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1

Quantum Gravity: the view from particle physics  

E-print Network

This lecture reviews aspects of and prospects for progress towards a theory of quantum gravity from a particle physics perspective, also paying attention to recent findings of the LHC experiments at CERN.

Hermann Nicolai

2013-01-23

2

Particle Physics challenges to the Bohm Picture of Relativistic Quantum Field Theory  

E-print Network

I discuss topics in Particle Physics applying the novel ontological formulation of Relativistic Quantum Field Theory due to David Bohm. I argument that particle physicists might too benefit from this truly novel way of thinking Physics.

Abel Miranda

2011-04-29

3

Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics  

SciTech Connect

Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

None

2009-08-07

4

Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics  

ScienceCinema

Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

None

2011-10-06

5

Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles, 2nd Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revision of a successful junior\\/senior level text, this introduction to elementary quantum mechanics clearly explains the properties of the most important quantum systems. Emphasizes the applications of theory, and contains new material on particle physics, electron-positron annihilation in solids and the Mossbauer effect. Includes new appendices on such topics as crystallography, Fourier Integral Description of a Wave Group, and

Robert Eisberg; Robert Resnick

1985-01-01

6

Quantum Physics: An Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to Quantum Physics concepts with an activity demonstrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, wave/particle duality, Planck's Constant, de Broglie wavelength, and how Newton's Laws go right out the window on a quantum level.

7

Quantum Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The revered quantum physicist Richard Feynman once quipped, âÂÂI think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.â And yet, the study of quantum mechanics has given birth to the laser, the microchip, and the electron microscope. WhatâÂÂs going on here? You can find out by taking Quantum Physics I, a completely free online class from MIT. The Syllabus is a great way to get situated with the course offerings and the Readings section offers links to help purchase the necessary books. When ready, strap yourself into your office chair and launch into the 24 one-hour-long Lecture Videos. DonâÂÂt forget the Lecture Notes (youâÂÂll need those!), as well as Assignments, Exams, and Study Materials. If you have ever longed to understand the Higgs Boson or wondered how a photon can act as either a particle or a wave, this incredible, knowledge packed course from one of the top scientific universities in the world is for you.

Adams, Allan; Evans, Matthew; Zwiebach, Barton

2013-01-01

8

The order of the quantum chromodynamics transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron-and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low temperatures, the

Y. Aoki; G. Endrodi; Z. Fodor; S. D. Katz; K. K. Szabó

2006-01-01

9

Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Quantum Mechanics operators must be hermitian and, in a direct product space, symmetric. These properties are saved by Lie algebra operators but not by those of quantum algebras. A possible correspondence between observables and quantum algebra operators is suggested by extending the definition of matrix el- ements of a physical observable, including the eventual projection on the appro- priate

E. Celeghini; M. A. del Olmo

1969-01-01

10

Quantum phase transition for the BEC--BCS crossover in condensed matter physics and CPT violation in elementary particle physics  

E-print Network

We discuss the quantum phase transition that separates a vacuum state with fully-gapped fermion spectrum from a vacuum state with topologically-protected Fermi points (gap nodes). In the context of condensed-matter physics, such a quantum phase transition with Fermi point splitting may occur for a system of ultracold fermionic atoms in the region of the BEC-BCS crossover, provided Cooper pairing occurs in the non-s-wave channel. For elementary particle physics, the splitting of Fermi points may lead to CPT violation, neutrino oscillations, and other phenomena.

F. R. Klinkhamer; G. E. Volovik

2004-07-22

11

Quantum particles from classical statistics  

E-print Network

Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.

C. Wetterich

2009-04-20

12

Quantum walks of correlated particles  

E-print Network

Quantum walks of correlated particles offer the possibility to study large-scale quantum interference, simulate biological, chemical and physical systems, and a route to universal quantum computation. Here we demonstrate quantum walks of two identical photons in an array of 21 continuously evanescently-coupled waveguides in a SiOxNy chip. We observe quantum correlations, violating a classical limit by 76 standard deviations, and find that they depend critically on the input state of the quantum walk. These results open the way to a powerful approach to quantum walks using correlated particles to encode information in an exponentially larger state space.

Alberto Peruzzo; Mirko Lobino; Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Nobuyuki Matsuda; Alberto Politi; Konstantinos Poulios; Xiao-Qi Zhou; Yoav Lahini; Nur Ismail; Kerstin Wörhoff; Yaron Bromberg; Yaron Silberberg; Mark G. Thompson; Jeremy L. O'Brien

2010-06-24

13

Quantum Physics for Beginners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

Strand, J.

1981-01-01

14

Quantum Physics Einstein's Gravity  

E-print Network

Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 13 October 2001 #12; Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Abstract: The search for an overall master theory that is compatible both with quantum physics

Visser, Matt

15

6.728 Applied Quantum and Statistical Physics, Fall 2002  

E-print Network

Elementary quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Introduces applied quantum physics. Emphasizes experimental basis for quantum mechanics. Applies Schrodinger's equation to the free particle, tunneling, the harmonic ...

Bulovic, Vladimir, 1970-

16

Research in theoretical particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and Schwinger-Dyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)

McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.

1992-05-01

17

Nuclear and Particle Physics applications of the Bohm Picture of Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

Approximation methods for calculating individual particle/ field motions in spacetime at the quantum level of accuracy (a key feature of the Bohm Picture of Quantum Mechanics (BP)), are studied. Modern textbook presentations of Quantum Theory are used throughout, but only to provide the necessary, already existing, tested formalisms and calculational techniques. New coherent insights, reinterpretations of old solutions and results, and new (in principle testable) quantitative and qualitative predictions, can be obtained on the basis of the BP that complete the standard type of postdictions and predictions.

A. Miranda

2009-01-09

18

Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Scale and dimension - From animals to quarks Geoffrey B. West; 2. Particle physics and the standard model Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky and Geoffrey B. West; QCD on a Cray: the masses of elementary particles Gerald Guralnik, Tony Warnock and Charles Zemach; Lecture Notes - From simple field theories to the standard model; 3. Toward a unified theory: an essay on the role of supergravity in the search for unification Richard C. Slansky; 4. Supersymmetry at 100 GeV Stuart Raby; 5. The family problem T. Goldman and Michael Martin Nieto; Part II. Experimental Developments: 6. Experiments to test unification schemes Gary H. Sanders; 7. The march toward higher energies S. Peter Rosen; LAMPF II and the High-Intensity Frontier Henry A. Thiessen; The SSC - An engineering challenge Mahlon T. Wilson; 8. Science underground - the search for rare events L. M. Simmons, Jr; Part III. Personal Perspectives: 9. Quarks and quirks among friends Peter A. Carruthers, Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky, Geoffrey B. West and George Zweig; Index.

Cooper, Necia Grant; West, Geoffrey B.

1988-06-01

19

The order of the quantum chromodynamics transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics.  

PubMed

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron--and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low temperatures, the dominant degrees of freedom are colourless bound states of hadrons (such as protons and pions). However, QCD is asymptotically free, meaning that at high energies or temperatures the interaction gets weaker and weaker, causing hadrons to break up. This behaviour underlies the predicted cosmological transition between the low-temperature hadronic phase and a high-temperature quark-gluon plasma phase (for simplicity, we use the word 'phase' to characterize regions with different dominant degrees of freedom). Despite enormous theoretical effort, the nature of this finite-temperature QCD transition (that is, first-order, second-order or analytic crossover) remains ambiguous. Here we determine the nature of the QCD transition using computationally demanding lattice calculations for physical quark masses. Susceptibilities are extrapolated to vanishing lattice spacing for three physical volumes, the smallest and largest of which differ by a factor of five. This ensures that a true transition should result in a dramatic increase of the susceptibilities. No such behaviour is observed: our finite-size scaling analysis shows that the finite-temperature QCD transition in the hot early Universe was not a real phase transition, but an analytic crossover (involving a rapid change, as opposed to a jump, as the temperature varied). As such, it will be difficult to find experimental evidence of this transition from astronomical observations. PMID:17035999

Aoki, Y; Endrodi, G; Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Szabó, K K

2006-10-12

20

Two-particle quantum transmission  

E-print Network

Two-photon interference is a fundamental phenomenon in quantum mechanics and stands at the base of numerous experimental observations. Here another manifestation of this phenomenon is described, taking place at a Y junction. Specifically it is shown how the r^2+t^2 term which is behind previous observations of two-photon interference, may give rise to different states at a beam-splitter and different two-particle transmission coefficients at a Y junction. Different from previous descriptions of quantum transmission based on one-particle physics, the enhanced transmission described here is due to two-particle physics.

Ron Folman

2012-01-15

21

Particle Statistics in Quantum Information Processing  

E-print Network

Particle statistics is a fundamental part of quantum physics, and yet its role and use in the context of quantum information have been poorly explored so far. After briefly introducing particle statistics and the Symmetrization Postulate, I will argue that this fundamental aspect of Nature can be seen as a resource for quantum information processing and I will present examples showing how it is possible to do useful and efficient quantum information processing using only the effects of particles statistics.

Y. Omar

2004-12-29

22

Relativistic Quantum Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, we have only considered "non-relativistic" systems, where the velocities of massive particles such as electrons, protons, atoms, and so forth, are small with respect to the speed of light, c. Being massless, photons travel, of course, at the speed of light. This chapter is going to combine quantum physics with relativity, at first with special relativity (Einstein 1905) in Sections 7.1 and 7.2, and then in Section 7.3 with general relativity (Einstein 1915). In the first case, we obtain relativistic quantum field theory which is needed for elementary particle physics, and the first two sections will describe the present status of the theory which is known as the standard model of elementary particle physics, the standard model for short. The second case is that of quantum gravity and, with the example of length measurement, we shall try to understand the difficulties which this theory encounters and which have not yet been overcome today.

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

23

"Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and excellent working conditions. We would like to thank Martina Mende for all her work in helping to organize this conference. Details of the conference can be found under: https://indico.desy.de/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=8107

24

Quantum physics and language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel theory, when it appears, cannot but use old words to label new concepts. In some cases, the extension in meaning thus conferred to standard terminology is natural enough so that the transfer may not lead to too many misunderstandings. Most often, however, and especially when the conceptual gap between the old and the new theory is a wide one, a casual transfer of términology may lead to epistemological and pedagogical difficulties. This situation has been and still is particularly serious in quantum theory. Here, the careless use of words taken from classical physics - such as quantum “mechanics”, “uncertainty”, etc. - , is compounded by the uncritical use of interpretative terms linked to a definite, if implicit, philosophical point of view - such as “complementarity”, “wave-particle duality”, “observables”, etc. While these words and the ideas they represent have played a major role in the birth of quantum physics more than half a century ago, they are no longer necessarily the best ones to be used today. It is not argued here that we should start afresh and create from scratch a supposedly adequate vocabulary for quantum physics. Abuse of language certainly is unavoidable in science as it is in any human communication; without it, language would not live and evolve. But, at the very least, let us recognize it for what it is, so that it does not add its troubles to already complicated issues. And in some definite instances, still, a willing effort to replace specially ambiguous words might be worthwhile.

Lévy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

1988-07-01

25

Particle Physics and Introduction to Field Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamut of modern particle physics is presented. Topics included are a self-contained introduction to standard quantum field theory, a discussion of solitons, a detailed discussion of symmetry principles in particle physics, including symmetry breaking, and the formalism and physical ideas of non-Abelain gauge theories and Quantum Chromodynamics. Recent original research by the author is presented. The book concludes with

T. D. Lee; Sidney Drell

1981-01-01

26

particle physics 2009Highlights  

E-print Network

particle physics 2009ªHighlights and Annual Report Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Report particle physics 2009ª #12;2 | Contents #12;Contents | 3 contentsª º introduction 4 º News or another institution. With this in mind, we have to substantiate the future particle physics strategy

27

Quantum Algebras and Quantum Physics  

E-print Network

In Quantum Mechanics operators must be hermitian and, in a direct product space, symmetric. These properties are saved by Lie algebra operators but not by those of quantum algebras. A possible correspondence between observables and quantum algebra operators is suggested by extending the definition of matrix elements of a physical observable, including the eventual projection on the appropriate symmetric space. This allows to build in the Lie space of representations one-parameter families of operators belonging to the enveloping Lie algebra that satisfy an approximate symmetry and have the properties required by physics.

E. Celeghini; M. A. del Olmo

2001-09-04

28

Quantum Physics in School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a teaching strategy for introducing quantum ideas into the school classroom using modern devices. Develops the concepts of quantization, wave-particle duality, nonlocality, and tunneling. (JRH)

Lawrence, I.

1996-01-01

29

Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons  

E-print Network

We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.

H. Kröger

2003-02-21

30

Quantum Physics and Nanotechnology  

E-print Network

Experimental studies of infinite (unrestricted at least in one direction) quantum particle motion using probe nanotechnologies have revealed the necessity of revising previous concepts of their motion. Particularly, quantum particles transfer quantum motion nonlocality energy beside classical kinetic energy, in other words, they are in two different kinds of motion simultaneously. The quantum component of the motion energy may be quite considerable under certain circumstances. Some new effects were predicted and proved experimentally in terms of this phenomenon. A new prototype refrigerating device was tested, its principle of operation being based on the effect of transferring the quantum component of the motion energy.

Vladimir K. Nevolin

2011-06-06

31

Quantum physics in solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2000, physicists from all over the world will be in Berlin, celebrating the 100th anniversary of quantum physics. On 14 December 1900, Max K Planck presented his theory of black-body radiation at the German Physical Society meeting in Berlin. This day is recognized as the birthday of quantum physics. One hundred years later we can look back at

Ireneusz Stralkowski

2000-01-01

32

Particle Physics Tutor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The particle physics group of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory presents and award winning interactive tour of quarks, neutrinos, antimatter, extra dimensions, dark matter, accelerators, and particle detectors.

Laboratory, Particle D.

33

TEACHING PHYSICS: Teaching particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students.

Hanley, Phil

2000-09-01

34

The Birth of Elementary-Particle Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the origin and development of particle physics, concentrating on the roles of cosmic rays and theory. Includes charts highlighting significant events in the development of cosmic-ray physics and quantum field theory. (SK)

Brown, Laurie M.; Hoddeson, Lillian

1982-01-01

35

Quantum Physics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of interactive Java applets illustrating various aspects of quantum physics through simulations and animations. It is part of an ongoing effort for developing a fully interactive quantum-physics class. It stresses conceptual and qualitative understanding of the topics. Both French and English versions are available.

Joffre, Manuel

2003-10-10

36

Quantum Physics in a different ontology  

E-print Network

It is shown that neither the wave picture nor the ordinary particle picture offers a satisfactory explanation of the double-slit experiment. The Physicists who have been successful in formulating theories in the Newtonian Paradigm with its corresponding ontology find it difficult to interpret Quantum Physics which deals with particles that are not sensory perceptible. A different interpretation of Quantum Physics based in a different ontology is presented in what follows. According to the new interpretation Quantum particles have different properties from those of Classical Newtonian particles. The interference patterns are explained in terms of particles each of which passes through both slits.

Nalin de Silva

2010-06-24

37

Quantum physics meets biology  

E-print Network

Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

Markus Arndt; Thomas Juffmann; Vlatko Vedral

2009-11-01

38

Quantum physics motivated neurobiology  

E-print Network

QUANTUM PHYSICS MOTIVATED NEUROBIOLOGY A Thesis by Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AdtM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Physics QUANTUM... PHYSICS MOTIVATED NEUROBIOLOGY A Thesis by ANDREAS MERSHIN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Dimitri V. Nanopoulos (Co...

Mershin, Andreas

2012-06-07

39

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2158 new measurements from 551 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

K. Nakamura

2010-01-01

40

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 1900 new measurements from 700 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

R. M. Barnett; C. D. Carone; D. E. Groom; T. G. Trippe; C. G. Wohl; B. Armstrong; P. S. Gee; G. S. Wagman; F. James; M. Mangano; K. Mönig; L. Montanet; J. L. Feng; H. Murayama; J. J. Hernández; A. Manohar; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Caso; R. L. Crawford; M. Roos; N. A. Törnqvist; K. G. Hayes; K. Hagiwara; K. Nakamura; M. Tanabashi; K. Olive; K. Honscheid; P. R. Burchat; R. E. Shrock; S. Eidelman; R. H. Schindler; A. Gurtu; K. Hikasa; G. Conforto; R. L. Workman; C. Grab; C. Amsler

1996-01-01

41

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2633 new measurements from 689 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

W.-M. Yao; C. Amsler; D. Asner; R. M. Barnett; J. Beringer; P. R. Burchat; C. D. Carone; C. Caso; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; A. De Gouvea; M. Doser; S. Eidelman; J. L. Feng; T. Gherghetta; M. Goodman; C. Grab; D. E. Groom; A. Gurtu; K. Hagiwara; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; H. Jawahery; C. Kolda; Y. Kwon; M. L. Mangano; A. V. Manohar; A. Masoni; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; S. Navas; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; A. Piepke; G. Punzi; G. Raffelt; J. G. Smith; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; N. A. Törnqvist; T. G. sTrippe; P. Vogel; T. Watari; C. G. Wohl; R. L. Workman; P. A. Zyla; B. Armstrong; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner; M. Artuso; K. S. Babu; H. R. Band; E. Barberio; M. Battaglia; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; R. N. Cahn; D. Casper; A. Cattai; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; T. Damour; T. DeGrand; K. Desler; M. A. Dobbs; M. Drees; A. Edwards; D. A. Edwards; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; D. Froidevaux; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; L. Gibbons; F. J. Gilman; G. F. Giudice; A. V. Gritsan; M. Grünewald; H. E. Haber; C. Hagmann; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. JAckson; K. F. Johnson; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; K. Kleinknecht; I. G. Knowles; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Kursche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; s. B. Lugovsky; T. Mannel; D. M. Manley; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; D. Milstead; M. Narain; P. Nason; Y. Nir; J. A. Peacock; S. A. Prell; A. Quadt; S. Raby; B. N. Ratcliff; E. A. Razuvaev; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; G. Rolandi; M. T. Ronan; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; M. Schmitt; O. Schneider; D. Scott; T. Sjöstrand; G. F. Smoot; P. Sokolsky; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; R. E. Streitmatter; T. Sumiyoshi; N. P. Tkachenko; G. H. Trilling; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; D. R. Ward; B. R. Webber; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; L. Wolfenstsein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; A. Yamamoto; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu

2006-01-01

42

Physics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field  

E-print Network

to write down a classical Hamiltonian H that describes the motion of a charged particle q in an external #12; Hamilton's equations to derive the equations of motion for the charged particle. The correct Hamiltonian will yield the Lorentz force law: # F = d dt (m#v) = q # # E + #v c Ã? # B # . (4) The Hamiltonian

California at Santa Cruz, University of

43

Physics 216 Spring 2012 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field  

E-print Network

of motion for the charged particle. The correct Hamiltonian will yield the Lorentz force law: F = d dt (mv wish to write down a classical Hamiltonian H that describes the motion of a charged particle q's equations to compute the equations of motion and demonstrate that these coincide with eq. (4

California at Santa Cruz, University of

44

Physics 216 Spring 2012 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field  

E-print Network

a classical Hamiltonian H that describes the motion of a charged particle q in an external electromagnetic field. Given H, we can use Hamil­ ton's equations to derive the equations of motion for the charged particle. The correct Hamiltonian will yield the Lorentz force law: # F = d dt (m#v) = q # # E + #v c � # B

California at Santa Cruz, University of

45

Physicalism versus quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

In the context of theories of the connection between mind and brain, physicalism is the demand that all is basically purely physical. But the concept of "physical" embodied in this demand is characterized essentially by the properties of the physical that hold in classical physical theories. Certain of these properties contradict the character of the physical in quantum mechanics, which provides a better, more comprehensive, and more fundamental account of phenomena. It is argued that the difficulties that have plaged physicalists for half a century, and that continue to do so, dissolve when the classical idea of the physical is replaced by its quantum successor. The argument is concretized in a way that makes it accessible to non-physicists by exploiting the recent evidence connecting our conscious experiences to macroscopic measurable synchronous oscillations occurring in well-separated parts of the brain. A specific new model of the mind-brain connection that is fundamentally quantum mechanical but that ties conscious experiences to these macroscopic synchronous oscillations is used to illustrate the essential disparities between the classical and quantum notions of the physical, and in particular to demonstrate the failure in the quantum world of the principle of the causal closure of the physical, a failure that goes beyond what is entailed by the randomness in the outcomes of observations, and that accommodates the efficacy in the brain of conscious intent.

Henry P. Stapp

2008-03-11

46

Quantum Physics: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of eight linked web pages provide a non-mathematical introduction to atomic theory from a historical perspective. The foundations of quantum physics are traced from the discovery of atoms up to quantum tunneling. Other topics include atomic spectra and blackbody radiation. This is part of "From Stargazers to Starships", an extensive web site covering introductory topics in physics and astronomy. Spanish and French translations are available.

Stern, David

2005-11-09

47

The Quantum Gravity wars: Quantum Physics confronts  

E-print Network

;Public Perceptions: · Quantum physics is very weird and abstract. · Relativity is bizarre and abstract. 2 #12;Reality: · Quantum physics is part of everyday technology. · Special relativity -- speed of light

Visser, Matt

48

Finite groups and quantum physics  

SciTech Connect

Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.

Kornyak, V. V., E-mail: kornyak@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratory of Information Tecnnologies (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15

49

Quantum interference and particle trajectories  

E-print Network

The existence of precise particle trajectories in any quantum state is accounted for in a consistent way by allowing delocalization of the particle charge. The relativistic mass of the particle remains within a small volume surrounding a singularity moving along the particle trajectory. The singularity is the source of an electric displacement field. The field induces a polarization charge in the vacuum and this charge is equated with the charge of the particle. Under dynamic conditions a distributed charge density rho(x,t) is induced in the vacuum. The volume integral of the charge density is equal to the charge of the particle and is rigorously conserved. The charge density is derived from a complex-valued physical field psi(x,t) such that rho(x,t) = |psi(x,t)|^2. The position probability density is equated with the mean charge density. The mean field psi(x,t) for many sample realizations with a given energy E and potential V(x) is the sum of the individual fields. In order for the sum to be non-zero, the components in the spectral decompositions of the individual fields must be spatially coherent. The particle has a spin frequency given by Planck's relation hv = T - V + mc^2, where T is the kinetic energy, determined from the momentum p and V is a quantum potential such that E = T + V is conserved. The instantaneous phase of the spin is given by the phase of exp(ikx) in the spectral decomposition a(k) of psi(x,t). It is spatially coherent, due to the dependence on x. The momentum probability distribution is given by the squared magnitude of the coefficients a(k). The Schrodinger equation is derived by requiring local conservation of mean energy.

J. Luscombe

1997-06-06

50

Physics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field  

E-print Network

fields, E and B, unchanged. We wish to write down a classical Hamiltonian H that describes the motion of c should be removed in eqs. (1)­(4). 1 #12;Hamilton's equations to derive the equations of motion for the charged particle. The correct Hamiltonian will yield the Lorentz force law: F = d dt (mv) = q E + v c � B

California at Santa Cruz, University of

51

Introducing quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing the Nuffield advanced physics course involved thought about the teaching of many areas of physics, from materials to induction motors and electromagnetic waves. This article reports on just one part of that activity: ideas concerned with the introduction of quantum ideas at various times and in various ways through the course.

Jon Ogborn

1974-01-01

52

Quantum interference and particle trajectories  

E-print Network

The existence of precise particle trajectories in any quantum state is accounted for in a consistent way by allowing delocalization of the particle charge. The relativistic mass of the particle remains within a small volume surrounding a singularity moving along the particle trajectory. The singularity is the source of an electric displacement field. The field induces a polarization charge in the vacuum and this charge is equated with the charge of the particle. Under dynamic conditions a distributed charge density rho(x,t) is induced in the vacuum. The volume integral of the charge density is equal to the charge of the particle and is rigorously conserved. The charge density is derived from a complex-valued physical field psi(x,t) such that rho(x,t) = |psi(x,t)|^2. The position probability density is equated with the mean charge density. The mean field psi(x,t) for many sample realizations with a given energy E and potential V(x) is the sum of the individual fields. In order for the sum to be non-zero, the c...

Luscombe, J

1997-01-01

53

The order of the quantum chromodynamics transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics  

E-print Network

We determine the nature of the QCD transition using lattice calculations for physical quark masses. Susceptibilities are extrapolated to vanishing lattice spacing for three physical volumes, the smallest and largest of which differ by a factor of five. This ensures that a true transition should result in a dramatic increase of the susceptibilities.No such behaviour is observed: our finite-size scaling analysis shows that the finite-temperature QCD transition in the hot early Universe was not a real phase transition, but an analytic crossover (involving a rapid change, as opposed to a jump, as the temperature varied). As such, it will be difficult to find experimental evidence of this transition from astronomical observations.

Y. Aoki; G. Endrodi; Z. Fodor; S. D. Katz; K. K. Szabo

2006-11-10

54

Quantum teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle  

E-print Network

Quantum teleportation provides a "disembodied" way to transfer quantum states of an object over arbitrarily long distance, without physical travelling of the object itself. A single quantum particle can possess various degrees of freedom-internal and external-and with coherent coupling among them. Yet, all the previous experiments were limited to teleportation of a single degree of freedom only. A fundamental open challenge is to simultaneously teleport multiple degrees of freedom which is necessary to fully describe an object, thereby truly teleporting it intactly. Here, we demonstrate the first quantum teleportation of both spin and orbital angular momentum of a single photon, in the form of spin-orbit hybrid entangled states. We use spin-orbit hyper-entangled photon pairs as quantum channel, and develop a new technique to discriminate hyper-entangled Bell state exploiting quantum non-demolition measurement. This work demonstrates an enhanced capability for quantum communications, and moves a step toward co...

Wang, Xi-Lin; Su, Zu-En; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

2014-01-01

55

Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…

Mashhadi, Azam

56

Information and Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Information measures for relativistic quantum spinors are constructed to satisfy various postulated properties such as normalisation invariance and positivity. Those measures are then used to motivate generalised Lagrangians meant to probe shorter distance physics within the maximum uncertainty framework. The modified evolution equations that follow are necessarily nonlinear and simultaneously violate Lorentz invariance, supporting previous heuristic arguments linking quantum nonlinearity with Lorentz violation. The nonlinear equations also break discrete symmetries. We discuss the implications of our results for physics in the neutrino sector and cosmology.

Wei Khim Ng; Rajesh R. Parwani

2009-08-03

57

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 052313 (2010) Two-particle quantum walks applied to the graph isomorphism problem  

E-print Network

disciplines, stretching from biology to economics [1­5]. Most of these applications use classical random walks. INTRODUCTION Random walks have been applied successfully to many problems in physics, as well as in many other have found that CRWs and quantum random walks (QRWs) can exhibit qualitatively different prop- erties

Coppersmith, Susan N.

58

Particle Physics and Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interplay between elementary particle physics and cosmology is discussed with a special emphasis on the theory of scalar meson fields and the inflationary universe scenario. It is shown that the chaotic inflation scenario, unlike the new inflationary universe scenario, can be realized in a wide class of realistic theories of elementary particles under some natural assumptions concerning initial conditions

Andrei Linde

1985-01-01

59

RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

Kearns, Edward [Boston Universiy] [Boston Universiy

2013-07-12

60

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and  

E-print Network

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction. Charles #12;This thesis entitled Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological

Colorado at Boulder, University of

61

Foundations of quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enquiry is made on a more fundamental level about the origin of the superposition principle and thus to justify the use of Hilbert space without appeal at the outset to the notion of probability. In doing so there was also a search made for a more general formulation of quantum physics to avoid the apparent paradox of the usual

C. Piron

1976-01-01

62

Fermilab: Particle Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Fermilab website offers physicists the chance to educate individuals about the "fundamental particles and forces of our universe." The website offers a database containing over 250 hands-on activities, special events, research participation, and other educational and outreach programs. The information can be searched by state, audience, and institution. The database offers a brief description of each program and a link to its website. Students can learn about the basics of particle physics through a concise article. Educators can discover why particle physics education is important.

63

Particle Physics and Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first Lecture, the Big Bang and the Standard Model of particle physics are introduced, as well as the structure of the latter and open issues beyond it. Neutrino physics is discussed in the second Lecture, with emphasis on models for neutrino masses and oscillations. The third Lecture is devoted to supersymmetry, including the prospects for discovering it at

Jonathan Richard Ellis

2003-01-01

64

NONLINEAR DYNAMICS IN QUANTUM PHYSICS - QUANTUM CHAOS AND QUANTUM INSTANTONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its moti- vation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos. 1. Introduction. Modern physics returns to some of its origins dating back to the first part of the last century. Examples are entanglement, according to Schrodinger the most peculiar property occuring

Helmut Kroger

65

Identical Particles in Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

If, in a system of identical particles, the one particle state is defined by the partial trace to one of the component spaces of the total Hilbert space, then all one particle states are identical. The particles are indistinguishable. This is often thought to be a typical quantum mechanical phenomenon. I will show however that an analogous procedure to define particle states exists in classical mechanics, which results in classical indistinguishable identical particles. From this analogy it follows that the indistinguishability of identical particles depends on how we define particle states. It is not an inevitable result of the symmetry postulate. Indeed, if particles are defined by partial traces, consistent use of the symmetry postulate leads to the conclusion that all identical particles in the universe are indistinguishable, so that particles can never be pointed at, not even in the classical limit. This does not correspond to the way the term particle is actually used in practice. I will argue that a particle should be defined in such a way that in the classical limit the quantum particle state becomes the state of a classical particle. This will lead us to a definition of particles which is in line with the way the term particle is actually used by physicists.

