. V. Gritsan; J.-F. Grivaz; D. E. Groom; M. Grünewald; A. Gurtu; T. Gutsche; H. E. Haber; K. Hagiwara; C. Hagmann; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; J. Huston; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; T. Junk; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; I. G. Knowles; C. Kolda; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Krusche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; Y. Kwon; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; C.-J. Lin; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; H. Mahlke; M. L. Mangano; T. Mannel; A. V. Manohar; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; A. Masoni; D. Milstead; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; M. Narain; P. Nason; S. Navas; P. Nevski; Y. Nir; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; J. A. Peacock; G. Punzi; A. Quadt; S. Raby; G. Raffelt; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; A. Romaniouk; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; F. Sauli; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; J. G. Smith; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; S. L. Stone; T. Sumiyoshi; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; M. Titov; N. P. Tkachenko; N. A. Törnqvist; D. Tovey; G. H. Trilling; T. G. Trippe; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; P. Vogel; D. R. Ward; T. Watari; B. R. Webber; G. Weiglein; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; A. Wheeler; C. G. Wohl; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; R. L. Workman; A. Yamamoto; W.-M. Yao; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu; P. A. Zyla; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner

2008-01-01

19

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel theory, when it appears, cannot but use old words to label new concepts. In some cases, the extension in meaning thus conferred to standard terminology is natural enough so that the transfer may not lead to too many misunderstandings. Most often, however, and especially when the conceptual gap between the old and the new theory is a wide one, a casual transfer of términology may lead to epistemological and pedagogical difficulties. This situation has been and still is particularly serious in quantum theory. Here, the careless use of words taken from classical physics - such as quantum “mechanics”, “uncertainty”, etc. - , is compounded by the uncritical use of interpretative terms linked to a definite, if implicit, philosophical point of view - such as “complementarity”, “wave-particle duality”, “observables”, etc. While these words and the ideas they represent have played a major role in the birth of quantum physics more than half a century ago, they are no longer necessarily the best ones to be used today. It is not argued here that we should start afresh and create from scratch a supposedly adequate vocabulary for quantum physics. Abuse of language certainly is unavoidable in science as it is in any human communication; without it, language would not live and evolve. But, at the very least, let us recognize it for what it is, so that it does not add its troubles to already complicated issues. And in some definite instances, still, a willing effort to replace specially ambiguous words might be worthwhile.

Lévy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

1988-07-01

20

The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

2014-08-31

21

Quantum Algebras and Quantum Physics

In Quantum Mechanics operators must be hermitian and, in a direct product space, symmetric. These properties are saved by Lie algebra operators but not by those of quantum algebras. A possible correspondence between observables and quantum algebra operators is suggested by extending the definition of matrix elements of a physical observable, including the eventual projection on the appropriate symmetric space. This allows to build in the Lie space of representations one-parameter families of operators belonging to the enveloping Lie algebra that satisfy an approximate symmetry and have the properties required by physics.

E. Celeghini; M. A. del Olmo

2001-09-04

22

Quantum Physics Einstein's Gravity

Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 13 October 2001 #12; Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity and with Einstein's theory of gravity (the general relativity) is still the single biggest theoretical problem

Visser, Matt

23

This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

Kearns, Edward [Boston Universiy] [Boston Universiy

2013-07-12

24

Quantum Physics and Nanotechnology

Experimental studies of infinite (unrestricted at least in one direction) quantum particle motion using probe nanotechnologies have revealed the necessity of revising previous concepts of their motion. Particularly, quantum particles transfer quantum motion nonlocality energy beside classical kinetic energy, in other words, they are in two different kinds of motion simultaneously. The quantum component of the motion energy may be quite considerable under certain circumstances. Some new effects were predicted and proved experimentally in terms of this phenomenon. A new prototype refrigerating device was tested, its principle of operation being based on the effect of transferring the quantum component of the motion energy.

Vladimir K. Nevolin

2011-06-06

25

Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons

We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.

H. Kröger

2003-02-21

26

Quantum Physics in a different ontology

It is shown that neither the wave picture nor the ordinary particle picture offers a satisfactory explanation of the double-slit experiment. The Physicists who have been successful in formulating theories in the Newtonian Paradigm with its corresponding ontology find it difficult to interpret Quantum Physics which deals with particles that are not sensory perceptible. A different interpretation of Quantum Physics based in a different ontology is presented in what follows. According to the new interpretation Quantum particles have different properties from those of Classical Newtonian particles. The interference patterns are explained in terms of particles each of which passes through both slits.

Nalin de Silva

2010-06-24

27

Particle physics and cosmology

This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

Kolb, E.W.

1986-10-01

28

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, this website was created to educate everyone about particle physics. Individuals can find archived press releases, news articles, and particle physics pictures. The website summarizes the role of particle physics in industry and offers links to educational and employment opportunities. Students and educators can find out about famous physicists and the principles of particle physics and its history. Scientists can locate high energy physics universities, groups, and experiments.

29

Research program in particle physics

This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

1992-07-01

30

Particle Physics and Cosmology

In the first Lecture, the Big Bang and the Standard Model of particle physics are introduced, as well as the structure of the latter and open issues beyond it. Neutrino physics is discussed in the second Lecture, with emphasis on models for neutrino masses and oscillations. The third Lecture is devoted to supersymmetry, including the prospects for discovering it at accelerators or as cold dark matter. Inflation is reviewed from the viewpoint of particle physics in the fourth Lecture, including simple models with a single scalar inflaton field: the possibility that this might be a sneutrino is proposed. Finally, the fifth Lecture is devoted to topics further beyond the Standard Model, such as grand unification, baryo- and leptogenesis - that might be due to sneutrino inflaton decays - and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays - that might be due to the decays of metastable superheavy dark matter particles.

John Ellis

2003-05-02

31

Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

Markus Arndt; Thomas Juffmann; Vlatko Vedral

2009-11-01

32

Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a “pedestrian guide” to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future “quantum biology,” its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena. PMID:20234806

Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

2009-01-01

33

Physics 216 Spring 2012 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field

(mv) = q c (vÂ·A) - dA dt - q . (9) 2 #12;To make further progress, note that dA/dt is a full time-derivative of A. By the chain rule, dA dt = A t + 3 i=1 A xi dxi dt . The chain rule reflects the physical fact that vi dxi/dt [where r (x1 , x2 , x3)], we can rewrite the chain rule above as: dA dt = A t + (v

California at Santa Cruz, University of

34

Particle Physics and Cosmology

Today, both particle physics and cosmology are described by few parameter Standard Models, i.e. it is possible to deduce consequence of particle physics in cosmology and vice verse. The former is examined in this lecture, in light of the recent systematic exploration of the electroweak scale by the LHC experiments. The two main results of the first phase of the LHC, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle and the absence so far of new particles predicted by "natural" theories beyond the Standard Model (supersymmetry, extra-dimension and composite Higgs) are put in a historical context to enlighten their importance and then presented extensively. To be complete, a short review from the neutrino physics, which can not be probed at LHC, is also given. The ability of all these results to resolve the 3 fundamental questions of cosmology about the nature of dark energy and dark matter as well as the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is discussed in each case.

P. Pralavorio

2014-12-04

35

Physicalism versus quantum mechanics

In the context of theories of the connection between mind and brain, physicalism is the demand that all is basically purely physical. But the concept of "physical" embodied in this demand is characterized essentially by the properties of the physical that hold in classical physical theories. Certain of these properties contradict the character of the physical in quantum mechanics, which provides a better, more comprehensive, and more fundamental account of phenomena. It is argued that the difficulties that have plaged physicalists for half a century, and that continue to do so, dissolve when the classical idea of the physical is replaced by its quantum successor. The argument is concretized in a way that makes it accessible to non-physicists by exploiting the recent evidence connecting our conscious experiences to macroscopic measurable synchronous oscillations occurring in well-separated parts of the brain. A specific new model of the mind-brain connection that is fundamentally quantum mechanical but that ties conscious experiences to these macroscopic synchronous oscillations is used to illustrate the essential disparities between the classical and quantum notions of the physical, and in particular to demonstrate the failure in the quantum world of the principle of the causal closure of the physical, a failure that goes beyond what is entailed by the randomness in the outcomes of observations, and that accommodates the efficacy in the brain of conscious intent.

Henry P. Stapp

2008-03-11

36

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat PDF (1.77 MB) Kinematics, Cross-Section Formulae, and PlotsAcrobat PDF (3.57 MB) Particle Listings Illustrative key and abbreviationsAcrobat PDF (325 KB) Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (2.38 MB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (2.03 MB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (1.51 MB) Mesons: Light unflavored and strangeAcrobat PDF (4.91 MB) Mesons: Charmed and bottomAcrobat PDF (9.03 MB) Mesons: OtherAcrobat PDF (4.03 MB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (4.54 MB) Miscellaneous searchesAcrobat PDF (3.98 MB) IndexAcrobat PDF (276 KB)

Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

2014-08-01

37

The Review of Particle Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Physics Group (PDG) is an "international collaboration that reviews particle physics and related areas of Astrophysics, and compiles/analyzes data on particle properties." The Web site features the 2002 publication, The Review of Particle Physics, which is described as "the most cited publication in particle physics during the last decade." Visitors have access to summary tables and conservation laws; reviews, tables, and plots; and particle listings, which list, average, evaluate, and reference various data used. Other features include a link to particle physics information and databases, archives of past reports, and other helpful resources.

38

Quantum entanglement and entropy in particle creation

We investigate the basic theoretical issues in the quantum entanglement of particle pairs created from the vacuum in a time-dependent background field or spacetime. Similar to entropy generation from these processes which depends on the choice of physical variables and how certain information is coarse-grained, entanglement dynamics hinges on the choice of measurable quantities and how the two parties are selected as well as the background dynamics of the field or spacetime. We discuss the conditions of separability of quantum states in particle creation processes and point out the differences in how the von Neumann entropy is used as a measure of entropy generation versus for entanglement dynamics. We show by an explicit construction that adoption of a different set of physical variables yields a different entanglement entropy. As an application of these theoretical considerations we show how the particle number and the quantum phase enter the entanglement dynamics in cosmological particle production.

Shih-Yuin Lin; Chung-Hsien Chou; B. L. Hu

2010-04-30

39

Finite groups and quantum physics

Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.

Kornyak, V. V., E-mail: kornyak@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratory of Information Tecnnologies (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15

40

Particle physics -- Future directions

Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. Here I have in mind the work of the B factories and the Tevatron collider on CP violation and the weak interactions of the b quark; the wonderfully sensitive experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, Fermilab, and Frascati on CP violation and rare decays of kaons; the prospect of definitive accelerator experiments on neutrino oscillations and the nature of the neutrinos; and a host of new experiments on the sensitivity frontier. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment. I describe some of the great questions before us and the challenges of providing the instruments that will be needed to define them more fully and eventually to answer them.

Chris Quigg

2001-11-29

41

Cosmology and particle physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

Turner, Michael S.

1988-01-01

42

Physics of windblown particles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory facility proposed for the Space Station to investigate fundamental aspects of windblown particles is described. The experiments would take advantage of the environment afforded in earth orbit and would be an extension of research currently being conducted on the geology and physics of windblown sediments on earth, Mars, and Venus. Aeolian (wind) processes are reviewed in the planetary context, the scientific rational is given for specific experiments to be conducted, the experiment apparatus (the Carousel Wind Tunnel, or CWT) is described, and a plan presented for implementing the proposed research program.

Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman; Marshall, John R.; White, Bruce; Iversen, James D.; Nickling, William G.; Gillette, Dale; Sorensen, Michael

1987-01-01

43

Macroscopic quantum state analyzed particle by particle.

Macroscopic quantum phenomena, e.g., superconductivity and squeezing, are believed to result from entanglement of macroscopic numbers of particles. We report the first direct study of this kind of entanglement: we use discrete quantum tomography to reconstruct the joint quantum state of photon pairs extracted from polarization-squeezed light. Our observations confirm several predictions from spin-squeezing theory [Beduini et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 143601 (2013)], including strong entanglement and entanglement of all photon pairs within the squeezing coherence time. This photon-by-photon analysis may give insight into other macroscopic many-body systems, e.g., photon Bose-Einstein condensates. PMID:25860724

Beduini, Federica A; Zieli?ska, Joanna A; Lucivero, Vito G; de Icaza Astiz, Yannick A; Mitchell, Morgan W

2015-03-27

44

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction. Charles #12;This thesis entitled Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological

Colorado at Boulder, University of

45

Rudyard Kipling, the famous English author of The Jungle Book, born in India, wrote one day these words: ‘Oh, East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet’. In my paper I show that Kipling was not completely right. I try to show the common ground between Buddhist philosophy and quantum physics. There is a surprising

Christian Thomas Kohl

2007-01-01

46

Foundations of quantum physics

An enquiry is made on a more fundamental level about the origin of the superposition principle and thus to justify the use of Hilbert space without appeal at the outset to the notion of probability. In doing so there was also a search made for a more general formulation of quantum physics to avoid the apparent paradox of the usual

C. Piron

1976-01-01

47

Physical Models for Quantum Computers

We discuss the impact of the physical implementation of a quantum computer on its computational efficiency, using computer simulations of physical models of quantum computer hardware. We address the computational efficiency of practical procedures to extract the results of a quantum computation from the wave function respresenting the final state of the quantum computer.

H. De Raedt; K. Michielsen; S. Miyashita; K. Saito

2002-01-01

48

Quantum Electrodynamics of Confined Nonrelativistic Particles

Quantum Electrodynamics of Confined Nonrelativistic Particles Volker Bach \\Lambda FB Mathematik MA directly on the space of Hamiltonians. Keywords: Quantum Electrodynamics, Nonrelativistic Particles, Ground field theory see [17]. I.1 The Standard Model of Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics The starting

49

Particle Physics: The first axion?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For almost 30 years, the hunt has been on for a ghostly particle proposed to plug a gap in the standard model of particle physics. The detection of a tiny optical effect might be the first positive sighting.

Lamoreaux, Steve

2006-05-01

50

Quantum Mechanics and physical calculations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest to realize the computer simulation and calculation by the algebraic structure built on the basis of the logic inherent to processes in physical systems (called physical computing). We suggest a principle for the construction of quantum algorithms of neuroinformatics of quantum neural networks. The role of academician Sahakyan is emphasized in the development of quantum physics in Armenia.

Karayan, H. S.

2014-03-01

51

A macroscopic quantum state analysed particle by particle

Explaining how microscopic entities collectively produce macroscopic phenomena is a fundamental goal of many-body physics. Theory predicts that large-scale entanglement is responsible for exotic macroscopic phenomena, but observation of entangled particles in naturally occurring systems is extremely challenging. Synthetic quantum systems made of atoms in optical lattices have been con- structed with the goal of observing macroscopic quantum phenomena with single-atom resolution. Serious challenges remain in producing and detecting long-range quantum correlations in these systems, however. Here we exploit the strengths of photonic technology, including high coherence and efficient single-particle detection, to study the predicted large-scale entanglement underlying the macroscopic quantum phenomenon of polarization squeezing. We generate a polarization-squeezed beam, extract photon pairs at random, and make a tomographic reconstruction of their joint quantum state. We present experimental evidence showing that all photons arriving within the squeezing coherence time are entangled, that entanglement monogamy dilutes entanglement with increasing photon density and that, counterintuitively, increased squeezing can reduce bipartite entanglement. The results provide direct evidence for entanglement of macroscopic numbers of particles and introduce micro-analysis to the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena.

Federica A. Beduini; Joanna A. Zielinska; Vito G. Lucivero; Yannick A. de Icaza Astiz; Morgan W. Mitchell

2014-10-26

52

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical identities called Maxwellian decompositions give position probability densities of Schrodinger bound states as superpositions of position probability densities for motions in appropriate classical orbits. Hence wave functions are seen as envelopes of motion of quantum particles under random bombardment by an underlying kinetic "aether". Implications: 1)atomic state "orbital angular momentum" should be renamed "directional modality" (the hydrogen 2P state is essentially a superposition of degenerate ellipses); 2) corollary: photons need not have spin angular momentum; 3)each atomic spherical harmonic may contain two space states without spin opposition (this is supported by the bond angle of water); 4) the quantum particle in the oscillator first excited state may stay always on only one side of the node that is at the origin, and be reflected every half cycle by a reaction shock wave on the other side of the node; 5) the distinction between particle and aether, plus resonances with surging reaction waves, should make quantum weirdness amenable to classical systems theory.

McCone, Alan

2000-04-01

53

An Introduction to Particle Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Physics Department at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) provides the Introduction to Particle Physics homepage. Particle physics is defined as "the study of the basic elements of matter and the forces acting among them...to determine the fundamental laws that control the make-up of matter and the physical universe." The Introduction provides more information on Accelerators, Detectors, Antimatter, Big Bang Science, and Dark Matter. Further information can be found in The Big Bang and The Top Quark sections, both of which provide images and in-depth summaries. Users can navigate via a contents page or through links at the bottom of the page.

54

Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

Aaron Roodman

2003-12-17

55

Lithography using quantum entangled particles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)

2001-01-01

56

Lithography using quantum entangled particles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)

2003-01-01

57

Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

Helio Takai

2010-01-08

58

Introduction In a previous paper [1] one of us showed that in jetÂlike particle systems, Bose the density ae 0 (p 1 ; p 2 ), it is customary to use a `reference sample' obtained either by using directly

59

string theory includes: basics, mathematics, experiments, cosmology, black holes,theory, it is possible that the production of string-balls [27] dominates over black holes.black-hole production are observed at the LHC, it is likely that signi?cant quantum-gravity (or string-theory)

Nakamura, Kenzo

2010-01-01

60

Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).

Machacek, A. C.

2014-01-01

61

Symmetry and Relativity : From Classical Mechanics to Modern Particle Physics

Symmetry and Relativity : From Classical Mechanics to Modern Particle Physics Z.J. Ajaltouni symmetries in Classical Physics (section 2). Â· Relativistic Symmetries in Quantum Mechanics (section 3 of Relativity and Symmetry. 2 Relativity and Symmetries in Classical Physics 2.1 Classical Mechanics One

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

62

Bohmian particle trajectories contradict quantum mechanics

The Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics adds particle trajectories to the wave function and ensures that the probability distribution of the particle positions agrees with quantum mechanics at any time. This is not sufficient to avoid contradictions with quantum mechanics. There are correlations between particle positions at different times which cannot be reproduced with real particle trajectories. A simple rearrangement of an experimental test of the Bell-CHSH inequality demonstrates this.

Michael Zirpel

2009-03-23

63

In order to calculate the average value of a physical quantity containing also many-particle interactions in a system of N antisymmetric particles, a set of generalized density matrices are defined. In order to permit the investigation of the same physical situation in two complementary spaces, the Hermitean density matrix of order k has two sets of indices of each k

Per-Olov Löwdin

1955-01-01

64

Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the resolution to the wave-particle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in…

Hobson, Art

2007-01-01

65

A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

2013-07-25

66

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Energy Frontier Workshop, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior

California at Santa Cruz, University of

67

Particle Physics Phenomenology 7. Hadronization

Particle Physics Phenomenology 7. Hadronization Torbj¨orn Sj¨ostrand Department of Astronomy(s) string(s) by self-interactions among soft gluons in the "vacuum". (Non-trivial ground state with quark: Hadronization slide 4/47 #12;The QCD potential 2 Gives linear confinement with string tension: F(r) const

Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

68

Hobson. Teaching Quantum Entanglement 1 DRAFT, SUBMITTED TO THE PHYSICS TEACHER

Hobson. Teaching Quantum Entanglement 1 DRAFT, SUBMITTED TO THE PHYSICS TEACHER Teaching Quantum-interacting, then they move near enough to interact, then they separate. Quantum physics (the Schroedinger equation) predicts everywhere. According to quantum physics, this instantly affects the other particle, even if the two

Hobson, Art

69

8.04 Quantum Physics I, Spring 2003

Experimental basis of quantum physics: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, photons, Franck-Hertz experiment, the Bohr atom, electron diffraction, deBroglie waves, and wave-particle duality of matter and light. ...

Lee, Young S.

70

Recent theoretical results confirm that quantum theory provides the possibility of new ways of performing efficient calculations. The most striking example is the factoring problem. It has recently been shown that computers that exploit quantum features could factor large composite integers. This task is believed to be out of reach of classical computers as soon as the number of digits

Adriano Barenco

1996-01-01

71

This tome is a formal presentation of the unsharp observable approach to quantum mechanics using the positive operator valued (POV) concept of an observable. It is intended for philosophers and mathematicians as well as physicists. This is a very formalistic book. There are, however, portions that should be read by all experimentalists performing quantum mechanical studies as well as graduate

J L Safko

1996-01-01

72

Particle Statistics Affects Quantum Decay and Fano Interference

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanical decay, Fano interference, and bound states with energy in the continuum are ubiquitous phenomena in different areas of physics. Here we experimentally demonstrate that particle statistics strongly affects quantum mechanical decay in a multiparticle system. By considering propagation of two-photon states in engineered photonic lattices, we simulate quantum decay of two noninteracting particles in a multilevel Fano-Anderson model. Remarkably, when the system sustains a bound state in the continuum, fractional decay is observed for bosonic particles, but not for fermionic ones. Complete decay in the fermionic case arises because of the Pauli exclusion principle, which forbids the bound state to be occupied by the two fermions. Our experiment indicates that particle statistics can tune many-body quantum decay from fractional to complete.

Crespi, Andrea; Sansoni, Linda; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Ciamei, Alessio; Ramponi, Roberta; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Longhi, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto

2015-03-01

73

Particle statistics affects quantum decay and fano interference.

Quantum mechanical decay, Fano interference, and bound states with energy in the continuum are ubiquitous phenomena in different areas of physics. Here we experimentally demonstrate that particle statistics strongly affects quantum mechanical decay in a multiparticle system. By considering propagation of two-photon states in engineered photonic lattices, we simulate quantum decay of two noninteracting particles in a multilevel Fano-Anderson model. Remarkably, when the system sustains a bound state in the continuum, fractional decay is observed for bosonic particles, but not for fermionic ones. Complete decay in the fermionic case arises because of the Pauli exclusion principle, which forbids the bound state to be occupied by the two fermions. Our experiment indicates that particle statistics can tune many-body quantum decay from fractional to complete. PMID:25793783

Crespi, Andrea; Sansoni, Linda; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Ciamei, Alessio; Ramponi, Roberta; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Longhi, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto

2015-03-01

74

Quantum Mechanics and Physical Reality

IN a recent article by A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, which appeared in the Physical Review of May 15, and was reviewed in NATURE of June 22, the question of the completeness of quantum mechanical description has been discussed on the basis of a ``criterion of physical reality'', which the authors formulate as follows : ``If, without in

N. Bohr

1935-01-01

75

Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics

These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

2008-02-05

76

Model Fitting in Particle Physics

. Interesting & realistic phenomenology. MCMC is an efficient and simple technique for model fitting. Well suited to distributed computing. MCMC Fits to LVS Allanach, Dolan, Weber The Standard Model and Beyond From The Standard Model To String Theory Global... MCMC Fits to LVS Allanach, Dolan, Weber The Standard Model and Beyond From The Standard Model To String Theory Global Fitting Probing Parameter Space. MCMC Results Summary Model Fitting in Particle Physics Matthew Dolan1 1DAMTP University...

Dolan, Matthew

2008-06-27

77

Quantum physics motivated neurobiology

This research addresses the question of what role might quantum phenomena play in the brain. Recent progress in understanding brain function in terms of its basic cellular and subcellular (microtubules) components will be discussed. A preliminary...

Mershin, Andreas

2000-01-01

78

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Manuel Joffre, Jean-Louis Basdevant, and Jean Dalibard at France's Ecole Polytechnique, this Web site covers topics in introductory quantum mechanics through a series of animations and simulations. Topics covered include Wave Mechanics, Quantization in one and three dimensions, Quantum Superposition in one and two dimensions, and Spin 1/2. Students will find these difficult concepts easily and intuitively illustrated. Most of the simulations are interactive, allowing visitors to change the parameters in order to better grasp the concepts.

Basdevant, Jean-Louis

79

Review of Particle Physics, 1998-1999

A comprehensive review of the field of Particle Physics produced by the Particle Data Group (PDG). Includes a compilation/evaluation of data on particle properties, summary tables with best values and limits for particle properties, extensive summari particles, and a long section of reviews, tables, and plots on a wide variety of theoretical and experimental topics of interest to particle and astrophysicists.

Particle Data Group. Berkeley; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Amsler, Claude; Armstrong, Betty; Babu, K S; Barnett, Richard Michael; Besson, Dave; Biebel, Otmar; Burchat, Patricia R; Cahn, Robert N; Carone, Christopher D; Casas-Serradilla, José Luís; Caso, Carlo; Conforto, Gianni; Crawford, Ronald L; Dahl, Orin; Dalitz, Richard Henry; Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Desler, Kai; Donahue, Richard J; Doser, Michael; Edwards, Donald A; Eidelman, Simon; Erler, Jens; Ezhela, Vladimir V; Fassò, A; Feng, Jonathan L; Fetscher, Wulf; Filimonov, Boris B; Froidevaux, Daniel; Gaisser, Thomas K; Garren, Lynn; Gee, Paul S; Geer, Steve; Gerber, Hans Jürg; Gilman, Frederick J; Goodman, Maury; Grab, C; Groom, Donald E; Gurtu, Atul; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Hagmann, Christian; Hayes, Kenneth G; Hernández, Juan José; Hikasa, Ken Ichi; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hogan, Craig J; Honscheid, Klaus; Höhler, Gerhard; Jackson, John David; James, Frederick E; Johnson, Kurtis F; Karlen, Dean A; Kayser, Boris; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Knowles, Ian G; Kolda, Christopher; Kreitz, Pat; Landua, Rolf; Langacker, Paul; Littenberg, Laurence S; Lugovsky, S B; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mankov, Serguei; Manley, D Mark; Manohar, Aneesh Vasant; March-Russell, John David; Murayama, Hitoshi; Mönig, Klaus; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Kenzo; Nicholson, Flic; Olive, Keith A; Piepke, Andreas; Quinn, Helen R; Raffelt, Georg G; Renk, Burkhard; Ronan, Michael T; Roos, Matts; Rosenberg, Leslie J; Schindler, Rafe H; Schmitt, Michael; Schramm, David N; Scott, Douglas; Shrock, Robert E; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Smoot, George F; Spanier, Stefan; Srednicki, Mark A; Stanev, Todor; Suzuki, Mahiko; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Tkachenko, N P; Trippe, Thomas G; Törnqvist, N A; Valencia, German; Van Bibber, Karl; Vogel, Petr; Voss, Rüdiger; Wohl, Charles G; Wolfenstein, Lincoln; Workman, Ronald L; Yao Wei Ming; Youssef, Saul

1998-01-01

80

AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS

AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS FLORIAN MÂ´EHATS AND OLIVIER PINAUD Abstract. We address the following inverse problem in quantum statistical physics: does the quantum free energy (von rigourously the notion of local quantum equilibrium, or quantum Maxwellian, which is at the basis of recently

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

81

AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS

AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS FLORIAN MÃ?HATS AND OLIVIER PINAUD Abstract. We address the following inverse problem in quantum statistical physics: does the quantum free energy (von rigourously the notion of local quantum equilibrium, or quantum Maxwellian, which is at the basis of recently

Pinaud, Olivier

82

Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program

We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.

