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Sample records for particle physics quantum

  1. Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936

  2. Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936

  3. Particle Physics challenges to the Bohm Picture of Relativistic Quantum Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Abel Miranda

    2011-04-29

    I discuss topics in Particle Physics applying the novel ontological formulation of Relativistic Quantum Field Theory due to David Bohm. I argument that particle physicists might too benefit from this truly novel way of thinking Physics.

  4. Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

  5. quantum physics quantum physics

    E-print Network

    Shimizu, Akira

    1. 1 quantum physics quantum physics quantum physics quantum physics 1) *1 http://xxx.lanl.gov/ 2 4 HI Q = +1 2 4 1 6) S Q S P Q P R Q R R R Q R Q R Q R R P ( Heisenberg cut 5, 6) R Q R R Q Q 3, 8, 9) POVM R NO. 469, JULY 2002 7 #12;POVM POVM 8. Q S P HI [Q, HI] = 0 (22) 6) HI Q HI 10) (22) QED 10) 10

  6. Physics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 139B Fall 2009 Quantum Mechanics of a Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field) is equivalent to: p = mv + q c A . The quantity mv is called the mechanical momentum, which is not equal to p

  7. Quantum particles from classical statistics

    E-print Network

    C. Wetterich

    2010-02-11

    Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.

  8. Particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, M.; Basdevant, J.L.; Jacob, M.; Speiser, D.; Weyers, J.; Gastmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The two main themes of this volume are the standard model of the fundamental interactions (and beyond) and astrophysics. The remarkable advances in the theoretical understanding and experimental confirmation of the standard model were reviewed in several lectures where the reader will find a thorough analysis of recent experiments as well as a detailed comparison of the standard model with experiment. On a more theoretical side, supersymmetry, supergravity and strings were discussed as well. The second theme concerns astrophysics where the school was quite successful in bridging the gap between this fascinating subject and more conventional particle physics.

  9. Research in theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and Schwinger-Dyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)

  10. particle physics accelerator

    E-print Network

    Quigg, Chris

    America's particle physics and accelerator laboratory #12;Particle physicists explore the building neutrino beam Leader in accelerator and detector technology International center for particle physics and accelerator laboratory 2 Fermilab: America's particle physics and accelerator laboratory 3 #12;Hunting ghostly

  11. Review of Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    Nakamura, Kenzo

    2010-01-01

    nuclear physics experiments: http://www.ppdg.net/ Online particle physics information Particle Physics Education: ArtNuclear Research (CERN) which is the world’s largest particle physics center: http://public.web.cern.ch/public/about/how/art/

  12. Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Alastair

    2012-03-01

    Preface to the second edition; Preface to the first edition; 1. Quantum physics; 2. Which way are the photons pointing?; 3. What can be hidden in a pair of photons?; 4. Wonderful Copenhagen?; 5. Is it all in the mind?; 6. Many worlds; 7. Is it a matter of size?; 8. Backwards and forwards; 9. Only one way forward?; 10. Can we be consistent?; 11. Illusion or reality?; Further reading.

  13. The order of the quantum chromodynamics transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Y; Endrodi, G; Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Szabó, K K

    2006-10-12

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction, explaining (for example) the binding of three almost massless quarks into a much heavier proton or neutron--and thus most of the mass of the visible Universe. The standard model of particle physics predicts a QCD-related transition that is relevant for the evolution of the early Universe. At low temperatures, the dominant degrees of freedom are colourless bound states of hadrons (such as protons and pions). However, QCD is asymptotically free, meaning that at high energies or temperatures the interaction gets weaker and weaker, causing hadrons to break up. This behaviour underlies the predicted cosmological transition between the low-temperature hadronic phase and a high-temperature quark-gluon plasma phase (for simplicity, we use the word 'phase' to characterize regions with different dominant degrees of freedom). Despite enormous theoretical effort, the nature of this finite-temperature QCD transition (that is, first-order, second-order or analytic crossover) remains ambiguous. Here we determine the nature of the QCD transition using computationally demanding lattice calculations for physical quark masses. Susceptibilities are extrapolated to vanishing lattice spacing for three physical volumes, the smallest and largest of which differ by a factor of five. This ensures that a true transition should result in a dramatic increase of the susceptibilities. No such behaviour is observed: our finite-size scaling analysis shows that the finite-temperature QCD transition in the hot early Universe was not a real phase transition, but an analytic crossover (involving a rapid change, as opposed to a jump, as the temperature varied). As such, it will be difficult to find experimental evidence of this transition from astronomical observations. PMID:17035999

  14. 6.728 Applied Quantum and Statistical Physics, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Bulovic, Vladimir, 1970-

    Elementary quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Introduces applied quantum physics. Emphasizes experimental basis for quantum mechanics. Applies Schrodinger's equation to the free particle, tunneling, the harmonic ...

  15. Nuclear and Particle Physics applications of the Bohm Picture of Quantum Mechanics

    E-print Network

    A. Miranda

    2009-01-09

    Approximation methods for calculating individual particle/ field motions in spacetime at the quantum level of accuracy (a key feature of the Bohm Picture of Quantum Mechanics (BP)), are studied. Modern textbook presentations of Quantum Theory are used throughout, but only to provide the necessary, already existing, tested formalisms and calculational techniques. New coherent insights, reinterpretations of old solutions and results, and new (in principle testable) quantitative and qualitative predictions, can be obtained on the basis of the BP that complete the standard type of postdictions and predictions.

  16. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  17. "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and excellent working conditions. We would like to thank Martina Mende for all her work in helping to organize this conference. Details of the conference can be found under: https://indico.desy.de/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=8107

  18. The Birth of Elementary-Particle Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurie M.; Hoddeson, Lillian

    1982-01-01

    Traces the origin and development of particle physics, concentrating on the roles of cosmic rays and theory. Includes charts highlighting significant events in the development of cosmic-ray physics and quantum field theory. (SK)

  19. Particle and Nuclear Physics

    E-print Network

    Krusche, Bernd

    Progressin Particle and Nuclear Physics PERGAMON Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 51 (2003 facilities combined with state-of-the- art detector technologies have pushed the experiments to unprecedented. This situation offers both a challenge and a chance: we do want to understand the physics laws governing

  20. Studies in theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1992-08-01

    This report focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: Chiral Fermions on the Lattice; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; analysis of parity violating nuclear forces, and other an attempt to render the electric dipole moment of the neutron immune from quantum gravity corrections.

  1. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

  2. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, Edward

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  3. Quantum Physics in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, I.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a teaching strategy for introducing quantum ideas into the school classroom using modern devices. Develops the concepts of quantization, wave-particle duality, nonlocality, and tunneling. (JRH)

  4. Cosmology and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, G.

    1982-01-01

    The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses. In the last few years we have witnessed the birth and growth to healthy adolescence of a new collaboration between astrophysicists and particle physicists. The most notable success of this cooperative effort has been to provide the framework for understanding, within the context of GUTs and the hot big-bang cosmology, the universal baryon asymmetry. The most exciting new predictions this effort has spawned are that exotic relics may exist in detectable abundances. In particular, we may live in a neutrino-dominated Universe. In the next few years, accummulating laboratory data (for example proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations) coupled with theoritical work in particle physics and cosmology will ensure the growth to maturity of this joint effort.

  5. Particle physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Quantum Physics Einstein's Gravity

    E-print Network

    Visser, Matt

    Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 13 October 2001 #12; Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity and with Einstein's theory of gravity (the general relativity) is still the single biggest theoretical problem

  7. Research program in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

  8. Quantum Physics and Nanotechnology

    E-print Network

    Vladimir K. Nevolin

    2011-06-06

    Experimental studies of infinite (unrestricted at least in one direction) quantum particle motion using probe nanotechnologies have revealed the necessity of revising previous concepts of their motion. Particularly, quantum particles transfer quantum motion nonlocality energy beside classical kinetic energy, in other words, they are in two different kinds of motion simultaneously. The quantum component of the motion energy may be quite considerable under certain circumstances. Some new effects were predicted and proved experimentally in terms of this phenomenon. A new prototype refrigerating device was tested, its principle of operation being based on the effect of transferring the quantum component of the motion energy.

  9. Review of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

    2014-08-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat PDF (1.77 MB) Kinematics, Cross-Section Formulae, and PlotsAcrobat PDF (3.57 MB) Particle Listings Illustrative key and abbreviationsAcrobat PDF (325 KB) Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (2.38 MB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (2.03 MB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (1.51 MB) Mesons: Light unflavored and strangeAcrobat PDF (4.91 MB) Mesons: Charmed and bottomAcrobat PDF (9.03 MB) Mesons: OtherAcrobat PDF (4.03 MB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (4.54 MB) Miscellaneous searchesAcrobat PDF (3.98 MB) IndexAcrobat PDF (276 KB)

  10. Modern Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Mark

    2013-09-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Underlying concepts; 3. Decay rates and cross sections; 4. The Dirac equation; 5. Interaction by particle exchange; 6. Electron-positron annihilation; 7. Electron-proton elastic scattering; 8. Deep inelastic scattering; 9. Symmetries and the quark model; 10. Quantum chromodynamics; 11. The weak interaction; 12. The weak interactions of leptons; 13. Neutrinos and neutrino oscillations; 14. CP violation and weak hadronic interactions; 15. Electroweak unification; 16. Tests of the Standard Model; 17. The Higgs boson; 18. The Standard Model and beyond; Appendixes; References; Further reading; Index.

  11. Quantum entanglement and entropy in particle creation

    E-print Network

    Shih-Yuin Lin; Chung-Hsien Chou; B. L. Hu

    2010-04-30

    We investigate the basic theoretical issues in the quantum entanglement of particle pairs created from the vacuum in a time-dependent background field or spacetime. Similar to entropy generation from these processes which depends on the choice of physical variables and how certain information is coarse-grained, entanglement dynamics hinges on the choice of measurable quantities and how the two parties are selected as well as the background dynamics of the field or spacetime. We discuss the conditions of separability of quantum states in particle creation processes and point out the differences in how the von Neumann entropy is used as a measure of entropy generation versus for entanglement dynamics. We show by an explicit construction that adoption of a different set of physical variables yields a different entanglement entropy. As an application of these theoretical considerations we show how the particle number and the quantum phase enter the entanglement dynamics in cosmological particle production.

  12. Physics 129 Nuclear and Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 129 Nuclear and Particle Physics Winter Quarter 2008 Instructor: David A. Williams (office Physics by W. S. C. Williams, Oxford University Press, 1991. Course materials Homework assignments materials will be distributed on the web site above. Nine texts on nuclear and particle physics, all

  13. Quantum physics meets biology

    E-print Network

    Markus Arndt; Thomas Juffmann; Vlatko Vedral

    2009-11-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  14. Quantum physics meets biology

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a “pedestrian guide” to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future “quantum biology,” its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena. PMID:20234806

  15. Particle physics -- Future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2001-11-29

    Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. Here I have in mind the work of the B factories and the Tevatron collider on CP violation and the weak interactions of the b quark; the wonderfully sensitive experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, Fermilab, and Frascati on CP violation and rare decays of kaons; the prospect of definitive accelerator experiments on neutrino oscillations and the nature of the neutrinos; and a host of new experiments on the sensitivity frontier. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment. I describe some of the great questions before us and the challenges of providing the instruments that will be needed to define them more fully and eventually to answer them.

  16. Cosmology and particle physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

  17. Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashhadi, Azam

    This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…

  18. Physics of windblown particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman; Marshall, John R.; White, Bruce; Iversen, James D.; Nickling, William G.; Gillette, Dale; Sorensen, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility proposed for the Space Station to investigate fundamental aspects of windblown particles is described. The experiments would take advantage of the environment afforded in earth orbit and would be an extension of research currently being conducted on the geology and physics of windblown sediments on earth, Mars, and Venus. Aeolian (wind) processes are reviewed in the planetary context, the scientific rational is given for specific experiments to be conducted, the experiment apparatus (the Carousel Wind Tunnel, or CWT) is described, and a plan presented for implementing the proposed research program.

  19. Quantum Order: a Quantum Entanglement of Many Particles Xiao-Gang Wen

    E-print Network

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Quantum Order: a Quantum Entanglement of Many Particles Xiao-Gang Wen Department of Physics view quantum order as a description of the pattern of the quantum entanglement in a many-body ground be viewed as the fluctuations of quantum entangle- ment. In contract, the classical order in a crystal just

  20. Quantum Cellular Automata Without Particles

    E-print Network

    David A. Meyer; Asif Shakeel

    2015-06-04

    Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA) constitute a natural discrete model for quantum field theory (QFT). Although QFTs are defined without reference to particles, computations are done in terms of Feynman diagrams, which are explicitly interpreted in terms of interacting particles. Similarly, the easiest QCA to construct are Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). A natural question then is, "are all nontrivial QCA QLGA?". Here we show by construction that the answer is "no"; thus there are QCA, even in $1+1$ dimensions, that have no particle interpretation.

  1. Finite groups and quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kornyak, V. V.

    2013-02-15

    Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.

  2. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  3. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Roodman, A

    2003-12-16

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  4. Studies in theoretical particle physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1992-08-01

    This report focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: Chiral Fermions on the Lattice; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; analysis of parity violating nuclear forces, and other an attempt to render the electric dipole moment of the neutron immune from quantum gravity corrections.

  5. Teaching Quantum Physics Without Paradoxes

    E-print Network

    Hobson, Art

    Teaching Quantum Physics Without Paradoxes Art Hobson, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR that resolution and to suggest that we teach introductory quantum physics from this viewpoint. Most introductions.) of introduc- tory quantum physics, and I certainly do not propose teaching quantum field theory

  6. Particle Physics: a Progress Report

    E-print Network

    Guido Altarelli

    2006-09-11

    We present a concise review of where we stand in particle physics today. First we discuss QCD, then the electroweak sector and finally the motivations and the avenues for new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  7. Research in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas of high energy physics: B meson mixing; CDF response to low energy jets; jet scaling behavior; search for pair produced leptoquarks at CDF; SSC program; quantum field theory; and neural networks. (LSP).

  8. Was Einstein Wrong on Quantum Physics?

    E-print Network

    Mani Bhaumik

    2015-11-05

    Einstein is considered by many as the father of quantum physics in some sense. Yet there is an unshakable view that he was wrong on quantum physics. Although it may be a subject of considerable debate, the core of his allegedly wrong demurral was the insistence on finding an objective reality underlying the manifestly bizarre behavior of quantum objects. The uncanny wave-particle duality of a quantum particle is a prime example. In view of the latest developments, particularly in quantum field theory, objections of Einstein are substantially corroborated. Careful investigation suggests that a travelling quantum particle is a holistic wave packet consisting of an assemblage of irregular disturbances in quantum fields. It acts as a particle because only the totality of all the disturbances in the wave packet yields the energy momentum with the mass of a particle, along with its other conserved quantities such as charge and spin. Thus the wave function representing a particle is not just a fictitious mathematical construct but embodies a reality of nature as asserted by Einstein.

  9. Was Einstein Wrong on Quantum Physics?

    E-print Network

    Bhaumik, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Einstein is considered by many as the father of quantum physics in some sense. Yet there is an unshakable view that he was wrong on quantum physics. Although it may be a subject of considerable debate, the core of his allegedly wrong demurral was the insistence on finding an objective reality underlying the manifestly bizarre behavior of quantum objects. The uncanny wave-particle duality of a quantum particle is a prime example. In view of the latest developments, particularly in quantum field theory, objections of Einstein are substantially corroborated. Careful investigation suggests that a travelling quantum particle is a holistic wave packet consisting of an assemblage of irregular disturbances in quantum fields. It acts as a particle because only the totality of all the disturbances in the wave packet yields the energy momentum with the mass of a particle, along with its other conserved quantities such as charge and spin. Thus the wave function representing a particle is not just a fictitious mathematica...

  10. Particle Physics Masterclass

    SciTech Connect

    Helio Takai

    2009-04-10

    Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

  11. Particle Physics Masterclass

    ScienceCinema

    Helio Takai

    2010-01-08

    Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

  12. Completing the Standard Model with Gravity by General Relativizing Quantum Physics (RQP) (Coupling Spin-2 Gravitons with Spin-0 Particles to Generate Higgs Mass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Walter James

    2015-10-01

    After a straightforward general relativistic calculation on a modified flat-spacetime metric (developed from the fluctuating vacuum energy interacting with a graviton field), a pair of n-valued covariant and contravariant energy momentum tensors emerged analogous to quantized raising and lower operators. Detaching these operators from the general relativistic field equations, and then transporting them to act on extreme spacetimes, these operators were able to generate fundamental particle boson masses. In particular, the operators precisely generated Higgs mass. Then by applying a consistency approach to the gravitational field equations - similar to how Maxwell applied to the electromagnetic ones - it allowed for the coupling of spin-to-mass, further restricting the particle mass to be in precise agreement with CODATA experimental values. Since this is a massless field approach integrated discretely with a massive one, it overcomes various renormalizing difficulties; moreover it solves the mass hierarchal problem of the Standard Model of particle physics, and generates its spin and therefore shows quantum physics to be a subset of General Relativity, just as Einstein had first imagined.

  13. Physics 235-Quantum Mechanics II Physics 235 Fall Quarter 2004 H.J.Frisch HEP320 (702-7479)

    E-print Network

    Physics 235-Quantum Mechanics II Physics 235 Fall Quarter 2004 H.J.Frisch HEP320 (702-7479) Sept and R. Resnick, Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles G. Herzberg, `Atomic

  14. Lithography using quantum entangled particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

  15. Lithography using quantum entangled particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

  16. Review of Particle Physics, 2012-2013

    E-print Network

    Beringer, J; Barnett, R M; Copic, K; Dahl, O; Groom, D E; Lin, C J; Lys, J; Murayama, H; Wohl, C G; Yao, W M; Zyla, P A; Amsler, C; Antonelli, M; Asner, D M; Baer, H; Band, H R; Basaglia, T; Bauer, C W; Beatty, J J; Belousov, V I; Bergren, E; Bernardi, G; Bertl, W; Bethke, S; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Brooijmans, G; Buchmueller, O; Cahn, R N; Carena, M; Ceccucci, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M C; Chivukula, R S; Cowan, G; D'Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; de Florian, D; de Gouvea, A; DeGrand, T; de Jong, P; Dissertori, G; Dobrescu, B; Doser, M; Drees, M; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Gaisser, T K; Garren, L; Gerber, H J; Gerbier, G; Gherghetta, T; Golwala, S; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grivaz, J F; Grunewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagiwara, K; Hagmann, C; Hanhart, C; Hashimoto, S; Hayes, K G; Heffner, M; Heltsley, B; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Hikasa, K; Hocker, A; Holder, J; Holtkamp, A; Huston, J; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Karlen, D; Kirkby, D; Klein, S R; Klempt, E; Kowalewski, R V; Krauss, F; Kreps, M; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu.V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Laiho, J; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Matthews, J; Milstead, D; Miquel, R; Monig, K; Moortgat, F; Nakamura, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Neubert, M; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Olive, K A; Pape, L; Parsons, J; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Petcov, S T; Piepke, A; Pomarol, A; Punzi, G; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Richardson, P; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Salam, G P; Sarkar, S; Sauli, F; Schneider, O; Scholberg, K; Scott, D; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Sharpe, S R; Silari, M; Sjostrand, T; Skands, P; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Syphers, M J; Takahashi, F; Tanabashi, M; Terning, J; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Tornqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Valencia, G; van Bibber, K; Venanzoni, G; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Vogt, A; Walkowiak, W; Walter, C W; Ward, D R; Watari, T; Weiglein, G; Weinberg, E J; Wiencke, L R; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Zeller, G P; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R Y; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V S; Schaffner, P

    2012-01-01

    This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Vcb & Vub, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter.

  17. The Cosmology - Particle Physics Connection

    E-print Network

    Mark Trodden

    2006-05-26

    Modern cosmology poses deep and unavoidable questions for fundamental physics. In this plenary talk, delivered in slightly different forms at the {\\it Particles and Nuclei International Conference} (PANIC05) in Santa Fe, in October 2005, and at the {\\it CMB and Physics of the Early Universe International Conference}, on the island of Ischia, Italy, in April 2006, I discuss the broad connections between cosmology and particle physics, focusing on physics at the TeV scale, accessible at the next and future generations of colliders

  18. Diamond detectors in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, R. J.

    2000-08-01

    Particle detectors made from artificial diamond have great promise for future experiments in particle physics because they are far less vulnerable to radiation damage than any other detector type. We review the history of diamond detectors and describe their current state of development. We also discuss the evidence which proves the resistance of these detectors to damage by various forms of incident radiation.

  19. m anchester particle physics

    E-print Network

    , decays via heavy quarks, in particular b quarks, do. An important route to b physics is by identifying describes the design of the chambers, their detailed construction including support, survey, gas system

  20. Quantum mechanics emerging from stochastic dynamics of virtual particles

    E-print Network

    Tsekov, R

    2015-01-01

    It is demonstrated how quantum mechanics emerges from the stochastic dynamics of force-carriers. It is shown that the quantum Moyal equation corresponds to some dynamic correlations between the momentum of a real particle and the position of a virtual particle, which are not present in classical mechanics. The new concept throws light on the physical meaning of quantum theory, showing that the Planck constant square is a second-second cross-cumulant. The novel approach to quantum systems is extended to the relativistic case and an expression is derived for the relativistic mass in the Wigner quantum phase-space.

  1. Quantum mechanics emerging from stochastic dynamics of virtual particles

    E-print Network

    R. Tsekov

    2015-10-20

    It is demonstrated how quantum mechanics emerges from the stochastic dynamics of force-carriers. It is shown that the quantum Moyal equation corresponds to some dynamic correlations between the momentum of a real particle and the position of a virtual particle, which are not present in classical mechanics. The new concept throws light on the physical meaning of quantum theory, showing that the Planck constant square is a second-second cross-cumulant. The novel approach to quantum systems is extended to the relativistic case and an expression is derived for the relativistic mass in the Wigner quantum phase-space.

  2. QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342

    E-print Network

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342 KPTC 103 9:00 ­ 10:20 a.m. 1 Tues., Thurs. ­ Winter Quarter 2011 quantum mechanics at the graduate level. The text for Quantum Mechanics II will be J. J. Sakurai and Jim Napolitano, Modern Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2011). For supplemental

  3. Scattering particles in quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderstraeten, Laurens; Verstraete, Frank; Haegeman, Jutho

    2015-09-01

    A variational approach for constructing an effective particle description of the low-energy physics of one-dimensional quantum spin chains is presented. Based on the matrix product state formalism, we compute the one- and two-particle excitations as eigenstates of the full microscopic Hamiltonian. We interpret the excitations as particles on a strongly correlated background with nontrivial dispersion relations, spectral weights, and two-particle S matrices. Based on this information, we show how to describe a finite density of excitations as an interacting gas of bosons, using its approximate integrability at low densities. We apply our framework to the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder: we compute the elementary excitation spectrum and the magnon-magnon S matrix, study the formation of bound states, and determine both static and dynamic properties of the magnetized ladder.

  4. Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779491

  5. Quantum evaporation of flavor-mixed particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2014-03-01

    Particles whose propagation (mass) and interaction (flavor) bases are misaligned are mixed, e.g., neutrinos, quarks, Kaons, etc. We show that interactions (elastic scattering) of individual mass-eigenstates can result in their inter-conversions. Most intriguing and counter-intuitive implication of this process is a new process, which we refer to as the ``quantum evaporation.'' Consider a mixed particle trapped in a gravitational potential. If such a particle scatters off something (e.g., from another mixed particle) elastically from time to time, this particle (or both particles, respectively) can eventually escape to infinity with no extra energy supplied. That is as if a ``flavor-mixed satellite'' hauled along a bumpy road puts itself in space without a rocket, fuel, etc. Of course, the process at hand is entirely quantum and has no counterpart in classical mechanics. It also has nothing to do with tunneling or other known processes. We discuss some implications to the dark matter physics, cosmology and cosmic neutrino background. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.

  6. Particle Physics in the LHC Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunk, Don

    During the past 100 years experimental particle physicists have collected an impressive amount of data. Theorists have also come to understand this data extremely well. It was in the first half of the 20th century the efforts of the early pioneers of quantum mechanics laid the ground work for this understanding: quantum field theory. Through the tireless efforts of researchers during the later half of the 20th century many ideas came together to form what we now call the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Finally, it was through the ideas of the renormalization group and effective field theory that the understanding of how the SM fits into a larger framework of particle physics was crystallized. In the past four years the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has made more precise measurements than ever before. Currently the SM of particle physics is known to have excellent agreement with these measurements. As a result of this agreement with data, the SM continues to play such a central role in modern particle physics that many other theories are simply known as `Beyond the Standard Model' (BSM) as we know any new models will simply be an extension of the SM. Despite agreement with experiment, the SM does suffer from several shortcomings that raise deeper questions. In this dissertation we study models that address the two of the outstanding theoretical problems of the SM -- the Strong CP Problem and the fine tuning of the Higgs mass. We study models that solve or ameliorate these problems, and their implications for collider physics and astrophysics.

  7. Bohmian particle trajectories contradict quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Michael Zirpel

    2009-03-23

    The Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics adds particle trajectories to the wave function and ensures that the probability distribution of the particle positions agrees with quantum mechanics at any time. This is not sufficient to avoid contradictions with quantum mechanics. There are correlations between particle positions at different times which cannot be reproduced with real particle trajectories. A simple rearrangement of an experimental test of the Bell-CHSH inequality demonstrates this.

  8. Mechanical models of physical fields and particles

    E-print Network

    Valery P. Dmitriyev

    1999-06-09

    Earlier obtained results on mechanical analogies of physical fields and particles are reviewed. The approach rests on the concept of the substratum - a mechanical medium, which occupies all the space and serves as a seat to support the light and to transmit interactions. A turbulent ideal fluid was chosen for the substratum. The turbulence is supposed to be homogeneous and isotropic in its ground state. Perturbations of the turbulence model physical fields. Particles originate from the voids in the fluid. Symmetrical pairs of particle-antiparticle find analogies in mechanical pairs of cyclone-anticyclone. A quantum particle is modeled by the dispersion of a point discontinuity (defect) in the stochastic medium. Gravitation relates to emitting by defects the continual flow of the transient point dilatation. The shock wave mechanism of the re-collection a discontinuity in the incompressible medium governs such phenomena as the "wave function collapse" and instantaneous quantum correlations. Microscopically, the electromagnetic wave and gravitation are modeled by the torsional and axisymmetric waves, respectively, in the vortex sponge.

  9. Sub-shot-noise quantum metrology with entangled identical particles

    E-print Network

    F. Benatti; R. Floreanini; U. Marzolino

    2010-01-19

    The usual notion of separability has to be reconsidered when applied to states describing identical particles. A definition of separability not related to any a priori Hilbert space tensor product structure is needed: this can be given in terms of commuting subalgebras of observables. Accordingly, the results concerning the use of the quantum Fisher information in quantum metrology are generalized and physically reinterpreted.

  10. Sub-shot-noise quantum metrology with entangled identical particles

    SciTech Connect

    Benatti, F. Floreanini, R.; Marzolino, U.

    2010-04-15

    The usual notion of separability has to be reconsidered when applied to states describing identical particles. A definition of separability not related to any a priori Hilbert space tensor product structure is needed: this can be given in terms of commuting subalgebras of observables. Accordingly, the results concerning the use of the quantum Fisher information in quantum metrology are generalized and physically reinterpreted.

  11. Parables of Physics and a Quantum Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machacek, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).

  12. Parables of physics and a quantum romance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers regularly use stories to amplify the concepts taught and to encourage student engagement. The literary form of a parable is particularly suitable for classroom use, and examples are given, including a longer one intended to stimulate discussion on the nature of quantum physics (and the wave-particle duality in particular).

  13. How to define physical properties of unstable particles

    E-print Network

    J. Gegelia; S. Scherer

    2009-10-22

    In the framework of effective quantum field theory we address the definition of physical quantities characterizing unstable particles. With the aid of a one-loop calculation, we study this issue in terms of the charge and the magnetic moment of a spin-1/2 resonance. By appealing to the invariance of physical observables under field redefinitions we demonstrate that physical properties of unstable particles should be extracted from the residues at complex (double) poles of the corresponding S-matrix.

  14. Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Alternative Futures for Particle Physics Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz Energy Frontier Workshop, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2013 Michael Dine Alternative Futures for Particle Physics #12;A tension between naturalness and simplicity The decades prior

  15. A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

    2013-07-25

    Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

  16. The Physics of Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette

    2015-10-01

    Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.

  17. From Waves to Particle Tracks and Quantum Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenburg, Brigitte

    Here, the measurement methods for identifying massive charged particles are investigated. They have been used from early cosmic ray studies up to the present day. Laws such as the classical Lorentz force and Einstein's relativistic kinematics were established before the rise of quantum mechanics. Later, it became crucial to measure the energy loss of charged particles in matter. In 1930, Bethe developed a semi-classical model based on the quantum mechanics of scattering. In the early 1930s, he and others calculated the passage of charged particles through matter including pair creation and bremsstrahlung. Due to missing trust in quantum electrodynamics, however, only semi-empirical methods were employed in order to estimate the mass and charge from the features of particle tracks. In 1932, Anderson inserted a lead plate into the cloud chamber in order to determine the flight direction and charge of the `positive electron'. In the 1940s, nuclear emulsions helped to resolve puzzles about particle identification and quantum electrodynamics. Later, the measurement theory was extended in a cumulative process by adding conservation laws for dynamic properties, probabilistic quantum formulas for resonances, scattering cross sections, etc. The measurement method was taken over from cosmic ray studies to the era of particle accelerators, and finally taken back from there to astroparticle physics. The measurement methods remained the same, but in the transition from particle to astroparticle physics the focus of interest shifted. Indeed, the experimental methods of both fields explore the grounds of `new physics' in complementary ways.

  18. Scheduling Data Intensive Particle Physics Analysis Jobs

    E-print Network

    Hersch, Roger D.

    Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) Information Technology Department CH-1211 Geneva 23, SwitzerlandScheduling Data Intensive Particle Physics Analysis Jobs on Clusters of PCs S. Ponce European. Particle physics analysis jobs require the analysis of tens of thousands of particle collision events, each

  19. Harvard University Physics 295b: Quantum Theory of Solids

    E-print Network

    Harvard University Physics 295b: Quantum Theory of Solids Instructor : Subir Sachdev, Lyman 343://isites.harvard.edu/k90092 The first class will meet on Tue Sep 4. Teaching fellow: Debanjan Chowdhury, chowdhury@physics.harvard.edu A course on the application of the principles of many-particle quantum mechanics to the properties

  20. Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2008-02-05

    These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

  1. Teaching Quantum Physics without Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2007-01-01

    Although the resolution to the wave-particle paradox has been known for 80 years, it is seldom presented. Briefly, the resolution is that material particles and photons are the quanta of extended spatially continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory and is not usually spelled out in…

  2. Elementary Particles as Gates for Universal Quantum Computation

    E-print Network

    Deepak Vaid

    2013-06-29

    It is shown that there exists a mapping between the fermions of the Standard Model (SM) represented as braids in the Bilson-Thompson model, and a set of gates which can perform Universal Quantum Computation (UQC). This leads us to conjecture that the "Computational Universe Hypothesis" (CUH) can be given a concrete implementation in a new physical framework where elementary particles and the gauge bosons (which intermediate interactions between fermions) are interpreted as the components of a quantum computational network, with the particles serving as quantum computational gates and the gauge fields as the information carrying entities.

  3. Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karchin, Paul E.

    2011-09-01

    We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.

  4. 8.04 Quantum Physics I, Spring 2003

    E-print Network

    Lee, Young S.