Andrea Lubberdink

2009-10-24

66

Cosmology and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses. In the last few years we have witnessed the birth and growth to healthy adolescence of a new collaboration between astrophysicists and particle physicists. The most notable success of this cooperative effort has been to provide the framework for understanding, within the context of GUTs and the hot big-bang cosmology, the universal baryon asymmetry. The most exciting new predictions this effort has spawned are that exotic relics may exist in detectable abundances. In particular, we may live in a neutrino-dominated Universe. In the next few years, accummulating laboratory data (for example proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations) coupled with theoritical work in particle physics and cosmology will ensure the growth to maturity of this joint effort.

Steigman, G.

1982-01-01

67

Subatomic (Particle) Physics in Canada The Canadian particle physics community  

E-print Network

Subatomic (Particle) Physics in Canada · The Canadian particle physics community · Our subatomic physics facilities · Our particle physics program · Connections with the international community William Trischuk Director, IPP University of Toronto September 2, 2010 #12;What is the Institute of Particle

68

Particle Physics and Cosmology  

E-print Network

In the first Lecture, the Big Bang and the Standard Model of particle physics are introduced, as well as the structure of the latter and open issues beyond it. Neutrino physics is discussed in the second Lecture, with emphasis on models for neutrino masses and oscillations. The third Lecture is devoted to supersymmetry, including the prospects for discovering it at accelerators or as cold dark matter. Inflation is reviewed from the viewpoint of particle physics in the fourth Lecture, including simple models with a single scalar inflaton field: the possibility that this might be a sneutrino is proposed. Finally, the fifth Lecture is devoted to topics further beyond the Standard Model, such as grand unification, baryo- and leptogenesis - that might be due to sneutrino inflaton decays - and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays - that might be due to the decays of metastable superheavy dark matter particles.

John Ellis

2003-05-02

69

Particle Physics in the UK  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supported by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, this website was created to educate everyone about particle physics. Individuals can find archived press releases, news articles, and particle physics pictures. The website summarizes the role of particle physics in industry and offers links to educational and employment opportunities. Students and educators can find out about famous physicists and the principles of particle physics and its history. Scientists can locate high energy physics universities, groups, and experiments.

2007-04-30

70

Non-accelerator Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Non-accelerator Particle Physics and Neutrino Physics Research programs of: Prof. Martin that often connect particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology Some questions: - What particles of the neutrino? #12;The techniques: Laboratory experiments, in the style of particle physics · High energy

Wechsler, Risa H.

71

QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342  

E-print Network

QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342 KPTC 103 9:00 ­ 10:20 a.m. 1 Tues., Thurs. ­ Winter Quarter 2011 quantum mechanics at the graduate level. The text for Quantum Mechanics II will be J. J. Sakurai and Jim Napolitano, Modern Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2011). For supplemental

Rosner, Jonathan L.

72

Astro-Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Recent developments of those areas of astro-particle physics are discussed that were represented at the HEP97 conference. In particular, the current status of direct and indirect dark-matter searches and of TeV neutrino and gamma-ray astronomy will be reviewed.

G. G. Raffelt

1997-12-31

73

Physical Constructivism and Quantum Probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe the main ideas of constructive physics and its role for the probability interpretation of quantum theory. It is shown how the explicit probability space for quantum systems gives the formal representation of entanglement and decoherence.

Ozhigov, Yu. I.

2009-03-01

74

Review of Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat PDF (1.77 MB) Kinematics, Cross-Section Formulae, and PlotsAcrobat PDF (3.57 MB) Particle Listings Illustrative key and abbreviationsAcrobat PDF (325 KB) Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (2.38 MB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (2.03 MB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (1.51 MB) Mesons: Light unflavored and strangeAcrobat PDF (4.91 MB) Mesons: Charmed and bottomAcrobat PDF (9.03 MB) Mesons: OtherAcrobat PDF (4.03 MB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (4.54 MB) Miscellaneous searchesAcrobat PDF (3.98 MB) IndexAcrobat PDF (276 KB)

Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

2014-08-01

75

Many-Particle Quantum Cosmology  

E-print Network

The Einstein-Friedmann Universe as whole quantum object can be treated as bosonic string mass groundstate, called a tachyon, having negative mass square and a speed more than the speed of light. I present a brief review of results obtained from this point of view called Many-Particle Quantum Gravity approach - the monodromy problem in the Fock space, thermodynamics of the Universe, and the extremal tachyon mass model.

L. A. Glinka

2007-12-17

76

Many-Particle Quantum Cosmology  

E-print Network

The Einstein-Friedmann Universe as whole quantum object can be treated as bosonic string mass groundstate, called a tachyon, having negative mass square and a speed more than the speed of light. I present a brief review of results obtained from this point of view called Many-Particle Quantum Gravity approach - the monodromy problem in the Fock space, thermodynamics of the Universe, and the extremal tachyon mass model.

Glinka, L A

2007-01-01

77

The Review of Particle Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Physics Group (PDG) is an "international collaboration that reviews particle physics and related areas of Astrophysics, and compiles/analyzes data on particle properties." The Web site features the 2002 publication, The Review of Particle Physics, which is described as "the most cited publication in particle physics during the last decade." Visitors have access to summary tables and conservation laws; reviews, tables, and plots; and particle listings, which list, average, evaluate, and reference various data used. Other features include a link to particle physics information and databases, archives of past reports, and other helpful resources.

1995-01-01

78

Physics 129 Nuclear and Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Physics 129 Nuclear and Particle Physics Winter Quarter 2008 Instructor: David A. Williams (office materials will be distributed on the web site above. Nine texts on nuclear and particle physics, all Nuclear physics, radioactive decays, nuclear models. Properties and classification of the elementary

California at Santa Cruz, University of

79

QUANTUM MECHANICS I Physics 341  

E-print Network

QUANTUM MECHANICS I Physics 341 KPTC 103 9:00 ­ 10:20 a.m. 1 Tues., Thurs. ­ Fall Quarter 1999 mechanics at the graduate level. The text for Quantum mechanics I and II will be J. J. Sakurai and Jim Napolitano, Modern Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition (Addison- Wesley, 2011). We will cover the first three

Rosner, Jonathan L.

80

Introduction to experimental particle physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle physics is the study of the properties of subatomic particles and of the interactions that occur among them. This book is concerned with the experimental aspects of the subject, including the characteristics of various detectors and considerations in the design of experiments. The book includes a description of the particles and interactions studied in particle physics. Material from relativistic

R. Fernow

1986-01-01

81

Cosmology and particle physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

Turner, Michael S.

1988-01-01

82

Elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This book is an introduction to particle and nuclear physics. The book takes a new approach, purposely avoiding the historical outline and concentrating on the 'standard model' and the gauge symmetries, because these form the core of the subject. Leptons, quarks and forces are introduced first, then experimental techniques. After this introduction gauge theories are dealt with in order of increasing complexity. Deep inelastic scattering of hadrons, hadron spectroscopy and finally hadron interactions are then discussed. Current developments beyond the standard model appear in the final chapter.

Kenyon, I.

1987-01-01

83

Physics of windblown particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory facility proposed for the Space Station to investigate fundamental aspects of windblown particles is described. The experiments would take advantage of the environment afforded in earth orbit and would be an extension of research currently being conducted on the geology and physics of windblown sediments on earth, Mars, and Venus. Aeolian (wind) processes are reviewed in the planetary context, the scientific rational is given for specific experiments to be conducted, the experiment apparatus (the Carousel Wind Tunnel, or CWT) is described, and a plan presented for implementing the proposed research program.

Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman; Marshall, John R.; White, Bruce; Iversen, James D.; Nickling, William G.; Gillette, Dale; Sorensen, Michael

1987-01-01

84

Experimental particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics beyond the standard model and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large-area underground detector to search for grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low- and high-energy neutrinos; the Chooz experiment to search for reactor neutrino oscillations at a distance of 1 km from the source; a new proposal (the Perry experiment) to construct a one-kiloton liquid scintillator in the Fairport, Ohio underground facility IMB to study neutrino oscillations with a 13 km baseline; and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very-low-background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments.

Steinberg, R. I.; Lane, C. E.

1992-09-01

85

Quantum Physics Online: Wave Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of interactive Java applets illustrating the wave nature of quantum physics. Animations are used to illustrate propagation of wave packets, and scattering from potentials. There is also a simple illustration of a scanning tunneling microscope. These applets are part of an extensive collection of animations and simulations illustrating a large range of quantum topics, and an ongoing effort for developing a fully interactive quantum-physics class. Both French and English versions are available.

Joffre, Manuel

2004-03-28

86

Quantum hoop conjecture: Black hole formation by particle collisions  

E-print Network

We address the issue of (quantum) black hole formation by particle collision in quantum physics. We start by constructing the horizon wave-function for quantum mechanical states representing two highly boosted non-interacting particles that collide in flat one-dimensional space. From this wave-function, we then derive a probability that the system becomes a black hole as a function of the initial momenta and spatial separation between the particles. This probability allows us to extend the hoop conjecture to quantum mechanics and estimate corrections to its classical counterpart.

Roberto Casadio; Octavian Micu; Fabio Scardigli

2013-11-22

87

Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).

Machacek, A. C.

2014-01-01

88

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1  

E-print Network

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1 Giacomo Mauro D) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field on a quantum-digitalization of physics, with Quantum Theory as a special theory of information, and Physics

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

89

Research in elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research in the following areas of high energy physics: B meson mixing; CDF response to low energy jets; jet scaling behavior; search for pair produced leptoquarks at CDF; SSC program; quantum field theory; and neural networks. (LSP).

Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.

1992-01-01

90

Bohmian particle trajectories contradict quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

The Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics adds particle trajectories to the wave function and ensures that the probability distribution of the particle positions agrees with quantum mechanics at any time. This is not sufficient to avoid contradictions with quantum mechanics. There are correlations between particle positions at different times which cannot be reproduced with real particle trajectories. A simple rearrangement of an experimental test of the Bell-CHSH inequality demonstrates this.

Michael Zirpel

2009-03-23

91

Student Perspectives in Quantum Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introductory courses in classical physics are promoting in students a realist perspective, made up in part by the belief that all physical properties of a system can be simultaneously specified, and thus determined at all future times. Such a perspective can be problematic for introductory quantum physics students, who must develop new framings of epistemic and ontological resources in order to properly interpret what it means to have knowledge of quantum systems. We document this evolution in student thinking in part through pre/post instruction evaluations using the CLASS attitude survey. We further characterize variations in student epistemic and ontological commitments by examining responses to an essay question, coupled with responses to supplemental quantum attitude statements. We find that, after instruction in modern physics, many students are still exhibiting a realist perspective in contexts where a quantum perspective is needed. We also find that this effect can be significantly influenced by instruction, where we observe variations for courses with differing learning goals.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2008-09-15

92

Sub-shot-noise quantum metrology with entangled identical particles  

SciTech Connect

The usual notion of separability has to be reconsidered when applied to states describing identical particles. A definition of separability not related to any a priori Hilbert space tensor product structure is needed: this can be given in terms of commuting subalgebras of observables. Accordingly, the results concerning the use of the quantum Fisher information in quantum metrology are generalized and physically reinterpreted.

Benatti, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, 34014 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: benatti@ts.infin.it; Floreanini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Marzolino, U. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

2010-04-15

93

Sub-shot-noise quantum metrology with entangled identical particles  

E-print Network

The usual notion of separability has to be reconsidered when applied to states describing identical particles. A definition of separability not related to any a priori Hilbert space tensor product structure is needed: this can be given in terms of commuting subalgebras of observables. Accordingly, the results concerning the use of the quantum Fisher information in quantum metrology are generalized and physically reinterpreted.

F. Benatti; R. Floreanini; U. Marzolino

2010-01-19

94

Quantum physics and computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical results confirm that quantum theory provides the possibility of new ways of performing efficient calculations. The most striking example is the factoring problem. It has recently been shown that computers that exploit quantum features could factor large composite integers. This task is believed to be out of reach of classical computers as soon as the number of digits

Adriano Barenco

1996-01-01

95

Operational Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tome is a formal presentation of the unsharp observable approach to quantum mechanics using the positive operator valued (POV) concept of an observable. It is intended for philosophers and mathematicians as well as physicists. This is a very formalistic book. There are, however, portions that should be read by all experimentalists performing quantum mechanical studies as well as graduate

J L Safko

1996-01-01

96

Particle Physics: a Progress Report  

E-print Network

We present a concise review of where we stand in particle physics today. First we discuss QCD, then the electroweak sector and finally the motivations and the avenues for new physics beyond the Standard Model.

Guido Altarelli

2006-09-11

97

Quantum Mechanics as Classical Physics  

E-print Network

Here I explore a novel no-collapse interpretation of quantum mechanics which combines aspects of two familiar and well-developed alternatives, Bohmian mechanics and the many-worlds interpretation. Despite reproducing the empirical predictions of quantum mechanics, the theory looks surprisingly classical. All there is at the fundamental level are particles interacting via Newtonian forces. There is no wave function. However, there are many worlds.

Charles Sebens

2014-02-27

98

Finite-dimensional quantum mechanics of a particle. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite-dimensional quantum mechanics (FDQM) based on Weyl’s form of Heisenberg’s canonical commutation relations, developed\\u000a for the case of one-dimensional space, is extended to three-dimensional space. This FDQM is applicable to the physics of particles\\u000a confined to move within finite regions of space and is significantly different from the current quantum mechanics in the case\\u000a of atomic and subatomic particles

R. Jagannathan; T. S. Santhanam

1982-01-01

99

Hobson. Teaching Quantum Entanglement 1 DRAFT, SUBMITTED TO THE PHYSICS TEACHER  

E-print Network

Hobson. Teaching Quantum Entanglement 1 DRAFT, SUBMITTED TO THE PHYSICS TEACHER Teaching Quantum-interacting, then they move near enough to interact, then they separate. Quantum physics (the Schroedinger equation) predicts everywhere. According to quantum physics, this instantly affects the other particle, even if the two

Hobson, Art

100

An Introduction to Particle Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Physics Department at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) provides the Introduction to Particle Physics homepage. Particle physics is defined as "the study of the basic elements of matter and the forces acting among them...to determine the fundamental laws that control the make-up of matter and the physical universe." The Introduction provides more information on Accelerators, Detectors, Antimatter, Big Bang Science, and Dark Matter. Further information can be found in The Big Bang and The Top Quark sections, both of which provide images and in-depth summaries. Users can navigate via a contents page or through links at the bottom of the page.

101

Quantum Mechanics and Physical Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent article by A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, which appeared in the Physical Review of May 15, and was reviewed in NATURE of June 22, the question of the completeness of quantum mechanical description has been discussed on the basis of a ``criterion of physical reality'', which the authors formulate as follows : ``If, without in

N. Bohr

1935-01-01

102

AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS  

E-print Network

AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS FLORIAN M´EHATS AND OLIVIER PINAUD Abstract. We address the following inverse problem in quantum statistical physics: does the quantum free energy (von rigourously the notion of local quantum equilibrium, or quantum Maxwellian, which is at the basis of recently

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS  

E-print Network

AN INVERSE PROBLEM IN QUANTUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS FLORIAN MÃ?HATS AND OLIVIER PINAUD Abstract. We address the following inverse problem in quantum statistical physics: does the quantum free energy (von rigourously the notion of local quantum equilibrium, or quantum Maxwellian, which is at the basis of recently

Méhats, Florian

104

Higher-dimensional oscillations of quantum particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework is developed in which elementary particles have a component of their wave function extending into higher spatial dimensions, based on an extension of the Schr"odinger equation to include 4^th and 5^th spatial components [E. R. Hedin, Physics Essays 25, 2 (2012)]. A higher-dimensional harmonic oscillator confining potential localizes particles into 3-d space (characterizing the ``brane tension'' which confines Standard Model particles to the sub-manifold). Several consistency checks of this model are: a match with the quantum phenomenon of ``zitterbewegung''; the predicted intrinsic spin angular momentum is of order h/2?; the magnetic moment of the electron is determined (with a gyromagnetic ratio of 2); the nuclear force ``hard core'' radius is accurately predicted; the ratio of quark masses (of the up and down quarks) is found to be consistent with QCD theory; and possible explanations of the Planck mass and Planck length. An application of higher-dimensional particle effects to the astrophysics of stars shows that radical physical inconsistencies are not evident. Finally, this model suggests a possible explanation of dark matter as the fractional probability manifestations of a ladder of the higher-dimensional symmetric excited states of ordinary particles.

Hedin, Eric

2013-04-01

105

8.04 Quantum Physics I, Spring 2003  

E-print Network

Experimental basis of quantum physics: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, photons, Franck-Hertz experiment, the Bohr atom, electron diffraction, deBroglie waves, and wave-particle duality of matter and light. ...

Lee, Young S.

106

Particle Physics Instrumentation  

E-print Network

This report summarizes a series of three lectures aimed at giving an overview of basic particle detection principles, the interaction of particles with matter, the application of these principles in modern detector systems, as well techniques to read out detector signals in high-rate experiments.

Riegler, Werner

2014-01-01

107

Nonlinear aspects of quantum plasma physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense quantum plasmas are ubiquitous in planetary interiors and in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the interior of white dwarf stars, in magnetars, etc.), in semiconductors and micromechanical systems, as well as in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments and in quantum X-ray free-electron lasers. In contrast to classical plasmas, quantum plasmas have extremely high plasma number densities and low temperatures. Quantum plasmas are composed of electrons, positrons and holes, which are degenerate. Positrons (holes) have the same (slightly different) mass as electrons, but opposite charge. The degenerate charged particles (electrons, positrons, and holes) obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics. In quantum plasmas, there are new forces associated with (i) quantum statistical electron and positron pressures, (ii) electron and positron tunneling through the Bohm potential, and (iii) electron and positron angular momentum spin. Inclusion of these quantum forces allows the existence of very high-frequency dispersive electrostatic and electromagnetic waves (e.g., in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray regimes) with extremely short wavelengths. In this review paper, we present theoretical backgrounds for some important nonlinear aspects of wave-wave and wave-electron interactions in dense quantum plasmas. Specifically, we focus on nonlinear electrostatic electron and ion plasma waves, novel aspects of three-dimensional quantum electron fluid turbulence, as well as nonlinearly coupled intense electromagnetic waves and localized plasma wave structures. Also discussed are the phase-space kinetic structures and mechanisms that can generate quasistationary magnetic fields in dense quantum plasmas. The influence of the external magnetic field and the electron angular momentum spin on the electromagnetic wave dynamics is discussed. Finally, future perspectives of the nonlinear quantum plasma physics are highlighted.

Shukla, Padma K.; Eliasson, B.

2010-01-01

108

Quantum information is physical  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a few current developments in the use of quantum mechanically coherent systems for information processing. In each of these developments, Rolf Landauer has played a crucial role in nudging us, and other workers in the field, into asking the right questions, some of which we have been lucky enough to answer. A general overview of the key ideas

David P. DiVincenzo; Daniel Loss

1998-01-01

109

Particle Physics Masterclass  

ScienceCinema

Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

Helio Takai

2010-01-08

110

Particle Physics From Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-mass particles, such as neutrinos, axions, other Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and gravitons, are produced in the hot and dense interior of stars. Therefore, astrophysical arguments constrain the properties of these particles in ways that are often complementary to cosmological arguments and to laboratory experiments. This review provides an update on the most important stellar-evolution limits and discusses them in the context

Georg G. Raffelt

1999-01-01

111

Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vision of solving the nuclear many-body problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and many-body methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadership-class parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quark-gluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed.

Vary, James P.

2014-06-01

112

Quantum Theory of Many-Particle Systems. I. Physical Interpretations by Means of Density Matrices, Natural Spin-Orbitals, and Convergence Problems in the Method of Configurational Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to calculate the average value of a physical quantity containing also many-particle interactions in a system of N antisymmetric particles, a set of generalized density matrices are defined. In order to permit the investigation of the same physical situation in two complementary spaces, the Hermitean density matrix of order k has two sets of indices of each k

Per-Olov Löwdin

1955-01-01

113

Quantum convolution and quantum correlation algorithms are physically impossible  

E-print Network

The key step in classical convolution and correlation algorithms, the componentwise multiplication of vectors after initial Fourier Transforms, is shown to be physically impossible to do on quantum states. Then this is used to show that computing the convolution or correlation of quantum state coefficients violates quantum mechanics, making convolution and correlation of quantum coefficients physically impossible.

Chris Lomont

2003-09-08

114

Localization of M-Particle Quantum Walks  

E-print Network

We study the motion of M particles performing a quantum walk on the line. Under various conditions on the initial coin states for quantum walkers controlled by the Hadamard operator, we give theoretical criterion to observe the quantum walkers at an initial location with high probability.

Clement Ampadu

2011-06-26

115

Intuitive Quantum Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides small-group learning materials for teaching wave physics and modern physics to non-science-majors. To match student skills, observation, qualitative analysis, and graphical representations are used to introduce interference, discuss energy and probability, and develop an understanding of bound states, spectroscopy, modeling of molecules, and tunneling.

Wittmann, Michael C.; Morgan, Jeffrey T.

2007-07-20

116

The Cosmology - Particle Physics Connection  

E-print Network

Modern cosmology poses deep and unavoidable questions for fundamental physics. In this plenary talk, delivered in slightly different forms at the {\\it Particles and Nuclei International Conference} (PANIC05) in Santa Fe, in October 2005, and at the {\\it CMB and Physics of the Early Universe International Conference}, on the island of Ischia, Italy, in April 2006, I discuss the broad connections between cosmology and particle physics, focusing on physics at the TeV scale, accessible at the next and future generations of colliders

Mark Trodden

2006-05-26

117

Quantum structures, separated physical entities and probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that if the physical entity S consisting of two separated physical entities S1 and S2 satisfies the axioms of orthodox quantum mechanics, then at least one of the two subentities is a classical physical entity. This theorem implies that separated quantum entities cannot be described by quantum mechanics. We formulate this theorem in an approach where physical entities

Diederik Aerts

1994-01-01

118

Particle Physics UK: Strange Nuclei  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Picture of the Month" from Particle Physics UK shows an image of the nuclear disintegration that occurs when a nucleus is struck by a particle containing a strange quark. The site includes commentary on the tracks in the reaction. The 1952 discovery in Poland was celebrated on a stamp, a postcard, and a postmark, which are pictured.

2007-02-08

119

A self-consistent approach to quantum field theory for extended particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A notion of quantum space-time is introduced, physically defined as the totality of all flows of quantum test particles in free fall. In quantum space-time the classical notion of deterministic inertial frames is replaced by that of stochastic frames marked by extended particles. The same particles are used both as markers of quantum space-time points as well as natural clocks,

Eduard Prugovecki

1981-01-01

120

Machines, logic and quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the truths of logic and pure mathematics are objective and independent of any contingent facts or laws of nature, our knowledge of these truths depends entirely on our knowledge of the laws of physics. Recent progress in the quantum theory of computation has provided practical instances of this, and forces us to abandon the classical view that computation, and

David Deutsch; Artur Ekert; Rossella Lupacchini

2000-01-01

121

Survey of general quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abstract description of a physical system is developed, along lines originally suggested by Birkhoff and von Neumann, in terms of the complete lattice of propositions associated with that system, and the distinction between classical and quantum systems is made precise. With the help of the notion of state, a propositional system is defined: it is remarked that every irreducible

C. Piron

1972-01-01

122

Quantum Physics in One Dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role

David Logan

2004-01-01

123

New particle physics (in French)  

E-print Network

The first chapter treats the Standard Model of particle physics and electroweak symmetry breaking. Low-energy supersymmetry and its phenomenology at future colliders are discussed in the second chapter. Neutrino physics and lepton flavor violation appear in the third chapter. The last chapter contains an introduction to Grand-Unification, supergravity, extra dimensions, string theories and dark energy.

Julien Welzel; David Gherson; John Ellis

2005-06-16

124

Searching for the unknown in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Searching for the unknown in Particle Physics: past discoveries and present challenges QuarkNet 2002, FSU Laura Reina #12; Outline #15; What is Particle Physics? #15; The origins of Particle Physics and future experimental facilities ! example: the search for the Higgs particle #12; What is Particle Physics

McQuade, D. Tyler

125

m anchester particle physics  

E-print Network

­peak, which gives a smaller number of collected Z 0 s than running on­peak. For the scans performed so far . The errors on \\Gamma Z corresponding to our standard assumptions are: 2.9MeV for no scan in 1995, 2.1Me The Implications for Electroweak Physics of a LEP Scan in 1995 and a Comparison of Different Scanning Strategies. P

126

How to define physical properties of unstable particles  

E-print Network

In the framework of effective quantum field theory we address the definition of physical quantities characterizing unstable particles. With the aid of a one-loop calculation, we study this issue in terms of the charge and the magnetic moment of a spin-1/2 resonance. By appealing to the invariance of physical observables under field redefinitions we demonstrate that physical properties of unstable particles should be extracted from the residues at complex (double) poles of the corresponding S-matrix.

J. Gegelia; S. Scherer

2009-10-22

127

Quantum flutter of supersonic particles in one-dimensional quantum liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast obstacles in a medium are responsible for striking physical phenomena, such as aerodynamic flutter, ?erenkov radiation and acoustic shock waves. In a hydrodynamic picture, quantum systems exhibit analogues of these dynamical features. Here we uncover novel quantum dynamics induced by fast particles by considering impurities injected supersonically into a one-dimensional quantum liquid. We find that the injected particle never comes to a full stop, at odds with conventional expectations of relaxation. Furthermore the system excites a new type of collective mode, manifesting itself in several observable quantities, such as long-lived oscillations in the velocity of the injected particle and simultaneous oscillations of the correlation hole formed around the impurity. These features are inherently quantum-mechanical and provide an example of a dynamically formed quantum coherent state propagating through a many-body environment while maintaining its coherence. The signatures of these effects can be probed directly with existing experimental tools.

Mathy, Charles J. M.; Zvonarev, Mikhail B.; Demler, Eugene

2012-12-01

128

Programming physical realizations of quantum computers  

E-print Network

We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum computation are unstable with respect to the physical realization of the quantum computer. We discuss the origin of these instabilities and discuss possibilities to overcome this, for practical purposes, fundamental limitation of quantum computers.

Hans De Raedt; Kristel Michielsen; Anthony Hams; Seiji Miyashita; Keiji Saito

2001-04-18

129

Are quantum systems physical objects with physical properties?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its power as the conceptual basis for a huge range of physical phenomena in atomic and subatomic physics, quantum mechanics still suffers from a lack of clarity regarding the physical meaning of its fundamental theoretical concepts, such as those of quantum state and of quantum theoretical quantities or variables, dealt with by the known mathematical-theoretical rules. These concepts have

Michel Paty

1999-01-01

130

Wave-Particle Duality and the Coherent Quantum Domain Picture  

E-print Network

It is proposed that the paradox of wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics may be resolved using a physical picture analogous to magnetic domains. Within this picture, a quantum particle represents a coherent region of a quantum wave with characteristic total energy, momentum, and spin. The dynamics of such a state are described by the usual linear quantum wave equations. But the coherence is maintained by a nonlinear self-interaction term that is evident only during transitions from one quantum state to another. This is analogous to the self-organizing property of domains in a ferromagnetic material, in which a single domain may appear as a stable macro-particle, but with rapid transitions between different domain configurations also possible. For the quantum case, this implies that the "collapse of the wave function" is a real dynamical physical process that occurs continuously in spacetime. This picture may also permit the resolution of apparent paradoxes associated with quantum measurement and entangled states.

Alan M. Kadin

2006-03-08

131

Particle swarm optimization with particles having quantum behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, inspired by the analysis of convergence of PSO, we study the individual particle of a PSO system moving in a quantum multidimensional space and establish a quantum delta potential well model for PSO. After that, a trial method of parameter control and QDPSO is proposed. The experiment result shows much advantage of QDPSO to the traditional PSO.

Jun Sun; Bin Feng; Wenbo Xu

2004-01-01

132

Physics 926 Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Physics 926 Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics Spring 2008 Course Description We will explore particle physics from a modern perspective, with an eye towards the new physics that we expect Physics (4th Edition), Perkins Quarks and Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics

Farritor, Shane

133

Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II  

E-print Network

applied in the z direction. This problem is also solved in the lecture notes, but by a different method in a different gauge. (a) First describe the particle motion in classical mechanics. Show that the particle movesHarvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II Problem Set 7 due Friday Nov 9 Problem

134

Quantum Canonical Transformations: Physical Equivalence of Quantum Theories  

E-print Network

Two quantum theories are physically equivalent if they are related, not by a unitary transformation, but by an isometric transformation. The conditions under which a quantum canonical transformation is an isometric transformation are given.