Karchin, Paul E.

2011-09-01

83

Quantum information is physical

We discuss a few current developments in the use of quantum mechanically coherent systems for information processing. In each of these developments, Rolf Landauer has played a crucial role in nudging us, and other workers in the field, into asking the right questions, some of which we have been lucky enough to answer. A general overview of the key ideas

David P. DiVincenzo; Daniel Loss

1998-01-01

84

Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

Not Available

1992-09-01

85

Quantum structures, separated physical entities and probability

We prove that if the physical entity S consisting of two separated physical entities S1 and S2 satisfies the axioms of orthodox quantum mechanics, then at least one of the two subentities is a classical physical entity. This theorem implies that separated quantum entities cannot be described by quantum mechanics. We formulate this theorem in an approach where physical entities

Diederik Aerts

1994-01-01

86

Quantum simulations of physics problems

If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not efficiently simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical 'questions' more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin-1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed, and we show quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.

Somma, R. D. (Rolando D.); Ortiz, G. (Gerardo); Knill, E. H. (Emanuel H.); Gubernatis, J. E.

2003-01-01

87

Quantum convolution and quantum correlation algorithms are physically impossible

The key step in classical convolution and correlation algorithms, the componentwise multiplication of vectors after initial Fourier Transforms, is shown to be physically impossible to do on quantum states. Then this is used to show that computing the convolution or correlation of quantum state coefficients violates quantum mechanics, making convolution and correlation of quantum coefficients physically impossible.

Chris Lomont

2003-12-03

88

Physics as quantum information processing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm—It from Bit— prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) emerging from a quantum-information processing. The resulting theory is a discrete version of QFT with automatic relativistic invariance, and without fields, Hamiltonian, and quantization rules. In this paper I review some recent advances on these lines. In particular: i) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; ii) The derivation of the Dirac equation as free information flow, without imposing Lorentz covariance; iii) the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant; iv) An observable consequence of the theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will then conclude with two possible routes to Quantum Gravity.

Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo

2011-10-01

89

Student Perspectives in Quantum Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory courses in classical physics are promoting in students a realist perspective, made up in part by the belief that all physical properties of a system can be simultaneously specified, and thus determined at all future times. Such a perspective can be problematic for introductory quantum physics students, who must develop new framings of epistemic and ontological resources in order to properly interpret what it means to have knowledge of quantum systems. We document this evolution in student thinking in part through pre/post instruction evaluations using the CLASS attitude survey.[1] We further characterize variations in student epistemic and ontological commitments by examining responses to an essay question, coupled with responses to supplemental quantum attitude statements. We find that, after instruction in modern physics, many students are still exhibiting a realist perspective in contexts where a quantum perspective is needed. We also find that this effect can be significantly influenced by instruction, where we observe variations for courses with differing learning goals.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2008-10-01

90

Survey of general quantum physics

The abstract description of a physical system is developed, along lines originally suggested by Birkhoff and von Neumann, in terms of the complete lattice of propositions associated with that system, and the distinction between classical and quantum systems is made precise. With the help of the notion of state, a propositional system is defined: it is remarked that every irreducible

C. Piron

1972-01-01

91

Machines, logic and quantum physics

Though the truths of logic and pure mathematics are objective and independent of any contingent facts or laws of nature, our knowledge of these truths depends entirely on our knowledge of the laws of physics. Recent progress in the quantum theory of computation has provided practical instances of this, and forces us to abandon the classical view that computation, and

David Deutsch; Artur Ekert; Rossella Lupacchini

2000-01-01

92

Three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: coupling to point particles

We consider the coupling between three-dimensional gravity with zero cosmological constant and massive spinning point particles. First, we study the classical canonical analysis of the coupled system. Then, we go to the Hamiltonian quantization generalizing loop quantum gravity techniques. We give a complete description of the kinematical Hilbert space of the coupled system. Finally, we define the physical Hilbert space

Karim Noui; Alejandro Perez

2005-01-01

93

Quantum particle localization by frequent coherent monitoring

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach to monitoring and controlling a free quantum particle by coupling an internal (discrete) state of the particle to a detector (or probe). We consider a sequence of time-dependent, spatially localized interactions of the particle with the probe that are purely coherent (nondissipative), without mean energy-momentum exchange. We show that a sequence of such force-free interactions can freeze or deflect the particle.

Gordon, Goren; Mazets, Igor E.; Kurizki, Gershon

2013-05-01

94

Quantum Physics Chronology Protection

Louis USA Stephen 60 Cambridge, England January 2002 #12; Why is chronology even an issue? Observation't change recorded history". 3. Hawking: chronology protection conjecture. 4. Boring physics conjecture (1998) 023501] 6 #12; Having your cake and eating it too: #15; Stephen's chronology protection permits

Visser, Matt

95

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1 Giacomo Mauro D Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia Abstract. Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

96

The dialogue between particle physics and cosmology

In the last decade, a very close relationship has developed between particle physics and cosmology. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to the many scientific connections between the two fields. Before entering into the discussion of specific topics, it will first be shown that particle physics and cosmology are completely interdependent. 173 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

Sadoulet, B.

1988-04-01

97

Programming physical realizations of quantum computers

We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a

Hans De Raedt; Kristel Michielsen; Anthony Hams; Seiji Miyashita; Keiji Saito

2001-01-01

98

Quantum Simulation of the Dirac Particle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine whether a quantum computer can efficiently simulate time evolution of the Dirac particle. We consider a Gaussian wave packet scattered by a step potential. We compare the results obtained from a quantum algorithm with the results of classical simulations (Cayley's method) and analytical calculations.

Ostrowski, Marcin

2015-03-01

99

Programming physical realizations of quantum computers

We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum computation are unstable with respect to the physical realization of the quantum computer. We discuss the origin of these instabilities and discuss possibilities to overcome this, for practical purposes, fundamental limitation of quantum computers.

Hans De Raedt; Kristel Michielsen; Anthony Hams; Seiji Miyashita; Keiji Saito

2001-04-18

100

Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and K± -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vv¯ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physi

Studenikin, Alexander I.

2009-01-01

101

Quantum Cryptography Using Single Particle Entanglement

A quantum cryptography scheme based on entanglement between a single particle state and a vacuum state is proposed. The scheme utilizes linear optics devices to detect the superposition of the vacuum and single particle states. Existence of an eavesdropper can be detected by using a variant of Bell's inequality.

Jae-Weon Lee; Eok Kyun Lee; Yong Wook Chung; Hai-Woong Lee; Jaewan Kim

2003-01-23

102

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that defining the observed proper velocity and acceleration of a spin zero particle as the first and second derivatives of the classical expectation value for the space-time position vector, defined on a manifold carrying the Lorentz metric, with respect to a conditioning parameter ?, yields directly: a Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum mechanics, the Lorentz force, Maxwell's equations and a field equation for a non-electromagnetic potential. This also provides a new basis for gauge conditions in the field theory and shows that only the Lorentz gauge condition is admissible in electromagnetic theory.

Collins, R. Eugene

1994-02-01

103

Physical transformations between quantum states

Given two sets of quantum states {A_1, ..., A_k} and {B_1, ..., B_k}, represented as sets of density matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a physical transformation T, represented as a trace-preserving completely positive map, such that T(A_i) = B_i for i = 1, ..., k. General completely positive maps without the trace-preserving requirement, and unital completely positive maps transforming the states are also considered.

Zejun Huang; Chi-Kwong Li; Edward Poon; Nung-Sing Sze

2012-10-26

104

Elementary particle physics---Experimental

We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

1990-09-20

105

Studies in theoretical particle physics

This proposal focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: (1) Nonperturbative QCD. I tend to continue work on analytic modelling of nonperturbative effects in the strong interactions. I have been investigating the theoretical connection between the nonrelativistic quark model and QCD. The primary motivation has been to understand the experimental observation of nonzero matrix elements involving current strange quarks in ordinary matter -- which in the quark model has no strange quark component. This has led to my present work on understanding constituent (quark model) quarks as collective excitations of QCD degrees of freedom. (2) Weak Scale Baryogenesis. A continuation of work on baryogenesis in the early universe from weak interactions. In particular, an investigation of baryogenesis occurring during the weak phase transition through anomalous baryon violating processes in the standard model of weak interactions. (3) Flavor and Compositeness. Further investigation of a new mechanism that I recently discovered for dynamical mass generation for fermions, which naturally leads to a family hierarchy structure. A discussion of recent past work is found in the next section, followed by an outline of the proposed research. A recent publication from each of these three areas is attached to this proposal.

Kaplan, D.B.

1991-07-01

106

Quantum Canonical Transformations: Physical Equivalence of Quantum Theories

Two quantum theories are physically equivalent if they are related, not by a unitary transformation, but by an isometric transformation. The conditions under which a quantum canonical transformation is an isometric transformation are given.

Arlen Anderson

1993-02-15

107

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a…

Hobson, Art

2011-01-01

108

Education and Outreach in Particle Physics

There are many varied programs of education and outreach in particle physics. This report for the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society 2001 meeting reviews the impact of these programs in general, and also gives several examples of ongoing programs with a primary focus on those in the US.

R. Michael Barnett

2011-09-30

109

Quarked!--Adventures in Particle Physics Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike--with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not…

MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice

2009-01-01

110

Particle Physics Town Meeting 2010 John Womersley

Particle Physics Town Meeting 2010 John Womersley Director, Science Programmes March 2010 #12 Support (at reduced funding levels) the following projects: Â· Particle Physics Â ATLAS + upgrade, CMS at FAIR #12;Programme Prioritisation Â· Astronomy Â ESO telescopes (VLT, VISTA and ALMA), R&D for ELT

Crowther, Paul

111

Particle Physics: From School to University.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching of particle physics as part of the A-level physics course in British secondary schools. Utilizes the quark model of hadrons and the conceptual kinematics of particle collisions, as examples, to demonstrate practical instructional possibilities in relation to student expectations. (JJK)

Barlow, Roger

1992-01-01

112

Graphene: from materials science to particle physics

Since its discovery in 2004, graphene, a two-dimensional hexagonal carbon allotrope, has generated great interest and spurred research activity from materials science to particle physics and vice versa. In particular, graphene has been found to exhibit outstanding electronic and mechanical properties, as well as an unusual low-energy spectrum of Dirac quasiparticles giving rise to a fractional quantum Hall effect when freely suspended and immersed in a magnetic field. One of the most intriguing puzzles of graphene involves the low-temperature conductivity at zero density, a central issue in the design of graphene-based nanoelectronic components. While suspended graphene experiments have shown a trend reminiscent of semiconductors, with rising resistivity at low temperatures, most theories predict a constant or even decreasing resistivity. However, lattice field theory calculations have revealed that suspended graphene is at or near the critical coupling for excitonic gap formation due to strong Coulomb interactions, which suggests a simple and straightforward explanation for the experimental data. In this contribution we review the current status of the field with emphasis on the issue of gap formation, and outline recent progress and future points of contact between condensed matter physics and Lattice QCD.

Joaquín E. Drut; Timo A. Lähde; Eero Tölö

2010-11-02

113

International Particle Physics Masterclasses with LHC data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Particle Physics Masterclasses is an educational activity developed by the International Particle Physics Outreach Group with the aim to bring the excitement of cutting-edge particle-physics research into the classroom. Since 2005, every year, thousands of pupils in many countries all over the world become "scientists for a day" in research centres or universities close to their schools as they are introduced to the mysteries of particle physics. In 2012, 10 000 students from 148 institutions in 31 countries took part in this popular event over a month period. The program of a typical day includes lectures that give insight to topics and methods of fundamental research followed by a "hands-on" session where students perform measurements on real data from particle-physics experiments themselves. The last two years LHC data from the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments were used. A overview of the performed measurements and the employed methodology is presented.

Foka, Panagiota

2014-04-01

114

Quantum teleportation with identical particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study teleportation with identical massive particles. Indistinguishability imposes that the relevant degrees of freedom to be teleported are not particles, but rather addressable orthogonal modes. We discuss the performances of teleportation under the constraint of conservation of the total number of particles. The latter inevitably decreases the teleportation fidelity. Moreover, even though a phase reference, given by the coupling to a reservoir, circumvents the constraint, it does not restore perfect deterministic teleportation. The latter is only achievable with some special resource entangled states and when the number of particles tends to infinity. Interestingly, some of such states are the many-particle atomic coherent states and the ground state of cold atoms loaded into a double well potential, which are routinely prepared in experiments.

Marzolino, Ugo; Buchleitner, Andreas

2015-03-01

115

Topics in elementary particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics:

Jin, Xiang

116

Quantum Measurement, Complexity and Discrete Physics

This paper presents a new modified quantum mechanics, Critical Complexity Quantum Mechanics, which includes a new account of wavefunction collapse. This modified quantum mechanics is shown to arise naturally from a fully discrete physics, where all physical quantities are discrete rather than continuous. I compare this theory with the spontaneous collapse theories of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle and discuss some implications of these theories and CCQM for a realist view of the quantum realm.

Martin Leckey

2003-10-06

117

Quantum vortices and trajectories in particle diffraction

We investigate the phenomenon of the diffraction of charged particles by thin material targets using the method of the de Broglie-Bohm quantum trajectories. The particle wave function can be modeled as a sum of two terms $\\psi=\\psi_{ingoing}+\\psi_{outgoing}$. A thin separator exists between the domains of prevalence of the ingoing and outgoing wavefunction terms. The structure of the quantum-mechanical currents in the neighborhood of the separator implies the formation of an array of \\emph{quantum vortices}. The flow structure around each vortex displays a characteristic pattern called `nodal point - X point complex'. The X point gives rise to stable and unstable manifolds. We find the scaling laws characterizing a nodal point-X point complex by a local perturbation theory around the nodal point. We then analyze the dynamical role of vortices in the emergence of the diffraction pattern. In particular, we demonstrate the abrupt deflections, along the direction of the unstable manifold, of the quantum trajectories approaching an X-point along its stable manifold. Theoretical results are compared to numerical simulations of quantum trajectories. We finally calculate the {\\it times of flight} of particles following quantum trajectories from the source to detectors placed at various scattering angles $\\theta$, and thereby propose an experimental test of the de Broglie - Bohm formalism.

N. Delis; C. Efthymiopoulos; G. Contopoulos

2011-03-14

118

Quantum particles and an effective spacetime geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacetime geometry is supposed to be measured by identifying the trajectories of free test particles with geodesics. In practice, this cannot be done because, being described by Quantum Mechanics, particles do not follow trajectories. As a first step to study how it is possible to read spacetime geometry with quantum particles, we model these particles with classical extended objects. We propose to represent such extended objects by its covariant center of mass, which generically does not follow a geodesic of the background metric. We present a scheme that allows to extract some of components of an "effective" connection, namely, the connection that would be obtained if the locus of the center of mass is regarded as a geodesic. We discuss some issues that arise when trying to obtain all the components of the effective connection and its possible implications.

Bonder, Yuri

2012-08-01

119

Anomalous structure in the single particle spectrum of the fractional quantum Hall effect

The two-dimensional electron system is a powerful laboratory for investigating the physics of interacting particles. Application of a large magnetic field produces massively degenerate quantum levels known as Landau levels; ...

Dial, Oliver E.

120

Modelling, Algorithms and Simulation for Wave Motion in Quantum and Plasma Physics

Modelling, Algorithms and Simulation for Wave Motion in Quantum and Plasma Physics Weizhu Bao & collapse in BEC Â Transport of cold atoms Â Quantized vortices Â Wave interaction in plasma physics Collaborators & Acknowledges #12;Waves in quantum & plasma physics Wave-type particle behaviour Â Wave function

Bao, Weizhu

121

A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…

Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.

2007-01-01

122

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the secon...

Lee, Clarissa Ai Ling

2014-01-01

123

Quantum Electrodynamics of Charged Particles without Spin

Feynman's formulation of quantum electrodynamics is shown to be equivalent to the Schwinger-Tomonaga theory also for spinless charged particles (mesons) as developed by Kanesawa and Tomonaga. The divergencies of the scattering matrix are analyzed to all orders in the fine-structure constant and it is found that mass and charge renormalizations do not remove all divergencies, unlike the electron case. The

F. Rohrlich

1950-01-01

124

Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; 1. Preliminary notions; 2. Nucleons, leptons and mesons; 3. Symmetries; 4. Hadrons; 5. Quantum electrodynamics; 6. Chromodynamics; 7. Weak interactions; 8. The neutral mesons oscillations and CP violation; 9. The standard model; 10. Neutrinos; 11. Epilogue; Appendixes; References; Index.

Bettini, Alessandro

2014-02-01

125

Quantum turbulence visualized by particle dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagrangian dynamics of micrometer-sized solid particles of hydrogen and deuterium is investigated in thermal counterflow of superfluid He4 at length scales ?exp straddling about two orders of magnitude across the average distance ? between quantized vortices by using the particle tracking velocimetry technique. The normalized probability distribution functions of the particle velocities and accelerations change from the shapes typical of quantum turbulence, characterized by power-law tails, at length scales ?exp??, to forms similar to those obtained in classical turbulent flows, at ?exp??, although the power-law behavior of the acceleration distribution tails is less clear than that observed for the particle velocities. Moreover, the acceleration distribution follows a nearly log-normal, classical-like shape, at ? ??exp?Lint, where Lint denotes the integral length scale, providing thus, within the just defined inertial range, experimental evidence of the existence of classical-like, macroscopic vortical structures in thermal counterflow of superfluid He4, which is traditionally regarded as a quantum flow with no obvious classical analog. Additionally, we report our observations of the added mass effect in quantum turbulence and discuss them in the framework of a developed model of particle dynamics.

La Mantia, M.; Skrbek, L.

2014-07-01

126

Particle tunneling in a quantum corrected spacetime

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle tunneling from a quantum corrected black hole in the gravity's rainbow was investigated by the radial trajectory method of the tunneling framework. Using the thermodynamic property of the event horizon, a simpler method for calculating the tunneling probability was shown. In this method, the Painleve coordinate transformation of spacetime and the radial trajectory equation of the tunneling particles used in the previous radial trajectory method was not used. Using the simpler method, the tunneling probability of outgoing particles, regardless of whether they are massless or massive, were calculated in a unified way. The emission rates were related to the changes of the black hole entropies before and after the emission. This implies that the emission spectrum agrees with the underling unitary theory. In addition, the Bekenstein-Hawking area for the modified black hole was established and the emission spectrum with quantum corrections was discussed.

Liu, Cheng-Zhou; Cao, Qiao-Jun

2015-01-01

127

A Brief Introduction to Particle Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Senior Research Associate Nari Mistry at Cornell University, this 23-page pdf gives a brief but thorough introduction to particle physics. Complete with illustrations, this document covers sub-atomic particles (quarks and leptons) as well as the Big Bang, matter and anti-matter, and physics experiments. There is also material which discusses the fundamental forces that govern sub-atomic particles - gravity, the Weak Force, electromagnetism, and the Strong Force â?? and how scientists have been working toward a theory of unification that combines these four forces to create a universal force. This is a great resource for physics teachers, as it is a ready-to-go tutorial to introduce students to particle physics before the discussion in the classroom becomes more in-depth.

Mistry, Nari

128

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine

by a remarkably simple set of principles. Amazing that one of the most critical signals involves virtual tops. Our #12;Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;Higgs capabilities of different machines

California at Santa Cruz, University of

129

Quantum Gravity (Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics)

The most difficult unsolved problem in fundamental theoretical physics is the consistent implementation of the gravitational interaction into a quantum framework, which would lead to a theory of quantum gravity. Although a final answer is still pending, several promising attempts do exist. Despite the general title, this book is about one of them - loop quantum gravity. This approach proceeds

C Kiefer

2005-01-01

130

Quantum Security for the Physical Layer

The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL

2013-01-01

131

Frontiers of particle beam physics

First, a review is given of various highly-developed techniques for particle handling which are, nevertheless, being vigorously advanced at the present time. These include soft superconductor radio frequency cavities, hard superconductor magnets, cooling rings for ions and anti-protons, and damping rings for electrons. Second, attention is focused upon novel devices for particle generation, acceleration, and focusing. These include relativistic klystrons and free electron laser power sources, binary power multipliers, photocathodes, switched-power linacs, plasma beat-wave accelerators, plasma wake-field accelerators, plasma lenses, plasma adiabatic focusers and plasma compensators. 12 refs.

Sessler, A.M.

1989-11-01

132

Photonic dark matter portal and quantum physics

To identify the nature and properties of dark matter is one of the most serious open problems in modern physics. We study a model of dark matter in which the hidden sector interacts with ordinary matter (standard model particles) via photonic portal(hidden photonic portal). We search for the effects of this new interaction in quantum physics, therefore we study its effects on hydrogen atom because it is a simple and a well-studied quantum system so it can be considered as an outstanding test for dark matter signatures. Using the accuracy of the measurement of energy, we obtain an upper bound for the coupling constant of the model. We also calculate the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of muon due to the hidden photonic portal. At the moment there is a deviation between the standard model prediction for muon anomalous magnetic moment and its experimental value so the anomalous magnetic moment of muon can provide an important test of the standard model and the theories beyond it.

S. A. Alavi; F. S. Kazemian

2015-01-22

133

Process Physics: Inertia, Gravity and the Quantum

Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational or semantic information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This generalises the traditional non-process syntactical modelling of reality by taking account of the limitations and characteristics of self-referential syntactical information systems, discovered by Goedel and Chaitin, and the analogies with the standard quantum formalism and its limitations. In process physics space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and time is a distinct non-geometric process. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space. Various features of the emergent physics are briefly discussed including: quantum gravity, quantum field theory, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality.

Reginald T. Cahill

2001-10-29

134

Medium energy elementary particle physics

This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)

Not Available

1991-01-01

135

Quantum Measurements of Scattered Particles

We investigate the process of quantum measurements on scattered probes. Before scattering, the probes are independent, but they become entangled afterwards, due to the interaction with the scatterer. The collection of measurement results (the history) is a stochastic process of dependent random variables. We link the asymptotic properties of this process to spectral characteristics of the dynamics. We show that the process has decaying time correlations and that a zero-one law holds. We deduce that if the incoming probes are not sharply localized with respect to the spectrum of the measurement operator, then the process does not converge. Nevertheless, the scattering modifies the measurement outcome frequencies, which are shown to be the average of the measurement projection operator, evolved for one interaction period, in an asymptotic state. We illustrate the results on a truncated Jaynes-Cummings model.

Marco Merkli; Mark Penney

2015-03-20

136

The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation

After a brief introduction to the principles and promise of quantum\\u000ainformation processing, the requirements for the physical implementation of\\u000aquantum computation are discussed. These five requirements, plus two relating\\u000ato the communication of quantum information, are extensively explored and\\u000arelated to the many schemes in atomic physics, quantum optics, nuclear and\\u000aelectron magnetic resonance spectroscopy, superconducting electronics, and\\u000aquantum-dot

David P. DiVincenzo

2000-01-01

137

Quantum information and physics: some future directions

I consider some promising future directions for quantum information theory that could influence the development of 21st century physics. Advances in the theory of the distinguishability of superoperators may lead to new strategies for improving the precision of quantum-limited measurements. A better grasp of the properties of multi-partite quantum entanglement may lead to deeper understanding of strongly-coupled dynamics in quantum

John Preskill

2000-01-01

138

Quantum many particle systems in ring-shaped optical lattices

In the present work we demonstrate how to realize 1d-optical closed lattice experimentally, including a {\\it tunable} boundary phase-twist. The latter may induce ``persistent currents'', visible by studing the atoms' momentum distribution. We show how important phenomena in 1d-physics can be studied by physical realization of systems of trapped atoms in ring-shaped optical lattices. A mixture of bosonic and/or fermionic atoms can be loaded into the lattice, realizing a generic quantum system of many interacting particles.

Luigi Amico; Andreas Osterloh; Francesco Cataliotti

2005-06-21

139

Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

Kierk, I. K.

2002-01-01

140

Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.

2001-01-01

141

Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics

The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin air-blood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. Whereas the particle-lung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drug. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this chapter. A large portion of this chapter deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: 1) the physical characteristics of particles, 2) particle behavior in gas flow, and 3) gas flow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The chapter concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research. PMID:24265235

Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S.; Butler, James P.

2015-01-01

142

Light particles A window to fundamental physics

In these proceedings we illustrate that light, very weakly interacting particles can arise naturally from physics which is fundamentally connected to very high energy scales. Searching for them therefore may give us interesting new insights into the structure of fundamental physics. The prime example is the axion.

Jaeckel, Joerg [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

2010-08-30

143

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida

This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

Not Available

1991-12-01

144

To Photon Concept and to Physics of Quantum Absorption Process

The status of the photon in the modern physics was analysed. Within the frames of the Standard Model of particle physics the photon is considered to be the genuine elementary particle, being to be the messenger of the electromagnetic interaction to which are subject charged particles. In contrast, the experts in quantum electodynamics (in particular, in quantum optics) insist, that the description of an photon to be the particle is impossible. The given viewpoint was carefully analysed and its falseness was proved. The expression for a photon wave function is presented. So, the status of the photon in quantum electodynamics was restored. The physics of a quantum absorption process is analysed. It is argued in accordance with Dirac guess, that the photon revival takes place by its absorption. Being to be a soliton, it seems to be keeping safe after an energy absorption in a pinned state, possessing the only by spin. It is shown, that the time of the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is finite and moreover, that it can govern the stationary signal registered. The given result is significant for the all stationary spectroscopy, in which at present the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is considered to be instantaneous.