    Experimental basis of quantum physics: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, photons, Franck-Hertz experiment, the Bohr atom, electron diffraction, deBroglie waves, and wave-particle duality of matter and light. ...

  5. Particle staining: physically based texture generation 

    E-print Network

    Mistrot, Jean Michael

    2004-09-30

    generated particle system in a phenomenological model. The motion of these particles is controlled by physically based constraints, such as wind, gravity, mass, etc. The way in which each particle interacts with or modifies the look of the surface...

  6. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2011-01-01

    I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called high energy physics, in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a great way to make a fascinating topic meaningless. Students need a conceptual framework from which to view the elementary particles. That conceptual framework is quantum field theory (QFT). Teachers and students alike tend to quake at this topic, but bear with me. We're talking here about concepts, not technicalities. My approach will be conceptual and suitable for non-scientists and scientists; if mathematical details are added in courses for future scientists, they should be simple and sparse. Introductory students should not be expected to do QFT, but only to understand its concepts. Those concepts take some getting used to, but they are simple and can be understood by any literate person, be she plumber, attorney, musician, or physicist.

  7. Research in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    White, Andrew Paul; De, Kaushik; Brandt, Andrew; Yu, Jaehoon; Farbin, Amir

    2015-02-02

    This report details the accomplishments and research results for the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington at the Energy and Intensity Frontiers. For the Energy Frontier we have made fundamental contributions in the search for supersymmetric particles, proposed to explain the stabilization of the mass of the Higgs Boson – the agent giving mass to all known particles. We have also made major contributions to the search for additional Higgs Bosons and to the planning for future searches. This work has been carried out in the context of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN (European Nuclear Research Laboratory) and for which we have made major contributions to computing and data distribution and processing, and have worked to calibrate the detector and prepare upgraded electronics for the future. Our other contribution to the Energy Frontier has been to the International Linear Collider (ILC) project, potentially hosted by Japan, and to the Silicon Detector Concept (SiD) in particular. We have lead the development of the SiD Concept and have worked on a new form of precise energy measurement for particles from the high energy collisions of electrons and positrons at the ILC. For the Intensity Frontier, we have worked to develop the concept of Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment(s) (LBNE) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Our contributions to detector development, neutrino beam studies, particle identification, software development will facilitate future studies of the oscillation of one type of neutrino into other type(s), establish the order of the neutrino masses, and, through an innovative new idea, allow us to create a beam of dark matter particles.

  8. Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Scott J.

    1992-09-01

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  9. Quantum Mechanics as Classical Physics

    E-print Network

    Charles Sebens

    2015-04-02

    Here I explore a novel no-collapse interpretation of quantum mechanics which combines aspects of two familiar and well-developed alternatives, Bohmian mechanics and the many-worlds interpretation. Despite reproducing the empirical predictions of quantum mechanics, the theory looks surprisingly classical. All there is at the fundamental level are particles interacting via Newtonian forces. There is no wave function. However, there are many worlds.

  10. A Signed Particle Formulation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Jean Michel Sellier

    2015-09-15

    A formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in terms of Newtonian particles is presented in the shape of a set of three postulates. In this new theory, quantum systems are described by ensembles of signed particles which behave as field-less classical objects which carry a negative or positive sign and interact with an external potential by means of creation and annihilation events only. This approach is shown to be a generalization of the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method which reconstructs the time-dependent Wigner quasi-distribution function of a system and, therefore, the corresponding Schroedinger time-dependent wave-function. Its classical limit is discussed and a physical interpretation, based on experimental evidences coming from quantum tomography, is suggested. Moreover, in order to show the advantages brought by this novel formulation, a straightforward extension to relativistic effects is discussed. To conclude, quantum tunnelling numerical experiments are performed to show the validity of the suggested approach.

  11. Quantum physics motivated neurobiology 

    E-print Network

    Mershin, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    This research addresses the question of what role might quantum phenomena play in the brain. Recent progress in understanding brain function in terms of its basic cellular and subcellular (microtubules) components will be ...

  12. Quantum fingerprinting with a single particle

    SciTech Connect

    Massar, S.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the two-slit experiment in which a single quantum particle interferes with itself can be interpreted as a quantum fingerprinting protocol: the interference pattern exhibited by the particle contains information about the environment it encountered in the slits which would require much more communication to learn classically than is required quantum mechanically. An extension to the case where the particle has many internal degrees of freedom is suggested, and its interpretation is discussed. The interpretation of these results is discussed in detail, and a possible experimental realization is proposed.

  13. Finite Approximations to Quantum Physics: Quantum Points and their Bundles

    E-print Network

    A. P. Balachandran; G. Bimonte; E. Ercolessi; P. Teotonio-Sobrinho

    1993-10-04

    There exists a physically well motivated method for approximating manifolds by certain topological spaces with a finite or a countable set of points. These spaces, which are partially ordered sets (posets) have the power to effectively reproduce important topological features of continuum physics like winding numbers and fractional statistics, and that too often with just a few points. In this work, we develop the essential tools for doing quantum physics on posets. The poset approach to covering space quantization, soliton physics, gauge theories and the Dirac equation are discussed with emphasis on physically important topological aspects. These ideas are illustrated by simple examples like the covering space quantization of a particle on a circle, and the sine-Gordon solitons.

  14. Quantum Hamiltonian Physics with Supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vary, James P.

    2014-06-01

    The vision of solving the nuclear many-body problem in a Hamiltonian framework with fundamental interactions tied to QCD via Chiral Perturbation Theory is gaining support. The goals are to preserve the predictive power of the underlying theory, to test fundamental symmetries with the nucleus as laboratory and to develop new understandings of the full range of complex quantum phenomena. Advances in theoretical frameworks (renormalization and many-body methods) as well as in computational resources (new algorithms and leadership-class parallel computers) signal a new generation of theory and simulations that will yield profound insights into the origins of nuclear shell structure, collective phenomena and complex reaction dynamics. Fundamental discovery opportunities also exist in such areas as physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, the transition between hadronic and quark-gluon dominated dynamics in nuclei and signals that characterize dark matter. I will review some recent achievements and present ambitious consensus plans along with their challenges for a coming decade of research that will build new links between theory, simulations and experiment. Opportunities for graduate students to embark upon careers in the fast developing field of supercomputer simulations is also discussed.

  15. Wave-Particle Duality and the Coherent Quantum Domain Picture

    E-print Network

    Alan M. Kadin

    2006-03-08

    It is proposed that the paradox of wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics may be resolved using a physical picture analogous to magnetic domains. Within this picture, a quantum particle represents a coherent region of a quantum wave with characteristic total energy, momentum, and spin. The dynamics of such a state are described by the usual linear quantum wave equations. But the coherence is maintained by a nonlinear self-interaction term that is evident only during transitions from one quantum state to another. This is analogous to the self-organizing property of domains in a ferromagnetic material, in which a single domain may appear as a stable macro-particle, but with rapid transitions between different domain configurations also possible. For the quantum case, this implies that the "collapse of the wave function" is a real dynamical physical process that occurs continuously in spacetime. This picture may also permit the resolution of apparent paradoxes associated with quantum measurement and entangled states.

  16. Quantum physics and complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    There is a widely used and successful theory of ``chemical reaction networks,'' which provides a framework describing systems governed by mass action kinetics. Computer science and population biology use the same ideas under a different name: ``stochastic Petri nets.'' But if we look at these theories from the perspective of quantum theory, they turn out to involve creation and annihilation operators, coherent states and other well-known ideas--yet in a context where probabilities replace amplitudes. I will explain this connection as part of a detailed analogy between quantum mechanics and stochastic mechanics which we've produced several results on recently, including the recent analytical results uniting quantum physics and complex networks. Our general idea is about merging concepts from quantum physics and complex network theory to provide a bidirectional bridge between both disciplines. Support is acknowledged from the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) and the Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation.

  17. The dialogue between particle physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Sadoulet, B.

    1988-04-01

    In the last decade, a very close relationship has developed between particle physics and cosmology. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to the many scientific connections between the two fields. Before entering into the discussion of specific topics, it will first be shown that particle physics and cosmology are completely interdependent. 173 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; Roa-Neri, J.A.E.

    2013-08-15

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

  19. Particle Physics Aspects of Modern Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Robert H. Brandenberger

    1997-01-13

    Modern cosmology has created a tight link between particle physics / field theory and a wealth of new observational data on the structure of the Universe. These lecture notes focus on some of the most important aspects concerning the connection between theory and observations. The lectures begin with an overview of some recent progress and problems in inflationary cosmology. In particular, a pedagogical discussion of the theory of reheating is presented. The second topic is a survey of the theory of cosmological perturbations, the cornerstone of modern cosmology. The focus is on the gauge-invariant classical and quantum theory of fluctuations. The third topic concerns the role of topological defects in cosmology. Reviews of the cosmic string theory of galaxy formation and of defect-mediated GUT and electroweak baryogenesis are given.

  20. Quantum particle in a random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, G. V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe the behavior of a quantum particle in a random medium using the Green's function in the functional integral representation and propose methods for evaluating it. We calculate the localization length in the case of motion in a disordered medium and in a medium described by a random Gaussiantype potential. We consider the motion of the quantum particle in the quantized-field vacuum and show the difference between the relativistic and nonrelativistic approaches.

  1. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics Aaron Roodman

    E-print Network

    Browder, Tom

    Blind Analysis in Particle Physics Aaron Roodman Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94025, USA A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of experimenter

  2. PHYSICS 482, QUANTUM MECHANICS II Introductory Quantum Mechanics contd.

    E-print Network

    Akerib, Daniel S.

    PHYSICS 482, QUANTUM MECHANICS II Introductory Quantum Mechanics contd. 1. Time dependent methods. Quantum Many-body physics: 1. Variational principle, simple applications. 2. Many body wave, ferromagnetism of the electron gas, Wigner crystals and quantum phase transitions. 4. Second quantization

  3. Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric approach to the direct measurement of the neutrino mass / E. Andreotti. Electron angular correlation in neutrinoless double beta decay and new physics / A. Ali, A. Borisov, D. Zhuridov. Neutrino energy quantization in rotating medium / A. Grigoriev, A. Studenikin. Neutrino propagation in dense magnetized matter / E. V. Arbuzova, A. E. Lobanov, E. M. Murchikova. Plasma induced neutrino spin flip via the neutrino magnetic moment / A. Kuznetsov, N. Mikheev -- Astroparticle physics and cosmology. International Russian-Italian mission "RIM-PAMELA" / A. M. Galper .. [et al.]. Dark Matter searches with AMS-02 experiment / A. Malinin. Investigating the dark halo / R. Bernabei ... [et al.]. Search for rare processes at Gran Sasso / P. Belli ... [et al.]. Anisotropy of Dark Matter annihilation and remnants of Dark Matter clumps in the galaxy / V. Berezinsky, V. Dokuchaev, Yu. Eroshenko. Current observational constraints on inflationary models / E. Mikheeva. Phase transitions in dense quark matter in a constant curvature gravitational field / D. Ebert, V. Ch. Zhukovsky, A. V. Tyukov. Construction of exact solutions in two-fields models / S. Yu. Vernov. Quantum systems bound by gravity / M. L. Fil'chenkov, S. V. Kopylov, Y. P. Laptev -- CP violation and rare decays. Some puzzles of rare B-Decays / A. B. Kaidalov. Measurements of CP violation in b decays and CKM parameters / J. Chauveau. Evidence for D[symbol] mixing at BaBar / M. V. Purohit. Search for direct CP violation in charged kaon decays from NA48/2 experiment / S. Balev. [symbol] scattering lengths from measurements of K[symbol] and K± -> [symbol] decays at NA48/2 / D. Madigozhin. Rare kaon and hyperon decays in NA48 experiment / N. Molokanova. THE K+ -> [symbol]+vv¯ experiment at CERN / Yu. Potrebenikov. Recent KLOE results / B. Di Micco.Decay constants and masses of heavy-light mesons in field correlator method / A. M. Badalian. Bilinear R-parity violation in rare meson decays / A. Ali, A. V. Borisov, M. V. Sidorova. Final state interaction in K -> 2[symbol] decay / E. Shabalin -- Hadron physi

  4. Elementary particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1990-09-20

    We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

  5. Quantum physics and the beam splitter mystery

    E-print Network

    Francois Henault

    2015-09-01

    Optical lossless beam splitters are frequently encountered in fundamental physics experiments regarding the nature of light, including "which-way" determination of light particles, N. Bohr's complementarity principle, or the EPR paradox and all their measurement apparatus. Although they look as common optical components at first glance, their behaviour remains somewhat mysterious since they apparently exhibit stand-alone particle-like features, and then wave-like characteristics when inserted into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this communication are examined and discussed some basic properties of these beamssplitters, both from a classical optics and quantum physics point of view. Herein some convergences and contradictions are highlighted, and the results of a few emblematic experiments demonstrating photon existence are discussed. An alternative empirical model in wave optics is also proposed in order to shed light on some remaining questions

  6. Quantum Physics Chronology Protection

    E-print Network

    Visser, Matt

    Louis USA Stephen 60 Cambridge, England January 2002 #12; Why is chronology even an issue? Observation't change recorded history". 3. Hawking: chronology protection conjecture. 4. Boring physics conjecture (1998) 023501] 6 #12; Having your cake and eating it too: #15; Stephen's chronology protection permits

  7. Physical implementations of quantum computing Andrew Daley

    E-print Network

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    Physical implementations of quantum computing Andrew Daley Department of Physics and Astronomy Implementation of Quantum Computation", Fortschritte der Physik 48, p. 771 (2000) arXiv:quant-ph/0002077 Requirements for the implementation of quantum computation 1. A scalable physical system with well

  8. Education and Outreach in Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    R. Michael Barnett

    2011-09-30

    There are many varied programs of education and outreach in particle physics. This report for the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society 2001 meeting reviews the impact of these programs in general, and also gives several examples of ongoing programs with a primary focus on those in the US.

  9. Particle Physics: From School to University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Roger

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of particle physics as part of the A-level physics course in British secondary schools. Utilizes the quark model of hadrons and the conceptual kinematics of particle collisions, as examples, to demonstrate practical instructional possibilities in relation to student expectations. (JJK)

  10. Quarked!--Adventures in Particle Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike--with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not…

  11. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2011-01-01

    I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a…

  12. Research in theoretical particle physics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and Schwinger-Dyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)

  13. Shameless Advertising: Particle Physics Week at UWinnipeg

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    ... + ...... + The game: find the effects of that virtual particle by doing very precise measurments of the weak force Shameless Advertising: Particle Physics Week at UWinnipeg Today ­ Jeff Martin (UWinnipeg in that bunch of virtual particles somewhere. And it's very heavy, so its effects are very small. Possible

  14. Programming physical realizations of quantum computers

    E-print Network

    Hans De Raedt; Kristel Michielsen; Anthony Hams; Seiji Miyashita; Keiji Saito

    2001-04-18

    We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum computation are unstable with respect to the physical realization of the quantum computer. We discuss the origin of these instabilities and discuss possibilities to overcome this, for practical purposes, fundamental limitation of quantum computers.

  15. Unifying Quantum Physics with Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2014-09-01

    We find that the natural logarithm of the age of the universe in quantum mechanical units is close to 137. Since science is not religion, it is our moral duty to recognize the importance of this finding on the following ground. The experimentally obtained number 137 is a mystical number in science, as if written by the hand of God. It is found in cosmology; unlike other theories, it works in biology too. A formula by Boltzmann also works in both: biology and physics, as if it is in the heart of God. His formula simply leads to finding the logarithm of microstates. One of the two conflicting theories of physics (1) Einstein's theory of General Relativity and (2) Quantum Physics, the first applies only in cosmology, but the second applies in biology too. Since we have to convert the age of the universe, 13 billion years, into 1,300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Planck times to get close to 137, quantum physics clearly shows the characteristics of unifying with biology. The proof of its validity also lies in its ability to extend information system observed in biology.

  16. Graphene: from materials science to particle physics

    E-print Network

    Joaquín E. Drut; Timo A. Lähde; Eero Tölö

    2010-11-02

    Since its discovery in 2004, graphene, a two-dimensional hexagonal carbon allotrope, has generated great interest and spurred research activity from materials science to particle physics and vice versa. In particular, graphene has been found to exhibit outstanding electronic and mechanical properties, as well as an unusual low-energy spectrum of Dirac quasiparticles giving rise to a fractional quantum Hall effect when freely suspended and immersed in a magnetic field. One of the most intriguing puzzles of graphene involves the low-temperature conductivity at zero density, a central issue in the design of graphene-based nanoelectronic components. While suspended graphene experiments have shown a trend reminiscent of semiconductors, with rising resistivity at low temperatures, most theories predict a constant or even decreasing resistivity. However, lattice field theory calculations have revealed that suspended graphene is at or near the critical coupling for excitonic gap formation due to strong Coulomb interactions, which suggests a simple and straightforward explanation for the experimental data. In this contribution we review the current status of the field with emphasis on the issue of gap formation, and outline recent progress and future points of contact between condensed matter physics and Lattice QCD.

  17. PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    PHYSICS 237 SPRING 2006 Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics BOOKS ON RESERVE IN CRERAR LIBRARY 1987 K. S. Krane Introductory Nuclear Physics QC777.K730 1988 Useful references P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences QA278 .B48 2003 J. M. Blatt

  18. Physics 143a: Quantum Mechanics I Spring 2015, Harvard Wave Functions and Probability

    E-print Network

    in Chapter 1 of [1]. The dynamics of a quantum "particle" of mass m is governed by a complex-valued wavePhysics 143a: Quantum Mechanics I Spring 2015, Harvard Section 2: Wave Functions and Probability the particle in between points x and x + dx at time t. The Schr¨odinger equation (and thus quantum mechanics

  19. n-particle quantum statistics on graphs

    E-print Network

    Jonathan M. Harrison; Jonathan P. Keating; Jonathan M. Robbins; Adam Sawicki

    2013-04-21

    We develop a full characterization of abelian quantum statistics on graphs. We explain how the number of anyon phases is related to connectivity. For 2-connected graphs the independence of quantum statistics with respect to the number of particles is proven. For non-planar 3-connected graphs we identify bosons and fermions as the only possible statistics, whereas for planar 3-connected graphs we show that one anyon phase exists. Our approach also yields an alternative proof of the structure theorem for the first homology group of n-particle graph configuration spaces. Finally, we determine the topological gauge potentials for 2-connected graphs.

  20. Non-Perturbative, Unitary Quantum-Particle Scattering Amplitudes from Three-Particle Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, James V

    2002-03-19

    We here use our non-perturbative, cluster decomposable relativistic scattering formalism to calculate photon-spinor scattering, including the related particle-antiparticle annihilation amplitude. We start from a three-body system in which the unitary pair interactions contain the kinematic possibility of single quantum exchange and the symmetry properties needed to identify and substitute antiparticles for particles. We extract from it unitary two-particle amplitude for quantum-particle scattering. We verify that we have done this correctly by showing that our calculated photon-spinor amplitude reduces in the weak coupling limit to the usual lowest order, manifestly covariant (QED) result with the correct normalization. That we are able to successfully do this directly demonstrates that renormalizability need not be a fundamental requirement for all physically viable models.

  1. Quantum Physics and Human Language

    E-print Network

    James B. Hartle

    2006-12-19

    Human languages employ constructions that tacitly assume specific properties of the limited range of phenomena they evolved to describe. These assumed properties are true features of that limited context, but may not be general or precise properties of all the physical situations allowed by fundamental physics. In brief, human languages contain `excess baggage' that must be qualified, discarded, or otherwise reformed to give a clear account in the context of fundamental physics of even the everyday phenomena that the languages evolved to describe. The surest route to clarity is to express the constructions of human languages in the language of fundamental physical theory, not the other way around. These ideas are illustrated by an analysis of the verb `to happen' and the word `reality' in special relativity and the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems.

  2. Quantum particle production at sudden singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, John D.; Batista, Antonio B.; Houndjo, Stephane; Fabris, Julio C.

    2008-12-15

    We investigate the effects of quantum particle production on a classical sudden singularity occurring at finite time in a Friedmann universe. We use an exact solution to describe an initially radiation-dominated universe that evolves into a sudden singularity at finite time. We calculate the density of created particles exactly and find that it is generally much smaller than the classical background density and pressure which produce the sudden singularity. We conclude that, in the example studied, the quantum particle production does not lead to the avoidance or modification to the sudden future singularity. We argue that the effects of small residual anisotropies in the expansion will not change these results and show how they can be related to studies of classical particle production using a bulk viscosity. We conclude that we do not expect to see significant observable effects from local sudden singularities on our past light cone.

  3. Particle Physics Implications for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stochaj, Steve

    2012-10-01

    New Mexico State University's involvement in the measurement of cosmic rays (space borne energetic particles) dates back to the 1970's. Measurements of these particles can contribute to our understanding of the most energetic processes in the Universe. The talk will cover the contributions of NMSU to the measurements of the antimatter components of the cosmic radiation and the study of solar energetic particles with PAMELA, Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics. PAMELA was launched on a Russian Resurs-DK1 spacecraft into a polar orbit in June 2006 and remains operational to date. A summary of the PAMELA results and their connection to astrophysics will be given.

  4. [Elementary particle physics. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Izen, J.M.; Lou, X.

    1998-12-31

    The BABAR construction phase is ending and first data is expected during May, 1999. During construction, UTD has developed analysis framework software, contributed to the BABAR Physics Book, assembled a first rate computing facility, and pioneered Internet-based video techniques for the collaboration. The authors are now defining the physics goals, and are participating in the formation physics analysis groups. They are starting to use their computing facility for BABAR production jobs.

  5. Particle creation from the quantum stress tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F. R.

    2015-05-01

    Among the different methods to derive particle creation, finding the quantum stress tensor expectation value gives a covariant quantity which can be used for examining the backreaction issue. However this tensor also includes vacuum polarization in a way that depends on the vacuum chosen. Here we review different aspects of particle creation by looking at energy conservation and at the quantum stress tensor. We show that in the case of general spherically symmetric black holes that have a dynamical horizon, as occurs in a cosmological context, one cannot have pair creation on the horizon because this violates energy conservation. This confirms the results obtained in other ways in a previous paper [J. T. Firouzjaee and G. F. R. Ellis, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 47, 6 (2015)]. Looking at the expectation value of the quantum stress tensor with three different definitions of the vacuum state, we study the nature of particle creation and vacuum polarization in black hole and cosmological models, and the associated stress-energy tensors. We show that the thermal temperature that is calculated from the particle flux given by the quantum stress tensor is compatible with the temperature determined by the affine null parameter approach. Finally, we show that in the spherically symmetric dynamic case, we can neglect the backscattering term and only consider the s-wave term near the future apparent horizon.

  6. A Quantum Particle Undergoing Continuous Observation

    E-print Network

    V. P. Belavkin; P. Staszewski

    2005-12-17

    A stochastic model for the continuous nondemolition ohservation of the position of a quantum particle in a potential field and a boson reservoir is given. lt is shown that any Gaussian wave function evolving according to the posterior wave equation with a quadratic potential collapses to a Gaussian wave packet given by the stationary solution of this equation.

  7. Particle Tracks, Events and Quantum Theory

    E-print Network

    A. Jadczyk

    1994-08-01

    The law of track formation in cloud chambers is derived from the Liouville equation with a simple Lindblad's type generator that describes coupling between a quantum particle and a classical, continuous, medium of two--state detectors. Piecewise deterministic random process (PDP) corresponding to the Liouville equation is derived. The process consists of pairs (classical event,quantum jump), interspersed with random periods of continuous (in general, non--linear) Schroedinger's--type evolution. The classical events are flips of the detectors -- they account for tracks. Quantum jumps are shown, in the simplest, homogeneous case, to be identical to those in the early spontaneous localization model of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber (GRW). The methods and results of the present paper allow for an elementary derivation and numerical simulation of particle track formation and provide an additional perspective on GRW's proposal

  8. Quantum Key Distribution by Utilizing Four-Level Particles

    E-print Network

    Tao Yan; Fengli Yan

    2010-02-09

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol based on four-level particles entanglement. Furthermore, a controlled quantum key distribution protocol is proposed by utilizing three four-level particles. We show that the two protocols are secure.

  9. Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction

    E-print Network

    Lee, Clarissa Ai Ling

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the secon...

  10. Sub-Quantum Medium and Fundamental Particles

    E-print Network

    Ioan-Iovitz Popescu; Rudolf Emil Nistor

    2009-08-13

    Obtaining the rest mass of leptons with electric charge minus 1 is pursued by considering the existence of a medium made up of sub-quantum particles, called etherons, having a rest energy at the lowest limit which is possible in the Universe. This medium is assumed to have a periodic structure, that generates zones of allowed and forbidden energy. The basic assumption consists in considering the photon interaction with this hypothetical medium to be similar with the interaction of the electrons with the particles of a crystalline lattice. It is further assumed that an inverse particle-antiparticle annihilation process in the presence of the periodical sub-quantum field generates the particles of the Universe. The quantization of the photons in this sub-quantum lattice is achieved with the help of the operator of the square of the energy and a well-known formula of F. Bloch has been further used to empirically fix the lattice parameters. The rest energy of fundamental particles would correspond to zones of allowed energy.

  11. Quantum physics and the beam splitter mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault, François

    2015-09-01

    Optical lossless beam splitters are frequently encountered in fundamental physics experiments regarding the nature of light, including "which-way" determination or the EPR paradox and their measurement apparatus. Although they look as common optical components at first glance, their behaviour remains somewhat mysterious since they apparently exhibit stand-alone particle-like features, and then wave-like characteristics when inserted into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this communication are examined and discussed some basic properties of these beamssplitters, both from a classical optics and quantum physics point of view. Herein the most evident convergences and contradictions are highlighted, and the results of a few emblematic experiments demonstrating photon existence are discussed. Alternative empirical models are also proposed in order to shed light on some remaining issues.

  12. Frontiers of particle beam physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-11-01

    First, a review is given of various highly-developed techniques for particle handling which are, nevertheless, being vigorously advanced at the present time. These include soft superconductor radio frequency cavities, hard superconductor magnets, cooling rings for ions and anti-protons, and damping rings for electrons. Second, attention is focused upon novel devices for particle generation, acceleration, and focusing. These include relativistic klystrons and free electron laser power sources, binary power multipliers, photocathodes, switched-power linacs, plasma beat-wave accelerators, plasma wake-field accelerators, plasma lenses, plasma adiabatic focusers and plasma compensators. 12 refs.

  13. Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S.; Butler, James P.

    2015-01-01

    The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin air-blood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. Whereas the particle-lung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drug. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this chapter. A large portion of this chapter deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: 1) the physical characteristics of particles, 2) particle behavior in gas flow, and 3) gas flow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The chapter concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research. PMID:24265235

  14. Medium energy elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)

  15. On Universal Physical Reality in the Light of Quantum Consciousness

    E-print Network

    Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Hassan, Sk Sarif; Sahoo, Sudhakar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have first given an intuitive definition of "Consciousness" as realized by us. Next, from this intuitive definition we derived the physical definition of quantum consciousness (Quantum Consciousness Parameter or QCP). This QCP is the elementary level of consciousness in quantum particles, which are the most elementary particles in nature. Thus QCP can explain both the perceptible and non-perceptible nature and some existing postulates of physics. We conceptualize that the level of human consciousness is most complex having highest fractal dimension of 4.85 in the electroencephalographs experiment done by other research groups. On the other hand, other species are having lesser consciousness level, which can be reflected by lesser fractal dimensions. We have also explored the bio informatics of consciousness from genome viewpoints where we tried to draw an analogy of neurons with electrons and photons. Lastly, we refine the quantum mechanics in terms of QCP; we all know that in Einstein's spe...

  16. Quantum Measurements of Scattered Particles

    E-print Network

    Marco Merkli; Mark Penney

    2015-03-20

    We investigate the process of quantum measurements on scattered probes. Before scattering, the probes are independent, but they become entangled afterwards, due to the interaction with the scatterer. The collection of measurement results (the history) is a stochastic process of dependent random variables. We link the asymptotic properties of this process to spectral characteristics of the dynamics. We show that the process has decaying time correlations and that a zero-one law holds. We deduce that if the incoming probes are not sharply localized with respect to the spectrum of the measurement operator, then the process does not converge. Nevertheless, the scattering modifies the measurement outcome frequencies, which are shown to be the average of the measurement projection operator, evolved for one interaction period, in an asymptotic state. We illustrate the results on a truncated Jaynes-Cummings model.

  17. A Synthetic Approach to the Transfer Matrix Method in Classical and Quantum Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pujol, O.; Perez, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a synthetic approach to the transfer matrix method in classical and quantum physics. This method is an efficient tool to deal with complicated physical systems of practical importance in geometrical light or charged particle optics, classical electronics, mechanics, electromagnetics and quantum physics. Teaching…

  18. Modelling, Algorithms and Simulation for Wave Motion in Quantum and Plasma Physics

    E-print Network

    Bao, Weizhu

    Modelling, Algorithms and Simulation for Wave Motion in Quantum and Plasma Physics Weizhu Bao & collapse in BEC ­ Transport of cold atoms ­ Quantized vortices ­ Wave interaction in plasma physics Collaborators & Acknowledges #12;Waves in quantum & plasma physics Wave-type particle behaviour ­ Wave function

  19. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

  20. "Classical-ish": Negotiating the boundary between classical and quantum particles

    E-print Network

    Benjamin W. Dreyfus; Erin Ronayne Sohr; Ayush Gupta; Andrew Elby

    2015-07-02

    Quantum mechanics can seem like a departure from everyday experience of the physical world, but constructivist theories assert that learners build new ideas from their existing ones. To explore how students can navigate this tension, we examine video of a focus group completing a tutorial about the "particle in a box." In reasoning about the properties of a quantum particle, the students bring in elements of a classical particle ontology, evidenced by students' language and gestures. This reasoning, however, is modulated by metacognitive moments when the group explicitly considers whether classical intuitions apply to the quantum system. The students find some cases where they can usefully apply classical ideas to quantum physics, and others where they explicitly contrast classical and quantum mechanics. Negotiating this boundary with metacognitive awareness is part of the process of building quantum intuitions. Our data suggest that (some) students bring productive intellectual resources to this negotiation.

  1. Discrete Spacetime and Relativistic Quantum Particles

    E-print Network

    Terence C. Farrelly; Anthony J. Short

    2013-12-10

    We study a single quantum particle in discrete spacetime evolving in a causal way. We see that in the continuum limit any massless particle with a two dimensional internal degree of freedom obeys the Weyl equation, provided that we perform a simple relabeling of the coordinate axes or demand rotational symmetry in the continuum limit. It is surprising that this occurs regardless of the specific details of the evolution: it would be natural to assume that discrete evolutions giving rise to relativistic dynamics in the continuum limit would be very special cases. We also see that the same is not true for particles with larger internal degrees of freedom, by looking at an example with a three dimensional internal degree of freedom that is not relativistic in the continuum limit. In the process we give a formula for the Hamiltonian arising from the continuum limit of massless and massive particles in discrete spacetime.

  2. Research on elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p{bar p} collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a {tau}-charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development.

  3. Plato's TIMAIO? (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, Ruprecht

    2005-04-01

    It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIO? (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

  4. An Asymmetric Grating for Large Quantum Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boži?, Mirjana; Arsenovi?, Dušan; Vuškovi?, L.