Arlen Anderson

1993-02-15

135

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Neve Shalom, October, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A for the elementary particle masses. Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;Higgs Discovery; LHC

California at Santa Cruz, University of

136

Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles  

SciTech Connect

A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)] [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

2013-08-15

137

Paradigms in Physics: Quantum Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides a list of learning activities for Quantum Mechanics classes. Each activity includes a description and learning goals, guides for instructors, handouts or worksheets, and reflections of instructors who have used the activity when available. Included are activities for Operators, Eigenstates, Probability Densities, Stern-Gerlach Simulations, Schrödinger's Equation, and Time Evolution. This material is part of the Paradigms in Physics project at Oregon State University. This work promotes the use of active student learning in upper division physics courses. Both learning materials and learning strategies are provided to help both students and instructors.

2010-02-08

138

Postdoctoral Positions (Theoretical Particle Physics, Siegen University)  

E-print Network

qf ett qf e Postdoctoral Positions (Theoretical Particle Physics, Siegen University) The recently extension by one more year. Applicants should have experience in particle physics phenomenology and Dortmund Universities invites applications for postdoctoral research positions in theoretical particle

Siegen, Universität

139

Have quantum mechanical isolated systems a physical meaning? An essential approximation in basic quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial assumption in quantum mechanics is that particles (or subsystems) can be isolated from the physical world but still behave in a realistic fashion. The authors show that the above assumption is not only naive but it has far reaching consequences. In particular, time-reversibility, microscopic reversibility and time-energy uncertainty principles must be reinterpreted for real non-isolated systems. Moreover the

F. Castano; L. Lain; M. N. Sanchez Rao; A. Torre

1983-01-01

140

Section of Particle Physics http://www.particle.kth.se  

E-print Network

outstanding educational value ­ nature has provided us with a free source of high energy subatomic particles subatomic particle can be measured as well as exposing students to particle detection techniques, modernSection of Particle Physics http://www.particle.kth.se Mark Pearce pearce@particle.kth.se 14th

Haviland, David

141

Quantum counting algorithm and its application in mesoscopic physics  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a quantum counting algorithm which transforms a physical particle-number state (and superpositions thereof) into a binary number. The algorithm involves two quantum Fourier transformations. One transformation is in physical space, where a stream of nparticles is coupled to K qubits, rotating their states by prescribed angles. The second transformation is within the Hilbert space of qubits and serves to read out the particle number in a binary form. Applications include a divisibility check characterizing the size of a finite train of particles in a quantum wire and a scheme allowing one to entangle multiparticle wave functions in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, generating Bell, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, or Dicke states.

Lesovik, G. B. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 117940 Moscow (Russian Federation); Theoretische Physik, ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Suslov, M. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow District (Russian Federation); NIX Computer Company, R and D Department, Zvezdniy Boulevard 19, 129085 Moscow (Russian Federation); Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik, ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2010-07-15

142

Quantum Measurement, Complexity and Discrete Physics  

E-print Network

This paper presents a new modified quantum mechanics, Critical Complexity Quantum Mechanics, which includes a new account of wavefunction collapse. This modified quantum mechanics is shown to arise naturally from a fully discrete physics, where all physical quantities are discrete rather than continuous. I compare this theory with the spontaneous collapse theories of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle and discuss some implications of these theories and CCQM for a realist view of the quantum realm.

Martin Leckey

2003-10-06

143

A Theory of Physical Quantum Computation: The Quantum Computer Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new unified theoretical framework that describes the full dynamics of quantum computation. Our formulation allows any questions pertaining to the physical behavior of a quantum computer to be framed, and in principle, answered. We refer to the central organizing principle developed in this paper, on which our theoretical structure is based, as the *Quantum

Gerald Gilbert; Michael Hamrick; F. Javier Thayer

2005-01-01

144

Numerical Simulations in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Numerical simulations have become an important tool to understand and predict non-perturbative phenomena in particle physics. In this article we attempt to present a general overview over the field. First, the basic concepts of lattice gauge theories are described, including a discussion of currently used algorithms and the reconstruction of continuum physics from lattice results. We then proceed to present some results for QCD, both at low energies and at high temperatures, as well as for the electro-weak sector of the standard model.

F. Karsch; E. Laermann

1993-04-14

145

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University for Particle Physics #12;A Moment to Celebrate: The Higgs Discovery The past year has been a historic one Futures for Particle Physics #12;Summary of coupling results · Overall compatibility with SM: 5

California at Santa Cruz, University of

146

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine  

E-print Network

Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior Futures for Particle Physics #12;A Moment to Celebrate: The Higgs Discovery The past year has been

California at Santa Cruz, University of

147

Unsolved problems in particle physics  

E-print Network

I consider selected (most important according to my own choice) unsolved problems in particle theory, both those related to extensions of the Standard Model (neutrino oscillations, which probably do not fit the usual three-generation scheme; indications in favour of new physics from astrophysical observations; electroweak symmetry breaking and hierarchy of parameters) and those which appear in the Standard Model (description of strong interactions at low and intermediate energies).

Sergey Troitsky

2011-12-19

148

Energetic particle physics: progressEnergetic particle physics: progress and plansand plans  

E-print Network

Energetic particle physics: progressEnergetic particle physics: progress and plansand plans Office positioned to study energetic particle physics required for next-step devices · For ITER/future STs, we need

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

149

A Simple Introduction to Particle Physics  

E-print Network

This is the first of a series of papers in which we present a brief introduction to the relevant mathematical and physical ideas that form the foundation of Particle Physics, including Group Theory, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory and Interactions, Abelian and Non-Abelian Gauge Theory, and the SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) Gauge Theory that describes our universe apart from gravity. These notes are not intended to be a comprehensive introduction to any of the ideas contained in them. Among the glaring omissions are CPT theorems, evaluations of Feynman Diagrams, Renormalization, and Anomalies. The topics were chosen according to the authors preferences and agenda. These notes are intended for a student who has completed the standard undergraduate physics and mathematics courses. Furthermore, these notes should not and will not in any way take the place of the related courses, but rather provide a primer for detailed courses in QFT, Gauge Theory, String Theory, etc., which will fill in the many gaps left by this paper.

M. Robinson; K. Bland; G. Cleaver; J. Dittmann

2008-10-18

150

Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ  

SciTech Connect

Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

Not Available

1992-09-01

151

Analysis of Astrophysics and Particle Physics Data  

E-print Network

Analysis of Astrophysics and Particle Physics Data using Optimal Segmentation Jeffrey.D.Scargle@nasa.gov Space Science Division NASA Ames Research Center Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics May 17, 2005

California at Santa Cruz, University of

152

ELEMENTARPARTIKELFYSIK FKF050 Elementary Particle Physics  

E-print Network

ELEMENTARPARTIKELFYSIK FKF050 Elementary Particle Physics Poäng: 3.0 Betygskala: TH Valfri för: E4, kosmologisk anknytning. Litteratur: Martin, B.R., Shaw, G.: Particle Physics, John Wiley & Sons (1992). #12;

153

Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the short space of 15years since their first demonstration, quantum cascade lasers have become the most useful sources of tunable mid-infrared laser radiation. This Letter describes these developments in laser technology and the burgeoning applications of quantum cascade lasers to infrared spectroscopy. We foresee the potential application of quantum cascade lasers in other areas of chemical physics such as

Robert F. Curl; Federico Capasso; Claire Gmachl; Anatoliy A. Kosterev; Barry McManus; Rafal Lewicki; Michael Pusharsky; Gerard Wysocki; Frank K. Tittel

2010-01-01

154

GPUs in experimental particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many applications in particle and nuclear physics demand vast computational power with high throughput and low latency. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) provide such massively parallel floating point computing power at low cost. Indeed many problems are easily parallelized and can be sped up by orders of magnitude by the use of GPUs. The talk will discuss two very different examples, namely the use of GPUs for partial wave analysis and on-line track reconstruction. Partial wave analysis is a key tool in hadron spectroscopy. The unbinned likelihood fits employed are an almost perfect match for the architecture of GPUs. GPU based partial wave analysis was pioneered at the Beijing Spectrometer III experiment in order to deal with world's largest datasets from electron-positron collisions in the charm threshold energy region and is now employed by many groups in the field. The presentation will describe the challenges for implementing a GPU based partial wave analysis and how they were overcome. Usually the most time consuming part of analysing particle physics events is the reconstruction of tracks of charged particles. A new generation of high rate experiments running without a hardware trigger (e.g. the LHCb upgrade, PANDA, a proposed ?->eee search) will be relying on very fast on-line event reconstruction, including tracking. This in turn requires massive amounts of computing power, which is currently best provided by GPUs. The talk will describe the state of GPU based tracking efforts.

Berger, Niklaus

2012-03-01

155

n-Particle Quantum Statistics on Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a full characterization of abelian quantum statistics on graphs. We explain how the number of anyon phases is related to connectivity. For 2-connected graphs the independence of quantum statistics with respect to the number of particles is proven. For non-planar 3-connected graphs we identify bosons and fermions as the only possible statistics, whereas for planar 3-connected graphs we show that one anyon phase exists. Our approach also yields an alternative proof of the structure theorem for the first homology group of n-particle graph configuration spaces. Finally, we determine the topological gauge potentials for 2-connected graphs.

Harrison, J. M.; Keating, J. P.; Robbins, J. M.; Sawicki, A.

2014-09-01

156

n-particle quantum statistics on graphs  

E-print Network

We develop a full characterization of abelian quantum statistics on graphs. We explain how the number of anyon phases is related to connectivity. For 2-connected graphs the independence of quantum statistics with respect to the number of particles is proven. For non-planar 3-connected graphs we identify bosons and fermions as the only possible statistics, whereas for planar 3-connected graphs we show that one anyon phase exists. Our approach also yields an alternative proof of the structure theorem for the first homology group of n-particle graph configuration spaces. Finally, we determine the topological gauge potentials for 2-connected graphs.

Jonathan M. Harrison; Jonathan P. Keating; Jonathan M. Robbins; Adam Sawicki

2013-04-21

157

Indistinguishable Particles in Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction  

E-print Network

In this article, we discuss the identity and indistinguishability of quantum systems and the consequent need to introduce an extra postulate in Quantum Mechanics to correctly describe situations involving indistinguishable particles. This is, for electrons, the Pauli Exclusion Principle, or in general, the Symmetrization Postulate. Then, we introduce fermions and bosons and the distributions respectively describing their statistical behaviour in indistinguishable situations. Following that, we discuss the spin-statistics connection, as well as alternative statistics and experimental evidence for all these results, including the use of bunching and antibunching of particles emerging from a beam splitter as a signature for some bosonic or fermionic states.

Y. Omar

2005-11-01

158

Particle staining: physically based texture generation  

E-print Network

generated particle system in a phenomenological model. The motion of these particles is controlled by physically based constraints, such as wind, gravity, mass, etc. The way in which each particle interacts with or modifies the look of the surface...

Mistrot, Jean Michael

2004-09-30

159

Electrons as field quanta: A better way to teach quantum physics in introductory general physics courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

I propose a conceptual change in the way we teach nonrelativistic quantum physics in introductory survey courses and general modern physics courses. Traditional instruction treats radiation as a quantized electromagnetic wave that, because it is quantized, is observable only as discrete field quanta, while treating matter as particles that are accompanied by a wave function. In other words, traditional instruction

Art Hobson

2005-01-01

160

Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

Kierk, I. K.

2002-01-01

161

Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.

2001-01-01

162

Scheduling Data Intensive Particle Physics Analysis Jobs  

E-print Network

Scheduling Data Intensive Particle Physics Analysis Jobs on Clusters of PCs S. Ponce European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) Information Technology Department CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland are proposed for parallelizing data intensive particle physics analysis ap- plications on computer clusters

Hersch, Roger D.

163

Quantum Security for the Physical Layer  

SciTech Connect

The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL

2013-01-01

164

Quantum Security for the Physical Layer  

E-print Network

The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.

Travis S. Humble

2014-07-16

165

Quantum particle production at sudden singularities  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of quantum particle production on a classical sudden singularity occurring at finite time in a Friedmann universe. We use an exact solution to describe an initially radiation-dominated universe that evolves into a sudden singularity at finite time. We calculate the density of created particles exactly and find that it is generally much smaller than the classical background density and pressure which produce the sudden singularity. We conclude that, in the example studied, the quantum particle production does not lead to the avoidance or modification to the sudden future singularity. We argue that the effects of small residual anisotropies in the expansion will not change these results and show how they can be related to studies of classical particle production using a bulk viscosity. We conclude that we do not expect to see significant observable effects from local sudden singularities on our past light cone.

Barrow, John D. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Batista, Antonio B.; Houndjo, Stephane [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, CEP 29060-900 Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Fabris, Julio C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, CEP 29060-900 Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil); GrECO, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris-IAP, 98 bis, Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

2008-12-15

166

Process Physics: Inertia, Gravity and the Quantum  

E-print Network

Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational or semantic information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This generalises the traditional non-process syntactical modelling of reality by taking account of the limitations and characteristics of self-referential syntactical information systems, discovered by Goedel and Chaitin, and the analogies with the standard quantum formalism and its limitations. In process physics space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and time is a distinct non-geometric process. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space. Various features of the emergent physics are briefly discussed including: quantum gravity, quantum field theory, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality.

Reginald T. Cahill

2001-10-29

167

Quantum information and physics: some future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

I consider some promising future directions for quantum information theory that could influence the development of 21st century physics. Advances in the theory of the distinguishability of superoperators may lead to new strategies for improving the precision of quantum-limited measurements. A better grasp of the properties of multi-partite quantum entanglement may lead to deeper understanding of strongly-coupled dynamics in quantum

John Preskill

2000-01-01

168

Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics  

E-print Network

These lectures, presented at the 2006 TASI summer school, give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

Michael E. Peskin

2008-01-13

169

Non-accelerator particle physics  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics such as grand unification and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large area underground detector to search for grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low and high energy neutrinos: the {nu}IMB project, which seeks to refurbish and upgrade the IMB water Cerenkov detector to perform an improved proton decay search together with a long baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment using a kiloton liquid scintillator (the Perry experiment); and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very low background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments. 21 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.

1991-09-01

170

Modelling, Algorithms and Simulation for Wave Motion in Quantum and Plasma Physics  

E-print Network

Modelling, Algorithms and Simulation for Wave Motion in Quantum and Plasma Physics Weizhu Bao & collapse in BEC ­ Transport of cold atoms ­ Quantized vortices ­ Wave interaction in plasma physics Collaborators & Acknowledges #12;Waves in quantum & plasma physics Wave-type particle behaviour ­ Wave function

Bao, Weizhu

171

A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…

Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.

2007-01-01

172

Quantum physical synthesis: Improving physical design by netlist modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum circuit design flow consists of two main tasks: synthesis and physical design. In the current flows, two procedures are performed subsequently and without any information sharing between two processes that can limit the optimization of the quantum circuit metrics; synthesis converts the design description into a technology-dependent netlist and then physical design takes the fixed netlist, produces the layout,

Naser MohammadZadeh; Mehdi Sedighi; Morteza Saheb Zamani

2010-01-01

173

A Quantum Particle Undergoing Continuous Observation  

E-print Network

A stochastic model for the continuous nondemolition ohservation of the position of a quantum particle in a potential field and a boson reservoir is given. lt is shown that any Gaussian wave function evolving according to the posterior wave equation with a quadratic potential collapses to a Gaussian wave packet given by the stationary solution of this equation.

V. P. Belavkin; P. Staszewski

2005-12-17

174

Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II  

E-print Network

of a magnetic field B applied in the z direction. This problem is also solved in the lecture notes, but by a different method in a different gauge. (a) First describe the particle motion in classical mechanics. ShowHarvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II Problem Set 6 due Friday Nov 1 Problem

175

Graphene: from materials science to particle physics  

E-print Network

Since its discovery in 2004, graphene, a two-dimensional hexagonal carbon allotrope, has generated great interest and spurred research activity from materials science to particle physics and vice versa. In particular, graphene has been found to exhibit outstanding electronic and mechanical properties, as well as an unusual low-energy spectrum of Dirac quasiparticles giving rise to a fractional quantum Hall effect when freely suspended and immersed in a magnetic field. One of the most intriguing puzzles of graphene involves the low-temperature conductivity at zero density, a central issue in the design of graphene-based nanoelectronic components. While suspended graphene experiments have shown a trend reminiscent of semiconductors, with rising resistivity at low temperatures, most theories predict a constant or even decreasing resistivity. However, lattice field theory calculations have revealed that suspended graphene is at or near the critical coupling for excitonic gap formation due to strong Coulomb intera...

Drut, Joaquín E; Tölö, Eero

2010-01-01

176

Research in theoretical particle physics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and Schwinger-Dyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)

McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.

1992-05-01

177

Physics 125: Elementary Particle Spring 2008  

E-print Network

, and terminology that you must learn in a very short time. 2. The course will make substantial use of quantum- ) and a positron (e+ ) at the PEP-II storage ring. The horizonal distance scale across the picture is approximately quantum mechanics. Theories must also cope with the fact that, in high-energy collisions, particles

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

178

A Theory of Physical Quantum Computation: The Quantum Computer Condition  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a new unified theoretical framework that describes the full dynamics of quantum computation. Our formulation allows any questions pertaining to the physical behavior of a quantum computer to be framed, and in principle, answered. We refer to the central organizing principle developed in this paper, on which our theoretical structure is based, as the *Quantum Computer Condition* (QCC), a rigorous mathematical statement that connects the irreversible dynamics of the quantum computing machine, with the reversible operations that comprise the quantum computation intended to be carried out by the quantum computing machine. Armed with the QCC, we derive a powerful result that we call the *Encoding No-Go Theorem*. This theorem gives a precise mathematical statement of the conditions under which fault-tolerant quantum computation becomes impossible in the presence of dissipation and/or decoherence. In connection with this theorem, we explicitly calculate a universal critical damping value for...

Gilbert, G; Thayer, F J; Gilbert, Gerald; Hamrick, Michael

2005-01-01

179

The geometrical functional integral for mini-superspace quantum gravity and the relativistic particle compared.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors contrast the geometric functional integral quantization of a minisuperspace model for quantum gravity with that for a relativistic free particle. While formally the two models are very similar, there are differences assumed to have a genuine physical significance.

Guven, J.; Vergara, J. D.

180

Links between quantum physics and thought.  

PubMed

Quantum mechanics (QM) provides a variety of ideas that can assist in developing Artificial Intelligence for healthcare, and opens the possibility of developing a unified system of Best Practice for inference that will embrace both QM and classical inference. Of particular interest is inference in the hyperbolic-complex plane, the counterpart of the normal i-complex plane of basic QM. There are two reasons. First, QM appears to rotate from i-complex Hilbert space to hyperbolic-complex descriptions when observations are made on wave functions as particles, yielding classical results, and classical laws of probability manipulation (e.g. the law of composition of probabilities) then hold, whereas in the i-complex plane they do not. Second, i-complex Hilbert space is not the whole story in physics. Hyperbolic complex planes arise in extension from the Dirac-Clifford calculus to particle physics, in relativistic correction thereby, and in regard to spinors and twisters. Generalization of these forms resemble grammatical constructions and promote the idea that probability-weighted algebraic elements can be used to hold dimensions of syntactic and semantic meaning. It is also starting to look as though when a solution is reached by an inference system in the hyperbolic-complex, the hyperbolic-imaginary values disappear, while conversely hyperbolic-imaginary values are associated with the un-queried state of a system and goal seeking behavior. PMID:19745485

Robson, Barry

2009-01-01

181

On the ‘Emptiness’ of Particles in Condensed-matter Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the ontological similarities between the foundations of quantum mechanics and the emptiness teachings in\\u000a Madhyamika–Prasangika Buddhism of the Tibetan lineage have attracted some attention. After briefly reviewing this unlikely\\u000a connection, I examine ideas encountered in condensed-matter physics that resonate with this view on emptiness. Focusing on\\u000a the particle concept and emergence in condensed-matter physics, I highlight a

L. Q. English

2007-01-01

182

Particle identification for beauty physics  

SciTech Connect

We look briefly at the requirements for particle identification for possible beauty experiments at the Tevatron, both in the fixed target and the collider mode. Techniques presently in use in high energy physics experiments, and under development, should make sensitive experiments feasible. However, in all cases the present state of the art must be advanced to meet the necessary requirements for segmentation andor rate capability. The most fundamentally difficult challenges appear to be the efficient tagging of soft electrons (for the collider experiment) and the need to handle interaction rates up to /approximately/ 10/sub 9/ HZ in the fixed target mode. In both cases we can find ''in principle'' demonstrations that the requirements can be met. We have considered only the most basic prooperties of detectors, however, and the real answers will come from careful studies of details. 20 refs., 10 figs.

Ludlam, T.

1987-01-01

183

The dialogue between particle physics and cosmology  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade, a very close relationship has developed between particle physics and cosmology. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to the many scientific connections between the two fields. Before entering into the discussion of specific topics, it will first be shown that particle physics and cosmology are completely interdependent. 173 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

Sadoulet, B.

1988-04-01

184

Quantum Random Walks with General Particle States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A convergence theorem is obtained for quantum random walks with particles in an arbitrary normal state. This unifies and extends previous work on repeated-interactions models, including that of Attal and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré 7:59-104 2006) and Belton (J Lond Math Soc 81:412-434, 2010; Commun Math Phys 300:317-329, 2010). When the random-walk generator acts by ampliation and either multiplication or conjugation by a unitary operator, it is shown that the quantum stochastic cocycle which arises in the limit is driven by a unitary process.

Belton, Alexander C. R.

2014-06-01

185

To Photon Concept and to Physics of Quantum Absorption Process  

E-print Network

The status of the photon in the modern physics was analysed. Within the frames of the Standard Model of particle physics the photon is considered to be the genuine elementary particle, being to be the messenger of the electromagnetic interaction to which are subject charged particles. In contrast, the experts in quantum electodynamics (in particular, in quantum optics) insist, that the description of an photon to be the particle is impossible. The given viewpoint was carefully analysed and its falseness was proved. The expression for a photon wave function is presented. So, the status of the photon in quantum electodynamics was restored. The physics of a quantum absorption process is analysed. It is argued in accordance with Dirac guess, that the photon revival takes place by its absorption. Being to be a soliton, it seems to be keeping safe after an energy absorption in a pinned state, possessing the only by spin. It is shown, that the time of the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is finite a...

Yerchuck, Dmitri; Dovlatova, Alla; Stelmakh, Vyacheslav; Borovik, Felix

2014-01-01

186

To Photon Concept and to Physics of Quantum Absorption Process  

E-print Network

The status of the photon in the modern physics was analysed. Within the frames of the Standard Model of particle physics the photon is considered to be the genuine elementary particle, being to be the messenger of the electromagnetic interaction to which are subject charged particles. In contrast, the experts in quantum electodynamics (in particular, in quantum optics) insist, that the description of an photon to be the particle is impossible. The given viewpoint was carefully analysed and its falseness was proved. The expression for a photon wave function is presented. So, the status of the photon in quantum electodynamics was restored. The physics of a quantum absorption process is analysed. It is argued in accordance with Dirac guess, that the photon revival takes place by its absorption. Being to be a soliton, it seems to be keeping safe after an energy absorption in a pinned state, possessing the only by spin. It is shown, that the time of the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is finite and moreover, that it can govern the stationary signal registered. The given result is significant for the all stationary spectroscopy, in which at present the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is considered to be instantaneous.

Dmitri Yerchuck; Yauhen Yerchak; Alla Dovlatova; Vyacheslav Stelmakh; Felix Borovik

2014-06-03

187

Physical-resource requirements and the power of quantum computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary resource for quantum computation is the Hilbert-space dimension. Whereas Hilbert space itself is an abstract construction, the number of dimensions available to a system is a physical quantity that requires physical resources. Avoiding a demand for an exponential amount of these resources places a fundamental constraint on the systems that are suitable for scalable quantum computation. To be scalable, the number of degrees of freedom in the computer must grow nearly linearly with the number of qubits in an equivalent qubit-based quantum computer. These considerations rule out quantum computers based on a single particle, a single atom, or a single molecule consisting of a fixed number of atoms or on classical waves manipulated using the transformations of linear optics.

Caves, Carlton M.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

2004-08-01

188

A Theory of Physical Quantum Computation: The Quantum Computer Condition  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a new unified theoretical framework that describes the full dynamics of quantum computation. Our formulation allows any questions pertaining to the physical behavior of a quantum computer to be framed, and in principle, answered. We refer to the central organizing principle developed in this paper, on which our theoretical structure is based, as the *Quantum Computer Condition* (QCC), a rigorous mathematical statement that connects the irreversible dynamics of the quantum computing machine, with the reversible operations that comprise the quantum computation intended to be carried out by the quantum computing machine. Armed with the QCC, we derive a powerful result that we call the *Encoding No-Go Theorem*. This theorem gives a precise mathematical statement of the conditions under which fault-tolerant quantum computation becomes impossible in the presence of dissipation and/or decoherence. In connection with this theorem, we explicitly calculate a universal critical damping value for fault-tolerant quantum computation. In addition we show that the recently-discovered approach to quantum error correction known as "operator quantum error-correction" (OQEC) is a special case of our more general formulation. Our approach furnishes what we will refer to as "operator quantum fault-tolerance" (OQFT). In particular, we show how the QCC allows one to derive error thresholds for fault tolerance in a completely general context. We prove the existence of solutions to a class of time-dependent generalizations of the Lindblad equation. Using the QCC, we also show that the seemingly different circuit, graph- (including cluster-) state, and adiabatic paradigms for quantum computing are in fact all manifestations of a single, universal paradigm for all physical quantum computation.

Gerald Gilbert; Michael Hamrick; F. Javier Thayer

2005-07-15

189

Category:Quantum chaos Quantum Chaos emerged as a new field of physics from the  

E-print Network

Category:Quantum chaos Quantum Chaos emerged as a new field of physics from the efforts in number theory, fractal and complex spectra, atomic and molecular physics, clusters and nuclei, quantum billiards and quantum chaos Categories: Chaos Physics Quantum Mechanics Dynamical Systems Category:Quantum

Shepelyansky, Dima

190

Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors hold different views on teaching interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. There has been relatively little research in the physics education community on the variation in instructional approaches with respect to quantum interpretation, and how instructional choices impact student thinking. We compare two modern physics courses taught at the University of Colorado with similar learning environments, but where the instructors held different views on how to teach students about interpretations of quantum processes. We find significant differences in how students from these two courses responded to a survey on their beliefs about quantum mechanics; findings also suggest that instructors who choose to address student ontologies should do so across a range of topics.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-19

191

Discrete Spacetime and Relativistic Quantum Particles  

E-print Network

We study a single quantum particle in discrete spacetime evolving in a causal way. We see that in the continuum limit any massless particle with a two dimensional internal degree of freedom obeys the Weyl equation, provided that we perform a simple relabeling of the coordinate axes or demand rotational symmetry in the continuum limit. It is surprising that this occurs regardless of the specific details of the evolution: it would be natural to assume that discrete evolutions giving rise to relativistic dynamics in the continuum limit would be very special cases. We also see that the same is not true for particles with larger internal degrees of freedom, by looking at an example with a three dimensional internal degree of freedom that is not relativistic in the continuum limit. In the process we give a formula for the Hamiltonian arising from the continuum limit of massless and massive particles in discrete spacetime.

Terence C. Farrelly; Anthony J. Short

2013-12-10

192

Experiment and the foundations of quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instead of having to rely on gedanken (thought) experiments, it is possible to base this discussion of the foundations of quantum physics on actually performed experiments because of the enormous experimental progress in recent years. For reasons of space, the author discusses mainly experiments related to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and Bell's theorem, that is, to quantum entanglement. Not only have

Anton Zeilinger

1999-01-01

193

Identical Quantum Particles and Weak Discernibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saunders has recently claimed that “identical quantum particles” with an anti-symmetric state (fermions) are weakly discernible objects, just like irreflexively related ordinary objects in situations with perfect symmetry (Black’s spheres, for example). Weakly\\u000a discernible objects have all their qualitative properties in common but nevertheless differ from each other by virtue of (a\\u000a generalized version of) Leibniz’s principle, since they stand

Dennis Dieks; Marijn A. M. Versteegh

2008-01-01

194

Elementary particle physics---Experimental  

SciTech Connect

We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

1990-09-20

195

Novel quantum numbers in condensed matter physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physics understanding novel quantum numbers in condensed matter physics are discussed. Examples are given from the fields of conducting quasi-one-dimensional conductors 3He–A and the fractional quantum Hall effect. A common feature of these systems is a symmetry breaking whose under parameter describes a discrete symmetry breaking. This lead to flow of charge in the vacuum without excitation of carriers

J. R. Schrieffer

2004-01-01

196

Statistical problems in quantum physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we give a general and unified mathematical treatment for a number of statistical problems concerning optimal quantum measurements. It has at least one field of application, namely, the theory of quantum communication channels and optimal receivers of optical signals [I] . Of course, if we are concerned with the data already obtained by a given measurement, then

A. S. Holevo

197

On the justification of multiple selection rules of conservation in particle physics phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier we analyzed the logic of postulating selection rules of conservation in particle physics phenomenology, and wrote a computer program that recovered the strangeness quantum numbers from historical reactions and assumptions. We proved the theorem that one selection rule suffices to account for any reactions data that can be explained in terms of conserved quantum numbers. Since physics practice involves

Raúl E. Valdés-Pérez

1996-01-01

198

Experimental Three-Particle Quantum Nonlocality under Strict Locality Conditions  

E-print Network

Quantum correlations are critical to our understanding of nature, with far-reaching technological and fundamental impact. These often manifest as violations of Bell's inequalities, bounds derived from the assumptions of locality and realism, concepts integral to classical physics. Many tests of Bell's inequalities have studied pairs of correlated particles; however, the immense interest in multi-particle quantum correlations is driving the experimental frontier to test systems beyond just pairs. All experimental violations of Bell's inequalities to date require supplementary assumptions, opening the results to one or more loopholes, the closing of which is one of the most important challenges in quantum science. Individual loopholes have been closed in experiments with pairs of particles and a very recent result closed the detection loophole in a six ion experiment. No experiment thus far has closed the locality loopholes with three or more particles. Here, we distribute three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states using optical fibre and free-space links to independent measurement stations. The measured correlations constitute a test of Mermin's inequality while closing both the locality and related freedom-of-choice loopholes due to our experimental configuration and timing. We measured a Mermin parameter of 2.77 +/- 0.08, violating the inequality bound of 2 by over 9 standard deviations, with minimum tolerances for the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes of 264 +/- 28 ns and 304 +/- 25 ns, respectively. These results represent a significant advance towards definitive tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics and practical multi-party quantum communications protocols.