Dmitri Yerchuck; Yauhen Yerchak; Alla Dovlatova; Vyacheslav Stelmakh; Felix Borovik

2014-06-03

145

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group Kelvin Building, University) at DESY. LPD will be one of the detections systems for applications such as coherent X-ray diffraction techniques to minimize the edge effects associated with tiled detectors are also examined 10th International

Glasgow, University of

146

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group Kelvin Building, University (XFEL) at DESY. LPD will be one of the detections systems for applications such as coherent XÂray di techniques to minimize the edge e#ects associated with tiled detectors are also examined 10th International

Glasgow, University of

147

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group Kelvin Building, University of DaVinci, Boole, Brunel and Gauss have been automated. #12; LHCb 2004-066 Software Distribution of packages up to the level of DaVinci, Boole, Brunel and Gauss have been automated. #12; Contents 1

Glasgow, University of

148

Research on elementary particle physics

This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p{bar p} collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a {tau}-charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development.

Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A.

1992-05-01

149

The physical state space of quantum electrodynamics

Starting from the fact that electrically charged particles are massive, we derive a criterion which characterizes the state space of quantum electrodynamics. This criterion clarifies the special role of the electric charge amongst the uncountably many superselection rules in quantum electrodynamics and provides a basis for a general analysis of the infrared problem. Within this framework we establish the existence

Detlev Buchholz

1982-01-01

150

Particle creation from the quantum stress tensor

Among the different methods to derive particle creation, finding the quantum stress tensor expectation value gives a covariant quantity which can be used for examining the back-reaction issue. However this tensor also includes vacuum polarization in a way that depends on the vacuum chosen. Here we review different aspects of particle creation by looking at energy conservation and at the quantum stress tensor. It will be shown that in the case of general spherically symmetric black holes that have a \\emph{dynamical horizon}, as occurs in a cosmological context, one cannot have pair creation on the horizon because this violates energy conservation. This confirms the results obtained in other ways in a previous paper [25]. Looking at the expectation value of the quantum stress tensor with three different definitions of the vacuum state, we study the nature of particle creation and vacuum polarization in black hole and cosmological models, and the associated stress energy tensors. We show that the thermal tempera...

Firouzjaee, Javad T

2015-01-01

151

Plato's TIMAIO? (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIO? (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

Machleidt, Ruprecht

2005-04-01

152

Theoretical particle physics, Task A

This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; Parity-Odd Spin-Dependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.

Not Available

1991-07-01

153

Quantum physics: Teleportation for two

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'no-cloning' theorem of quantum mechanics forbids the perfect copying of properties of photons or electrons. But quantum teleportation allows their flawless transfer -- now even for two properties simultaneously. See Letter p.516

Tittel, Wolfgang

2015-02-01

154

Nuclear and Particle Physics Simulations: The Consortium of Upper-Level Physics Software

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

Bigelow, Roberta; Moloney, Michael J.; Philpott, John; Rothberg, Joseph

1995-06-01

155

Einstein's objection against both the completeness claim of the orthodox version and the Bohmian interpretation of quantum theory, using the example of a 'particle in a box', is reiterated and resolved. This is done by proving that the corresponding quantum mechanical states exactly match classical analogues. The latter are shown to result from the recently elaborated physics of diffusion waves.

Gerhard Groessing

2008-08-01

156

Basics of particle therapy I: physics

With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664

Park, Seo Hyun

2011-01-01

157

Quarked! - Adventures in Particle Physics Education

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike-with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not introduced until high school or university.1,2 Many of these concepts can be made accessible to younger students when presented in a fun and engaging way. Informal science institutions are in an ideal position to communicate new and challenging science topics in engaging and innovative ways and offer a variety of educational enrichment experiences for students that support and enhance science learning.3 Quarked!™ Adventures in the Subatomic Universe, a National Science Foundation EPSCoR-funded particle physics education program, provides classroom programs and online educational resources.

MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice

2009-01-01

158

Coherent Quantum Filtering for Physically Realizable Linear Quantum Plants

The paper is concerned with a problem of coherent (measurement-free) filtering for physically realizable (PR) linear quantum plants. The state variables of such systems satisfy canonical commutation relations and are governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations, dynamically equivalent to those of an open quantum harmonic oscillator. The problem is to design another PR quantum system, connected unilaterally to the output of the plant and playing the role of a quantum filter, so as to minimize a mean square discrepancy between the dynamic variables of the plant and the output of the filter. This coherent quantum filtering (CQF) formulation is a simplified feedback-free version of the coherent quantum LQG control problem which remains open despite recent studies. The CQF problem is transformed into a constrained covariance control problem which is treated by using the Frechet differentiation of an appropriate Lagrange function with respect to the matrices of the filter.

Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen

2013-01-14

159

Particle physics with the LHC data

In this talk, I give reasons why we regard GUT as a part of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics that explain all phenomena observed at high energy experiments and in the universe, with a few notable exceptions. It is based on my introduction-to-elementary-particle-physics lectures for the first year graduate students at Sokendai, Graduate University for Advanced Studies. No new observation is made, but I think that it is important for us to examine the LHC data from the GUT viewpoint together with our fresh students.

Hagiwara, Kaoru [KEK Theory Center and Sokendai, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2012-07-27

160

Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan{beta} {approx_equal} mt/mb {approx_equal} 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

Sultansoy, Saleh [Gazi University, Dept. of Physics, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, H. Cavid Av. 33, Baku (Azerbaijan)

2007-04-23

161

Research in Theoretical Particle Physics

This document is the final report on activity supported under DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-13ER42024. The report covers the period July 15, 2013 – March 31, 2014. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (1.0 FTE) and Hume Feldman (1% FTE). The grant partly supported University of Hawaii students, David Yaylali and Keita Fukushima, who are supervised by Jason Kumar. Both students are expected to graduate with Ph.D. degrees in 2014. Yaylali will be joining the University of Arizona theory group in Fall 2014 with a 3-year postdoctoral appointment under Keith Dienes. The group’s research covered topics subsumed under the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Many theoretical results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The report contains brief project descriptions in Section 1. Sections 2 and 3 lists published and submitted work, respectively. Sections 4 and 5 summarize group activity including conferences, workshops and professional presentations.

Feldman, Hume A; Marfatia, Danny

2014-09-24

162

Computer Visualization of Many-Particle Quantum Dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I show the importance of computer visualization in researching of many-particle quantum dynamics. Such a visualization becomes an indispensable illustrative tool for understanding the behavior of dynamic swarm-based quantum systems. It is also an important component of the corresponding simulation framework, and can simplify the studies of underlying algorithms for multi-particle quantum systems.

Ozhigov, A. Y.

2009-03-01

163

Category:Quantum chaos Quantum Chaos emerged as a new field of physics from the

Category:Quantum chaos Quantum Chaos emerged as a new field of physics from the efforts in number theory, fractal and complex spectra, atomic and molecular physics, clusters and nuclei, quantum billiards and quantum chaos Categories: Chaos Physics Quantum Mechanics Dynamical Systems Category:Quantum

Shepelyansky, Dima

164

Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education

This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.

Bardeen, Marjorie G.; /Fermilab; Johansson, K.Erik; /Stockholm U.; Young, M.Jean

2011-11-21

165

Quantum theory as a universal physical theory

The problem of setting up quantum theory as a universal physical theory is investigated. It is shown that the existing formalism, in either the conventional or the Everett interpretation, must be supplemented by an additional structure, the “interpretation basis.” This is a preferred ordered orthonormal basis in the space of states. Quantum measurement theory is developed as a tool for

David Deutsch

1985-01-01

166

Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics

Instead of having to rely on gedanken (thought) experiments, it is possible to base this discussion of the foundations of quantum physics on actually performed experiments because of the enormous experimental progress in recent years. For reasons of space, the author discusses mainly experiments related to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and Bell's theorem, that is, to quantum entanglement. Not only have

Anton Zeilinger

1999-01-01

167

On Quantum Theory of General-Relativistic Many-Particle Systems. I Formalism

A new approach to general-relativistic quantum many-particle systems is proposed. The gravitational field is treated as a classical background field, and a formalism of statistical physics in that curved spacetime is constructed. The theory is restricted to the case of static and conformally static spacetime where no particle production takes place, however the scope of applications seems to be wide

Ikuo Ichinose

1981-01-01

168

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model used to introduce quantum mechanics to students suffers from a tenuous connection to a real physical system. This article presents a two-dimensional model, the particle confined within a ring, that directly corresponds to observations of surface electrons in a metal trapped inside a circular barrier.…

Ellison, Mark D.

2008-01-01

169

Atoms, Molecules and Photons: An Introduction to Atomic Molecular and Quantum Physics

This introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our present model of atoms and molecules has been developed during the last two centuries by many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical side by the introduction of quantum physics to the adequate description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave model of particles by many examples and shows the limits of

Wolfgang Demtröder

2006-01-01

170

Photos: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab Particle physics benefits

, such as computers, cell phones, and MP3 players. Photo: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab 12 As a lead machinist at Argonne Stories abound about how particle physics benefits education, the economy, and society as a whole on the nation's economy." As envisioned by the P5 group, the proposed study would not focus on the local effects

Crowther, Paul

171

Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics

Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.

Chris Quigg

2002-04-11

172

Searching for the unknown in Particle Physics

: ! the atom (p,e ), radioactivity, and the discovery of the neutron (n). (1895-1932) ! Cosmic RaysSearching for the unknown in Particle Physics: past discoveries and present challenges Quark: the Standard Model of Electroweak and Strong interactions ! formulation and discovery (1960's-1980's

McQuade, D. Tyler

173

Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S

2013-04-01

174

Visions: The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics

Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.

Chris Quigg

2002-04-05

175

Current experiments in elementary particle physics

This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

1987-03-01

176

Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

1996-09-01

177

Statistical problems in quantum physics

In this paper, we give a general and unified mathematical treatment for a number of statistical problems concerning optimal quantum measurements. It has at least one field of application, namely, the theory of quantum communication channels and optimal receivers of optical signals [I] . Of course, if we are concerned with the data already obtained by a given measurement, then

A. S. Holevo

178

This book is an attempt to build a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting particles. In the first part of the book "Quantum electrodynamics" we follow rather traditional approach to particle physics. Our discussion proceeds systematically from the principle of relativity and postulates of quantum measurements to the renormalization in quantum electrodynamics. In the second part of the book "Quantum theory of particles" this traditional approach is reexamined. We find that formulas of special relativity should be modified to take into account particle interactions. We also suggest reinterpreting quantum field theory in the language of physical "dressed" particles. This formulation eliminates the need for renormalization and opens up a new way for studying dynamical and bound state properties of quantum interacting systems. The developed theory is applied to realistic physical objects and processes including the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the decay law of moving unstable particles, and the electric field of relativistic electron beams. These results force us to take a fresh look at some core issues of modern particle theories, in particular, the Minkowski space-time unification, the role of quantum fields and renormalization as well as the alleged impossibility of action-at-a-distance. A new perspective on these issues is suggested. It can help to solve the old problem of theoretical physics -- a consistent unification of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Eugene V. Stefanovich

2015-02-16

179

Differential evolution for many-particle adaptive quantum metrology.

We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods based on particle-swarm optimization. We apply our method to the binary-decision-tree model for quantum-enhanced phase estimation as well as to a new problem: a decision tree for adaptive estimation of the unknown bias of a quantum coin in a quantum walk and show how this latter case can be realized experimentally. PMID:23767703

Lovett, Neil B; Crosnier, Cécile; Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Sanders, Barry C

2013-05-31

180

Differential Evolution for Many-Particle Adaptive Quantum Metrology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods based on particle-swarm optimization. We apply our method to the binary-decision-tree model for quantum-enhanced phase estimation as well as to a new problem: a decision tree for adaptive estimation of the unknown bias of a quantum coin in a quantum walk and show how this latter case can be realized experimentally.

Lovett, Neil B.; Crosnier, Cécile; Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Sanders, Barry C.

2013-05-01

181

An Introduction to the Neutrosophic Probability Applied in Quantum Physics

In this paper one generalizes the classical probability and imprecise probability to the notion of "neutrosophic probability" in order to be able to model Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle of a particle's behavior, Schr"dinger's Cat Theory, and the state of bosons which do not obey Pauli's Exclusion Principle (in quantum physics). Neutrosophic probability is close related to neutrosophic logic and neutrosophic set, and etymologically derived from "neutrosophy".

Florentin Smarandache

2000-10-10

182

Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality

Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

Gibson, J. Murray (ANL) [ANL

2003-10-15

183

The Physical Renormalization of Quantum Field Theories

The profound revolutions in particle physics likely to emerge from current and future experiments motivates an improved understanding of the precise predictions of the Standard Model and new physics models. Higher order predictions in quantum field theories inevitably requires the renormalization procedure, which makes sensible predictions out of the naively divergent results of perturbation theory. Thus, a robust understanding of renormalization is crucial for identifying and interpreting the possible discovery of new physics. The results of this thesis represent a broad set of investigations in to the nature of renormalization. The author begins by motivating a more physical approach to renormalization based on gauge-invariant Green's functions. The resulting effective charges are first applied to gauge coupling unification. This approach provides an elegant formalism for understanding all threshold corrections, and the gauge couplings unify in a more physical manner compared to the usual methods. Next, the gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex is studied in detail, revealing an interesting and rich structure. The effective coupling for the three-gluon vertex, {alpha}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}), depends on three momentum scales and gives rise to an effective scale Q{sub eff}{sup 2}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}) which governs the (sometimes surprising) behavior of the vertex. The effects of nonzero internal masses are important and have a complicated threshold and pseudo-threshold structure. The pinch-technique effective charge is also calculated to two-loops and several applications are discussed. The Higgs boson mass in Split Supersymmetry is calculated to two-loops, including all one-loop threshold effects, leading to a downward shift in the Higgs mass of a few GeV. Finally, the author discusses some ideas regarding the overall structure of perturbation theory. This thesis lays the foundation for a comprehensive multi-scale analytic renormalization scheme based on gauge-invariant Green's functions, in which the scale ambiguity problem is reduced since physical kinematic invariants determine the arguments of the couplings.

Binger, Michael William.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2007-02-20

184

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.

Clarissa Ai Ling Lee

2014-06-21

185

quantum physics in introductory general physics courses Art Hobson Department of Physics, University-particle nature of radiation and matter that is central to quantum physics, but also the symmetry between-relativistic quantum mechanics in introductory courses, including non-mathematical courses for non-scientists, math

Hobson, Art

186

Quantum Algorithms: Applicable Algebra and Quantum Physics

Classical computer science relies on the concept of Turing machines as a unifying model of universal computation. According\\u000a to the modern Church-Turing Thesis, this concept is interpreted in the form that every physically reasonable model of computation\\u000a can be efficiently simulated on a probabilistic Turing machine. Recently this understanding, which was taken for granted for a long time, has\\u000a required

Thomas Beth; Martin Roetteler

2001-01-01

187

Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein imposed an observer-based epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified Lorentzian-Newtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wave-based theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.

Lindner, Henry H.

2011-09-01

188

Anderson Localization for a Multi-Particle Quantum Graph

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a multi-particle quantum graph with random potential. Taking the approach of multiscale analysis, we prove exponential and strong dynamical localization of any order in the Hilbert-Schmidt norm near the spectral edge. Apart from the results on multi-particle systems, we also prove Lifshitz-type asymptotics for single-particle systems. This shows in particular that localization for single-particle quantum graphs holds under a weaker assumption on the random potential than previously known.

Sabri, Mostafa

2014-11-01

189

Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics

The basic theme of Popper's philosophy--that something can come from nothing--is related to the present situation in physical theory. Popper carries his investigation right to the center of current debate in quantum physics. He proposes an interpretation of physics--and indeed an entire cosmology--which is realist, conjectural, deductivist and objectivist, anti-positivist, and anti-instrumentalist. He stresses understanding, reminding us that our ignorance

Karl R. Popper

1992-01-01

190

Particle physics: recent successes and future prospects

There is no doubt that as yet we do not have an ultimate theory of matter and forces in spite of the remarkable successes of the past decade. In this talk the author attempts to summarize briefly the historical background that led us to the present level of understanding, or more specifically to the standard model of particle physics. Subsequently the author describes several difficulties with this picture, continues with some possible indications of new physics, and finally ends with the discussion of the prospects for the future. 32 references.

Wojcicki, S.

1984-12-01

191

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1992-06-01

192

Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

Johnson, David Kelley

193

Gaussian Quantum Fluctuations in Interacting Many Particle Systems

We consider a many particle quantum system, in which each particle interacts only with its nearest neighbours. Provided that the energy per particle has an upper bound, we show, that the energy distribution of almost every product state becomes a Gaussian normal distribution in the limit of infinite number of particles. We indicate some possible applications.

Michael Hartmann; Günter Mahler; Ortwin Hess

2004-01-01

194

Gaussian quantum fluctuations in interacting many particle systems

We consider a many particle quantum system, in which each particle interacts only with its nearest neighbours. Provided that the energy per particle has an upper bound, we show, that the energy distribution of almost every product state becomes a Gaussian normal distribution in the limit of infinite number of particles. We indicate some possible applications.

M. Hartmann; G. Mahler; O. Hess

2004-04-13

195

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (ENL); CERN; DESY; Fermilab. (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMP. Also, summries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated.

Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

196

Scaling Laws in Particle Physics and Astrophysics

Disclosure of scaling relationship between observable quantities gives direct information about dynamics of natural phenomenon. This is the main reason why scaling plays a key role in the methodology of natural sciences. In this talk, Part I will consider several diverse scaling laws in particle physics. Part II is dedicated to the to the extension of Chew-Frautschi hadronic spin/mass scaling relation to the realm of astronomical objects.

Rudolf Muradyan

2011-06-07

197

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Particle Physics

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process of fundamental importance for particle physics. It can be mediated by light massive Majorana neutrinos (standard interpretation) or by something else (non-standard interpretations). We review its dependence on the neutrino parameters, its complementarity to other observables sensitive to neutrino mass, and emphasize its ability to distinguish different neutrino mass models. Then we discuss mechanisms different from light Majorana neutrino exchange, and show what can be learned from those and how they could be tested.

Werner Rodejohann

2010-11-22

198

Combining abstract to laboratory projected quantum states a general analysis of headline quantum phenomena is presented. Standard representation mode is replaced; instead quantum states sustained by elementary material constituents occupy its place. Renouncing to assign leading roles to language originated in classical physics when describing genuine quantum processes, together with sustainment concept most, if not all weirdness associated to Quantum Mechanics vanishes.

O. Tapia

2014-04-02

199

Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-09-01

200

Quantum Gravity: A Mathematical Physics Perspective

This article is based on an invited talk given at the Workshop on Mathematical Physics Towards XXIst Century, held at Beer-Sheva, Israel in 1993. It contains an introduction to quantum gravity for mathematical physicists with an emphasis on the difference between the structure of this theory from more familiar, Minkowskian quantum field theories which arise due to the absence of a background space-time geometry.

Abhay Ashtekar

1994-04-05

201

Quantum physics in inertial and gravitational fields

Covariant generalizations of well-known wave equations predict the existence of inertial-gravitational effects for a variety of quantum systems that range from Bose-Einstein condensates to particles in accelerators. Additional effects arise in models that incorporate Born reciprocity principle and the notion of a maximal acceleration. Some specific examples are discussed in detail.

G. Papini

2003-04-22

202

Quantum physics of classical waves in plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagrangian approach to plasma wave physics is extended to a universal nonlinear theory which yields generic equations invariant with respect to the wave nature. The traditional understanding of waves as solutions of the Maxwell-Vlasov system is abandoned. Oscillations are rather treated as physical entities, namely, abstract vectors |?> in a specific Hilbert space. The invariant product is the total action and has the sign of the oscillation energy. The action density is then an operator. Projections of the corresponding operator equation generate assorted wave kinetic equations; the nonlinear Wigner-Moyal equation is just one example and, in fact, may be more delicate than commonly assumed. The linear adiabatic limit of this classical theory leads to quantum mechanics in its general form. The action conservation theorem, together with its avatars such as Manley-Rowe relations, then becomes manifest and in partial equilibrium can modify statistical properties of plasma fluctuations. In the quasi-monochromatic limit geometrical optics (GO) is recovered and can as well be understood as a particular field theory in its own right. For linear waves, the energy-momentum equations, in both canonical and (often) kinetic form, then follow automatically, even without a reference to electromagnetism. Yet for waves in plasma the general GO Lagrangian is also derived explicitly, in terms of single-particle oscillation-center Hamiltonians. Applications to various plasma waves are then discussed with an emphasis on the advantages of an abstract theory. Specifically covered are nonlinear dispersion, dynamics, and stability of BGK modes, and also other wave transformations in laboratory and cosmological plasmas.

Dodin, I. Y.

2012-10-01

203

PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his life-long activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J Clemente-Gallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan

A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA) |

L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain) |

I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany) |

G. F. Dell Antonio (Universitá di Roma La Sapienza, Italy) |

A. Galindo (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain) |

S. L. Glashow (Boston University, USA) |

A. M. Gleeson (University of Texas, Austin, USA) |

C. R. Hagen (Rochester University, NY, USA) |

J. Klauder (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA) |

A. Kossakowski (University of Torun, Poland) |

V.I. Manko (Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) |

G. Marmo (Universitá Federico II di Napoli e INFN Sezione di Napoli, Italy) |

N. Mukunda (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India) |

J. V. Narlikar (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India) |

J. Nilsson (University of Goteborg, Sweden) |

S. Okubo (Rochester University, NY, USA) |

T. Regge (Politecnico di Torino, Italy) |

W. Schleich (University of Ulm, Germany) |

M. Scully (Texas A& M University, USA) |

S. Weinberg (University of Texas, Austin, USA) |

Asorey, M.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Marmo, G.

2007-07-01

204

Cosmic Censorship: the Role of Quantum Physics

The cosmic censorship hypothesis introduced by Penrose thirty years ago is still one of the most important open questions in {\\it classical} general relativity. The main goal of this paper is to put forward the idea that cosmic censorship is intrinsically a {\\it quantum} phenomena. We construct a gedanken experiment which seems to violate the cosmic censorship principle within the purely {\\it classical} framework of general relativity. We prove, however, that {\\it quantum} physics restores the validity of the conjecture. It is therefore suggested that cosmic censorship might be enforced by a quantum theory of gravity.

Shahar Hod

1999-08-01

205

The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics

Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electron-positron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.

Quigg, Chris

2004-04-28

206

A MODEL OF A QUANTUM PARTICLE IN A QUANTUM ENVIRONMENT: A NUMERICAL STUDY

toy-model of a cloud chamber. An energetic quantum par- ticle, whose initial state is a superposition happens in a cloud chamber where a quantum particle, emitted as a spherical wave by a radioactive sourceÂ¨odinger equation, Quantum particle+environment model, Multi-channel point interactions, Wilson cloud chamber, Trace

Negulescu, Claudia

207

Quantum particles from coarse grained classical probabilities in phase space

Quantum particles can be obtained from a classical probability distribution in phase space by a suitable coarse graining, whereby simultaneous classical information about position and momentum can be lost. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential follow from classical statistics. This includes interference, tunneling and the uncertainty relation.

Wetterich, C., E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-07-15

208

Evolution of correlations of quantum many-particle systems

We consider the origin of the microscopic description of correlations in quantum systems. For correlation operators that give the alternative description of the quantum state evolution of many-particle systems, we deduce the von Neumann hierarchy of nonlinear equations and discuss the relationships of its solution both with the solution of the BBGKY hierarchy and with the s-particle correlation operators. A

V I Gerasimenko; V O Shtyk

2008-01-01

209

Summary of the particle physics and technology working group

Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leading-edge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.

Stephan Lammel et al.

2002-12-10

210

FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

Singer, Isadore M.

2008-03-04

211

Mean Field Asymptotic Behavior of Quantum Particles with Initial Correlations

In the paper we consider the problem of the rigorous description of the kinetic evolution in the presence of initial correlations of quantum large particle systems. One of the developed approaches consists in the description of the evolution of quantum many-particle systems within the framework of marginal observables in mean field scaling limit. Another method based on the possibility to describe the evolution of states within the framework of a one-particle marginal density operator governed by the generalized quantum kinetic equation in case of initial states specified by a one-particle marginal density operator and correlation operators.

V. I. Gerasimenko

2014-07-07

212

Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Schramm, D. N.

1981-01-01

213

Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity

Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable, Interpreting of quantum physics, Berry phase, three dimensional time, unified theory

Xiaodong Chen

2005-10-03

214

The Present Status of Particle Physics with Slow Neutrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slow neutrons are a privileged tool to explore the low-energy high-precision frontier of particle physics. This overview on the present status of neutron-particle physics is intended to serve as a basis for the ensuing discussion of the potential and future development of neutron-particle physics at the European Spallation Source ESS.

Dubbers, Dirk

215

TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the machines with which you will be involved in the years to come. Perhaps, we can even turn your frustration with the inadequacy of these machines into marvel at the performance of the accelerators. At the least, we hope to convince you that the accelerators are central, not peripheral, to our science and that the physics of such machines is both fascinating and sophisticated. The plan is the following: First I will give two lectures on basic accelerator physics; then you will hear two lectures on the state of the art, present limitations, the specific parameters of LEP, HERA, TEV2 and SLC, and some extrapolation to the next generation of machines such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), and Large Linear Colliders; finally, I will give two lectures on new acceleration methods.

Sessler, A.M.

1984-07-01

216

The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report

The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Grid-enabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Grid-based software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experiment-specific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, high-speed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.

Livny, Miron

2002-08-16

217

Physical state for non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics

Physical state for non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics Fumio Hiroshima Department of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics are constructed through the Gupta-Bleuler procedure. Asymptotic. In this paper we will consider the so-called nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED). A significant

218

Physical Interpretations of Nilpotent Quantum Mechanics

Nilpotent quantum mechanics provides a powerful method of making efficient calculations. More importantly, however, it provides insights into a number of fundamental physical problems through its use of a dual vector space and its explicit construction of vacuum. Physical interpretation of the nilpotent formalism is discussed with respect to boson and baryon structures, the mass-gap problem, zitterbewgung, Berry phase, renormalization, and related issues.