    2004-05-01

    Inspired by current efforts to perform diffraction and interference experiments with objects of size that is equal or even larger than the diffraction structure, we develop an approach to investigate how the particle diameter influences the interference pattern in an asymmetric double slit interferometer. The approachfootnote D. Arsenovi?, M. Boži?, and L. Vu\\vskovi?, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 4, S358 (2002). is based on the use of the time dependent wave function of particle's transverse motion and the probability amplitude of transverse momentum. Similar functions were determined and applied by Dubetsky and Bermanfootnote B. Dubetsky and P. A. Berman, in Atom Interferometry, edited by P. R. Berman (Academic Press, New York, 1997), p. 407. for infinite periodic gratings. For the asymmetric double slit grating we identify three characteristic cases for the ratio of slit widths ?1 and ?2 and the diameter D of the particle: a) D??1 and D??_2, b) ?_1>D>?_2, c) D> ?_1>?_2. Taking into account the influence of both slits on the particle wave function, regardless through which slit the particle did passed, we treat the particle-wall interaction in the simple fashion, such that if the particle size is greater that the slit opening there is no transmission. The results show that the interference should be in cases a) and b), while it is absent in case c).

  5. Theoretical particle physics. Progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    This report discusses the following topics: Heavy Quark Physics; Chiral Perturbation Theory; Skyrmions; Large-N Limit; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Supersymmetry; Rare Decays; Technicolor; Chiral Lattice Fermions; Pauli-Villars Regulator and the Higgs Mass Bound; Higgs and Yukawa Interactions; Gauge Fixing; and Quantum Beables.

  6. Theoretical particle physics, Task A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; Parity-Odd Spin-Dependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.

  7. Particle creation from the quantum stress tensor

    E-print Network

    Firouzjaee, Javad T

    2015-01-01

    Among the different methods to derive particle creation, finding the quantum stress tensor expectation value gives a covariant quantity which can be used for examining the back-reaction issue. However this tensor also includes vacuum polarization in a way that depends on the vacuum chosen. Here we review different aspects of particle creation by looking at energy conservation and at the quantum stress tensor. It will be shown that in the case of general spherically symmetric black holes that have a \\emph{dynamical horizon}, as occurs in a cosmological context, one cannot have pair creation on the horizon because this violates energy conservation. This confirms the results obtained in other ways in a previous paper [25]. Looking at the expectation value of the quantum stress tensor with three different definitions of the vacuum state, we study the nature of particle creation and vacuum polarization in black hole and cosmological models, and the associated stress energy tensors. We show that the thermal tempera...

  8. Quantum Security for the Physical Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2013-01-01

    The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.

  9. Basics of particle therapy I: physics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664

  10. Hyperon particle physics at JHF

    SciTech Connect

    Mischke, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of a program in hyperon decay physics at the Japan Hadron Facility. The study of hyperon decays has a history of over 40 years of experimental results. However, many of the earliest results are still the best available and there are many gaps in the data. The static properties of hyperons (masses, magnetic moments) are in relatively good shape. Much work remains to be done on the decays of hyperons and hyperon resonances. There are current experiments at the major accelerator facilities that address various hyperon decays, but no comprehensive program. This presents an excellent opportunity for such a program to be considered at JHF. The high-intensity beams of {pi}, K, and p beams will allow experiments to be designed that optimize the properties of the hyperons being studied. It is possible to envision experiments with samples of 10{sup 9} hyperon decays in 10{sup 7} sec runs.

  11. Process Physics Inertia, Gravity and the Quantum

    E-print Network

    Cahill, R T

    2001-01-01

    Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational or semantic information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This generalises the traditional non-process syntactical modelling of reality by taking account of the limitations and characteristics of self-referential syntactical information systems, discovered by Goedel and Chaitin, and the analogies with the standard quantum formalism and its limitations. In process physics space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and time is a distinct non-geometric process. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space. Various features of the emergent physics are briefly discussed including: quantum gravity, quantum field theory, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the...

  12. Process Physics: Inertia, Gravity and the Quantum

    E-print Network

    Reginald T. Cahill

    2001-10-29

    Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational or semantic information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This generalises the traditional non-process syntactical modelling of reality by taking account of the limitations and characteristics of self-referential syntactical information systems, discovered by Goedel and Chaitin, and the analogies with the standard quantum formalism and its limitations. In process physics space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and time is a distinct non-geometric process. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space. Various features of the emergent physics are briefly discussed including: quantum gravity, quantum field theory, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality.

  13. What is a Particle in Classical Physics? A Wave?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    2005-11-01

    The concepts of ``particle" and ``wave" play important roles in quantum mechanics in that a given microscopic system can, under the proper circumstances, display properties of each.ootnotetextA Messiah, Quantum Mechanics, Vols. I and II (Wiley, 1961). However, these categories have their genesis in classical mechanicsootnotetextH. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, 1980, 2nd edition). and we must turn to this area to understand what they mean. In particular, it must be clearly understood that these concepts are idealistic representations of physical phenomena and, as a consequence, each may not correspond to any actual physical system. We discuss the definition of ``particle'' from the perspective of how it has been defined in standard textbooks and carry out a similar analysis for the notion of ``wave.'' We then define ``particle'' and ``wave'' within the context of classical mechanics by means of their respective equations of motion. The general (tentative) conclusion is that within the framework of classical mechanics the concepts of ``particle'' and ``wave'' systems may be unambiguously defined.

  14. [Quantum physics, medicine and insurance].

    PubMed

    Lambeck, M

    2007-12-01

    Medicine based on natural sciences explains the action of remedies by the chemical bonding of the molecules of the remedy and of the body. This bonding takes place at distances of about 10(-10) m. Several insurance companies pay all medical treatments listed in the Hufeland catalogue of special therapeutical methods. Many of these methods contradict the mechanism mentioned above: Homoeopathy and anthroposophical medicine use substances in which the remedy is not present as matter. Bioenergetic methods like electroacupuncture according to Voll (EAV) and bioresonance use the remedies not inside the body but outside of it. They claim to substitute the chemical bonding of matter waves with the information of electromagnetic waves. The explanation given in the Hufeland catalogue by means of quantum physics is discussed and further investigations are proposed. PMID:18210990

  15. Directional correlations in quantum walks with two particles

    E-print Network

    M. Stefanak; S. M. Barnett; B. Kollar; T. Kiss; I. Jex

    2011-02-22

    Quantum walks on the line with a single particle possess a classical analog. Involving more walkers opens up the possibility to study collective quantum effects, such as many particle correlations. In this context, entangled initial states and indistinguishability of the particles play a role. We consider directional correlations between two particles performing a quantum walk on a line. For non-interacting particles we find analytic asymptotic expressions and give the limits of directional correlations. We show that introducing $\\delta$-interaction between the particles, one can exceed the limits for non-interacting particles.

  16. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  17. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

  18. Diffusion Waves in Sub-Quantum Thermodynamics: Resolution of Einstein's 'Particle-in-a-box' Objection

    E-print Network

    Gerhard Groessing

    2008-08-01

    Einstein's objection against both the completeness claim of the orthodox version and the Bohmian interpretation of quantum theory, using the example of a 'particle in a box', is reiterated and resolved. This is done by proving that the corresponding quantum mechanical states exactly match classical analogues. The latter are shown to result from the recently elaborated physics of diffusion waves.

  19. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    Saleh Sultansoy

    2006-10-21

    The flavor democracy hypothesis was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle "massless" Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan(beta) approx.eq. 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle "massless" composite objects within preonic models.

  20. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-04-23

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan{beta} {approx_equal} mt/mb {approx_equal} 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

  1. Research in Theoretical Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Hume A; Marfatia, Danny

    2014-09-24

    This document is the final report on activity supported under DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-13ER42024. The report covers the period July 15, 2013 – March 31, 2014. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (1.0 FTE) and Hume Feldman (1% FTE). The grant partly supported University of Hawaii students, David Yaylali and Keita Fukushima, who are supervised by Jason Kumar. Both students are expected to graduate with Ph.D. degrees in 2014. Yaylali will be joining the University of Arizona theory group in Fall 2014 with a 3-year postdoctoral appointment under Keith Dienes. The group’s research covered topics subsumed under the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Many theoretical results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The report contains brief project descriptions in Section 1. Sections 2 and 3 lists published and submitted work, respectively. Sections 4 and 5 summarize group activity including conferences, workshops and professional presentations.

  2. Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, Marjorie G.; Johansson, K.Erik; Young, M.Jean

    2011-11-21

    This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.

  3. Physics 2, 19 (2009) An astronomical solution to an old quantum problem

    E-print Network

    Stroud Jr., Carlos R.

    2009-01-01

    in quantum me- chanics is the correspondence principle, formulated by Niels Bohr [5]. It states that quantum Published March 9, 2009 Subject Areas: Atomic and Molecular Physics A Viewpoint on: Nondispersing Bohr Wave the particles of classical mechan- ics and of Bohr's old quantum mechanics [1]. They con- cluded that there were

  4. Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2002-04-11

    Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.

  5. Is Particle Physics Ready for the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    Lykken, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    The advent of the Large Hadron Collider in 2007 entails daunting challenges to particle physicists. The first set of challenges will arise from trying to separate new physics from old. The second set of challenges will come in trying to interpret the new discoveries. I will describe a few of the scariest examples.

  6. Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S

    2013-04-01

    This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

  7. EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERNEP/99097

    E-print Network

    EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERN­EP/99­097 8th July 1999 Tests of the Standard Model at LEP, are presented and compared with the predictions of the Standard Model. The results are used. Grunhaus 23 , M.Gruw'e 27 , C. Hajdu 31 G.G. Hanson 12 , M. Hansroul 8 , M.Hapke 13 , K. Harder 27 , A

  8. EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERNEP/98108

    E-print Network

    EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERN­EP/98­108 3rd July 1998 Tests of the Standard Model of the Standard Model. Forward­backward asymmetries for the leptonic final states have also been measured. Cross , C. Grandi 2 , E. Gross 26 , J. Grunhaus 23 , M.Gruw'e 27 , G.G. Hanson 12 , M. Hansroul 8 , M.Hapke

  9. A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics

    E-print Network

    Hugh E. Montgomery

    2015-09-28

    This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.

  10. Particle Physics Phenomenology 5. Matching and Merging

    E-print Network

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    Particle Physics Phenomenology 5. Matching and Merging Torbj¨orn Sj¨ostrand Department of Astronomy to hadronization Torbj¨orn Sj¨ostrand PPP 5: Matching and Merging slide 2/34 #12;Parton shower uncertainties Torbj¨orn Sj¨ostrand PPP 5: Matching and Merging slide 3/34 #12;Simple adjustment to MEs: realistic hard

  11. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  12. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  13. The Particle inside a Ring: A Two-Dimensional Quantum Problem Visualized by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The one-dimensional particle-in-a-box model used to introduce quantum mechanics to students suffers from a tenuous connection to a real physical system. This article presents a two-dimensional model, the particle confined within a ring, that directly corresponds to observations of surface electrons in a metal trapped inside a circular barrier.…

  14. Three-dimensional loop quantum gravity: Particles and the quantum double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noui, Karim

    2006-10-01

    It is well known that the quantum double structure plays an important role in three-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to matter field. In this paper, we show how this algebraic structure emerges in the context of three-dimensional Riemannian loop quantum gravity (LQG) coupled to a finite number of massive spinless point particles. In LQG, physical states are usually constructed from the notion of SU(2) cylindrical functions on a Riemann surfaced ? and the Hilbert structure is defined by the Ashtekar-Lewandowski measure. In the case where ? is the sphere S2, we show that the physical Hilbert space is in fact isomorphic to a tensor product of simple unitary representations of the Drinfeld double DSU(2): the masses of the particles label the simple representations, the physical states are tensor products of vectors of simple representations, and the physical scalar product is given by intertwining coefficients between simple representations. This result is generalized to the case of any Riemann surface ?.

  15. Dissipative quantum metrology in manybody systems of identical particles

    E-print Network

    F. Benatti; S. Alipour; A. T. Rezakhani

    2013-08-24

    Estimation of physical parameters is a must in almost any part of science and technology. The enhancement of the performances in this task, e.g., beating the standard classical shot-noise limit, using available physical resources is a major goal in metrology. Quantum metrology in closed systems has indicated that entanglement in such systems may be a useful resource. However, it is not yet fully understood whether in open quantum systems such enhancements may still show up. Here, we consider a dissipative (open) quantum system of identical particles in which a parameter of the open dynamics itself is to be estimated. We employ a recently-developed dissipative quantum metrology framework, and investigate whether the entanglement produced in the course of the dissipative dynamics may help the estimation task. Specifically, we show that even in a Markovian dynamics, in which states become less distinguishable in time, at small enough times entanglement generated by the dynamics may offer some advantage over the classical shot-noise limit.

  16. Energetic particle physics issues for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Fu, G.Y.

    1996-12-31

    This paper summarizes our present understanding of the following energetic/alpha particle physics issues for the 21 MA, 20 TF coil ITER Interim Design configuration and operational scenarios: (a) toroidal field ripple effects on alpha particle confinement, (b) energetic particle interaction with low frequency MHD modes, (c) energetic particle excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes, and (d) energetic particle transport due to MHD modes. TF ripple effects on alpha loss in ITER under a number of different operating conditions are found to be small with a maximum loss of 1%. With careful plasma control in ITER reversed-shear operation, TF ripple induced alpha loss can be reduced to below the nominal ITER design limit of 5%. Fishbone modes are expected to be unstable for {beta}{sub {alpha}} > 1%, and sawtooth stabilization is lost if the ideal kink growth rate exceeds 10% of the deeply trapped alpha precessional drift frequency evaluated at the q = 1 surface. However, it is expected that the fishbone modes will lead only to a local flattening of the alpha profile due to small banana size. MHD modes observed during slow decrease of stored energy after fast partial electron temperature collapse in JT-60U reversed-shear experiments may be resonant type instabilities; they may have implications on the energetic particle confinement in ITER reversed-shear operation. From the results of various TAE stability code calculations, ITER equilibria appear to lie close to TAE linear stability thresholds. However, the prognosis depends strongly on q profile and profiles of alpha and other high energy particles species. If TAE modes are unstable in ITER, the stochastic diffusion is the main loss mechanism, which scales with ({delta}B{sub r}/B){sup 2}, because of the relatively small alpha particle banana orbit size. For isolated TAE modes the particle loss is very small, and TAE modes saturate via the resonant wave-particle trapping process at very small amplitude.

  17. Undergraduate computational physics projects on quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, D.

    2015-08-01

    Computational projects on quantum computing suitable for students in a junior-level quantum mechanics course are described. In these projects students write their own programs to simulate quantum computers. Knowledge is assumed of introductory quantum mechanics through the properties of spin 1/2. Initial, more easily programmed projects treat the basics of quantum computation, quantum gates, and Grover's quantum search algorithm. These are followed by more advanced projects to increase the number of qubits and implement Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. The projects can be run on a typical laptop or desktop computer, using most programming languages. Supplementing resources available elsewhere, the projects are presented here in a self-contained format especially suitable for a short computational module for physics students.

  18. Quantum physics: Teleportation for two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The 'no-cloning' theorem of quantum mechanics forbids the perfect copying of properties of photons or electrons. But quantum teleportation allows their flawless transfer -- now even for two properties simultaneously. See Letter p.516

  19. Relativistic Quantum Dynamics: A non-traditional perspective on space, time, particles, fields, and action-at-a-distance

    E-print Network

    Eugene V. Stefanovich

    2015-02-16

    This book is an attempt to build a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting particles. In the first part of the book "Quantum electrodynamics" we follow rather traditional approach to particle physics. Our discussion proceeds systematically from the principle of relativity and postulates of quantum measurements to the renormalization in quantum electrodynamics. In the second part of the book "Quantum theory of particles" this traditional approach is reexamined. We find that formulas of special relativity should be modified to take into account particle interactions. We also suggest reinterpreting quantum field theory in the language of physical "dressed" particles. This formulation eliminates the need for renormalization and opens up a new way for studying dynamical and bound state properties of quantum interacting systems. The developed theory is applied to realistic physical objects and processes including the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the decay law of moving unstable particles, and the electric field of relativistic electron beams. These results force us to take a fresh look at some core issues of modern particle theories, in particular, the Minkowski space-time unification, the role of quantum fields and renormalization as well as the alleged impossibility of action-at-a-distance. A new perspective on these issues is suggested. It can help to solve the old problem of theoretical physics -- a consistent unification of relativity and quantum mechanics.

  20. Differential Evolution for Many-Particle Adaptive Quantum Metrology

    E-print Network

    Neil B. Lovett; Cécile Crosnier; Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Barry C. Sanders

    2013-06-01

    We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods based on particle-swarm optimization. We apply our method to the binary-decision-tree model for quantum-enhanced phase estimation as well as to a new problem: a decision tree for adaptive estimation of the unknown bias of a quantum coin in a quantum walk and show how this latter case can be realized experimentally.

  1. Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2003-10-15

    Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  2. Coherent Quantum Filtering for Physically Realizable Linear Quantum Plants

    E-print Network

    Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen

    2013-01-14

    The paper is concerned with a problem of coherent (measurement-free) filtering for physically realizable (PR) linear quantum plants. The state variables of such systems satisfy canonical commutation relations and are governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations, dynamically equivalent to those of an open quantum harmonic oscillator. The problem is to design another PR quantum system, connected unilaterally to the output of the plant and playing the role of a quantum filter, so as to minimize a mean square discrepancy between the dynamic variables of the plant and the output of the filter. This coherent quantum filtering (CQF) formulation is a simplified feedback-free version of the coherent quantum LQG control problem which remains open despite recent studies. The CQF problem is transformed into a constrained covariance control problem which is treated by using the Frechet differentiation of an appropriate Lagrange function with respect to the matrices of the filter.

  3. Platonic solids symmetry in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselnik, F.

    2007-12-01

    Non-linearity of the Yang-Mills fields caused by the commutator in the Lagrangian calls attention to symmetries helping to reveal important features of the system, while obviating the need of actual solutions. To this end, a charge fixing procedure is carried out by means of counting photon oscillations between test particles moving along trajectories that form Platonic solids shaped patterns. With the infinite-range electromagnetic interaction as its origin, the procedure defines a class of interactions allowed for particle physics. Besides the familiar electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions, the scheme suggests an unusual force that cannot be detected with conventional means though possibly contributes to gravitation.

  4. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  5. Localization and Entanglement in Relativistic Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yngvason, Jakob

    These notes are a slightly expanded version of a lecture presented in February 2012 at the workshop "The Message of Quantum Science—Attempts Towards a Synthesis" held at the ZIF in Bielefeld. The participants were physicists with a wide range of different expertise and interests. The lecture was intended as a survey of a small selection of the insights into the structure of relativistic quantum physics that have accumulated through the efforts of many people over more than 50 years. (Including, among many others, R. Haag, H. Araki, D. Kastler, H.-J. Borchers, A. Wightman, R. Streater, B. Schroer, H. Reeh, S. Schlieder, S. Doplicher, J. Roberts, R. Jost, K. Hepp, J. Fröhlich, J. Glimm, A. Jaffe, J. Bisognano, E. Wichmann, D. Buchholz, K. Fredenhagen, R. Longo, D. Guido, R. Brunetti, J. Mund, S. Summers, R. Werner, H. Narnhofer, R. Verch, G. Lechner, ….) This contribution discusses some facts about relativistic quantum physics, most of which are quite familiar to practitioners of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) [Also known as Local Quantum Physics (Haag, Local quantum physics. Springer, Berlin, 1992).] but less well known outside this community. No claim of originality is made; the goal of this contribution is merely to present these facts in a simple and concise manner, focusing on the following issues: Explaining how quantum mechanics (QM) combined with (special) relativity, in particular an upper bound on the propagation velocity of effects, leads naturally to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (relativistic quantum fields).

  6. Particle physics: recent successes and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcicki, S.

    1984-12-01

    There is no doubt that as yet we do not have an ultimate theory of matter and forces in spite of the remarkable successes of the past decade. In this talk the author attempts to summarize briefly the historical background that led us to the present level of understanding, or more specifically to the standard model of particle physics. Subsequently the author describes several difficulties with this picture, continues with some possible indications of new physics, and finally ends with the discussion of the prospects for the future. 32 references.

  7. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Olin, A.; Frosch, R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  8. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. ); Oyanagi, Y. ); Dodder, D.C. ); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  9. Speculative Physics: the Ontology of Theory and Experiment in High Energy Particle Physics and Science Fiction

    E-print Network

    Clarissa Ai Ling Lee

    2014-06-21

    The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the second level of the conversation, theories are produced from a close study of the physics objects as speculative engine for new knowledge generation that are then reconceptualized and re-articulated for extrapolation into the speculative ontology of hard science fiction, particularly the hard science fiction written with the double intent of speaking to the science while producing imaginative and socially conscious science through the literary affordances of science fiction. The works of science fiction examined here demonstrate the tension between the internal values of physics in the practice of theory and experiment and questions on ethics, culture, and morality.

  10. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-12-31

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

  11. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  12. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  13. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics - Particle Production and Cluster Properties

    E-print Network

    W. N. Polyzou

    2003-02-11

    This paper constructs relativistic quantum mechanical models of particles satisfying cluster properties and the spectral condition which do not conserve particle number. The treatment of particle production is limited to systems with a bounded number of bare-particle degrees of freedom. The focus of this paper is about the realization of cluster properties in these theories.

  14. Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Burton

    2007-02-20

    ''It was the best of times; it was the worst of times'' is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.

  15. Summation of power series in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Jan

    1999-04-01

    The large-order behaviour of power series used in quantum theory (perturbation series and the operator-product expansion) is discussed and relevant summation methods are reviewed. It is emphasised that, in most physically interesting situations, the mere knowledge of the expansion coefficients is not sufficient for a unique determination of the function expanded, and the necessity of some additional, extra-perturbative, input is pointed out. Several possible nonperturbative inputs are suggested. Applications to various problems of quantum chromodynamics are considered. This lecture was presented on the special Memorial Day dedicated to Professor Ryszard R?czka at this Workshop. The last section is devoted to my personal recollections of this remarkable personality.

  16. Artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem

    E-print Network

    Antonio Alfonso-Faus

    2009-04-06

    It is shown that the usual choice of units obtained by taking G = c = Planck constant = 1, giving the Planck units of mass, length and time, introduces an artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem that we associate with Planck constant. We note that the choice of Planck constant = 1 does not correspond to the scale of quantum physics. For this scale we prove that the correct value is Planck constant \\hbar; 1/10^122, while the choice of Planck constant = 1 corresponds to the cosmological scale. This is due to the scale factor of 10^61 that converts the Planck scale to the cosmological scale. By choosing the ratio G/c^3 = constant = 1, which includes the choice G = c = 1, and the momentum conservation mc = constant, we preserve the derivation of the Einstein field equations from the action principle. Then the product Gm/c^2 = rg, the gravitational radius of m, is constant. For a quantum black hole we prove that Planck constant \\hbar; rg^2 \\hbar; (mc)^2. We also prove that the product lambda x Planck constant is a general constant of order one, for any scale. The cosmological scale implies lambda \\hbar; Planck constant \\hbar; 1, while the Planck scale gives lambda \\hbar; 1/Planck constant \\hbar; 10^122. This explains the lambda problem. We get two scales: the cosmological quantum black hole (QBH), size \\Lambda; 10^28 cm, and the quantum black hole (qbh) that includes the fundamental particles scale, size \\Lambda; 10^-13 cm, as well as the Planck scale, size \\Lambda; 10^-33 cm.

  17. Basic Features of Quantum Physics Studied with Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Helmut

    2011-09-01

    Neutrons are proper tools for testing quantum mechanics because they are massive, they couple to electromagnetic fields due to their magnetic moment and they are subject to all basic interactions, and they are sensitive to topological effects, as well Single particle interference phenomena can be observed with neutrons and the "entanglement of degrees of freedom", i.e. contextuality can be verified and used in further experiments. Entanglement of two photons, or atoms is a complementary situation to a double slit diffraction of a single photon, neutron or atom.. The 4?-symmetry of spinor wave functions, the spin-superposition law and many topological phenomena can be made visible, which shows interesting intrinsic features of quantum physics. Related experiments will be discussed. Deterministic and stochastic partial absorption experiments can be described by Bell-type inequalities. Recent neutron interferometry experiments based on post-selection methods renewed the discussion about quantum non-locality and the quantum measuring process. It has been shown that interference phenomena can be revived even when the overall interference pattern has lost its contrast. This indicates a persisting coupling in phase space even in cases of spatially separated Schrödinger cat-like situations. These states are extremely fragile and sensitive against any kind of fluctuations and other decoherence processes. More complete quantum experiments also show that a complete retrieval of quantum states behind an interaction volume becomes impossible in principle. Contextuality and Kochen-Specker theorem related experiments shed new light on interesting features of quantum physics.

  18. The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Quigg, Chris

    2009-09-01

    Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electron-positron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.

  19. An Introduction to the Neutrosophic Probability Applied in Quantum Physics

    E-print Network

    Florentin Smarandache

    2000-10-10

    In this paper one generalizes the classical probability and imprecise probability to the notion of "neutrosophic probability" in order to be able to model Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle of a particle's behavior, Schr"dinger's Cat Theory, and the state of bosons which do not obey Pauli's Exclusion Principle (in quantum physics). Neutrosophic probability is close related to neutrosophic logic and neutrosophic set, and etymologically derived from "neutrosophy".

  20. PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Marmo, G.

    2007-07-01

    This volume contains some of the contributions to the Conference Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum, which was held at Jaca (Spain) in September 2006 to honour George Sudarshan on his 75th birthday. Former and current students, associates and friends came to Jaca to share a few wonderful days with George and his family and to present some contributions of their present work as influenced by George's impressive achievements. This book summarizes those scientific contributions which are presented as a modest homage to the master, collaborator and friend. At the social ceremonies various speakers were able to recall instances of his life-long activity in India, the United States and Europe, adding colourful remarks on the friendly and intense atmosphere which surrounded those collaborations, some of which continued for several decades. This meeting would not have been possible without the financial support of several institutions. We are deeply indebted to Universidad de Zaragoza, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España (CICYT), Departamento de Ciencia, Tecnología y Universidad del Gobierno de Aragón, Universitá di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Finally, we would like to thank the participants, and particularly George's family, for their contribution to the wonderful atmosphere achieved during the Conference. We would like also to acknowledge the authors of the papers collected in the present volume, the members of the Scientific Committee for their guidance and support and the referees for their generous work. M Asorey, J Clemente-Gallardo and G Marmo The Local Organizing Committee George Sudarshan George Sudarshan

    International Advisory Committee

    A. Ashtekhar (Pennsylvania State University, USA)
    L. J. Boya (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)
    I. Cirac (Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany)
    G. F. Dell Antonio (Universitá di Roma La Sapienza, Italy)
    A. Galindo (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain)
    S. L. Glashow (Boston University, USA)
    A. M. Gleeson (University of Texas, Austin, USA)
    C. R. Hagen (Rochester University, NY, USA)
    J. Klauder (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA)
    A. Kossakowski (University of Torun, Poland)
    V.I. Manko (Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia)
    G. Marmo (Universitá Federico II di Napoli e INFN Sezione di Napoli, Italy)
    N. Mukunda (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)
    J. V. Narlikar (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India)
    J. Nilsson (University of Goteborg, Sweden)
    S. Okubo (Rochester University, NY, USA)
    T. Regge (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
    W. Schleich (University of Ulm, Germany)
    M. Scully (Texas A& M University, USA)
    S. Weinberg (University of Texas, Austin, USA)

    Local Organizing Committee

    1. Summary of the particle physics and technology working group

      SciTech Connect

      Stephan Lammel et al.

      2002-12-10

      Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leading-edge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.

    2. Quantum particles from coarse grained classical probabilities in phase space

      SciTech Connect

      Wetterich, C.

      2010-07-15

      Quantum particles can be obtained from a classical probability distribution in phase space by a suitable coarse graining, whereby simultaneous classical information about position and momentum can be lost. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential follow from classical statistics. This includes interference, tunneling and the uncertainty relation.

    3. Wave Functions 2.1 Classical and Quantum Particles

      E-print Network

      Griffiths, Robert B.

      Chapter 2 Wave Functions 2.1 Classical and Quantum Particles In classical Hamiltonian mechanics corresponds to x 1 # x # x 2 . 9 #12; 10 CHAPTER 2. WAVE FUNCTIONS A quantum particle at a single instant of time is described by a wave function #(r), a complex function of position r. Again in the interests

    4. Wave Functions 2.1 Classical and Quantum Particles

      E-print Network

      Griffiths, Robert B.

      Chapter 2 Wave Functions 2.1 Classical and Quantum Particles In classical Hamiltonian mechanics to x1 x x2. 9 #12;10 CHAPTER 2. WAVE FUNCTIONS A quantum particle at a single instant of time is described by a wave function (r), a complex function of position r. Again in the interests of simplicity we

    5. Structural elements in particle physics and statistical mechanics

      SciTech Connect

      Honerkamp, J.; Pohlmeyer, K.; Romer, H.

      1983-01-01

      The NATO Advanced Summer Institute on Theoretical Physics 1981 had as its main objective a thorough comparison of structures and methods of two different branches of Theoretical Physics, namely Elementary Particle Physics and Statistical Mechanics, and the idea was to exhibit the structural similarities, to trace them until their origins, to compare solution and approximation schemes and to report on those new results and methods in either of the two branches which are indicative of an intimate connection between them. Thus stimulation of a deeper understanding and development of new Methods could be hoped for in both fields. One group of contributions gives concise up-to-date information on basic topics in Statistical Mechanics and Phase Transitions, Dynamical Systems, Solvable Lattice Models and Lattice Gauge Theories. A second group is devoted to special topics which illustrate the interrelationship between Statistical Mechanics and Elementary Particle Physics, like topological quantum numbers on a lattice, model studies on the confinement problem, etc. Supplementary information on experimental implications and on neighbouring fields is provided in a third group.

    6. FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

      SciTech Connect

      Singer, Isadore M.

      2008-03-04

      The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

    7. The Physical Renormalization of Quantum Field Theories

      SciTech Connect

      Binger, Michael William.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

      2007-02-20

      The profound revolutions in particle physics likely to emerge from current and future experiments motivates an improved understanding of the precise predictions of the Standard Model and new physics models. Higher order predictions in quantum field theories inevitably requires the renormalization procedure, which makes sensible predictions out of the naively divergent results of perturbation theory. Thus, a robust understanding of renormalization is crucial for identifying and interpreting the possible discovery of new physics. The results of this thesis represent a broad set of investigations in to the nature of renormalization. The author begins by motivating a more physical approach to renormalization based on gauge-invariant Green's functions. The resulting effective charges are first applied to gauge coupling unification. This approach provides an elegant formalism for understanding all threshold corrections, and the gauge couplings unify in a more physical manner compared to the usual methods. Next, the gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex is studied in detail, revealing an interesting and rich structure. The effective coupling for the three-gluon vertex, {alpha}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}), depends on three momentum scales and gives rise to an effective scale Q{sub eff}{sup 2}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}) which governs the (sometimes surprising) behavior of the vertex. The effects of nonzero internal masses are important and have a complicated threshold and pseudo-threshold structure. The pinch-technique effective charge is also calculated to two-loops and several applications are discussed. The Higgs boson mass in Split Supersymmetry is calculated to two-loops, including all one-loop threshold effects, leading to a downward shift in the Higgs mass of a few GeV. Finally, the author discusses some ideas regarding the overall structure of perturbation theory. This thesis lays the foundation for a comprehensive multi-scale analytic renormalization scheme based on gauge-invariant Green's functions, in which the scale ambiguity problem is reduced since physical kinematic invariants determine the arguments of the couplings.

    8. Field Theory of Yang-Mills Quantum Mechanics for D Particles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yoneya, T.