C. Erven; E. Meyer-Scott; K. Fisher; J. Lavoie; B. L. Higgins; Z. Yan; C. J. Pugh; J. -P. Bourgoin; R. Prevedel; L. K. Shalm; L. Richards; N. Gigov; R. Laflamme; G. Weihs; T. Jennewein; K. J. Resch

2013-09-05

199

Graphene: from materials science to particle physics  

E-print Network

Since its discovery in 2004, graphene, a two-dimensional hexagonal carbon allotrope, has generated great interest and spurred research activity from materials science to particle physics and vice versa. In particular, graphene has been found to exhibit outstanding electronic and mechanical properties, as well as an unusual low-energy spectrum of Dirac quasiparticles giving rise to a fractional quantum Hall effect when freely suspended and immersed in a magnetic field. One of the most intriguing puzzles of graphene involves the low-temperature conductivity at zero density, a central issue in the design of graphene-based nanoelectronic components. While suspended graphene experiments have shown a trend reminiscent of semiconductors, with rising resistivity at low temperatures, most theories predict a constant or even decreasing resistivity. However, lattice field theory calculations have revealed that suspended graphene is at or near the critical coupling for excitonic gap formation due to strong Coulomb interactions, which suggests a simple and straightforward explanation for the experimental data. In this contribution we review the current status of the field with emphasis on the issue of gap formation, and outline recent progress and future points of contact between condensed matter physics and Lattice QCD.

Joaquín E. Drut; Timo A. Lähde; Eero Tölö

2010-11-02

200

Quantum Algorithms: Applicable Algebra and Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical computer science relies on the concept of Turing machines as a unifying model of universal computation. According\\u000a to the modern Church-Turing Thesis, this concept is interpreted in the form that every physically reasonable model of computation\\u000a can be efficiently simulated on a probabilistic Turing machine. Recently this understanding, which was taken for granted for a long time, has\\u000a required

Thomas Beth; Martin Roetteler

2001-01-01

201

Diffusion Waves in Sub-Quantum Thermodynamics: Resolution of Einstein's 'Particle-in-a-box' Objection  

E-print Network

Einstein's objection against both the completeness claim of the orthodox version and the Bohmian interpretation of quantum theory, using the example of a 'particle in a box', is reiterated and resolved. This is done by proving that the corresponding quantum mechanical states exactly match classical analogues. The latter are shown to result from the recently elaborated physics of diffusion waves.

Gerhard Groessing

2008-06-27

202

Quantum Humeanism,or: physicalism without properties  

E-print Network

In recent literature, it has become clear that quantum physics does not refute Humeanism. This point has so far been made with respect to Bohms quantum theory. Against this background, this paper seeks to achieve the following four results: to generalize the option of quantum Humeanism from Bohmian mechanics to primitive ontology theories in general, to show that this option applies also to classical mechanics, to establish that it requires a commitment to matter as primitive stuff, but no commitment to natural properties (physicalism without properties, to point out that by removing the commitment to properties, the stock metaphysical objections against Humeanism from quidditism and humility no longer apply. In that way, quantum physics strengthens Humeanism instead of refuting it.

Michael Esfeld

2014-03-22

203

Directional correlations in quantum walks with two particles  

E-print Network

Quantum walks on the line with a single particle possess a classical analog. Involving more walkers opens up the possibility to study collective quantum effects, such as many particle correlations. In this context, entangled initial states and indistinguishability of the particles play a role. We consider directional correlations between two particles performing a quantum walk on a line. For non-interacting particles we find analytic asymptotic expressions and give the limits of directional correlations. We show that introducing $\\delta$-interaction between the particles, one can exceed the limits for non-interacting particles.

M. Stefanak; S. M. Barnett; B. Kollar; T. Kiss; I. Jex

2011-02-22

204

Quantum simulation of the single-particle Schrodinger equation  

E-print Network

The working of a quantum computer is described in the concrete example of a quantum simulator of the single-particle Schrodinger equation. We show that a register of 6-10 qubits is sufficient to realize a useful quantum simulator capable of solving in an efficient way standard quantum mechanical problems.

Giuliano Benenti; Giuliano Strini

2007-09-11

205

PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics  

E-print Network

PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics BOOKS ON RESERVE IN CRERAR LIBRARY 1987 K. S. Krane Introductory Nuclear Physics QC777.K730 1988 Useful references P. R. Bevington and D & V. F. Weisskopf Theoretical Nuclear Physics QC776.B530 1979 L. R. Elton Introductory Nuclear Theory

206

Quantum Physics Online: Quantum superposition in two dimensions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of interactive Java applets illustrating two-dimensional quantum states. Eigenstates are shown for both the 2D square well and the 2D harmonic oscillators. Simulations are used to illustrate the time dependence of wavepackets moving in these two potentials as well. These applets are part of an extensive collection of animations and simulations illustrating a large range of quantum topics, and an ongoing effort for developing a fully interactive quantum-physics class. Both French and English versions are available.

Joffre, Manuel

2004-03-28

207

Quantum Physics Online: Quantum superposition in one dimension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of interactive Java applets illustrating time dependence and superposition in one-dimensional quantum states. Simulations are used to illustrate the time dependence (real and imaginary parts) of eigenstates states, and superposition of eigenstates. There is an application of these ideas to a two-level model of an ammonia molecule. There is also an illustration of a harmonic oscillator with multiple states occupied, and coherent states. These applets are part of an extensive collection of animations and simulations illustrating a large range of quantum topics, and an ongoing effort for developing a fully interactive quantum-physics class. Both French and English versions are available.

Joffre, Manuel

2004-03-28

208

Three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: Particles and the quantum double  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the quantum double structure plays an important role in three-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to matter field. In this paper, we show how this algebraic structure emerges in the context of three-dimensional Riemannian loop quantum gravity (LQG) coupled to a finite number of massive spinless point particles. In LQG, physical states are usually constructed from the notion of SU(2) cylindrical functions on a Riemann surfaced ? and the Hilbert structure is defined by the Ashtekar-Lewandowski measure. In the case where ? is the sphere S2, we show that the physical Hilbert space is in fact isomorphic to a tensor product of simple unitary representations of the Drinfeld double DSU(2): the masses of the particles label the simple representations, the physical states are tensor products of vectors of simple representations, and the physical scalar product is given by intertwining coefficients between simple representations. This result is generalized to the case of any Riemann surface ?.

Noui, Karim

2006-10-01

209

Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a…

Hobson, Art

2011-01-01

210

Particle Physics: From School to University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching of particle physics as part of the A-level physics course in British secondary schools. Utilizes the quark model of hadrons and the conceptual kinematics of particle collisions, as examples, to demonstrate practical instructional possibilities in relation to student expectations. (JJK)

Barlow, Roger

1992-01-01

211

Quarked!--Adventures in Particle Physics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike--with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not…

MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice

2009-01-01

212

Education and Outreach in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

There are many varied programs of education and outreach in particle physics. This report for the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society 2001 meeting reviews the impact of these programs in general, and also gives several examples of ongoing programs with a primary focus on those in the US.

R. Michael Barnett

2011-09-30

213

Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the secon...

Lee, Clarissa Ai Ling

2014-01-01

214

Relativistic Quantum Dynamics: A non-traditional perspective on space, time, particles, fields, and action-at-a-distance  

E-print Network

This book is an attempt to build a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting particles. In the first part of the book "Quantum electrodynamics" we follow rather traditional approach to particle physics. Our discussion proceeds systematically from the principle of relativity and postulates of quantum measurements to the renormalization in quantum electrodynamics. In the second part of the book "The quantum theory of particles" this traditional approach is reexamined. We find that formulas of special relativity should be modified to take into account particle interactions. We also suggest reinterpreting quantum field theory in the language of physical "dressed" particles. This formulation eliminates the need for renormalization and opens up a new way for studying dynamical and bound state properties of quantum interacting systems. The developed theory is applied to realistic physical objects and processes including the hydrogen atom, the decay law of moving unstable particles, the dynamics of interacting charges, relativistic and quantum gravitational effects. These results force us to take a fresh look at some core issues of modern particle theories, in particular, the Minkowski space-time unification, the role of quantum fields and renormalization and the alleged impossibility of action-at-a-distance. A new perspective on these issues is suggested. It can help to solve the old problem of theoretical physics -- a consistent unification of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Eugene V. Stefanovich

2005-04-08

215

Development of quantum perspectives in modern physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary: Variations in student epistemic and ontological commitments can be characterized, and many students have preferences for realist interpretations of quantum phenomena. Abstract: Introductory undergraduate courses in classical physics stress a perspective that can be characterized as realist; from this perspective, all physical properties of a classical system can be simultaneously specified and thus determined at all future times. Such a perspective can be problematic for introductory quantum physics students, who must develop new perspectives in order to properly interpret what it means to have knowledge of quantum systems. We document this evolution in student thinking in part through pre- and post-instruction evaluations using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey. We further characterize variations in student epistemic and ontological commitments by examining responses to two essay questions, coupled with responses to supplemental quantum attitude statements. We find that, after instruction in modern physics, many students are still exhibiting a realist perspective in contexts where a quantum-mechanical perspective is needed. We further find that this effect can be significantly influenced by instruction, where we observe variations for courses with differing learning goals. We also note that students generally do not employ either a realist or a quantum perspective in a consistent manner.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2012-01-20

216

(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium  

E-print Network

(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium: Introducing the group for Non-equilibrium quantum and statistical physics Tomaz Prosen Department of physics, Faculty of mathematics and physics, University of Ljubljana July, 2011 Tomaz Prosen Non-equilibrium quantum and statistical physics group #12

Â?umer, Slobodan

217

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute  

E-print Network

divisions at Rice, overseen by the Rice Quantum Institute (RQI),theApplied Physics Program (APP87 Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty This program is open to faculty from physics and astronomy, chemistry, mechanicalengineeringandmaterialsscience

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

218

Applied Quantum Mechanics Fall 1998 Kansas State University Physics 709 TU 9:30 -10:45 Cardwell 146  

E-print Network

Applied Quantum Mechanics Fall 1998 Kansas State University Physics 709 TU 9:30 - 10:45 Cardwell 146 Text 1: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J. Gri ths. Text 2: Quantum Physics: Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles, by Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnick. The rst is the primary

Wysin, Gary

219

Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein imposed an observer-based epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified Lorentzian-Newtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wave-based theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.

Lindner, Henry H.

2011-09-01

220

An Introduction to the Neutrosophic Probability Applied in Quantum Physics  

E-print Network

In this paper one generalizes the classical probability and imprecise probability to the notion of "neutrosophic probability" in order to be able to model Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle of a particle's behavior, Schr"dinger's Cat Theory, and the state of bosons which do not obey Pauli's Exclusion Principle (in quantum physics). Neutrosophic probability is close related to neutrosophic logic and neutrosophic set, and etymologically derived from "neutrosophy".

Florentin Smarandache

2000-10-10

221

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute  

E-print Network

94 Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty This program and the engineering divisions at Rice and overseen by the Rice Quantum Institute (RQI), the Applied Physics Program Quantum Mechanics I (PHYS 521 or CHEM 530) Quantum Mechanics II or Statistical Physics (PHYS 522 or PHYS

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

222

Physical Origin of Elementary Particle Masses  

E-print Network

In contemporary particle physics, the masses of fundamental particles are incalculable constants, being supplied by experimental values. Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum, and their corresponding physical interaction couplings, we propose that the masses of elementary particles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with the charges of a particle. A first application of this idea is seen to yield correct order of magnitude predictions for neutrinos, charged leptons and quarks. We then discuss more ambitious models, where also different generations may arise from \\textit{e.g.} self-organizing bifurcations due to the underlying non-linear dynamics, with the coupling strength acting as "non-linearity" parameter. If the model is extended to include gauge bosons, the photon is automatically the only fundamental particle to remain massless as it has no charges. It results that gluons have an effective range $\\sim 1$fm, physically explaining why QCD has finite reach.

Johan Hansson

2014-02-04

223

Physical Origin of Elementary Particle Masses  

E-print Network

In contemporary particle physics, the masses of fundamental particles are incalculable constants, being supplied by experimental values. Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum, and their corresponding physical interaction couplings, we propose that the masses of elementary particles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with the charges of a particle. A first application of this idea is seen to yield correct order of magnitude predictions for neutrinos, charged leptons and quarks. We then discuss more ambitious models, where also different generations may arise from \\textit{e.g.} self-organizing bifurcations due to the underlying non-linear dynamics, with the coupling strength acting as "non-linearity" parameter. If the model is extended to include gauge bosons, the photon is automatically the only fundamental particle to remain massless as it has no charges. It results that gluons have an effective range $\\sim 1$fm, physically explaining why QCD has finite...

Hansson, Johan

2014-01-01

224

Quantum Gravity: A Mathematical Physics Perspective  

E-print Network

This article is based on an invited talk given at the Workshop on Mathematical Physics Towards XXIst Century, held at Beer-Sheva, Israel in 1993. It contains an introduction to quantum gravity for mathematical physicists with an emphasis on the difference between the structure of this theory from more familiar, Minkowskian quantum field theories which arise due to the absence of a background space-time geometry.

Abhay Ashtekar

1994-04-05

225

Quantum Entanglement and Decoherence: Beyond Particle Models. A Farewell to Quantum Mechanics's Weirdness  

E-print Network

Combining abstract to laboratory projected quantum states a general analysis of headline quantum phenomena is presented. Standard representation mode is replaced; instead quantum states sustained by elementary material constituents occupy its place. Renouncing to assign leading roles to language originated in classical physics when describing genuine quantum processes, together with sustainment concept most, if not all weirdness associated to Quantum Mechanics vanishes.

O. Tapia

2014-04-02

226

Thermal equilibrium of two quantum Brownian particles  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the environment in the thermal equilibrium properties of a bipartite continuous variable quantum system is studied. The problem is treated within a system-plus-reservoir approach. The considered model reproduces the Brownian motion when the two particles are isolated and induces an effective interaction between them, depending on the choice of the spectral function of the bath. The coupling between the system and the environment guarantees the translational invariance of the system in the absence of an external potential. The entanglement between the particles is measured by the logarithmic negativity, which is shown to monotonically decrease with the increase of the temperature. A range of finite temperatures is found in which entanglement is still induced by the reservoir.

Valente, D. M.; Caldeira, A. O. [Departamento de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

2010-01-15

227

Quantum Physics Online: Quantization in one dimension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of interactive Java applets illustrating one-dimensional quantum states. Simulations are used to illustrate both free and bound states, and the formation of eigenstates in one-dimensional potential wells. There are also illustrations of expanding states in a basis of harmonic oscillator states. These applets are part of an extensive collection of animations and simulations illustrating a large range of quantum topics, and an ongoing effort for developing a fully interactive quantum-physics class. Both French and English versions are available.

Joffre, Manuel

2004-03-28

228

Particles with Identical Quantum Numbers in Dispersion Theory and Field Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general structure of the scattering amplitude is expressed in terms of the one-particle reducible and irreducible parts, when there are several particles present having the same quantum numbers in the channel in addition to the physical and unphysical cuts. A comparison with field theory is made to obtain the propagator, the vertex functions, and the matrix of the wave-function

Kyungsik Kang

1966-01-01

229

The Particle inside a Ring: A Two-Dimensional Quantum Problem Visualized by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model used to introduce quantum mechanics to students suffers from a tenuous connection to a real physical system. This article presents a two-dimensional model, the particle confined within a ring, that directly corresponds to observations of surface electrons in a metal trapped inside a circular barrier.…

Ellison, Mark D.

2008-01-01

230

Lectureship in Experimental Particle Physics Applications are invited for a Lectureship in Experimental Particle Physics in the  

E-print Network

Lectureship in Experimental Particle Physics Applications are invited for a Lectureship in Experimental Particle Physics in the Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London. The successful current career point, and be experienced in working in forefront international particle physics

231

Quantum physics in inertial and gravitational fields  

E-print Network

Covariant generalizations of well-known wave equations predict the existence of inertial-gravitational effects for a variety of quantum systems that range from Bose-Einstein condensates to particles in accelerators. Additional effects arise in models that incorporate Born reciprocity principle and the notion of a maximal acceleration. Some specific examples are discussed in detail.

G. Papini

2003-04-22

232

Compact Stars: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics and General Relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graduate level textbook which explores the areas of astrophysics and cosmology where nuclear physics, particle physics and general relativity combine. Included is material on the application of these divisions of physics in white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes while providing background information on stellar formation, pulsars and the strange-matter hypothesis.

Glendenning, Norman

2009-06-12

233

Art Hobson Electrons as Field Quanta page 1 Electrons as field quanta: A better way to teach quantum physics in introductory general  

E-print Network

quantum physics in introductory general physics courses Art Hobson Department of Physics, University-particle nature of radiation and matter that is central to quantum physics, but also the symmetry between-relativistic quantum mechanics in introductory courses, including non-mathematical courses for non-scientists, math

Hobson, Art

234

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandoraâs Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.

Baily, Charles

2012-01-20

235

Henry Primakoff Award for Early-Career Particle Physics Lecture: Calculating the number of degrees of freedom in supersymmetric quantum field theories in three dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will give an overview of supersymmetric quantum field theories in three spacetime dimensions, from the construction of Chern-Simons-matter theories to their relations with string/M-theory and the gauge/gravity correspondence. I will show how the sphere partition function of such theories with 4 supercharges can be computed exactly, and how it leads to an exact determination of the dimensions of all chiral operators in the IR superconformal field theory. Further evidence will be provided that this quantity is a good measure of the number of degrees of freedom in three dimensions, even for non-supersymmetric quantum field theories.

Jafferis, Daniel

2012-03-01

236

Review of Particle Physics, 1996-1997  

E-print Network

This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 1900 new measurements from 700 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review.

Particle Data Group. Berkeley; Carone, Cristopher D; Groom, Donald E; Trippe, Thomas G; Wohl, Charles G; Armstrong, Betty; Gee, Paul S; Wagman, Gary S; James, Fred; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mönig, Klaus; Montanet, Lucien; Feng, Jonathan L; Murayama, Hitoshi; Hernández, Juan José; Manohar, Aneesh Vasant; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Caso, Carlo; Crawford, Ronald L; Roos, Matts; Törnqvist, N A; Hayes, Kenneth G; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Nakamura, Kenzo; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Olive, Keith A; Honscheid, Klaus; Burchat, Patricia R; Shrock, Robert E; Eidelman, Simon; Schindler, Rafe H; Gurtu, Atul; Hikasa, Ken Ichi; Conforto, Gianni; Workman, Ronald L; Grab, C; Amsler, Claude

1996-01-01

237

Frontiers of particle beam physics  

SciTech Connect

First, a review is given of various highly-developed techniques for particle handling which are, nevertheless, being vigorously advanced at the present time. These include soft superconductor radio frequency cavities, hard superconductor magnets, cooling rings for ions and anti-protons, and damping rings for electrons. Second, attention is focused upon novel devices for particle generation, acceleration, and focusing. These include relativistic klystrons and free electron laser power sources, binary power multipliers, photocathodes, switched-power linacs, plasma beat-wave accelerators, plasma wake-field accelerators, plasma lenses, plasma adiabatic focusers and plasma compensators. 12 refs.

Sessler, A.M.

1989-11-01

238

A Brief Introduction to Particle Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Senior Research Associate Nari Mistry at Cornell University, this 23-page pdf gives a brief but thorough introduction to particle physics. Complete with illustrations, this document covers sub-atomic particles (quarks and leptons) as well as the Big Bang, matter and anti-matter, and physics experiments. There is also material which discusses the fundamental forces that govern sub-atomic particles - gravity, the Weak Force, electromagnetism, and the Strong Force â and how scientists have been working toward a theory of unification that combines these four forces to create a universal force. This is a great resource for physics teachers, as it is a ready-to-go tutorial to introduce students to particle physics before the discussion in the classroom becomes more in-depth.

Mistry, Nari

2007-04-18

239

Medium energy elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)

Not Available

1991-01-01

240

Anderson Localization for a Multi-Particle Quantum Graph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a multi-particle quantum graph with random potential. Taking the approach of multiscale analysis, we prove exponential and strong dynamical localization of any order in the Hilbert-Schmidt norm near the spectral edge. Apart from the results on multi-particle systems, we also prove Lifshitz-type asymptotics for single-particle systems. This shows in particular that localization for single-particle quantum graphs holds under a weaker assumption on the random potential than previously known.

Sabri, Mostafa

2014-11-01

241

Quantum Shot Noise Fluctuations in the flow of electrons signal the transition from particle to wave behavior. Published in revised form in Physics Today, May 2003, page 37  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise plays a uniquely informative role in connection with the particle-wave duality. It was Albert Einstein who first realized (in 1909) that electromagnetic fluctu- ations are different if the energy is carried by waves or by particles. The magnitude of energy fluctuations scales linearly with the mean energy for classical waves, but it scales with the square root of the

Carlo Beenakker; Christian Schonenberger

242

On Universal Physical Reality in the Light of Quantum Consciousness  

E-print Network

In this paper, we have first given an intuitive definition of "Consciousness" as realized by us. Next, from this intuitive definition we derived the physical definition of quantum consciousness (Quantum Consciousness Parameter or QCP). This QCP is the elementary level of consciousness in quantum particles, which are the most elementary particles in nature. Thus QCP can explain both the perceptible and non-perceptible nature and some existing postulates of physics. We conceptualize that the level of human consciousness is most complex having highest fractal dimension of 4.85 in the electroencephalographs experiment done by other research groups. On the other hand, other species are having lesser consciousness level, which can be reflected by lesser fractal dimensions. We have also explored the bio informatics of consciousness from genome viewpoints where we tried to draw an analogy of neurons with electrons and photons. Lastly, we refine the quantum mechanics in terms of QCP; we all know that in Einstein's special theory of relativity, Einstein has used the postulate "Consistency of the velocity of light irrespective of all frames of reference (inertial or non-inertial frames)". In our theoretical revelation QCP can be directly applied to get a confirmatory proof of this postulate. Thus the postulate can be framed as a law.

Pabitra Pal Choudhury; Swapan Kumar Dutta; Sk. Sarif Hassan; Sudhakar Sahoo

2009-07-08

243

The Standard Model of Particle Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to the standard model of particle physics, the theory which is currently most widely accepted to describe what matter is made of. All of the elementary particles of matter and the fundamental forces are characterized and classified. The site also provides information about the testing of the standard model.

2007-12-10

244

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation  

E-print Network

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation towards a negative answer. The first is a conjecture about physical realizations of quantum codes superior compared to digital computers. The idea was that since computations in quantum physics require

Kalai, Gil

245

Theoretical particle physics. Progress report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: Heavy Quark Physics; Chiral Perturbation Theory; Skyrmions; Large-N Limit; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Supersymmetry; Rare Decays; Technicolor; Chiral Lattice Fermions; Pauli-Villars Regulator and the Higgs Mass Bound; Higgs and Yukawa Interactions; Gauge Fixing; and Quantum Beables.

Not Available

1993-09-30

246

Finite quantum physics and noncommutative geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional discrete approximations of a manifold do not preserve its\\u000anontrivial topological features. In this article we describe an approximation\\u000ascheme due to Sorkin which reproduces physically important aspects of manifold\\u000atopology with striking fidelity. The approximating topological spaces in this\\u000ascheme are partially ordered sets (posets). Now, in ordinary quantum physics on\\u000aa manifold $M$, continuous probability densities generate

A. P. Balachandran; G. Bimonte; E. Ercolessi; G. Landi; F. Lizzi; G. Sparano; P. Teotoniosobrinho

1995-01-01

247

Physical Interpretations of Nilpotent Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

Nilpotent quantum mechanics provides a powerful method of making efficient calculations. More importantly, however, it provides insights into a number of fundamental physical problems through its use of a dual vector space and its explicit construction of vacuum. Physical interpretation of the nilpotent formalism is discussed with respect to boson and baryon structures, the mass-gap problem, zitterbewgung, Berry phase, renormalization, and related issues.

Peter Rowlands

2010-04-09

248

Methods of Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics New Perspectives, Extensions and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the course of its development in the past four decades quantum field theory has gradually acquired a very rich structure (much richer in fact than it was originally intended) and now provides us with an effective method in the analysis of many diverse areas of physics; condensed matter physics, high energy particle physics general relativity and cosmology are among

Hiroomi Umezawa

1984-01-01

249

Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course in modern quantum field theory for condensed matter physics includes a derivation of the path integral representation, Feynman diagrams and elements of the theory of metals. Alexei Tsvelik also covers Landau Fermi liquid theory and gradually turns to more advanced methods used in the theory of strongly correlated systems. The book contains a thorough exposition of such non-perturbative

Alexei M. Tsvelik

2003-01-01

250

STFC 2012 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW -EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL CONSOLIDATED GRANTS  

E-print Network

1 STFC 2012 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW - EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL CONSOLIDATED GRANTS Guidelines................................................................................................. 1 Particle Physics Grants Panel ............................................................................................................................. 3 Part A: 2012 Review of Experimental Particle Physics Consolidated Grants ­ Guidelines

251

Quantum particles from coarse grained classical probabilities in phase space  

SciTech Connect

Quantum particles can be obtained from a classical probability distribution in phase space by a suitable coarse graining, whereby simultaneous classical information about position and momentum can be lost. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential follow from classical statistics. This includes interference, tunneling and the uncertainty relation.

Wetterich, C., E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-07-15

252

Quantum Information Processing with NMR MIT Department of Physics  

E-print Network

Quantum Information Processing with NMR MIT Department of Physics (Dated: August 26, 2010) This experiment will let you perform a series of simple quantum computations on a two spin system, demonstrating one and two quantum-bit quantum logic gates, and a circuit implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa quantum

Seager, Sara

253

Particle Physics at the LHC Start  

E-print Network

I present a concise review of where we stand in particle physics today. First, I will discuss the status of the Standard Model, its open problems and the expected answers from the LHC. Then I will briefly review the avenues for New Physics that can be revealed by the LHC.

Guido Altarelli

2009-02-16

254

Physics on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature's laws in the domain where relativistic effects, gravitational effects and quantum effects are all comparatively strong are far from understood. This domain is called the Planck scale. Conceivably, a theory can be constructed where the quantum nature of phenomena at such scales can be attributed to something fundamentally simpler. However, arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there can't be physical laws that require "conspiracy". It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In the lecture we will show several such counterexamples. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. This theory is often portrayed as to underly the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles, including the "Standard Model". So now the question is asked: how can this model feature "conspiracy", and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations?

't Hooft, Gerard

2014-04-01

255

8.05 Quantum Physics II, Fall 2002  

E-print Network

Together 8.05 and 8.06 cover quantum physics with applications drawn from modern physics. General formalism of quantum mechanics: states, operators, Dirac notation, representations, measurement theory. Harmonic oscillator: ...

Rajagopal, Krishna, 1965-

256

Particle Physics at the LHC Start  

E-print Network

I present a concise review of the major issues and challenges in particle physics at the start of the LHC era. After a brief overview of the Standard Model and of QCD, I will focus on the electroweak symmetry breaking problem which plays a central role in particle physics today. The Higgs sector of the minimal Standard Model is so far just a mere conjecture that needs to be verified or discarded by the LHC. Probably the reality is more complicated. I will summarize the motivation for new physics that should accompany or even replace the Higgs discovery and a number of its possible forms that could be revealed by the LHC.

Guido Altarelli

2010-10-27

257

Research on elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p{bar p} collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a {tau}-charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development.

Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A.