Peter Rowlands

2010-04-09

219

Finite quantum physics and noncommutative geometry

Conventional discrete approximations of a manifold do not preserve its\\u000anontrivial topological features. In this article we describe an approximation\\u000ascheme due to Sorkin which reproduces physically important aspects of manifold\\u000atopology with striking fidelity. The approximating topological spaces in this\\u000ascheme are partially ordered sets (posets). Now, in ordinary quantum physics on\\u000aa manifold $M$, continuous probability densities generate

A. P. Balachandran; G. Bimonte; E. Ercolessi; G. Landi; F. Lizzi; G. Sparano; P. Teotoniosobrinho

1995-01-01

220

The Underlying Physics in Wetted Particle Collisions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetted granular particles are relevant in many industries including the pharmaceutical and chemical industries and has applications to granulation, filtration, coagulation, spray coating, drying and pneumatic transport. In our current focus, we investigate the dynamics of a three-body normal wetted particle collision. In order to conduct collisions we use an apparatus called a ``Stokes Cradle,'' similar to the Newton's Cradle (desktop toy) except that the target particles are covered with oil. Here, we are able to vary the oil thickness, oil viscosity, and material properties. With a three particle collision there are four possible outcomes: fully agglomerated (FA); Newton's Cradle (NC), the striker and the first target ball are agglomerated and the last target ball is separated; Reverse Newton's Cradle (RNC), the striker is separated and the two targets are agglomerated; and fully separated (FS). Varying the properties of the collisions, we have observed all four outcomes. We use elastohydrodynamics as a theoretical basis for modeling the system. We also have considered the glass transition of the oil as the pressure increases upon impact and the cavitation of the oil as the pressure drops below the vapor pressure upon rebound. A toy model has been developed where the collision is modeled as a series of two-body collisions. A qualitative agreement between the toy model and experiments gives insight into the underlying physics.

Donahue, Carly; Hrenya, Christine; Davis, Robert

2008-11-01

221

Holism, Physical Theories and Quantum Mechanics

Motivated by the question what it is that makes quantum mechanics a holistic theory (if so), I try to define for general physical theories what we mean by `holism'. For this purpose I propose an epistemological criterion to decide whether or not a physical theory is holistic, namely: a physical theory is holistic if and only if it is impossible in principle to infer the global properties, as assigned in the theory, by local resources available to an agent. I propose that these resources include at least all local operations and classical communication. This approach is contrasted with the well-known approaches to holism in terms of supervenience. The criterion for holism proposed here involves a shift in emphasis from ontology to epistemology. I apply this epistemological criterion to classical physics and Bohmian mechanics as represented on a phase and configuration space respectively, and for quantum mechanics (in the orthodox interpretation) using the formalism of general quantum operations as completely positive trace non-increasing maps. Furthermore, I provide an interesting example from which one can conclude that quantum mechanics is holistic in the above mentioned sense, although, perhaps surprisingly, no entanglement is needed.

M. P. Seevinck

2005-02-04

222

Bringing Bell's theorem back to the domain of Particle Physics & Cosmology

John St. Bell was a physicist working most of his time at CERN and contributing intensively and sustainably to the development of Particle Physics and Collider Physics. As a hobby he worked on so-called "foundations of quantum theory", that was that time very unpopular, even considered to be scientifically taboo. His 1964-theorem, showing that predictions of local realistic theories are different to those of quantum theory, initiated a new field in quantum physics: quantum information theory. The violation of Bell's theorem, for instance, is a necessary and sufficient criterion for generating a secure key for cryptography at two distant locations. This contribution shows how Bell's theorem can be brought to the realm of high energy physics and presents the first conclusive experimental feasible test for weakly decaying neutral mesons on the market. Strong experimental and theoretical limitations make a Bell test in weakly decaying systems such as mesons and hyperons very challenging, however, these systems sh...

Hiesmayr, Beatrix C

2015-01-01

223

Particle mass generation from physical vacuum

We present an approach for particle mass generation in which the physical vacuum is assumed as a medium at zero temperature and where the dynamics of the vacuum is described by the Standard Model without the Higgs sector. In this approach fermions acquire masses from interactions with vacuum and gauge bosons from charge fluctuations of vacuum. The obtained results are consistent with the physical mass spectrum, in such a manner that left-handed neutrinos are massive. Masses of electroweak gauge bosons are properly predicted in terms of experimental fermion masses and running coupling constants of strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. An existing empirical relation between the top quark mass and the electroweak gauge boson masses is explained by means of this approach.

C. Quimbay; J. Morales

2012-06-14

224

Particle physics in the very early universe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

Schramm, D. N.

1981-01-01

225

(Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report

Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

Nefkens, B.M.K.

1985-10-01

226

Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.

1986-01-01

227

Physical state for non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics

A physical subspace and physical Hilbert space associated with asymptotic fields of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics are constructed through the Gupta-Bleuler procedure. Asymptotic completeness is shown and a physical Hamiltonian is defined on the physical Hilbert space.

Fumio Hiroshima; Akito Suzuki

2008-07-31

228

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation for quantum evolutions when noise accumulates. 1 Introduction Quantum computers were offered by Feynman [6: The postulate of quantum computation: Computational devices based on quantum mechanics will be computationally

Kalai, Gil

229

Quantum Information Processing with NMR MIT Department of Physics

Quantum Information Processing with NMR MIT Department of Physics (Dated: August 26, 2010) This experiment will let you perform a series of simple quantum computations on a two spin system, demonstrating one and two quantum-bit quantum logic gates, and a circuit implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa quantum

Seager, Sara

230

It is generally acknowledged that neither the Klein-Gordon equation nor the Dirac Hamiltonian can produce sound solitary-particle relativistic quantum mechanics due to the ill effects of their negative-energy solutions; instead their field-quantized wavefunctions are reinterpreted as dealing with particle and antiparticle simultaneously--despite the clear physical distinguishability of antiparticle from particle and the empirically known slight breaking of the underlying CP invariance. The natural square-root Hamiltonian of the free relativistic solitary particle is iterated to obtain the Klein-Gordon equation and linearized to obtain the Dirac Hamiltonian, steps that have calculational but not physical motivation, and which generate the above-mentioned problematic negative-energy solutions as extraneous artifacts. Since the natural square root Hamiltonian for the free relativistic solitary particle contrariwise produces physically unexceptionable quantum mechanics, this article focuses on extending that Hamiltonian to describe a solitary particle (of either spin 0 or spin one-half) in relativistic interaction with an external electromagnetic field. That is achieved by use of Lorentz-covariant solitary-particle four momentum techniques together with the assumption that well-known nonrelativistic dynamics applies in the particle's rest frame. Lorentz-invariant solitary particle actions, whose formal Hamiltonization is an equivalent alternative approach, are as well explicitly displayed. It is proposed that two separate solitary-particle wavefunctions, one for a particle and the other for its antiparticle, be independently quantized in lieu of "reinterpreting" negative energy solutions--which indeed don't even afflict proper solitary particles.

Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

2009-09-22

231

Quantum gravity corrections to the tunneling radiation of scalar particles

The original derivation of Hawking radiation shows the complete evaporation of black holes. However, theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of the minimal observable length. In this paper, we investigate the tunneling radiation of the scalar particles by introducing quantum gravity effects influenced by the generalized uncertainty principle. The Hawking temperatures are not only determined by the properties of the black holes, but also affected by the quantum numbers of the emitted particles. The quantum gravity corrections slow down the increase of the temperatures. The remnants are found during the evaporation.

Peng Wang; Haitang Yang; Shuxuan Ying

2014-10-19

232

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute

86 Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty This programD Ajointeffortofboththenaturalsciencesandtheengineeringdivisionsat RiceandoverseenbytheRiceQuantumInstitute(RQI),theAppliedPhysics Program Mechanics I (PHYS 521 or CHEM 530) Quantum Mechanics II or Statistical Physics (PHYS 522 or PHYS 526 or CHEM

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

233

DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL

DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS;#12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR. This dissertation will focus on the use of quantum-efficiency (QE) measurements to deduce the device physics of thin

Sites, James R.

234

Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics

Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics Arnold Neumaier Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik classical physics and quantum physics should be as small as possible. We argue that the differences between://www.mat.univie.ac.at/neum/ Abstract. A philosophically consistent axiomatic approach to classical and quantum mechanics is given

Neumaier, Arnold

235

Physical Diffeomorphisms in Loop Quantum Gravity

We investigate the action of diffeomorphisms in the context of Hamiltonian Gravity. By considering how the diffeomorphism-invariant Hilbert space of Loop Quantum Gravity should be constructed, we formulate a physical principle by demanding, that the gauge-invariant Hilbert space is a completion of gauge- (i.e. diffeomorphism-)orbits of the classical (configuration) variables, explaining which extensions of the group of diffeomorphisms must be implemented in the quantum theory. It turns out, that these are at least a subgroup of the stratified analytic diffeomorphisms. Factoring these stratified diffeomorphisms out, we obtain that the orbits of graphs under this group are just labelled by their knot classes, which in turn form a countable set. Thus, using a physical argument, we construct a separable Hilbert space for diffeomorphism invariant Loop Quantum Gravity, that has a spin-knot basis, which is labelled by a countable set consisting of the combination of knot-classes and spin quantum numbers. It is important to notice, that this set of diffeomorphism leaves the set of piecewise analytic edges invariant, which ensures, that one can construct flux-operators and the associated Weyl-operators. A note on the implications for the treatment of the Gauss- and the Hamilton-constraint of Loop Quantum Gravity concludes our discussion.

Tim Koslowski

2006-10-05

236

Constraints on particle physics from cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation looks at ways in which one can use observations of the cosmos, nearby and far into the past, to constrain parameters of models of cosmology and particle physics. The constraints presented in each chapter come from distinct epochs in the evolution of the Universe. In chapter 1, primordial nucleosynthesis of light elements (deuterium, helium and lithium) when the Universe is at temperatures of 1 to 0.1 MeV is used to constrain a certain class of models which are advocated to resolve an outstanding problem in physics, that of the smallness of the cosmological constant. In this class of models proposed to make the vacuum and matter energy densities naturally comparable today, the Universe maintains a uniform power-law expansion. Using the observed primordial abundances of the light elements in the Universe and other observations pertaining to the age of the Universe, we concluded that power-law cosmologies are not viable. The underlying physics for the failure of such models is very simple: to get the right abundances for the light elements in these power-law cosmologies, the Universe has to be younger than what the present observations allow it to be. In chapter 2, the physics of photons decoupling from electrons or last scattering (which occurs at a temperature of about 0.2 eV) is used to investigate if a possible variation in the fine-structure constant could be constrained by observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The conclusion is that the upcoming CMB anisotropy experiments (MAP, PLANCK) could reveal a variation in the fine-structure constant at the level of a percent or better. Apart from the constraints from nucleosynthesis (which are model dependent), presently this is the best way to probe a variation in the fine-structure constant when the Universe was less than a million years old. In chapter 3, certain aspects of the role of massive decaying particles in the evolution of the Universe are investigated. The relativistic products of massive particles decaying after last scattering up to the present age can lead to significant changes in the anisotropies of the CMB present at the last scattering surface. Constraints from observations of the anisotropies in CMB can place stringent constraints on the mass and lifetime of such particles. This important issue has been investigated carefully and it is found that the masses of particles which decay with lifetimes greater than the age of the Universe at last scattering, but smaller than the present age, are very well constrained. In chapter 4, implications of the background of relic neutrinos from supernovae is discussed. One of the goals of Super-Kamiokande collaboration is to observe the relic neutrinos from all supernovae that have occurred in our Universe. The feasibility of this project was investigated using simple physical arguments and relying on observations pertaining to the metal enrichment history of the Universe at redshifts less than one; the metal enrichment rate at any epoch is a direct tracer of the star formation (and hence supernova) rate at that time in our Universe. The results were reasonable, but low, upper bounds to the Supernova relic neutrino flux at Super-Kamiokande leading to the conclusion that it is very unlikely Super-Kamiokande could observe these relic neutrinos.

Kaplinghat, Manoj

237

Interference of identical particles and the quantum work distribution

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum-mechanical particles in a confining potential interfere with each other while undergoing thermodynamic processes far from thermal equilibrium. By evaluating the corresponding transition probabilities between many-particle eigenstates we obtain the quantum work distribution function for identical bosons and fermions, which we compare with the case of distinguishable particles. We find that the quantum work distributions for bosons and fermions significantly differ at low temperatures, while, as expected, at high temperatures the work distributions converge to the classical expression. These findings are illustrated with two analytically solvable examples, namely the time-dependent infinite square well and the parametric harmonic oscillator.

Gong, Zongping; Deffner, Sebastian; Quan, H. T.

2014-12-01

238

A Potentiality and Conceptuality Interpretation of Quantum Physics

We elaborate on a new interpretation of quantum mechanics which we introduced recently. The main hypothesis of this new interpretation is that quantum particles are entities interacting with matter conceptually, which means that pieces of matter function as interfaces for the conceptual content carried by the quantum particles. We explain how our interpretation was inspired by our earlier analysis of

Diederik Aerts

2010-01-01

239

Cyclic Polyynes as Examples of the Quantum Mechanical Particle on a Ring

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many quantum mechanical models are discussed as part of the undergraduate physical chemistry course to help students understand the connection between eigenvalue expressions and spectroscopy. Typical examples covered include the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. This article demonstrates that…

Anderson, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

240

Colloquium: Majorana Fermions in nuclear, particle and solid-state physics

Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own anti-particle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their anti-particles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can only exist if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence doesn't stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This review first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own anti-particle in nuclear, particle, and solid state physics.

S. R. Elliott; M. Franz

2014-12-01

241

Quantum Zeno effect for a free-moving particle

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the quantum Zeno effect takes its name from Zeno's arrow paradox, the effect of frequently observing the position of a freely moving particle on its motion has not been analyzed in detail in the frame of standard quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of a moving free particle while monitoring whether it lingers in a given region of space, and explain the dependence of the lingering probability on the frequency of the measurements and the initial momentum of the particle. Stopping the particle entails the emergence of Schrödinger cat states during the observed evolution, closely connected to the high-order diffraction modes in Fabry-Pérot optical resonators.

Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel

2014-12-01

242

Particles, Waves, and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an explanation, without mathematical equations, of the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Includes wave-particle duality, the probability character of the wavefunction, and the uncertainty relations. (MLH)

Christoudouleas, N. D.

1975-01-01

243

Quantum many-particle systems in curved spacetime

A theory of quantum many-particle systems in static and conformally static curved spacetime is discussed. As a simple application, the photon field in Friedman-Robertson-Walker universes is considered.

Ikuo Ichonose

1980-01-01

244

Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise.

Rafelski, J.

1991-08-31

245

Equivalence Postulate and the Quantum Potential of Two Free Particles

Commutativity of the diagram of the maps connecting three one--particle\\u000astate, implied by the Equivalence Postulate (EP), gives a cocycle condition\\u000awhich unequivocally leads to the quantum Hamilton--Jacobi equation. Energy\\u000aquantization is a direct consequences of the local homeomorphicity of the\\u000atrivializing map. We review the EP and show that the quantum potential for two\\u000afree particles, which depends on

Marco Matone; G. Galilei

2002-01-01

246

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

Whitaker, J.S.

1990-01-05

247

Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

Organtini, Giovanni

2011-01-01

248

Optimizing entangling quantum gates for physical systems

Optimal control theory is a versatile tool that presents a route to significantly improving figures of merit for quantum information tasks. We combine it here with the geometric theory for local equivalence classes of two-qubit operations to derive an optimization algorithm that determines the best entangling two-qubit gate for a given physical setting. We demonstrate the power of this approach for trapped polar molecules and neutral atoms.

Mueller, M. M.; Murphy, M.; Calarco, T. [Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Reich, D. M.; Koch, C. P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Yuan, H. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Vala, J. [Department of Mathematical Physics, National University of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland); School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Rd., Dublin (Ireland); Whaley, K. B. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-10-15

249

Relaxation dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle in an ideal gas

We show how the quantum analog of the Fokker-Planck equation for describing Brownian motion can be obtained as the diffusive limit of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation. The latter describes the quantum dynamics of a tracer particle in a dilute, ideal gas by means of a translation-covariant master equation. We discuss the type of approximations required to obtain the generalized form of the Caldeira-Leggett master equation, along with their physical justification. Microscopic expressions for the diffusion and relaxation coefficients are obtained by analyzing the limiting form of the equation in both the Schroedinger and the Heisenberg picture.

Bassano Vacchini; Klaus Hornberger

2007-06-29

250

Wave theories of non-laminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard classical description of non-laminar charged particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory that we discuss (Fedele R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045. Tanjia, F. et al. 2011 Proceedings of the 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Vol. 35G. Strasbourg, France: European Physical Society) is based on the Thermal Wave Model (TWM) (Fedele, R. and Miele, G. 1991 Nuovo Cim. D 13, 1527.) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of beam particles as the analog of quantum diffraction. The other theory is based on a recently developed model (Fedele, R. et al. 2012a Phys. Plasmas 19, 102106; Fedele, R. et al. 2012b AIP Conf. Proc. 1421, 212), hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides collective description of beam transport in the presence of quantum paraxial diffraction. Both in quantum and quantum-like regimes, the beam transport is governed by a 2D non-local Schrödinger equation, with self-interaction coming from the nonlinear charge- and current-densities. An envelope equation of the Ermakov-Pinney type, which includes collective effects, is derived for both TWM and QWM regimes. In TWM, such description recovers the well-known Sacherer's equation (Sacherer, F. J. 1971 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 1105). Conversely, in the quantum regime and in Hartree's mean field approximation, one recovers the evolution equation for a single-particle spot size, i.e. for a single quantum ray spot in the transverse plane (Compton regime). We demonstrate that such quantum evolution equation contains the same information as the evolution equation for the beam spot size that describes the beam as a whole. This is done heuristically by defining the lowest QWM state accessible by a system of non-overlapping fermions. The latter are associated with temperature values that are sufficiently low to make the single-particle quantum effects visible on the beam scale, but sufficiently high to make the overlapping of the single-particle wave functions negligible. This lowest QWM state constitutes the border between the fundamental single-particle Compton regime and the collective quantum and thermal regimes at larger (nano- to micro-) scales. Comparing it with the beam parameters in the existing accelerators, we find that it is feasible to achieve nano-sized beams in advanced compact machines.

Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; Jovanovi?, Dusan; de Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ronsivalle

2014-04-01

251

Quantum Theory over a Galois Field and Applications to Gravity and Particle Theory

We argue that the main reason of crisis in quantum physics is that nature, which is fundamentally discrete, is described by continuous mathematics. Moreover, no ultimate physical theory can be based on continuous mathematics because, as follows from G\\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems, that mathematics is not self-consistent. In the first part of the work we discuss inconsistencies in standard approach to quantum theory and reformulate the theory such that it can be naturally generalized to a formulation based on discrete mathematics. It is shown that the cosmological acceleration and gravity can be treated simply as {\\it kinematical} manifestations of de Sitter symmetry on quantum level ({\\it i.e. for describing those phenomena the notions of dark energy, space-time background and gravitational interaction are not needed}). In the second part of the work we argue that fundamental quantum theory should be based on a Galois field with a large characteristic $p$. In this approach the de Sitter gravitational constant depends on $p$ and disappears in the formal limit $p\\to\\infty$, i.e. gravity is a consequence of finiteness of nature. The application of the approach to particle theory gives the following results: a) no neutral elementary particles can exist; b) the electric charge and the baryon and lepton quantum numbers can be only approximately conserved (i.e. the notion of a particle and its antiparticle is only approximate). We also consider a possibility that only Dirac singletons can be true elementary particles.

Felix M. Lev

2014-04-30

252

Particle Physics in a Season of Change

A digest of the authors opening remarks at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. I have chosen my title to reflect the transitions we are living through, in particle physics overall and in hadron collider physics in particular. Data-taking has ended at the Tevatron, with {approx} 12 fb{sup -1} of {bar p}p interactions delivered to CDF and D0 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider has registered a spectacular first full-year run, with ATLAS and CMS seeing > 5 fb{sup -1}, LHCb recording {approx} 1 fb{sup -1}, and ALICE logging nearly 5 pb{sup -1} of pp data at {radical}s = 7 TeV, plus a healthy dose of Pb-Pb collisions. The transition to a new energy regime and new realms of instantaneous luminosity exceeding 3.5 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has brought the advantage of enhanced physics reach and the challenge of pile-up reaching {approx} 15 interactions per beam crossing. I am happy to record that what the experiments have (not) found so far has roused some of my theoretical colleagues from years of complacency and stimulated them to think anew about what the TeV scale might hold. We theorists have had plenty of time to explore many proposals for electroweak symmetry breaking and for new physics that might lie beyond established knowledge. With so many different theoretical inventions in circulation, it is in the nature of things that most will be wrong. Keep in mind that we learn from what experiment tells us is not there, even if it is uncommon to throw a party for ruling something out. Some non-observations may be especially telling: the persistent absence of flavor-changing neutral currents, for example, seems to me more and more an important clue that we have not yet deciphered. It is natural that the search for the avatar of electroweak symmetry breaking preoccupies participants and spectators alike. But it is essential to conceive the physics opportunities before us in their full richness. I would advocate a three-fold approach: Explore, Search, Measure! The first phase of running at the LHC has brought us to two new lands - in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions - and we may well enter other new lands with each change of energy or increase of sensitivity. I believe that it will prove very rewarding to spend some time simply exploring each new landscape, without strong preconceptions, to learn what is there and, perhaps, to encounter interesting surprises. Directed searches, for which we have made extensive preparations, are of self-evident interest. Here the challenge will be to broaden the searches over time, so the searches are not too narrowly directed. Our very successful conception of particles and forces is highly idealized. We have a great opportunity to learn just how comprehensive is our network of understanding by making precise measurements and probing for weak spots, or finding more sweeping accord between theory and experiment.

Quigg, Chris

2012-02-01

253

Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.

Halpern, Paul

2012-09-01

254

In 1956 Dyson analyzed the low-energy excitations of a ferromagnet using a Hamiltonian that was non-Hermitian with respect to the standard inner product. This allowed for a facile rendering of these excitations (known as spin waves) as weakly interacting bosonic quasi-particles. More than 50 years later, we have the full denouement of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics formalism at our disposal when considering Dyson's work, both technically and contextually. Here we recast Dyson's work on ferromagnets explicitly in terms of two inner products, with respect to which the Hamiltonian is always self-adjoint, if not manifestly "Hermitian". Then we extend his scheme to doped antiferromagnets described by the t-J model, in hopes of shedding light on the physics of high-temperature superconductivity.

Katherine Jones-Smith

2013-04-21

255

Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers

Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

Tay, J.W. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Hsu, Magnus T. L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Bowen, Warwick P. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

2009-12-15

256

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHC results released so far have very much restricted the possible range for the Standard Model Higgs boson mass. Moreover some indications for a signal at a mass around 125 GeV have been found. At the same time, no clear evidence for new physics has emerged from the LHC data. We discuss the impact of these results on our understanding of particle physics. The presently allowed window for the Higgs mass and the negative results for exotic particles are compatible with both the Standard model and its Supersymmetric extensions but imply considerable restrictions and need a substantial amount of fine tuning in all cases. We discuss the options that remain open and the perspectives for the near future.

Altarelli, Guido

2012-03-01

257

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty I (PHYS 521 or CHEM 530) Quantum Mechanics II or Statistical Physics (PHYS 522 or PHYS 526 or CHEM the natural sciences and the engineering divisions at Rice and overseen by the Rice Quantum Institute (RQI

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

258

Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach

Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach Diederik Aerts FUND of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach", International Journal of Theoretical examples in detail in the light of this formalism: a classical deterministic entity and a quantum entity

Aerts, Diederik

259

Optical Physics of Quantum Wells David A. B. Miller

Optical Physics of Quantum Wells David A. B. Miller Rm. 4B-401, AT&T Bell Laboratories Holmdel, NJ quantum wells, and will concentrate on some of the physical effects that are seen in optical experiments07733-3030 USA 1 Introduction Quantum wells are thin layered semiconductor structures in which we can

Miller, David A. B.

260

The pivotal role of causality in local quantum physics

In this paper an attempt is made to present very recent conceptual and computational developments in quantum field theory (QFT) as a new manifestation of old well-established physical principles. The vehicle for converting quantum algebraic aspects of local quantum physics into more classical geometric structures is the modular theory of Tomita. As the laureate E H Wichmann, together with his

Bert Schroer; Xavier Sigaud

1999-01-01

261

(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium

(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium: Introducing the group for Non (Nonlinear dynamics, chaos theory) Quantum information theory Our group is also a part of the bigger program Quantum maps, quantum chaos, random matrix theory: wave-dynamics, wave-chaos, PT-symmetric Hamiltonians

Â?umer, Slobodan

262

Exotic quantum statistics of composite particles and frustrated quasiparticles

We study the exotic quantum statistical behavior of composite particle of double-spin cluster and quasiparticle of triple-spin cluster in a four-spin quantum model. We constructed a four spin-1/2 model on a triangular star lattice but added frustrated coupling terms of plaquette quasiparticles. The eigenstates of this model are maximal entangled quantum states like Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and Yeo-Chua's genuine four-qubit entangled state. We generalized the conventional definition for quantum statistics of two elementary particles to composite particle of multispin clusters. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and Yeo-Chua's genuine four-qubit entangled state showed different behavior according to this generalized definition. The quantum statistical behavior of the composite particle of double-spin cluster is neither boson nor fermion in ground state and some intermediate excited states. The triple-spin cluster of this model is eigen-quasiparticles. We perform permutation operation on the eigenstates of triple-spin plaquette operator according to this generalized definition for quantum statistics of multi-spin clusters, the statistical matrix of exchanging two triple-spin quasiparticles is far beyond fermion and boson. The von Neumann entropy of the triple-spin quasiparticle is also highly nontrivial. These nontrivial quantum statistical behavior of plaquette quasiparticles is helpful for decoding the non-abelian anyons in Kitaev honeycomb model.

Tieyan Si

2014-05-13

263

Physics of Particle Detection 1 Claus Grupen

of a particle is its ionization, where the liberated charge can be collected and ampli#12;ed, or its production mechanisms of charged and neu- tral particles are presented. The ionization energy loss of charged particles of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges leads to the detection of charged particles in scintillation

Siegen, UniversitÃ¤t

264

The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

Jones, Goronwy Tudor

1991-01-01

265

Quantum Kinetic Equations and Evolution of Many-Particle Systems

In the paper we discuss possible approaches to the problem of the rigorous derivation of quantum kinetic equations from underlying many-particle dynamics. For the description of a many-particle evolution we construct solutions of the Cauchy problems of the BBGKY hierarchy and the dual BBGKY hierarchy in suitable Banach spaces. In the framework of the conventional approach to the description of kinetic evolution the mean-field asymptotics of the quantum BBGKY hierarchy solution is constructed. We develop also alternative approaches. One method is based on the construction of the solution asymptotics of the initial-value problem of the quantum dual BBGKY hierarchy. One more approach is based on the generalized quantum kinetic equation that is a consequence of the equivalence of the Cauchy problems of such evolution equation and the BBGKY hierarchy with initial data determined by the one-particle density operator.

V. I. Gerasimenko

2009-08-19

266

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics 1, processing, storing, or computing. The marriage of Quantum Physics and Information Technology -originally.2 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TRANSFER MATRIX OF A QUANTUM DEVICE It is unquestionable that the current

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

267

Understanding probabilistic interpretations of physical systems: A prerequisite to learning quantum Association of Physics Teachers. DOI: 10.1119/1.1447541 I. INTRODUCTION A student's first course in quantum the difficulties students have in learning quantum physics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the highlights

Bao, Lei

268

Applications of particle physics to the early universe

In this thesis, I show some of the results of my research work in the field at the crossing between Cosmology and Particle Physics. The Cosmology of several models of the Physics Beyond the Standard Model is studied. These ...

Senatore, Leonardo

2006-01-01

269

The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics Chris Quigg

The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics Chris Quigg Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory of Physical Science are to be looked for in the sixth place of decimals." Galileo's Three Revolutions 1. Eppur

Quigg, Chris

270

The International Particle Physics Outreach Group (ippog):. Aims and Activities

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Particle Physics Outreach Group, IPPOG, is a network of particle physics communication and education experts. IPPOG's principle aim is to maximize the impact of education and outreach efforts related to particle physics through information exchange and the sharing of expertise. IPPOG has initiated several major European and Worldwide activities, such as the "International Particle Physics Masterclasses" where each year thousands of high school students in more than 20 countries come to one of about 120 nearby universities or research centres for a day in order to unravel the mysteries of particle physics. IPPOG has also initiated a global database of education and outreach materials, aimed at supporting other particle physicists and education professionals. The aims and activities of IPPOG will be described, as well as plans to include more countries & laboratories in the network.

Barney, David

2012-08-01

271

Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.

2005-01-01

272

Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory

Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory 1) Bosonic Grand-Partition Function The solution to this problem is outlined clearly in the beginning of the lecture notes `Quantum Field Theory II

Murayama, Hitoshi

273

Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

2005-01-01

274

Colloquium: Majorana fermions in nuclear, particle, and solid-state physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own antiparticle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1 /2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their antiparticles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can exist only if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence does not stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid-state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This Colloquium first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own antiparticle in nuclear, particle, and solid-state physics.

Elliott, Steven R.; Franz, Marcel

2015-01-01

275

Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-01

276

Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…

Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.

2012-01-01

277

Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

1998-12-14

278

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because…

Hobson, Art

2011-01-01

279

Warped string phenomenology: Topics in cosmology and particle physics

Warped backgrounds in string theory are useful tools for building phenomenological models of early universe cosmology and particle physics. In particular, warped backgrounds play an important role in constructing viable models of brane inflation and can help explain the presence of hierarchies in particle physics. One interesting feature of warped models is that subtle differences in the warped geometry can

Bret J. Underwood

2008-01-01

280

STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW -EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS

STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW - EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS Guidelines A Â 2009 Review of Experimental Particle Physics Rolling Grants 3 Â Guidelines for Applicants 1 Procedures.3 Responsive-Mode Posts 7 3.4 Ring-Fenced Posts 7 1 #12;2 4 Requesting Resources 9 4.1 Full Economic Costs 9 4

281

Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment and Wave-Particle Superposition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple implementation scheme of quantum delayed-choice experiment in linear optical system without initial entanglement resource. By choosing different detecting devices, one can selectively observe the photon's different behaviors after the photon has been passed the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The scheme shows that the photon's wave behavior and particle behavior can be observed with a single experimental setup by postselection, that is, the photon can show the superposition behavior of wave and particle. Especially, we compare the wave-particle superposition behavior and the wave-particle mixture behavior in detail, and find the quantum interference effect between wave and particle behavior, which may be helpful to reveal the nature of photonessentially.

Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

2014-12-01

282

Group action in topos quantum physics

Topos theory has been suggested first by Isham and Butterfield, and then by Isham and Doering, as an alternative mathematical structure within which to formulate physical theories. In particular, it has been used to reformulate standard quantum mechanics in such a way that a novel type of logic is used to represent propositions. In this paper, we extend this formulation to include the notion of a group and group transformation in such a way that we overcome the problem of twisted presheaves. In order to implement this we need to change the type of topos involved, so as to render the notion of continuity of the group action meaningful.

Flori, C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)] [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2013-03-15

283

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work first explicates the philosophy of classical and quantum fields and particles. I am interested in determining how science can have a metaphysical dimension, and then with the claim that the quantum revolution has an important metaphysical component. I argue that the metaphysical implications of a theory are properties of its models, as classical mechanics determines properties of atomic diversity and temporal continuity with its representations of distinct, continuous trajectories. It is often suggested that classical statistical physics requires that many particle states be represented so that permuting properties leads to distinct states; this implies that individuals can be reidentified across possible worlds in a non-qualitative way. I show there is no evidence for this conclusion, an important result, for it is claimed that quantum particles are not individuals. This claim is based on the misconception about classical statistics, but also on a conflation of notions of identity; I show that, while transworld identity is incompatible with quantum mechanics, other classical notions may be consistently ascribed. I also give a field-particle distinction that applies usefully in both quantum and classical domains. In the former the distinction helps defeat claims of underdetermined by data, in the latter it helps provide a minimal field metaphysics. Next I tackle renormalisation: I show how divergences occur in approximate, perturbative calculations, and demonstrate how finite, empirically verified, answers are obtained. These techniques seem to show that the predictions are not logical consequences of the exact theory. I use the techniques of the renormalisation group to establish that perturbative renormalised quantum field theory does indeed approximate the consequences of field theory. Finally, I discuss the idea (Cao and Schweber, 1994) that renormalisation proves that there can be no quantum theory of everything, only a patchwork of effective theories. The preceding chapter shows that renormalisation demonstrates only that the picture is consistent, and this is insufficient to show that physics must be phenomenological.

Huggett, Nick

1995-01-01

284

Quantum correlation between a particle and potential well or barrier

A two-body quantum correlation is calculated for a particle and an infinite potential well in which it is trapped or either a barrier or finite well over which it traverses. Correlated interference results when the incident and reflected particle substates and their associated well or barrier substates overlap. Measurement of the particle in this region causes a splitting of the well or barrier substate at subsequent times. The joint probability density, which is a function both of the different positions and different times at which the particle and well or barrier are measured, is derived assuming that no interaction occurs between the time each is measured.

F. V. Kowalski; R. S. Browne

2014-05-03

285

Two decades of Mexican particle physics at Fermilab

This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories. Soon after becoming Fermilab director in 1979, Leon Lederman initiated a program to encourage experimental physics, especially experimental particle physics, in Latin America. At the time, Mexico had significant theoretical particle physics activity, but none in experiment. Following a visit by Lederman to UNAM in 1981, a conference ''Panamerican Symposium on Particle Physics and Technology'' was held in January 1982 at Cocoyoc, Mexico, with about 50 attendees from Europe, North America, and Latin America; these included Lederman, M. Moshinsky, J. Flores, S. Glashow, J. Bjorken, and G. Charpak. Among the conference outcomes were four subsequent similar symposia over the next decade, and a formal Fermilab program to aid Latin American physics (particularly particle physics); it also influenced a decision by Mexican physicist Clicerio Avilez to switch from theoretical to experimental particle physics. The first physics collaboration between Fermilab and Mexico was in particle theory. Post-docs Rodrigo Huerta and Jose Luis Lucio spent 1-2 years at Fermilab starting in 1981, and other theorists (including Augusto Garcia, Arnulfo Zepeda, Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez) also spent time at the Laboratory in the 1980s.

Roy Rubinstein

2002-12-03

286

CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation ? for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form t2/3+?. Based on recent H(z) data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the ? parameter have been found as m = 1.6× 103 GeV, restricted to a 68.3% c.l. interval of 1.5 < m < 6.3× 107) GeV and ? = -0.250+0.15-0.096 at 68.3% c.l. For these best fit values the model correctly recovers a transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion and admits a positive creation rate near the present era. Contrary to recent works in CCDM models where the creation rate was phenomenologically derived, here we have used a quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called ``dark degeneracy'', where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.

Jesus, J. F.; Pereira, S. H.

2014-07-01

287

Theoretical nuclear physics---elementary particles

This report briefly discusses the following topics: Thermodynamics with Wilson Fermions; beta function with Wilson Fermions; grand challenge; light flavors and nonperturbative QCD; the spin structure of the proton; the heavy Higgs Meson Problem; the heavy top quark problem; SU(2) Higgs Model; nontrivial quantum electrodynamics; vortex sheet dynamics; random surfaces and quantum gravity; strange baryon matter; supersymmetric model with the Higgs as a lepton; and Hamilton equations on group manifolds.

Kuti, J.

1989-01-01

288

Eulerian and Newtonian dynamics of quantum particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the classical equations of hydrodynamics (the Euler and continuity equations), from which the Schrödinger equation follows as a limit case. It is shown that the statistical ensemble corresponding to a quantum system and described by the Schrödinger equation can be considered an inviscid gas that obeys the ideal gas law with a quickly oscillating sign-alternating temperature. This statistical ensemble performs the complex movements consisting of smooth average movement and fast oscillations. It is shown that the average movements of the statistical ensemble are described by the Schrödinger equation. A model of quantum motion within the limits of classical mechanics that corresponds to the hydrodynamic system considered is suggested.

Rashkovskiy, S. A.

2013-06-01

289

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 023826 (2012) Dynamic quantum Kerr effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 023826 (2012) Dynamic quantum Kerr effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics-state cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems [2Â5], with strongly enhanced coupling strength between regime to avoid measurement-induced demolition of the qubit quantum state. Here we explore the qubit

Martinis, John M.

290

Quantum Electrodynamics of Confined Nonrelativistic Particles

We consider a system of finitely many nonrelativistic, quantum mechanical electrons bound to static nuclei. The electrons are minimally coupled to the quantized electromagnetic field; but we impose an ultraviolet cutoff on the electromagnetic vector potential appearing in covariant derivatives, and the interactions between the radiation field and electrons localized very far from the nuclei are turned off. For a

Volker Bach; Jürg Fröhlich; Israel Michael Sigal

1998-01-01

291

Quantum Electrodynamics of Confined Nonrelativistic Particles

We consider a system of finitely many nonrelativistic, quantum mechanicalelectrons bound to static nuclei. The electrons are minimally coupledto the quantized electromagnetic field; but we impose an ultraviolet cutoffon the electromagnetic vector potential appearing in covariant derivatives,and the interactions between the radiation field and electrons localized veryfar from the nuclei are turned off. For a class of Hamiltonians we prove

Volker Bach

1997-01-01

292

Quantum principles and free particles. [evaluation of partitions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantum principles that establish the energy levels and degeneracies needed to evaluate the partition functions are explored. The uncertainty principle is associated with the dual wave-particle nature of the model used to describe quantized gas particles. The Schroedinger wave equation is presented as a generalization of Maxwell's wave equation; the former applies to all particles while the Maxwell equation applies to the special case of photon particles. The size of the quantum cell in phase space and the representation of momentum as a space derivative operator follow from the uncertainty principle. A consequence of this is that steady-state problems that are space-time dependent for the classical model become only space dependent for the quantum model and are often easier to solve. The partition function is derived for quantized free particles and, at normal conditions, the result is the same as that given by the classical phase integral. The quantum corrections that occur at very low temperatures or high densities are derived. These corrections for the Einstein-Bose gas qualitatively describe the condensation effects that occur in liquid helium, but are unimportant for most practical purposes otherwise. However, the corrections for the Fermi-Dirac gas are important because they quantitatively describe the behavior of high-density conduction electron gases in metals and explain the zero point energy and low specific heat exhibited in this case.

1976-01-01

293

Particle Physics Meets Cosmology -- The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)

Henry, Richard C.

1982-01-01

294

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students’ depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of students’ descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured in-depth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map students’ depictions of the concept wave-particle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classical-quantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that students’ depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave- and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, the findings presented in this paper are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the curricula are discussed.

Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie

2011-12-01

295

ADVANCES IN IMAGING AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 128 Quantum Tomography

ADVANCES IN IMAGING AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 128 Quantum Tomography G. MAURO D'ARIANO, MATTEO G. A. PARIS, and MASSIMILIANO F. SACCHI Quantum Optics and Information Group, Istituto Nazionale per la ............................. 223 B. Conventional Tomographic Imaging ...................... 224 1. Extension to the Quantum Domain

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

296

Vortex particle model in a renormalizable quantum gravity

The search for a quantum theory of gravity has become one of the most well-known problems in theoretical physics. Problems quantizing general relativity because it is not renormalizable have led to a search for a new theory of gravity that, while still agreeing with measured observations, is renormalizable. In this paper, I show that, given a "vortex" model of elementary particles in which rest mass derives from intrinsic spin and polarization, a Yang-Mills force with a U(1)$\\otimes SU(2)\\otimes$SU(2) group symmetry (which is the symmetry group of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum) predicts solar system observations of gravitational behavior as well as binary pulsar precession and orbital speed-up caused by gravitational radiation-reaction. Using a homogeneous, isotropic universe model, I show that this theory explains the accelerating expansion of the universe directly from group symmetry with no ad hoc constants. In addition, because it is a generic massless Yang-Mills theory, it...

Andersen, Timothy D

2010-01-01

297

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is composed of two parts. In the first part we summarize our study on implementation of quantum information processing (QIP) in optical cavity QED systems, while in the second part we present our numerical investigations on strongly interacting Fermi systems using a powerful numerical algorithm developed from the perspective of quantum information theory. We explore various possible applications of cavity QED in the strong coupling regime to quantum information processing tasks theoretically, including efficient preparation of Schrodinger-cat states for traveling photon pulses, robust implementation of conditional quantum gates on neutral atoms, as well as implementation of a hybrid controlled SWAP gate. We analyze the feasibility and performance of our schemes by solving corresponding physical models either numerically or analytically. We implement a novel numerical algorithm called Time Evolving Block Decimation (TEBD), which was proposed by Vidal from the perspective of quantum information science. With this algorithm, we numerically study the ground state properties of strongly interacting fermions in an anisotropic optical lattice across a wide Feshbach resonance. The interactions in this system can be described by a general Hubbard model with particle assisted tunneling. For systems with equal spin population, we find that the Luther-Emery phase, which has been known to exist only for attractive on-site interactions in the conventional Hubbard model, could also be found even in the case with repulsive on-site interactions in the general Hubbard model. Using the TEBD algorithm, we also study the effect of particle assisted tunneling in spin-polarized systems. Fermi systems with unequal spin population and attractive interaction could allow the existence of exotic superfluidity, such as the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. In the general Hubbard model, such exotic FFLO pairing of fermions could be suppressed by high particle assisted tunneling rates. However, at low particle assisted tunneling rates, the FFLO order could be enhanced. The effect of particle density inhomogeneity due to the presence of a harmonic trap potential is also discussed based on the local density approximation.

Wang, Bin

298

Lindblad and non--Lindblad type dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle

The dynamics of a typical open quantum system, namely a quantum Brownian particle in a harmonic potential, is studied focussing on its non-Markovian regime. Both an analytic approach and a stochastic wave function approach are used to describe the exact time evolution of the system. The border between two very different dynamical regimes, the Lindblad and non-Lindblad regimes, is identified and the relevant physical variables governing the passage from one regime to the other are singled out. The non-Markovian short time dynamics is studied in detail by looking at the mean energy, the squeezing, the Mandel parameter and the Wigner function of the system.

Maniscalco, S

2004-01-01

299

Lindblad- and non-Lindblad-type dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle

The dynamics of a typical open quantum system, namely a quantum Brownian particle in a harmonic potential, is studied focusing on its non-Markovian regime. Both an analytic approach and a stochastic wave-function approach are used to describe the exact time evolution of the system. The border between two very different dynamical regimes, the Lindblad and non-Lindblad regimes, is identified and the relevant physical variables governing the passage from one regime to the other are singled out. The non-Markovian short-time dynamics is studied in detail by looking at the mean energy, the squeezing, the Mandel parameter, and the Wigner function of the system.

Maniscalco, S. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); INFM, MIUR and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche dell'Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Piilo, J. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, PL 64, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Intravaia, F. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Case 74, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); Petruccione, F. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Messina, A. [INFM, MIUR and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche dell'Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy)

2004-09-01

300

Lindblad and non--Lindblad type dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle

The dynamics of a typical open quantum system, namely a quantum Brownian particle in a harmonic potential, is studied focussing on its non-Markovian regime. Both an analytic approach and a stochastic wave function approach are used to describe the exact time evolution of the system. The border between two very different dynamical regimes, the Lindblad and non-Lindblad regimes, is identified and the relevant physical variables governing the passage from one regime to the other are singled out. The non-Markovian short time dynamics is studied in detail by looking at the mean energy, the squeezing, the Mandel parameter and the Wigner function of the system.

S. Maniscalco; J. Piilo; F. Intravaia; F. Petruccione; A. Messina

2004-10-01

301

Bringing Bell's theorem back to the domain of Particle Physics & Cosmology

John St. Bell was a physicist working most of his time at CERN and contributing intensively and sustainably to the development of Particle Physics and Collider Physics. As a hobby he worked on so-called "foundations of quantum theory", that was that time very unpopular, even considered to be scientifically taboo. His 1964-theorem, showing that predictions of local realistic theories are different to those of quantum theory, initiated a new field in quantum physics: quantum information theory. The violation of Bell's theorem, for instance, is a necessary and sufficient criterion for generating a secure key for cryptography at two distant locations. This contribution shows how Bell's theorem can be brought to the realm of high energy physics and presents the first conclusive experimental feasible test for weakly decaying neutral mesons on the market. Strong experimental and theoretical limitations make a Bell test in weakly decaying systems such as mesons and hyperons very challenging, however, these systems show an unexpected and puzzling relation to another big open question: why is our Universe dominated by matter, why did the antimatter slip off the map? This long outstanding problem becomes a new perspective via the very idea behind quantum information.

Beatrix C. Hiesmayr

2015-02-13

302

Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-01

303

Proof-of-concept experiments for quantum physics in space

Quantum physics experiments in space using entangled photons and satellites are within reach of current technology. We propose a series of fundamental quantum physics experiments that make advantageous use of the space infrastructure with specific emphasis on the satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs. The experiments are feasible already today and will eventually lead to a Bell-experiment over thousands of

Rainer Kaltenbaek; Markus Aspelmeyer; Thomas Jennewein; Caslav Brukner; Anton Zeilinger; Martin Pfennigbauer; Walter R. Leeb

2004-01-01

304

(Theoretical studies in elementary particle physics)

This report discusses theoretical research in elementary particles in the following areas; Photoproduction; W-top backgrounds to Higgs production; charged Higgs production; measuring strong coupling; polarization and Z{prime}; and polarization of top quark. (LSP)

Collins, J.

1990-01-01

305

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because they respond to neither the EM force nor the strong force. For example, the mean free path (average penetration distance before it interacts) of a typical beta-decay neutrino moving through solid lead is about 1.5 light years! Enrico Fermi argued that neutrinos indicated a new force was at work. During the 1930s, he quickly adapted ideas from the developing new theory of QED to this new force, dubbed the weak force. Fermi's theory was able to predict the half-lives of beta-emitting nuclei and the range of energies of the emitted beta particles.

Hobson, Art

2011-03-01

306

Particle staining: physically based texture generation

is further controlled by parameters such as surface roughness, surface color and surface hardness. Each particle can remove or deposit material as it flows across the surface, creating complex patterns....

Mistrot, Jean Michael

2004-09-30

307

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and the use of tunable lasers and microwave spectroscopy to study Rydberg states. In addition, surface physics, amorphous solids, superfluidity and gravitational collapse are discussed.

Bromley, D. A.

1980-07-01

308

Quantification of correlations in quantum many-particle systems

We introduce a well-defined and unbiased measure of the strength of correlations in quantum many-particle systems which is based on the relative von Neumann entropy computed from the density operator of correlated and uncorrelated states. The usefulness of this general concept is demonstrated by quantifying correlations of interacting electrons in the Hubbard model and in a series of transition metal

K. Byczuk; J. Kunes; W. Hofstetter; D. Vollhardt

2011-01-01

309

High-order convergent expansions for quantum many particle systems

We review recent advances in the calculations of high-order convergent expansions for quantum many-particle systems. Calculations for ground state properties, including correlation functions and static susceptibilities, for spin models as well as for models of many fermions, such as Hubbard and Kondo models, are discussed. A historical perspective to the subject is provided. Recently important technical advances have been made

Martin P. Gelfand; Rajiv R. P. Singh

2000-01-01

310

MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Accurate measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosol particles containing black carbon are necessary to improve current estimates of the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. A collaborative research effort between Aerodyne Research, Inc. and Boston College has focused on conducting field and laboratory experiments on carbonaceous particles and the development and characterization of new particulate instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the chemical, physical, and optical properties of black carbon particles measured in the laboratory in order to understand the effects of atmospheric processing on black carbon particles. Results from a three-week study during July 2008 of mass- and optical-based black carbon measurements will be presented. The project utilized the Boston College laboratory flame apparatus and aerosol conditioning and characterization equipment. A pre-mixed flat flame burner operating at controlled fuel-to-air ratios produced stable and reproducible concentrations of soot particles with known sizes, morphologies, and chemical compositions. In addition, other black carbon particle types, including fullerene soot, glassy carbon spheres, oxidized flame soot, Regal black, and Aquadag, were also atomized, size selected, and sampled. The study covered an experimental matrix that systematically selected particle mobility size (30 to 300 nm) and black carbon particle mass, particle number concentration, particle shape (dynamic shape factor and fractal dimension), and particle chemistry and density (changed via coatings). Particles were coated with a measured thickness (few nm to {approx}150 nm) of sulfuric acid or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate and passed through a thermal denuder to remove the coatings. Highlights of the study to be presented include: (1) Characterization of the chemical and physical properties of various types of black carbon particles, (2) Mass specific absorption measurements as a function of fuel-to-air ratio and carbon particle type, (3) Optical absorption nhancement measurements as a function of coatings, and (4) Particle shape determination as a function of fuel-to-air ratio and collapse observed due to coatings.

Onasch, T.B.; Sedlacek, A.; Cross, E. S.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahern, A.; Lack, D. A.; Cappa, C. D.; Trimborn, A.; Freedman, A.; Olfert, J. S.; Jayne, J. T.; Massoli, P.; Williams, L. R.; Mazzoleni, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Thornhill, D. A.; Slowik, J. G.; Kok, G. L.; Brem, B. T.; Subramanian, R.; Spackman, J. R.; Freitag, S.; and Dubey, M. K.

2009-12-14

311

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states and transition moments in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

J. Carlson; S. Gandolfi; F. Pederiva; Steven C. Pieper; R. Schiavilla; K. E. Schmidt; R. B. Wiringa

2014-12-09

312

Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any

Neil Brown

2000-01-01

313

BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly relaxed style with infectious enthusiasm for his subject, and readily combines formal instruction with physical insight. The result is a serious, pedagogical yet comprehensive guide to the fascinating and important field of one-dimensional quantum systems, for which many a graduate student (and not a few oldies) will be grateful. The first half of the book, chapters 1--5, is devoted to a coherent presentation of the essential concepts and theoretical methods of the field. After a basic introduction to the unique behaviour of interacting electrons in one dimension, and to early fermionic approaches to the problem, Giamarchi turns to the technique of bosonization, introducing chapter 3 with a Marxist quote: `A child of five would understand this. Send for a child of five.' This most powerful technique is presented in a step by step fashion, and serious perusal of the chapter will benefit all ages since bosonization is used extensively throughout the rest of the book. The same is true of chapter 3 where a phenomenological and physically insightful introduction is given to the Luttinger liquid---the key concept in the low-energy physics of one-dimensional systems, analogous to the Fermi liquid in higher dimensions. Chapter 4 deals with what the author calls `refinements', or complications of the sort theorists in particular welcome; such as how the Luttinger liquid description is modified by the presence of long-ranged interactions, the Mott transition (`we forgot the lattice Gromit'), and the effects of breaking spin rotational invariance on application of a magnetic field. Finally chapter 5 describes various microscopic methods for one dimension, including a brief discussion of numerical techniques but focussing primarily on the Bethe ansatz---the famous one-dimensional technique others seek to emulate but whose well known complexity necessitates a relatively brief discussion, confined in practice to the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model. In the second half of the book, chapters 6--11, a range of different physical realizations of one-dimensional quantum physics are dis

Logan, David

2004-05-01

314

Process Physics: From Quantum Foam to General Relativity

Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality. Here general relativity and the technical language of general covariance is seen not to be fundamental but a phenomenological construct, arising as an amalgam of two distinct phenomena: the `gravitational' characteristics of the emergent quantum foam for which `matter' acts as a sink, and the classical `spacetime' measurement protocol, but with the later violated by quantum measurement processes. Quantum gravity, as manifested in the emergent Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of the process-space or quantum foam, is logically prior to the emergence of the general relativity phenomenology, and cannot be derived from it.