      2007-08-01

      We propose a new field-theoretic framework for formulating the non-relativistic quantum mechanics of D particles (D0 branes) in a Fock space of U(N) Yang-Mills theories with all different N simultaneously. D-particle field operators, which create and annihilate a D particle and hence change the value of N by one, are defined. The base space of these D-particle fields is a (complex) vector space of infinite dimension. The gauge invariance of Yang-Mills quantum mechanics is reinterpreted as a quantum-statistical symmetry, which is taken into account by setting up a novel algebraic and projective structure in the formalism. Ordinary physical observables of Yang-Mills theory, obeying the standard algebra, are expressed as bilinear forms of the D-particle fields. Together with the open-closed string duality, our new formulation suggests a trinity of three different but dual viewpoints of string theory.

    9. Testing quantum correlations versus single-particle properties within

      E-print Network

      Loss, Daniel

      -local correlations, for example for cryptographic key distribution beyond the standard quantum key distributionLETTERS Testing quantum correlations versus single-particle properties within Leggett's model l'Ecole de M´edecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland 2 Centre for Quantum Technologies

    10. Quantum Entanglement and Decoherence: Beyond Particle Models. A Farewell to Quantum Mechanics's Weirdness

      E-print Network

      O. Tapia

      2014-04-02

      Combining abstract to laboratory projected quantum states a general analysis of headline quantum phenomena is presented. Standard representation mode is replaced; instead quantum states sustained by elementary material constituents occupy its place. Renouncing to assign leading roles to language originated in classical physics when describing genuine quantum processes, together with sustainment concept most, if not all weirdness associated to Quantum Mechanics vanishes.

    11. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schramm, D. N.

      1981-01-01

      Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

    12. Master Equation for a Quantum Particle in a Gas

      SciTech Connect

      Hornberger, Klaus

      2006-08-11

      The equation for the quantum motion of a Brownian particle in a gaseous environment is derived by means of S-matrix theory. This quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation accounts nonperturbatively for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics and describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. As a completely positive master equation it incorporates both the known equation for an infinitely massive Brownian particle and the classical linear Boltzmann equation as limiting cases.

    13. Particle Physics: A New Course for Schools and Colleges.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Swinbank, Elizabeth

      1992-01-01

      Considers questions relating to the introduction of particle physics into post-GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) courses. Describes a project that is producing teacher and student materials to support the teaching of particle physics at this level. Presents a proposed syllabus for a particle physics module. (KR)

    14. Quantum-Mechanical Description of Spin-1/2 Particles and Nuclei Channeled in Bent Crystals

      E-print Network

      A. J. Silenko

      2015-08-02

      General quantum-mechanical description of relativistic particles and nuclei with spin 1/2 channeled in bent crystals is performed with the use of the cylindrical coordinate system. The previously derived Dirac equation in this system is added by terms characterizing anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments. A transformation to the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation, a derivation of the quantum-mechanical equations of motion for particles and their spins, and a determination of classical limit of these equations are fulfilled in the general case. A physical nature of main peculiarities of description of particles and nuclei in the cylindrical coordinate system is ascertained.

    15. Simulating physical phenomena by quantum networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Somma, R.; Ortiz, G.; Gubernatis, J. E.; Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.

      2002-04-01

      Physical systems, characterized by an ensemble of interacting constituents, can be represented and studied by different algebras of operators (observables). For example, a fully polarized electronic system can be studied by means of the algebra generated by the usual fermionic creation and annihilation operators or by the algebra of Pauli (spin-1/2) operators. The Jordan-Wigner isomorphism gives the correspondence between the two algebras. As we previously noted, similar isomorphisms enable one to represent any physical system in a quantum computer. In this paper we evolve and exploit this fundamental observation to simulate generic physical phenomena by quantum networks. We give quantum circuits useful for the efficient evaluation of the physical properties (e.g., the spectrum of observables or relevant correlation functions) of an arbitrary system with Hamiltonian H.

    16. TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

      SciTech Connect

      Sessler, A.M.

      1984-07-01

      High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the machines with which you will be involved in the years to come. Perhaps, we can even turn your frustration with the inadequacy of these machines into marvel at the performance of the accelerators. At the least, we hope to convince you that the accelerators are central, not peripheral, to our science and that the physics of such machines is both fascinating and sophisticated. The plan is the following: First I will give two lectures on basic accelerator physics; then you will hear two lectures on the state of the art, present limitations, the specific parameters of LEP, HERA, TEV2 and SLC, and some extrapolation to the next generation of machines such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), and Large Linear Colliders; finally, I will give two lectures on new acceleration methods.

    17. The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report

      SciTech Connect

      Livny, Miron

      2002-08-16

      The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Grid-enabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Grid-based software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experiment-specific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, high-speed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.

    18. Beyond relativity and quantum mechanics: space physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lindner, Henry H.

      2011-09-01

      Albert Einstein imposed an observer-based epistemology upon physics. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics limit physics to describing and modeling the observer's sensations and measurements. Their "underlying reality" consists only of ideas that serve to model the observer's experience. These positivistic models cannot be used to form physical theories of Cosmic phenomena. To do this, we must again remove the observer from the center of physics. When we relate motion to Cosmic space instead of to observers and we attempt to explain the causes of Cosmic phenomena, we are forced to admit that Cosmic space is a substance. We need a new physics of space. We can begin by replacing Relativity with a modified Lorentzian-Newtonian model of spatial flow, and Quantum Mechanics with a wave-based theory of light and electrons. Space physics will require the reinterpretation of all known phenomena, concepts, and mathematical models.

    19. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Johnson, David Kelley

      In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

    20. Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 1993

      SciTech Connect

      Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

      1993-05-01

      This report is the progress report for DOE funded support of particle physics work at the University of Texas, Austin. Support was divided between theoretical and experimental programs, and each is reviewed separately in the report. Theoretical effort was divided between three general areas: quantum gravity and mathematical physics; phenomenology; and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Experimental effort was primarily directed toward AGS experiments at Brookhaven, to look for rare kaon decays. AGS experiments 791 and 871 are described, along with BNL experiment 888.

    1. (Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report

      SciTech Connect

      Nefkens, B.M.K.

      1985-10-01

      Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

    2. Particle mass generation from physical vacuum

      E-print Network

      C. Quimbay; J. Morales

      2012-06-14

      We present an approach for particle mass generation in which the physical vacuum is assumed as a medium at zero temperature and where the dynamics of the vacuum is described by the Standard Model without the Higgs sector. In this approach fermions acquire masses from interactions with vacuum and gauge bosons from charge fluctuations of vacuum. The obtained results are consistent with the physical mass spectrum, in such a manner that left-handed neutrinos are massive. Masses of electroweak gauge bosons are properly predicted in terms of experimental fermion masses and running coupling constants of strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. An existing empirical relation between the top quark mass and the electroweak gauge boson masses is explained by means of this approach.

    3. Particle physics in the very early universe

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Schramm, D. N.

      1981-01-01

      Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

    4. Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise

      E-print Network

      Andrea Beggi; Fabrizio Buscemi; Paolo Bordone

      2015-12-07

      In this work we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in [H. M. Wiseman et al., Phis. Rev. Lett 91, 097902 (2003)]. This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise - such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that on-site interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.

    5. Reflection of a Particle from a Quantum Measurement

      E-print Network

      Jonathan B. Mackrory; Kurt Jacobs; Daniel A. Steck

      2010-09-25

      We present a generalization of continuous position measurements that accounts for a spatially inhomogeneous measurement strength. This describes many real measurement scenarios, in which the rate at which information is extracted about position has itself a spatial profile, and includes measurements that detect if a particle has crossed from one region into another. We show that such measurements can be described, in their averaged behavior, as stochastically fluctuating potentials of vanishing time average. Reasonable constraints restrict the form of the measurement to have degenerate outcomes, which tend to drive the system to spatial superposition states. We present the results of quantum-trajectory simulations for measurements with a step-function profile (a "which-way" measurement) and a Gaussian profile. We find that the particle can coherently reflect from the measurement region in both cases, despite the stochastic nature of the measurement back-action. In addition, we explore the connection to the quantum Zeno effect, where we find that the reflection probability tends to unity as the measurement strength increases. Finally, we discuss two physical realizations of a spatially varying position measurement using atoms.

    6. Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.

    7. Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1986-01-01

      The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.

    8. Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.

      PubMed

      Takahashi, Taiki

      2014-01-01

      Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's three-stage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed. PMID:24482329

    9. On Universal Physical Reality in the Light of Quantum Consciousness

      E-print Network

      Pabitra Pal Choudhury; Swapan Kumar Dutta; Sk. Sarif Hassan; Sudhakar Sahoo

      2009-07-08

      In this paper, we have first given an intuitive definition of "Consciousness" as realized by us. Next, from this intuitive definition we derived the physical definition of quantum consciousness (Quantum Consciousness Parameter or QCP). This QCP is the elementary level of consciousness in quantum particles, which are the most elementary particles in nature. Thus QCP can explain both the perceptible and non-perceptible nature and some existing postulates of physics. We conceptualize that the level of human consciousness is most complex having highest fractal dimension of 4.85 in the electroencephalographs experiment done by other research groups. On the other hand, other species are having lesser consciousness level, which can be reflected by lesser fractal dimensions. We have also explored the bio informatics of consciousness from genome viewpoints where we tried to draw an analogy of neurons with electrons and photons. Lastly, we refine the quantum mechanics in terms of QCP; we all know that in Einstein's special theory of relativity, Einstein has used the postulate "Consistency of the velocity of light irrespective of all frames of reference (inertial or non-inertial frames)". In our theoretical revelation QCP can be directly applied to get a confirmatory proof of this postulate. Thus the postulate can be framed as a law.

    10. Two-particle quantum walks: Entanglement and graph isomorphism testing

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Berry, Scott D.; Wang, Jingbo B.

      2011-04-01

      We study discrete-time quantum walks on the line and on general undirected graphs with two interacting or noninteracting particles. We introduce two simple interaction schemes and show that they both lead to a diverse range of probability distributions that depend on the correlations and relative phases between the initial coin states of the two particles. We investigate the characteristics of these quantum walks and the time evolution of the entanglement between the two particles from both separable and entangled initial states. We also test the capability of two-particle discrete-time quantum walks to distinguish nonisomorphic graphs. For strongly regular graphs, we show that noninteracting discrete-time quantum walks can distinguish some but not all nonisomorphic graphs with the same family parameters. By incorporating an interaction between the two particles, all nonisomorphic strongly regular graphs tested are successfully distinguished.

    11. Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics Better name is probably Introduction to Subatomic physics

      E-print Network

      Krieger, Peter

      particle MX Force Effective Strength Physical Process Strong 100 Nuclear binding Electromagnetic 10 quarks Bosons ( spin 1 ) Force carriers 7 #12;The Standard Model of Particle Physics ParticlesIntroduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics PHY357 1 Better name is probably Introduction

    12. Constraints on particle physics from cosmology

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kaplinghat, Manoj

      This dissertation looks at ways in which one can use observations of the cosmos, nearby and far into the past, to constrain parameters of models of cosmology and particle physics. The constraints presented in each chapter come from distinct epochs in the evolution of the Universe. In chapter 1, primordial nucleosynthesis of light elements (deuterium, helium and lithium) when the Universe is at temperatures of 1 to 0.1 MeV is used to constrain a certain class of models which are advocated to resolve an outstanding problem in physics, that of the smallness of the cosmological constant. In this class of models proposed to make the vacuum and matter energy densities naturally comparable today, the Universe maintains a uniform power-law expansion. Using the observed primordial abundances of the light elements in the Universe and other observations pertaining to the age of the Universe, we concluded that power-law cosmologies are not viable. The underlying physics for the failure of such models is very simple: to get the right abundances for the light elements in these power-law cosmologies, the Universe has to be younger than what the present observations allow it to be. In chapter 2, the physics of photons decoupling from electrons or last scattering (which occurs at a temperature of about 0.2 eV) is used to investigate if a possible variation in the fine-structure constant could be constrained by observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The conclusion is that the upcoming CMB anisotropy experiments (MAP, PLANCK) could reveal a variation in the fine-structure constant at the level of a percent or better. Apart from the constraints from nucleosynthesis (which are model dependent), presently this is the best way to probe a variation in the fine-structure constant when the Universe was less than a million years old. In chapter 3, certain aspects of the role of massive decaying particles in the evolution of the Universe are investigated. The relativistic products of massive particles decaying after last scattering up to the present age can lead to significant changes in the anisotropies of the CMB present at the last scattering surface. Constraints from observations of the anisotropies in CMB can place stringent constraints on the mass and lifetime of such particles. This important issue has been investigated carefully and it is found that the masses of particles which decay with lifetimes greater than the age of the Universe at last scattering, but smaller than the present age, are very well constrained. In chapter 4, implications of the background of relic neutrinos from supernovae is discussed. One of the goals of Super-Kamiokande collaboration is to observe the relic neutrinos from all supernovae that have occurred in our Universe. The feasibility of this project was investigated using simple physical arguments and relying on observations pertaining to the metal enrichment history of the Universe at redshifts less than one; the metal enrichment rate at any epoch is a direct tracer of the star formation (and hence supernova) rate at that time in our Universe. The results were reasonable, but low, upper bounds to the Supernova relic neutrino flux at Super-Kamiokande leading to the conclusion that it is very unlikely Super-Kamiokande could observe these relic neutrinos.

    13. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

      SciTech Connect

      Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

      1993-01-01

      Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs.

    14. Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity

      E-print Network

      Xiaodong Chen

      2005-10-03

      Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable, Interpreting of quantum physics, Berry phase, three dimensional time, unified theory

    15. Sound relativistic quantum mechanics for a strictly solitary nonzero-mass particle, and its quantum-field reverberations

      E-print Network

      Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

      2009-09-22

      It is generally acknowledged that neither the Klein-Gordon equation nor the Dirac Hamiltonian can produce sound solitary-particle relativistic quantum mechanics due to the ill effects of their negative-energy solutions; instead their field-quantized wavefunctions are reinterpreted as dealing with particle and antiparticle simultaneously--despite the clear physical distinguishability of antiparticle from particle and the empirically known slight breaking of the underlying CP invariance. The natural square-root Hamiltonian of the free relativistic solitary particle is iterated to obtain the Klein-Gordon equation and linearized to obtain the Dirac Hamiltonian, steps that have calculational but not physical motivation, and which generate the above-mentioned problematic negative-energy solutions as extraneous artifacts. Since the natural square root Hamiltonian for the free relativistic solitary particle contrariwise produces physically unexceptionable quantum mechanics, this article focuses on extending that Hamiltonian to describe a solitary particle (of either spin 0 or spin one-half) in relativistic interaction with an external electromagnetic field. That is achieved by use of Lorentz-covariant solitary-particle four momentum techniques together with the assumption that well-known nonrelativistic dynamics applies in the particle's rest frame. Lorentz-invariant solitary particle actions, whose formal Hamiltonization is an equivalent alternative approach, are as well explicitly displayed. It is proposed that two separate solitary-particle wavefunctions, one for a particle and the other for its antiparticle, be independently quantized in lieu of "reinterpreting" negative energy solutions--which indeed don't even afflict proper solitary particles.

    16. Chinese Physics C Vol. 38, No. 9 (2014) 090001 1 REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS*

      E-print Network

      California at Santa Cruz, University of

      2014-01-01

      Chinese Physics C Vol. 38, No. 9 (2014) 090001 1 REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS* ParticleDataGroup Abstract The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross

    17. Colloquium: Majorana Fermions in nuclear, particle and solid-state physics

      E-print Network

      S. R. Elliott; M. Franz

      2014-12-01

      Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own anti-particle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their anti-particles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can only exist if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence doesn't stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This review first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own anti-particle in nuclear, particle, and solid state physics.

    18. Synthesis and optical properties of quantum-size metal sulfide particles in aqueous solution

      SciTech Connect

      Nedeljkovic, J.M.; Patel, R.C.; Kaufman, P.; Joyce-Pruden, C.; O'Leary, N. )

      1993-04-01

      During the past decade, small-particle' research has become quite popular in various fields of chemistry and physics. The recognition of quantum-size effects in very small colloidal particles has led to renewed interest in this area. Small particles' are clusters of atoms or molecules ranging in size from 1 nm to almost 10 nm or having agglomeration numbers from 10 up to a few hundred. In other words, small particles fall in size between single atoms or molecules and bulk materials. The agglomeration number specifies the number of individual atoms or molecules in a given cluster. The research in this area is interdisciplinary, and it links colloidal science and molecular chemistry. The symbiosis of these two areas of research has revealed some intriguing characteristics of small particles. This experiment illustrates the following: simple colloidal techniques for the preparation of two different types of quantum-size metal sulfide particles; the blue shift of the measured optical absorption spectra when the particle size is decreased in the quantum-size regime; and use of a simple quantum mechanical model to calculate the particle size from the absorption onset measured for CdS.

    19. Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture III

      E-print Network

      Marcolli, Matilde

      Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture III Matilde Marcolli Villa de Leyva school, July 2011 Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, III #12;This in the noncommutative geometry approach to particle physics and cosmology, Phys. Lett. B, Vol.693 (2010) 166­174, ar

    20. MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES' CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

      E-print Network

      MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES' CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES T. B. Onasch1, 2 of aerosol particles containing black carbon are necessary to improve current estimates of the radiative on the chemical, physical, and optical properties of black carbon particles measured in the laboratory in order

    1. Cyclic Polyynes as Examples of the Quantum Mechanical Particle on a Ring

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Anderson, Bruce D.

      2012-01-01

      Many quantum mechanical models are discussed as part of the undergraduate physical chemistry course to help students understand the connection between eigenvalue expressions and spectroscopy. Typical examples covered include the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. This article demonstrates that…

    2. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of Dirac particles - quantum field theory approach

      E-print Network

      Pawel Caban; Jakub Rembielinski

      2006-12-15

      We calculate correlation function in the Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen type of experiment with massive relativistic Dirac particles in the framework of the quantum field theory formalism. We perform our calculations for states which are physically interesting and transforms covariantly under the full Lorentz group action, i.e. for pseudoscalar and vector state.

    3. Physical Interpretations of Nilpotent Quantum Mechanics

      E-print Network

      Peter Rowlands

      2010-04-09

      Nilpotent quantum mechanics provides a powerful method of making efficient calculations. More importantly, however, it provides insights into a number of fundamental physical problems through its use of a dual vector space and its explicit construction of vacuum. Physical interpretation of the nilpotent formalism is discussed with respect to boson and baryon structures, the mass-gap problem, zitterbewgung, Berry phase, renormalization, and related issues.

    4. Size and temperature dependent plasmons of quantum particles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Xiao, Mufei; Rakov, Nikifor

      2015-08-01

      This work reports on the influences of temperature changes on plasmons of metallic particles that are so small that electric carriers in the conduction band are forced to be at discrete sub-bands due to quantum confinement. In the framework of the electron-in-a-box model and with an every-electron-count computational scheme, the spatial electric distribution inside the particle is calculated. In the calculations, the intra-subband fluctuations are taken into account. The numerical results have shown that the small-particle plasmon frequency shifts with the temperature. The findings suggest that it would be possible to control the plasmons of quantum particles externally.

    5. Quantum Zeno effect for a free-moving particle

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel

      2014-12-01

      Although the quantum Zeno effect takes its name from Zeno's arrow paradox, the effect of frequently observing the position of a freely moving particle on its motion has not been analyzed in detail in the frame of standard quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of a moving free particle while monitoring whether it lingers in a given region of space, and explain the dependence of the lingering probability on the frequency of the measurements and the initial momentum of the particle. Stopping the particle entails the emergence of Schrödinger cat states during the observed evolution, closely connected to the high-order diffraction modes in Fabry-Pérot optical resonators.

    6. Hausdorff dimension of a particle path in a quantum manifold

      SciTech Connect

      Nicolini, Piero; Niedner, Benjamin

      2011-01-15

      After recalling the concept of the Hausdorff dimension, we study the fractal properties of a quantum particle path. As a novelty we consider the possibility for the space where the particle propagates to be endowed with a quantum-gravity-induced minimal length. We show that the Hausdorff dimension accounts for both the quantum mechanics uncertainty and manifold fluctuations. In addition the presence of a minimal length breaks the self-similarity property of the erratic path of the quantum particle. Finally we establish a universal property of the Hausdorff dimension as well as the spectral dimension: They both depend on the amount of resolution loss which affects both the path and the manifold when quantum gravity fluctuations occur.

    7. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

      SciTech Connect

      Rafelski, J.

      1991-08-31

      The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise.

    8. Particle astronomy and particle physics from the moon - The particle observatory

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, Thomas L.

      1990-01-01

      Promising experiments from the moon using particle detectors are discussed, noting the advantage of the large flux collecting power Pc offered by the remote, stable environment of a lunar base. An observatory class of particle experiments is presented, based upon proposals at NASA's recent Stanford workshop. They vary from neutrino astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic ray experiments to space physics and fundamental physics experiments such as proton decay and 'table-top' arrays. This research is background-limited on earth, and it is awkward and unrealistic in earth orbit, but is particularly suited for the moon where Pc can be quite large and the instrumentation is not subject to atmospheric erosion as it is (for large t) in low earth orbit.

    9. Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Organtini, Giovanni

      2011-01-01

      In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

    10. Department of physics Quantum Cheshire Cat

      E-print Network

      ?umer, Slobodan

      Department of physics Seminar Ia Quantum Cheshire Cat Author: Tadej Meznarsic Mentor: prof. dr Cheshire Cat. It starts by de- scribing its paradoxical nature in the regime of regular measurement measurement into Cheshire Cat experiment for photons and ends with presentation of another experiment, prov

    11. Quantum-Informational Principles for Physics

      E-print Network

      D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

      of the most basic principles, as the relativity and the gravity-acceleration equivalence. The validity structure of quantum theory from informational principles [2­5], and we will very briefly examine them here field theory, the most fundamental theoretical structure of physics. The plan here pro- posed

    12. Physics on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      't Hooft, Gerard

      2014-04-01

      Nature's laws in the domain where relativistic effects, gravitational effects and quantum effects are all comparatively strong are far from understood. This domain is called the Planck scale. Conceivably, a theory can be constructed where the quantum nature of phenomena at such scales can be attributed to something fundamentally simpler. However, arguments that quantum mechanics cannot be explained in terms of any classical theory using only classical logic seem to be based on sound mathematical considerations: there can't be physical laws that require "conspiracy". It may therefore be surprising that there are several explicit quantum systems where these considerations apparently do not apply. In the lecture we will show several such counterexamples. These are quantum models that do have a classical origin. The most curious of these models is superstring theory. This theory is often portrayed as to underly the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles, including the "Standard Model". So now the question is asked: how can this model feature "conspiracy", and how bad is that? Is there conspiracy in the vacuum fluctuations?

    13. Particle physics---Experimental. Annual progress report

      SciTech Connect

      Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

      1991-08-21

      We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

    14. Heavy neutrinos in particle physics and cosmology

      E-print Network

      Marco Drewes

      2015-10-27

      Neutrinos are the only particles in the Standard Model of particle physics that have only been observed with left handed chirality to date. If right handed neutrinos exist, they would not only explain the observed neutrino oscillations, but could also be responsible for several phenomena in cosmology, including the baryon asymmetry of the universe, dark matter and dark radiation. A crucial parameter in this context is their Majorana mass, which in principle could lie anywhere between the eV scale and GUT scale. The implications for experiments and cosmology strongly depend on the choice of the mass scale. We review recent progress in the phenomenology of right handed neutrinos with different masses, focusing on scenarios in which the mass is at least a keV. We emphasise the possibility to discover heavy neutrinos that are responsible for the baryon asymmetry of the universe via low scale leptogenesis in near future experiments, such as LHC, BELLE II, SHiP, FCC-ee or CEPC.

    15. Benefits to Society of Particle Physics Phil Allport

      E-print Network

      Crowther, Paul

      in particle physics techniques and with experience of competing in this state of the art international science stability, XFEL/ILC tolerances. LICAS. Control systems. Health physics, shielding and nuclear power Geant4Benefits to Society of Particle Physics Phil Allport 23/11/07 · Overview PP2020 KE Panel

    16. Thomas Banks Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

      E-print Network

      California at Santa Cruz, University of

      Thomas Banks Santa Cruz Institue for Particle Physics (SCIPP) UC Santa Cruz Department of Physics TO THIS PROPOSAL (Primary Author Only) 1. A Pyramid Scheme for Particle Physics, T. Banks, J-F Fortin, JHEP 0907 (2009) 046 2. Holographic Space-time and its Phenomenological Implications, T. Banks, Int. J. Mod. Phys

    17. Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

      E-print Network

      Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research CentreD-Students (f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle and astroparticle physics as well as accelerator physics. The Photo Injector Test Facility PITZ in Zeuthen (near

    18. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

      SciTech Connect

      Whitaker, J.S.

      1990-01-05

      This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

    19. Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Some Lessons from the Particle PhysicsCondensed Matter

      E-print Network

      Howard, Don

      Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences: Some Lessons from the Particle Physics­Condensed Matter Physics Debate Don Howard Department of Philosophy and History and Philosophy of Science Graduate and emergence in the physical sciences, more specificallythe relationship between particle physics and condensed

    20. Quantum physics reimagined for the general public

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bobroff, Julien

      2015-03-01

      Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined'' (Paris-Sud University/Air Liquide).

    1. On the Quantum Mechanical Scattering Statistics of Many Particles

      E-print Network

      Detlef Dürr; Martin Kolb; Tilo Moser; Sarah Römer

      2010-08-19

      The probability of a quantum particle being detected in a given solid angle is determined by the $S$-matrix. The explanation of this fact in time dependent scattering theory is often linked to the quantum flux, since the quantum flux integrated against a (detector-) surface and over a time interval can be viewed as the probability that the particle crosses this surface within the given time interval. Regarding many particle scattering, however, this argument is no longer valid, as each particle arrives at the detector at its own random time. While various treatments of this problem can be envisaged, here we present a straightforward Bohmian analysis of many particle potential scattering from which the $S$-matrix probability emerges in the limit of large distances.

    2. Particle Physics in a Season of Change

      SciTech Connect

      Quigg, Chris

      2012-02-01

      A digest of the authors opening remarks at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. I have chosen my title to reflect the transitions we are living through, in particle physics overall and in hadron collider physics in particular. Data-taking has ended at the Tevatron, with {approx} 12 fb{sup -1} of {bar p}p interactions delivered to CDF and D0 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider has registered a spectacular first full-year run, with ATLAS and CMS seeing > 5 fb{sup -1}, LHCb recording {approx} 1 fb{sup -1}, and ALICE logging nearly 5 pb{sup -1} of pp data at {radical}s = 7 TeV, plus a healthy dose of Pb-Pb collisions. The transition to a new energy regime and new realms of instantaneous luminosity exceeding 3.5 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has brought the advantage of enhanced physics reach and the challenge of pile-up reaching {approx} 15 interactions per beam crossing. I am happy to record that what the experiments have (not) found so far has roused some of my theoretical colleagues from years of complacency and stimulated them to think anew about what the TeV scale might hold. We theorists have had plenty of time to explore many proposals for electroweak symmetry breaking and for new physics that might lie beyond established knowledge. With so many different theoretical inventions in circulation, it is in the nature of things that most will be wrong. Keep in mind that we learn from what experiment tells us is not there, even if it is uncommon to throw a party for ruling something out. Some non-observations may be especially telling: the persistent absence of flavor-changing neutral currents, for example, seems to me more and more an important clue that we have not yet deciphered. It is natural that the search for the avatar of electroweak symmetry breaking preoccupies participants and spectators alike. But it is essential to conceive the physics opportunities before us in their full richness. I would advocate a three-fold approach: Explore, Search, Measure! The first phase of running at the LHC has brought us to two new lands - in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions - and we may well enter other new lands with each change of energy or increase of sensitivity. I believe that it will prove very rewarding to spend some time simply exploring each new landscape, without strong preconceptions, to learn what is there and, perhaps, to encounter interesting surprises. Directed searches, for which we have made extensive preparations, are of self-evident interest. Here the challenge will be to broaden the searches over time, so the searches are not too narrowly directed. Our very successful conception of particles and forces is highly idealized. We have a great opportunity to learn just how comprehensive is our network of understanding by making precise measurements and probing for weak spots, or finding more sweeping accord between theory and experiment.

    3. Wave theories of non-laminar charged particle beams: from quantum to thermal regime

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; Jovanovi?, Dusan; de Nicola, Sergio; Ronsivalle, Concetta; Ronsivalle

      2014-04-01

      The standard classical description of non-laminar charged particle beams in paraxial approximation is extended to the context of two wave theories. The first theory that we discuss (Fedele R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045. Tanjia, F. et al. 2011 Proceedings of the 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Vol. 35G. Strasbourg, France: European Physical Society) is based on the Thermal Wave Model (TWM) (Fedele, R. and Miele, G. 1991 Nuovo Cim. D 13, 1527.) that interprets the paraxial thermal spreading of beam particles as the analog of quantum diffraction. The other theory is based on a recently developed model (Fedele, R. et al. 2012a Phys. Plasmas 19, 102106; Fedele, R. et al. 2012b AIP Conf. Proc. 1421, 212), hereafter called Quantum Wave Model (QWM), that takes into account the individual quantum nature of single beam particle (uncertainty principle and spin) and provides collective description of beam transport in the presence of quantum paraxial diffraction. Both in quantum and quantum-like regimes, the beam transport is governed by a 2D non-local Schrödinger equation, with self-interaction coming from the nonlinear charge- and current-densities. An envelope equation of the Ermakov-Pinney type, which includes collective effects, is derived for both TWM and QWM regimes. In TWM, such description recovers the well-known Sacherer's equation (Sacherer, F. J. 1971 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 1105). Conversely, in the quantum regime and in Hartree's mean field approximation, one recovers the evolution equation for a single-particle spot size, i.e. for a single quantum ray spot in the transverse plane (Compton regime). We demonstrate that such quantum evolution equation contains the same information as the evolution equation for the beam spot size that describes the beam as a whole. This is done heuristically by defining the lowest QWM state accessible by a system of non-overlapping fermions. The latter are associated with temperature values that are sufficiently low to make the single-particle quantum effects visible on the beam scale, but sufficiently high to make the overlapping of the single-particle wave functions negligible. This lowest QWM state constitutes the border between the fundamental single-particle Compton regime and the collective quantum and thermal regimes at larger (nano- to micro-) scales. Comparing it with the beam parameters in the existing accelerators, we find that it is feasible to achieve nano-sized beams in advanced compact machines.

    4. Quantum Theory over a Galois Field and Applications to Gravity and Particle Theory

      E-print Network

      Felix M. Lev

      2014-04-30

      We argue that the main reason of crisis in quantum physics is that nature, which is fundamentally discrete, is described by continuous mathematics. Moreover, no ultimate physical theory can be based on continuous mathematics because, as follows from G\\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems, that mathematics is not self-consistent. In the first part of the work we discuss inconsistencies in standard approach to quantum theory and reformulate the theory such that it can be naturally generalized to a formulation based on discrete mathematics. It is shown that the cosmological acceleration and gravity can be treated simply as {\\it kinematical} manifestations of de Sitter symmetry on quantum level ({\\it i.e. for describing those phenomena the notions of dark energy, space-time background and gravitational interaction are not needed}). In the second part of the work we argue that fundamental quantum theory should be based on a Galois field with a large characteristic $p$. In this approach the de Sitter gravitational constant depends on $p$ and disappears in the formal limit $p\\to\\infty$, i.e. gravity is a consequence of finiteness of nature. The application of the approach to particle theory gives the following results: a) no neutral elementary particles can exist; b) the electric charge and the baryon and lepton quantum numbers can be only approximately conserved (i.e. the notion of a particle and its antiparticle is only approximate). We also consider a possibility that only Dirac singletons can be true elementary particles.