1992-05-01

258

Physical Diffeomorphisms in Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

We investigate the action of diffeomorphisms in the context of Hamiltonian Gravity. By considering how the diffeomorphism-invariant Hilbert space of Loop Quantum Gravity should be constructed, we formulate a physical principle by demanding, that the gauge-invariant Hilbert space is a completion of gauge- (i.e. diffeomorphism-)orbits of the classical (configuration) variables, explaining which extensions of the group of diffeomorphisms must be implemented in the quantum theory. It turns out, that these are at least a subgroup of the stratified analytic diffeomorphisms. Factoring these stratified diffeomorphisms out, we obtain that the orbits of graphs under this group are just labelled by their knot classes, which in turn form a countable set. Thus, using a physical argument, we construct a separable Hilbert space for diffeomorphism invariant Loop Quantum Gravity, that has a spin-knot basis, which is labelled by a countable set consisting of the combination of knot-classes and spin quantum numbers. It is important to notice, that this set of diffeomorphism leaves the set of piecewise analytic edges invariant, which ensures, that one can construct flux-operators and the associated Weyl-operators. A note on the implications for the treatment of the Gauss- and the Hamilton-constraint of Loop Quantum Gravity concludes our discussion.

Tim Koslowski

2006-10-05

259

Theoretical particle physics, Task A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating (Theta) Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z(degrees) Vector Boson; Parity-Odd Spin-Dependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.

1991-07-01

260

Theoretical particle physics, Task A  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; Parity-Odd Spin-Dependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.

Not Available

1991-07-01

261

Quantum Walk on a Line with Two Entangled Particles  

E-print Network

We introduce the concept of a quantum walk with two particles and study it for the case of a discrete time walk on a line. A quantum walk with more than one particle may contain entanglement, thus offering a resource unavailable in the classical scenario and which can present interesting advantages. In this work, we show how the entanglement and the relative phase between the states describing the coin degree of freedom of each particle will influence the evolution of the quantum walk. In particular, the probability to find at least one particle in a certain position after $N$ steps of the walk, as well as the average distance between the two particles, can be larger or smaller than the case of two unentangled particles, depending on the initial conditions we choose. This resource can then be tuned according to our needs, in particular to enhance a given application (algorithmic or other) based on a quantum walk. Experimental implementations are briefly discussed.

Y. Omar; N. Paunkovic; L. Sheridan; S. Bose

2004-11-09

262

Trace functions with applications in quantum physics  

E-print Network

We consider both known and not previously studied trace functions with applications in quantum physics. By using perspectives we obtain convexity statements for different notions of residual entropy, including the entropy gain of a quantum channel as studied by Holevo and others. We give new and simplified proofs of the Carlen-Lieb theorems concerning concavity or convexity of certain trace functions by making use of the theory of operator monotone functions. We then apply these methods in a study of new types of trace functions. Keywords: Trace function, convexity, entropy gain, residual entropy, operator monotone function.

Frank Hansen

2013-05-08

263

Automatic Signal Enhancement in Particle Physics Using Multivariate Classification and Physical Constraints  

E-print Network

Automatic Signal Enhancement in Particle Physics Using Multivariate Classification and Physical the process of sig- nal enhancement in particle physics by relying on multi- variate classification techniques the particle physics community with computational tools that obviate manual and subjective interpretation

Vilalta, Ricardo

264

Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics  

E-print Network

Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics Arnold Neumaier Institut f¨ur Mathematik classical physics and quantum physics should be as small as possible. We argue that the differences between://www.mat.univie.ac.at/neum/ Abstract. A philosophically consistent axiomatic approach to classical and quantum mechanics is given

Neumaier, Arnold

265

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute  

E-print Network

86 Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty This programD Ajointeffortofboththenaturalsciencesandtheengineeringdivisionsat RiceandoverseenbytheRiceQuantumInstitute(RQI),theAppliedPhysics Program Mechanics I (PHYS 521 or CHEM 530) Quantum Mechanics II or Statistical Physics (PHYS 522 or PHYS 526 or CHEM

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

266

Physical state for non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics  

E-print Network

A physical subspace and physical Hilbert space associated with asymptotic fields of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics are constructed through the Gupta-Bleuler procedure. Asymptotic completeness is shown and a physical Hamiltonian is defined on the physical Hilbert space.

Fumio Hiroshima; Akito Suzuki

2008-07-31

267

Physical properties of quantum field theory measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well known methods of measure theory on infinite dimensional spaces are used to study physical properties of measures relevant to quantum field theory. The difference of typical configurations of free massive scalar field theories with different masses is studied. We apply the same methods to study the Ashtekar-Lewandowski (AL) measure on spaces of connections. In particular we prove that the diffeomorphism group acts ergodically, with respect to the AL measure, on the Ashtekar-Isham space of quantum connections modulo gauge transformations. We also prove that a typical, with respect to the AL measure, quantum connection restricted to a (piecewise analytic) curve leads to a parallel transport discontinuous at every point of the curve.

Mourão, J. M.; Thiemann, T.; Velhinho, J. M.

1999-05-01

268

Open Source Physics: Quantum Mechanical Measurement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of quantum mechanics java applets, part of the Open Source Physics project, provides simulations that demonstrate the effect of measurement on the time-dependence of quantum states. Exercises are available that demonstrate the results of measurement of energy, position, and momentum on states in potential wells (square well, harmonic oscillator, asymmetric well, etc). Eigenstates, superpositions of eigenstates, and wave packets can all be studied. Tutorials are also available. The material stresses the measurement of a quantum-mechanical wave function. The simulations can be delivered either through the OSP Launcher interface or embedded in html pages. The source code is available, and users are invited to contribute to the collection's development by submitting improvements. The simulations are available through the "View attached documents" link below.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-02

269

Quantum Physics Online: Quantization in three dimensions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a pair of interactive Java applets illustrating three-dimensional quantum states. Spherical harmonics are shown projected on a unit sphere. Both the magnitude of Y(L,m) + Y(L,-m), and the complex states with color-coded phase can be viewed. In the other simulation, the states of a Carbon 60 molecule are simulated using a Huckel model. The 60x60 matrix is diagonalized to show the energy levels and electronic states of the molecule. These applets are part of an extensive collection of animations and simulations illustrating a large range of quantum topics, and an ongoing effort for developing a fully interactive quantum-physics class. Both French and English versions are available.

Joffre, Manuel

2004-03-28

270

Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and

D. A. Bromley

1980-01-01

271

Basics of particle therapy I: physics  

PubMed Central

With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664

Park, Seo Hyun

2011-01-01

272

Quarked! - Adventures in Particle Physics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike-with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not introduced until high school or university.1,2 Many of these concepts can be made accessible to younger students when presented in a fun and engaging way. Informal science institutions are in an ideal position to communicate new and challenging science topics in engaging and innovative ways and offer a variety of educational enrichment experiences for students that support and enhance science learning.3 Quarked!™ Adventures in the Subatomic Universe, a National Science Foundation EPSCoR-funded particle physics education program, provides classroom programs and online educational resources.

MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice

2009-01-01

273

Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

The flavor democracy hypothesis was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle "massless" Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan(beta) approx.eq. 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle "massless" composite objects within preonic models.

Saleh Sultansoy

2006-10-21

274

Reflection of a Particle from a Quantum Measurement  

E-print Network

We present a generalization of continuous position measurements that accounts for a spatially inhomogeneous measurement strength. This describes many real measurement scenarios, in which the rate at which information is extracted about position has itself a spatial profile, and includes measurements that detect if a particle has crossed from one region into another. We show that such measurements can be described, in their averaged behavior, as stochastically fluctuating potentials of vanishing time average. Reasonable constraints restrict the form of the measurement to have degenerate outcomes, which tend to drive the system to spatial superposition states. We present the results of quantum-trajectory simulations for measurements with a step-function profile (a "which-way" measurement) and a Gaussian profile. We find that the particle can coherently reflect from the measurement region in both cases, despite the stochastic nature of the measurement back-action. In addition, we explore the connection to the quantum Zeno effect, where we find that the reflection probability tends to unity as the measurement strength increases. Finally, we discuss two physical realizations of a spatially varying position measurement using atoms.

Jonathan B. Mackrory; Kurt Jacobs; Daniel A. Steck

2010-09-25

275

Particle physics with the LHC data  

SciTech Connect

In this talk, I give reasons why we regard GUT as a part of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics that explain all phenomena observed at high energy experiments and in the universe, with a few notable exceptions. It is based on my introduction-to-elementary-particle-physics lectures for the first year graduate students at Sokendai, Graduate University for Advanced Studies. No new observation is made, but I think that it is important for us to examine the LHC data from the GUT viewpoint together with our fresh students.

Hagiwara, Kaoru [KEK Theory Center and Sokendai, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2012-07-27

276

Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For example, Halliday, Resnick, and Walker describe the origin of atomic quantum numbers as such: "The restrictions on the values of the quantum number for the hydrogen atom, as listed in Table 39-2, are not arbitrary but come out of the solution to Schrödinger's equation." They give no further justification, but do point out the values are in conflict with the predictions of the Bohr model.

Schneider, Mark B.

2010-10-01

277

Optimizing entangling quantum gates for physical systems  

SciTech Connect

Optimal control theory is a versatile tool that presents a route to significantly improving figures of merit for quantum information tasks. We combine it here with the geometric theory for local equivalence classes of two-qubit operations to derive an optimization algorithm that determines the best entangling two-qubit gate for a given physical setting. We demonstrate the power of this approach for trapped polar molecules and neutral atoms.

Mueller, M. M.; Murphy, M.; Calarco, T. [Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Reich, D. M.; Koch, C. P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Yuan, H. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Vala, J. [Department of Mathematical Physics, National University of Ireland, Maynooth (Ireland); School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Rd., Dublin (Ireland); Whaley, K. B. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-10-15

278

Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education  

SciTech Connect

This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.

Bardeen, Marjorie G.; /Fermilab; Johansson, K.Erik; /Stockholm U.; Young, M.Jean

2011-11-21

279

Probing many-particle correlations in semiconductor quantum wells using double-quantum-coherence signals  

E-print Network

two-exciton couplings spread the cross peaks along both axes of the 2D spectrum to create direct probes for many-body effects in the ultrafast dynamics of excitons in semiconductor quantum wellsProbing many-particle correlations in semiconductor quantum wells using double-quantum

Mukamel, Shaul

280

Proceedings of Institute of Mathematics of NAS of Ukraine 2004, Vol. 50, Part 3, 10511052 On the Gauge Groups of Particle Physics  

E-print Network

­1052 On the Gauge Groups of Particle Physics and Their Quantum Deformations1 Jules BECKERS Institute of Physics unimodular and unitary SU(n, C)-Lie groups have already played very important roles in particle physics extensively studied so that their impact inside particle physics developments [5] is a natural inquiry

Popovych, Roman

281

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Experimental Particle Physics Faculty Search  

E-print Network

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Experimental Particle Physics Faculty Search The SLAC National Particle Physics in its Particle Physics and Astrophysics (PPA) Directorate. The search is at the tenured of PPA's ongoing programs in experimental particle physics, or to initiate a new program in line with PPA

Wechsler, Risa H.

282

Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics Better name is probably Introduction to Subatomic physics  

E-print Network

Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics PHY357 1 Better name is probably Introduction to Subatomic physics: Emphasis is on particle physics; nuclear physics is simply particle physics at relatively calculating the SM rate for this process. 6 #12;The Standard Model of Particle Physics g ZW b t s c d u e LLL

Krieger, Peter

283

Sound relativistic quantum mechanics for a strictly solitary nonzero-mass particle, and its quantum-field reverberations  

E-print Network

It is generally acknowledged that neither the Klein-Gordon equation nor the Dirac Hamiltonian can produce sound solitary-particle relativistic quantum mechanics due to the ill effects of their negative-energy solutions; instead their field-quantized wavefunctions are reinterpreted as dealing with particle and antiparticle simultaneously--despite the clear physical distinguishability of antiparticle from particle and the empirically known slight breaking of the underlying CP invariance. The natural square-root Hamiltonian of the free relativistic solitary particle is iterated to obtain the Klein-Gordon equation and linearized to obtain the Dirac Hamiltonian, steps that have calculational but not physical motivation, and which generate the above-mentioned problematic negative-energy solutions as extraneous artifacts. Since the natural square root Hamiltonian for the free relativistic solitary particle contrariwise produces physically unexceptionable quantum mechanics, this article focuses on extending that Hamiltonian to describe a solitary particle (of either spin 0 or spin one-half) in relativistic interaction with an external electromagnetic field. That is achieved by use of Lorentz-covariant solitary-particle four momentum techniques together with the assumption that well-known nonrelativistic dynamics applies in the particle's rest frame. Lorentz-invariant solitary particle actions, whose formal Hamiltonization is an equivalent alternative approach, are as well explicitly displayed. It is proposed that two separate solitary-particle wavefunctions, one for a particle and the other for its antiparticle, be independently quantized in lieu of "reinterpreting" negative energy solutions--which indeed don't even afflict proper solitary particles.

Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

2009-09-22

284

Hausdorff dimension of a particle path in a quantum manifold  

SciTech Connect

After recalling the concept of the Hausdorff dimension, we study the fractal properties of a quantum particle path. As a novelty we consider the possibility for the space where the particle propagates to be endowed with a quantum-gravity-induced minimal length. We show that the Hausdorff dimension accounts for both the quantum mechanics uncertainty and manifold fluctuations. In addition the presence of a minimal length breaks the self-similarity property of the erratic path of the quantum particle. Finally we establish a universal property of the Hausdorff dimension as well as the spectral dimension: They both depend on the amount of resolution loss which affects both the path and the manifold when quantum gravity fluctuations occur.

Nicolini, Piero; Niedner, Benjamin [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-01-15

285

Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality  

SciTech Connect

Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

Gibson, J. Murray (ANL) [ANL

2003-10-15

286

Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction  

E-print Network

The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.

Clarissa Ai Ling Lee

2014-06-21

287

Particle physics probes of extra spacetime dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that spacetime extends beyond the familiar 3 + 1 dimensions has intrigued physicists for a century. The consequences of a dimensionally richer spacetime would be profound. Recently, new theories with higher-dimensional spacetimes have been developed to resolve the hierarchy problem in particle physics. The distinct predictions of these scenarios allow experiment to probe the existence of extra dimensions

Joanne Hewett; Maria Spiropulu

2002-01-01

288

Particle physics footprints of the invisible axion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some particle physics expectations of a natural class of invisible axion models are discussed. These models require the presence of charged and neutral spin zero bosons of of Fermi scale masses. Indeed, such excitations appear to be telltale signals for almost all viable cold dark matter scenarios.

Peccei, R. D.

1991-01-01

289

Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics  

SciTech Connect

Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.

Chris Quigg

2002-04-11

290

Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S

2013-04-01

291

Photos: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab Particle physics benefits  

E-print Network

, such as computers, cell phones, and MP3 players. Photo: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab 12 As a lead machinist at Argonne the case. Economic impact studies quantify the amount of new income that a facility or service adds have value for assessing and predicting the impact of particle physics technology applications

Crowther, Paul

292

Current experiments in elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

1987-03-01

293

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute  

E-print Network

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty I (PHYS 521 or CHEM 530) Quantum Mechanics II or Statistical Physics (PHYS 522 or PHYS 526 or CHEM the natural sciences and the engineering divisions at Rice and overseen by the Rice Quantum Institute (RQI

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

294

Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach  

E-print Network

Foundations of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach Diederik Aerts FUND of quantum physics: a general realistic and operational approach", International Journal of Theoretical examples in detail in the light of this formalism: a classical deterministic entity and a quantum entity

Aerts, Diederik

295

Optical Physics of Quantum Wells David A. B. Miller  

E-print Network

Optical Physics of Quantum Wells David A. B. Miller Rm. 4B-401, AT&T Bell Laboratories Holmdel, NJ quantum wells, and will concentrate on some of the physical effects that are seen in optical experiments07733-3030 USA 1 Introduction Quantum wells are thin layered semiconductor structures in which we can

Miller, David A. B.

296

Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II  

E-print Network

Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II Instructor : Subir Sachdev, Lyman 343@physics.harvard.edu This is the second half of an introductory course on quantum mechanics. The course will complete the text book: the photon 5. Relativistic quantum mechanics: the Dirac equation 6. Scattering theory. 7. Einstein

297

Molecular Imaging: Physics and Bioapplications of Quantum Dots  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 8 Molecular Imaging: Physics and Bioapplications of Quantum Dots Xavier Michalet, Laurent A. Bentolila, and Shimon Weiss 111 8.1 Introduction 112 8.2 Brief Overview of Quantum Dot Physics 112 8 Properties of Quantum Dots 115 8.3.1 Absorption and Emission Spectra 115 8.3.2 Fluorescence Intermittency 115

Michalet, Xavier

298

Thomas Banks Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP)  

E-print Network

Thomas Banks Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department of Physics TO THIS PROPOSAL (Primary Author Only) 1. A Pyramid Scheme for Particle Physics, T. Banks, J-F Fortin, JHEP 0907

California at Santa Cruz, University of

299

Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.

2005-01-01

300

Efimov States in Nuclear and Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Particles with resonant short-range interactions have universal properties that do not depend on the details of their structure or their interactions at short distances. In the three-body system, these properties include the existence of a geometric spectrum of three-body Efimov states and a discrete scaling symmetry leading to log-periodic dependence of observables on the scattering length. Similar universal properties appear in the four-body system and possibly higher-body systems as well. For example, universal four-body states have recently been predicted and observed in experiment. These phenomena are often referred to as "Efimov Physics". We review their theoretical description and discuss applications in different areas of physics with a special emphasis on nuclear and particle physics.

Hammer, H -W

2010-01-01

301

Efimov States in Nuclear and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles with resonant short-range interactions have universal properties that do not depend on the details of their structure or their interactions at short distances. In the three-body system, these properties include the existence of a geometric spectrum of three-body Efimov states and a discrete scaling symmetry, which leads to log-periodic dependence of observables on the scattering length. Similar universal properties appear in the four-body system and possibly higher-body systems as well. For example, universal four-body states have recently been predicted and observed in experiments. These phenomena are often referred to as Efimov physics. We review their theoretical description and discuss applications in different areas of physics with a special emphasis on nuclear and particle physics.

Hammer, Hans-Werner; Platter, Lucas

2010-11-01

302

Artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem  

E-print Network

It is shown that the usual choice of units obtained by taking G = c = Planck constant = 1, giving the Planck units of mass, length and time, introduces an artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem that we associate with Planck constant. We note that the choice of Planck constant = 1 does not correspond to the scale of quantum physics. For this scale we prove that the correct value is Planck constant \\hbar; 1/10^122, while the choice of Planck constant = 1 corresponds to the cosmological scale. This is due to the scale factor of 10^61 that converts the Planck scale to the cosmological scale. By choosing the ratio G/c^3 = constant = 1, which includes the choice G = c = 1, and the momentum conservation mc = constant, we preserve the derivation of the Einstein field equations from the action principle. Then the product Gm/c^2 = rg, the gravitational radius of m, is constant. For a quantum black hole we prove that Planck constant \\hbar; rg^2 \\hbar; (mc)^2. We also prove that the product lambda x Planck constant is a general constant of order one, for any scale. The cosmological scale implies lambda \\hbar; Planck constant \\hbar; 1, while the Planck scale gives lambda \\hbar; 1/Planck constant \\hbar; 10^122. This explains the lambda problem. We get two scales: the cosmological quantum black hole (QBH), size \\Lambda; 10^28 cm, and the quantum black hole (qbh) that includes the fundamental particles scale, size \\Lambda; 10^-13 cm, as well as the Planck scale, size \\Lambda; 10^-33 cm.

Antonio Alfonso-Faus

2008-11-24

303

Quantum particle constrained to a surface in quantum hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that when the confining potential approach for constructing quantum mechanics on a surface is set within the framework of quantum hydrodynamics no geometric quantum potential is induced in general for appropriately prepared quantum states and when a confining potential is assumed. We also show that the usual formulation of this approach implies loss of general covariance of the theory such that the resulting surface theory in effect describes the dynamics of a scalar density in the surface; this renders the interpretation of the surface theory problematic.

Jensen, Bjørn; Dandoloff, Rossen; Saxena, Avadh

2014-10-01

304

Continuous quantum measurements of a particle in a Paul trap  

E-print Network

We calculate the propagator of a particle caught in a Paul trap and subject to the continuous quantum measurement of its position. The probabilities of the measurement outputs, the possible trajectories of the particle, are also found. This enables us to propose a series of experiments that would allow to confront the predictions of one of the models that describe the interaction between a measured quantum system and measuring device, namely the so called Restricted Path-Integral Formalism, with the experiment.

A. Camacho; A. Camacho-Galvan

1998-08-19

305

Equivalence Postulate and the Quantum Potential of Two Free Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commutativity of the diagram of the maps connecting three one--particle\\u000astate, implied by the Equivalence Postulate (EP), gives a cocycle condition\\u000awhich unequivocally leads to the quantum Hamilton--Jacobi equation. Energy\\u000aquantization is a direct consequences of the local homeomorphicity of the\\u000atrivializing map. We review the EP and show that the quantum potential for two\\u000afree particles, which depends on

Marco Matone; G. Galilei

2002-01-01

306

Synthesis and optical properties of quantum-size metal sulfide particles in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade, small-particle' research has become quite popular in various fields of chemistry and physics. The recognition of quantum-size effects in very small colloidal particles has led to renewed interest in this area. Small particles' are clusters of atoms or molecules ranging in size from 1 nm to almost 10 nm or having agglomeration numbers from 10 up to a few hundred. In other words, small particles fall in size between single atoms or molecules and bulk materials. The agglomeration number specifies the number of individual atoms or molecules in a given cluster. The research in this area is interdisciplinary, and it links colloidal science and molecular chemistry. The symbiosis of these two areas of research has revealed some intriguing characteristics of small particles. This experiment illustrates the following: simple colloidal techniques for the preparation of two different types of quantum-size metal sulfide particles; the blue shift of the measured optical absorption spectra when the particle size is decreased in the quantum-size regime; and use of a simple quantum mechanical model to calculate the particle size from the absorption onset measured for CdS.

Nedeljkovic, J.M.; Patel, R.C.; Kaufman, P.; Joyce-Pruden, C.; O'Leary, N. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States))

1993-04-01

307

Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical. An investigation into student and expert perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction  

E-print Network

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandora's Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.

Charles Baily

2011-09-06

308

Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

2005-01-01

309

Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory  

E-print Network

Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory 1) Bosonic Grand-Partition Function The solution to this problem is outlined clearly in the beginning of the lecture notes `Quantum Field Theory II

Murayama, Hitoshi

310

Relaxation dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle in an ideal gas  

E-print Network

We show how the quantum analog of the Fokker-Planck equation for describing Brownian motion can be obtained as the diffusive limit of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation. The latter describes the quantum dynamics of a tracer particle in a dilute, ideal gas by means of a translation-covariant master equation. We discuss the type of approximations required to obtain the generalized form of the Caldeira-Leggett master equation, along with their physical justification. Microscopic expressions for the diffusion and relaxation coefficients are obtained by analyzing the limiting form of the equation in both the Schroedinger and the Heisenberg picture.

Bassano Vacchini; Klaus Hornberger

2007-06-29

311

Relaxation dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle in an ideal gas  

E-print Network

We show how the quantum analog of the Fokker-Planck equation for describing Brownian motion can be obtained as the diffusive limit of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation. The latter describes the quantum dynamics of a tracer particle in a dilute, ideal gas by means of a translation-covariant master equation. We discuss the type of approximations required to obtain the generalized form of the Caldeira-Leggett master equation, along with their physical justification. Microscopic expressions for the diffusion and relaxation coefficients are obtained by analyzing the limiting form of the equation in both the Schroedinger and the Heisenberg picture.

Vacchini, Bassano

2007-01-01

312

Relaxation dynamics of a quantum Brownian particle in an ideal gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how the quantum analog of the Fokker-Planck equation for describing Brownian motion can be obtained as the diffusive limit of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation. The latter describes the quantum dynamics of a tracer particle in a dilute, ideal gas by means of a translation-covariant master equation. We discuss the type of approximations required to obtain the generalized form of the Caldeira-Leggett master equation, along with their physical justification. Microscopic expressions for the diffusion and relaxation coefficients are obtained by analyzing the limiting form of the equation in both the Schrödinger and the Heisenberg picture.

Vacchini, B.; Hornberger, K.

2007-12-01

313

Strings as multi-particle states of quantum sigma-models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the quantum Bethe ansatz equations in the O(2n) sigma-model for physical particles on a circle, with the interaction given by the Zamolodchikovs'S-matrix, in view of its application to quantization of the string on the S2n?1×Rt space. For a finite number of particles, the system looks like an inhomogeneous integrable O(2n) spin chain. Similarly to OSp(2m+n|2m) conformal sigma-model considered

Nikolay Gromov; Vladimir Kazakov; Kazuhiro Sakai; Pedro Vieira

2007-01-01

314

Understanding probabilistic interpretations of physical systems: A prerequisite to learning quantum physics  

E-print Network

Understanding probabilistic interpretations of physical systems: A prerequisite to learning quantum Association of Physics Teachers. DOI: 10.1119/1.1447541 I. INTRODUCTION A student's first course in quantum the difficulties students have in learning quantum physics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the highlights

Bao, Lei

315

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics  

E-print Network

Highlights INFM 2000/2001 1.Atomic and Molecular Physics, Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics 1, processing, storing, or computing. The marriage of Quantum Physics and Information Technology -originally.2 EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TRANSFER MATRIX OF A QUANTUM DEVICE It is unquestionable that the current

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

316

particle physics and cosmology fromparticle physics and cosmology from almostalmost--commutative manifoldscommutative manifolds  

E-print Network

particle physics and cosmology fromparticle physics and cosmology from almostalmost physics phenomenology: geometric explanation of SM gravitational theory early universe cosmology conclusions #12;motivationmotivation cosmology particle physics #12;cosmology #12;cosmology EU models tested

Sart, Remi

317

Benefits to Society of Particle Physics Phil Allport  

E-print Network

Benefits to Society of Particle Physics Phil Allport 23/11/07 · Overview PP2020 KE Panel serendipity, industrial applications of ideas developed by particle physicists primarily for particle physics 3) Collaboration with industry to achieve major orders from large international particle physics

Crowther, Paul

318

Research in: Experimental Photonuclear Physics  

E-print Network

's general Theory of Relativity #12;Particle Physics Theory and Phenomenology Tom Steele · Gauge theoriesResearch in: Experimental Photonuclear Physics Quantum Entanglement Particle Physics Theory & Phenomenology Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology Accelerator Physics Health Physics #12;Experimental Photonuclear

Saskatchewan, University of

319

Nonlinear and turbulent processes in physics. Volume 1. Nonlinear effects in plasma physics, astrophysics and elementary particle theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on nonlinear problems in plasma kinetics, astrophysics, and particle physics. Topics considered include electromagnetic radiation in plasma, turbulent plasma, nonlinear photons, phase transformations in the early universe, pulsars, magnetohydrodynamics, galaxy formation, gluons, quantum chromodynamics, shock waves, hadrons, Langmuir turbulence, solitons, accretion disks around black holes, the Coriolis force, cosmic rays, plasma waves, magnetic islands, and the

Sagdeev

1983-01-01

320

Physical Properties 4.1 Classical and Quantum Properties  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 Physical Properties 4.1 Classical and Quantum Properties We shall use the term physical property to refer to something which can be said to be either true or false for a particular physical '' are examples of physical properties. One must distinguish between a physical property and a physical variable

Griffiths, Robert B.

321

Physical Properties 4.1 Classical and Quantum Properties  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 Physical Properties 4.1 Classical and Quantum Properties We shall use the term physical property to refer to something which can be said to be either true or false for a particular physical of physical properties. One must distinguish between a physical property and a physical variable

Griffiths, Robert B.

322

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1992-06-01

323

Current experiments in elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

1989-09-01

324

Particle physics: recent successes and future prospects  

SciTech Connect

There is no doubt that as yet we do not have an ultimate theory of matter and forces in spite of the remarkable successes of the past decade. In this talk the author attempts to summarize briefly the historical background that led us to the present level of understanding, or more specifically to the standard model of particle physics. Subsequently the author describes several difficulties with this picture, continues with some possible indications of new physics, and finally ends with the discussion of the prospects for the future. 32 references.

Wojcicki, S.

1984-12-01

325

Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…

Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.

2012-01-01

326

Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-01

327

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute  

E-print Network

1 Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty This program and the engineering divisions at Rice and overseen by the Rice Quantum Institute (RQI), the Applied Physics Program is open to faculty from physics and astronomy, chemistry, mechanical engineering and materials science

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

328

Howard E. Haber Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)  

E-print Network

Howard E. Haber Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department., CERN Yellow Book, CERN-2006-009 (2006). 2. Particle Physics and Cosmology: The Quest for Physics Beyond Institute in Elementary Particle Physics, vols. I and II, H.E. Haber, editor, (World Scientific, Singapore

California at Santa Cruz, University of

329

Electric charge in the Standard Model of particle physics  

E-print Network

Electric charge in the Standard Model of particle physics Syed Afsar Abbas Department of Physics the Standard Model is empirically the most successful model of particle physics. However, the electric charge significance of the Standard Model in the broad framework of particle physics. Keywords: electric charge

330

Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.