Reginald T. Cahill

2002-03-05

315

A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

2014-04-01

316

Particle physics meets cosmology - The search for decaying neutrinos

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental physical implications of the possible detection of massive neutrinos are discussed, with an emphasis on the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) of matter. The Newtonian and general-relativistic pictures of the fundamental forces are compared, and the reduction of electromagnetic and weak forces to one force in the GUTs is explained. The cosmological consequences of the curved-spacetime gravitation concept are considered. Quarks, leptons, and neutrinos are characterized in a general treatment of elementary quantum mechanics. The universe is described in terms of quantized fields, the noninteractive 'particle' fields and the force fields, and cosmology becomes the study of the interaction of gravitation with the other fields, of the 'freezing out' of successive fields with the expansion and cooling of the universe. While the visible universe is the result of the clustering of the quark and electron fields, the distribution of the large number of quanta in neutrino field, like the mass of the neutrino, are unknown. Cosmological models which attribute anomalies in the observed motions of galaxies and stars to clusters or shells of massive neutrinos are shown to be consistent with a small but nonzero neutrino mass and a universe near the open/closed transition point, but direct detection of the presence of massive neutrinos by the UV emission of their decay is required to verify these hypotheses.

Henry, R. C.

1982-01-01

317

The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

Wells, James D.

2000-12-14

318

Astro particle physics with AMS on the International Space Station

We review how AMS will study open issues on astro particle physics operating for three years on the International Space Station, complementary to searches done at underground and accelerator facilities.

R. Battiston

2003-01-01

319

Particle physics: The hunt for Majorana neutrinos hots up

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding that neutrinos are their own antiparticles would revolutionize particle physics. A high-sensitivity technique accelerates the search for the nuclear-decay process that would enable such a discovery. See Article p.229

Wark, David

2014-06-01

320

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group

of interesting results from studies of the hadronic final state produced in ep collisions. These studies have provide tests of the theory of strong interactions, quantum chromoÂdymamics (QCD). These studies have recent results from H1 and ZEUS to attempt a complete review here. Instead I will concentrate

Glasgow, University of

321

Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma.

Cheng, C.Z.

1997-05-01

322

GaN Radiation Detectors for Particle Physics and

and neutrons led to a dramatic reduction in the CCE of the GaN detectors. For II #12;example, the CCE of oneGaN Radiation Detectors for Particle Physics and Synchrotron Applications James Paul Grant and monitoring applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) was investigated as a radiation hard particle detector

Glasgow, University of

323

EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics

The quest for the nature of dark matter has reached a historical point in time, with several different and complementary experiments on the verge of conclusively exploring large portions of the parameter space of the most theoretically compelling particle dark matter models. This focus issue on dark matter and particle physics brings together a broad selection of invited articles from

Elena Aprile; Stefano Profumo

2009-01-01

324

Particle Physics as Representations of the Poincare Algebra

Eugene Wigner showed already in 1939 that the elementary particles are related to the irreducible representations of the Poincare algebra. In the light-cone frame formulation of quantum field theory one can extend these representations to depend also on a coupling constant. The representations then become non-linear and contain the interaction terms which are shown to have strong uniqueness. Extending the

Lars Brink

2005-01-01

325

Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

1992-06-01

326

American particle and nuclear physics planning

In the United States the planning process relevant to future deep inelastic scattering involves both the high energy physics and nuclear physics funding and the two communities. In Canada there is no such split between the communities. Within the past two years there have been several planning initiatives and there may be more to come. We review the current status of both the planning and the plans.

Montgomery, Hugh E. [JLAB

2014-10-01

327

Radiation physics for particle beam radiosurgery.

For the particles and energies considered suitable for radiosurgery, with increasing particle charge, the Bragg peak height reaches a maximum with helium and then decreases, the Bragg peak width narrows, the distal fall-off steepens, and the exit dose increases (Table 1). The helium-ion beam is superior to a proton beam because of the higher peak-plateau ratio, more rapid dose fall-off, and smaller beam deflection, and it suffers only in the modest exit dose. Comparison of the therapeutically useful parameters of these beams is complicated by the change in beam quality (LET) with depth. Considerations of RBE values, which change with the ion species and with depth of penetration, may alter the relative rankings based on one or more of these beam characterization values. For all these beams, the RBE increases with increasing LET. The effect for protons is small and occurs just at the end of range of the particles. Effective isodose distributions based on modeled beams have been reported for helium, carbon, and neon ions. These distributions include the effects of a varying RBE with changes in the beam quality (as measured by a dose-weighted LET) and the change in dose fraction size with depth (the dose per fraction is a function of the depth of penetration). These calculations suggest that the optimal charged-particle beam for radiosurgery might be carbon. Heavy charged-particle beams can produce dose distributions superior to those obtainable with photon or electron beams. In clinical trials, these dose distributions have proved to be useful for the treatment of human diseases, including neoplasia and life-threatening intracranial disorders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1633443

Lyman, J T; Phillips, M H; Frankel, K A; Levy, R P; Fabrikant, J I

1992-01-01

328

Single particle in quantum gravity and Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini entropy of a spin network

Passerini and Severini have recently shown that the Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini (BGS) entropy S{sub {Gamma}}=-Tr[{rho}{sub {Gamma}}log{rho}{sub {Gamma}}] of a certain density matrix {rho}{sub {Gamma}} naturally associated to a graph {Gamma}, is maximized, among all graphs with a fixed number of links and nodes, by regular graphs. We ask if this result can play a role in quantum gravity, and be related to the apparent regularity of the physical geometry of space. We show that in loop quantum gravity the matrix {rho}{sub {Gamma}} is precisely the Hamiltonian operator (suitably normalized) of a nonrelativistic quantum particle interacting with the quantum gravitational field, if we restrict elementary area and volume eigenvalues to a fixed value. This operator provides a spectral characterization of the physical geometry, and can be interpreted as a state describing the spectral information about the geometry available when geometry is measured by its physical interaction with matter. It is then tempting to interpret its BGS entropy S{sub {Gamma}} as a genuine physical entropy: we discuss the appeal and the difficulties of this interpretation.

Rovelli, Carlo [Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France); Vidotto, Francesca [Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

2010-02-15

329

Long-time behavior of many-particle quantum decay

While exponential decay is ubiquitous in nature, deviations at both short and long times are dictated by quantum mechanics. Nonexponential decay is known to arise due to the possibility of reconstructing the initial state from the decaying products. We discuss the quantum decay dynamics by tunneling of a many-particle system, characterizing the long-time nonexponential behavior of the nonescape and survival probabilities. The effects of contact interactions and quantum statistics are described. It is found that, whereas for noninteracting bosons the long-time decay follows a power law with an exponent linear in the number of particles N, the exponent becomes quadratic in N in the fermionic case. The same results apply to strongly interacting many-body systems related by the generalized Bose-Fermi duality. The faster fermionic decay can be traced back to the effective hard-core interactions between particles, which are as well the decaying products, and exhibit spatial antibunching which hinders the reconstruction of the initial unstable state. The results are illustrated with a paradigmatic model of quantum decay from a trap allowing leaks by tunneling, whose dynamics is described exactly by means of an expansion in resonant states.

Campo, A. del [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

2011-07-15

330

Statistical mechanics of confined quantum particles

We develop statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of Bose and Fermi systems in relativistic harmonic oscillator (RHO) confining potential, which may be applicable in quark gluon plasma (QGP), astrophysics, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), condensed matter physics etc. Detailed study of QGP system is carried out and compared with lattice results. Further, as an application, our equation of state (EoS) of QGP is used to study compact stars like quark star.

Vishnu M. Bannur; K. M. Udayanandan

2006-02-02

331

Pixel Detectors for Particle Physics and Imaging Applications

Semiconductor pixel detectors offer features for the detection of radiation which are interesting for particle physics detectors as well as for imaging e.g. in biomedical applications (radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography) or in Xray astronomy. At the present time hybrid pixel detectors are technologically mastered to a large extent and large scale particle detectors are being built. Although the physical requirements are often quite different, imaging applications are emerging and interesting prototype results are available. Monolithic detectors, however, offer interesting features for both fields in future applications. The state of development of hybrid and monolithic pixel detectors, excluding CCDs, and their different suitability for particle detection and imaging, is reviewed.

Wermes, N

2003-01-01

332

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

, particle and astroparticle physics as well as accelerator physics. The Center for Free-Electron Laser) and its use in phase stabilized few-cycle pulse synthesizers, Free-Electron Lasers and Attosecond Science Â· Development of turn-key, burst-mode, OPCPA technology for Free- Electron Lasers, including, thermal management

333

Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles

Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black-holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-1/2 fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-1/2 charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.

Maurício Richartz; Alberto Saa

2011-10-21

334

Probability and Statistics in Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Notions of probability and statistics are of fundamental importance not only for those physicists who want to work in experimental physics, but also for those who want to perform comparison of models and/or theory with experimental results. In this course we will revise the general ideas of probability and statistics as well as some probability distributions which most frequently appear in physics, including sampling distributions like the ?2 one, which are important to decide about the quality of theoretical models fits to experimental data. We will also discuss error propagation and methods to compare theory with experimental results, including parameter estimators, Maximum Likelihood and Least Squares.

Magnin, J.

2011-09-01

335

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report

This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

Not Available

1991-12-01

336

Spacetime alternatives in the quantum mechanics of a relativistic particle

Hartle's generalized quantum mechanics formalism is used to examine spacetime coarse grainings, i.e., sets of alternatives defined with respect to a region extended in time as well as space, in the quantum mechanics of a free relativistic particle. For a simple coarse graining and suitable initial conditions, tractable formulas are found for branch wave functions. Despite the nonlocality of the positive-definite version of the Klein-Gordon inner product, which means that nonoverlapping branches are not sufficient to imply decoherence, some initial conditions are found to give decoherence and allow the consistent assignment of probabilities.

Whelan, J.T. (Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States) Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom))

1994-11-15

337

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group

-14 26th July 2004 Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Detectors for Harsh Radiation Environments J. Grant1 , W by radiation induced damage. International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors 2004 University of Glasgow and electronics. Critical systems for nuclear reactors and position sensitive detectors for particle beams

Glasgow, University of

338

Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)

This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cutting-edge measurements from proton-antiproton collisions at the energy frontier.

Dittmann, J.R.

2012-08-25

339

Insights and puzzles in particle physics

I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

H. Leutwyler

2014-10-15

340

Automated Reconstruction of Particle Cascades in High Energy Physics Experiments

We present a procedure for reconstructing particle cascades from event data measured in a high energy physics experiment. For evaluating the hypothesis of a specific physics process causing the observed data, all possible reconstruction versions of the scattering process are constructed from the final state objects. We describe the procedure as well as examples of physics processes of different complexity studied at hadron-hadron colliders. We estimate the performance by 20 microseconds per reconstructed decay vertex, and 0.6 kByte per reconstructed particle in the decay trees.

O. Actis; M. Erdmann; A. Henrichs; A. Hinzmann; M. Kirsch; G. Müller; J. Steggemann

2008-09-08

341

Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics

Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a forty-year long history, black hole physics is a fully-blossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This write-up, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.

Cardoso, Vitor

2013-01-01

342

A QuAntum DigitAl universe QuAntum informAtion helps founDAtions of physics

A QuAntum DigitAl universe QuAntum informAtion helps founDAtions of physics Giacomo mauro D but to probe the limits of quantum physics, pushing its boundaries both theoretically and experimentally. vol28 scienza in primo piano 1 Introduction: the lesson of Quantum Information Within the history of quantum

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

343

Interpretive Themes in Quantum Physics: Curriculum Development and Outcomes

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our prior work has shown that student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics can be characterized, and are differentially influenced by the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. We report how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) has positively impacted student perspectives on quantum physics, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of the course, but also by making the beliefs of students (and not just those of scientists) an explicit topic of discussion.

Baily, Charles

2011-01-01

344

Interpretive Themes in Quantum Physics: Curriculum Development and Outcomes

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our prior work has shown that student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics can be characterized, and are differentially influenced by the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. We report how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) has positively impacted student perspectives on quantum physics, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of the course, but also by making the beliefs of students (and not just those of scientists) an explicit topic of discussion.

Charles Baily; Noah D. Finkelstein

2011-08-26

345

Classical foundations of many-particle quantum chaos

In the framework of semiclassical theory the universal properties of quantum systems with classically chaotic dynamics can be accounted for through correlations between partner periodic orbits with small action differences. So far, however, the scope of this approach has been mainly limited to systems of a few particles with low-dimensional phase spaces. In the present work we consider N-particle chaotic systems with local homogeneous interactions, where N is not necessarily small. Based on a model of coupled cat maps we demonstrate emergence of a new mechanism for correlation between periodic orbit actions. In particular, we show the existence of partner orbits which are specific to many-particle systems. For a sufficiently large N these new partners dominate the spectrum of correlating periodic orbits and seem to be necessary for construction of a consistent many-particle semiclassical theory.

Boris Gutkin; Vladimir Osipov

2015-03-09

346

Similarity-Projection structures: the logical geometry of Quantum Physics

Similarity-Projection structures abstract the numerical properties of real scalar product of rays and projections in Hilbert spaces to provide a more general framework for Quantum Physics. They are characterized by properties that possess direct physical meaning. They provide a formal framework that subsumes both classical boolean logic concerned with sets and subsets and quantum logic concerned with Hilbert space, closed subspaces and projections. They shed light on the role of the phase factors that are central to Quantum Physics. The generalization of the notion of a self-adjoint operator to SP-structures provides a novel notion that is free of linear algebra.

Daniel Lehmann

2008-05-06

347

Quantum physics explains Newton's laws of motion

Newton was obliged to give his laws of motion as fundamental axioms. But today we know that the quantum world is fundamental, and Newton's laws can be seen as consequences of fundamental quantum laws. This article traces this transition from fundamental quantum mechanics to derived classical mechanics.

Jon Ogborn; Edwin F. Taylor

2005-01-01

348

The Quantum World Around Us: Teaching Quantum and SolidState Physics to NonScience Majors

The Quantum World Around Us: Teaching Quantum and SolidÂState Physics to NonÂScience Majors James K are developing a physics course for nonÂscience majors at Georgetown University entitled ``The Quantum World and applications of quantum mechanics and solidÂstate physics. Without using advanced mathematics, we present

Freericks, Jim

349

Puzzles in Hadronic Physics and Novel Quantum Chromodynamics Phenomenology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review some outstanding puzzles and experimental anomalies in hadron physics that appear to challenge conventional wisdom and, in some cases, the foundations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We also discuss possible solutions and propose new tests and experiments that could illuminate the underlying physics and novel phenomenological features of QCD. In some cases, new perspectives for QCD physics have emerged.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy; Karliner, Marek

2012-11-01

350

A Pyramid Scheme for particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new model, the Pyramid Scheme, of direct mediation of SUSY breaking, which is compatible with the idea of Cosmological SUSY Breaking (CSB). It uses the trinification scheme of grand unification and avoids problems with Landau poles in standard model gauge couplings. It also avoids problems, which have recently come to light [6], associated with rapid stellar cooling due to emission of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Boson (PNGB) of spontaneously broken hidden sector ``baryon" number. With a certain pattern of R-symmetry breaking masses, a pattern more or less required by CSB, the Pyramid Scheme leads to a dark matter candidate that decays predominantly into leptons, with cross sections compatible with a variety of recent observations [4]. The dark matter particle is not a thermal WIMP but a particle with new strong interactions, produced in the late decay of some other scalar, perhaps the superpartner of the QCD axion, with a reheat temperature in the TeV range. This is compatible with a variety of scenarios for baryogenesis, including some novel ones which exploit specific features of the Pyramid Scheme.

Banks, T.; Fortin, J.-F.

2009-07-01

351

Particle physics at the Pierre Auger Observatory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest detector of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the world. These particles, presumably protons or heavier nuclei of energies up to 1020 eV, initiate extensive air showers which can be detected by sampling the particles that arrive at ground level or observing the fluorescence light generated during the passage of showers through the atmosphere - the Pierre Auger Observatory employs both these techniques. As the center-of-mass energies of the first interactions in the showers can be several orders of magnitude beyond the reach of the LHC, the UHECR provide an unique opportunity to study hadronic interactions. While the uncertainty in modeling these interactions is somewhat degenerate with the unknown composition of the primary beam, interaction models can be tested using data such as the depths of the maxima of the longitudinal development of the showers or their muon content. Particular sensitivity to interaction models is achieved when several observables are combined. Moreover, using careful data selection, proton-air cross section at the c.m.s. energy of 57 TeV per nucleon-nucleon pair can be obtained.

Ebr, Jan

2014-11-01

352

A Pyramid Scheme for Particle Physics

We introduce a new model, the Pyramid Scheme, of direct mediation of SUSY breaking, which is compatible with the idea of Cosmological SUSY Breaking (CSB). It uses the trinification scheme of grand unification and avoids problems with Landau poles in standard model gauge couplings. It also avoids problems, which have recently come to light, associated with rapid stellar cooling due to emission of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Boson (PNGB) of spontaneously broken hidden sector baryon number. With a certain pattern of R-symmetry breaking masses, a pattern more or less required by CSB, the Pyramid Scheme leads to a dark matter candidate that decays predominantly into leptons, with cross sections compatible with a variety of recent observations. The dark matter particle is not a thermal WIMP but a particle with new strong interactions, produced in the late decay of some other scalar, perhaps the superpartner of the QCD axion, with a reheat temperature in the TeV range. This is compatible with a variety of scenarios for baryogenesis, including some novel ones which exploit specific features of the Pyramid Scheme.

Tom Banks; Jean-François Fortin

2009-01-22

353

Friction and particle-hole pairs. [in dissipative quantum phenomena

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect induced by dissipation on quantum phenomena has recently been considered, taking into account as a starting point a phenomenological Hamiltonian in which the environment is simulated by an appropriately chosen set of harmonic oscillators. It is found that this approach should be adequate to describe the low-energy behavior of a wide class of environments. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the case in which the environment is a gas (or liquid) of fermions, and the relevant low-energy excitations are particle-hole pairs. A study is conducted regarding the extent to which the quantum results obtained for harmonic oscillators are also valid in the considered situation. Linear-response theory is used to derive an effective action which describes the motion of an external particle coupled to a normal Fermi fluid.

Guinea, F.

1984-01-01

354

Linking Quantum Mechanics to Freshman Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-year quantum mechanics can be linked to introductory physics. One example is the Mossbauer effect, which is explained using a simple solution to Schrodinger's equation involving the Dirac delta function. Generalization to N coupled harmonic oscillators shows that the equality of the forces exerted by winner and loser in the game of "tug-of-war" is only an approximation because Newton's third law of motion is not valid (unless phonon momentum is considered). Another example is a treatment of the Gaussian wavepacket which involves less algebra than found in standard textbooks, yet shows that the peak moves according to the familiar equation of motion x = vt + (1/2)at^2 when the applied force is uniform. Finally, a rendition of "Turkey in the Straw" on the viola illustrates Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which can be written in the less mysterious form, f=(N+-.1)/T , where N cycles are counted in T seconds. Students experience this uncertainty as they try to measure the frequency of a stretched slinky.

Vandegrift, Guy

1998-10-01

355

Quantum Phase and Quantum Phase Operators: Some Physics and Some History

After reviewing the role of phase in quantum mechanics, I discuss, with the aid of a number of unpublished documents, the development of quantum phase operators in the 1960's. Interwoven in the discussion are the critical physics questions of the field: Are there (unique) quantum phase operators and are there quantum systems which can determine their nature? I conclude with a critique of recent proposals which have shed new light on the problem.

Michael Martin Nieto

1993-04-08

356

Exotic Statistics for Ordinary Particles in Quantum Gravity

Objects exhibiting statistics other than the familiar Bose and Fermi ones are natural in theories with topologically nontrivial objects including geons, strings, and black holes. It is argued here from several viewpoints that the statistics of ordinary particles with which we are already familiar are likely to be modified due to quantum gravity effects. In particular, such modifications are argued to be present in loop quantum gravity and in any theory which represents spacetime in a fundamentally piecewise-linear fashion. The appearance of unusual statistics may be a generic feature (such as the deformed position-momentum uncertainty relations and the appearance of a fundamental length scale) which are to be expected in any theory of quantum gravity, and which could be testable.

John Swain

2008-05-15

357

A model of a quantum particle in a quantum environment: a numerical study

We define and investigate, via numerical analysis, a one dimensional toy-model of a cloud chamber. An energetic quantum particle, whose initial state is a superposition of two identical wave packets with opposite average momentum, interacts during its evolution and exchanges (small amounts of) energy with an array of localized spins. Triggered by the interaction with the environment, the initial superposition state turns into an incoherent sum of two states describing the following situation: or the particle is going to the left and a large number of spins on the left side changed their states, or the same is happening on the right side. This evolution is reminiscent of what happens in a cloud chamber where a quantum particle, emitted as a spherical wave by a radioactive source, marks its passage inside a supersaturated vapour-chamber in the form of a sequence of small liquid bubbles arranging themselves around a possible classical trajectory of the particle.

R. Carlone; R. Figari; C. Negulescu

2014-07-16

358

Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

1992-01-01

359

Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

1992-11-01

360

Experimental and theoretical particle physics. Final report

A brief sketch of the accomplishments made in the past year is given for the following: {epsilon} expansion analysis of weak first-order transitions in the cubic anisotropy model; the non-Abelian Debye screening length beyond leading order; electric-magnetic duality and the heavy quark potential; ice water vapor interface; groups in cold dark matter simulations; Compton scattering on black body photons; nuclear reaction rates in a plasma; comparison of jets from electron-positron interactions and hadronic collisions; the energy-energy correlation in perturbation theory; CPT violation search in the kaon system; regularization of chiral gauge theories; dynamical supersymmetry breaking; electroweak baryogenesis; quenched chiral perturbation theory for heavy-light mesons; testing the chiral behavior of the hadron spectrum; hadron spectrum with Wilson fermions; quenched chiral perturbation theory for baryons; matrix elements of 4-fermion operators with quenched Wilson fermions; classical preheating and decoherence; reheating and thermalization in a simple scalar model; and from quantum field theory to hydrodynamics: transport coefficients and effective kinetic theory.

NONE

1996-07-09

361

Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.

Hahne, Gerhard

2012-01-01

362

Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures

This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

Xiaofei Huang

2013-11-01

363

Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures

This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

Huang, Xiaofei

2015-01-01

364

Effective Physical Processes and Active Information in Quantum Computing

The recent debate on hypercomputation has arisen new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of "effective physical process" as the essentially physical notion of computation. By using the Bohm and Hiley active information concept we analyze the differences between the standard form (quantum gates) and the non-standard one (adiabatic and morphogenetic) of Quantum Computing, and we point out how its Super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source in accordance with Bell's constraints. On condition that we give up the formal concept of "universality", the possibility to realize quantum oracles is reachable. In this way computation is led back to the logic of physical world.

Ignazio Licata

2007-10-23

365

Novel Superlattice and Quantum Well Structures: Physics and Device Applications

The physics and device applications of new superlattice and quantum well structures are studied in this dissertation. A formalism based on the envelope function approximations and the transfer matrix method is developed to analyze the electrical and optical properties of general quantum well structures. This formalism allows the exact and analytical formulation of the eigenenergies and wave functions for an

Perng-Fei Yuh

1989-01-01

366

Weak Quantum Theory: Complementarity and Entanglement in Physics and Beyond

The concepts of complementarity and entanglement are considered with respect to their significance in and beyond physics. A formally generalized, weak version of quantum theory, more general than ordinary quantum theory of material systems, is outlined and tentatively applied to some examples.

H. Atmanspacher; H. Roemer; H. Walach

2001-11-21

367

Unitary quantum physics with time-space non-commutativity

In these lectures4 quantum physics in noncommutative spacetime is developed. It is based on the work of Doplicher et al. which allows for time-space noncommutativity. In the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics, some important points are explored, such as the formal construction of the theory, symmetries, causality, simultaneity and observables. The dynamics generated by a noncommutative Schrödinger equation is studied.

A. P. Balachandran; T. R. Govindarajan; A. G. Martins; C. Molina; P. Teotonio-Sobrinho

2005-01-01

368

Unitary quantum physics with time-space noncommutativity

In this work quantum physics in noncommutative spacetime is developed. It is based on the work of Doplicher et al. which allows for time-space noncommutativity. The Moyal plane is treated in detail. In the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics, some important points are explored, such as the formal construction of the theory, symmetries, causality, simultaneity and observables. The dynamics generated

Aiyalam P. Balachandran; Thupil R. Govindarajan; Carlos Molina Mendes; Paulo Teotonio-Sobrinho

2004-01-01

369

Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century

The author attempts to handle the most important physics development of the twentieth century, namely that of quantum theory, in one, not too bulky, volume. This heroic task is split into 29 chapters, each treating a topic that forms a well defined subpart of the big theme embracing quantum theory itself (and also some of its companions), and the experimental

H. Rechenberg

2000-01-01

370

Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 1992

This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

1992-07-01

371

CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass

In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation $\\varepsilon$ for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form $t^{\\frac{2}{3}+\\varepsilon}$. Based on recent $H(z)$ data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the $\\varepsilon$ parameter have been found as $m=1.6\\times10^3$ GeV, restricted to a 68.3\\% c.l. interval of ($1.5

J. F. Jesus; S. H. Pereira

2014-06-16

372

Finite-particle-number approach to physics

Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

Noyes, H.P.

1982-10-01

373

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber O#ce: ISB, Room 326 Phone OUTSIDE READING: Quantum Physics, by Stephen Gasiorowicz Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J to Quantum Mechanics, by John S. Townsend PREREQUISITES: Physics 116C and Physics 139A. It is assumed

California at Santa Cruz, University of

374

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber Office: ISB, Room 326 Phone OUTSIDE READING: Quantum Physics, by Stephen Gasiorowicz Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J to Quantum Mechanics, by John S. Townsend PREREQUISITES: Physics 116C and Physics 139A. It is assumed

California at Santa Cruz, University of

375

Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics

The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, also two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A promising result is that one can qualitatively reconstruct the conductivity inside the cross-section of a human chest. Even though the human volunteer is neither two-dimensional nor circular, such reconstructions can be useful in medical applications: monitoring for lung problems such as accumulating fluid or a collapsed lung and noninvasive monitoring of heart function and blood flow.

Andrea A. Almasy

2009-12-02

376

Are quantum-mechanical-like models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantum-mechanical-like mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantum-mechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.

Plotnitsky, Arkady

2014-12-01

377

Few body problems in nuclear and particle physics

Interaction models are developed in nuclear and particle physics, and properties of few body systems are calculated in terms of these models. In nuclear physics, realistic three nucleon interaction (TNI) models are developed and applied to three and four body nuclei. In particle physics, a semi-relativistic quark model is developed and hadron spectra are calculated. First described is the interaction models and their theoretical basis. The NN interaction models are reviewed and then two pion exchange models of TNI are discussed. Additionally, a semi-relativistic quark model is presented based upon flux tubes and the one gluon exchange interaction. The techniques of solving the Schroedinger equation for few body systems are discussed. The variational Monte Carlo method, which is use for these calculations, is presented in some detail, and the Faddeev and GFMC methods are reviewed briefly. Results obtained for simple model interactions are compared with the various methods, and a technique which allows calculations of particle unstable states to be performed is also developed. Finally, the results are compared with experiment. In nuclear physics, the binding energy, rms radii, charge form factors, magnetic moments, and coulomb energy for the ground states of three and four body nuclei are calculated. Results of calculations of scattering states in /sup 4/He are presented. In particle physics, the spectra of baryons made up of up and down quarks, and mesons consisting of both light and heavy quarks are calculated.

Carlson, J.A.

1983-01-01

378

Quantum group symmetry and particle scattering in (2+1)-dimensional quantum gravity

Starting with the Chern-Simons formulation of (2+1)-dimensional gravity we show that the gravitational interactions deform the Poincare symmetry of flat space-time to a quantum group symmetry. The relevant quantum group is the quantum double of the universal cover of the (2+1)-dimensional Lorentz group, or Lorentz double for short. We construct the Hilbert space of two gravitating particles and use the universal R-matrix of the Lorentz double to derive a general expression for the scattering cross section of gravitating particles with spin. In appropriate limits our formula reproduces the semi-classical scattering formulae found by 't Hooft, Deser, Jackiw and de Sousa Gerbert.

F. A. Bais; N. M. Muller; B. J. Schroers

2002-05-02

379

Novel quantization properties related to the state vectors and the energy spectrum of a two-dimensional system of free particles are obtained in the framework of noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics (QM) supported by the Weyl-Wigner formalism. Besides reproducing the magnetic field aspect of a Zeeman-like effect, the momentum space NC parameter introduces mutual information properties quantified by the quantum purity related to the relevant coordinates of the corresponding Hilbert space. Supported by the QM in the phase-space, the thermodynamic limit is obtained, and the results are extended to three-dimensional systems. The noncommutativity imprints on the thermodynamic variables related to free particles are identified and, after introducing some suitable constraints to fix an axial symmetry, the analysis is extended to two- and- three dimensional quantum rotor systems, for which the quantization aspects and the deviation from standard QM results are verified.

Catarina Bastos; Alex E. Bernardini; Jonas F. G. Santos

2014-11-12

380

Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

381

Quantum Chaos in Physical Systems: from Super Conductors to Quarks

This article is the written version of a talk delivered at the Bexbach Colloquium of Science 2000 and starts with an introduction into quantum chaos and its relationship to classical chaos. The Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture is formulated and evaluated within random-matrix theory. Several examples of physical systems exhibiting quantum chaos ranging from nuclear to solid state physics are presented. The presentation concludes with recent research work on quantum chromodynamics and the quark-gluon plasma. In the case of a chemical potential the eigenvalue spectrum becomes complex and one has to deal with non-Hermitian random-matrix theory.

Elmar Bittner; Harald Markum; Rainer Pullirsch

2001-10-31

382

Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement Jae-Weon Lee and Eok Kyun Lee

Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement Jae-Weon Lee and Eok Kyun Lee Department; published 23 July 2003 A quantum cryptography scheme based on entanglement between a single-particle state,2 and quan- tum cryptography 3 . Discussion on the nonlocal nature en- tanglement of quantum systems

Lee, EokKyun

383

We discuss the QDN (quantized detector network) approach to the formulation and interpretation of quantum mechanics. This approach gives us a system-free approach to quantum physics. By this, we mean having a proper emphasis on those aspects of physics which are observable and an avoidance of metaphysical concepts, which by definition are incapable of verification and should play no role in science on that account. By focusing on only what experimentalists deal with, i.e., quantum information, we avoid the ambiguities and confusion generated by the undue objectification of what are complex quantum processes.

George Jaroszkiewicz

2005-11-21

384

String Landscape and the Standard Model of Particle Physics

In this paper we describe ideas about the string landscape, and how to relate it to the physics of the Standard Model of particle physics. First, we give a short status report about heterotic string compactifications. Then we focus on the statistics of D-brane models, on the problem of moduli stabilization, and finally on some attempts to derive a probability wave function in moduli space, which goes beyond the purely statistical count of string vacua.

Dieter Lust

2007-07-26

385

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

Not Available

1990-11-30

386

Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed.1-8 Here we present an approach to quantum physics based on the simplest quantum mechanical system—the quantum bit (qubit).1 Like its classical counterpart—the bit—a qubit corresponds to a two-level system, i.e., some system with a physical property that can admit two possible values. While typically a physical system has more than just one property or the property can admit more than just two values, in many situations most degrees of freedom can be considered to be fixed or frozen. Hence a variety of systems can be effectively described as a qubit. For instance, one may consider the spin of an electron or atom, with spin up and spin down as two possible values, and where other properties of the particle such as its mass or its position are fixed. Further examples include the polarization degree of freedom of a photon (horizontal and vertical polarization), two electronic degrees of freedom (i.e., two energy levels) of an atom, or the position of an atom in a double well potential (atom in left or right well). In all cases, only two states are relevant to describe the system.

Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

2014-11-01

387

Common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects

Integer and fractional quantum Hall effects were studied with different physics models and explained by different physical mechanisms. In this paper, the common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects is studied, where a new unified formulation of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect is presented. Firstly, we introduce a 2-dimensional ideal electron gas model in the presence of strong magnetic field with symmetry gauge, and the transverse electric filed $\\varepsilon_2$ is also introduced to balance Lorentz force. Secondly, the Pauli equation is solved where the wave function and energy levels is given explicitly. Thirdly, after the calculation of the degeneracy density for 2-dimensional ideal electron gas system, the Hall resistance of the system is obtained, where the quantum Hall number $\

Jianhua wang; Kang Li; Shuming Long; Yi Yuan

2012-01-24

388

A metageometric enquiry concerning time, space, and quantum physics

An enquiry into the physical nature of time and space and into the ontology of quantum mechanics from a metageometric perspective, resulting from the belief that geometric thought and language are powerless to farther understanding of these issues, restricting instead physical progress. The nature and assumptions of quantum gravity are analysed critically, including misgivings about the relevance of the Planck scale to it and its lack of observational referent in the natural world. The anthropic foundations of geometry are investigated. The exclusive use of geometric thought from antiquity to present-day physics is found to permeate all new attempts towards better theories, including quantum gravity and, within it, even pregeometry. The problem of the ether is found to have perpetuated itself up to the present by transmuting its form from mechanical, through metric, to geometric. A clarification is made of the physical, mathematical, and psychological foundations of relativity and quantum theories. The former is founded geometrically on measurement-based clock-reading separations ds. The latter is founded metageometrically on the experiment-based concepts of premeasurement and transition things, inspired in the physically unexplored aspect of time as a consciousness-related product. A concept of metageometric time is developed and coordinate time t is recovered from it. Discovery of the connection between quantum-mechanical metageometric time elements and general-relativistic clock time elements ds is deemed necessary for a combined understanding of time. Time is conjectured to be the missing link between general relativity and quantum mechanics.

Diego Meschini

2008-04-23

389

Twenty-Five Centuries of Quantum Physics: From Pythagoras to Us, and from Subjectivism to Realism

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three main theses are proposed. The first is that the idea of a quantum or minimal unit is not peculiar to quantum theory, since it already occurs in the classical theories of elasticity and electrolysis. Second, the peculiarities of the objects described by quantum theory are the following: their basic laws are probabilistic; some of their properties, such as position and energy, are blunt rather than sharp; two particles that were once together continue to be associated even after becoming spatially separated; and the vacuum has physical properties, so that it is a kind of matter. Third, the orthodox or Copenhagen interpretation of the theory is false, and may conveniently be replaced with a realist (though not classicist) interpretation. Heisenberg's inequality, Schrödinger's cat and Zeno's quantum paradox are discussed in the light of the two rival interpretations. It is also shown that the experiments that falsified Bell's inequality do not refute realism but the classicism inherent in hidden variables theories.

Bunge, Mario

390

Particle Swarm Optimization with Quantum Infusion for the design of digital filters

In this paper, particle swarm optimization with quantum infusion (PSO-QI) has been applied for the design of digital filters. In PSO-QI, Global best (gbest) particle (in PSO star topology) obtained from particle swarm optimization is enhanced by doing a tournament with an offspring produced by quantum behaved PSO, and selecting the winner as the new gbest. Filters are designed based

Bipul Luitel; Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy

2008-01-01

391

Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Comprehension of Quantum Mechanical Concepts

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When quantum theory caused a paradigm shift in physics, it introduced difficulties in both learning and teaching of physics. Because of its abstract, counter-intuitive and mathematical structure, students have difficulty in learning this theory, and instructors have difficulty in teaching the concepts of the theory. This case study investigates…

Didis, Nilufer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoc, Sakir

2010-01-01

392

Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…

Dutt, Amit

2011-01-01

393

The Bondons: The Quantum Particles of the Chemical Bond

By employing the combined Bohmian quantum formalism with the U(1) and SU(2) gauge transformations of the non-relativistic wave-function and the relativistic spinor, within the Schrödinger and Dirac quantum pictures of electron motions, the existence of the chemical field is revealed along the associate bondon particle B? characterized by its mass (mB?), velocity (vB?), charge (eB?), and life-time (tB?). This is quantized either in ground or excited states of the chemical bond in terms of reduced Planck constant ?, the bond energy Ebond and length Xbond, respectively. The mass-velocity-charge-time quaternion properties of bondons’ particles were used in discussing various paradigmatic types of chemical bond towards assessing their covalent, multiple bonding, metallic and ionic features. The bondonic picture was completed by discussing the relativistic charge and life-time (the actual zitterbewegung) problem, i.e., showing that the bondon equals the benchmark electronic charge through moving with almost light velocity. It carries negligible, although non-zero, mass in special bonding conditions and towards observable femtosecond life-time as the bonding length increases in the nanosystems and bonding energy decreases according with the bonding length-energy relationship Ebond[kcal/mol]×Xbond[A0]=182019, providing this way the predictive framework in which the B? particle may be observed. Finally, its role in establishing the virtual states in Raman scattering was also established. PMID:21151435

Putz, Mihai V.

2010-01-01

394

On the semiclassical approach to quantum cosmology: relational particle model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergent semiclassical time approach to resolving the problem of time in quantum gravity involves heavy slow degrees of freedom providing via an approximately Hamilton-Jacobi equation an approximate time standard with respect to which the quantum mechanics of light fast degrees of freedom can run. More concretely, this approach involves Born-Oppenheimer and WKB ansätze and some accompanying approximations. In this paper, I investigate this approach for concrete scaled relational particle mechanics models, i.e. models featuring only relative separations, relative angles and relative times. I consider the heavy-light interaction term in the light quantum equation—necessary for the semiclassical approach to work, first as an emergent-time-dependent perturbation of the emergent-time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the light subsystem. Secondly, I consider a scheme in which the backreaction is small but non-negligible, so that the l-subsystem also affects the form of the emergent time. I also suggest that the many terms involving expectation values of the light wavefunctions in both the (unapproximated) heavy and light equations might require treatment in parallel to the Hartree-Fock self-consistent approach rather than merely being discarded; for the moment this paper provides a counterexample to such terms being smaller than their unaveraged counterparts. Investigation of these ideas and methods will give us a more robust understanding of the suggested quantum-cosmological origin of microwave background inhomogeneities and galaxies.

Anderson, Edward

2011-09-01

395

Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Physical theory and techniques.

Body tissues are not ferromagnetic, but ferromagnetic particles can be present as contaminants or as probes in the lungs and in other organs. The magnetic domains of these particles can be aligned by momentary application of an external magnetic field; the magnitude and time course of the resultant remanent field depend on the quantity of magnetic material and the degree of particle motion. The interpretation of magnetometric data requires an understanding of particle magnetization, agglomeration, random motion, and both rotation and translation in response to magnetic fields. We present physical principles relevant to magnetometry and suggest models for intracellular particle motion driven by thermal, elastic, or cellular forces. The design principles of instrumentation for magnetizing intracellular particles and for detecting weak remanent magnetic fields are described. Such magnetic measurements can be used for noninvasive studies of particle clearance from the body or of particle motion within body tissues and cells. Assumptions inherent to this experimental approach and possible sources of artifact are considered and evaluated. PMID:3676435

Valberg, P A; Butler, J P

1987-01-01

396

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

, runs and uses accelerators and detectors for photon science and particle physics. We are looking and optimize ultrafast frequency conversion stages Â· Analyze impact of laser noise on coherent FEL radiation qualifications and assigned duties. DESY operates flexible work schemes. Handicapped persons will be given

397

EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics

change November 11 2005 Radiation effects on V0 detector elements Authors: B. Cheynis, L. Ducroux, JEUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics Internal Note of the University of JyvÃ¤skylÃ¤ (Finland) was used to measure the radiation effects on a scintillator counter

Boyer, Edmond

398

My 50 years of research in particle physics

Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

Sugawara, Hirotaka

2010-01-01

399

Particle Physics Phenomenology 10. Various applications and the road ahead

Particle Physics Phenomenology 10. Various applications and the road ahead Torbj¨orn Sj and the road ahead slide 3/33 #12;The Lund string In QCD, for large charge separation, field lines seem to be compressed to tubelike region(s) ) string(s) by self-interactions among soft gluons in the "vacuum". Gives

Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

400

The heavy particle hazard, what physical data are needed?

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical data required to evaluate the radiation hazard from heavy galactic cosmic rays to astronauts on extended missions are discussed. The spectral characteristics, nuclear interaction parameters, and track structure of particles are emphasized. The data on the lower energy portion of the differential spectrum of the iron group and nuclear fragmentation in tissue and aluminum are tested, and results are shown.

Curtis, S. B.; Wilkinson, M. C.

1972-01-01

401

Particle escapes in an open quantum network via multiple leads

Quantum escape of a particle from an end of a one-dimensional finite region to N semi-infinite leads is discussed from a scattering theory approach. Depending on the potential barrier amplitude at the junction, the probability P(t) for a particle to remain in the finite region at time t shows two different decay behaviors at long times; one is proportional to N{sup 2}/t{sup 3} and another is proportional to 1/(N{sup 2}t). In addition, the velocity V(t) for a particle to leave the finite region, defined from a probability current of the particle position, decays asymptotically as a power of time {approx}1/t, independent of the number of leads and the initial wave function. For a finite time, the probability P(t) decays exponentially in time with a smaller decay rate for a greater number of leads, and the velocity V(t) shows a time oscillation whose amplitude is larger for a greater number of leads. Particle escapes from the both ends of a finite region to multiple leads are also discussed using a different boundary condition.

Taniguchi, Tooru; Sawada, Shin-ichi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda City (Japan)

2011-12-15

402

Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

Matthaeus, W.

1992-01-01

403

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

1985-01-01

404

Approximating the physical inner product of Loop Quantum Cosmology

In this article, we investigate the possibility of approximating the physical inner product of constrained quantum theories. In particular, we calculate the physical inner product of a simple cosmological model in two ways: Firstly, we compute it analytically via a trick, secondly, we use the complexifier coherent states to approximate the physical inner product defined by the master constraint of the system. We will find that the approximation is able to recover the analytic solution of the problem, which solidifies hopes that coherent states will help to approximate solutions of more complicated theories, like loop quantum gravity.

Benjamin Bahr; Thomas Thiemann

2006-07-19

405

Particle detectors and the zero mode of a quantum field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the impact of the zero mode of a quantum field on the evolution of a particle detector. For a massless scalar field in a periodic cavity, we show that the impact of the zero mode on the Unruh-DeWitt detector and its derivative-coupling generalization is necessarily nonvanishing but can be made negligible in some limits, including those commonly occurring in nonrelativistic quantum optics. For the derivative-coupling detector this can be accomplished by just tuning the zero mode's initial state, but the standard Unruh-DeWitt detector requires a more subtle and careful tuning. Applications include an inertial detector with arbitrary velocity, where we demonstrate the regularity of the ultrarelativistic limit, and a detector with uniform acceleration.

Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Louko, Jorma

2014-07-01

406

Particle detectors and the zero mode of a quantum field

We study the impact of the zero-mode of a quantum field on the evolution of a particle detector. For a massless scalar field in a periodic cavity, we show that the impact of the zero mode on the Unruh-DeWitt detector and its derivative-coupling generalisation is necessarily nonvanishing but can be made negligible in some limits, including those commonly occurring in non-relativistic quantum optics. For the derivative-coupling detector this can be accomplished by just tuning the zero mode's initial state, but the standard Unruh-DeWitt detector requires a more subtle and careful tuning. Applications include an inertial detector with arbitrary velocity, where we demonstrate the regularity of the ultrarelativistic limit, and a detector with uniform acceleration.

Eduardo Martin-Martinez; Jorma Louko

2014-07-10

407

Development of quantum perspectives in modern physics Charles Baily* and Noah D. Finkelstein

Development of quantum perspectives in modern physics Charles Baily* and Noah for introductory quantum physics students, who must develop new perspectives in order D. Finkelstein Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309

Colorado at Boulder, University of

408

2T Physics and Quantum Mechanics

We use a local scale invariance of a classical Hamiltonian and describe how to construct six different formulations of quantum mechanics in spaces with two time-like dimensions. All these six formulations have the same classical limit described by the same Hamiltonian. One of these formulations is used as a basis for a complementation of the usual quantum mechanics when in the presence of gravity.

W. Chagas-Filho

2008-02-20

409

Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics

The need for a self-observing quantum system to pose questions leads to a\\u000atripartite quantum process involving a Schroedinger process that is local\\u000adeterministic, a Heisenberg process that poses the question, and a Dirac\\u000aprocess that picks the answer. In the classical limit where Planck's constant\\u000ais set to zero these three processes reduce to one single deterministic\\u000aclassical process:

Henry P. Stapp

1999-01-01

410

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the two-dimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schrödinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schrödinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a two-dimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electron-ion plasma, and in 2D electron-hole plasma. Generation of waves in 3D-system neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.

Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I.

2011-12-01

411

In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the two-dimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schroedinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schroedinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a two-dimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electron-ion plasma, and in 2D electron-hole plasma. Generation of waves in 3D-system neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.

Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I. [Department of General Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dpartment of Theoretical Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

412

Variance of the quantum dwell time for a nonrelativistic particle

Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular, those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N= 1, 2, 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N= 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N= 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle's time flux and others) is derived.

Hahne, G. E. [NASA/Ames Research Center, M. S. 258-6, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)] [NASA/Ames Research Center, M. S. 258-6, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

2013-01-15

413

The Future of Particle Physics as a Natural Science

In the first part of the talk, I give a low-resolution overview of the current state of particle physics - the triumph of the Standard Model and its discontents. I review and re-endorse the remarkably direct and (to me) compelling argument that existing data, properly interpreted, point toward a unified theory of fundamental particle interactions and toward low-energy supersymmetry as the near-term future of high energy physics as a natural science. I then attempt, as requested, some more `visionary' - i.e. even lower resolution - comments about the farther future. In that spirit, I emphasize the continuing importance of condensed matter physics as a source of inspiration and potential application, in particular for expansion of symmetry concepts, and of cosmology as a source of problems, applications, and perhaps ultimately limitations.

Frank Wilczek

1997-02-20

414

physics phenomenology: geometric explanation of SM gravitational theory early universe cosmology awaiting for a definite answer #12;main approaches: string theory LQC, SF, WdW, CDT, CS,... #12;main approaches: string theory LQC, SF, WdW, CDT, CS,... noncommutative spectral geometry #12;particle physics #12

Sart, Remi

415

Heuristic classification of physical theories based on quantum correlations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking quantum formalism as a point of reference and connection, we explore the various possibilities that arise in the construction of physical theories. Analyzing the distinct physical phenomena that each of them may describe, we introduce the different types of theories that correspond to these physical phenomena. A hierarchical classification of the offered theories, based on the degree of correlation between dichotomic observables in bipartite systems, as quantified by a Bell-type inequality, is finally proposed as a conclusion.

Ferrero, M.; Sánchez-Gómez, J. L.

2013-06-01

416

Measurements of the physical properties of particles in the urban atmosphere

Measurements of the physical properties of particles in the atmosphere of a UK urban area have been made, including particle number count by condensation nucleus counters with different lower particle size cut-offs; particle size distributions using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer; total particle Fuchs surface area using an epiphaniometer and particle mass using Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM) instruments with

Roy M Harrison; Marcus Jones; Gareth Collins

1999-01-01

417

Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality: An Introduction to the Book

Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality: An Introduction to the Book Diederik Aerts and Jaroslaw of the Satellite Symposium "Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality" organised by the International Quantum) was to acquaint the possibly widest audience consisting of people interested in foundations of quantum physics

Aerts, Diederik

418

From physical principles to relativistic classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian particle mechanics

We show that classical particle mechanics (Hamiltonian and Lagrangian consistent with relativistic electromagnetism) can be derived from three fundamental assumptions: infinite reducibility, deterministic and reversible evolution, and kinematic equivalence. The core idea is that deterministic and reversible systems preserve the cardinality of a set of states, which puts considerable constraints on the equations of motion. This perspective links different concepts from different branches of math and physics (e.g. cardinality of a set, cotangent bundle for phase space, Hamiltonian flow, locally Minkowskian space-time manifold), providing new insights. The derivation strives to use definitions and mathematical concepts compatible with future extensions to field theories and quantum mechanics.

Carcassi, Gabriele

2015-01-01

419

Quantum Speed Limits for General Physical Processes

Quantum speed limits are relations yielding lower bounds on the evolution time of quantum systems. These results have been generalized in some ways, in particular by including evolutions to non-orthogonal states. However, there was a gap in the literature on this area, for only unitary evolutions -- closed quantum systems -- had been considered. On this Ph.D. thesis, such limitation is overcome: our main result is a bound for quantum-system evolutions in general, whether unitary or not, and correctly recovers the known bounds in the unitary case. Applications of this bound to several concrete cases of interest are herein presented. This bound is also used to extend to the non-unitary case the discussion of the role of entanglement in fast evolutions, leading to nontrivial results. For the derivation of the results, a geometric approach has been employed, which allows a clear interpretation of the bounds and a discussion of the criteria for their saturation. No previous knowledge of quantum-state geometry by the reader has been assumed.

M. M. Taddei

2014-07-16

420

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics

The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics—relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

Briggs, G. A. D.; Butterfield, J. N.; Zeilinger, A.

2013-01-01

421

The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics.

The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics-relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

Briggs, G A D; Butterfield, J N; Zeilinger, A

2013-09-01

422

Quantum speed limit for physical processes.

The evaluation of the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system is important for assessing the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. Lower bounds for this minimal time have been proposed for unitary dynamics. Here we show that it is possible to extend this concept to nonunitary processes, using an attainable lower bound that is connected to the quantum Fisher information for time estimation. This result is used to delimit the minimal evolution time for typical noisy channels. PMID:23414007

Taddei, M M; Escher, B M; Davidovich, L; de Matos Filho, R L

2013-02-01

423

Classical and Quantum Mechanical Models of Many-Particle Systems

The topic of this meeting were non-linear partial differential and integro-differential equations (in particular kinetic equations and their macroscopic\\/fluid-dynamical limits) modeling the dynamics of many-particle systems with applications in physics, engineering, and mathematical biol- ogy. Typical questions of interest were the derivation of macro-models from micro-models, the mathematical analysis (well-posedness, stability, asymp- totic behavior of solutions), and -to a lesser

Anton Arnold; Carlo Cercignani; Laurent Desvillettes

2006-01-01

424

Mixmaster quantum cosmology in terms of physical dynamics

An approach to quantum cosmology, relying on strengths of both canonical and path integral formalisms, is applied to the cosmological model, Bianchi type IX. Physical quantum states are constructed on the maximal slice of the cosmological history. A path integral is derived which evolves observables off the maximal slice. This result is compared a path integral propagator derived earlier with conventional Faddeev-Poppov gauge fixing.

Seth Major; Lee Smolin

1996-07-07

425

A guide to experimental particle physics literature, 1991-1996

We present an indexed guide to experimental particle physics literature for the years 1991 - 1996. Approximately 4200 papers are indexed by (1) Beam/Target/Momentum (2) Reaction/Momentum/Data-Descriptor (including the final state) (3) Particle/Decay (4) Accelerator/Experiment/Detector. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and references in the ID/Reference/Title index. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly-updated DATAGUIDE database from the World Wide Web.

Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1996-10-01

426

Does Euclidean geometry imply quantum physics?

In a previous paper, it was proposed that the cosmological term in Einstein's field equations be huge. This proposal heuristically followed from the combination of Leibniz' principle, Einstein's general relativity, and the observational dominance of Euclidean geometry. This paper presents preliminary results of a treatment of the large ? field equations which holds promise of yielding quantum wave mechanics with

J. Charles Nickerson

1975-01-01

427

Quantum physics of simple optical instruments

Simple optical instruments are linear optical networks where the incident light modes are turned into equal numbers of outgoing modes by linear transformations. For example, such instruments are beam splitters, multiports, interferometers, fibre couplers, polarizers, gravitational lenses, parametric amplifiers, phase-conjugating mirrors and also black holes. The paper develops the quantum theory of simple optical instruments and applies the theory to

Ulf Leonhardt

2003-01-01

428

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In quantum physics the free particle and the harmonically trapped particle are arguably the most important systems a physicist needs to know about. It is little known that, mathematically, they are one and the same. This knowledge helps us to understand either from the viewpoint of the other. Here we show that all general time-dependent solutions of the free-particle Schrödinger equation can be mapped to solutions of the Schrödinger equation for harmonic potentials, both the trapping oscillator and the inverted "oscillator". This map is fully invertible and therefore induces an isomorphism between both types of system, they are equivalent. A composition of the map and its inverse allows us to map from one harmonic oscillator to another with a different spring constant and different center position. The map is independent of the state of the system, consisting only of a coordinate transformation and multiplication by a form factor, and can be chosen such that the state is identical in both systems at one point in time. This transition point in time can be chosen freely, the wave function of the particle evolving in time in one system before the transition point can therefore be linked up smoothly with the wave function for the other system and its future evolution after the transition point. Such a cut-and-paste procedure allows us to describe the instantaneous changes of the environment a particle finds itself in. Transitions from free to trapped systems, between harmonic traps of different spring constants or center positions, or, from harmonic binding to repulsive harmonic potentials are straightforwardly modelled. This includes some time-dependent harmonic potentials. The mappings introduced here are computationally more efficient than either state-projection or harmonic oscillator propagator techniques conventionally employed when describing instantaneous (non-adiabatic) changes of a quantum particle's environment.