    5. Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers

      SciTech Connect

      Tay, J.W.; Hsu, Magnus T. L.; Bowen, Warwick P.

      2009-12-15

      Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity, and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper, we show that quadrant detection is nonoptimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacies of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that 1 order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

    6. The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jones, Goronwy Tudor

      1991-01-01

      Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

    7. Covariant Quantum Green's Function for an Accelerated Particle

      E-print Network

      T. Garavaglia

      2001-04-03

      Covariant relativistic quantum theory is used to study the covariant Green's function, which can be used to determine the proper time evolved wave functions that are solutions to the covariant Schr\\"odinger type equation for a massive spin zero particle. The concept of covariant action is used to obtain the Green's function for an accelerated relativistic particle.

    8. April 16, 2008 Particle Physics Invention of Cyclotron

      E-print Network

      April 16, 2008 Particle Physics Invention of Cyclotron Physics 363 April 16, 2008 Satomi Shiraishi First cyclotron (4.5 inch) Ernest O. Lawrence, Noble Prize in 1939 "for the invention and development

    9. Applications of particle physics to the early universe

      E-print Network

      Senatore, Leonardo

      2006-01-01

      In this thesis, I show some of the results of my research work in the field at the crossing between Cosmology and Particle Physics. The Cosmology of several models of the Physics Beyond the Standard Model is studied. These ...

    10. Particle physics: CP violation in hyperon decays

      SciTech Connect

      Longo, Michael J.

      2000-10-31

      The primary research activities under this grant were in E871 (HyperCP) at Fermilab, a search for CP violation in hyperon decays which completed data taking in January, 2000. HyperCP is an experiment designed to perform a sensitive search for direct CP violation in the decays of cascade ({Xi}) and {Lambda} hyperons by looking for an asymmetry between particle and antiparticle decay parameters. The experiment is expected to achieve a sensitivity {approx}10{sup -4} in the decay parameters. Standard model predictions for this CP-violating asymmetry range from 0.3 to 5 x 10{sup -4}. A difference between the decay parameters for particle and antiparticle is direct evidence that CP symmetry is violated. A non-zero asymmetry would be the first evidence for CP violation outside of the K{sup o} system. Recent results from KTeV indicate a direct CP violation in K{sup o} decays, which suggests that CP violation will appear in other decays. In addition, we will look at a number of rare hyperon decays involving muons. These probe important new physics topics such as Majorana neutrinos and lepton number violating processes. The latter are of great current interest because new evidence for neutrino oscillations indicate lepton flavor violation does occur. Our data will lead to an improvement in the limits on branching ratios for these processes typically by three to four orders-of-magnitude. The muon detector construction and data resulting from it have been the responsibility of the Michigan group. We are now leading the analysis of the rare muon-related decay modes, and were responsible for the muon system and beam monitor upgrades for the 1999 run.

    11. Quantum graphs with two-particle contact interactions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bolte, Jens; Kerner, Joachim

      2013-02-01

      We construct models of many-particle quantum graphs with singular two-particle contact interactions, which can be either hardcore- or ?-interactions. Self-adjoint realizations of the two-particle Laplacian including such interactions are obtained via their associated quadratic forms. We prove discreteness of spectra as well as Weyl laws for the asymptotic eigenvalue counts. These constructions are first performed for two distinguishable particles and then for two identical bosons. Furthermore, we extend the models to N bosons with two-particle interactions, thus implementing the Lieb-Liniger model on a graph.

    12. Cavity nonlinear optics with few photons and ultracold quantum particles

      E-print Network

      András Vukics; Wolfgang Niedenzu; Helmut Ritsch

      2008-02-17

      The light force on particles trapped in the field of a high-Q cavity mode depends on the quantum state of field and particle. Different photon numbers generate different optical potentials anddifferent motional states induce different field evolution. Even for weak saturation and linear polarizability the induced particle motion leads to nonlinear field dynamics. We derive a corresponding effective field Hamiltonian containing all the powers of the photon number operator, which predicts nonlinear phase shifts and squeezing even at the few-photon level. Wave-function simulations of the full particle-field dynamics confirm this and show significant particle-field entanglement in addition.

    13. A quantum interface to charged particles in a vacuum

      E-print Network

      Hiroshi Okamoto

      2015-05-10

      A superconducting qubit device suitable for interacting with a flying electron has recently been proposed [H. Okamoto and Y. Nagatani, Appl. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{104}, 062604 (2014)]. Either a clockwise or counter clockwise directed loop of half magnetic flux quantum encodes a qubit, which naturally interacts with any single charged particle with arbitrary kinetic energy. Here, the device's properties, sources of errors and possible applications are studied in detail. In particular, applications include detection of a charged particle without applying a force to it. Furthermore, quantum states can be transferred between an array of the proposed devices and the charged particle.

    14. Quantum interface to charged particles in a vacuum

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Okamoto, Hiroshi

      2015-11-01

      A superconducting qubit device suitable for interacting with a flying electron has recently been proposed [Okamoto and Nagatani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062604 (2014), 10.1063/1.4865244]. Either a clockwise or counterclockwise directed loop of half magnetic flux quantum encodes a qubit, which naturally interacts with any single charged particle with arbitrary kinetic energy. Here, the device's properties, sources of errors, and possible applications are studied in detail. In particular, applications include detection of a charged particle essentially without applying a classical force to it. Furthermore, quantum states can be transferred between an array of the proposed devices and the charged particle.

    15. Particle scattering in loop quantum gravity.

      PubMed

      Modesto, Leonardo; Rovelli, Carlo

      2005-11-01

      We devise a technique for defining and computing -point functions in the context of a background-independent gravitational quantum field theory. We construct a tentative implementation of this technique in a perturbatively finite model defined using spin foam techniques in the context of loop quantum gravity. PMID:16383970

    16. Perspectives in quantum physics: Epistemological, ontological and pedagogical An investigation into student and expert perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, with implications for modern physics instruction

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Baily, Charles Raymond

      A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively realist perspectives of introductory students, and a lack of ontological flexibility in their conceptions of light and matter. We have developed a framework for understanding and characterizing student perspectives on the physical interpretation of quantum mechanics, and demonstrate the differential impact on student thinking of the myriad ways instructors approach interpretive themes in their introductory courses. Like expert physicists, students interpret quantum phenomena differently, and these interpretations are significantly influenced by their overall stances on questions central to the so-called measurement problem: Is the wave function physically real, or simply a mathematical tool? Is the collapse of the wave function an ad hoc rule, or a physical transition not described by any equation? Does an electron, being a form of matter, exist as a localized particle at all times? These questions, which are of personal and academic interest to our students, are largely only superficially addressed in our introductory courses, often for fear of opening a Pandora's Box of student questions, none of which have easy answers. We show how a transformed modern physics curriculum (recently implemented at the University of Colorado) may positively impact student perspectives on indeterminacy and wave-particle duality, by making questions of classical and quantum reality a central theme of our course, but also by making the beliefs of our students, and not just those of scientists, an explicit topic of discussion.

    17. Quantum kinetics of spinning neutral particles: General theory and Spin wave dispersion

      E-print Network

      P. A. Andreev

      2013-08-16

      Plasma physics give an example of physical system of particles with the long range interaction. At small velocity of particles we can consider the plasma approximately as a system of particles with the Coulomb interaction. The Coulomb interaction is isotropic. Systems of spinning neutral particles have long-range anisotropic interparticle interaction. So, they can reveal more reach properties than plasma. Furthermore for studying of systems of spinning particles we can develop kinetic and hydrodynamic methods analogous to used for the plasma. We derive kinetic equations by a new method, which is the generalization of the many-particle quantum hydrodynamics. Obtained set of kinetic equations is truncated, so we have closed set of two equations. One of them is the kinetic equation for quantum distribution function. The second equation is the equation for the spin-distribution. Which describes the spin kinetic evolution and gives contribution in time evolution of the distribution function. Our method allows to obtain equations as for three dimensional system of particles and for low dimensional systems. So, we consider spin waves in three- and two dimensional systems of neutral spinning particles.

    18. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

      SciTech Connect

      Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

      1998-12-14

      Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

    19. Nuclear Physics from Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics

      E-print Network

      Martin J. Savage

      2015-10-07

      Quantum Chromodynamics and Quantum Electrodynamics, both renormalizable quantum field theories with a small number of precisely constrained input parameters, dominate the dynamics of the quarks and gluons - the underlying building blocks of protons, neutrons, and nuclei. While the analytic techniques of quantum field theory have played a key role in understanding the dynamics of matter in high energy processes, they encounter difficulties when applied to low-energy nuclear structure and reactions, and dense systems. Expected increases in computational resources into the exascale during the next decade will provide the ability to determine a range of important strong interaction processes directly from QCD using the numerical technique of Lattice QCD. This will complement the nuclear physics experimental program, and in partnership with new thrusts in nuclear many-body theory, will enable unprecedented understanding and refinement of nuclear forces and, more generally, the visible matter in our universe. In this presentation, I will discuss the state-of-the-art Lattice QCD calculations of quantities of interest in nuclear physics, progress that is expected in the near future, and the anticipated impact.

    20. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hobson, Art

      2011-01-01

      In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because…

    1. Optimizing entangling quantum gates for physical systems

      SciTech Connect

      Mueller, M. M.; Murphy, M.; Calarco, T.; Reich, D. M.; Koch, C. P.; Yuan, H.; Vala, J.; Whaley, K. B.

      2011-10-15

      Optimal control theory is a versatile tool that presents a route to significantly improving figures of merit for quantum information tasks. We combine it here with the geometric theory for local equivalence classes of two-qubit operations to derive an optimization algorithm that determines the best entangling two-qubit gate for a given physical setting. We demonstrate the power of this approach for trapped polar molecules and neutral atoms.

    2. Majorana-Fermions, Their-Own Antiparticles, Following Non-Abelian Anyon/Semion Quantum-Statistics : Solid-State MEETS Particle Physics Neutrinos: Spin-Orbit-Coupled Superconductors and/or Superfluids to Neutrinos; Insulator-Heisenberg-Antiferromagnet MnF2 Majorana-Siegel-Birgenau-Keimer - Effect

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Majorana-Fermi-Segre, E.-L.; Antonoff-Overhauser-Salam, Marvin-Albert-Abdus; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

      2013-03-01

      Majorana-fermions, being their own antiparticles, following non-Abelian anyon/semion quantum-statistics: in Zhang et.al.-...-Detwiler et.al.-...``Worlds-in-Collision'': solid-state/condensed-matter - physics spin-orbit - coupled topological-excitations in superconductors and/or superfluids -to- particle-physics neutrinos: ``When `Worlds' Collide'', analysis via Siegel[Schrodinger Centenary Symp., Imperial College, London (1987); in The Copenhagen-Interpretation Fifty-Years After the Como-Lecture, Symp. Fdns. Mod.-Phys., Joensu(1987); Symp. on Fractals, MRS Fall-Mtg., Boston(1989)-5-papers!!!] ``complex quantum-statistics in fractal-dimensions'', which explains hidden-dark-matter(HDM) IN Siegel ``Sephirot'' scenario for The Creation, uses Takagi[Prog.Theo.Phys. Suppl.88,1(86)]-Ooguri[PR D33,357(85)] - Picard-Lefschetz-Arnol'd-Vassil'ev[``Principia Read After 300 Years'', Not.AMS(1989); quantum-theory caveats comment-letters(1990); Applied Picard-Lefschetz Theory, AMS(2006)] - theorem quantum-statistics, which via Euler- formula becomes which via de Moivre- -formula further becomes which on unit-circle is only real for only, i.e, for, versus complex with imaginary-damping denominator for, i.e, for, such that Fermi-Dirac quantum-statistics for

    3. Quantum mechanical tunneling of composite particle systems: Linkage to sub-barrier nuclear reactions

      SciTech Connect

      Shotter, A. C.; Shotter, M. D.

      2011-05-15

      A variety of physical phenomena have at their foundation the quantum tunneling of particles through potential barriers. Many of these phenomena can be associated with the tunneling of single inert particles. The tunneling of composite systems is more complex than for single particles due to the coupling of the tunneling coordinate with the internal degrees of freedom of the tunneling system. Reported here are the results of a study for the tunneling of a two-component projectile incident on a potential energy system which differs for the two components. A specific linkage is made to sub-Coulomb nuclear reactions.

    4. Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

      E-print Network

      Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association THEORETICAL ASTRO- PARTICLE PHYSICS· DESY, Zeuthen location, is seeking: Two Postdoctoral Researchers (f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science

    5. Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Halpern, Paul

      2012-09-01

      From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.

    6. Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture II

      E-print Network

      Marcolli, Matilde

      Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture II Matilde Marcolli Villa de Leyva school, July 2011 Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, II #12;This Diff(M) 1. Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, II #12;Symmetries viewpoint: can

    7. A quantum solution to Gibbs Paradox with few particles

      E-print Network

      H. Dong; C. Y. Cai; C. P. Sun

      2012-01-16

      We present a fully quantum solution to the Gibbs paradox (GP) with an illustration based on a gedanken experiment with two particles trapped in an infinite potential well. The well is divided into two cells by a solid wall, which could be removed for mixing the particles. For the initial thermal state with correct two-particle wavefunction according to their quantum statistics, the exact calculations shows the entropy changes are the same for boson, fermion and non-identical particles. With the observation that the initial unmixed state of identical particles in the conventional presentations actually is not of a thermal equilibrium, our analysis reveals the quantum origin of the paradox, and confirm the E. J. Jaynes' observation that entropy increase in Gibbs mixing is only due to the including more observables measuring the entropy. To further show up the subtle role of the quantum mechanism in the GP, we study the different finite size effect on the entropy change and shows the works performed in the mixing process are different for various types of particle.

    8. Quantum Mechanics Course Number: C668 C668: Special topics in physical chemistry: Advanced Quantum Mechanics

      E-print Network

      Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

      Quantum Mechanics Course Number: C668 C668: Special topics in physical chemistry: Advanced Quantum@gmail.com Chemistry, Indiana University i c 2014, Srinivasan S. Iyengar (instructor) #12;Quantum Mechanics Course Mechanics by J. J. Sakurai · Quantum Mechanics in Chemistry by Schatz and Ratner · Introduction to Quantum

    9. How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation

      E-print Network

      Kalai, Gil

      How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation Dedicated to the memory of Itamar Pitowsky Abstract The feasibility of computationally superior quantum for quantum evolutions when noise accumulates. 1 Introduction Quantum computers were offered by Feynman [6

    10. Physics Today A quantum switch routes photons one by one

      E-print Network

      Dayan, Barak

      Physics Today A quantum switch routes photons one by one Ashley G. Smart Citation: Physics Today 67 will need switches that can direct the flow of quantum bits between nodes. In networks linked by photons--say, communication networks that use photons to transmit quantum encrypted data or parallel computing schemes

    11. Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues

      2015-01-01

      One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction…

    12. Research in: Experimental Photonuclear Physics

      E-print Network

      Saskatchewan, University of

      Research in: Experimental Photonuclear Physics Quantum Entanglement Particle Physics Theory & Phenomenology Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology Accelerator Physics Health Physics #12;Experimental Photonuclear Physics Kolb, Pywell, Igarashi, Bergstrom Experimental work conducted using: · High Intensity Gamma Source

    13. (Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium

      E-print Network

      ?umer, Slobodan

      (Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium: Introducing the group for Non (Nonlinear dynamics, chaos theory) Quantum information theory Our group is also a part of the bigger program Quantum maps, quantum chaos, random matrix theory: wave-dynamics, wave-chaos, PT-symmetric Hamiltonians

    14. Physical Properties 4.1 Classical and Quantum Properties

      E-print Network

      Griffiths, Robert B.

      Chapter 4 Physical Properties 4.1 Classical and Quantum Properties We shall use the term physical property to refer to something which can be said to be either true or false for a particular physical '' are examples of physical properties. One must distinguish between a physical property and a physical variable

    15. Physical Properties 4.1 Classical and Quantum Properties

      E-print Network

      Griffiths, Robert B.

      Chapter 4 Physical Properties 4.1 Classical and Quantum Properties We shall use the term physical property to refer to something which can be said to be either true or false for a particular physical of physical properties. One must distinguish between a physical property and a physical variable

    16. Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator

      PubMed Central

      Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio

      2015-01-01

      More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n?=?0 and n?=?2 discrete states and ?0 and ?2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shock-waves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, white-light and X-ray generation. PMID:26522653

    17. Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator.

      PubMed

      Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; DelRe, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio

      2015-01-01

      More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n?=?0 and n?=?2 discrete states and ?0 and ?2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shock-waves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, white-light and X-ray generation. PMID:26522653

    18. Physical realization of the Glauber quantum oscillator

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gentilini, Silvia; Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Marcucci, Giulia; Delre, Eugenio; Conti, Claudio

      2015-11-01

      More than thirty years ago Glauber suggested that the link between the reversible microscopic and the irreversible macroscopic world can be formulated in physical terms through an inverted harmonic oscillator describing quantum amplifiers. Further theoretical studies have shown that the paradigm for irreversibility is indeed the reversed harmonic oscillator. As outlined by Glauber, providing experimental evidence of these idealized physical systems could open the way to a variety of fundamental studies, for example to simulate irreversible quantum dynamics and explain the arrow of time. However, supporting experimental evidence of reversed quantized oscillators is lacking. We report the direct observation of exploding n?=?0 and n?=?2 discrete states and ?0 and ?2 quantized decay rates of a reversed harmonic oscillator generated by an optical photothermal nonlinearity. Our results give experimental validation to the main prediction of irreversible quantum mechanics, that is, the existence of states with quantized decay rates. Our results also provide a novel perspective to optical shock-waves, potentially useful for applications as lasers, optical amplifiers, white-light and X-ray generation.

    19. Quantum Walks With Neutral Atoms: Quantum Interference Effects of One and Two Particles

      E-print Network

      Robens, Carsten; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

      2015-01-01

      We report on the state of the art of quantum walk experiments with neutral atoms in state-dependent optical lattices. We demonstrate a novel state-dependent transport technique enabling the control of two spin-selective sublattices in a fully independent fashion. This transport technique allowed us to carry out a test of single-particle quantum interference based on the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality and, more recently, to probe two-particle quantum interference effects with neutral atoms cooled into the motional ground state. These experiments lay the groundwork for the study of discrete-time quantum walks of strongly interacting, indistinguishable particles to demonstrate quantum cellular automata of neutral atoms.

    20. Quantum corrections to the gravitational interaction of massless particles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Blackburn, Thomas J., Jr.

      Donoghue's effective field theory of quantum gravity is extended to include the interaction of massless particles. The collinear divergences which accompany massless particles are examined first in the context of QED and then in quantum gravity. A result of Weinberg is extended to show how these divergences vanish in the case of gravity. The scattering cross section for hypothetical massless scalar particles is computed first, because it is simpler, and the results are then extended to photons. Some terms in the cross section are shown to correspond to the Aichelburg-Sexl metric surrounding a massless particle and to quantum corrections to that metric. The scattering cross section is also applied to calculate quantum corrections to the bending of starlight, and though small, the result obtained is qualitatively different than in the classical case. Since effective field theory includes the low-energy degrees of freedom which generate collinear divergences, the results presented here will remain relevant in any future quantum theory of gravity.

    1. Particle physics: A weighty mass difference

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wilczek, Frank

      2015-04-01

      The neutron-proton mass difference, one of the most consequential parameters of physics, has now been calculated from fundamental theories. This landmark calculation portends revolutionary progress in nuclear physics.

    2. Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.

      2005-01-01

      There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

    3. Many-particle quantum graphs and Bose-Einstein condensation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bolte, Jens; Kerner, Joachim

      2014-06-01

      In this paper, we propose quantum graphs as one-dimensional models with a complex topology to study Bose-Einstein condensation and phase transitions in a rigorous way. We first investigate non-interacting many-particle systems on quantum graphs and provide a complete classification of systems that exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation. We then consider models of interacting particles that can be regarded as a generalisation of the well-known Tonks-Girardeau gas. Here, our principal result is that no phase transitions occur in bosonic systems with repulsive hardcore interactions, indicating an absence of Bose-Einstein condensation.

    4. Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Stecker, F. W.

      1990-01-01

      Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmic-ray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.

    5. Particle Physics Meets Cosmology -- The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Henry, Richard C.

      1982-01-01

      Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)

    6. Quantum principles and free particles. [evaluation of partitions

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1976-01-01

      The quantum principles that establish the energy levels and degeneracies needed to evaluate the partition functions are explored. The uncertainty principle is associated with the dual wave-particle nature of the model used to describe quantized gas particles. The Schroedinger wave equation is presented as a generalization of Maxwell's wave equation; the former applies to all particles while the Maxwell equation applies to the special case of photon particles. The size of the quantum cell in phase space and the representation of momentum as a space derivative operator follow from the uncertainty principle. A consequence of this is that steady-state problems that are space-time dependent for the classical model become only space dependent for the quantum model and are often easier to solve. The partition function is derived for quantized free particles and, at normal conditions, the result is the same as that given by the classical phase integral. The quantum corrections that occur at very low temperatures or high densities are derived. These corrections for the Einstein-Bose gas qualitatively describe the condensation effects that occur in liquid helium, but are unimportant for most practical purposes otherwise. However, the corrections for the Fermi-Dirac gas are important because they quantitatively describe the behavior of high-density conduction electron gases in metals and explain the zero point energy and low specific heat exhibited in this case.

    7. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

      2005-01-01

      An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

    8. Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory

      E-print Network

      Murayama, Hitoshi

      Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory 1) Bosonic Grand-Partition Function The solution to this problem is outlined clearly in the beginning of the lecture notes `Quantum Field Theory II

    9. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

      E-print Network

      Carlson, J; Pederiva, F; Pieper, Steven C; Schiavilla, R; Schmidt, K E; Wiringa, R B

      2014-01-01

      Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states and transition moments in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucle...

    10. Cluster Properties and Particle Production in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

      E-print Network

      W. N. Polyzou

      2003-08-22

      I formulate a class of relativistic quantum mechanical models that satisfy the cluster property and allow particle production. The models have a finite number of bare-particle degrees of freedom. The class of models include relativistic isobar models and the relativistic Lee model. I discuss elements of the construction that may be relevant to treat the general case of an infinite number of degrees of freedom.

    11. Many unstable particles from an open quantum systems perspective

      E-print Network

      Kordian Andrzej Smolinski

      2015-05-22

      We postulate a master equation, written in the language of creation and annihilation operators, as a candidate for unambiguous quantum mechanical description of unstable particles. We have found Kraus representation for the evolution driven by this master equation and study its properties. Both Schroedinger and Heisenberg picture of the system evolution are presented. We show that the resulting time evolution leads to exponential decay law. Moreover, we analyse mixing of particle flavours and we show that it can lead to flavour oscillation phenomenon.

    12. Designing Learning Environments to Teach Interactive Quantum Physics

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Puente, Sonia M. Gomez; Swagten, Henk J. M.

      2012-01-01

      This study aims at describing and analysing systematically an interactive learning environment designed to teach Quantum Physics, a second-year physics course. The instructional design of Quantum Physics is a combination of interactive lectures (using audience response systems), tutorials and self-study in unit blocks, carried out with small…

    13. Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

      2010-01-01

      The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of…

    14. Wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle: Phenomenographic categories of description of tertiary physics students' depictions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie

      2011-12-01

      Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students’ depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an understanding of quantum mechanics. A phenomenographic study was carried out to categorize a picture of students’ descriptions of these key quantum concepts. Data for this study were obtained from a semistructured in-depth interview conducted with undergraduate physics students (N=25) from Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The phenomenographic data analysis revealed that it is possible to construct three qualitatively different categories to map students’ depictions of the concept wave-particle duality, namely, (1) classical description, (2) mixed classical-quantum description, and (3) quasiquantum description. Similarly, it is proposed that students’ depictions of the concept uncertainty can be described with four different categories of description, which are (1) uncertainty as an extrinsic property of measurement, (2) uncertainty principle as measurement error or uncertainty, (3) uncertainty as measurement disturbance, and (4) uncertainty as a quantum mechanics uncertainty principle. Overall, we found students are more likely to prefer a classical picture of interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, few students in the quasiquantum category applied typical wave phenomena such as interference and diffraction that cannot be explained within the framework classical physics for depicting the wavelike properties of quantum entities. Despite inhospitable conceptions of the uncertainty principle and wave- and particlelike properties of quantum entities in our investigation, the findings presented in this paper are highly consistent with those reported in previous studies. New findings and some implications for instruction and the curricula are discussed.

    15. Measurement theory in local quantum physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Okamura, Kazuya; Ozawa, Masanao

      2016-01-01

      In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a one-to-one correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the well-known result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts and Doplicher-Roberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.

    16. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hobson, Art

      2011-03-01

      In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because they respond to neither the EM force nor the strong force. For example, the mean free path (average penetration distance before it interacts) of a typical beta-decay neutrino moving through solid lead is about 1.5 light years! Enrico Fermi argued that neutrinos indicated a new force was at work. During the 1930s, he quickly adapted ideas from the developing new theory of QED to this new force, dubbed the weak force. Fermi's theory was able to predict the half-lives of beta-emitting nuclei and the range of energies of the emitted beta particles.

    17. MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

      SciTech Connect

      Onasch, T.B.; Sedlacek, A.; Cross, E. S.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahern, A.; Lack, D. A.; Cappa, C. D.; Trimborn, A.; Freedman, A.; Olfert, J. S.; Jayne, J. T.; Massoli, P.; Williams, L. R.; Mazzoleni, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Thornhill, D. A.; Slowik, J. G.; Kok, G. L.; Brem, B. T.; Subramanian, R.; Spackman, J. R.; Freitag, S.; and Dubey, M. K.

      2009-12-14

      Accurate measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosol particles containing black carbon are necessary to improve current estimates of the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. A collaborative research effort between Aerodyne Research, Inc. and Boston College has focused on conducting field and laboratory experiments on carbonaceous particles and the development and characterization of new particulate instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the chemical, physical, and optical properties of black carbon particles measured in the laboratory in order to understand the effects of atmospheric processing on black carbon particles. Results from a three-week study during July 2008 of mass- and optical-based black carbon measurements will be presented. The project utilized the Boston College laboratory flame apparatus and aerosol conditioning and characterization equipment. A pre-mixed flat flame burner operating at controlled fuel-to-air ratios produced stable and reproducible concentrations of soot particles with known sizes, morphologies, and chemical compositions. In addition, other black carbon particle types, including fullerene soot, glassy carbon spheres, oxidized flame soot, Regal black, and Aquadag, were also atomized, size selected, and sampled. The study covered an experimental matrix that systematically selected particle mobility size (30 to 300 nm) and black carbon particle mass, particle number concentration, particle shape (dynamic shape factor and fractal dimension), and particle chemistry and density (changed via coatings). Particles were coated with a measured thickness (few nm to {approx}150 nm) of sulfuric acid or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate and passed through a thermal denuder to remove the coatings. Highlights of the study to be presented include: (1) Characterization of the chemical and physical properties of various types of black carbon particles, (2) Mass specific absorption measurements as a function of fuel-to-air ratio and carbon particle type, (3) Optical absorption nhancement measurements as a function of coatings, and (4) Particle shape determination as a function of fuel-to-air ratio and collapse observed due to coatings.

    18. A model with two quantum particles similar to the hydrogen atom

      E-print Network

      Ruslan Sharipov

      2013-08-01

      The hydrogen atom with the Coulomb interaction is one of the exactly solvable non-relativistic quantum models. Unlike many other exactly solvable models it describes a real physical object providing the formulas for energy levels and stationary state wave functions of a real hydrogen atom. In this paper we modify the model replacing the Coulomb interaction by the interaction of the proton and the electron with the classical electromagnetic field serving as an intermediary transmitting the electromagnetic interaction of these two charged quantum particles.

    19. Reorganization of energy bands in quantum finite particle B I Zhilinskii

      E-print Network

      Zhilinskií, Boris

      quantum systems (atoms and molecules) is studied from the point of view of quantum, semi­quantumReorganization of energy bands in quantum finite particle systems B I Zhilinskii Universitâ??e du and purely classical approaches. Relation with topological quantum numbers, classical and quantum monodromy

    20. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

      SciTech Connect

      Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

      2015-05-15

      An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

    1. Relativistic Quantum Newton's Law For A Spinless Particle

      E-print Network

      A. Bouda; F. Hammad

      2002-05-17

      For a one-dimensional stationary system, we derive a third order equation of motion representing a first integral of the relativistic quantum Newton's law. We then integrate this equation in the constant potential case and calculate the time spent by a particle tunneling through a potential barrier.

    2. Persistent Currents and Quantum Critical Phenomena in Mesoscopic Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zelyak, Oleksandr

      In this thesis, we study persistent currents and quantum critical phenomena in the systems of mesoscopic physics. As an introduction in Chapter 1 we familiarize the reader with the area of mesoscopic physics. We explain how mesoscopic systems are different from quantum systems of single atoms and molecules and bulk systems with an Avogadro number of elements. We also describe some important mesoscopic phenomena. One of the mathematical tools that we extensively use in our studies is Random Matrix Theorty. This theory is not a part of standard physics courses and for educational purposes we provide the basics of Random Matrix Theory in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we study the persistent current of noninteracting electrons in quantum billiards. We consider simply connected chaotic Robnik-Berry quantum billiard and its annular analog. The electrons move in the presence of a point-like magnetic flux at the center of the billiard. For the simply connected billiard, we find a large diamagnetic contribution to the persistent current at small flux, which is independent of the flux and is proportional to the number of electrons (or equivalently the density since we keep the area fixed). The size of this diamagnetic contribution is much larger than the previously studied mesoscopic fluctuations in the persistent current in the simply connected billiard. This behavior of persistent current can ultimately be traced to the response of the angular-momentum l = 0 levels (neglected in semiclassical expansions) on the unit disk to a point-like flux at its center. We observe the same behavior for the annular billiard when the inner radius is much smaller than the outer one. We also find that the usual fluctuating persistent current and Anderson-like localization due to boundary scattering are seen when the annulus tends to a one-dimensional ring. We explore the conditions for the observability of this phenomenon. In Chapter 4 we study quantum critical phenomena in a system of two coupled quantum dots connected by a hopping bridge. Both the dots and connecting region are assumed to be in universal Random Matrix crossover regimes between Gaussian orthogonal and unitary ensembles (defined in Chapter 2). We exploit a diagrammatic approach appropriate for energy separations much larger than the level spacing, to obtain the ensemble-averaged one- and two-particle Greens functions. We find that two main components of the two-particle Green's function (diffuson and Cooperon) can be described by separate scaling functions. We then use this information to investigate a model interacting system in which one dot has an attractive s-wave reduced Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer interaction, while the other is noninteracting but subject to an orbital magnetic field. We find that the critical temperature TC of the mean-field transition into the superconducting state in the first dot is non-monotonic in the flux through the second dot in a certain regime of interdot coupling. Likewise, the fluctuation magnetization above the critical temperature is also non-monotonic in this regime, can be either diamagnetic or paramagnetic, and can be deduced from the Cooperon scaling function. We end this thesis with conclusion in Chapter 5. KEYWORDS: quantum dot, crossover, quantum criticality, persistent current, quantum billiard

    3. Multi-physics and particle methods Georges-Henri Cottet

      E-print Network

      Cottet, Georges-Henri

      1296 Multi-physics and particle methods Georges-Henri Cottet LMC-IMAG Université Joseph Fourier displacement. x and are respectively the Euler and Lagrange coordinates and (t) is the moving interface

    4. The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

      SciTech Connect

      Wells, James D.