Halpern, Paul

2012-09-01

331

Particle Physics from Almost Commutative Spacetimes  

E-print Network

Our aim in this review article is to present the applications of Connes' noncommutative geometry to elementary particle physics. Whereas the existing literature is mostly focused on a mathematical audience, in this article we introduce the ideas and concepts from noncommutative geometry using physicists' terminology, gearing towards the predictions that can be derived from the noncommutative description. Focusing on a light package of noncommutative geometry (so-called 'almost commutative manifolds'), we shall introduce in steps: electrodynamics, the electroweak model, culminating in the full Standard Model. We hope that our approach helps in understanding the role noncommutative geometry could play in describing particle physics models, eventually unifying them with Einstein's (geometrical) theory of gravity.

Koen van den Dungen; Walter D. van Suijlekom

2012-04-02

332

The search for supersymmetry in particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental high energy physics (HEP) techniques are applied to accurate simulated collider data in search for existence or exclusion of supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Supersymmetry is a leading candidate to resolve the hierarchy problem in particle physics as well as offer a stable dark matter candidate. Techniques and practices are explored and applied to the leptonic decay process production followed by and where is the proton, is the chargino, , are neutralinos and , are the standard model W and Higgs Bosons respectively. Signal yields are in general agreement with other researchers and ranged from 0.5 to 62.6 events. Reduction in the background to signal ratio is demonstrated through isolating the SUSY process and applying theoretical knowledge of the signal and associated dominant backgrounds. Results from this study establish procedures for future work with actual data, offer a benchmark for this specific leptonic decay process and may motivate variable selection and cut criteria choices in future analysis of similar signal processes.

Patrick, Richard J., II

333

An approach to the formalism of the Standard Model of Particle Physics  

E-print Network

So far, the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) describes the phenomenology observed in high energy physics. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to find the Higgs boson, which is an essential part of SM; also expects to see new particles or deviations from the SM, which would be evidence of other truly fundamental theory. Consequently, a clear understanding of the SM and, in general, quantum field theory is of great importance for particle physics, however, students face a formalism and a set of concepts with which they are unfamiliar. This paper shows how to make an approach to SM to introduce students to the formalism and some fundamental concepts.

O. E. Casas B; A. M. Raba P.; N. Poveda T

2010-04-20

334

FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS  

SciTech Connect

The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

Singer, Isadore M.

2008-03-04

335

Applications of Particle Accelerators in Medical Physics  

E-print Network

Particle accelerators are often associated to high energy or nuclear physics. As well pointed out in literature [1] if we kindly analyse the number of installation worldwide we can easily note that about 50% is mainly devoted to medical applications (radiotherapy, medical radioisotopes production, biomedical research). Particle accelerators are also playing an important indirect role considering the improvement of the technical features of medical diagnostic. In fact the use of radionuclide for advanced medical imaging is strongly increasing either in conventional radiography (CT and MRI) and also in nuclear medicine for Spect an PET imaging. In this paper role of particle accelerators for medical applications will be presented together with the main solutions applied.

Cuttone, G

2008-01-01

336

Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01

337

Scaling Laws in Particle Physics and Astrophysics  

E-print Network

Disclosure of scaling relationship between observable quantities gives direct information about dynamics of natural phenomenon. This is the main reason why scaling plays a key role in the methodology of natural sciences. In this talk, Part I will consider several diverse scaling laws in particle physics. Part II is dedicated to the to the extension of Chew-Frautschi hadronic spin/mass scaling relation to the realm of astronomical objects.

Rudolf Muradyan

2011-06-07

338

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process of fundamental importance for particle physics. It can be mediated by light massive Majorana neutrinos (standard interpretation) or by something else (non-standard interpretations). We review its dependence on the neutrino parameters, its complementarity to other observables sensitive to neutrino mass, and emphasize its ability to distinguish different neutrino mass models. Then we discuss mechanisms different from light Majorana neutrino exchange, and show what can be learned from those and how they could be tested.

Werner Rodejohann

2010-11-22

339

Current experiments in elementary-particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (ENL); CERN; DESY; Fermilab. (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMP. Also, summries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated.

Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.

1983-03-01

340

Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

Schramm, D. N.

1981-01-01

341

On the Physical Hilbert Space of Loop Quantum Cosmology  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a model of Riemannian loop quantum cosmology with a self-adjoint quantum scalar constraint. The physical Hilbert space is constructed using refined algebraic quantization. When matter is included in the form of a cosmological constant, the model is exactly solvable and we show explicitly that the physical Hilbert space is separable consisting of a single physical state. We extend the model to the Lorentzian sector and discuss important implications for standard loop quantum cosmology.

Karim Noui; Alejandro Perez; Kevin Vandersloot

2004-11-09

342

Auxiliary qubit selection: a physical synthesis technique for quantum circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum circuit design flow consists of two main tasks: synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed\\u000a on optimization of the quantum circuit objectives because of no information sharing between synthesis and physical design\\u000a processes, we introduced the concept of “physical synthesis” for quantum circuit flow and proposed a technique for it. Following\\u000a that concept, in this paper we propose

Naser Mohammadzadeh; Morteza Saheb Zamani; Mehdi Sedighi

2011-01-01

343

Emergence of particles from bosonic quantum field theory  

E-print Network

An examination is made of the way in which particles emerge from linear, bosonic, massive quantum field theories. Two different constructions of the one-particle subspace of such theories are given, both illustrating the importance of the interplay between the quantum-mechanical linear structure and the classical one. Some comments are made on the Newton-Wigner representation of one-particle states, and on the relationship between the approach of this paper and those of Segal, and of Haag and Ruelle.

David Wallace

2001-12-23

344

Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group  

SciTech Connect

This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-09-01

345

Quantum back-reaction and the particle law of motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a variational formulation of the interaction of a point particle with the spin 0 Schrödinger field in which there is no back-reaction of the particle on the wave, it is shown that the condition that (a certain subset of the) components of the current and energy-momentum complexes of the composite take their quantum values fixes the particle law of motion as that given by de Broglie and Bohm. No appeal to statistics is made.

Holland, Peter

2006-01-01

346

Cavity nonlinear optics with few photons and ultracold quantum particles  

E-print Network

The light force on particles trapped in the field of a high-Q cavity mode depends on the quantum state of field and particle. Different photon numbers generate different optical potentials anddifferent motional states induce different field evolution. Even for weak saturation and linear polarizability the induced particle motion leads to nonlinear field dynamics. We derive a corresponding effective field Hamiltonian containing all the powers of the photon number operator, which predicts nonlinear phase shifts and squeezing even at the few-photon level. Wave-function simulations of the full particle-field dynamics confirm this and show significant particle-field entanglement in addition.

András Vukics; Wolfgang Niedenzu; Helmut Ritsch

2008-02-17

347

A 'Dysonization' Scheme for Identifying Particles and Quasi-Particles Using Non-Hermitian Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

In 1956 Dyson analyzed the low-energy excitations of a ferromagnet using a Hamiltonian that was non-Hermitian with respect to the standard inner product. This allowed for a facile rendering of these excitations (known as spin waves) as weakly interacting bosonic quasi-particles. More than 50 years later, we have the full denouement of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics formalism at our disposal when considering Dyson's work, both technically and contextually. Here we recast Dyson's work on ferromagnets explicitly in terms of two inner products, with respect to which the Hamiltonian is always self-adjoint, if not manifestly "Hermitian". Then we extend his scheme to doped antiferromagnets described by the t-J model, in hopes of shedding light on the physics of high-temperature superconductivity.

Katherine Jones-Smith

2013-04-21

348

Majorana-Fermions, Their-Own Antiparticles, Following Non-Abelian Anyon/Semion Quantum-Statistics : Solid-State MEETS Particle Physics Neutrinos: Spin-Orbit--Coupled Superconductors and/or Superfluids to Neutrinos; Insulator-Heisenberg-Antiferromagnet MnF2 Majorana-Siegel-Birgenau-Keimer - Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Majorana-fermions, being their own antiparticles, following non-Abelian anyon/semion quantum-statistics: in Zhang et.al.--Detwiler et.al.-``Worlds-in-Collision'': solid-state/condensed-matter -- physics spin-orbit -- coupled topological-excitations in superconductors and/or superfluids -to- particle-physics neutrinos: ``When `Worlds' Collide'', analysis via Siegel[Schrodinger Centenary Symp., Imperial College , London (1987); in The Copenhagen-Interpretation Fifty-Years After the Como-Lecture, Symp. Fdns. Mod.-Phys., Joensu(1987); Symp. on Fractals, MRS Fall-Mtg., Boston(1989)-5-papers!!!] ``complex quantum-statistics in fractal-dimensions'', which explains hidden-dark-matter(HDM) IN Siegel ``Sephirot'' scenario for The Creation, uses Takagi[Prog.Theo.Phys. Suppl.88,1(86)]-Ooguri[PR D33,357(85)] - Picard-Lefschetz-Arnol'd-Vassilév[``Principia Read After 300 Years'', Not.AMS(1989); quantum-theory caveats comment-letters(1990); Applied Picard-Lefschetz Theory, AMS(2006)] -- theorem quantum-statistics , which via Euler- formula becomes which via de Moivre- -formula further becomes which on unit-circle is only real for only , i.e, for , versus complex with imaginary-damping denominator for , i.e, for , such that Fermi-Dirac quantum-statistics for

Majorana-Fermi-Segre, E.-L.; Antonoff-Overhauser-Salam, Marvin-Albert-Abdus; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2013-03-01

349

Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs.

Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

1993-01-01

350

Summary of the particle physics and technology working group  

SciTech Connect

Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leading-edge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.

Stephan Lammel et al.

2002-12-10

351

An Intense Life in Particle Physics R. Tschirhart  

E-print Network

An Intense Life in Particle Physics R. Tschirhart Fermilab University of Tennessee Knoxville of the Intensity Frontier in Particle Physics #12;November 14th 2011. R. Tschirhart - Fermilab The Energy Frontier

Dai, Pengcheng

352

ADVANCES IN IMAGING AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 128 Quantum Tomography  

E-print Network

ADVANCES IN IMAGING AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 128 Quantum Tomography G. MAURO D'ARIANO, MATTEO G. A. PARIS, and MASSIMILIANO F. SACCHI Quantum Optics and Information Group, Istituto Nazionale per la ............................. 223 B. Conventional Tomographic Imaging ...................... 224 1. Extension to the Quantum Domain

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

353

Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II  

E-print Network

Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II Instructor : Subir Sachdev, Lyman 343@fas.harvard.edu This is the second half of an introductory course on quantum mechanics. The course will complete the text book: the photon 5. Relativistic quantum mechanics: the Dirac equation 6. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen "paradox", Bell

354

Critique of "Quantum Enigma:Physic encounters Consciousness"  

E-print Network

The central claim that understanding quantum mechanics requires a conscious observer, which is made made by B. Rosenblum and F. Kuttner in their book "Quantum Enigma: Physics encounters consciousnes", is shown to be based on various misunderstandings and distortions of the foundations of quantum mechanics.

Michael Nauenberg

2007-05-14

355

Cosmology and Particle Physics beyond Standard Models Ten Years of the SEENET-MTP Network  

E-print Network

This publication - "Cosmology and Particle Physics beyond Standard Models" - is dedicated to the celebration of the tenth anniversary of the Southeastern European Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics (SEENET-MTP). As a Theme Collection, rather than a Monograph or Proceedings, this volume presents a number of reports and overviews, a few research papers and a short note. However, some of them are excellent examples of a nowadays increasingly deep interplay between particle physics and cosmology. Contributions span a wide range of topics in cosmology, particle physics, but also gravity, including the interface of these fields. The presented work is of both theoretical and experimental/ observational nature. The contributions represent recent progress in their respective fields: inflation, dark matter, neutrino physics, supersymmetry, collider physics, string theory, quantum gravity, black hole physics and massive gravity.

Álvarez-Gaumé, Luis; Stojkovic, Dejan

2014-01-01

356

Few-Particle Quantum Transmitting Boundary Method: Scattering Resonances Through a Charged 1D Quantum Dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an exact approach for the inclusion of particle-particle correlation in the calculation of current-carrying states in open systems. The method, based on the quantum transmitting boundary method [C. Lent and D. Kirkner, J. App. Phys. 67, 6353, 1990, is applied to compute the transmission amplitude of an electron crossing a 1D quantum dot with one or two other electrons in it.

Bertoni, A.; Goldoni, G.

357

The Philosophy of Fields and Particles in Classical and Quantum Mechanics, Including the Problem of Renormalisation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work first explicates the philosophy of classical and quantum fields and particles. I am interested in determining how science can have a metaphysical dimension, and then with the claim that the quantum revolution has an important metaphysical component. I argue that the metaphysical implications of a theory are properties of its models, as classical mechanics determines properties of atomic diversity and temporal continuity with its representations of distinct, continuous trajectories. It is often suggested that classical statistical physics requires that many particle states be represented so that permuting properties leads to distinct states; this implies that individuals can be reidentified across possible worlds in a non-qualitative way. I show there is no evidence for this conclusion, an important result, for it is claimed that quantum particles are not individuals. This claim is based on the misconception about classical statistics, but also on a conflation of notions of identity; I show that, while transworld identity is incompatible with quantum mechanics, other classical notions may be consistently ascribed. I also give a field-particle distinction that applies usefully in both quantum and classical domains. In the former the distinction helps defeat claims of underdetermined by data, in the latter it helps provide a minimal field metaphysics. Next I tackle renormalisation: I show how divergences occur in approximate, perturbative calculations, and demonstrate how finite, empirically verified, answers are obtained. These techniques seem to show that the predictions are not logical consequences of the exact theory. I use the techniques of the renormalisation group to establish that perturbative renormalised quantum field theory does indeed approximate the consequences of field theory. Finally, I discuss the idea (Cao and Schweber, 1994) that renormalisation proves that there can be no quantum theory of everything, only a patchwork of effective theories. The preceding chapter shows that renormalisation demonstrates only that the picture is consistent, and this is insufficient to show that physics must be phenomenological.

Huggett, Nick

1995-01-01

358

TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS  

SciTech Connect

High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the machines with which you will be involved in the years to come. Perhaps, we can even turn your frustration with the inadequacy of these machines into marvel at the performance of the accelerators. At the least, we hope to convince you that the accelerators are central, not peripheral, to our science and that the physics of such machines is both fascinating and sophisticated. The plan is the following: First I will give two lectures on basic accelerator physics; then you will hear two lectures on the state of the art, present limitations, the specific parameters of LEP, HERA, TEV2 and SLC, and some extrapolation to the next generation of machines such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), and Large Linear Colliders; finally, I will give two lectures on new acceleration methods.

Sessler, A.M.

1984-07-01

359

The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Grid-enabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Grid-based software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experiment-specific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, high-speed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.

Livny, Miron

2002-08-16

360

Cognitive Mapping of Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a study that investigated students' understanding of quantum phenomena and focused on how students incorporate the ideas of quantum physics into their overall cognitive framework. The heuristic metaphor of the map is used to construct graphic representations of students' understanding of quantum physics. The…

Mashhadi, Azam; Woolnough, Brian

361

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron  

E-print Network

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre astroparticle physics(f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle modeling of nonthermal sources · Kinetic studies of wave-particle interactions · Particle acceleration

362

Eulerian and Newtonian dynamics of quantum particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the classical equations of hydrodynamics (the Euler and continuity equations), from which the Schrödinger equation follows as a limit case. It is shown that the statistical ensemble corresponding to a quantum system and described by the Schrödinger equation can be considered an inviscid gas that obeys the ideal gas law with a quickly oscillating sign-alternating temperature. This statistical ensemble performs the complex movements consisting of smooth average movement and fast oscillations. It is shown that the average movements of the statistical ensemble are described by the Schrödinger equation. A model of quantum motion within the limits of classical mechanics that corresponds to the hydrodynamic system considered is suggested.

Rashkovskiy, S. A.

2013-06-01

363

Physical and optical properties of dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, atmospheric aerosol particles have been described as smokes, fumes, hazes, mists, and dusts. Smokes and fumes are particles, formed by secondary or combustion processes, which are generally smaller than 0.5 micrometer radius, while dusts are generally larger than 0.5 micrometer radius. Airborne dusts from industrial, agricultural and natural sources are major contributors to pollution on local, regional, and continental scales. Such dusts can cause visibility reduction, performance degradation of IR sensors, health impacts, and both short and long term climatological effects. From an aerospace point of view, the most important effects will generally be optical effects. Two important classes of atmospheric dusts are considered, including soil derived crustal aerosols and volcanic ash. These dusts are discussed in terms of sources, generation process, and physical and optical properties.

Patterson, E. M.

1983-01-01

364

A Particle Physics Tour with CompHEP  

E-print Network

A Particle Physics Tour with CompHEP Jeffrey D. Richman April 26, 2006 #12;Outline" in particle physics: decay rates, cross sections,... Z-boson, t-quark, and Higgs decay in the SM Compton interactions: production of dijets, t-quarks, t t H Conclusions #12;A Tour of Particle Physics with CompHEP ee

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

365

University of Wisconsin 1998 Aspen Particle Physics Conference  

E-print Network

W. Badgett University of Wisconsin 1998 Aspen Particle Physics Conference 27­Jan­1998 Recent at the 1998 Aspen Particle Physics Winter Conference #12; W. Badgett University of Wisconsin 1998 Aspen Particle Physics Conference 27­Jan­1998 Outline . Introduction to HERA Kinematics . The F 2 Structure

366

An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics Sakir Kocabas1 and Pat Langley2. In this paper we describe BR-4, a computational model of scienti c discovery in particle physics. The system of particle physics, including the discovery of the neutrino and the postulation of baryon, lepton

Langley, Pat

367

SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS LIST OF PREPRINTS  

E-print Network

SANTA CRUZ INSTITUTE FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS LIST OF PREPRINTS SCIPP # 1. Finite Size Scaling Photons and Hadrons, C. Heusch, Presented at the SLAC Summer Institute 82/9 on Particle Physics, 1981. 10 at SPEAR Energies, A. Seiden, 82/17 talk presented at Aspen DPF Summer Study on Elementary Particle Physics

California at Santa Cruz, University of

368

Noncommutative Geometry Models for Particle Physics and Cosmology  

E-print Network

Noncommutative Geometry Models for Particle Physics and Cosmology Matilde Marcolli UNAM, Cuernavaca, April 2010 Matilde Marcolli Noncommutative Geometry Models for Particle Physics and Co #12;The NCG Noncommutative Geometry Models for Particle Physics and Co #12;The noncommutative space X Ã? F extra dimensions

Marcolli, Matilde

369

Particle Physics: A New Course for Schools and Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers questions relating to the introduction of particle physics into post-GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) courses. Describes a project that is producing teacher and student materials to support the teaching of particle physics at this level. Presents a proposed syllabus for a particle physics module. (KR)

Swinbank, Elizabeth

1992-01-01

370

An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics  

E-print Network

An Integrated Framework for Extended Discovery in Particle Physics Sakir Kocabas 1 and Pat Langley. In this paper we describe BR­4, a computational model of scientific discovery in particle physics. The system of particle physics, including the discovery of the neutrino and the postulation of baryon, lepton

Langley, Pat

371

How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte  

E-print Network

How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte Department of Philosophy and School in particle physics. Discovering conservation laws has posed various challenges concerning Model of particle physics, I show that the standard family laws are the only ones that determine

Schulte, Oliver

372

STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW -EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS  

E-print Network

STFC 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS REVIEW - EXPERIMENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL ROLLING GRANTS Guidelines for Applicants CONTENTS PAGE Introduction and Timetable 1 Particle Physics Grants Panel 1 Enquiries 2 Part A ­ 2009 Review of Experimental Particle Physics Rolling Grants 3 ­ Guidelines for Applicants 1 Procedures

373

Quantum chromodynamics at high energy and statistical physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When hadrons scatter at high energies, strong color fields, whose dynamics is described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), are generated at the interaction point. If one represents these fields in terms of partons (quarks and gluons), the average number densities of the latter saturate at ultrahigh energies. At that point, nonlinear effects become predominant in the dynamical equations. The hadronic states that one gets in this regime of QCD are generically called “color glass condensates”. Our understanding of scattering in QCD has benefited from recent progress in statistical and mathematical physics. The evolution of hadronic scattering amplitudes at fixed impact parameter in the regime where nonlinear parton saturation effects become sizable was shown to be similar to the time evolution of a system of classical particles undergoing reaction-diffusion processes. The dynamics of such a system is essentially governed by equations in the universality class of the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation, which is a stochastic nonlinear partial differential equation. Realizations of that kind of equations (that is, “events” in a particle physics language) have the form of noisy traveling waves. Universal properties of the latter can be taken over to scattering amplitudes in QCD. This review provides an introduction to the basic methods of statistical physics useful in QCD, and summarizes the correspondence between these two fields and its theoretical and phenomenological implications.

Munier, S.

2009-04-01

374

Quantum mechanical tunneling of composite particle systems: Linkage to sub-barrier nuclear reactions  

SciTech Connect

A variety of physical phenomena have at their foundation the quantum tunneling of particles through potential barriers. Many of these phenomena can be associated with the tunneling of single inert particles. The tunneling of composite systems is more complex than for single particles due to the coupling of the tunneling coordinate with the internal degrees of freedom of the tunneling system. Reported here are the results of a study for the tunneling of a two-component projectile incident on a potential energy system which differs for the two components. A specific linkage is made to sub-Coulomb nuclear reactions.

Shotter, A. C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); Shotter, M. D. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

2011-05-15

375

Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.

376

Quantum statistics in multiple particle production  

E-print Network

Effects of quantum statistics are clearly seen in the final states of high-energy multiparticle production processes. These effects are being widely used to obtain information about the regions where the final state hadrons are produced. Here we briefly present and discuss the assumptions underlying most of these analyses.

K. Zalewski

2004-10-21

377

Quantum Electrodynamics of Confined Nonrelativistic Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a system of finitely many nonrelativistic, quantum mechanical electrons bound to static nuclei. The electrons are minimally coupled to the quantized electromagnetic field; but we impose an ultraviolet cutoff on the electromagnetic vector potential appearing in covariant derivatives, and the interactions between the radiation field and electrons localized very far from the nuclei are turned off. For a

Volker Bach; Jürg Fröhlich; Israel Michael Sigal

1998-01-01

378

Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-01

379

Proof-of-concept experiments for quantum physics in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum physics experiments in space using entangled photons and satellites are within reach of current technology. We propose a series of fundamental quantum physics experiments that make advantageous use of the space infrastructure with specific emphasis on the satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs. The experiments are feasible already today and will eventually lead to a Bell-experiment over thousands of

Rainer Kaltenbaek; Markus Aspelmeyer; Thomas Jennewein; Caslav Brukner; Anton Zeilinger; Martin Pfennigbauer; Walter R. Leeb

2004-01-01

380

Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute  

E-print Network

88 Applied Physics Graduate Program The Rice Quantum Institute Participating Faculty This program is open to faculty from physics and astronomy, chemistry, mechanical engineering and materials science of both the natural sciences and the engineering divisions at Rice and overseen by the Rice Quantum

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

381

Connecting nuclear physics to quantum chromodynamics  

SciTech Connect

I discuss how effective theories and numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics are together helping us understand the interaction between neutrons and protons. Explicit numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral, using lattice methods and super-computers, appears to be the best option for calculations of QCD in the non-perturbative regime. I show that complementary information is provided by effective theories, which can help to relate these intensive ''lattice QCD'' calculations to nuclear-physics experiments. I place particular emphasis on the way in which the long-distance symmetries of QCD observed in lattice simulations constrain the interactions of neutrons and protons with one another, and I show how this leads to predictions for electron scattering from light nuclei.

Phillips, Daniel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Unviersity, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

2011-10-27

382

(Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

Nefkens, B.M.K.

1985-10-01

383

Particle physics in the very early universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

Schramm, D. N.

1981-01-01

384

Process Physics: From Quantum Foam to General Relativity  

E-print Network

Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality. Here general relativity and the technical language of general covariance is seen not to be fundamental but a phenomenological construct, arising as an amalgam of two distinct phenomena: the `gravitational' characteristics of the emergent quantum foam for which `matter' acts as a sink, and the classical `spacetime' measurement protocol, but with the later violated by quantum measurement processes. Quantum gravity, as manifested in the emergent Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of the process-space or quantum foam, is logically prior to the emergence of the general relativity phenomenology, and cannot be derived from it.

Reginald T. Cahill

2002-03-05

385

Quantum correlation between a particle and potential well or barrier  

E-print Network

A two-body quantum correlation is calculated for a particle and an infinite potential well in which it is trapped or either a barrier or finite well over which it traverses. Correlated interference results when the incident and reflected particle substates and their associated well or barrier substates overlap. Measurement of the particle in this region causes a splitting of the well or barrier substate at subsequent times. The joint probability density, which is a function both of the different positions and different times at which the particle and well or barrier are measured, is derived assuming that no interaction occurs between the time each is measured.

F. V. Kowalski; R. S. Browne

2014-05-03

386

BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly relaxed style with infectious enthusiasm for his subject, and readily combines formal instruction with physical insight. The result is a serious, pedagogical yet comprehensive guide to the fascinating and important field of one-dimensional quantum systems, for which many a graduate student (and not a few oldies) will be grateful. The first half of the book, chapters 1--5, is devoted to a coherent presentation of the essential concepts and theoretical methods of the field. After a basic introduction to the unique behaviour of interacting electrons in one dimension, and to early fermionic approaches to the problem, Giamarchi turns to the technique of bosonization, introducing chapter 3 with a Marxist quote: `A child of five would understand this. Send for a child of five.' This most powerful technique is presented in a step by step fashion, and serious perusal of the chapter will benefit all ages since bosonization is used extensively throughout the rest of the book. The same is true of chapter 3 where a phenomenological and physically insightful introduction is given to the Luttinger liquid---the key concept in the low-energy physics of one-dimensional systems, analogous to the Fermi liquid in higher dimensions. Chapter 4 deals with what the author calls `refinements', or complications of the sort theorists in particular welcome; such as how the Luttinger liquid description is modified by the presence of long-ranged interactions, the Mott transition (`we forgot the lattice Gromit'), and the effects of breaking spin rotational invariance on application of a magnetic field. Finally chapter 5 describes various microscopic methods for one dimension, including a brief discussion of numerical techniques but focussing primarily on the Bethe ansatz---the famous one-dimensional technique others seek to emulate but whose well known complexity necessitates a relatively brief discussion, confined in practice to the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model. In the second half of the book, chapters 6--11, a range of different physical realizations of one-dimensional quantum physics are dis

Logan, David

2004-05-01

387

Kleinian groups in E (?) and their connection to particle physics and cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes that the geometry and topology of quantum spacetime is shadowed closely by quasi-Fuschian and Kleinian groups and that is the cause behind the phenomena of high energy particle physics. In addition, on the large scale measurement of, for instance, microwave background temperature, the universality of the Merger sponge provides an excellent limit set model for the Charlier–Zeldovich

M. S El Naschie

2003-01-01

388

CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation ? for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form t2/3+?. Based on recent H(z) data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the ? parameter have been found as m = 1.6× 103 GeV, restricted to a 68.3% c.l. interval of 1.5 < m < 6.3× 107) GeV and ? = -0.250+0.15-0.096 at 68.3% c.l. For these best fit values the model correctly recovers a transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion and admits a positive creation rate near the present era. Contrary to recent works in CCDM models where the creation rate was phenomenologically derived, here we have used a quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called ``dark degeneracy'', where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.

Jesus, J. F.; Pereira, S. H.

2014-07-01

389

Particle Physics Summary : a digest of the 1996 Review of Particle Physics  

E-print Network

This report summarizes the highlights of the 1996 Review of Particle Physics (Phys, Rev. D54, 1 (1996)). Using data from previous editions, plus 1900 new measurements from 700 papers, we list, evaluate, and average, measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. We also give numerous reviews, tables, figures, and formulae. The present edition marks the apparent completion of the table of Standard Model quarks with the discovery of the top. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of the full Review..

Particle Data Group. Berkeley; Carone, Cristopher D; Groom, Donald E; Trippe, Thomas G; Wohl, Charles G; Armstrong, Betty; Gee, Paul S; Wagman, Gary S; James, Fred; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mönig, Klaus; Montanet, Lucien; Feng, Jonathan L; Murayama, Hitoshi; Hernández, Juan José; Manohar, Aneesh Vasant; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Caso, Carlo; Crawford, Ronald L; Roos, Matts; Törnqvist, N A; Hayes, Kenneth G; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Nakamura, Kenzo; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Olive, Keith A; Honscheid, Klaus; Burchat, Patricia R; Shrock, Robert E; Eidelman, Simon; Schindler, Rafe H; Gurtu, Atul; Hikasa, Ken Ichi; Conforto, Gianni; Workman, Ronald L; Grab, C; Amsler, C

1996-01-01

390

9/16/2009 Andy Haas Stanford Student Orientation: Accelerator based Particle Physics 1 Accelerator-based Particle Physics  

E-print Network

9/16/2009 Andy Haas Stanford Student Orientation: Accelerator based Particle Physics 1 Accelerator-based Particle Physics Opportunities at SLAC/Stanford Andy Haas / SLAC Stanford Student Orientation Sept. 16, 2009 #12;9/16/2009 Andy Haas Stanford Student Orientation: Accelerator based Particle Physics 2

Wechsler, Risa H.

391

Experimental particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Drexel Univ  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics beyond the standard model and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large-area underground detector to search fore grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low- and high-energy neutrinos; the Chooz experiment to search for reactor neutrino oscillations at a distance of 1 km from the source; a new proposal (the Perry experiment) to construct a one-kiloton liquid scintillator in the Fairport, Ohio underground facility IMB to study neutrino oscillations with a 13 km baseline; and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very-low-background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments.

Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.

1992-09-01

392

Effective particle kinematics from quantum gravity  

SciTech Connect

Particles propagating in de Sitter spacetime can be described by the topological BF SO(4,1) theory coupled to point charges. Gravitational interaction between them can be introduced by adding to the action a symmetry breaking term, which reduces the local gauge symmetry down to SO(3,1), and which can be treated as a perturbation. In this paper we focus solely on topological interactions which correspond to zeroth order in this perturbative expansion. We show that in this approximation the system is effectively described by the SO(4,1) Chern-Simons theory coupled to particles and living on the three-dimensional boundary of spacetime. Then, using Alekseev-Malkin construction we find the effective theory of particles kinematics. We show that the particles action contains standard kinetic terms and the deformation shows up in the presence of interaction terms. The strength of the interactions is proportional to deformation parameter, identified with Planck mass scale.

Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Starodubtsev, Artem [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maxa Borna 9, Pl-50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, F-13288 Marseille (France)

2008-10-15

393

Effective particle kinematics from Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

Particles propagating in de Sitter spacetime can be described by the topological BF $\\SO(4,1)$ theory coupled to point charges. Gravitational interaction between them can be introduced by adding to the action a symmetry breaking term, which reduces the local gauge symmetry down to $\\SO(3,1)$, and which can be treated as a perturbation. In this paper we focus solely on topological interactions which corresponds to zeroth order in this perturbative expansion. We show that in this approximation the system is effectively described by the $\\SO(4,1)$ Chern-Simons theory coupled to particles and living on the 3 dimensional boundary of space-time. Then, using Alekseev--Malkin construction we find the effective theory of particles kinematics. We show that the particles action contains standard kinetic terms and the deformation shows up in the presence of interaction terms. The strength of the interactions is proportional to deformation parameter, identified with Planck mass scale.

Jerzy Kowalski-Glikman; Artem Starodubtsev

2008-08-19

394

Unified statistical distribution of quantum particles and Symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a unified statistics of Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics by suggesting that every particle can be associated with matter or fundamental forces with certain probability. The main Justification for this proposal is the possibility of extension of the spin-statistics theory to include a hypothetical quantum particles have fractional spin. The concept of Supersymmetry can be related to this unified statistics.

Abutaleb, Ahmad Adel

2014-11-01

395

Teaching and understanding of quantum interpretations in modern physics courses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics courses recently taught at the University of Colorado, and examine associated impacts on student perspectives regarding quantum physics. We find students are more likely to prefer realist interpretations of quantum-mechanical systems when instructors are less explicit in addressing student ontologies. We also observe contextual variations in student beliefs about quantum systems, indicating that instructors who choose to address questions of ontology in quantum mechanics should do so explicitly across a range of topics.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-03-11

396

Teaching and understanding of quantum interpretations in modern physics courses  

E-print Network

Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics courses recently taught at the University of Colorado, and examine associated impacts on student perspectives regarding quantum physics. We find students are more likely to prefer realist interpretations of quantum-mechanical systems when instructors are less explicit in addressing student ontologies. We also observe contextual variations in student beliefs about quantum systems, indicating that instructors who choose to address questions of ontology in quantum mechanics should do so explicitly across a range of topics.

Charles Baily; Noah D. Finkelstein

2012-08-28

397

A QuAntum DigitAl universe QuAntum informAtion helps founDAtions of physics  

E-print Network

A QuAntum DigitAl universe QuAntum informAtion helps founDAtions of physics Giacomo mauro D but to probe the limits of quantum physics, pushing its boundaries both theoretically and experimentally. vol28 scienza in primo piano 1 Introduction: the lesson of Quantum Information Within the history of quantum

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

398

Physical optimization of quantum error correction circuits with spatially separated quantum dot spins.  

PubMed

We propose an efficient protocol for optimizing the physical implementation of three-qubit quantum error correction with spatially separated quantum dot spins via virtual-photon-induced process. In the protocol, each quantum dot is trapped in an individual cavity and each two cavities are connected by an optical fiber. We propose the optimal quantum circuits and describe the physical implementation for correcting both the bit flip and phase flip errors by applying a series of one-bit unitary rotation gates and two-bit quantum iSWAP gates that are produced by the long-range interaction between two distributed quantum dot spins mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity. The protocol opens promising perspectives for long distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computation networks. PMID:23736467

Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

2013-05-20

399

Quantum Theory of Non-Relativistic Particles Interacting with Gravity  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of the gravitational field on the quantum dynamics of non-relativistic particles. We consider N non-relativistic particles, interacting with the linearized gravitational field. Using the Feynman - Vernon influence functional technique, we trace out the graviton field, to obtain a master equation for the system of particles to first order in $G$. The effective interaction between the particles, as well as the self-interaction is non-local in time and in general non-markovian. We show that the gravitational self-interaction cannot be held responsible for decoherence of microscopic particles due to the fast vanishing of the diffusion function. For macroscopic particles though, it leads to diagonalization to the energy eigenstate basis, a desirable feature in gravity induced collapse models. We finally comment on possible applications.

C. Anastopoulos

1995-11-01

400

Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics  

SciTech Connect

How is mind related to matter? This ancient question inphilosophy is rapidly becoming a core problem in science, perhaps themost important of all because it probes the essential nature of manhimself. The origin of the problem is a conflict between the mechanicalconception of human beings that arises from the precepts of classicalphysical theory and the very different idea that arises from ourintuition: the former reduces each of us to an automaton, while thelatter allows our thoughts to guide our actions. The dominantcontemporary approaches to the problem attempt to resolve this conflictby clinging to the classical concepts, and trying to explain away ourmisleading intuition. But a detailed argument given here shows why, in ascientific approach to this problem, it is necessary to use the morebasic principles of quantum physics, which bring the observer into thedynamics, rather than to accept classical precepts that are profoundlyincorrect precisely at the crucial point of the role of humanconsciousness in the dynamics of human brains. Adherence to the quantumprinciples yields a dynamical theory of the mind/brain/body system thatis in close accord with our intuitive idea of what we are. In particular,the need for a self-observing quantum system to pose certain questionscreates a causal opening that allowsmind/brain dynamics to have threedistinguishable but interlocked causal processes, one micro-local, onestochastic, and the third experiential. Passing to the classical limit inwhich the critical difference between zero and the finite actual value ofPlanck's constant is ignored not only eliminates the chemical processesthat are absolutely crucial to the functioning of actual brains, itsimultaneously blinds the resulting theoretical construct to the physicalfine structure wherein the effect of mind on matter lies: the use of thislimit in this context is totally unjustified from a physicsperspective.

Stapp, H.P.

1999-05-01

401

Relativistic Quantum Newton's Law For A Spinless Particle  

E-print Network

For a one-dimensional stationary system, we derive a third order equation of motion representing a first integral of the relativistic quantum Newton's law. We then integrate this equation in the constant potential case and calculate the time spent by a particle tunneling through a potential barrier.

A. Bouda; F. Hammad

2001-11-21

402

Quantum Master Equation of Particle in Gas Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the reduced density operatorof Brownian particle is discussed in single collision approach valid typically in low density gas environments. This is the first succesful derivation of quantum friction caused by local environmental interactions. We derive a Lindblad master equation for ?, whose generators are calculated from differential cross section of a single collision between Brownian and gas

Lajos Diosi

403

Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introduction to Methods: 1. QFT: language and goals; 2. Connection between quantum and classical: path integrals; 3. Definitions of correlation functions: Wick's theorem; 4. Free bosonic field in an external field; 5. Perturbation theory: Feynman diagrams; 6. Calculation methods for diagram series: divergences and their elimination; 7. Renormalization group procedures; 8. O(N)-symmetric vector model below the transition point; 9. Nonlinear sigma models in two dimensions: renormalization group and 1/N-expansion; 10. O(3) nonlinear sigma model in the strong coupling limit; Part II. Fermions: 11. Path integral and Wick's theorem for fermions; 12. Interaction electrons: the Fermi liquid; 13. Electrodynamics in metals; 14. Relativistic fermions: aspects of quantum electrodynamics; 15. Aharonov-Bohm effect and transmutation of statistics; Part III. Strongly Fluctuating Spin Systems: Introduction; 16. Schwinger-Wigner quantization procedure: nonlinear sigma models; 17. O(3) nonlinear sigma model in (2+1) dimensions: the phase diagram; 18. Order from disorder; 19. Jordan-Wigner transformations for spin S=1/2 models in D=1, 2, 3; 20. Majorana representation for spin S=1/2 magnets: relationship to Z2 lattice gauge theories; 21. Path integral representations for a doped antiferromagnet; Part IV. Physics in the World of One Spatial Dimension: Introduction; 22. Model of the free bosonic massless scalar field; 23. Relevant and irrelevant fields; 24. Kosterlitz-Thouless transition; 25. Conformal symmetry; 26. Virasoro algebra; 27. Differential equations for the correlation functions; 28. Ising model; 29. One-dimensional spinless fermions: Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid; 30. One-dimensional fermions with spin: spin-charge separation; 31. Kac-Moody algebras: Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model; 32. Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model in the Lagrangian form: non-Abelian bosonization; 33. Semiclassical approach to Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models; 34. Integrable models: dynamical mass generation; 35. A comparative study of dynamical mass generation in one and three dimensions; 36. One-dimensional spin liquids: spin ladder and spin S=1 Heisenberg chain; 37. Kondo chain; 38. Gauge fixing in non-Abelian theories: (1+1)-dimensional quantum chromodynamics; Select bibliography; Index.

Tsvelik, Alexei M.

2007-01-01

404

Measurement processes in quantum physics a new theory of measurements in terms of statistical ensembles  

E-print Network

Considering the recently established arbitrariness the Schrödinger equation has to be interpreted as an equation of motion for a statistical ensemble of particles. The statistical qualities of individual particles derive from the unknown intrinsic energy components, they depend on the physical environment by way of external potentials. Due to these statistical qualities and wave function normalization, non-locality is inherent to the fundamental relations of Planck, de Broglie and Schrödinger. A local formulation of these statements is introduced and briefly assessed, the modified and local Schrödinger equation is non-linear. Quantum measurements are analyzed in detail, the exact interplay between causal and statistical reasons in a measurement process can be accounted for. Examples of individual measurement effects in quantum theory are given, the treatment of diffraction experiments, neutron interferences, quantum erasers, the quantum Zeno effect, and interaction-free measurements can be described consis...

Hofer, W A

1997-01-01

405

Quantum physics explains Newton's laws of motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newton was obliged to give his laws of motion as fundamental axioms. But today we know that the quantum world is fundamental, and Newton’s laws can be seen as consequences of fundamental quantum laws. This article traces this transition from fundamental quantum mechanics to derived classical mechanics.

Ogborn, Jon; Taylor, Edwin F.

2005-01-01

406

Quantum physics explains Newton's laws of motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newton was obliged to give his laws of motion as fundamental axioms. But today we know that the quantum world is fundamental, and Newton's laws can be seen as consequences of fundamental quantum laws. This article traces this transition from fundamental quantum mechanics to derived classical mechanics.

Jon Ogborn; Edwin F. Taylor

2005-01-01

407

Quantum Phase and Quantum Phase Operators: Some Physics and Some History  

E-print Network

After reviewing the role of phase in quantum mechanics, I discuss, with the aid of a number of unpublished documents, the development of quantum phase operators in the 1960's. Interwoven in the discussion are the critical physics questions of the field: Are there (unique) quantum phase operators and are there quantum systems which can determine their nature? I conclude with a critique of recent proposals which have shed new light on the problem.

Michael Martin Nieto

1993-04-08

408

Colloquium: Majorana Fermions in nuclear, particle and solid-state physics  

E-print Network

Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own anti-particle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their anti-particles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can only exist if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence doesn't stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid state physics giving rise to emergent states that are described as Majorana fermions. Our theoretical understanding indicates that such states must exist in superconductors and, in fact, there is some evidence that they have been observed. If so, it might lead to advances in quantum computing. This review first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own anti-particle in nuclear, particle, and solid state physics.

S. R. Elliott; M. Franz

2014-03-19

409

The Quantum World Around Us: Teaching Quantum and SolidState Physics to NonScience Majors  

E-print Network

The Quantum World Around Us: Teaching Quantum and Solid­State Physics to Non­Science Majors James K are developing a physics course for non­science majors at Georgetown University entitled ``The Quantum World and applications of quantum mechanics and solid­state physics. Without using advanced mathematics, we present

Freericks, Jim

410

Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics  

E-print Network

It was the best of times; it was the worst of times is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important.

Burton Richter

2007-02-16

411

Energy related applications of elementary particle physics  

SciTech Connect

The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise.

Rafelski, J.

1991-08-31

412

RESEARCH ARTICLE Quantum nanospheres for sub-micron particle image velocimetry  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Quantum nanospheres for sub-micron particle image velocimetry Patrick E image velocimetry (PIV). The 70 nm diameter QNs were created by conjugating quantum dots to polystyrene Particle image velocimetry QD Quantum dot QN Quantum nanosphere CdSe Cadmium selenide ZnS Zinc sulfide Nd

Meinhart, Carl

413

Entanglement of indistinguishable particles in condensed-matter physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of entanglement in systems where the particles are indistinguishable has been the subject of much recent interest and controversy. In this paper we study the notion of entanglement of particles introduced by Wiseman and Vaccaro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 097902 (2003)] in several specific physical systems, including some that occur in condensed-matter physics. The entanglement of particles is

Mark R. Dowling; Andrew C. Doherty; Howard M. Wiseman

2006-01-01

414

Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

Organtini, Giovanni

2011-01-01

415

Interpretive Themes in Quantum Physics: Curriculum Development and Outcomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our prior work has shown that student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics can be characterized, and are differentially influenced by the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. We report how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) has positively impacted student perspectives on quantum physics, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of the course, but also by making the beliefs of students (and not just those of scientists) an explicit topic of discussion.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2012-04-24

416

Quantum Tic-Tac-Toe as Metaphor for Quantum Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Tic-Tac-Toe is presented as an abstract quantum system derived from the rules of Classical Tic-Tac-Toe. Abstract quantum systems can be constructed from classical systems by the addition of three types of rules; rules of Superposition, rules of Entanglement, and rules of Collapse. This is formally done for Quantum Tic-Tac-Toe. As a part of this construction it is shown that abstract quantum systems can be viewed as an ensemble of classical systems. That is, the state of a quantum game implies a set of simultaneous classical games. The number and evolution of the ensemble of classical games is driven by the superposition, entanglement, and collapse rules. Various aspects and play situations provide excellent metaphors for standard features of quantum mechanics. Several of the more significant metaphors are discussed, including a measurement mechanism, the correspondence principle, Everett's Many Worlds Hypothesis, an ascertainity principle, and spooky action at a distance. Abstract quantum systems also show the consistency of backwards-in-time causality, and the influence on the present of both pasts and futures that never happened. The strongest logical argument against faster-than-light (FTL) phenomena is that since FTL implies backwards-in-time causality, temporal paradox is an unavoidable consequence of FTL; hence FTL is impossible. Since abstract quantum systems support backwards-in-time causality but avoid temporal paradox through pruning of the classical ensemble, it may be that quantum based FTL schemes are possible allowing backwards-in-time causality, but prohibiting temporal paradox.

Goff, Allan; Lehmann, Dale; Siegel, Joel

2004-02-01

417

Alternating-color quantum dot nanocomposites for particle tracking.  

PubMed

Because of their extraordinary brightness and photostability, quantum dots (QDs) have tremendous potential for long-term, particle tracking in heterogeneous systems (e.g., living cells, microfluidic flow). However, one of their major limitations is blinking, an intermittent loss of fluorescence, characteristic of individual and small clusters of QDs, that interrupts particle tracking. Recently, several research groups have reported "nonblinking QDs". However, blinking is the primary method used to confirm nanoparticle aggregation status in situ, and single or small clusters of nanoparticles with continuous fluorescence emission are difficult to discern from large aggregates. Here, we describe a new class of quantum dot-based composite nanoparticles that solve these two seemingly irreconcilable problems by exhibiting near-continuous, alternating-color fluorescence, which permits aggregation status discrimination by observable color changes even during motion across the focal plane. These materials will greatly enhance particle tracking in cell biology, biophysics, and fluid mechanics. PMID:21322589

Ruan, Gang; Winter, Jessica O

2011-03-01

418

Similarity-Projection structures: the logical geometry of Quantum Physics  

E-print Network

Similarity-Projection structures abstract the numerical properties of real scalar product of rays and projections in Hilbert spaces to provide a more general framework for Quantum Physics. They are characterized by properties that possess direct physical meaning. They provide a formal framework that subsumes both classical boolean logic concerned with sets and subsets and quantum logic concerned with Hilbert space, closed subspaces and projections. They shed light on the role of the phase factors that are central to Quantum Physics. The generalization of the notion of a self-adjoint operator to SP-structures provides a novel notion that is free of linear algebra.

Daniel Lehmann

2008-05-06

419

Proceedings 9th Workshop on Quantum Physics and Logic  

E-print Network

This volume contains the proceedings of the ninth workshop on Quantum Physics and Logic (QPL2012) which took place in Brussels from the 10th to the 12th of October 2012. QPL2012 brought together researchers working on mathematical foundations of quantum physics, quantum computing, and spatio-temporal causal structures. The particular focus was on the use of logical tools, ordered algebraic and category-theoretic structures, formal languages, semantical techniques, and other computer science methods for the study of physical behaviour in general.

Ross Duncan; Prakash Panangaden

2014-07-29

420

Faculty Position in Experimental Particle Physics Department of Physics, Carleton University  

E-print Network

, the Department has an active medical physics research group with comprehensive links to Ottawa's medical physicsFaculty Position in Experimental Particle Physics Department of Physics, Carleton University-track faculty position in experimental particle physics at the rank of Assistant Professor in the Department

421

Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Some Lessons from the Particle PhysicsCondensed Matter  

E-print Network

Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Some Lessons from the Particle Physics­Condensed Matter Physics Debate Don Howard Department of Philosophy and History and Philosophy of Science Graduate and emergence in the physical sciences, more specificallythe relationship between particle physics and condensed

Howard, Don

422

Effective particle kinematics from quantum gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particles propagating in de Sitter spacetime can be described by the topological BF SO(4,1) theory coupled to point charges. Gravitational interaction between them can be introduced by adding to the action a symmetry breaking term, which reduces the local gauge symmetry down to SO(3,1), and which can be treated as a perturbation. In this paper we focus solely on topological

Jerzy Kowalski-Glikman; Artem Starodubtsev

2008-01-01

423

Abraham Seiden Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP)  

E-print Network

Abraham Seiden Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department of Physics Physics M.S. 1970 University of California, Santa Cruz Physics Ph.D. 1974 POST DOCTORAL APPOINTMENTS 1975-1976 Postdoctoral Research Scientist, High Energy Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz 1974-1975 Visiting

California at Santa Cruz, University of

424

Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics  

SciTech Connect

This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

Whitaker, J.S.

1990-01-05

425

Particle Physics in a Season of Change  

SciTech Connect

A digest of the authors opening remarks at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. I have chosen my title to reflect the transitions we are living through, in particle physics overall and in hadron collider physics in particular. Data-taking has ended at the Tevatron, with {approx} 12 fb{sup -1} of {bar p}p interactions delivered to CDF and D0 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider has registered a spectacular first full-year run, with ATLAS and CMS seeing > 5 fb{sup -1}, LHCb recording {approx} 1 fb{sup -1}, and ALICE logging nearly 5 pb{sup -1} of pp data at {radical}s = 7 TeV, plus a healthy dose of Pb-Pb collisions. The transition to a new energy regime and new realms of instantaneous luminosity exceeding 3.5 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has brought the advantage of enhanced physics reach and the challenge of pile-up reaching {approx} 15 interactions per beam crossing. I am happy to record that what the experiments have (not) found so far has roused some of my theoretical colleagues from years of complacency and stimulated them to think anew about what the TeV scale might hold. We theorists have had plenty of time to explore many proposals for electroweak symmetry breaking and for new physics that might lie beyond established knowledge. With so many different theoretical inventions in circulation, it is in the nature of things that most will be wrong. Keep in mind that we learn from what experiment tells us is not there, even if it is uncommon to throw a party for ruling something out. Some non-observations may be especially telling: the persistent absence of flavor-changing neutral currents, for example, seems to me more and more an important clue that we have not yet deciphered. It is natural that the search for the avatar of electroweak symmetry breaking preoccupies participants and spectators alike. But it is essential to conceive the physics opportunities before us in their full richness. I would advocate a three-fold approach: Explore, Search, Measure! The first phase of running at the LHC has brought us to two new lands - in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions - and we may well enter other new lands with each change of energy or increase of sensitivity. I believe that it will prove very rewarding to spend some time simply exploring each new landscape, without strong preconceptions, to learn what is there and, perhaps, to encounter interesting surprises. Directed searches, for which we have made extensive preparations, are of self-evident interest. Here the challenge will be to broaden the searches over time, so the searches are not too narrowly directed. Our very successful conception of particles and forces is highly idealized. We have a great opportunity to learn just how comprehensive is our network of understanding by making precise measurements and probing for weak spots, or finding more sweeping accord between theory and experiment.

Quigg, Chris

2012-02-01

426

Black Holes and Massive Elementary Particles in Resummed Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

Einstein's general theory of relativity poses many problems to the quantum theory of point particle fields. Among them is the fate of a massive point particle. Since its rest mass exists entirely within its Schwarzschild radius, in the classical solutions of Einstein's theory, the respective system should be a black hole. We address this issue using exact results in a new approach to quantum gravity based upon well-tested resummation methods in point particle quantum field theory. We show that the classical conclusion is obviated by quantum loop effects. We show that our new approach already passes two theoretical checks with the published literature; for, it reproduces known results on the one-loop correction to the graviton self-energy in scaler matter coupled to Einstein's gravity as analyzed by 't Hooft and Veltman and it is consistent with the asymptotic safety results of Bonnanno and Reuter on the behavior of Newton's constant in the deep Euclidean regime. Indeed, our approach is consistent with the black hole phenomenology of the latter authors, including their results on the final state of the Hawking radiation for an originally massive black hole. Further black hole related phenomenological implications are also discussed.

B. F. L. Ward

2005-02-10

427

Quantum Mechanics in Quantum Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathew Johnson is a Ball State junior majoring in Mathematics (Option 1) with a minor in Physics. In his sophomore year, he participated in the student- faculty colloquium, where he explored quantum com- puting with several other students and faculty. Quantum mechanics is a scientific theory that seeks to describe atomic and subatomic particles (or quantum particles) as well as

Mathew Johnson

2003-01-01

428

Particle astronomy and particle physics from the moon - The particle observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Promising experiments from the moon using particle detectors are discussed, noting the advantage of the large flux collecting power Pc offered by the remote, stable environment of a lunar base. An observatory class of particle experiments is presented, based upon proposals at NASA's recent Stanford workshop. They vary from neutrino astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic ray experiments to space physics and fundamental physics experiments such as proton decay and 'table-top' arrays. This research is background-limited on earth, and it is awkward and unrealistic in earth orbit, but is particularly suited for the moon where Pc can be quite large and the instrumentation is not subject to atmospheric erosion as it is (for large t) in low earth orbit.

Wilson, Thomas L.

1990-01-01

429

Spacetime alternatives in the quantum mechanics of a relativistic particle  

SciTech Connect

Hartle's generalized quantum mechanics formalism is used to examine spacetime coarse grainings, i.e., sets of alternatives defined with respect to a region extended in time as well as space, in the quantum mechanics of a free relativistic particle. For a simple coarse graining and suitable initial conditions, tractable formulas are found for branch wave functions. Despite the nonlocality of the positive-definite version of the Klein-Gordon inner product, which means that nonoverlapping branches are not sufficient to imply decoherence, some initial conditions are found to give decoherence and allow the consistent assignment of probabilities.

Whelan, J.T. (Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States) Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom))

1994-11-15

430

Using Quantum Computers to Learn Physics  

E-print Network

Since its inception at the beginning of the twentieth century, quantum mechanics has challenged our conceptions of how the universe ought to work; however, the equations of quantum mechanics can be too computationally difficult to solve using existing computers for even modestly large systems. Here I will show that quantum computers can sometimes be used to address such problems and that quantum computer science can assign formal complexities to learning facts about nature. Hence, computer science should not only be regarded as an applied science; it is also of central importance to the foundations of science.

Nathan Wiebe

2014-01-18

431

A Primer for Black Hole Quantum Physics  

E-print Network

The mechanisms which give rise to Hawking radiation are revealed by analyzing in detail pair production in the presence of horizons. In preparation for the black hole problem, three preparatory problems are dwelt with at length: pair production in an external electric field, thermalization of a uniformly accelerated detector and accelerated mirrors. In the light of these examples, the black hole evaporation problem is then presented. The leitmotif is the singular behavior of modes on the horizon which gives rise to a steady rate of production. Special emphasis is put on how each produced particle contributes to the mean albeit arising from a particular vacuum fluctuation. It is the mean which drives the semiclassical back reaction. This aspect is analyzed in more detail than heretofore and in particular its drawbacks are emphasized. It is the semiclassical theory which gives rise to Hawking's famous equation for the loss of mass of the black hole due to evaporation $dM/dt \\simeq -1/M^2$. Black hole thermodynamics is derived from the evaporation process whereupon the reservoir character of the black hole is manifest. The relation to the thermodynamics of the eternal black hole through the Hartle--Hawking vacuum and the Killing identity are displayed. It is through the analysis of the fluctuations of the field configurations which give rise to a particular Hawking photon that the dubious character of the semiclassical theory is manifest. The present frontier of research revolves around this problem and is principally concerned with the fact that one calls upon energy scales that are greater than Planckian and the possibility of a non unitary evolution as well. These last subjects are presented in qualitative fashion only, so that this review stops at the threshold of quantum gravity.

Robert Brout; Serge Massar; Renaud Parentani; Philippe Spindel

2007-10-23

432

Statistical mechanics of confined quantum particles  

E-print Network

We develop statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of Bose and Fermi systems in relativistic harmonic oscillator (RHO) confining potential, which may be applicable in quark gluon plasma (QGP), astrophysics, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), condensed matter physics etc. Detailed study of QGP system is carried out and compared with lattice results. Further, as an application, our equation of state (EoS) of QGP is used to study compact stars like quark star.

Vishnu M. Bannur; K. M. Udayanandan

2006-02-02

433

Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author attempts to handle the most important physics development of the twentieth century, namely that of quantum theory, in one, not too bulky, volume. This heroic task is split into 29 chapters, each treating a topic that forms a well defined subpart of the big theme embracing quantum theory itself (and also some of its companions), and the experimental

H. Rechenberg

2000-01-01

434

Unitary quantum physics with time-space noncommutativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work quantum physics in noncommutative spacetime is developed. It is based on the work of Doplicher et al. which allows for time-space noncommutativity. The Moyal plane is treated in detail. In the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics, some important points are explored, such as the formal construction of the theory, symmetries, causality, simultaneity and observables. The dynamics generated

Aiyalam P. Balachandran; Thupil R. Govindarajan; Carlos Molina Mendes; Paulo Teotonio-Sobrinho

2004-01-01

435

Unitary quantum physics with time-space non-commutativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these lectures4 quantum physics in noncommutative spacetime is developed. It is based on the work of Doplicher et al. which allows for time-space noncommutativity. In the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics, some important points are explored, such as the formal construction of the theory, symmetries, causality, simultaneity and observables. The dynamics generated by a noncommutative Schrödinger equation is studied.

A. P. Balachandran; T. R. Govindarajan; A. G. Martins; C. Molina; P. Teotonio-Sobrinho

2005-01-01

436

Effective Physical Processes and Active Information in Quantum Computing  

E-print Network

The recent debate on hypercomputation has arisen new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of "effective physical process" as the essentially physical notion of computation. By using the Bohm and Hiley active information concept we analyze the differences between the standard form (quantum gates) and the non-standard one (adiabatic and morphogenetic) of Quantum Computing, and we point out how its Super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source in accordance with Bell's constraints. On condition that we give up the formal concept of "universality", the possibility to realize quantum oracles is reachable. In this way computation is led back to the logic of physical world.

Ignazio Licata

2007-05-08

437

Particle Physics in the LHC Era and beyond  

E-print Network

I present a concise review of where we stand in particle physics today. First, I will discuss QCD, then the electroweak sector and finally the motivations and the avenues for new physics beyond the Standard Model.

Guido Altarelli

2010-02-26

438

Screw the Zoo! Observer Physics Simplifies Nuclear and Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I present a new set of principles governing fundamental particles, then introduce the new set of primary particles according to the principles and show how they map to the current particle zoo that is based on quark theory. Then I give some examples of particle interactions using modified Feynman diagrams to show how the upgraded notation works.

Douglass A. White

439

Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics  

E-print Network

The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, also two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A promising result is that one can qualitatively reconstruct the conductivity inside the cross-section of a human chest. Even though the human volunteer is neither two-dimensional nor circular, such reconstructions can be useful in medical applications: monitoring for lung problems such as accumulating fluid or a collapsed lung and noninvasive monitoring of heart function and blood flow.

Andrea A. Almasy

2009-12-02

440

Wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle: Phenomenographic categories of description of tertiary physics studentsâ depictions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize studentsâ depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of studentsâ descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured in-depth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map studentsâ depictions of the concept wave-particle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classical-quantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that studentsâ depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave- and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, this paper's findings are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the curricula are discussed.

Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie

2012-05-21

441

Exotic Statistics for Ordinary Particles in Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

Objects exhibiting statistics other than the familiar Bose and Fermi ones are natural in theories with topologically nontrivial objects including geons, strings, and black holes. It is argued here from several viewpoints that the statistics of ordinary particles with which we are already familiar are likely to be modified due to quantum gravity effects. In particular, such modifications are argued to be present in loop quantum gravity and in any theory which represents spacetime in a fundamentally piecewise-linear fashion. The appearance of unusual statistics may be a generic feature (such as the deformed position-momentum uncertainty relations and the appearance of a fundamental length scale) which are to be expected in any theory of quantum gravity, and which could be testable.

John Swain

2008-05-15

442

Families of particles with different masses in PT-symmetric quantum field theory  

E-print Network

An elementary field-theoretic mechanism is proposed that allows one Lagrangian to describe a family of particles having different masses but otherwise similar physical properties. The mechanism relies on the observation that the Dyson-Schwinger equations derived from a Lagrangian can have many different but equally valid solutions. Nonunique solutions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations arise when the functional integral for the Green's functions of the quantum field theory converges in different pairs of Stokes' wedges in complex field space, and the solutions are physically viable if the pairs of Stokes' wedges are PT symmetric.

C. M. Bender; S. P. Klevansky

2010-02-17

443

Families of Particles with Different Masses in PT-Symmetric Quantum Field Theory  

SciTech Connect

An elementary field-theoretic mechanism is proposed that allows one Lagrangian to describe a family of particles having different masses but otherwise similar physical properties. The mechanism relies on the observation that the Dyson-Schwinger equations derived from a Lagrangian can have many different but equally valid solutions. Nonunique solutions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations arise when the functional integral for the Green's functions of the quantum field theory converges in different pairs of Stokes' wedges in complex-field space, and the solutions are physically viable if the pairs of Stokes' wedges are PT symmetric.

Bender, Carl M. [Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Klevansky, S. P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-07-16

444

Relational particle models as toy models for quantum gravity and quantum cosmology  

E-print Network

It is argued that substantial portions of both Newtonian particle mechanics and general relativity can be viewed as relational (rather than absolute) theories. I furthermore use the relational particle models as toy models to investigate the problem of time in closed-universe canonical quantum general relativity. I consider thus in particular the internal time, semiclassical and records tentative resolutions of the problem of time.

E. Anderson

2005-09-14

445

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber  

E-print Network

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber O#ce: ISB, Room 326 Phone OUTSIDE READING: Quantum Physics, by Stephen Gasiorowicz Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J to Quantum Mechanics, by John S. Townsend PREREQUISITES: Physics 116C and Physics 139A. It is assumed

California at Santa Cruz, University of

446

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber  

E-print Network

Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber Office: ISB, Room 326 Phone OUTSIDE READING: Quantum Physics, by Stephen Gasiorowicz Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J to Quantum Mechanics, by John S. Townsend PREREQUISITES: Physics 116C and Physics 139A. It is assumed

California at Santa Cruz, University of

447

Quantum Chaos in Physical Systems: from Super Conductors to Quarks  

E-print Network

This article is the written version of a talk delivered at the Bexbach Colloquium of Science 2000 and starts with an introduction into quantum chaos and its relationship to classical chaos. The Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture is formulated and evaluated within random-matrix theory. Several examples of physical systems exhibiting quantum chaos ranging from nuclear to solid state physics are presented. The presentation concludes with recent research work on quantum chromodynamics and the quark-gluon plasma. In the case of a chemical potential the eigenvalue spectrum becomes complex and one has to deal with non-Hermitian random-matrix theory.

Elmar Bittner; Harald Markum; Rainer Pullirsch

2001-10-31

448

Physical-resource demands for scalable quantum computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary resource for quantum computation is Hilbert-space dimension. Whereas Hilbert space itself is an abstract construction, the number of dimensions available to a system is a physical quantity that requires physical resources. Avoiding a demand for an exponential amount of these resources places a fundamental constraint on the systems that are suitable for scalable quantum computation. To be scalable, the number of degrees of freedom in the computer must grow nearly linearly with the number of qubits in an equivalent qubit-based quantum computer.

Caves, Carlton M.; Deutsch, Ivan; Blume-Kohout, Robin

2003-05-01

449

Quantum walks and orbital states of a Weyl particle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-evolution equation of a one-dimensional quantum walker is exactly mapped to the three-dimensional Weyl equation for a zero-mass particle with spin 1/2 , in which each wave number k of the walker’s wave function is mapped to a point q(k) in the three-dimensional momentum space and q(k) makes a planar orbit as k changes its value in [-?,?) . The integration over k providing the real-space wave function for a quantum walker corresponds to considering an orbital state of a Weyl particle, which is defined as a superposition (curvilinear integration) of the energy-momentum eigenstates of a free Weyl equation along the orbit. Konno’s novel distribution function of a quantum walker’s pseudovelocities in the long-time limit is fully controlled by the shape of the orbit and how the orbit is embedded in the three-dimensional momentum space. The family of orbital states can be regarded as a geometrical representation of the unitary group U(2) and the present study will propose a new group-theoretical point of view for quantum-walk problems.

Katori, Makoto; Fujino, Soichi; Konno, Norio

2005-07-01

450

Dynamical probability, particle trajectories and completion of traditional quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

Maintaining the position that the wave function $\\psi$ provides a complete description of state, the traditional formalism of quantum mechanics is augmented by introducing continuous trajectories for particles which are sample paths of a stochastic process determined (including the underlying probability space) by $\\psi$. In the resulting formalism, problems relating to measurements and objective reality are solved as in Bohmian mechanics (without sharing its weak points). The pitfalls of Nelson's stochastic mechanics are also avoided.

Tulsi Dass

2005-05-25

451

Particle entanglement in continuum many-body systems via quantum Monte Carlo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement of spatial bipartitions, used to explore lattice models in condensed matter physics, may be insufficient to fully describe itinerant quantum many-body systems in the continuum. We introduce a procedure to measure the Rényi entanglement entropies on a particle bipartition, with general applicability to continuum Hamiltonians via path integral Monte Carlo methods. Via direct simulations of interacting bosons in one spatial dimension, we confirm a logarithmic scaling of the single-particle entanglement entropy with the number of particles in the system. The coefficient of this logarithmic scaling increases with interaction strength, saturating to unity in the strongly interacting limit. Additionally, we show that the single-particle entanglement entropy is bounded by the condensate fraction, suggesting a practical route towards its measurement in future experiments.

Herdman, C. M.; Roy, P.-N.; Melko, R. G.; Del Maestro, A.

2014-04-01

452

Particle and Wave: Developing the Quantum Wave Accompanying a Classical Particle  

E-print Network

The relationship between classical and quantum mechanics is explored in an intuitive manner by the exercise of constructing a wave in association with a classical particle. Using special relativity, the time coordinate in the frame of reference of a moving particle is expressed in terms of the coordinates in the laboratory frame of reference in order to provide an initial spatiotemporal function to work from in initiating the development of a quantum wave. When temporal periodicity is ascribed to the particle, a provisional spatiotemporal function for a particle travelling at constant velocity manifests itself as an running wave characterized by parameters associated with the moving particle. A wave description for bidirectional motion is generated based on an average time coordinate for a combination of oppositely directed elementary running waves, and the resulting spatiotemporal function exhibits wave behavior characteristic of a standing wave. Ascribing directional orientation to the intrinsic periodicity of the particle introduces directional sub-states; variations in the relative number of sub-states as a function of angle in combined states lead to spatially varying magnitudes for the associated waves. Further analysis leads to full mathematical expression for all waves representing free particle motion. A generalization for particles subject to force fields enables us to develop a governing differential equation identical in form to the Schroedinger equation.

C. L. Herzenberg

2008-12-04

453

Wigner function approach to the quantum Brownian motion of a particle in a potential.  

PubMed

Recent progress in our understanding of quantum effects on the Brownian motion in an external potential is reviewed. This problem is ubiquitous in physics and chemistry, particularly in the context of decay of metastable states, for example, the reversal of the magnetization of a single domain ferromagnetic particle, kinetics of a superconducting tunnelling junction, etc. Emphasis is laid on the establishment of master equations describing the diffusion process in phase space analogous to the classical Fokker-Planck equation. In particular, it is shown how Wigner's [E. P. Wigner, Phys. Rev., 1932, 40, 749] method of obtaining quantum corrections to the classical equilibrium Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution may be extended to the dissipative non-equilibrium dynamics governing the quantum Brownian motion in an external potential V(x), yielding a master equation for the Wigner distribution function W(x,p,t) in phase space (x,p). The explicit form of the master equation so obtained contains quantum correction terms up to o(h(4)) and in the classical limit, h --> 0, reduces to the classical Klein-Kramers equation. For a quantum oscillator, the method yields an evolution equation coinciding in all respects with that of Agarwal [G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A, 1971, 4, 739]. In the high dissipation limit, the master equation reduces to a semi-classical Smoluchowski equation describing non-inertial quantum diffusion in configuration space. The Wigner function formulation of quantum Brownian motion is further illustrated by finding quantum corrections to the Kramers escape rate, which, in appropriate limits, reduce to those yielded via quantum generalizations of reaction rate theory. PMID:17664961

Coffey, W T; Kalmykov, Yu P; Titov, S V; Mulligan, B P

2007-07-14

454

Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.

Hahne, Gerhard

2012-01-01

455

Refined characterization of student perspectives on quantum physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of physics concepts, and to inform how we might teach traditional content. Our previous investigations of student perspectives on quantum physics have indicated they can be highly nuanced, and may vary both within and across contexts. In order to better understand the contextual and often seemingly contradictory stances of students on matters of interpretation, we interviewed 19 students from four introductory modern physics courses taught at the University of Colorado. We find that students have attitudes and opinions that often parallel the stances of expert physicists when arguing for their favored interpretations of quantum mechanics, allowing for more nuanced characterizations of student perspectives in terms of three key interpretive themes. We present a framework for characterizing student perspectives on quantum mechanics, and demonstrate its utility in interpreting the sometimes contradictory nature of student responses to previous surveys. We further find that students most often vacillate in their responses when what makes intuitive sense to them is not in agreement with what they consider to be a correct response, underscoring the need to distinguish between the personal and the public perspectives of introductory modern physics students.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-07-01

456

Refined characterization of student perspectives on quantum physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of physics concepts, and to inform how we might teach traditional content. Our previous investigations of student perspectives on quantum physics have indicated they can be highly nuanced, and may vary both within and across contexts. In order to better understand the contextual and often seemingly contradictory stances of students on matters of interpretation, we interviewed 19 students from four introductory modern physics courses taught at the University of Colorado. We find that students have attitudes and opinions that often parallel the stances of expert physicists when arguing for their favored interpretations of quantum mechanics, allowing for more nuanced characterizations of student perspectives in terms of three key interpretive themes. We present a framework for characterizing student perspectives on quantum mechanics, and demonstrate its utility in interpreting the sometimes contradictory nature of student responses to previous surveys. We further find that students most often vacillate in their responses when what makes intuitive sense to them is not in agreement with what they consider to be a correct response, underscoring the need to distinguish between the personal and the public perspectives of introductory modern physics students.

Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2012-01-20

457

Common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects  

E-print Network

Integer and fractional quantum Hall effects were studied with different physics models and explained by different physical mechanisms. In this paper, the common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects is studied, where a new unified formulation of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect is presented. Firstly, we introduce a 2-dimensional ideal electron gas model in the presence of strong magnetic field with symmetry gauge, and the transverse electric filed $\\varepsilon_2$ is also introduced to balance Lorentz force. Secondly, the Pauli equation is solved where the wave function and energy levels is given explicitly. Thirdly, after the calculation of the degeneracy density for 2-dimensional ideal electron gas system, the Hall resistance of the system is obtained, where the quantum Hall number $\

Jianhua wang; Kang Li; Shuming Long; Yi Yuan

2011-07-05

458

Scheduling physical operations in a quantum information processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrespective of the underlying technology used to implement a large-scale quantum architecture system, one of the central challenges of accurately modeling the architecture is the ability to map and schedule a quantum application onto a physical grid while taking into account the cost of communication, the classical resources, and the maximum exploitable parallelism. In this paper we introduce and evaluate a physical operations scheduler for arbitrary quantum circuits. Our scheduler accepts a description of a circuit together with a description of a specific physical layout and outputs a sequence of operations that expose the required communication and available parallelism in the circuit. The output of the scheduler is a quantum assembly language file that can directly be simulated on a set of available tools.

Metodi, Tzvetan S.; Thaker, Darshan D.; Cross, Andrew W.; Chong, Frederic T.; Chuang, Isaac L.

2006-05-01

459

A metageometric enquiry concerning time, space, and quantum physics  

E-print Network

An enquiry into the physical nature of time and space and into the ontology of quantum mechanics from a metageometric perspective, resulting from the belief that geometric thought and language are powerless to farther understanding of these issues, restricting instead physical progress. The nature and assumptions of quantum gravity are analysed critically, including misgivings about the relevance of the Planck scale to it and its lack of observational referent in the natural world. The anthropic foundations of geometry are investigated. The exclusive use of geometric thought from antiquity to present-day physics is found to permeate all new attempts towards better theories, including quantum gravity and, within it, even pregeometry. The problem of the ether is found to have perpetuated itself up to the present by transmuting its form from mechanical, through metric, to geometric. A clarification is made of the physical, mathematical, and psychological foundations of relativity and quantum theories. The former is founded geometrically on measurement-based clock-reading separations ds. The latter is founded metageometrically on the experiment-based concepts of premeasurement and transition things, inspired in the physically unexplored aspect of time as a consciousness-related product. A concept of metageometric time is developed and coordinate time t is recovered from it. Discovery of the connection between quantum-mechanical metageometric time elements and general-relativistic clock time elements ds is deemed necessary for a combined understanding of time. Time is conjectured to be the missing link between general relativity and quantum mechanics.

Diego Meschini

2008-04-23

460

Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

1998-12-14

461

Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a self-observing quantum system to pose questions leads to a\\u000atripartite quantum process involving a Schroedinger process that is local\\u000adeterministic, a Heisenberg process that poses the question, and a Dirac\\u000aprocess that picks the answer. In the classical limit where Planck's constant\\u000ais set to zero these three processes reduce to one single deterministic\\u000aclassical process:

Henry P. Stapp

1999-01-01

462

2T Physics and Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

We use a local scale invariance of a classical Hamiltonian and describe how to construct six different formulations of quantum mechanics in spaces with two time-like dimensions. All these six formulations have the same classical limit described by the same Hamiltonian. One of these formulations is used as a basis for a complementation of the usual quantum mechanics when in the presence of gravity.

W. Chagas-Filho

2008-02-20

463

Fundamental Particles and Interactions. A Wall Chart of Modern Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a wall chart, "The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions," for use in introductory physics courses at either high school or college level. Describes the chart development process, introduction and terminology of particle physics, components of the chart, and suggestions for using the chart, booklet, and software. (YP)

Achor, William T.; And Others

1988-01-01

464

Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN  

E-print Network

discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA technical developments are required in order to produce, detect, trap, cool and interrogate anti- atoms

Fajans, Joel

465

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron  

E-print Network

Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre develops, builds and operates large accelerator facilities for photon science and particle physics of the Helmholtz Association ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS· DESY, Zeuthen location, is seeking: Scientist (f/m) DESY DESY

466

Helmholtz wave trajectories in classical and quantum physics  

E-print Network

The behavior of classical and quantum wave beams in stationary media is shown to be ruled by a "Wave Potential" function encoded in Helmholtz-like equations, determined by the structure itself of the beam and taking, in the quantum case, the form of Bohm's "Quantum Potential", which is therefore not so much a "quantum" as a "wave" property. Exact, deterministic motion laws, mutually coupled by this term and describing wave-like features such as diffraction and interference, are obtained in terms of well defined Hamiltonian trajectories, and shown to reduce to the laws of usual geometrical optics and/or classical dynamics when this coupling term is neglected. As far as the quantum case is concerned, the approach proposed in the present paper, suggested by the direct extension of the treatment holding for classical waves, describes the motion of classical-looking, point-like particles, without resorting to the use of travelling wave-packets.

A. Orefice; R. Giovanelli; D. Ditto

2011-05-25

467

Twenty-Five Centuries of Quantum Physics: From Pythagoras to Us, and from Subjectivism to Realism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three main theses are proposed. The first is that the idea of a quantum or minimal unit is not peculiar to quantum theory, since it already occurs in the classical theories of elasticity and electrolysis. Second, the peculiarities of the objects described by quantum theory are the following: their basic laws are probabilistic; some of their properties, such as position and energy, are blunt rather than sharp; two particles that were once together continue to be associated even after becoming spatially separated; and the vacuum has physical properties, so that it is a kind of matter. Third, the orthodox or Copenhagen interpretation of the theory is false, and may conveniently be replaced with a realist (though not classicist) interpretation. Heisenberg's inequality, Schrödinger's cat and Zeno's quantum paradox are discussed in the light of the two rival interpretations. It is also shown that the experiments that falsified Bell's inequality do not refute realism but the classicism inherent in hidden variables theories.

Bunge, Mario

468

Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed.1-8 Here we present an approach to quantum physics based on the simplest quantum mechanical system—the quantum bit (qubit).1 Like its classical counterpart—the bit—a qubit corresponds to a two-level system, i.e., some system with a physical property that can admit two possible values. While typically a physical system has more than just one property or the property can admit more than just two values, in many situations most degrees of freedom can be considered to be fixed or frozen. Hence a variety of systems can be effectively described as a qubit. For instance, one may consider the spin of an electron or atom, with spin up and spin down as two possible values, and where other properties of the particle such as its mass or its position are fixed. Further examples include the polarization degree of freedom of a photon (horizontal and vertical polarization), two electronic degrees of freedom (i.e., two energy levels) of an atom, or the position of an atom in a double well potential (atom in left or right well). In all cases, only two states are relevant to describe the system.

Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

2014-11-01

469

Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and the use of tunable lasers and microwave spectroscopy to study Rydberg states. In addition, surface physics, amorphous solids, superfluidity and gravitational collapse are discussed.

Bromley, D. A.

1980-07-01

470

Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…

Dutt, Amit

2011-01-01

471

Open Source Physics Curricular Material for Quantum Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open Source Physics Curricular Material paper describes the interactive curricular material created as part of the Open Source Physics project for the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. Here we focus on the measurement and time evolution of two-state superpositions in the context of bound states and spin.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

2008-05-30

472

Approximating the physical inner product of Loop Quantum Cosmology  

E-print Network

In this article, we investigate the possibility of approximating the physical inner product of constrained quantum theories. In particular, we calculate the physical inner product of a simple cosmological model in two ways: Firstly, we compute it analytically via a trick, secondly, we use the complexifier coherent states to approximate the physical inner product defined by the master constraint of the system. We will find that the approximation is able to recover the analytic solution of the problem, which solidifies hopes that coherent states will help to approximate solutions of more complicated theories, like loop quantum gravity.

Benjamin Bahr; Thomas Thiemann

2006-07-19

473

CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass  

E-print Network

In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation $\\varepsilon$ for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form $t^{\\frac{2}{3}+\\varepsilon}$. Based on recent $H(z)$ data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the $\\varepsilon$ parameter have been found as $m=1.6\\times10^3$ GeV, restricted to a 68.3\\% c.l. interval of ($1.5quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called "dark degeneracy", where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.

J. F. Jesus; S. H. Pereira

2014-03-14

474

Phase relaxation of one-particle states in closed quantum dots K. Held a,b  

E-print Network

­429 www.elsevier.com/locate/chaos #12;Quantum dots which contain a larger number of electrons N, Oð103 �Phase relaxation of one-particle states in closed quantum dots K. Held a,b , E. Eisenberg a,b , B to analyze the effect of dephasing of one-particle states on the magnetocon- ductance of closed quantum dots

Eisenberg, Eli

475

Quantum Speed Limits for General Physical Processes  

E-print Network

Quantum speed limits are relations yielding lower bounds on the evolution time of quantum systems. These results have been generalized in some ways, in particular by including evolutions to non-orthogonal states. However, there was a gap in the literature on this area, for only unitary evolutions -- closed quantum systems -- had been considered. On this Ph.D. thesis, such limitation is overcome: our main result is a bound for quantum-system evolutions in general, whether unitary or not, and correctly recovers the known bounds in the unitary case. Applications of this bound to several concrete cases of interest are herein presented. This bound is also used to extend to the non-unitary case the discussion of the role of entanglement in fast evolutions, leading to nontrivial results. For the derivation of the results, a geometric approach has been employed, which allows a clear interpretation of the bounds and a discussion of the criteria for their saturation. No previous knowledge of quantum-state geometry by the reader has been assumed.

M. M. Taddei

2014-07-16

476

Two decades of Mexican particle physics at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories. Soon after becoming Fermilab director in 1979, Leon Lederman initiated a program to encourage experimental physics, especially experimental particle physics, in Latin America. At the time, Mexico had significant theoretical particle physics activity, but none in experiment. Following a visit by Lederman to UNAM in 1981, a conference ''Panamerican Symposium on Particle Physics and Technology'' was held in January 1982 at Cocoyoc, Mexico, with about 50 attendees from Europe, North America, and Latin America; these included Lederman, M. Moshinsky, J. Flores, S. Glashow, J. Bjorken, and G. Charpak. Among the conference outcomes were four subsequent similar symposia over the next decade, and a formal Fermilab program to aid Latin American physics (particularly particle physics); it also influenced a decision by Mexican physicist Clicerio Avilez to switch from theoretical to experimental particle physics. The first physics collaboration between Fermilab and Mexico was in particle theory. Post-docs Rodrigo Huerta and Jose Luis Lucio spent 1-2 years at Fermilab starting in 1981, and other theorists (including Augusto Garcia, Arnulfo Zepeda, Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez) also spent time at the Laboratory in the 1980s.

Roy Rubinstein

2002-12-03

477

Physical model for the generation of ideal resources in multipartite quantum networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a physical model for generating multipartite entangled states of spin-s particles that have important applications in distributed quantum information processing. Our protocol is based on a process where mobile spins induce the interaction among remote scattering centers. As such, a major advantage lies in the management of stationary and well-separated spins. Among the generable states, there is a class of N-qubit singlets allowing for optimal quantum telecloning in a scalable and controllable way. We also show how to prepare Aharonov, W, and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

Ciccarello, F.; Paternostro, M.; Bose, S.; Browne, D. E.; Palma, G. M.; Zarcone, M.

2010-09-01

478

Multiple particle production processes in the light'' of quantum optics  

SciTech Connect

Ever since the observation that high-energy nuclear active'' cosmic-ray particles create bunches of penetrating particles upon hitting targets, a controversy has raged about whether these secondaries are created in a single act'' or whether many hadrons are just the result of an intra-nuclear cascade, yielding one meson in every step. I cannot escape the impression that: the latter kind of model appeals naturally as a consequence of an innate bio-morphism in our way of thinking and that in one guise or another it has tenaciously survived to this day, also for hadron-hadron collisions, via multi-peripheral models to the modern parton shower approach. Indeed, from the very beginning of theoretical consideration of multiparticle production, the possibility of many particles arising from a single hot'' system has been explored, with many fruitful results, not the least of which are the s{sup 1/4} dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicity and the thermal'' shape of the P{sub T} spectra. An important consequence of the thermodynamical-hydrodynamical models is that particle emission is treated in analogy to black-body radiation, implying for the secondaries a set of specific Quantum-Statistical properties, very similar to those observed in quantum optics. From here on I shall try to review a number of implications and applications of this QS analogy in the study of multiplicity distributions of the produced secondaries. I will touch only in passing another very important topic of this class, the Bose-Einstein two-particle correlations.

Friedlander, E.M.

1990-09-01

479

Development of quantum perspectives in modern physics Charles Baily* and Noah D. Finkelstein  

E-print Network

Development of quantum perspectives in modern physics Charles Baily* and Noah for introductory quantum physics students, who must develop new perspectives in order D. Finkelstein Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309

Colorado at Boulder, University of

480

Quantum speed limit for physical processes.  

PubMed

The evaluation of the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system is important for assessing the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. Lower bounds for this minimal time have been proposed for unitary dynamics. Here we show that it is possible to extend this concept to nonunitary processes, using an attainable lower bound that is connected to the quantum Fisher information for time estimation. This result is used to delimit the minimal evolution time for typical noisy channels. PMID:23414007

Taddei, M M; Escher, B M; Davidovich, L; de Matos Filho, R L

2013-02-01

481

INVESTIGATING HOW STUDENTS THINK ABOUT AND LEARN QUANTUM PHYSICS: AN EXAMPLE FROM TUNNELING  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATING HOW STUDENTS THINK ABOUT AND LEARN QUANTUM PHYSICS: AN EXAMPLE FROM TUNNELING STUDENTS THINK ABOUT AND LEARN QUANTUM PHYSICS: AN EXAMPLE FROM TUNNELING By Jeffrey T. Morgan Thesis, and quantum physics. We describe an investigation into how students reason about quantum mechanical tunneling

Maine, University of

482

Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality: An Introduction to the Book  

E-print Network

Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality: An Introduction to the Book Diederik Aerts and Jaroslaw of the Satellite Symposium "Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality" organised by the International Quantum) was to acquaint the possibly widest audience consisting of people interested in foundations of quantum physics

Aerts, Diederik

483

The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation David P. DiVincenzo  

E-print Network

The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation David P. DiVincenzo IBM T. J. Watson Research of quantum information processing, the require- ments for the physical implementation of quantum computation, are extensively explored and related to the many schemes in atomic physics, quantum optics, nuclear and electron

Braunstein, Samuel L.

484

Changes to article types in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

2006 has proved to be a highly successful year for Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. As well as achieving our highest impact factor to date, 2.173*, we also published the latest edition of the Review of Particle Physics. The Editorial Board is keen to build on these successes by continuing to improve the service we offer to

A B Balantekin

2006-01-01

485

Quantum physics of simple optical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple optical instruments are linear optical networks where the incident light modes are turned into equal numbers of outgoing modes by linear transformations. For example, such instruments are beam splitters, multiports, interferometers, fibre couplers, polarizers, gravitational lenses, parametric amplifiers, phase-conjugating mirrors and also black holes. The paper develops the quantum theory of simple optical instruments and applies the theory to

Ulf Leonhardt

2003-01-01

486

Mixmaster quantum cosmology in terms of physical dynamics  

E-print Network

An approach to quantum cosmology, relying on strengths of both canonical and path integral formalisms, is applied to the cosmological model, Bianchi type IX. Physical quantum states are constructed on the maximal slice of the cosmological history. A path integral is derived which evolves observables off the maximal slice. This result is compared a path integral propagator derived earlier with conventional Faddeev-Poppov gauge fixing.

Seth Major; Lee Smolin

1996-07-07

487

Particle Physics Meets Cosmology -- The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)

Henry, Richard C.

1982-01-01

488

Particle physics meets cosmology - The search for decaying neutrinos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental physical implications of the possible detection of massive neutrinos are discussed, with an emphasis on the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) of matter. The Newtonian and general-relativistic pictures of the fundamental forces are compared, and the reduction of electromagnetic and weak forces to one force in the GUTs is explained. The cosmological consequences of the curved-spacetime gravitation concept are considered. Quarks, leptons, and neutrinos are characterized in a general treatment of elementary quantum mechanics. The universe is described in terms of quantized fields, the noninteractive 'particle' fields and the force fields, and cosmology becomes the study of the interaction of gravitation with the other fields, of the 'freezing out' of successive fields with the expansion and cooling of the universe. While the visible universe is the result of the clustering of the quark and electron fields, the distribution of the large number of quanta in neutrino field, like the mass of the neutrino, are unknown. Cosmological models which attribute anomalies in the observed motions of galaxies and stars to clusters or shells of massive neutrinos are shown to be consistent with a small but nonzero neutrino mass and a universe near the open/closed transition point, but direct detection of the presence of massive neutrinos by the UV emission of their decay is required to verify these hypotheses.

Henry, R. C.

1982-01-01