Steuernagel, Ole

2014-06-01

429

Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wave-to-particle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particle-wave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor 1-n2, in terms of magnitude n?[0,1]. of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact wave-particle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particle-to-wave ratio as well as of the free-evolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function. PMID:21152325

Putz, Mihai V.

2010-01-01

430

Pharmaceutical micro-particles give amorphous sucrose higher physical stability.

The aim of this study was to explore how pharmaceutical micro-sized filler particles affect the amorphous stability of sucrose in sucrose/filler particle composites produced by freeze-drying. Focus was put on the filler particles' properties crystallinity, hygroscopicity, hydrophobicity, and surface area, and their influence on physical stability of the amorphous phase. The micro-sized filler particles were examined with Blaine permeametry, gas adsorption, pycnometry, gravimetric vapour sorption, X-ray diffraction, and light microscopy before composites of sucrose and micro-sized filler particles were prepared by freeze-drying. The stability of the composites was examined with X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and microcalorimetry. All composites were amorphous and showed higher stability compared to pure amorphous sucrose, which was evident from a delay in heat and moisture-induced crystallization. However, calcium carbonate and oxazepam micro-sized filler particles lost their ability to stabilize the amorphous sucrose when exposed to humidity. The dry glass transition temperature (T(g)) was higher for the composites, indicating the stabilization was mediated by a reduced molecular mobility of the amorphous phase. PMID:21356288

Hellrup, Joel; Mahlin, Denny

2011-05-16

431

A quasi-unified description of the classical and quantum fields, which defines the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions, but does not include gravity, is currently possible only in the frame of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) in terms of the gauge symmetry breaking. Part I of the present study has developed the theoretical background for unified description of the all-known classical and quantum fields in terms of the interference between particles and the respective cross-correlation energy, which do not exist from the point of view of quantum mechanics and SM. Part II uses this background for unification of the electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational fields and interactions. The unification is performed by generalization of the Einstein energy-mass relation for the interfering unit-fields associated with the interacting particles. The unit-fields obey properties of the point particles and waves of quantum mechanics, the point particles of SM, the strings of theories of strings and the 3-D waves of theories of classical fields.

S. V. Kukhlevsky

2013-06-26

432

In combination with Laughlin's treatment of the quantized Hall conductivity, the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis argument is extended to quantum many-particle systems (including quantum spin systems) with a conserved particle number on a periodic lattice in arbitrary dimensions. Regardless of dimensionality, interaction strength, and particle statistics (Bose or Fermi), a finite excitation gap is possible only when the particle number per unit cell

Masaki Oshikawa

2000-01-01

433

Towards the European strategy for particle physics: the Briefing Book

This document was prepared as part of the briefing material for the Workshop of the CERN Council Strategy Group, held in DESY Zeuthen from 2nd to 6th May 2006. It gives an overview of the physics issues and of the technological challenges that will shape the future of the field, and incorporates material presented and discussed during the Symposium on the European Strategy for Particle Physics, held in Orsay from 30th January to 2nd February 2006, reflecting the various opinions of the European community as recorded in written submissions to the Strategy Group and in the discussions at the Symposium.

T. Akesson; R. Aleksan; B. Allanach; S. Bertolucci; A. Blondel; J. Butterworth; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cervera; S. Davidson; M. de Naurois; K. Desch; U. Egede; N. Glover; R. Heuer; A. Hoecker; P. Huber; K. Jungmann; R. Landua; J-M. Le Goff; F. Linde; A. Lombardi; M. Mangano; M. Mezzetto; G. Onderwater; N. Palanque-Delabrouille; K. Peach; A. Polosa; E. Rondio; B. Webber; G. Weiglein; J. Womersley; K. Wurr

2006-09-20

434

Dick Dalitz: Examples of His Contributions to Particle Physics

Dick Dalitz produced lasting contributions to particle physics for 50 years. Along with Dalitz pairs, Dalitz plots and CDD poles, he did major work in parity violation, hyperon resonance identification, the quark model, and hypernuclei. These topics will be summarized, with some emphasis on the author's collaboration with Dalitz on quark spin and fragmentation correlations, and, particularly, the work on the identification of the top quark and its mass. Short biographical information is interspersed. This paper is based on a presentation at the International School of Subnuclear Physics, Erice 2006.

Gary R. Goldstein

2007-04-30

435

Dick Dalitz:. Examples of His Contributions to Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dick Dalitz produced lasting contributions to particle physics for 50 years. Along with Dalitz pairs, Dalitz plots and CDD poles, he did major work in parity violation, hyperon resonance identification, the quark model, and hypernuclei. These topics will be summarized, with some emphasis on the author's collaboration with Dalitz on quark spin and fragmentation correlations, and, particularly, the work on the identification of the top quark and its mass. Short biographical information is interspersed. This paper is based on a presentation at the International School of Subnuclear Physics, Erice 2006.

Goldstein, Gary R.

2008-07-01

436

MAJOR DETECOTRS IN ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS - May 1985 Suppl.

This report is the second edition of a loose-leaf compendium of the properties and performance characteristics of the major detectors of elementary particle physics. This introduces the second edition of the LBL-91 Supplement 'Major Detectors in Elementary Particle Physics.' For some detectors the update merely documents minor modifications or provides additional references. Others have undergone major rebuilding or have been augmented with new subsystems. The new LEP, SLC, TRISTAN, BEPC, and FNAL detectors have had their designs fixed and are now under construction. Some detectors have completed their programs since the last edition and so are omitted. The use of colored loose-leaf paper should allow users to maintain a historical record of each detector. We again thank those physicists working with each detector who took the time to summarize its properties and supply us with the appropriate drawings.

Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.

1985-05-01

437

Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

Lam, N.Q.

1989-12-01

438

Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken

2013-04-01

439

UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

Nefkens, B.M.K.

1983-11-01

440

Ionic conductivity in a quantum lattice gas model with three-particle interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of mesoscopic ions with dominant three-particle interactions is modeled by a quantum lattice liquid on the planar kagomé lattice. The two-parameter Hamiltonian contains localized attractive triplet interactions as potential energy and nearest neighbor hopping-type terms as kinetic energy. The dynamic ionic conductivity ?(?) is theoretically investigated for ‘weak hopping’ via a quantum many-body perturbation expansion of the thermal (Matsubara) Green function (current-current correlation). A simple analytic continuation and mapping of the thermal Green function provide the temporal Fourier transform of the physical retarded Green function in the Kubo formula. Substituting pertinent exact solutions for static multi-particle correlations known from previous work, Arrhenius relations are revealed in zeroth-order approximation for the dc ionic conductivity ?dc along special trajectories in density-temperature space. The Arrhenius plots directly yield static activation energies along the latter loci. Experimental possibilities relating to ?dc are discussed in the presence of equilibrium aggregation. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.

Barry, J. H.; Muttalib, K. A.; Tanaka, T.

2012-12-01

441

Particle physics catalysis of thermal Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

We point out that the existence of metastable, tau > 10^3 s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X^-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during BBN. In particular, we show that the bound states of X^- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10^8K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of Li6 production, which is eight orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X^- does not lead to large non-thermal BBN effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X^-, particles (\\tau>10^5 s) relative to entropy of n_{X^-}/s < 3\\times 10^{-17}, which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date.

Maxim Pospelov

2007-03-15

442

Stochastic electrodynamics and the interpretation of quantum physics

Arguments are given for the plausibility that quantum mechanics is a stochastic theory and that many quantum phenomena derive from the existence of a real noise consisting of vacuum fluctuations of the fields existing in nature. I revisit stochastic electrodynamics (SED), a theory that studies classical systems of electrically charged particles immersed in a real electromagnetic zeropoint field with spectral density proportional to the cube of the frequency, Planck's constant appearing as the parameter fixing the scale. Asides from briefly reviewing known results, I make a detailed comparison between SED and quantum mechanics which shows that both theories make different predictions in many cases. However SED might be a guide for a stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics

Emilio Santos

2014-10-02

443

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

444

Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

Geesaman, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [ed.

1993-11-01

445

Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular $\\alpha$-vacuum has been considered. We show that the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch-Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general $\\alpha-$vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of $\\alpha$. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points $H_c$ of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved.

Jun Feng; Yao-Zhong Zhang; Mark D. Gould; Heng Fan; Cheng-Yi Sun; Wen-Li Yang

2014-11-15

446

Nuclear spin physics in quantum dots: An optical investigation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mesoscopic spin system formed by the 104-106 nuclear spins in a semiconductor quantum dot offers a unique setting for the study of many-body spin physics in the condensed matter. The dynamics of this system and its coupling to electron spins is fundamentally different from its bulk counterpart or the case of individual atoms due to increased fluctuations that result from reduced dimensions. In recent years, the interest in studying quantum-dot nuclear spin systems and their coupling to confined electron spins has been further fueled by its importance for possible quantum information processing applications. The fascinating nonlinear (quantum) dynamics of the coupled electron-nuclear spin system is universal in quantum dot optics and transport. In this article, experimental work performed over the last decade in studying this mesoscopic, coupled electron-nuclear spin system is reviewed. Here a special focus is on how optical addressing of electron spins can be exploited to manipulate and read out the quantum-dot nuclei. Particularly exciting recent developments in applying optical techniques to efficiently establish nonzero mean nuclear spin polarizations and using them to reduce intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations are discussed. Both results critically influence the preservation of electron-spin coherence in quantum dots. This overall recently gained understanding of the quantum-dot nuclear spin system could enable exciting new research avenues such as experimental observations of spontaneous spin ordering or nonclassical behavior of the nuclear spin bath.

Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Maletinsky, Patrick; Högele, Alexander; Imamoglu, Atac

2013-01-01

447

Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular ?-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch-Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general ?-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of ?. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points Hc of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved.

Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

2014-12-01

448

Cherenkov light imaging in astro-particle physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cherenkov light emission plays a key role in contemporary science; it is widely used in high energy, nuclear, and numerous astro-particle physics experiments. Most astro-particle physics experiments are based on the detection of light, and a vast majority of them on the measurement of Cherenkov light. Cherenkov light emission is measured in gases (used in air-Cherenkov technique), in water (for example, neutrino experiments BAIKAL, Super-Kamiokande, NESTOR, ANTARES, future KM3NeT; cosmic and ?-ray experiments Milagro, HAWC, AUGER) and in ice (IceCube). In this report our goal is not limited to simply listing the multitude of experiments that are based on using Cherenkov emission, but we will clarify the reasons making this emission so important and so frequently used. For completeness we will first give a short historical overview on the discovery and evolution of Cherenkov emission and then we will dwell on its main features and numerous applications in astro-particle physics experiments.

Mirzoyan, Razmik

2014-12-01

449

Quantum Hall physics = noncommutative field theory

In this note, we study a matrix-regularized version of non-commutative U(1) Chern-Simons theory proposed recently by Polychronakos. We determine a complete minimal basis of exact wavefunctions for the theory at arbitrary level k and rank N. We show that these have a form highly reminiscent of Laughlin-type wavefunctions describing excitations of a quantum Hall droplet composed of N electrons at

Simeon Hellerman; Mark Van Raamsdonk

2001-01-01

450

Quantum Hall Physics Equals Noncommutative Field Theory

In this note, we study a matrix-regularized version of non-commutative U(1) Chern- Simons theory proposed recently by Polychronakos. We determine a complete minimal basis of exact wavefunctions for the theory at arbitrary level k and rank N and show that these are in one-to-one correspondence with Laughlin-type wavefunctions describing excitations of a quantum Hall droplet composed of N electrons at

Simeon Hellerman; Mark Van Raamsdonk

451

Synthesis of quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics

The asymptotic freedom behavior of quantum chromodynamics allows the rigorous calculation of hadronic and nuclear amplitudes at short distances by perturbative methods. The implications of QCD for large-momentum-transfer nuclear form factors and scattering processes, as well as for the structure of nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions at short distances, are discussed. The necessity for color-polarized internal nuclear states is also discussed. 6 figures.

Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

1980-08-01

452

The neutron and its role in cosmology and particle physics

Experiments with cold and ultracold neutrons have reached a level of precision such that problems far beyond the scale of the present standard model of particle physics become accessible to experimental investigation. Because of the close links between particle physics and cosmology, these studies also permit a deep look into the very first instances of our Universe. First addressed in this article, in both theory and experiment, is the problem of baryogenesis, the mechanism behind the evident dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The question of how baryogenesis could have happened is open to experimental tests, and it turns out that this problem can be curbed by the very stringent limits on an electric dipole moment of the neutron, a quantity that also has deep implications for particle physics. Then the recent spectacular observation of neutron quantization in the Earth's gravitational field and of resonance transitions between such gravitational energy states is discussed. These measurements, together with new evaluations of neutron scattering data, set new constraints on deviations from Newton's gravitational law at the picometer scale. Such deviations are predicted in modern theories with extra dimensions that propose unification of the Planck scale with the scale of the standard model. These experiments start closing the remaining ''axion window'' on new spin-dependent forces in the submillimeter range. Another main topic is the weak-interaction parameters in various fields of physics and astrophysics that must all be derived from measured neutron-decay data. Up until now, about 10 different neutron-decay observables have been measured, much more than needed in the electroweak standard model. This allows various precise tests for new physics beyond the standard model, competing with or surpassing similar tests at high energy. The review ends with a discussion of neutron and nuclear data required in the synthesis of the elements during the ''first three minutes'' and later on in stellar nucleosynthesis.

Dubbers, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael G. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-10-01

453

DiracQ: A Quantum Many-Body Physics Package

We present a software package DiracQ, for use in quantum many-body Physics. It is designed for helping with typical algebraic manipulations that arise in quantum Condensed Matter Physics and Nuclear Physics problems, and also in some subareas of Chemistry. DiracQ is invoked within a Mathematica session, and extends the symbolic capabilities of Mathematica by building in standard commutation and anticommutation rules for several objects relevant in many-body Physics. It enables the user to carry out computations such as evaluating the commutators of arbitrary combinations of spin, Bose and Fermi operators defined on a discrete lattice, or the position and momentum operators in the continuum. Some examples from popular systems, such as the Hubbard model, are provided to illustrate the capabilities of the package.

John G. Wright; B. Sriram Shastry

2013-01-20

454

Probability plays a critical role in making sense of quantum physics, but most science and engineering undergraduates have very little experience with the topic. A probabilistic interpretation of a physical system, even at a classical level, is often completely new to them, and the relevant fundamental concepts such as the probability distribution and probability density are rarely understood. To address

Lei Bao; Edward F. Redish

2002-01-01

455

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the critical role of probability in making sense of quantum physics and addresses the difficulties science and engineering undergraduates experience in helping students build a model of how to think about probability in physical systems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.

2002-01-01

456

Path-integral approach to 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics

We present a path-integral formulation of 't Hooft's derivation of quantum physics from classical physics. The crucial ingredient of this formulation is Gozzi et al.'s supersymmetric path integral of classical mechanics. We quantize explicitly two simple classical systems: the planar mathematical pendulum and the Roessler dynamical system.

Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via S.Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Jizba, Petr [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan) and FNSPE, Czech Technical University, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Kleinert, Hagen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14 D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

2005-05-15

457

EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for the nature of dark matter has reached a historical point in time, with several different and complementary experiments on the verge of conclusively exploring large portions of the parameter space of the most theoretically compelling particle dark matter models. This focus issue on dark matter and particle physics brings together a broad selection of invited articles from the leading experimental and theoretical groups in the field. The leitmotif of the collection is the need for a multi-faceted search strategy that includes complementary experimental and theoretical techniques with the common goal of a sound understanding of the fundamental particle physical nature of dark matter. These include theoretical modelling, high-energy colliders and direct and indirect searches. We are confident that the works collected here present the state of the art of this rapidly changing field and will be of interest to both experts in the topic of dark matter as well as to those new to this exciting field. Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics Contents DARK MATTER AND ASTROPHYSICS Scintillator-based detectors for dark matter searches I S K Kim, H J Kim and Y D Kim Cosmology: small-scale issues Joel R Primack Big Bang nucleosynthesis and particle dark matter Karsten Jedamzik and Maxim Pospelov Particle models and the small-scale structure of dark matter Torsten Bringmann DARK MATTER AND COLLIDERS Dark matter in the MSSM R C Cotta, J S Gainer, J L Hewett and T G Rizzo The role of an e+e- linear collider in the study of cosmic dark matter M Battaglia Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter Howard Baer, Eun-Kyung Park and Xerxes Tata INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS PAMELA and indirect dark matter searches M Boezio et al An indirect search for dark matter using antideuterons: the GAPS experiment C J Hailey Perspectives for indirect dark matter search with AMS-2 using cosmic-ray electrons and positrons B Beischer, P von Doetinchem, H Gast, T Kirn and S Schael Axion searches with helioscopes and astrophysical signatures for axion(-like) particles K Zioutas, M Tsagri, Y Semertzidis, T Papaevangelou, T Dafni and V Anastassopoulos The indirect search for dark matter with IceCube Francis Halzen and Dan Hooper DIRECT DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS Gaseous dark matter detectors G Sciolla and C J Martoff Search for dark matter with CRESST Rafael F Lang and Wolfgang Seidel DIRECT AND INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:THEORY Dark matter annihilation around intermediate mass black holes: an update Gianfranco Bertone, Mattia Fornasa, Marco Taoso and Andrew R Zentner Update on the direct detection of dark matter in MSSM models with non-universal Higgs masses John Ellis, Keith A Olive and Pearl Sandick Dark stars: a new study of the first stars in the Universe Katherine Freese, Peter Bodenheimer, Paolo Gondolo and Douglas Spolyar Determining the mass of dark matter particles with direct detection experiments Chung-Lin Shan The detection of subsolar mass dark matter halos Savvas M Koushiappas Neutrino coherent scattering rates at direct dark matter detectors Louis E Strigari Gamma rays from dark matter annihilation in the central region of the Galaxy Pasquale Dario Serpico and Dan Hooper DARK MATTER MODELS The dark matter interpretation of the 511 keV line Céline Boehm Axions as dark matter particles Leanne D Duffy and Karl van Bibber Sterile neutrinos Alexander Kusenko Dark matter candidates Lars Bergström Minimal dark matter: model and results Marco Cirelli and Alessandro Strumia Shedding light on the dark sector with direct WIMP production Partha Konar, Kyoungchul Kong, Konstantin T Matchev and Maxim Perelstein Axinos as dark matter particles Laura Covi and Jihn E Kim

Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano

2009-10-01

458

Life at the interface of particle physics and string theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the results of the first LHC run are not betraying us, many decades of particle physics are culminating in a complete and consistent theory for all nongravitational physics: the standard model. But despite this monumental achievement there is a clear sense of disappointment: many questions remain unanswered. Remarkably, most unanswered questions could just be environmental, and disturbingly to some the existence of life may depend on that environment. Meanwhile there has been increasing evidence that the seemingly ideal candidate for answering these questions, string theory, gives an answer few people initially expected: a large “landscape” of possibilities that can be realized in a multiverse and populated by eternal inflation. At the interface of “bottom-up” and “top-down” physics, a discussion of anthropic arguments becomes unavoidable. Developments in this area are reviewed, focusing especially on the last decade.

Schellekens, A. N.

2013-10-01

459

Superluminal Particles, Cosmology and Cosmic-Ray Physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-tachyonic superluminal sectors of matter (sup erbradyons), with critical speeds in vacuum much larger than the speed of light, can quite naturally exist and play an important role in both cosmic-ray physics (anomalous high-energy events) and cosmology (big-bang physics, alternatives to inflation, dark matter...). They can even be the real "elementary" particles. An up dated discussion of the sub ject is presented, in relation with recent theoretical and experimental results. Prosp ects for future searches are also reexamined. Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) models based on mixing with superbradyons are compared with LDRK (linearly deformed relativistic kinematics) and QDRK (quadratically deformed relativistic kinematics) such as defined in our previous paper physics/0003080 .

Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

2003-07-01

460

We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG (ref. 1) to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on

Tom Ostoma; Mike Trushyk

461

The geometric phase in quantum physics

After an explanatory introduction, a quantum system in a classical time-dependent environment is discussed; an example is a magnetic moment in a classical magnetic field. At first, the general abelian case is discussed in the adiabatic approximation. Then the geometric phase for nonadiabatic change of the environment (Anandan--Aharonov phase) is introduced, and after that general cyclic (nonadiabatic) evolution is discussed. The mathematics of fiber bundles is introduced, and some of its results are used to describe the relation between the adiabatic Berry phase and the geometric phase for general cyclic evolution of a pure state. The discussion is restricted to the abelian, U(1) phase.

Bohm, A.

1993-03-01

462

Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 25 The Independent particle approximation, Srinivasan S. Iyengar (instructor) #12;Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 3. However, Eq c 2003, Srinivasan S. Iyengar (instructor) #12;Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C

Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

463

Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 9 Particle-in-a-box (PIB)

Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 9 Particle-in-a-box (PIB) 1. Consider. Iyengar (instructor) #12;Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 7. Once we study the PIB 2003, Srinivasan S. Iyengar (instructor) #12;Atomic and Molecular Quantum Theory Course Number: C561 10

Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

464

Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

2008-01-01

465

The Quantum Hall Effect: Poincaré Seminar (Progress in Mathematical Physics)

The Séminaire Poincaré provides hopefully accessible, accurate and up-to-date reviews of important topics in physics. The seminar usually invites people from both experiment and theory to discuss aspects of the topic. Recent topics, including Entropy (2003), Einstein (2005), and Quantum Decoherence (2005), demonstrate a determination on the part of the organisers to keep the seminar attractive to almost anyone active

N H DAmbrumeni

2007-01-01

466

Quantum Physics and Mental Health Counseling: The Time Is...!

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a new framework of mental health counseling based on quantum physics. The framework stresses systemic thinking and intervention, interdependence, and the importance of adopting a novel perspective about time, space, reality, and change. This framework has the potential of modifying mental health counseling practice and training. Offers…

Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bennett, Matt

1999-01-01

467

Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

Alexandru Paler; Simon J. Devitt; Kae Nemoto; Ilia Polian

2014-03-10

468

Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

2014-04-01

469

Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit. PMID:24722360

Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

2014-01-01

470

Mapping of topological quantum circuits to physical hardware.

Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit. PMID:24722360

Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

2014-01-01

471

Published as: Aerts, D., 1994, "Quantum structures, separated physical entities and probability", Found. Phys., 24, 1227 - 1258. Quantum structures, separated physical entities and probability. Diederik is a classical physical entity. This theorem implies that separated quantum entities cannot be described

Aerts, Diederik

472

Research in particle physics. Progress report, June 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron{endash}positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the ``electrostatic muon kicker``; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

Not Available

1992-09-01

473

Physics as quantum information processing1 Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

Physics as quantum information processing1 Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano QUIT Group, Dipartimento di at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum IV, Sezione di Pavia Abstract. The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

474

Physics 4, 58 (2011) A long-distance quantum repeater gets one step closer

Physics 4, 58 (2011) Viewpoint A long-distance quantum repeater gets one step closer Selim M laws of quantum mechanics. In a paper in Physical Review Letters, Klaus Reim and coauthors [2 a robust, high-fidelity, broadband quantum memory that could be used to realize a long-distance quantum

Shahriar, Selim

475

Atom Smasher: An Educational Game for Teaching About Accelerators, Detectors and Particle Physics

An innovative multimedia game called Atom Smasher is being developed to introduce precollege students to the world of particle accelerators, particle detectors, and elementary particle physics. The game includes an animated accelerator facility introduction that places the player in the role of a scientist conducting experiments. Live animated tutorials, movies, a particle physics game show, slide show tutorials and a

Nathan Brown; George Lancaster; George Gillespie; Barrey Hill

1998-01-01

476

Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report

This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s high-resolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.

Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P. [and others

1995-12-01

477

Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

Aprile, E.; Doke, T. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2010-07-15

478

Liquid Xenon Detectors for Particle Physics and Astrophysics

This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics and medical imaging experiments. We begin with a summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information. After a brief introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, we continue with a review of past, current and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine. We will introduce each application with a brief survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements, before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From experiments like MEG, currently the largest liquid xenon scintillation detector in operation, dedicated to the rare mu -> e + gamma decay, to the future XMASS which also exploits only liquid xenon scintillation to address an ambitious program of rare event searches, to the class of time projection chambers like XENON and EXO which exploit both scintillation and ionization of liquid xenon for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay, respectively, we anticipate unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years.

E. Aprile; T. Doke

2009-10-26

479

Effective Evolution Equations in Quantum Physics

In these notes, we review some recent mathematical results concerning the derivation of effective evolution equations from many body quantum mechanics. In particular, we discuss the emergence of the Hartree equation in the so-called mean field regime (for example, for systems of gravitating bosons), and we show that the Gross-Pitaevskii equation approximates the dynamics of initially trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. We explain how effective evolution equations can be derived, on the one hand, by analyzing the so called BBGKY hierarchy, describing the time-evolution of reduced density matrices, and, on the other hand, by studying the dynamics of coherent initial states in a Fock-space representation of the many body system.

Benjamin Schlein

2011-11-29

480

A derivation of quantum theory from physical requirements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum theory (QT) is usually formulated in terms of abstract mathematical postulates involving Hilbert spaces, state vectors and unitary operators. In this paper, we show that the full formalism of QT can instead be derived from five simple physical requirements, based on elementary assumptions regarding preparations, transformations and measurements. This is very similar to the usual formulation of special relativity, where two simple physical requirements—the principles of relativity and light speed invariance—are used to derive the mathematical structure of Minkowski space-time. Our derivation provides insights into the physical origin of the structure of quantum state spaces (including a group-theoretic explanation of the Bloch ball and its three dimensionality) and suggests several natural possibilities to construct consistent modifications of QT.

Masanes, Lluís; Müller, Markus P.

2011-06-01

M. Asorey (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain) |