      2000-12-14

      Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

    5. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERN--PPE/9353

      E-print Network

      EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERN--PPE/93­53 CERN SL/93­17 March 16, 1993 Measurement­positron collider, LEP, at CERN is the ideal place to measure it precisely. Although the precision of present tests

    6. A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

      2014-04-01

      We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

    7. Particle physics meets cosmology - The search for decaying neutrinos

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Henry, R. C.

      1982-01-01

      The fundamental physical implications of the possible detection of massive neutrinos are discussed, with an emphasis on the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) of matter. The Newtonian and general-relativistic pictures of the fundamental forces are compared, and the reduction of electromagnetic and weak forces to one force in the GUTs is explained. The cosmological consequences of the curved-spacetime gravitation concept are considered. Quarks, leptons, and neutrinos are characterized in a general treatment of elementary quantum mechanics. The universe is described in terms of quantized fields, the noninteractive 'particle' fields and the force fields, and cosmology becomes the study of the interaction of gravitation with the other fields, of the 'freezing out' of successive fields with the expansion and cooling of the universe. While the visible universe is the result of the clustering of the quark and electron fields, the distribution of the large number of quanta in neutrino field, like the mass of the neutrino, are unknown. Cosmological models which attribute anomalies in the observed motions of galaxies and stars to clusters or shells of massive neutrinos are shown to be consistent with a small but nonzero neutrino mass and a universe near the open/closed transition point, but direct detection of the presence of massive neutrinos by the UV emission of their decay is required to verify these hypotheses.

    8. Celebrating 40 years of research in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Adcock, Colin D.; Martin, Alan D.; Schwenk, Achim

      2015-09-01

      2015 marks the 40th anniversary of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. This editorial provides a brief history of the journal, and introduces a unique collection of invited articles from leading authors to celebrate the occasion.

    9. High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy: Opportunities for Particle Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hooper, D.

      2004-06-01

      In this article, based on the talk given at the Cracow Epiphany Conference on Astroparticle Physics, I discuss some of the opportunities provided by high-energy and ultra-high energy neutrino astronomy in probing particle physics beyond the standard model. Following a short summary of current and next generation experiments, I review the prospects for observations of high-energy neutrino interactions, searches for particle dark matter, and measurements of absolute neutrino masses, lifetimes and pseudo-Dirac mass splittings.

    10. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

      SciTech Connect

      Cheng, C.Z.

      1997-05-01

      Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma.

    11. Future particle-physics projects in the United States

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Denisov, D. S.

      2015-07-01

      Basic proposals of experiments aimed at precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and at searches for new particles, including dark-matter particles, are described along with future experimental projects considered by American Physical Society at the meeting in the summer of 2013 and intended for implementation within the next ten to twenty years.

    12. Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Farmelo, Graham

      1992-01-01

      Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…

    13. Quarks, Leptons, and Bosons: A Particle Physics Primer.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wagoner, Robert; Goldsmith, Donald

      1983-01-01

      Presented is a non-technical introduction to particle physics. The material is adapted from chapter 3 of "Cosmic Horizons," (by Robert Wagoner and Don Goldsmith), a lay-person's introduction to cosmology. Among the topics considered are elementary particles, forces and motion, and higher level structures. (JN)

    14. Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture IV

      E-print Network

      Marcolli, Matilde

      Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture IV Matilde Marcolli Villa de Leyva school, July 2011 Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, IV #12;This, The coupling of topology and inflation in noncommutative cosmology, arXiv:1012.0780 Branimir ´Ca´ci´c, Matilde

    15. Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture I

      E-print Network

      Marcolli, Matilde

      Noncommutative Geometry models for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Lecture I Matilde Marcolli Villa de Leyva school, July 2011 Matilde Marcolli NCG models for particles and cosmology, I #12;Plan handed neutrinos; cosmological timeline and the inflation epoch; effective gravitational and cosmological

    16. Effective theories and thresholds in particle physics

      SciTech Connect

      Gaillard, M.K.

      1991-06-07

      The role of effective theories in probing a more fundamental underlying theory and in indicating new physics thresholds is discussed, with examples from the standard model and more speculative applications to superstring theory. 38 refs.

    17. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

      SciTech Connect

      Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

      1992-06-01

      This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

    18. American particle and nuclear physics planning

      SciTech Connect

      Montgomery, Hugh E.

      2014-10-01

      In the United States the planning process relevant to future deep inelastic scattering involves both the high energy physics and nuclear physics funding and the two communities. In Canada there is no such split between the communities. Within the past two years there have been several planning initiatives and there may be more to come. We review the current status of both the planning and the plans.

    19. Quantum maximum entropy principle for a system of identical particles

      SciTech Connect

      Trovato, M.; Reggiani, L.

      2010-02-15

      By introducing a functional of the reduced density matrix, we generalize the definition of a quantum entropy which incorporates the indistinguishability principle of a system of identical particles. With the present definition, the principle of quantum maximum entropy permits us to solve the closure problem for a quantum hydrodynamic set of balance equations corresponding to an arbitrary number of moments in the framework of extended thermodynamics. The determination of the reduced Wigner function for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions is found to become possible only by assuming that the Lagrange multipliers can be expanded in powers of (Planck constant/2pi){sup 2}. Quantum contributions are expressed in powers of (Planck constant/2pi){sup 2} while classical results are recovered in the limit (Planck constant/2pi)->0.

    20. Cognitive Mapping of Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mashhadi, Azam; Woolnough, Brian

      This paper presents findings from a study that investigated students' understanding of quantum phenomena and focused on how students incorporate the ideas of quantum physics into their overall cognitive framework. The heuristic metaphor of the map is used to construct graphic representations of students' understanding of quantum physics. The…

    1. Exploring flocking via quantum many-body physics techniques

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Souslov, Anton; Loewe, Benjamin; Goldbart, Paul M.

      2015-03-01

      Flocking refers to the spontaneous breaking of spatial isotropy and time-reversal symmetries in collections of bodies such as birds, fish, locusts, bacteria, and artificial active systems. The transport of matter along biopolymers using molecular motors also involves the breaking of these symmetries, which in some cases are known to be broken explicitly. We study these classical nonequilibrium symmetry-breaking phenomena by means of models of many strongly interacting particles that hop on a periodic lattice. We employ a mapping between the classical and quantum dynamics of many-body systems, combined with tools from many-body theory. In particular, we examine the formation and properties of nematic and polar order in low-dimensional, strongly-interacting active systems using techniques familiar from fermionic systems, such as self-consistent field theory and bosonization. Thus, we find that classical active systems can exhibit analogs of quantum phenomena such as spin-orbit coupling, magnetism, and superconductivity. The models we study connect the physics of asymmetric exclusion processes to the spontaneous emergence of transport and flow, and also provide a soluble cousin of Vicsek's model system of self-propelled particles.

    2. RESEARCH ARTICLE Quantum nanospheres for sub-micron particle image velocimetry

      E-print Network

      Meinhart, Carl

      RESEARCH ARTICLE Quantum nanospheres for sub-micron particle image velocimetry Patrick E Particle image velocimetry QD Quantum dot QN Quantum nanosphere CdSe Cadmium selenide ZnS Zinc sulfide Nd 1.1 Micro-PIV background Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique

    3. Photonic dark matter portal and quantum physics

      E-print Network

      S. A. Alavi; F. S. Kazemian

      2015-06-14

      We study a model of dark matter in which the hidden sector interacts with standard model particles via a hidden photonic portal. We investigate the effects of this new interaction on the hydrogen atom, including the Stark, Zeeman and hyperfine effects. Using the accuracy of the measurement of energy, we obtain an upper bound for the coupling constant of the model. We also calculate the contribution from the hidden photonic portal to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, which provides an important probe of physics beyond the standard model.

    4. Particle and Wave: Developing the Quantum Wave Accompanying a Classical Particle

      E-print Network

      C. L. Herzenberg

      2008-12-04

      The relationship between classical and quantum mechanics is explored in an intuitive manner by the exercise of constructing a wave in association with a classical particle. Using special relativity, the time coordinate in the frame of reference of a moving particle is expressed in terms of the coordinates in the laboratory frame of reference in order to provide an initial spatiotemporal function to work from in initiating the development of a quantum wave. When temporal periodicity is ascribed to the particle, a provisional spatiotemporal function for a particle travelling at constant velocity manifests itself as an running wave characterized by parameters associated with the moving particle. A wave description for bidirectional motion is generated based on an average time coordinate for a combination of oppositely directed elementary running waves, and the resulting spatiotemporal function exhibits wave behavior characteristic of a standing wave. Ascribing directional orientation to the intrinsic periodicity of the particle introduces directional sub-states; variations in the relative number of sub-states as a function of angle in combined states lead to spatially varying magnitudes for the associated waves. Further analysis leads to full mathematical expression for all waves representing free particle motion. A generalization for particles subject to force fields enables us to develop a governing differential equation identical in form to the Schroedinger equation.

    5. Physics of compaction of fine cohesive particles.

      PubMed

      Castellanos, A; Valverde, J M; Quintanilla, M A S

      2005-02-25

      Fluidized fractal clusters of fine particles display critical-like dynamics at the jamming transition, characterized by a power law relating consolidation stress with volume fraction increment [sigma--(c) proportional, variant(Deltaphi)(beta)]. At a critical stress clusters are disrupted and there is a crossover to a logarithmic law (Deltaphi = nu logsigma--(c)) resembling the phenomenology of soils. We measure lambda identical with- partial differentialDelta(1/phi)/ partial log(sigma--(c) proportional, variant Bo(0.2)(g), where Bo(g) is the ratio of interparticle attractive force (in the fluidlike regime) to particle weight. This law suggests that compaction is ruled by the internal packing structure of the jammed clusters at nearly zero consolidation. PMID:15783824

    6. FRONTIERS ARTICLE Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics

      E-print Network

      FRONTIERS ARTICLE Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics Robert F. Curl a,*, Federico Capasso b their first demonstration, quantum cascade lasers have become the most useful sources of tunable mid applications of quantum cascade lasers to infrared spectroscopy. We foresee the potential application

    7. Event-based simulation of quantum physics experiments K. Michielsen

      E-print Network

      Event-based simulation of quantum physics experiments ¤ K. Michielsen Institute for Advanced techniques; discrete event simulation; quantum theory. PACS Nos.: 02.70.�c, 03.65.�w, 03.65.Ud. 1 by constructing an event-based simulation model that reproduces the statistical distributions of quantum (and

    8. Critique of "Quantum Enigma:Physic encounters Consciousness"

      E-print Network

      Michael Nauenberg

      2007-05-15

      The central claim that understanding quantum mechanics requires a conscious observer, which is made made by B. Rosenblum and F. Kuttner in their book "Quantum Enigma: Physics encounters consciousnes", is shown to be based on various misunderstandings and distortions of the foundations of quantum mechanics.

    9. Howard E. Haber Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

      E-print Network

      California at Santa Cruz, University of

      Physics, H.E. Haber and A.E. Nelson, editors (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004). 3. Proceedings of the 5, H.E. Haber, and J. Siegrist, editors (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996). 5. From the Planck Scale Institute in Elementary Particle Physics, vols. I and II, H.E. Haber, editor, (World Scientific, Singapore

    10. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1991-12-01

      This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

    11. Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Richartz, Maurício; Saa, Alberto

      2011-11-01

      Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-(1)/(2) particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-(1)/(2) fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-(1)/(2) charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.

    12. Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics

      E-print Network

      Cardoso, Vitor

      2013-01-01

      Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a forty-year long history, black hole physics is a fully-blossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This write-up, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.

    13. Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics

      E-print Network

      Vitor Cardoso

      2013-08-30

      Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a forty-year long history, black hole physics is a fully-blossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This write-up, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.

    14. Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)

      SciTech Connect

      Dittmann, J.R.

      2012-08-25

      This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cutting-edge measurements from proton-antiproton collisions at the energy frontier.

    15. EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERNEP/99085

      E-print Network

      to European Physical Journal C) #12; The OPAL Collaboration G. Abbiendi 2 , K. Ackersta# 8 , G. Alexander 23 , S. Baumann 3 , J. Bechtluft 14 , T. Behnke 27 , K.W. Bell 20 , G. Bella 23 , A. Bellerive 9 , S 2 , K. Graham 28 , E. Gross 26 , J. Grunhaus 23 , M.Gruwâ??e 27 , C. Hajdu 31 G.G. Hanson 12 , M

    16. EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERNEP/98104

      E-print Network

      with the V\\GammaA prediction of the Standard Model. (Submitted to The European Physical Journal C) #12.G. Hanson 12 , M. Hansroul 8 , M. Hapke 13 , C.K. Hargrove 7 , C. Hartmann 3 , M. Hauschild 8 , C.M. Hawkes

    17. EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERNEP/99082

      E-print Network

      Physical Journal C) #12; The OPAL Collaboration G. Abbiendi 2 , K. Ackersta# 8 , G. Alexander 23 , J. Baumann 3 , J. Bechtluft 14 , T. Behnke 27 , K.W. Bell 20 , G. Bella 23 , A. Bellerive 9 , S. Bentvelsen 8.Gorn 4 , C. Grandi 2 , K. Graham 28 , E. Gross 26 , J. Grunhaus 23 , M.Gruwâ??e 27 , C. Hajdu 31 G

    18. Insights and puzzles in particle physics

      E-print Network

      H. Leutwyler

      2014-10-15

      I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

    19. Puzzles for Particle Physics Department, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison

      E-print Network

      Saffman, Mark

      Puzzles for Particle Physics Yang Bai Physics Department, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison Physics 301.5 GeV 3(MZ) 0.1184 0.0007 ! We are in a Meta-StableVacuum #12;11 Puzzles 5. Cosmological constant matter me mt = 10 6 vEW MPl = 10 16 nB n ¯B nB + n ¯B = 10 10 DM Baryon = 5 M4 Pl = 10 120 #12;12 Puzzle

    20. Spacetime alternatives in the quantum mechanics of a relativistic particle

      SciTech Connect

      Whelan, J.T. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB3 0EH )

      1994-11-15

      Hartle's generalized quantum mechanics formalism is used to examine spacetime coarse grainings, i.e., sets of alternatives defined with respect to a region extended in time as well as space, in the quantum mechanics of a free relativistic particle. For a simple coarse graining and suitable initial conditions, tractable formulas are found for branch wave functions. Despite the nonlocality of the positive-definite version of the Klein-Gordon inner product, which means that nonoverlapping branches are not sufficient to imply decoherence, some initial conditions are found to give decoherence and allow the consistent assignment of probabilities.

    1. DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL

      E-print Network

      Sites, James R.

      DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS;#12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY AS A DEVICE-PHYSICS INTERPRETATION TOOL FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells made from CdTe and CuIn1-xGaxSe2 p-type absorbers are promis- ing candidates

    2. Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

      2010-01-01

      Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics

    3. Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II

      E-print Network

      Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II Instructor : Subir Sachdev, Lyman 343://isites.harvard.edu/k90088 The first class will meet on Tue Sep 4. Teaching fellow: David Farhi, farhi@physics.harvard.edu This is the second half of an introductory course on quantum mechanics. The course will complete the text book

    4. Statistical Challenges with Massive Data Sets in Particle Physics

      E-print Network

      Bruce Knuteson; Paul Padley

      2003-05-21

      The massive data sets from today's particle physics experiments present a variety of challenges amenable to the tools developed by the statistics community. From the real-time decision of what subset of data to record on permanent storage, to the reduction of millions of channels of electronics to a few dozen high-level variables of primary interest, to the interpretation of these high-level observables in the context of an underlying physical theory, there are many problems that could benefit from a higher-bandwidth exchange of ideas between our fields. Examples of interesting problems from various stages in the collection and interpretation of particle physics data are provided in an attempt to whet the appetite of future collaborators with knowledge of potentially helpful techniques, and to encourage fruitful discussion between the particle physics and statistics communities.

    5. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 042315 (2011) Optimizing entangling quantum gates for physical systems

      E-print Network

      Koch, Christiane

      2011-01-01

      PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 042315 (2011) Optimizing entangling quantum gates for physical systems M. M to significantly improving figures of merit for quantum information tasks. We combine it here with the geometric that determines the best entangling two-qubit gate for a given physical setting. We demonstrate the power

    6. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

      DOE PAGESBeta

      Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

      2014-10-19

      Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore »interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

    7. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

      E-print Network

      J. Carlson; S. Gandolfi; F. Pederiva; Steven C. Pieper; R. Schiavilla; K. E. Schmidt; R. B. Wiringa

      2015-04-29

      Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

    8. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

      2015-07-01

      Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

    9. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

      SciTech Connect

      Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

      2014-10-19

      Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

    10. Process Physics From Quantum Foam to General Relativity

      E-print Network

      Cahill, R T

      2002-01-01

      Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergen...

    11. EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERNEP/98143

      E-print Network

      the Standard Model process e + e \\Gamma ! Å¡Å¡ + photon(s). No evidence is observed for new physics contributions production (X = ~ Ã? 0 2 ; Y = ~ Ã? 0 1 ) and to supersymmetric models in which X = ~ Ã? 0 1 and Y = ~ G. Gruw'e 27 , G.G. Hanson 12 , M. Hansroul 8 , M. Hapke 13 , K. Harder 27 , C.K. Hargrove 7 , C. Hartmann

    12. EUROPEAN LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS CERNEP/98058

      E-print Network

      as a function of jet energy as predicted by Monte Carlo models. Selecting three­jet events with the k ? (Durham to the predictions of Monte Carlo models. Submitted to European Physics Journal C. #12; The OPAL Collaboration K. Hansroul 8 , M.Hapke 13 , C.K. Hargrove 7 , C. Hartmann 3 , M. Hauschild 8 , C.M. Hawkes 5 , R. Hawkings 27

    13. Phase transitions and elementary-particle physics

      SciTech Connect

      Creutz, M.

      1981-01-01

      The reason physicists have recently taken an intense interest in the statistical mechanics of certain lattice models is reviewed. Phase transitions in these systems are of direct relevance to whether the gauge theory of interacting quarks and gluons can prevent the quark as appearing as a free isolated object. Monte Carlo simulation techniques have given the strongest evidence for the confinement phenomenon and are beginning to make numerical predictions in strong interaction physics.

    14. Process Physics: From Quantum Foam to General Relativity

      E-print Network

      Reginald T. Cahill

      2002-03-05

      Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality. Here general relativity and the technical language of general covariance is seen not to be fundamental but a phenomenological construct, arising as an amalgam of two distinct phenomena: the `gravitational' characteristics of the emergent quantum foam for which `matter' acts as a sink, and the classical `spacetime' measurement protocol, but with the later violated by quantum measurement processes. Quantum gravity, as manifested in the emergent Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of the process-space or quantum foam, is logically prior to the emergence of the general relativity phenomenology, and cannot be derived from it.

    15. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Logan, David

      2004-05-01

      To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly relaxed style with infectious enthusiasm for his subject, and readily combines formal instruction with physical insight. The result is a serious, pedagogical yet comprehensive guide to the fascinating and important field of one-dimensional quantum systems, for which many a graduate student (and not a few oldies) will be grateful. The first half of the book, chapters 1--5, is devoted to a coherent presentation of the essential concepts and theoretical methods of the field. After a basic introduction to the unique behaviour of interacting electrons in one dimension, and to early fermionic approaches to the problem, Giamarchi turns to the technique of bosonization, introducing chapter 3 with a Marxist quote: `A child of five would understand this. Send for a child of five.' This most powerful technique is presented in a step by step fashion, and serious perusal of the chapter will benefit all ages since bosonization is used extensively throughout the rest of the book. The same is true of chapter 3 where a phenomenological and physically insightful introduction is given to the Luttinger liquid---the key concept in the low-energy physics of one-dimensional systems, analogous to the Fermi liquid in higher dimensions. Chapter 4 deals with what the author calls `refinements', or complications of the sort theorists in particular welcome; such as how the Luttinger liquid description is modified by the presence of long-ranged interactions, the Mott transition (`we forgot the lattice Gromit'), and the effects of breaking spin rotational invariance on application of a magnetic field. Finally chapter 5 describes various microscopic methods for one dimension, including a brief discussion of numerical techniques but focussing primarily on the Bethe ansatz---the famous one-dimensional technique others seek to emulate but whose well known complexity necessitates a relatively brief discussion, confined in practice to the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model. In the second half of the book, chapters 6--11, a range of different physical realizations of one-dimensional quantum physics are dis

    16. Lagrangian Description for Particle Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics: Single-Particle Case

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sutherland, Roderick I.

      2015-11-01

      A Lagrangian description is presented which can be used in conjunction with particle interpretations of quantum mechanics. A special example of such an interpretation is the well-known Bohm model. The Lagrangian density introduced here also contains a potential for guiding the particle. The advantages of this description are that the field equations and the particle equations of motion can both be deduced from a single Lagrangian density expression and that conservation of energy and momentum are assured. After being developed in a general form, this Lagrangian formulation is then applied to the special case of the Bohm model as an example. It is thereby demonstrated that such a Lagrangian description is compatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics.

    17. Physics, mathematics and numerics of particle adsorption on fluid interfaces

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Schmuck, Markus; Pavliotis, Grigorios A.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

      2012-11-01

      We study two arbitrary immiscible fuids where one phase contains small particles of the size of the interface and smaller. We primarily focus on charge-free particles with wetting characteristics described by the contact angle formed at the interface between the two phases and the particles. Based on the experimental observation that particles are adsorbed on the interface to reduce the interfacial energy and hence the surface tension as well, we formulate a free-energy functional that accounts for these physical effects. Using elements from calculus of variations and formal gradient flow theory, we derive partial differential equations describing the location of the interface and the density of the particles in the fluid phases. Via numerical experiments we analyse the time evolution of the surface tension, the particle concentration, and the free energy over time and reflect basic experimentally observed phenomena.

    18. Cosmic rays and the birth of particle physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Friedlander, Michael

      2013-02-01

      Twenty years after the discovery of cosmic rays, the methods of research and resulting discoveries were dramatically changed by the introduction of experimental methods that made visible the passage of individual particles. Between 1932 and 1955, tracks of cosmic rays were found in cloud chambers and special photographic emulsions. From measurements of the ionization produced along these tracks, the mass, charge and energy of a single relativistic particle could be determined. The dynamics of decays and collisions could be analyzed. Positrons and then electron-positron pairs were discovered, followed by muons and pions and then the inhabitants of the 'particle zoo'. Fundamental concepts were challenged. From the mid- 1950s, larger accelerators began to produce many of the 'new' particles, displacing cosmic rays from their prime role in particle studies. But without the initial discoveries in cosmic rays, there might well not be the modern industrial-scale particle physics research.

    19. Exact Heisenberg operator solutions for multi-particle quantum mechanics

      E-print Network

      Satoru Odake; Ryu Sasaki

      2007-06-06

      Exact Heisenberg operator solutions for independent `sinusoidal coordinates' as many as the degree of freedom are derived for typical exactly solvable multi-particle quantum mechanical systems, the Calogero systems based on any root system. These Heisenberg operator solutions also present the explicit forms of the annihilation-creation operators for various quanta in the interacting multi-particle systems. At the same time they can be interpreted as multi-variable generalisation of the three term recursion relations for multi-variable orthogonal polynomials constituting the eigenfunctions.

    20. Exact Heisenberg operator solutions for multi-particle quantum mechanics

      E-print Network

      Odake, Satoru

      2007-01-01

      Exact Heisenberg operator solutions for independent `sinusoidal coordinates' as many as the degree of freedom are derived for typical exactly solvable multi-particle quantum mechanical systems, the Calogero systems based on any root system. These Heisenberg operator solutions also present the explicit forms of the annihilation-creation operators for various quanta in the interacting multi-particle systems. At the same time they can be interpreted as multi-variable generalisation of the three term recursion relations for multi-variable orthogonal polynomials constituting the eigenfunctions.

    1. Scale covariant physics: A `quantum deformation' of classical electrodynamics

      E-print Network

      Yehonatan Knoll; Irad Yavneh

      2010-06-07

      Scale covariance -- the notion that there is no absolute size, only relative size -- is probably as old an idea as translation covariance. Yet, in our laboratories we find no evidence for this appealing symmetry. For this reason, privileged length-scales, such as the Compton length or the Bohr radius, enter directly the \\emph{equations} of physics rather than surfacing as attributes of specific \\emph{solutions}, in analogy to the way a privileged position is introduced into a translation covariant equation by any localized solution. We propose to elevate the status of a scaling symmetry to that of translation symmetry. Within our proposed theory, a solution may `drift in scale', thereby offering a mechanism by which matter may `cluster in scale' in analogy to spatial clustering in galaxies (particles comprising galaxies all have almost the same position on the intergalactic scale). Our proposed theory is a scale covariant deformation of classical electrodynamics, reducing to the later in its domain of validity. The resultant theory, dubbed Extended Charge Dynamics (ECD), is a remarkably rich theory, containing ingredients encountered nowhere else in theoretical physics, yet economically formulated as a simple variational principle. We argue the case for ECD being a `hidden variables model' for quantum mechanics i.e. that quantum mechanics describe statistical aspects of ensembles of ECD solutions. Among else, this perspective offers at once a prediction, pertaining to the notion of a photon, which is at odds with current theory. We further speculate that the same `remote sensing' mechanism endowed by ECD to a charge, responsible for many quantum mechanical effects, is also behind gravitational effects.

    2. Free-Dirac-particle evolution as a quantum random walk

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bracken, A. J.; Ellinas, D.; Smyrnakis, I.

      2007-02-01

      It is known that any positive-energy state of a free Dirac particle that is initially highly localized evolves in time by spreading at speeds close to the speed of light. As recently indicated by Strauch, this general phenomenon, and the resulting “two-horned” distributions of position probability along any axis through the point of initial localization, can be interpreted in terms of a quantum random walk, in which the roles of “coin” and “walker” are naturally associated with the spin and translational degrees of freedom in a discretized version of Dirac’s equation. We investigate the relationship between these two evolutions analytically and show how the evolved probability density on the x axis for the Dirac particle at any time t can be obtained from the asymptotic form of the probability distribution for the position of a “quantum walker.” The case of a highly localized initial state is discussed as an example.

    3. Friction and particle-hole pairs. [in dissipative quantum phenomena

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Guinea, F.

      1984-01-01

      The effect induced by dissipation on quantum phenomena has recently been considered, taking into account as a starting point a phenomenological Hamiltonian in which the environment is simulated by an appropriately chosen set of harmonic oscillators. It is found that this approach should be adequate to describe the low-energy behavior of a wide class of environments. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the case in which the environment is a gas (or liquid) of fermions, and the relevant low-energy excitations are particle-hole pairs. A study is conducted regarding the extent to which the quantum results obtained for harmonic oscillators are also valid in the considered situation. Linear-response theory is used to derive an effective action which describes the motion of an external particle coupled to a normal Fermi fluid.

    4. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

      SciTech Connect

      Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

      1992-11-01

      Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

    5. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

      SciTech Connect

      Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

      1992-01-01

      Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

    6. Site-selective particle deposition in periodically driven quantum lattices

      E-print Network

      Thomas Wulf; Benno Liebchen; Peter Schmelcher

      2015-02-05

      We demonstrate that a site-dependent driving of a periodic potential allows for the controlled manipulation of a quantum particle on length scales of the lattice spacing. Specifically we observe for distinct driving frequencies a near depletion of certain sites which is explained by a resonant mixing of the involved Floquet-Bloch modes occurring at these frequencies. Our results could be exploited as a scheme for a site-selective loading of e.g. ultracold atoms into an optical lattices.

    7. Site-selective particle deposition in periodically driven quantum lattices

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wulf, Thomas; Liebchen, Benno; Schmelcher, Peter

      2015-04-01

      We demonstrate that a site-dependent driving of a periodic potential allows for the controlled manipulation of a quantum particle on length scales of the lattice spacing. Specifically we observe for distinct driving frequencies a near depletion of certain sites which is explained by a resonant mixing of the involved Floquet-Bloch modes occurring at these frequencies. Our results could be exploited as a scheme for a site-selective loading of, e.g., ultracold atoms into an optical lattice.

    8. Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hahne, Gerhard

      2012-01-01

      Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.

    9. Teaching and understanding of quantum interpretations in modern physics courses

      E-print Network

      Charles Baily; Noah D. Finkelstein

      2012-08-28

      Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics courses recently taught at the University of Colorado, and examine associated impacts on student perspectives regarding quantum physics. We find students are more likely to prefer realist interpretations of quantum-mechanical systems when instructors are less explicit in addressing student ontologies. We also observe contextual variations in student beliefs about quantum systems, indicating that instructors who choose to address questions of ontology in quantum mechanics should do so explicitly across a range of topics.

    10. Finite-particle-number approach to physics

      SciTech Connect

      Noyes, H.P.

      1982-10-01

      Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

    11. Effects related to spacetime foam in particle physics

      E-print Network

      A. A. Kirillov

      1999-11-22

      It is found that the existence of spacetime foam leads to a situation in which the number of fundamental quantum bosonic fields is a variable quantity. The general aspects of an exact theory that allows for a variable number of fields are discussed, and the simplest observable effects generated by the foam are estimated. It is shown that in the absence of processes related to variations in the topology of space, the concept of an effective field can be reintroduced and standard field theory can be restored. However, in the complete theory the ground state is characterized by a nonvanishing particle number density. From the effective-field standpoint, such particles are "dark". It is assumed that they comprise dark matter of the universe. The properties of this dark matter are discussed, and so is the possibility of measuring the quantum fluctuation in the field potentials.

    12. CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass

      SciTech Connect

      Jesus, J.F.; Pereira, S.H. E-mail: shpereira@gmail.com

      2014-07-01

      In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation ? for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form t{sup 2/3+?}. Based on recent H(z) data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the ? parameter have been found as m = 1.6× 10{sup 3} GeV, restricted to a 68.3% c.l. interval of 1.5 < m < 6.3× 10{sup 7}) GeV and ? = -0.250{sup +0.15}{sub -0.096} at 68.3% c.l. For these best fit values the model correctly recovers a transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion and admits a positive creation rate near the present era. Contrary to recent works in CCDM models where the creation rate was phenomenologically derived, here we have used a quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called ''dark degeneracy'', where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.

    13. Quantum Coordinates of an Event in Local Quantum Physics

      E-print Network

      Riccardo Giannitrapani

      1998-03-04

      Recently it has been proposed, using the formalism of positive-operator-valued measures, a possible definition of quantum coordinates for events in the context of quantum mechanics. In this short note we analyze this definition from the point of view of local algebras in the framework of local quantum theories.

    14. Thirty Unsolved Problems in the Physics of Elementary Particles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

      2009-10-01

      Unlike what some physicists and graduate students used to think, that physics science has come to the point that the only improvement needed is merely like adding more numbers in decimal place for the masses of elementary particles or gravitational constant, there is a number of unsolved problems in this field that may require that the whole theory shall be reassessed. In the present article we discuss thirty of those unsolved problems and their likely implications. In the first section we will discuss some well-known problems in cosmology and particle physics, and then other unsolved problems will be discussed in next section.

    15. Attention, Intention, and Will in Quantum Physics

      SciTech Connect

      Stapp, H.P.

      1999-05-01

      How is mind related to matter? This ancient question inphilosophy is rapidly becoming a core problem in science, perhaps themost important of all because it probes the essential nature of manhimself. The origin of the problem is a conflict between the mechanicalconception of human beings that arises from the precepts of classicalphysical theory and the very different idea that arises from ourintuition: the former reduces each of us to an automaton, while thelatter allows our thoughts to guide our actions. The dominantcontemporary approaches to the problem attempt to resolve this conflictby clinging to the classical concepts, and trying to explain away ourmisleading intuition. But a detailed argument given here shows why, in ascientific approach to this problem, it is necessary to use the morebasic principles of quantum physics, which bring the observer into thedynamics, rather than to accept classical precepts that are profoundlyincorrect precisely at the crucial point of the role of humanconsciousness in the dynamics of human brains. Adherence to the quantumprinciples yields a dynamical theory of the mind/brain/body system thatis in close accord with our intuitive idea of what we are. In particular,the need for a self-observing quantum system to pose certain questionscreates a causal opening that allowsmind/brain dynamics to have threedistinguishable but interlocked causal processes, one micro-local, onestochastic, and the third experiential. Passing to the classical limit inwhich the critical difference between zero and the finite actual value ofPlanck's constant is ignored not only eliminates the chemical processesthat are absolutely crucial to the functioning of actual brains, itsimultaneously blinds the resulting theoretical construct to the physicalfine structure wherein the effect of mind on matter lies: the use of thislimit in this context is totally unjustified from a physicsperspective.

    16. Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations

      SciTech Connect

      Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li

      2014-12-15

      We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular ?-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch–Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general ?-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of ?. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points H{sub c} of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved. - Highlights: • Quantum correlation and quantum channel in de Sitter space are studied. • Gibbons–Hawking effect causes entanglement degradation for static observer. • Planckian physics causes extra decrement on quantum correlation. • Convergent feature of negativity relies on the choice of alpha-vacua. • Link between negativity convergence and quantum channel capacity is given.

    17. Astronomy and particle physics research classes for secondary school students

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Engstedt, J.; Sandqvist, Aa.

      2001-05-01

      During a 10-day course in astronomy and particle physics, two research classes with 17-18 year old secondary school students studied the differential rotation of the milky way, the intricacies of high energy particle collisions and learned about the origin of the universe. The combination of making their own measurements of the milky way with a small radio telescope, using scientific data from high energy particle collisions, and having the big bang explained by scientists created an attractive and fascinating course in contemporary science.

    18. Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 1992

      SciTech Connect

      Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

      1992-07-01

      This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

    19. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

      SciTech Connect

      Redondo, Antonio

      2010-01-01

      The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

    20. Multiple particle production processes in the light'' of quantum optics

      SciTech Connect

      Friedlander, E.M.

      1990-09-01

      Ever since the observation that high-energy nuclear active'' cosmic-ray particles create bunches of penetrating particles upon hitting targets, a controversy has raged about whether these secondaries are created in a single act'' or whether many hadrons are just the result of an intra-nuclear cascade, yielding one meson in every step. I cannot escape the impression that: the latter kind of model appeals naturally as a consequence of an innate bio-morphism in our way of thinking and that in one guise or another it has tenaciously survived to this day, also for hadron-hadron collisions, via multi-peripheral models to the modern parton shower approach. Indeed, from the very beginning of theoretical consideration of multiparticle production, the possibility of many particles arising from a single hot'' system has been explored, with many fruitful results, not the least of which are the s{sup 1/4} dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicity and the thermal'' shape of the P{sub T} spectra. An important consequence of the thermodynamical-hydrodynamical models is that particle emission is treated in analogy to black-body radiation, implying for the secondaries a set of specific Quantum-Statistical properties, very similar to those observed in quantum optics. From here on I shall try to review a number of implications and applications of this QS analogy in the study of multiplicity distributions of the produced secondaries. I will touch only in passing another very important topic of this class, the Bose-Einstein two-particle correlations.

    1. Particle Dark Matter: Searching for new Physics without Accelerators

      SciTech Connect

      Fornengo, Nicolao

      2005-10-12

      Astroparticle physics offers very important, and sometimes unique, tools for studying extensions of the standard model in a way which is complementary to accelerator physics. In this paper we discuss the problem of dark matter in connection with its explanation in terms of relic supersymmetric particles, by analyzing different types of astrophysical signals which can be looked at in order to disentangle the presence of dark matter in the galactic halo.

    2. Proceedings 12th International Workshop on Quantum Physics and Logic

      E-print Network

      Chris Heunen; Peter Selinger; Jamie Vicary

      2015-11-04

      This volume contains the proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Quantum Physics and Logic (QPL 2015), which was held July 15-17, 2015 at Oxford University. The goal of this workshop series is to bring together researchers working on mathematical foundations of quantum physics, quantum computing, spatio-temporal causal structures, and related areas such as computational linguistics. Of particular interest are topics that use logical tools, ordered algebraic and category-theoretic structures, formal languages, semantical methods and other computer science methods for the study of physical behaviour in general.

    3. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1990-11-30

      This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

    4. Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement Jae-Weon Lee and Eok Kyun Lee

      E-print Network

      Lee, EokKyun

      Quantum cryptography using single-particle entanglement Jae-Weon Lee and Eok Kyun Lee Department; published 23 July 2003 A quantum cryptography scheme based on entanglement between a single-particle state Entanglement could be exploited in many interesting ap- plications, including quantum teleportation 1

    5. Probing phase-space noncommutativity through quantum mechanics and thermodynamics of free particles and quantum rotors

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Santos, Jonas F. G.; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bastos, Catarina

      2015-11-01

      Novel quantization properties related to the state vectors and the energy spectrum of a two-dimensional system of free particles are obtained in the framework of noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics (QM) supported by the Weyl-Wigner formalism. Besides reproducing the magnetic field aspect of a Zeeman-like effect, the momentum space NC parameter introduces mutual information properties quantified by the quantum purity related to the relevant coordinates of the corresponding Hilbert space. Supported by the QM in the phase-space, the thermodynamic limit is obtained, and the results are extended to three-dimensional systems. The noncommutativity imprints on the thermodynamic variables related to free particles are identified and, after introducing some suitable constraints to fix an axial symmetry, the analysis is extended to two- and- three dimensional quantum rotor systems, for which the quantization aspects and the deviation from standard QM results are verified.

    6. Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Physical theory and techniques.

      PubMed Central

      Valberg, P A; Butler, J P

      1987-01-01

      Body tissues are not ferromagnetic, but ferromagnetic particles can be present as contaminants or as probes in the lungs and in other organs. The magnetic domains of these particles can be aligned by momentary application of an external magnetic field; the magnitude and time course of the resultant remanent field depend on the quantity of magnetic material and the degree of particle motion. The interpretation of magnetometric data requires an understanding of particle magnetization, agglomeration, random motion, and both rotation and translation in response to magnetic fields. We present physical principles relevant to magnetometry and suggest models for intracellular particle motion driven by thermal, elastic, or cellular forces. The design principles of instrumentation for magnetizing intracellular particles and for detecting weak remanent magnetic fields are described. Such magnetic measurements can be used for noninvasive studies of particle clearance from the body or of particle motion within body tissues and cells. Assumptions inherent to this experimental approach and possible sources of artifact are considered and evaluated. PMID:3676435

    7. Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

      E-print Network

      contributions to the LHC experiments at CERN and the preparation of future experiments. The experimental grades · Deep interest in particle physics experiments · Teamwork, communication and presentation skills interests, curriculum vitae and copies of University degrees to the DESY human resources department. Make

    8. Application of nonextensive statistics to particle and nuclear physics

      E-print Network

      G. Wilk; Z. Wlodarczyk

      2001-08-25

      We present an overview of possible imprints of non-extensitivity in particle and nucler physics. Special emphasis is put on the intrinsic fluctuations present in the system under consideration as the possible source of nonextensivity. The possible connection of nonextensivity and the self organized criticality apparently being observed in some cosmic rays and hadronic experiments will also be discussed.

    9. Research in elementary particle physics. [Ohio State Univ. , Columbus

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1992-01-01

      Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.

    10. Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN

      E-print Network

      Wurtele, Jonathan

      Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN M.C. Fujiwaraa , G. B the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental antihydrogen atoms were first produced by the ATHENA [1] and ATRAP [2] experiments in 2002 at CERN's Antiproton

    11. My 50 years of research in particle physics

      PubMed Central

      Sugawara, Hirotaka

      2010-01-01

      Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

    12. Simulations of two-particle interactions with 2D quantum walks in time

      SciTech Connect

      Schreiber, A.; Laiho, K.; Silberhorn, C.; Rohde, P. P.; Štefa?ak, M.; Poto?ek, V.; Hamilton, C.; Jex, I.

      2014-12-04

      We present the experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a two-dimensional lattice and show how to employ the optical system to simulate the quantum propagation of two interacting particles. Our quantum walk in time transfers the spatial spread of a quantum walk into the time domain, which guarantees a high stability and scalability of the setup. We present with our device quantum walks over 12 steps on a 2D lattice. By changing the properties of the driving quantum coin, we investigate different kinds of two-particle interactions and reveal their impact on the occurring quantum propagation.

    13. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

      SciTech Connect

      Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

      1985-01-01

      This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

    14. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Matthaeus, W.

      1992-01-01

      In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

    15. Weak cosmic censorship, superradiance, and quantum particle creation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Semiz, Ibrahim; Düzta?, Koray

      2015-11-01

      Starting in 2007, a string of papers argue about if the weak cosmic censorship conjecture (WCCC) can be violated by classically forbidden interactions between particles and slightly subextremal black holes, occurring via the quantum nature of the particles; and where backreaction and/or superradiance are pointed out as effects working in the direction of preserving the WCCC. We correct/modify a backreaction argument, point out that transmission/reflection coefficients for relativistic wave equations are not the respective probabilities, and conclude that superradiance does not prevent single particles from being captured by the black hole; even if this capture would lead to WCCC violation. Then we consider the spontaneous emission (which we call the Zel'dovich-Unruh "ZU" effect) of particles by the black hole, and point out that it completely invalidates the mentioned single- or few-particle thought experiments. We find that at least for scalars, the ZU effect can be understood without second quantization; and reevaluate our previous work on scalar fields interacting with black holes in view of this new understanding, finding that it becomes inconclusive.

    16. The bondons: the quantum particles of the chemical bond.

      PubMed

      Putz, Mihai V

      2010-01-01

      By employing the combined Bohmian quantum formalism with the U(1) and SU(2) gauge transformations of the non-relativistic wave-function and the relativistic spinor, within the Schrödinger and Dirac quantum pictures of electron motions, the existence of the chemical field is revealed along the associate bondon particle B? characterized by its mass (m(B?)), velocity (v(B?)), charge (e(B?)), and life-time (t(B?)). This is quantized either in ground or excited states of the chemical bond in terms of reduced Planck constant ?, the bond energy E(bond) and length X(bond), respectively. The mass-velocity-charge-time quaternion properties of bondons' particles were used in discussing various paradigmatic types of chemical bond towards assessing their covalent, multiple bonding, metallic and ionic features. The bondonic picture was completed by discussing the relativistic charge and life-time (the actual zitterbewegung) problem, i.e., showing that the bondon equals the benchmark electronic charge through moving with almost light velocity. It carries negligible, although non-zero, mass in special bonding conditions and towards observable femtosecond life-time as the bonding length increases in the nanosystems and bonding energy decreases according with the bonding length-energy relationship Ebond[kcal/mol]×Xbond[A0]=182019, providing this way the predictive framework in which the B? particle may be observed. Finally, its role in establishing the virtual states in Raman scattering was also established. PMID:21151435

    17. The Bondons: The Quantum Particles of the Chemical Bond

      PubMed Central

      Putz, Mihai V.

      2010-01-01

      By employing the combined Bohmian quantum formalism with the U(1) and SU(2) gauge transformations of the non-relativistic wave-function and the relativistic spinor, within the Schrödinger and Dirac quantum pictures of electron motions, the existence of the chemical field is revealed along the associate bondon particle B? characterized by its mass (mB?), velocity (vB?), charge (eB?), and life-time (tB?). This is quantized either in ground or excited states of the chemical bond in terms of reduced Planck constant ?, the bond energy Ebond and length Xbond, respectively. The mass-velocity-charge-time quaternion properties of bondons’ particles were used in discussing various paradigmatic types of chemical bond towards assessing their covalent, multiple bonding, metallic and ionic features. The bondonic picture was completed by discussing the relativistic charge and life-time (the actual zitterbewegung) problem, i.e., showing that the bondon equals the benchmark electronic charge through moving with almost light velocity. It carries negligible, although non-zero, mass in special bonding conditions and towards observable femtosecond life-time as the bonding length increases in the nanosystems and bonding energy decreases according with the bonding length-energy relationship Ebond[kcal/mol]×Xbond[A0]=182019, providing this way the predictive framework in which the B? particle may be observed. Finally, its role in establishing the virtual states in Raman scattering was also established. PMID:21151435

    18. Virtual Particle Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics - a non-dualistic model of QM with a natural probability interpretation

      E-print Network

      Janne Mikael Karimäki

      2012-06-07

      An interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is presented in the spirit of Erwin Madelung's hydrodynamic formulation of QM and Louis de Broglie's and David Bohm's pilot wave models. The aims of the approach are as follows: 1) to have a clear ontology for QM, 2) to describe QM in a causal way, 3) to get rid of the wave-particle dualism in pilot wave theories, 4) to provide a theoretical framework for describing creation and annihilation of particles, and 5) to provide a possible connection between particle QM and virtual particles in QFT. These goals are achieved, if the wave function is replaced by a fluid of so called virtual particles. It is also assumed that in this fluid of virtual particles exist a few real particles and that only these real particles can be directly observed. This has relevance for the measurement problem in QM and it is found that quantum probabilities arise in a very natural way from the structure of the theory. The model presented here is very similar to a recent computational model of quantum physics and recent Bohmian models of QFT.

    19. Time and a physical Hamiltonian for quantum gravity.

      PubMed

      Husain, Viqar; Paw?owski, Tomasz

      2012-04-01

      We present a nonperturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable, leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The surprising feature is that the Hamiltonian is not a square root. This property, together with the kinematical structure of loop quantum gravity, provides a complete theory of quantum gravity, and puts applications to cosmology, quantum gravitational collapse, and Hawking radiation within technical reach. PMID:22540782

    20. Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures

      E-print Network

      Xiaofei Huang

      2013-11-01

      This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

    1. Effective Physical Processes and Active Information in Quantum Computing

      E-print Network

      Ignazio Licata

      2007-10-23

      The recent debate on hypercomputation has arisen new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of "effective physical process" as the essentially physical notion of computation. By using the Bohm and Hiley active information concept we analyze the differences between the standard form (quantum gates) and the non-standard one (adiabatic and morphogenetic) of Quantum Computing, and we point out how its Super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source in accordance with Bell's constraints. On condition that we give up the formal concept of "universality", the possibility to realize quantum oracles is reachable. In this way computation is led back to the logic of physical world.

    2. Particle detectors and the zero mode of a quantum field

      E-print Network

      Eduardo Martin-Martinez; Jorma Louko

      2014-07-10

      We study the impact of the zero-mode of a quantum field on the evolution of a particle detector. For a massless scalar field in a periodic cavity, we show that the impact of the zero mode on the Unruh-DeWitt detector and its derivative-coupling generalisation is necessarily nonvanishing but can be made negligible in some limits, including those commonly occurring in non-relativistic quantum optics. For the derivative-coupling detector this can be accomplished by just tuning the zero mode's initial state, but the standard Unruh-DeWitt detector requires a more subtle and careful tuning. Applications include an inertial detector with arbitrary velocity, where we demonstrate the regularity of the ultrarelativistic limit, and a detector with uniform acceleration.

    3. Physics 342 Final Project: Entangled Photons and Quantum Teleportation

      E-print Network

      Rosner, Jonathan L.

      Physics 342 Final Project: Entangled Photons and Quantum Teleportation Laura M. Mocanu March 10, 2011 Abstract This paper contains an overview of the concept of photon entan- glement and discusses generating EPR photon pairs and performing Bell state measurements on them. The procedure of quantum telepor

    4. Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II

      E-print Network

      Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II Instructor : Subir Sachdev, Lyman 343://isites.harvard.edu/k82620 The first class will meet on Thu Sep 1. Teaching fellow: Peter Komar, pkomar@fas.harvard.edu This is the second half of an introductory course on quantum mechanics. The course will complete the text book

    5. Harvard University Physics 143a: Quantum Mechanics I

      E-print Network

      Harvard University Physics 143a: Quantum Mechanics I Instructor : Subir Sachdev, Lyman 343, sachdev://isites.harvard.edu/k106101 The first class will meet on Tue Jan 27, 2015. Teaching fellows: Andrew Lucas and Alexandra Thomson This is the first half of a year-long introductory course on quantum mechanics. The year

    6. Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II

      E-print Network

      Harvard University Physics 143b: Quantum Mechanics II Instructor : Subir Sachdev, Lyman 343://isites.harvard.edu/k72793 The first class will meet on Thu Sep 2. Teaching fellow: David Benjamin, dbenjam@fas.harvard.edu This is the second half of an introductory course on quantum mechanics. I assume familiarity with concepts covered

    7. Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.

      PubMed

      Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping

      2016-01-01

      The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle. PMID:26520491

    8. Variance of the quantum dwell time for a nonrelativistic particle

      SciTech Connect

      Hahne, G. E.

      2013-01-15

      Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular, those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N= 1, 2, 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N= 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N= 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle's time flux and others) is derived.

    9. Particle segregation in chromaffin granule membranes by forced physical contact.

      PubMed

      Schuler, G; Plattner, H; Aberer, W; Winkler, H

      1978-11-01

      Bovine chromaffin granules were exposed to different isotonic non-ionic and ionic solutions (sucrose; Ca2+- and Mg2+-free phosphate-buffered saline; Tris-HCl + NaCl; Ca2+- and Mg2+-free phosphate-buffered saline + sucrose; Tris-HCl + sucrose) at pH 7 and then frozen either in suspension or as firm pellets. Freezing was performed without prefixation or antifreeze treatments either by 'standard' techniques (approx. 1 mm3 suspended or pelleted material on gold specimen supports dipped into liquid Freon) or with increased cooling rates by spraying suspensions into liquid propane ('spray-freezing'). Regardless of the freezing method, membrane-intercalated particles were always randomly distributed when chromaffin granules were frozen in suspension. In contrast, forced physical contact between granules produced by centrifugation (12000 X g, 25 min) provoked dispersal of membrane-intercalated particles, but only in the presence of ions. Sucrose or EDTA in an ionic environment had no inhibitory effect. The following conclusions are derived: (1) Even below the reported phase transition region particle clustering is possible. (2) Chromaffin granule membranes are not liable to thermotropic segregation of membrane-intercalated particles. (3) Although the low freezing rates of 'standard' freezing techniques produce large-scale segregation artefacts (by which suspended chromaffin granules are pushed together within the segregated solute) this does not result in intramembraneous particle segregation. (4) Forced physical contact produces a Ca2+-independent particle segregation, but only when repulsive electrostatic forces of membrane components are partially screened in an ionic environment. (5) This does not invalidate results obtained by others, showing Ca2+-mediated chromaffin granules agglomeration and segregation of membrane-intercalated particles, but it might indicate the occurrence of another, not directly Ca2+-dependent particle segregation mechanism in a prefusional stage of close membrane-to-membrane contact during exocytosis. PMID:718893

    10. Quantum dynamics of non-relativistic particles and isometric embeddings

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Saa, Alberto

      1997-02-01

      We consider, in the framework of constrained systems, the quantum dynamics of non-relativistic particles moving on a d-dimensional Riemannian manifold 0264-9381/14/2/012/img1 isometrically embedded in 0264-9381/14/2/012/img2. This generalizes recent investigations where 0264-9381/14/2/012/img1 has been assumed to be a hypersurface of 0264-9381/14/2/012/img4. We show, contrary to recent claims, that constrained systems theory does not contribute to the elimination of the ambiguities present in the canonical and path integral formulations of the problem. These discrepancies with recent works are discussed.

    11. Relativistic Quantum Field Theory with a Physical State Vector

      E-print Network

      Bernd A. Berg

      1998-08-31

      Evolution of a physical quantum state vector is described as governed by two distinct physical laws: Continuous, unitary time evolution and a relativistically covariant reduction process. In previous literature, it was concluded that a relativistically satisfactory version of the collapse postulate is in contradiction with physical measurements of a non-local state history. Here it is shown that such measurements are excluded when reduction is formulated as a physical process and the measurement devices are included as part of the state vector.

    12. Using Quantum Computers to Learn Physics

      E-print Network

      Nathan Wiebe

      2014-01-18

      Since its inception at the beginning of the twentieth century, quantum mechanics has challenged our conceptions of how the universe ought to work; however, the equations of quantum mechanics can be too computationally difficult to solve using existing computers for even modestly large systems. Here I will show that quantum computers can sometimes be used to address such problems and that quantum computer science can assign formal complexities to learning facts about nature. Hence, computer science should not only be regarded as an applied science; it is also of central importance to the foundations of science.

    13. Physical Hilbert Spaces in Quantum Gravity

      E-print Network

      Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw

      2015-01-01

      We summarize our investigation of the extent to which the choice of internal clock influences the dynamics in quantum models of gravity. Firstly, at the classical level, we define an extension to the Hamilton-Jacobi theory of contact transformations, which allows for transformations of time coordinates. Secondly, at the quantum level, we employ the extended theory to separate the quantum effects brought by the free choice of internal clock from those originating from inequivalent quantization maps. Next, we show with two examples two kinds of origin of the clock effect in quantum gravitational systems.

    14. Universality in Uncertainty Relations for a Quantum Particle

      E-print Network

      Spiros Kechrimparis; Stefan Weigert

      2015-09-07

      A general theory of preparational uncertainty relations for a quantum particle in one spatial dimension is developed. We derive conditions which determine whether a given smooth function of the particle's variances and its covariance is bounded from below. Whenever a global minimum exists, an uncertainty relation has been obtained. The squeezed number states of a harmonic oscillator are found to be universal: no other pure or mixed states will saturate any such relation. Geometrically, we identify a convex uncertainty region in the space of second moments which is bounded by the inequality derived by Robertson and Schr\\"{o}dinger. Our approach not only unifies existing uncertainty relations but also leads to new inequalities for second moments.

    15. Are quantum-mechanical-like models possible, or necessary, outside quantum physics?

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Plotnitsky, Arkady

      2014-12-01

      This article examines some experimental conditions that invite and possibly require recourse to quantum-mechanical-like mathematical models (QMLMs), models based on the key mathematical features of quantum mechanics, in scientific fields outside physics, such as biology, cognitive psychology, or economics. In particular, I consider whether the following two correlative features of quantum phenomena that were decisive for establishing the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics play similarly important roles in QMLMs elsewhere. The first is the individuality and discreteness of quantum phenomena, and the second is the irreducibly probabilistic nature of our predictions concerning them, coupled to the particular character of the probabilities involved, as different from the character of probabilities found in classical physics. I also argue that these features could be interpreted in terms of a particular form of epistemology that suspends and even precludes a causal and, in the first place, realist description of quantum objects and processes. This epistemology limits the descriptive capacity of quantum theory to the description, classical in nature, of the observed quantum phenomena manifested in measuring instruments. Quantum mechanics itself only provides descriptions, probabilistic in nature, concerning numerical data pertaining to such phenomena, without offering a physical description of quantum objects and processes. While QMLMs share their use of the quantum-mechanical or analogous mathematical formalism, they may differ by the roles, if any, the two features in question play in them and by different ways of interpreting the phenomena they considered and this formalism itself. This article will address those differences as well.

    16. Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Almasy, Andrea A.

      2009-12-01

      The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, also two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A promising result is that one can qualitatively reconstruct the conductivity inside the cross-section of a human chest. Even though the human volunteer is neither two-dimensional nor circular, such reconstructions can be useful in medical applications: monitoring for lung problems such as accumulating fluid or a collapsed lung and noninvasive monitoring of heart function and blood flow.

    17. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics. Technical progress report, [1991--1992

      SciTech Connect

      Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

      1993-01-01

      Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs.

    18. Visualization of the Invisible: The Qubit as Key to Quantum Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dür, Wolfgang; Heusler, Stefan

      2014-11-01

      Quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics, however rather difficult to teach at the introductory level due to the conceptual difficulties and the required advanced mathematics. Nevertheless, attempts to identify relevant features of quantum mechanics and to put forward concepts of how to teach it have been proposed.1-8 Here we present an approach to quantum physics based on the simplest quantum mechanical system—the quantum bit (qubit).1 Like its classical counterpart—the bit—a qubit corresponds to a two-level system, i.e., some system with a physical property that can admit two possible values. While typically a physical system has more than just one property or the property can admit more than just two values, in many situations most degrees of freedom can be considered to be fixed or frozen. Hence a variety of systems can be effectively described as a qubit. For instance, one may consider the spin of an electron or atom, with spin up and spin down as two possible values, and where other properties of the particle such as its mass or its position are fixed. Further examples include the polarization degree of freedom of a photon (horizontal and vertical polarization), two electronic degrees of freedom (i.e., two energy levels) of an atom, or the position of an atom in a double well potential (atom in left or right well). In all cases, only two states are relevant to describe the system.

    19. A guide to experimental particle physics literature, 1991-1996

      SciTech Connect

      Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B.

      1996-10-01

      We present an indexed guide to experimental particle physics literature for the years 1991 - 1996. Approximately 4200 papers are indexed by (1) Beam/Target/Momentum (2) Reaction/Momentum/Data-Descriptor (including the final state) (3) Particle/Decay (4) Accelerator/Experiment/Detector. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and references in the ID/Reference/Title index. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly-updated DATAGUIDE database from the World Wide Web.

    20. Comment on the Physics submissions to the RAE 1 The panel was generally impressed by the overall quality of the submissions

      E-print Network

      Abrahams, I. David

      , Surfaces, Liquids and Soft matter, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Particle Physics, Quantum Physics and Cosmology. (b) Observational Astronomy, both Ground and Space based (c) Experimental Particle Physics (d

    1. Refined Characterization of Student Perspectives on Quantum Physics

      E-print Network

      Charles Baily; Noah D. Finkelstein

      2011-08-30

      The perspectives of introductory classical physics students can often negatively influence how those students later interpret quantum phenomena when taking an introductory course in modern physics. A detailed exploration of student perspectives on the interpretation of quantum physics is needed, both to characterize student understanding of physics concepts, and to inform how we might teach traditional content. Our previous investigations of student perspectives on quantum physics have indicated they can be highly nuanced, and may vary both within and across contexts. In order to better understand the contextual and often seemingly contradictory stances of students on matters of interpretation, we interviewed 19 students from four introductory modern physics courses taught at the University of Colorado. We find that students have attitudes and opinions that often parallel the stances of expert physicists when arguing for their favored interpretations of quantum mechanics, allowing for more nuanced characterizations of student perspectives in terms of three key interpretive themes. We present a framework for characterizing student perspectives on quantum mechanics, and demonstrate its utility in interpreting the sometimes-contradictory nature of student responses to previous surveys. We further find that students most often vacillate in their responses when what makes intuitive sense to them is not in agreement with what they consider to be a correct response, underscoring the need to distinguish between the personal and the public perspectives of introductory modern physics students.

    2. Common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects

      E-print Network

      Jianhua wang; Kang Li; Shuming Long; Yi Yuan

      2012-01-24

      Integer and fractional quantum Hall effects were studied with different physics models and explained by different physical mechanisms. In this paper, the common physical mechanism for integer and fractional quantum Hall effects is studied, where a new unified formulation of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect is presented. Firstly, we introduce a 2-dimensional ideal electron gas model in the presence of strong magnetic field with symmetry gauge, and the transverse electric filed $\\varepsilon_2$ is also introduced to balance Lorentz force. Secondly, the Pauli equation is solved where the wave function and energy levels is given explicitly. Thirdly, after the calculation of the degeneracy density for 2-dimensional ideal electron gas system, the Hall resistance of the system is obtained, where the quantum Hall number $\

    3. Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues

      2015-10-01

      One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction of quantum physics, we identify two epistemological positions with respect to this problem: The first one (close to the so-called Copenhagen school) is termed the conservative position and the second one (associated with the work of Bunge and Lévy-Leblond) the innovative position. We then analyze French textbooks used by teachers, in order to reveal the implicit positions adopted. We conclude with the idea that highlighting these epistemological choices can help teachers reflect upon the historical and epistemological roots of quantum physics. Such an analysis can contribute to developing and implementing appropriate teaching sequences for quantum physics. We explore the application of these epistemological positions to Young's paradigmatic experiment using the double slits.

    4. Towards the European strategy for particle physics: the Briefing Book

      E-print Network

      T. Akesson; R. Aleksan; B. Allanach; S. Bertolucci; A. Blondel; J. Butterworth; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cervera; S. Davidson; M. de Naurois; K. Desch; U. Egede; N. Glover; R. Heuer; A. Hoecker; P. Huber; K. Jungmann; R. Landua; J-M. Le Goff; F. Linde; A. Lombardi; M. Mangano; M. Mezzetto; G. Onderwater; N. Palanque-Delabrouille; K. Peach; A. Polosa; E. Rondio; B. Webber; G. Weiglein; J. Womersley; K. Wurr

      2006-09-20

      This document was prepared as part of the briefing material for the Workshop of the CERN Council Strategy Group, held in DESY Zeuthen from 2nd to 6th May 2006. It gives an overview of the physics issues and of the technological challenges that will shape the future of the field, and incorporates material presented and discussed during the Symposium on the European Strategy for Particle Physics, held in Orsay from 30th January to 2nd February 2006, reflecting the various opinions of the European community as recorded in written submissions to the Strategy Group and in the discussions at the Symposium.

    5. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

      SciTech Connect

      Lam, N.Q.

      1989-12-01

      The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

    6. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

      SciTech Connect

      Nefkens, B.M.K.

      1983-11-01

      The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

    7. Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken

      2013-04-01

      Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

    8. Making the Transition from Classical to Quantum Physics

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dutt, Amit

      2011-01-01

      This paper reports on the nature of the conceptual understandings developed by Year 12 Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics students as they made the transition from the essentially deterministic notions of classical physics, to interpretations characteristic of quantum theory. The research findings revealed the fact that the…

    9. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Comprehension of Quantum Mechanical Concepts

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Didis, Nilufer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoc, Sakir

      2010-01-01

      When quantum theory caused a paradigm shift in physics, it introduced difficulties in both learning and teaching of physics. Because of its abstract, counter-intuitive and mathematical structure, students have difficulty in learning this theory, and instructors have difficulty in teaching the concepts of the theory. This case study investigates…

    10. N-Particle Problem in Quantum Field Theory and the Functional Legendre Transforms

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pis'mak, Yu. M.

      The Bethe-Salpeter equations for the n-particle irreducible Green functions in quantum field theory are derived. Their kernels are expressed in terms of the functional Legendre transforms, and n-particle irreducibility of the perturbation theory graphs for the kernel of the n-particle equation is proved. The method for obtaining the Faddeev-Yakubovski equations in quantum field theory is demonstrated for the three-particle case.

    11. On Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship, Its Extension, and the Quantum Issue of Wave-Particle Duality

      PubMed Central

      Putz, Mihai V.

      2010-01-01

      Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wave-to-particle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particle-wave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor 1-n2, in terms of magnitude n?[0,1]. of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact wave-particle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particle-to-wave ratio as well as of the free-evolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function. PMID:21152325

    12. On Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship, its extension, and the quantum issue of wave-particle duality.

      PubMed

      Putz, Mihai V

      2010-01-01

      Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR) is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wave-to-particle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particle-wave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor 1-n2, in terms of magnitude n?[0,1]. of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact wave-particle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particle-to-wave ratio as well as of the free-evolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function. PMID:21152325

    13. Particle physics catalysis of thermal Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

      E-print Network

      Maxim Pospelov

      2007-03-15

      We point out that the existence of metastable, tau > 10^3 s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X^-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during BBN. In particular, we show that the bound states of X^- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10^8K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of Li6 production, which is eight orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X^- does not lead to large non-thermal BBN effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X^-, particles (\\tau>10^5 s) relative to entropy of n_{X^-}/s < 3\\times 10^{-17}, which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date.

    14. Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.

      PubMed

      Pospelov, Maxim

      2007-06-01

      We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X- does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X- particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX-/s less, approximately <3x10(-17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date. PMID:17677895

    15. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

      SciTech Connect

      Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

      1983-03-01

      Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

    16. Particle physics at the turn of the century

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kalmus, P. I. P.

      2000-03-01

      Aspects of particle physics are reviewed from an experimental viewpoint. The elementary constituents of the Universe are described, as are the fundamental forces through which they interact. Recent results are emphasized and there is some speculation about the future. No attempt has been made to give a complete bibliography, but a few references to recent reviews and original articles are given. A glossary of acronyms is included.

    17. The algebraic hyperstructure of elementary particles in physical theory

      E-print Network

      Akbar Dehghan Nezhad; Mehdi Nadjafikhah; Seyed Mohammad Moosavi Nejad

      2010-08-04

      Algebraic hyperstructures represent a natural extension of classical algebraic structures. In a classical algebraic structure, the composition of two elements is an element, while in an algebraic hyperstructure, the composition of two elements is a set. Algebraic hyperstructure theory has a multiplicity of applications to other disciplines. The main purpose of this paper is to provide examples of hyperstructures associated with elementary particles in physical theory.

    18. Nuclear and particle physics aspects of hyperon and antinucleon interactions

      SciTech Connect

      Dover, C.B.

      1984-01-01

      A discussion is given of hyperon (Y) and antinucleon (anti N) interactions with nucleons and nuclei, emphasizing some of the future prospects for nuclear structure and elementary particle physics studies at LEAR or a future kaon factory. The topics addressed include: (1) production and decay of strange dibaryons; (2) spectroscopy of strangeness S = -2 many body systems; (3) N anti N annihilation mechanisms; and (4) inelastic anti N-nucleus scattering and spin-flip excitations in nuclei. 36 references.

    19. Degeneracies of particle and nuclear physics uncertainties in neutrinoless ? ? decay

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lisi, E.; Rotunno, A. M.; Šimkovic, F.

      2015-11-01

      Theoretical estimates for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ? ? ? ) in candidate nuclei are affected by both particle and nuclear physics uncertainties, which may complicate the interpretation of decay signals or limits. We study such uncertainties and their degeneracies in the following context: three 0 ? ? ? nuclei of great interest for large-scale experiments (Ge 76 , Te 130 , Xe 136 ), two representative particle physics mechanisms (light and heavy Majorana neutrino exchange), and a large set of nuclear matrix elements (NME), computed within the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). It turns out that the main theoretical uncertainties, associated with the effective axial coupling gA and with the nucleon-nucleon potential, can be parametrized in terms of NME rescaling factors, up to small residuals. From this parametrization, the following QRPA features emerge: (1) the NME dependence on gA is milder than quadratic, (2) in each of the two mechanisms, the relevant lepton number violating parameter is largely degenerate with the NME rescaling factors, and (3) the light and heavy neutrino exchange mechanisms are basically degenerate in the above three nuclei. We comment on the challenging theoretical and experimental improvements required to reduce such particle and nuclear physics uncertainties and their degeneracies.

    20. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics

      SciTech Connect

      Evans, Harold G; Kostelecky, V Alan; Musser, James A

      2013-07-29

      The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.

    1. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

      SciTech Connect

      Geesaman, D.F.

      1993-11-01

      This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

    2. 2T Physics and Quantum Mechanics

      E-print Network

      W. Chagas-Filho

      2008-02-20

      We use a local scale invariance of a classical Hamiltonian and describe how to construct six different formulations of quantum mechanics in spaces with two time-like dimensions. All these six formulations have the same classical limit described by the same Hamiltonian. One of these formulations is used as a basis for a complementation of the usual quantum mechanics when in the presence of gravity.

    3. The neutron and its role in cosmology and particle physics

      SciTech Connect

      Dubbers, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael G.

      2011-10-01

      Experiments with cold and ultracold neutrons have reached a level of precision such that problems far beyond the scale of the present standard model of particle physics become accessible to experimental investigation. Because of the close links between particle physics and cosmology, these studies also permit a deep look into the very first instances of our Universe. First addressed in this article, in both theory and experiment, is the problem of baryogenesis, the mechanism behind the evident dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The question of how baryogenesis could have happened is open to experimental tests, and it turns out that this problem can be curbed by the very stringent limits on an electric dipole moment of the neutron, a quantity that also has deep implications for particle physics. Then the recent spectacular observation of neutron quantization in the Earth's gravitational field and of resonance transitions between such gravitational energy states is discussed. These measurements, together with new evaluations of neutron scattering data, set new constraints on deviations from Newton's gravitational law at the picometer scale. Such deviations are predicted in modern theories with extra dimensions that propose unification of the Planck scale with the scale of the standard model. These experiments start closing the remaining ''axion window'' on new spin-dependent forces in the submillimeter range. Another main topic is the weak-interaction parameters in various fields of physics and astrophysics that must all be derived from measured neutron-decay data. Up until now, about 10 different neutron-decay observables have been measured, much more than needed in the electroweak standard model. This allows various precise tests for new physics beyond the standard model, competing with or surpassing similar tests at high energy. The review ends with a discussion of neutron and nuclear data required in the synthesis of the elements during the ''first three minutes'' and later on in stellar nucleosynthesis.

    4. Physical Theories, Eternal Inflation, and Quantum Universe

      E-print Network

      Yasunori Nomura

      2011-04-27

      We present a framework in which well-defined predictions are obtained in an eternally inflating multiverse, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. We show that the entire multiverse is described purely from the viewpoint of a single "observer," who describes the world as a quantum state defined on his/her past light cones bounded by the (stretched) apparent horizons. We find that quantum mechanics plays an essential role in regulating infinities. The framework is "gauge invariant," i.e. predictions do not depend on how spacetime is parametrized, as it should be in a theory of quantum gravity. Our framework provides a fully unified treatment of quantum measurement processes and the multiverse. We conclude that the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics are the same. Other important implications include: global spacetime can be viewed as a derived concept; the multiverse is a transient phenomenon during the world relaxing into a supersymmetric Minkowski state. We also present a theory of "initial conditions" for the multiverse. By extrapolating our framework to the extreme, we arrive at a picture that the entire multiverse is a fluctuation in the stationary, fractal "mega-multiverse," in which an infinite sequence of multiverse productions occurs. The framework discussed here does not suffer from problems/paradoxes plaguing other measures proposed earlier, such as the youngness paradox, the Boltzmann brain problem, and a peculiar "end" of time.

    5. Physics 581 20 January 2010

      E-print Network

      Goldbart, Paul M.

      and fermions: N-particle Hilbert space; creation and annihilation operators; review of harmonic oscillatorPhysics 581 Handout 3 20 January 2010 Quantum Mechanics II webusers of light by charged particles; Raman scattering; Relativistic quantum mechanics: review of special

    6. The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation David P. DiVincenzo

      E-print Network

      Braunstein, Samuel L.

      The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation David P. DiVincenzo IBM T. J. Watson Research of quantum information processing, the require- ments for the physical implementation of quantum computation quantum computing. 1. Introduction The advent of quantum information processing, as an abstract concept

    7. Two-particle quantum walks applied to the graph isomorphism problem

      E-print Network

      Gamble, John King; Zhou, Dong; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S N

      2010-01-01

      We show that the quantum dynamics of interacting and noninteracting quantum particles are fundamentally different in the context of solving a particular computational problem. Specifically, we consider the graph isomorphism problem, in which one wishes to determine whether two graphs are isomorphic (related to each other by a relabeling of the graph vertices), and focus on a class of graphs with particularly high symmetry called strongly regular graphs (SRG's). We study the Green's functions that characterize the dynamical evolution single-particle and two-particle quantum walks on pairs of non-isomorphic SRG's and show that interacting particles can distinguish non-isomorphic graphs that noninteracting particles cannot. We obtain the following specific results: (1) We prove that quantum walks of two noninteracting particles, Fermions or Bosons, cannot distinguish certain pairs of non-isomorphic SRG's. (2) We demonstrate numerically that two interacting Bosons are more powerful than single particles and two n...

    8. Life at the interface of particle physics and string theory

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Schellekens, A. N.

      2013-10-01

      If the results of the first LHC run are not betraying us, many decades of particle physics are culminating in a complete and consistent theory for all nongravitational physics: the standard model. But despite this monumental achievement there is a clear sense of disappointment: many questions remain unanswered. Remarkably, most unanswered questions could just be environmental, and disturbingly to some the existence of life may depend on that environment. Meanwhile there has been increasing evidence that the seemingly ideal candidate for answering these questions, string theory, gives an answer few people initially expected: a large “landscape” of possibilities that can be realized in a multiverse and populated by eternal inflation. At the interface of “bottom-up” and “top-down” physics, a discussion of anthropic arguments becomes unavoidable. Developments in this area are reviewed, focusing especially on the last decade.

    9. Physical interactions of charged particles for radiotherapy and space applications.

      PubMed

      Zeitlin, Cary

      2012-11-01

      In this paper, the basic physics by which energetic charged particles deposit energy in matter is reviewed. Energetic charged particles are used for radiotherapy and are encountered in spaceflight, where they pose a health risk to astronauts. They interact with matter through nuclear and electromagnetic forces. Deposition of energy occurs mostly along the trajectory of the incoming particle, but depending on the type of incident particle and its energy, there is some nonzero probability for energy deposition relatively far from the nominal trajectory, either due to long-ranged knock-on electrons (sometimes called delta rays) or from the products of nuclear fragmentation, including neutrons. In the therapy setting, dose localization is of paramount importance, and the deposition of energy outside nominal treatment volumes complicates planning and increases the risk of secondary cancers as well as noncancer effects in normal tissue. Statistical effects are also important and will be discussed. In contrast to radiation therapy patients, astronauts in space receive comparatively small whole-body radiation doses from energetic charged particles and associated secondary radiation. A unique aspect of space radiation exposures is the high-energy heavy-ion component of the dose. This is not present in terrestrial exposures except in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Designers of space missions must limit exposures to keep risk within acceptable limits. These limits are, at present, defined for low-Earth orbit, but not for deep-space missions outside the geomagnetosphere. Most of the uncertainty in risk assessment for such missions comes from the lack of understanding of the biological effectiveness of the heavy-ion component, with a smaller component due to uncertainties in transport physics and dosimetry. These same uncertainties are also critical in the therapy setting. PMID:23032883

    10. String theory, the crisis in particle physics and the ascent of metaphoric arguments

      E-print Network

      Bert Schroer

      2009-02-26

      This essay presents a critical evaluation of the concepts of string theory and its impact on particle physics. The point of departure is a historical review of four decades of string theory within the broader context of six decades of failed attempts at an autonomous S-matrix approach to particle theory. The central message, contained in sections 5 and 6, is that string theory is not what its name suggests, namely a theory of of objects in spacetime whose localization is string- instead of point-like. Contrary to popular opinion the oscillators corresponding to the Fourier models of a quantum mechanical string do not cause a stringlike spatial extension of the object under discussion and neither does the "range space" of a chiral conformal QFT acquire the interpretation of string-like localized quantum matter. Rather the superstring represents a solution of a problem which enjoyed some popularity in the 60s: the construction of infinite component wave function with a (realistic) mass/spin spectrum. The mass/spin tower "sits" over one point and does not arise from a string in spacetime. The widespread acceptance of a theory whose interpretation has been based on metaphoric reasoning had a corroding influence on particle theory, a point which will be illustrated in the last section with some remarks of a more sociological nature.

    11. The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics.

      PubMed

      Briggs, G A D; Butterfield, J N; Zeilinger, A

      2013-09-01

      The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics-relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

    12. The Oxford Questions on the foundations of quantum physics

      PubMed Central

      Briggs, G. A. D.; Butterfield, J. N.; Zeilinger, A.

      2013-01-01

      The twentieth century saw two fundamental revolutions in physics—relativity and quantum. Daily use of these theories can numb the sense of wonder at their immense empirical success. Does their instrumental effectiveness stand on the rock of secure concepts or the sand of unresolved fundamentals? Does measuring a quantum system probe, or even create, reality or merely change belief? Must relativity and quantum theory just coexist or might we find a new theory which unifies the two? To bring such questions into sharper focus, we convened a conference on Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality. Some issues remain as controversial as ever, but some are being nudged by theory's secret weapon of experiment. PMID:24062626

    13. Spectral Analysis of Quantum Field Models with a Particle Number Cuto (?)

      E-print Network

      Spectral Analysis of Quantum Field Models with a Particle Number Cuto#11; (?) Vladimir Georgescu for a class of boson quantum #12;eld models with cuto#11;s. Our main purpose, however, is to show the power k and the particle number operator can be decomposed as NN = P N k=0 kp k . Then p k 2 AN and we

    14. Spin-momentum correlation in relativistic single particle quantum states

      E-print Network

      M. A. Jafarizadeha; M. Mahdian

      2010-08-04

      This paper was concerned with the spin-momentum correlation in single-particle quantum states, which is described by the mixed states under Lorentz transformations. For convenience, instead of using the superposition of momenta we use only two momentum eigen states (p1 and p2) that are perpendicular to the Lorentz boost direction. Consequently, in 2D momentum subspace we show that the entanglement of spin-momentum in the moving frame depends on the angle between them. Therefore, when spin and momentum are perpendicular the measure of entanglement is not observer-dependent quantity in inertial frame. Likewise, we have calculated the measure of entanglement (by using the concurrence) and has shown that entanglement decreases with respect to the increasing of observer velocity. Finally, we argue that, Wigner rotation is induced by Lorentz transformations can be realized as controlling operator.

    15. Particle density and transition temperature of weakly interacting quantum gases

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bala, Renu; Srivastava, Sunita; Pathak, Kare Narain

      2015-10-01

      An expression for single particle density of weakly interacting trapped quantum gases has been obtained for Fermi gas at all temperatures and for Bose gas above the transition temperature ( T c ). This expression has been used to study the effect of interaction on density of harmonically trapped Bose gas. It is found that interaction has a large effect on the density at centre of the trap as observed experimentally. The same expression for density is also used to obtain the transition temperature of homogeneous Bose gas. Experimental results for T c has been re-analysed on the basis of perturbative and non-perturbative theories. It is found that both the theories fit experimental data equally well in low-density regimes.

    16. Non-extensive quantum statistics with particle-hole symmetry

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Biró, T. S.; Shen, K. M.; Zhang, B. W.

      2015-06-01

      Based on Tsallis entropy (1988) and the corresponding deformed exponential function, generalized distribution functions for bosons and fermions have been used since a while Teweldeberhan et al. (2003) and Silva et al. (2010). However, aiming at a non-extensive quantum statistics further requirements arise from the symmetric handling of particles and holes (excitations above and below the Fermi level). Naive replacements of the exponential function or "cut and paste" solutions fail to satisfy this symmetry and to be smooth at the Fermi level at the same time. We solve this problem by a general ansatz dividing the deformed exponential to odd and even terms and demonstrate that how earlier suggestions, like the ?- and q-exponential behave in this respect.

    17. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

      2008-01-01

      Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

    18. Research in particle physics. Progress report, June 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1992-09-01

      Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron{endash}positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the ``electrostatic muon kicker``; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

    19. Parallelization and Scheduling of Data Intensive Particle Physics Analysis Jobs on Clusters of PCs

      E-print Network

      Hersch, Roger D.

      Parallelization and Scheduling of Data Intensive Particle Physics Analysis Jobs on Clusters of PCs for parallelizing data intensive particle physics analysis applications on com- puter clusters. Particle physics and reduce job processing times. Compared with straightforward job scheduling on a pro- cessing farm, cache

    20. Chengdu 10/18/2006 Theory of Alfvn waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas

      E-print Network

      Chengdu 10/18/2006 Theory of Alfvén waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas 1 IAEA FEC 2006 Liu Chen Theory of Alfvén waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas* 21.st IAEA and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas 2 IAEA FEC 2006 Liu Chen Outlines (I) Introduction (II) Linear

    1. Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

      SciTech Connect

      Aprile, E.; Doke, T.

      2010-07-15

      This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

    2. Liquid Xenon Detectors for Particle Physics and Astrophysics

      E-print Network

      E. Aprile; T. Doke

      2009-10-26

      This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics and medical imaging experiments. We begin with a summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information. After a brief introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, we continue with a review of past, current and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine. We will introduce each application with a brief survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements, before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From experiments like MEG, currently the largest liquid xenon scintillation detector in operation, dedicated to the rare mu -> e + gamma decay, to the future XMASS which also exploits only liquid xenon scintillation to address an ambitious program of rare event searches, to the class of time projection chambers like XENON and EXO which exploit both scintillation and ionization of liquid xenon for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay, respectively, we anticipate unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years.

    3. IViPP: A Tool for Visualization in Particle Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Tran, Hieu; Skiba, Elizabeth; Baldwin, Doug

      2011-10-01

      Experiments and simulations in physics generate a lot of data; visualization is helpful to prepare that data for analysis. IViPP (Interactive Visualizations in Particle Physics) is an interactive computer program that visualizes results of particle physics simulations or experiments. IViPP can handle data from different simulators, such as SRIM or MCNP. It can display relevant geometry and measured scalar data; it can do simple selection from the visualized data. In order to be an effective visualization tool, IViPP must have a software architecture that can flexibly adapt to new data sources and display styles. It must be able to display complicated geometry and measured data with a high dynamic range. We therefore organize it in a highly modular structure, we develop libraries to describe geometry algorithmically, use rendering algorithms running on the powerful GPU to display 3-D geometry at interactive rates, and we represent scalar values in a visual form of scientific notation that shows both mantissa and exponent. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), with special thanks to Craig Sangster at LLE.

    4. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report

      SciTech Connect

      Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.

      1995-12-01

      This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s high-resolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.

    5. On the physics of semiconductor quantum dots for applications in lasers and quantum optics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chow, Weng W.; Jahnke, Frank

      2013-05-01

      The progression of carrier confinement from quantum wells to quantum dots has received considerable interests because of the potential to improve the semiconductor laser performance at the underlying physics level and to explore quantum optical phenomena in semiconductors. Associated with the transition from quantum wells to quantum dots is a switch from a solid-state-like quasi-continuous density of states to an atom-like system with discrete states. As discussed in this paper, the transition changes the role of the carrier interaction processes that directly influence optical properties. Our goals in this review are two-fold. One is to identify and describe the physics that allows new applications and determines intrinsic limitations for applications in light emitters. We will analyze the use of quantum dots in conventional laser devices and in microcavity emitters, where cavity quantum electrodynamics can alter spontaneous emission and generate nonclassical light for applications in quantum information technologies. A second goal is to promote a new connection between physics and technology. This paper demonstrates how a first-principles theory may be applied to guide important technological decisions by predicting the performances of various active materials under a broad set of experimental conditions.

    6. Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Sime, Ruth Lewin

      2013-03-01

      During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

    7. Using Quantum Coherence to Enhance Gain in Atomic Physics

      E-print Network

      Pankaj K. Jha

      2013-03-08

      Quantum coherence and interference effects in atomic and molecular physics has been extensively studied due to intriguing counterintuitive physics and potential important applications. Here we present one such application of using quantum coherence to generate and enhance gain in extreme ultra-violet(XUV)(@58.4nm in Helium) and infra-red(@794.76nm in Rubidium) regime of electromagnetic radiation. We show that using moderate external coherent drive, a substantial enhancement in the energy of the lasing pulse can be achieved under optimal conditions. We also discuss the role of coherence. The present paper is intended to be pedagogical on this subject of coherence-enhanced lasing.

    8. Quantum Mechanics for Beginning Physics Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Schneider, Mark B.

      2010-01-01

      The past two decades of attention to introductory physics education has emphasized enhanced development of conceptual understanding to accompany calculational ability. Given this, it is surprising that current texts continue to rely on the Bohr model to develop a flawed intuition, and introduce correct atomic physics on an ad hoc basis. For…

    9. An elementary approach to quantum gravity based on a flux model of a physical vacuum

      E-print Network

      C. L. Herzenberg

      2001-06-20

      Interactions with ordinary matter of a flux of high-speed uncharged dark matter particles pervasively present in space are examined. In this model, we find that the property of matter that we designate as mass becomes a measure of the interaction cross section of ordinary matter with the flux of dark matter. From this model emerge both a flux-mediated attractive inverse-square force between particles of ordinary matter as well as a characteristic nondeterministic behavior of ordinary matter that originates from statistical variations in the flux. The occurrence of effects similar to gravitational phenomena and effects similar to quantum phenomena in this model may enable a straightforward examination of the convergence of gravitational physics and quantum mechanics.

    10. Computational particle physics for event generators and data analysis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Perret-Gallix, Denis

      2013-08-01

      High-energy physics data analysis relies heavily on the comparison between experimental and simulated data as stressed lately by the Higgs search at LHC and the recent identification of a Higgs-like new boson. The first link in the full simulation chain is the event generation both for background and for expected signals. Nowadays event generators are based on the automatic computation of matrix element or amplitude for each process of interest. Moreover, recent analysis techniques based on the matrix element likelihood method assign probabilities for every event to belong to any of a given set of possible processes. This method originally used for the top mass measurement, although computing intensive, has shown its efficiency at LHC to extract the new boson signal from the background. Serving both needs, the automatic calculation of matrix element is therefore more than ever of prime importance for particle physics. Initiated in the 80's, the techniques have matured for the lowest order calculations (tree-level), but become complex and CPU time consuming when higher order calculations involving loop diagrams are necessary like for QCD processes at LHC. New calculation techniques for next-to-leading order (NLO) have surfaced making possible the generation of processes with many final state particles (up to 6). If NLO calculations are in many cases under control, although not yet fully automatic, even higher precision calculations involving processes at 2-loops or more remain a big challenge. After a short introduction to particle physics and to the related theoretical framework, we will review some of the computing techniques that have been developed to make these calculations automatic. The main available packages and some of the most important applications for simulation and data analysis, in particular at LHC will also be summarized (see CCP2012 slides [1]).

    11. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

      SciTech Connect

      Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

      1993-09-01

      The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

    12. Model of cosmology and particle physics at an intermediate scale

      SciTech Connect

      Bastero-Gil, M.; Di Clemente, V.; King, S. F.

      2005-05-15

      We propose a model of cosmology and particle physics in which all relevant scales arise in a natural way from an intermediate string scale. We are led to assign the string scale to the intermediate scale M{sub *}{approx}10{sup 13} GeV by four independent pieces of physics: electroweak symmetry breaking; the {mu} parameter; the axion scale; and the neutrino mass scale. The model involves hybrid inflation with the waterfall field N being responsible for generating the {mu} term, the right-handed neutrino mass scale, and the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale. The large scale structure of the Universe is generated by the lightest right-handed sneutrino playing the role of a coupled curvaton. We show that the correct curvature perturbations may be successfully generated providing the lightest right-handed neutrino is weakly coupled in the seesaw mechanism, consistent with sequential dominance.

    13. Synthesis of quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics

      SciTech Connect

      Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

      1980-08-01

      The asymptotic freedom behavior of quantum chromodynamics allows the rigorous calculation of hadronic and nuclear amplitudes at short distances by perturbative methods. The implications of QCD for large-momentum-transfer nuclear form factors and scattering processes, as well as for the structure of nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions at short distances, are discussed. The necessity for color-polarized internal nuclear states is also discussed. 6 figures.

    14. Young's double-slit interference for quantum particles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ozer, Zehra Nur; Chaluvadi, Hari; Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut; Aktas, Bekir; Madison, Don

      2013-04-01

      For the last 50 years, there has been considerable interest in the possibility of observing the equivalence of a Young's double-slit wave interference at the quantum level for diatomic molecules. For electron-impact ionization of diatomic molecules, indirect evidence for this type of interference has been found by changing the energy (wavelength) of the ejected electron while keeping the incident projectile scattering angle fixed. The present work represents an experimental and theoretical collaboration to better understand the physics of this type of interference. In addition to examining the effect of changing the ejected electron energy for a fixed scattered projectile angle, we have also examined the effect of keeping the ejected electron energy fixed while varying the projectile scattering angle. Model calculations are performed for three different types of possible two-center interference effects, and it is found that the most important one is diffraction of the projectile off two scattering centers.

    15. Two-particle quantum walks applied to the graph isomorphism problem

      SciTech Connect

      Gamble, John King; Friesen, Mark; Zhou Dong; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.

      2010-05-15

      We show that the quantum dynamics of interacting and noninteracting quantum particles are fundamentally different in the context of solving a particular computational problem. Specifically, we consider the graph isomorphism problem, in which one wishes to determine whether two graphs are isomorphic (related to each other by a relabeling of the graph vertices), and focus on a class of graphs with particularly high symmetry called strongly regular graphs (SRGs). We study the Green's functions that characterize the dynamical evolution single-particle and two-particle quantum walks on pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs and show that interacting particles can distinguish nonisomorphic graphs that noninteracting particles cannot. We obtain the following specific results. (1) We prove that quantum walks of two noninteracting particles, fermions or bosons, cannot distinguish certain pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs. (2) We demonstrate numerically that two interacting bosons are more powerful than single particles and two noninteracting particles, in that quantum walks of interacting bosons distinguish all nonisomorphic pairs of SRGs that we examined. By utilizing high-throughput computing to perform over 500 million direct comparisons between evolution operators, we checked all tabulated pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs, including graphs with up to 64 vertices. (3) By performing a short-time expansion of the evolution operator, we derive distinguishing operators that provide analytic insight into the power of the interacting two-particle quantum walk.

    16. Two-particle quantum walks applied to the graph isomorphism problem

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gamble, John King; Friesen, Mark; Zhou, Dong; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.

      2010-05-01

      We show that the quantum dynamics of interacting and noninteracting quantum particles are fundamentally different in the context of solving a particular computational problem. Specifically, we consider the graph isomorphism problem, in which one wishes to determine whether two graphs are isomorphic (related to each other by a relabeling of the graph vertices), and focus on a class of graphs with particularly high symmetry called strongly regular graphs (SRGs). We study the Green’s functions that characterize the dynamical evolution single-particle and two-particle quantum walks on pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs and show that interacting particles can distinguish nonisomorphic graphs that noninteracting particles cannot. We obtain the following specific results. (1) We prove that quantum walks of two noninteracting particles, fermions or bosons, cannot distinguish certain pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs. (2) We demonstrate numerically that two interacting bosons are more powerful than single particles and two noninteracting particles, in that quantum walks of interacting bosons distinguish all nonisomorphic pairs of SRGs that we examined. By utilizing high-throughput computing to perform over 500 million direct comparisons between evolution operators, we checked all tabulated pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs, including graphs with up to 64 vertices. (3) By performing a short-time expansion of the evolution operator, we derive distinguishing operators that provide analytic insight into the power of the interacting two-particle quantum walk.

    17. Two-particle quantum walks applied to the graph isomorphism problem

      E-print Network

      John King Gamble; Mark Friesen; Dong Zhou; Robert Joynt; S. N. Coppersmith

      2010-02-16

      We show that the quantum dynamics of interacting and noninteracting quantum particles are fundamentally different in the context of solving a particular computational problem. Specifically, we consider the graph isomorphism problem, in which one wishes to determine whether two graphs are isomorphic (related to each other by a relabeling of the graph vertices), and focus on a class of graphs with particularly high symmetry called strongly regular graphs (SRG's). We study the Green's functions that characterize the dynamical evolution single-particle and two-particle quantum walks on pairs of non-isomorphic SRG's and show that interacting particles can distinguish non-isomorphic graphs that noninteracting particles cannot. We obtain the following specific results: (1) We prove that quantum walks of two noninteracting particles, Fermions or Bosons, cannot distinguish certain pairs of non-isomorphic SRG's. (2) We demonstrate numerically that two interacting Bosons are more powerful than single particles and two noninteracting particles, in that quantum walks of interacting bosons distinguish all non-isomorphic pairs of SRGs that we examined. By utilizing high-throughput computing to perform over 500 million direct comparisons between evolution operators, we checked all tabulated pairs of non-isomorphic SRGs, including graphs with up to 64 vertices. (3) By performing a short-time expansion of the evolution operator, we derive distinguishing operators that provide analytic insight into the power of the interacting two-particle quantum walk.

    18. Molecular Rotation Signals: Molecule Chemistry and Particle Physics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Grabow, Jens-Uwe

      2015-06-01

      Molecules - large or small - are attractive academic resources, with numerous questions on their chemical behaviour as well as problems in fundamental physics now (or still) waiting to be answered: Targeted by high-resolution spectroscopy, a rotating molecular top can turn into a laboratory for molecule chemistry or a laboratory for particle physics. Once successfully entrained (many species - depending on size and chemical composition - have insufficient vapour pressures or are of transient nature, such that specifically designed pulsed-jet sources are required for their transfer into the gas phase or in-situ generation) into the collision-free environment of a supersonic-jet expansion, each molecular top comes with its own set of challenges, theoretically and experimentally: Multiple internal interactions are causing complicated energy level schemes and the resulting spectra will be rather difficult to predict theoretically. Experimentally, these spectra are difficult to assess and assign. With today's broad-banded chirp microwave techniques, finding and identifying such spectral features have lost their major drawback of being very time consuming for many molecules. For other molecules, the unrivalled resolution and sensitivity of the narrow-banded impulse microwave techniques provide a window to tackle - at the highest precision available to date - fundamental questions in physics, even particle physics - potentially beyond the standard model. Molecular charge distribution, properties of the chemical bond, details on internal dynamics and intermolecular interaction, the (stereo-chemical) molecular structure (including the possibility of their spatial separation) as well as potential evidence for tiny yet significant interactions encode their signature in pure molecular rotation subjected to time-domain microwave spectroscopic techniques. Ongoing exciting technical developments promise rapid progress. We present recent examples from Hannover, new directions, and an outlook at the future of molecular rotation spectroscopy.

    19. A Simple Introduction to Particle Physics Part II

      E-print Network

      Matthew B. Robinson; Tibra Ali; Gerald B. Cleaver

      2009-08-10

      This is the second in a series of papers intended to provide a basic overview of some of the major ideas in particle physics. Part I [arXiv:0810.3328] was primarily an algebraic exposition of gauge theories. We developed the group theoretic tools needed to understand the basic construction of gauge theory, as well as the physical concepts and tools to understand the structure of the Standard Model of Particle Physics as a gauge theory. In this paper (and the paper to follow), we continue our emphasis on gauge theories, but we do so with a more geometrical approach. We will conclude this paper with a brief discussion of general relativity, and save more advanced topics (including fibre bundles, characteristic classes, etc.) for the next paper in the series. We wish to reiterate that these notes are not intended to be a comprehensive introduction to any of the ideas contained in them. Their purpose is to introduce the "forest" rather than the "trees". The primary emphasis is on the algebraic/geometric/mathematical underpinnings rather than the calculational/phenomenological details. The topics were chosen according to the authors' preferences and agenda. These notes are intended for a student who has completed the standard undergraduate physics and mathematics courses, as well as the material contained in the first paper in this series. Having studied the material in the "Further Reading" sections of would be ideal, but the material in this series of papers is intended to be self-contained, and familiarity with the first paper will suffice.

    20. Understanding Probabilistic Interpretations of Physical Systems: A Prerequisite to Learning Quantum Physics.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.

      2002-01-01

      Explains the critical role of probability in making sense of quantum physics and addresses the difficulties science and engineering undergraduates experience in helping students build a model of how to think about probability in physical systems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)


    M. Asorey (Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain)