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Sample records for particle physics

  1. Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Necia Grant; West, Geoffrey B.

    1988-06-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Scale and dimension - From animals to quarks Geoffrey B. West; 2. Particle physics and the standard model Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky and Geoffrey B. West; QCD on a Cray: the masses of elementary particles Gerald Guralnik, Tony Warnock and Charles Zemach; Lecture Notes - From simple field theories to the standard model; 3. Toward a unified theory: an essay on the role of supergravity in the search for unification Richard C. Slansky; 4. Supersymmetry at 100 GeV Stuart Raby; 5. The family problem T. Goldman and Michael Martin Nieto; Part II. Experimental Developments: 6. Experiments to test unification schemes Gary H. Sanders; 7. The march toward higher energies S. Peter Rosen; LAMPF II and the High-Intensity Frontier Henry A. Thiessen; The SSC - An engineering challenge Mahlon T. Wilson; 8. Science underground - the search for rare events L. M. Simmons, Jr; Part III. Personal Perspectives: 9. Quarks and quirks among friends Peter A. Carruthers, Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky, Geoffrey B. West and George Zweig; Index.

  2. TEACHING PHYSICS: Teaching particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Phil

    2000-09-01

    Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students.

  3. Elementary particle physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Elementary particle physics is discussed. Status of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions; phenomena beyond the Standard Model; new accelerator projects; and possible contributions from non-accelerator experiments are examined.

  4. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, Edward

    2013-07-12

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  5. Cosmology and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, G.

    1982-01-01

    The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses. In the last few years we have witnessed the birth and growth to healthy adolescence of a new collaboration between astrophysicists and particle physicists. The most notable success of this cooperative effort has been to provide the framework for understanding, within the context of GUTs and the hot big-bang cosmology, the universal baryon asymmetry. The most exciting new predictions this effort has spawned are that exotic relics may exist in detectable abundances. In particular, we may live in a neutrino-dominated Universe. In the next few years, accummulating laboratory data (for example proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations) coupled with theoritical work in particle physics and cosmology will ensure the growth to maturity of this joint effort.

  6. Particle physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Research in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {bar p}p collisions; MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment.

  8. Research in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of e(sup +)e(sup (minus)) and (bar p)p collisions; MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment.

  9. Review of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

    2014-08-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat

  10. Statistical Physics of Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardar, Mehran

    2006-06-01

    Statistical physics has its origins in attempts to describe the thermal properties of matter in terms of its constituent particles, and has played a fundamental role in the development of quantum mechanics. Based on lectures for a course in statistical mechanics taught by Professor Kardar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this textbook introduces the central concepts and tools of statistical physics. It contains a chapter on probability and related issues such as the central limit theorem and information theory, and covers interacting particles, with an extensive description of the van der Waals equation and its derivation by mean field approximation. It also contains an integrated set of problems, with solutions to selected problems at the end of the book. It will be invaluable for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in statistical physics. A complete set of solutions is available to lecturers on a password protected website at www.cambridge.org/9780521873420. Based on lecture notes from a course on Statistical Mechanics taught by the author at MIT Contains 89 exercises, with solutions to selected problems Contains chapters on probability and interacting particles Ideal for graduate courses in Statistical Mechanics

  11. Cosmology and particle physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.

  12. Physics of windblown particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman; Marshall, John R.; White, Bruce; Iversen, James D.; Nickling, William G.; Gillette, Dale; Sorensen, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility proposed for the Space Station to investigate fundamental aspects of windblown particles is described. The experiments would take advantage of the environment afforded in earth orbit and would be an extension of research currently being conducted on the geology and physics of windblown sediments on earth, Mars, and Venus. Aeolian (wind) processes are reviewed in the planetary context, the scientific rational is given for specific experiments to be conducted, the experiment apparatus (the Carousel Wind Tunnel, or CWT) is described, and a plan presented for implementing the proposed research program.

  13. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment

  14. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  15. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Roodman, A

    2003-12-16

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  16. Particle Physics Masterclass

    ScienceCinema

    Helio Takai

    2010-01-08

    Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

  17. Particle Physics Masterclass

    SciTech Connect

    Helio Takai

    2009-04-10

    Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

  18. Theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    This report discusses the following topics: heavy quark physics; Chiral Perturbation theory; Skyrmions; quarkonia and nuclear matter; parity violating nuclear matrix elements; how precisely can one determine M{sub U}/M{sub D}; weak scale baryogenesis; constraints of baryogenesis form neutrino masses; majorons, double beta decay, supernova 1987A; rare decays; chiral lattice fermions; Pauli-Villars regulator and the Higgs mass bound; and Higgs and Yukawa interactions.

  19. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  20. Event Generators for Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matchev, Konstantin

    2014-03-01

    I will review recent progress in developing and automating the basic set of simulation tools in high energy particle physics, including programs which are capable of automatic implementation of new physics models and generating the corresponding Feynman rules, various matrix element calculators, and event generators producing both parton-level and fully hadronized/showerted Monte Carlo event samples. I will also discuss methods for speeding up the generation of new physics samples, which could be useful in the upcoming new physics searches at the LHC.

  1. Research in theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.W.; Munczek, H.; Ralston, J.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses the following topics in high energy physics: dynamical symmetry breaking and Schwinger-Dyson equation; consistency bound on the minimal model Higgs mass; tests of physics beyond the standard model; particle astrophysics; the interface between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD; cosmology; anisotropy in quantum networks and integer quantum hall behavior; anomalous color transparency; quantum treatment of solitons; color transparency; quantum stabilization of skyrmions; and casimir effect. (LSP)

  2. A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

    2013-07-25

    Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

  3. Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2008-02-05

    These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

  4. Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karchin, Paul E.

    2011-09-01

    We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.

  5. Non-accelerator particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.

    1991-09-01

    The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics such as grand unification and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large area underground detector to search for grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low and high energy neutrinos: the {nu}IMB project, which seeks to refurbish and upgrade the IMB water Cerenkov detector to perform an improved proton decay search together with a long baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment using a kiloton liquid scintillator (the Perry experiment); and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very low background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments. 21 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Research in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    White, Andrew Paul; De, Kaushik; Brandt, Andrew; Yu, Jaehoon; Farbin, Amir

    2015-02-02

    This report details the accomplishments and research results for the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington at the Energy and Intensity Frontiers. For the Energy Frontier we have made fundamental contributions in the search for supersymmetric particles, proposed to explain the stabilization of the mass of the Higgs Boson – the agent giving mass to all known particles. We have also made major contributions to the search for additional Higgs Bosons and to the planning for future searches. This work has been carried out in the context of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN (European Nuclear Research Laboratory) and for which we have made major contributions to computing and data distribution and processing, and have worked to calibrate the detector and prepare upgraded electronics for the future. Our other contribution to the Energy Frontier has been to the International Linear Collider (ILC) project, potentially hosted by Japan, and to the Silicon Detector Concept (SiD) in particular. We have lead the development of the SiD Concept and have worked on a new form of precise energy measurement for particles from the high energy collisions of electrons and positrons at the ILC. For the Intensity Frontier, we have worked to develop the concept of Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment(s) (LBNE) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Our contributions to detector development, neutrino beam studies, particle identification, software development will facilitate future studies of the oscillation of one type of neutrino into other type(s), establish the order of the neutrino masses, and, through an innovative new idea, allow us to create a beam of dark matter particles.

  7. Particle identification for beauty physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.

    1987-01-01

    We look briefly at the requirements for particle identification for possible beauty experiments at the Tevatron, both in the fixed target and the collider mode. Techniques presently in use in high energy physics experiments, and under development, should make sensitive experiments feasible. However, in all cases the present state of the art must be advanced to meet the necessary requirements for segmentation andor rate capability. The most fundamentally difficult challenges appear to be the efficient tagging of soft electrons (for the collider experiment) and the need to handle interaction rates up to /approximately/ 10/sub 9/ HZ in the fixed target mode. In both cases we can find ''in principle'' demonstrations that the requirements can be met. We have considered only the most basic prooperties of detectors, however, and the real answers will come from careful studies of details. 20 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Field theory and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Eboli, O.J.P.; Gomes, M.; Santoro, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the topics covered during the fifth Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School. The first part of the book collects the material devoted to quantum field theory. There were four courses on methods in Field Theory; H. O. Girotti lectured on constrained dynamics, R. Jackiw on the Schrodinger representation in Field Theory, S.-Y. Pi on the application of this representation to quantum fields in a Robertson-Walker spacetime, and L. Vinet on Berry Connections. There were three courses on Conformal Field Theory: I. Todorov focused on the problem of construction and classification of conformal field theories. Lattice models, two-dimensional S matrices and conformal field theory were looked from the unifying perspective of the Yang-Baxter algebras in the lectures given by M. Karowski. Parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics was discussed in the lectures by L. Vinet. Besides those courses, there was an introduction to string field theory given by G. Horowitz. There were also three seminars: F. Schaposnik reported on recent applications of topological methods in field theory, P. Gerbert gave a seminar on three dimensional gravity and V. Kurak talked on two dimensional parafermionic models. The second part of this proceedings is devoted to phenomenology. There were three courses on Particle Physics: Dan Green lectured on collider physics, E. Predrazzi on strong interactions and G. Cohen-Tanoudji on the use of strings in strong interactions.

  9. The dialogue between particle physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Sadoulet, B.

    1988-04-01

    In the last decade, a very close relationship has developed between particle physics and cosmology. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to the many scientific connections between the two fields. Before entering into the discussion of specific topics, it will first be shown that particle physics and cosmology are completely interdependent. 173 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Elementary particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1990-09-20

    We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used.

  11. Studies in theoretical particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, D. B.

    1991-07-01

    This proposal focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: (1) Nonperturbative QCD. I tend to continue work on analytic modelling of nonperturbative effects in the strong interactions. I have been investigating the theoretical connection between the nonrelativistic quark model and QCD. The primary motivation has been to understand the experimental observation of nonzero matrix elements involving current strange quarks in ordinary matter, which in the quark model has no strange quark component. This has led to my present work on understanding constituent (quark model) quarks as collective excitations of QCD degrees of freedom. (2) Weak Scale Baryogenesis. A continuation of work on baryogenesis in the early universe from weak interactions. In particular, an investigation of baryogenesis occurring during the weak phase transition through anomalous baryon violating processes in the standard model of weak interactions. (3) Flavor and Compositeness. Further investigation of a new mechanism that I recently discovered for dynamical mass generation for fermions, which naturally leads to a family hierarchy structure. A discussion of recent past work is found in the next section, followed by an outline of the proposed research. A recent publication from each of these three areas is attached to this proposal.

  12. Studies in theoretical particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1991-07-01

    This proposal focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: (1) Nonperturbative QCD. I tend to continue work on analytic modelling of nonperturbative effects in the strong interactions. I have been investigating the theoretical connection between the nonrelativistic quark model and QCD. The primary motivation has been to understand the experimental observation of nonzero matrix elements involving current strange quarks in ordinary matter -- which in the quark model has no strange quark component. This has led to my present work on understanding constituent (quark model) quarks as collective excitations of QCD degrees of freedom. (2) Weak Scale Baryogenesis. A continuation of work on baryogenesis in the early universe from weak interactions. In particular, an investigation of baryogenesis occurring during the weak phase transition through anomalous baryon violating processes in the standard model of weak interactions. (3) Flavor and Compositeness. Further investigation of a new mechanism that I recently discovered for dynamical mass generation for fermions, which naturally leads to a family hierarchy structure. A discussion of recent past work is found in the next section, followed by an outline of the proposed research. A recent publication from each of these three areas is attached to this proposal.

  13. The Birth of Elementary-Particle Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurie M.; Hoddeson, Lillian

    1982-01-01

    Traces the origin and development of particle physics, concentrating on the roles of cosmic rays and theory. Includes charts highlighting significant events in the development of cosmic-ray physics and quantum field theory. (SK)

  14. Topics in elementary particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiang

    The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate

  15. Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appell, David Allen

    Three studies in elementary particle physics are presented. In the first, titled "Jets as a probe of quark -gluon plasmas", we investigate the propagation of jets through a quark-gluon plasma. The transverse-momentum imbalance of a jet pair is shown to be sensitive to multiple scattering off the constituents of the plasma for expected values of the plasma temperature and size. This raises the possibility that such transverse-momentum imbalance could be used as a probe of a quark-gluon plasma produced by partonic interactions in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The second topic considered is "Soft gluon effects and the normalization of the Drell-Yan cross section." There we analyze the sensitivity of the inclusive Drell -Yan cross section to soft gluon effects, using a previously developed summation procedure which includes nonleading logarithmic effects. By varying an infrared cutoff in gluon energies, we study the importance of soft, but still perturbative, gluons to the normalization of the cross section or, equivalently, the "K-factor." The result is strongly dependent on the kinematic range being considered, as well as on the parton distributions of the incoming hadrons. Finally, in "Problems of dimensional reduction and inflationary cosmology", we discuss various aspects of the relationship between Kaluza-Klein theories and cosmology, with particular emphasis on the process of dimensional reduction. Some features of higher-dimensional Friedman -Robertson-Walker-type universes are considered, such as the compatibility of the Einstein equations, their connection with the inflationary scenarios, and their consequences for the critical density of the observable universe. The role of the Casimir effect as a possible mechanism for dimensional compactification is noted, and the absence of the Casimir effect for supersymmetric theories is noted. Various subtleties of the Casimir effect make it difficult to decide at this point whether the Casimir effect

  16. Quarked!--Adventures in Particle Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike--with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not…

  17. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2011-01-01

    I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a…

  18. Particle Physics: From School to University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Roger

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of particle physics as part of the A-level physics course in British secondary schools. Utilizes the quark model of hadrons and the conceptual kinematics of particle collisions, as examples, to demonstrate practical instructional possibilities in relation to student expectations. (JJK)

  19. [Elementary particle physics. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Izen, J.M.; Lou, X.

    1998-12-31

    The BABAR construction phase is ending and first data is expected during May, 1999. During construction, UTD has developed analysis framework software, contributed to the BABAR Physics Book, assembled a first rate computing facility, and pioneered Internet-based video techniques for the collaboration. The authors are now defining the physics goals, and are participating in the formation physics analysis groups. They are starting to use their computing facility for BABAR production jobs.

  20. Frontiers of particle beam physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-11-01

    First, a review is given of various highly-developed techniques for particle handling which are, nevertheless, being vigorously advanced at the present time. These include soft superconductor radio frequency cavities, hard superconductor magnets, cooling rings for ions and anti-protons, and damping rings for electrons. Second, attention is focused upon novel devices for particle generation, acceleration, and focusing. These include relativistic klystrons and free electron laser power sources, binary power multipliers, photocathodes, switched-power linacs, plasma beat-wave accelerators, plasma wake-field accelerators, plasma lenses, plasma adiabatic focusers and plasma compensators. 12 refs.

  1. Research in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas of high energy physics: B meson mixing; CDF response to low energy jets; jet scaling behavior; search for pair produced leptoquarks at CDF; SSC program; quantum field theory; and neural networks. (LSP).

  2. Medium energy elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories. (LSP)

  3. Research program in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

  4. Research in elementary particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, L. E.; Schnitzer, H. J.

    Research in theoretical and experimental properties of elementary particles is described. This includes measurements made at the multiparticle spectrometer facility at Brookhaven, studies of baryonium production, inclusive hyperon production, and E(0) production. Theoretical work included extended field theories, subconstituent models, finite temperature quatum chromodynamics, grad unified theories, and calculational techniques in gauge theories.

  5. Introduction to Statistical Issues in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Roger

    An account is given of the methods of working of Experimental High Energy Particle Physics, from the viewpoint of statisticians and others unfamiliar with the field. Current statistical problems, techniques, and hot topics are introduced and discussed.

  6. Research in Theoretical Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ralston, John P.

    2013-07-28

    This document is the final report on activity of the University of Kansas theory group supported under DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-04ER14308, ending April 30, 3013. The report covers the most recent three year period period May 1, 2010-April 30, 2013. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (co-I), Douglas McKay (emeritus) and John Ralston (PI). The group's research topics and accomplishments covered numerous different topics subsumed under the {\\it the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier}, and {\\it the Cosmic Frontier}. Many theoretical and experimental results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The group's research emphasis has been on challenging and confronting {\\it Anything that is Observable} about the physical Universe.

  7. Research on elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p{bar p} collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a {tau}-charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development.

  8. Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S.; Butler, James P.

    2015-01-01

    The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin air-blood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. Whereas the particle-lung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drug. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this chapter. A large portion of this chapter deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: 1) the physical characteristics of particles, 2) particle behavior in gas flow, and 3) gas flow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The chapter concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research. PMID:24265235

  9. Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    In one of those interesting intersections of particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the University of Florida (UF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have joined together to try to pin down an elusive particle. This particle, called the axion, if it is found to exist and is not just a hypothesis, would be a long-sought relic from the first fractional second of the birth of the universe and one of the most weakly interacting particles known. Experimental verification of the existence of the axion would not only help ''balance the budget'' for the missing mass of the universe but also clear up one of the thorniest issues in particle physics.

  10. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

  11. Plato's TIMAIOσ (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, Ruprecht

    2005-04-01

    It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIOσ (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

  12. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-04-23

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan{beta} {approx_equal} mt/mb {approx_equal} 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

  13. Research in Theoretical Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Hume A; Marfatia, Danny

    2014-09-24

    This document is the final report on activity supported under DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-13ER42024. The report covers the period July 15, 2013 – March 31, 2014. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (1.0 FTE) and Hume Feldman (1% FTE). The grant partly supported University of Hawaii students, David Yaylali and Keita Fukushima, who are supervised by Jason Kumar. Both students are expected to graduate with Ph.D. degrees in 2014. Yaylali will be joining the University of Arizona theory group in Fall 2014 with a 3-year postdoctoral appointment under Keith Dienes. The group’s research covered topics subsumed under the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Many theoretical results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The report contains brief project descriptions in Section 1. Sections 2 and 3 lists published and submitted work, respectively. Sections 4 and 5 summarize group activity including conferences, workshops and professional presentations.

  14. Basics of particle therapy I: physics.

    PubMed

    Park, Seo Hyun; Kang, Jin Oh

    2011-09-01

    With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664

  15. Basics of particle therapy I: physics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664

  16. Cosmology, astrophysics and elementary particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayler, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    The physics of the early universe are studied and the role of new particles such as heavy leptons, neutrinos and quarks and possible relationship of the net baryon number of the universe to unified models of elementary particle physics are discussed. Consideration is given to the role of neutrinos in stellar evolution, particularly in the explosion of supernovae and in the cooling of neutron stars. Black holes are discussed in connection with Hawking's discovery that low-mass black holes can emit a thermal distribution of particles which could be of cosmological or astrophysical importance. Finally, the evidence that the laws of physics are unchanging is examined, and it is concluded that there is no clear case in favor of change.

  17. Particle physics with the LHC data

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Kaoru

    2012-07-27

    In this talk, I give reasons why we regard GUT as a part of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics that explain all phenomena observed at high energy experiments and in the universe, with a few notable exceptions. It is based on my introduction-to-elementary-particle-physics lectures for the first year graduate students at Sokendai, Graduate University for Advanced Studies. No new observation is made, but I think that it is important for us to examine the LHC data from the GUT viewpoint together with our fresh students.

  18. The CMS Masterclass and Particle Physics Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Cecire, Kenneth; Bardeen, Marjorie; McCauley, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Masterclass enables high school students to analyse authentic CMS data. Students can draw conclusions on key ratios and particle masses by combining their analyses. In particular, they can use the ratio of W^+ to W^- candidates to probe the structure of the proton, they can find the mass of the Z boson, and they can identify additional particles including, tentatively, the Higgs boson. In the United States, masterclasses are part of QuarkNet, a long-term program that enables students and teachers to use cosmic ray and particle physics data for learning with an emphasis on data from CMS.

  19. The CMS Masterclass and Particle Physics Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecire, Kenneth; Bardeen, Marjorie; McCauley, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The CMS Masterclass enables high school students to analyse authentic CMS data. Students can draw conclusions on key ratios and particle masses by combining their analyses. In particular, they can use the ratio of W+ to W- candidates to probe the structure of the proton, they can find the mass of the Z boson, and they can identify additional particles including, tentatively, the Higgs boson. In the United States, masterclasses are part of QuarkNet, a long-term program that enables students and teachers to use cosmic ray and particle physics data for learning with an emphasis on data from CMS.

  20. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  1. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues. PMID:27540827

  2. The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2006-12-01

    Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. I will review the insights of the decade just past and show how they lead us to the brink of a new period of rapid and profound discovery. We expect answers to questions that speak to our understanding of the everyday world: why are there atoms? why chemistry? why stable structures? and even what makes life possible? We are probing the meaning of identity for the fundamental particles: what makes an electron an electron, a neutrino a neutrino, and a top quark a top quark? Important clues, including the remarkable neutrality of atoms, lead us to investigate the unity of the two main classes of matter, the quarks and leptons. Gravity and particle physics, long separate disciplines, are enjoying a stimulating reunion, and we are learning how to investigate—with experiments—new conceptions of spacetime. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the a new and critical energy scale of one trillion electron volts. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow the LHC's rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electron-positron collider, a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory, and experiments that use natural sources. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.

  3. Japanese particle-physics leader dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2008-08-01

    Yoji Totsuka, former director general of the KEK particle-physics lab in Japan, died on 10 July at the age of 66. Totsuka, whose research interests were in the field of neutrino physics, served as KEK boss for three years from April 2003. After retiring in 2006, Totsuka became a professor emeritus at KEK and the University of Tokyo. His funeral on 12 July was attended by more than 500 people.

  4. Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, Marjorie G.; Johansson, K.Erik; Young, M.Jean

    2011-11-21

    This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.

  5. Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erik Johansson, K.; Jean Young, M.

    2011-11-01

    This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.

  6. Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2002-04-11

    Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.

  7. Is Particle Physics Ready for the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph

    2006-04-05

    The advent of the Large Hadron Collider in 2007 entails daunting challenges to particle physicists. The first set of challenges will arise from trying to separate new physics from old. The second set of challenges will come in trying to interpret the new discoveries. I will describe a few of the scariest examples.

  8. Is Particle Physics Ready for the LHC?

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph

    2006-04-05

    The advent of the Large Hadron Collider in 2007 entails daunting challenges to particle physicists. The first set of challenges will arise from trying to separate new physics from old. The second set of challenges will come in trying to interpret the new discoveries. I will describe a few of the scariest examples.

  9. Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S

    2013-04-01

    This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

  10. Is Particle Physics Ready for the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    Lykken, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    The advent of the Large Hadron Collider in 2007 entails daunting challenges to particle physicists. The first set of challenges will arise from trying to separate new physics from old. The second set of challenges will come in trying to interpret the new discoveries. I will describe a few of the scariest examples.

  11. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  12. Beyond the standard model of particle physics.

    PubMed

    Virdee, T S

    2016-08-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its experiments were conceived to tackle open questions in particle physics. The mechanism of the generation of mass of fundamental particles has been elucidated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. It is clear that the standard model is not the final theory. The open questions still awaiting clues or answers, from the LHC and other experiments, include: What is the composition of dark matter and of dark energy? Why is there more matter than anti-matter? Are there more space dimensions than the familiar three? What is the path to the unification of all the fundamental forces? This talk will discuss the status of, and prospects for, the search for new particles, symmetries and forces in order to address the open questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458261

  13. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  14. Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, Richard P.; Weinberg, Steven

    1987-11-01

    Developing a theory that seamlessly combines relativity and quantum mechanics, the most important conceptual breakthroughs in twentieth century physics, has proved to be a difficult and ongoing challenge. This book details how two distinguished physicists and Nobel laureates have explored this theme in two lectures given in Cambridge, England, in 1986 to commemorate the famous British physicist Paul Dirac. Given for nonspecialists and undergraduates, the talks transcribed in Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics focus on the fundamental problems of physics and the present state of our knowledge. Professor Feynman examines the nature of antiparticles, and in particular the relationship between quantum spin and statistics. Professor Weinberg speculates on how Einstein's theory of gravitation might be reconciled with quantum theory in the final law of physics. Highly accessible, deeply thought provoking, this book will appeal to all those interested in the development of modern physics.

  15. New developments in photodetection for particle physics and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, J. E.

    2000-03-01

    Photodetectors are widely used in particle and nuclear physics research. Since the beginning of the modern era of photoelectric transducers in the late 1930s, many types of devices have been developed and exploited for physics research. New performance requirements arising in physics experiments have often provided very interesting technological drivers for industry. New ideas for photo-detection are rapidly adapted by the physics community to enable more powerful experimental capabilities. This report gives a sampling of new developments in photodetection for physics research in the period since the first conference in this series, Beaune 96. Representative examples of advances in vacuum devices, solid-state devices and gaseous photodetectors are described including, where appropriate, areas where technological improvements are needed or expected.

  16. Particle Physics Outreach for Secondary Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasero, Spencer

    2013-04-01

    We provide a general overview of activities that particle physicists have developed to reach out to teachers and students. There is a remarkable worldwide interest in particle physics stimulated by the search for the Higgs Boson and a remarkable worldwide interest on the part of physicists to inspire today's students and tomorrow's scientists. While most students will not become physicists, they do need to understand how scientists discover knowledge---their ideas and methodology. We explore three types of activities: informal opportunities for students and resources for teachers, professional development for teachers and research experiences for teachers and students alike. We provide some suggestions for developing and assessing effective programs.

  17. Recasting particle physics by entangling physics, history and philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, Eugenio; Levrini, Olivia

    2016-05-01

    -1The paper presents the design process we followed to recast particle physics so as to make it conceptually relevant for secondary school students. In this design process, the concept of symmetry was assumed as core-idea because of its structural and foundational role in particle physics, its crosscutting character and its epistemological and philosophical value. The first draft of the materials was tested in a pilot-study which involved 19 students of a regular class (grade 13) of an Italian school. The data analysis showed that the students were in their "regime of competence" for grasping subtle nuances of the materials and for providing important hints for revising them. In particular, students' reactions brought into light the need of clarifying the "foundational" character that symmetry attained in twentieth-century physics. The delicate step of re-thinking the materials required the researchers to articulate the complex relationship between researches on physics teaching, history and philosophy of physics. This analytic phase resulted in a version of the materials which implies the students to be guided to grasp the meaning of symmetry as normative principle in twentieth-century physics, throughout the exploration of the different meanings assumed by symmetry over time. The whole process led also to the production of an essential, on-line version, of the materials targeted to a wider audience.

  18. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  19. Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, J.; Bach, F.; Chokoufé, B.; Kilian, W.; Ohl, T.; Sekulla, M.; Weiss, C.

    2015-05-01

    We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

  20. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. ); Oyanagi, Y. ); Dodder, D.C. ); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  1. Particle physics: recent successes and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcicki, S.

    1984-12-01

    There is no doubt that as yet we do not have an ultimate theory of matter and forces in spite of the remarkable successes of the past decade. In this talk the author attempts to summarize briefly the historical background that led us to the present level of understanding, or more specifically to the standard model of particle physics. Subsequently the author describes several difficulties with this picture, continues with some possible indications of new physics, and finally ends with the discussion of the prospects for the future. 32 references.

  2. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Olin, A.; Frosch, R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  3. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  4. Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Burton

    2007-02-20

    ''It was the best of times; it was the worst of times'' is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.

  5. Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Richter, B.

    2007-02-16

    "It was the best of times; it was the worst of times" is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.

  6. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  7. The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Quigg, Chris

    2009-09-01

    Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electron-positron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.

  8. The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2008-01-18

    Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electron-positron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.

  9. The Coming Revolutions in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2004-04-28

    Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with new instruments and experiments poised to explore the frontiers of high energy, infinitesimal distances, and exquisite rarity. We look forward to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. We suspect that the detection of proton decay is only a few orders of magnitude away in sensitivity. Astronomical observations should help to tell us what kinds of matter and energy make up the universe. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear electron-positron collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment.

  10. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2011-01-01

    I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called high energy physics, in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a great way to make a fascinating topic meaningless. Students need a conceptual framework from which to view the elementary particles. That conceptual framework is quantum field theory (QFT). Teachers and students alike tend to quake at this topic, but bear with me. We're talking here about concepts, not technicalities. My approach will be conceptual and suitable for non-scientists and scientists; if mathematical details are added in courses for future scientists, they should be simple and sparse. Introductory students should not be expected to do QFT, but only to understand its concepts. Those concepts take some getting used to, but they are simple and can be understood by any literate person, be she plumber, attorney, musician, or physicist.

  11. TOPICS IN THE PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    High energy physics, perhaps more than any other branch of science, is driven by technology. It is not the development of theory, or consideration of what measurements to make, which are the driving elements in our science. Rather it is the development of new technology which is the pacing item. Thus it is the development of new techniques, new computers, and new materials which allows one to develop new detectors and new particle-handling devices. It is the latter, the accelerators, which are at the heart of the science. Without particle accelerators there would be, essentially, no high energy physics. In fact. the advances in high energy physics can be directly tied to the advances in particle accelerators. Looking terribly briefly, and restricting one's self to recent history, the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the anti-proton and many of the resonances, on the AGS was found the {mu}-neutrino, the J-particle and time reversal non-invariance, on Spear was found the {psi}-particle, and, within the last year the Z{sub 0} and W{sup {+-}} were seen on the CERN SPS p-{bar p} collider. Of course one could, and should, go on in much more detail with this survey, but I think there is no need. It is clear that as better acceleration techniques were developed more and more powerful machines were built which, as a result, allowed high energy physics to advance. What are these techniques? They are very sophisticated and ever-developing. The science is very extensive and many individuals devote their whole lives to accelerator physics. As high energy experimental physicists your professional lives will be dominated by the performance of 'the machine'; i.e. the accelerator. Primarily you will be frustrated by the fact that it doesn't perform better. Why not? In these lectures, six in all, you should receive some appreciation of accelerator physics. We cannot, nor do we attempt, to make you into accelerator physicists, but we do hope to give you some insight into the

  12. The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Livny, Miron

    2002-08-16

    The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Grid-enabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Grid-based software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experiment-specific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, high-speed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.

  13. Summary of the particle physics and technology working group

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan Lammel et al.

    2002-12-10

    Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leading-edge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.

  14. Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.

  15. (Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

  16. Particle physics in the very early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  17. Particle Physics: A New Course for Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinbank, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Considers questions relating to the introduction of particle physics into post-GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) courses. Describes a project that is producing teacher and student materials to support the teaching of particle physics at this level. Presents a proposed syllabus for a particle physics module. (KR)

  18. Experimental particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Drexel Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, R.I.; Lane, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    The goals of this research are the experimental testing of fundamental theories of physics beyond the standard model and the exploration of cosmic phenomena through the techniques of particle physics. We are working on the MACRO experiment, which employs a large-area underground detector to search fore grand unification magnetic monopoles and dark matter candidates and to study cosmic ray muons as well as low- and high-energy neutrinos; the Chooz experiment to search for reactor neutrino oscillations at a distance of 1 km from the source; a new proposal (the Perry experiment) to construct a one-kiloton liquid scintillator in the Fairport, Ohio underground facility IMB to study neutrino oscillations with a 13 km baseline; and development of technology for improved liquid scintillators and for very-low-background materials in support of the MACRO and Perry experiments and for new solar neutrino experiments.

  19. Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Scott J.

    1992-09-01

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  20. Particle physics confronts the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, P.B.

    1991-06-01

    This review has four parts. In Part I, we describe the reactions that produce neutrinos in the sun and the expected flux of those neutrinos on the earth. We then discuss the detection of these neutrinos, and how the results obtained differ from the theoretical expectations, leading to what is known as the solar neutrino problem. In Part II, we show how neutrino oscillations can provide a solution to the solar neutrino problem. This includes vacuum oscillations, as well as matter enhanced oscillations. In Part III, we discuss the possibility of time variation of the neutrino flux and how a magnetic moment of the neutrino can solve the problem. WE also discuss particle physics models which can give rise to the required values of magnetic moments. In Part IV, we present some concluding remarks and outlook for the recent future.

  1. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, J.

    1991-08-31

    The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise.

  2. Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

  3. Particle physics---Experimental. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  4. Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric

  5. Particle Physics in a Season of Change

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2012-02-01

    A digest of the authors opening remarks at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. I have chosen my title to reflect the transitions we are living through, in particle physics overall and in hadron collider physics in particular. Data-taking has ended at the Tevatron, with {approx} 12 fb{sup -1} of {bar p}p interactions delivered to CDF and D0 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider has registered a spectacular first full-year run, with ATLAS and CMS seeing > 5 fb{sup -1}, LHCb recording {approx} 1 fb{sup -1}, and ALICE logging nearly 5 pb{sup -1} of pp data at {radical}s = 7 TeV, plus a healthy dose of Pb-Pb collisions. The transition to a new energy regime and new realms of instantaneous luminosity exceeding 3.5 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has brought the advantage of enhanced physics reach and the challenge of pile-up reaching {approx} 15 interactions per beam crossing. I am happy to record that what the experiments have (not) found so far has roused some of my theoretical colleagues from years of complacency and stimulated them to think anew about what the TeV scale might hold. We theorists have had plenty of time to explore many proposals for electroweak symmetry breaking and for new physics that might lie beyond established knowledge. With so many different theoretical inventions in circulation, it is in the nature of things that most will be wrong. Keep in mind that we learn from what experiment tells us is not there, even if it is uncommon to throw a party for ruling something out. Some non-observations may be especially telling: the persistent absence of flavor-changing neutral currents, for example, seems to me more and more an important clue that we have not yet deciphered. It is natural that the search for the avatar of electroweak symmetry breaking preoccupies participants and spectators alike. But it is essential to conceive the physics opportunities before us in their full richness. I would advocate a three-fold approach

  6. Particle Physics on the Eve of Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of particle physics. The quantum number of color, colored quarks and dynamic models of Hadrons composed of quasifree quarks / V. Matveev, A. Tavkhelidze. Discovery of the color degree of freedom in particle physics: a personal perspective / O. W. Greenberg. The evolution of the concepts of energy, momentum, and mass from Newton and Lomonosov to Einstein and Feynman / L. Okun -- Physics at accelerators and studies in SM and beyond. Search for new physics at LHC (CMS) / N. Krasnikov. Measuring the Higgs Boson(s) at ATLAS / C. Kourkoumelis. Beyond the standard model physics reach of the ATLAS experiment / G. Unel. The status of the International Linear Collider / B. Foster. Review of results of the electron-proton collider HERA / V. Chekelian. Recent results from the Tevatron on CKM matrix elements from Bs oscillations and single top production, and studies of CP violation in Bs Decays / J. P. Fernández. Direct observation of the strange b Barion [symbol] / L. Vertogradov. Search for new physics in rare B Decays at LHCb / V. Egorychev. CKM angle measurements at LHCb / S. Barsuk. Collider searches for extra spatial dimensions and black holes / G. Landsberg -- Neutrino Physics. Results of the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / Z. Djurcic. MINOS results and prospects / J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux. The new result of the neutrino magnetic moment measurement in the GEMMA experiment / A. G. Beda ... [et al.]. The Baikal neutrino experiment: status, selected physics results, and perspectives / V. Aynutdinov ... [et al.]. Neutrino telescopes in the deep sea / V. Flaminio. Double beta decay: present status / A. S. Barabash. Beta-beams / C. Volpe. T2K experiment / K. Sakashita. Non-standard neutrino physics probed by Tokai-to-Kamioka-Korea two-detector complex / N. Cipriano Ribeiro ... [et al.]. Sterile neutrinos: from cosmology to the LHC / F. Vannucci. From Cuoricino to Cuore towards the inverted hierarchy region / C. Nones. The MARE experiment: calorimetric

  7. The Physical Principles of Particle Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Goronwy Tudor

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of a particle detector, an instrument that records the passage of particles through it, to determine the mass of a particle by measuring the particles momentum, speed, and kinetic energy. An appendix discusses the limits on the impact parameter. (MDH)

  8. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.S.

    1990-01-05

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

  9. Particle astronomy and particle physics from the moon - The particle observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Promising experiments from the moon using particle detectors are discussed, noting the advantage of the large flux collecting power Pc offered by the remote, stable environment of a lunar base. An observatory class of particle experiments is presented, based upon proposals at NASA's recent Stanford workshop. They vary from neutrino astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic ray experiments to space physics and fundamental physics experiments such as proton decay and 'table-top' arrays. This research is background-limited on earth, and it is awkward and unrealistic in earth orbit, but is particularly suited for the moon where Pc can be quite large and the instrumentation is not subject to atmospheric erosion as it is (for large t) in low earth orbit.

  10. J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics Lecture: Particle physics after the first LHC results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, Guido

    2012-03-01

    The LHC results released so far have very much restricted the possible range for the Standard Model Higgs boson mass. Moreover some indications for a signal at a mass around 125 GeV have been found. At the same time, no clear evidence for new physics has emerged from the LHC data. We discuss the impact of these results on our understanding of particle physics. The presently allowed window for the Higgs mass and the negative results for exotic particles are compatible with both the Standard model and its Supersymmetric extensions but imply considerable restrictions and need a substantial amount of fine tuning in all cases. We discuss the options that remain open and the perspectives for the near future.

  11. Particle physics: CP violation in hyperon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Michael J.

    2000-10-31

    The primary research activities under this grant were in E871 (HyperCP) at Fermilab, a search for CP violation in hyperon decays which completed data taking in January, 2000. HyperCP is an experiment designed to perform a sensitive search for direct CP violation in the decays of cascade ({Xi}) and {Lambda} hyperons by looking for an asymmetry between particle and antiparticle decay parameters. The experiment is expected to achieve a sensitivity {approx}10{sup -4} in the decay parameters. Standard model predictions for this CP-violating asymmetry range from 0.3 to 5 x 10{sup -4}. A difference between the decay parameters for particle and antiparticle is direct evidence that CP symmetry is violated. A non-zero asymmetry would be the first evidence for CP violation outside of the K{sup o} system. Recent results from KTeV indicate a direct CP violation in K{sup o} decays, which suggests that CP violation will appear in other decays. In addition, we will look at a number of rare hyperon decays involving muons. These probe important new physics topics such as Majorana neutrinos and lepton number violating processes. The latter are of great current interest because new evidence for neutrino oscillations indicate lepton flavor violation does occur. Our data will lead to an improvement in the limits on branching ratios for these processes typically by three to four orders-of-magnitude. The muon detector construction and data resulting from it have been the responsibility of the Michigan group. We are now leading the analysis of the rare muon-related decay modes, and were responsible for the muon system and beam monitor upgrades for the 1999 run.

  12. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2011-01-01

    In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because…

  13. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  14. Particle-physics open-access pact finally starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A collaboration of funding agencies and particle-physics labs from 24 nations around the world has reached an agreement with libraries and publishers that will see some 5000 papers a year in particle physics becoming immediately free to read online upon publication.

  15. Fundamental Particles and Interactions. A Wall Chart of Modern Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achor, William T.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a wall chart, "The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions," for use in introductory physics courses at either high school or college level. Describes the chart development process, introduction and terminology of particle physics, components of the chart, and suggestions for using the chart, booklet, and software. (YP)

  16. Particle Physics Masterclass as a Context for Learning about NOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadness, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This research addresses the question: Do secondary school science students attending the U.S. Particle Physics Masterclass change their view of the nature of science (NOS)? The U.S. Particle Physics Masterclass is a national physics outreach program run by QuarkNet, in which high school physics students gather at a local research institution for one day to learn about particle physics and the scientific enterprise. Student activities include introductory lectures in particle physics, laboratory tours, analysis of actual data from CERN, and the discussion of their findings in a conference-like atmosphere. Although there are a number of outreach programs involving scientists in K-12 education, very few of them have been formally evaluated to determine if they provide adequate learning of NOS. Therefore, the significance of this study is that it investigates the claim that science outreach programs may be designed to address science literacy, specifically as a context for explicit NOS instruction.

  17. Two decades of Mexican particle physics at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Rubinstein

    2002-12-03

    This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories. Soon after becoming Fermilab director in 1979, Leon Lederman initiated a program to encourage experimental physics, especially experimental particle physics, in Latin America. At the time, Mexico had significant theoretical particle physics activity, but none in experiment. Following a visit by Lederman to UNAM in 1981, a conference ''Panamerican Symposium on Particle Physics and Technology'' was held in January 1982 at Cocoyoc, Mexico, with about 50 attendees from Europe, North America, and Latin America; these included Lederman, M. Moshinsky, J. Flores, S. Glashow, J. Bjorken, and G. Charpak. Among the conference outcomes were four subsequent similar symposia over the next decade, and a formal Fermilab program to aid Latin American physics (particularly particle physics); it also influenced a decision by Mexican physicist Clicerio Avilez to switch from theoretical to experimental particle physics. The first physics collaboration between Fermilab and Mexico was in particle theory. Post-docs Rodrigo Huerta and Jose Luis Lucio spent 1-2 years at Fermilab starting in 1981, and other theorists (including Augusto Garcia, Arnulfo Zepeda, Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez) also spent time at the Laboratory in the 1980s.

  18. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2011-03-01

    In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because they respond to neither the EM force nor the strong force. For example, the mean free path (average penetration distance before it interacts) of a typical beta-decay neutrino moving through solid lead is about 1.5 light years! Enrico Fermi argued that neutrinos indicated a new force was at work. During the 1930s, he quickly adapted ideas from the developing new theory of QED to this new force, dubbed the weak force. Fermi's theory was able to predict the half-lives of beta-emitting nuclei and the range of energies of the emitted beta particles.

  19. Current technology of particle physics detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-06-23

    A brief discussion is given of the characteristics required of new accelerator facilities, leading into a discussion of the required detectors, including position sensitive detectors, particle identification, and calorimeters. (LEW)

  20. Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe

    2015-08-26

    Here, experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron–positron particle colliders.

  1. Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe

    2015-08-26

    Experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron–positron particle colliders.

  2. Particle Physics Meets Cosmology -- The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)

  3. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  4. American particle and nuclear physics planning

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2014-10-01

    In the United States the planning process relevant to future deep inelastic scattering involves both the high energy physics and nuclear physics funding and the two communities. In Canada there is no such split between the communities. Within the past two years there have been several planning initiatives and there may be more to come. We review the current status of both the planning and the plans.

  5. Celebrating 40 years of research in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock, Colin D.; Martin, Alan D.; Schwenk, Achim

    2015-09-01

    2015 marks the 40th anniversary of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. This editorial provides a brief history of the journal, and introduces a unique collection of invited articles from leading authors to celebrate the occasion.

  6. State-of-the-Art Particle Physics Detector

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 institutes from 16 countries and organized under United States...

  7. The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James D.

    2000-12-14

    Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.

  8. Physics of compaction of fine cohesive particles.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, A; Valverde, J M; Quintanilla, M A S

    2005-02-25

    Fluidized fractal clusters of fine particles display critical-like dynamics at the jamming transition, characterized by a power law relating consolidation stress with volume fraction increment [sigma--(c) proportional, variant(Deltaphi)(beta)]. At a critical stress clusters are disrupted and there is a crossover to a logarithmic law (Deltaphi = nu logsigma--(c)) resembling the phenomenology of soils. We measure lambda identical with- partial differentialDelta(1/phi)/ partial log(sigma--(c) proportional, variant Bo(0.2)(g), where Bo(g) is the ratio of interparticle attractive force (in the fluidlike regime) to particle weight. This law suggests that compaction is ruled by the internal packing structure of the jammed clusters at nearly zero consolidation. PMID:15783824

  9. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1997-05-01

    Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma.

  10. Topics in theoretical particle physics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Michael Phillip

    We first delve into particle phenomenology with a study of soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), an effective theory for Quantum Chromodynamics for when all particles are approximately on their light-cones. In particular, we study the matching of SCET(I) involving ultrasoft and collinear particles onto SCET(II) involving soft and collinear particles. We show that the modes in SCET(II) are sufficient to reproduce all of the infrared divergences of SCET(I), a result that was previously in contention.Next we move into early universe cosmology and study alternative mechanisms for generating primordial density perturbations. We study the inhomogeneous reheating mechanism and extend it to describe the scenario where the freeze-out process for a heavy particle is modulated by sub-dominant fields that received fluctuations during inflation. This scenario results in perturbations that are comparable to those generated by the original inhomogeneous reheating scenarios. In addition, we study yet another alternative to single field inflation whereby the curvature perturbation is generated by interactions at the end of inflation, as opposed to when inflaton modes exit the horizon. We clarify the circumstances under which this process can dominate over the standard one and we show that it may result in a spectrum with an observable level of non-Gaussianities.We then turn to studies of the landscape paradigm, which hypothesizes that the observed universe is just one among a multitude of possibilities that are realized in separate causal regions. Such a landscape has been used to explain the smallness of the cosmological constant, at least when only it scans across the landscape. We study the scenario where both the cosmological constant and the strength of gravity, parameterized by the effective Planck mass, scan across the landscape. We find that selection effects acting on the cosmological constant are significantly weaker in this scenario and we find the measured value of

  11. Future particle-physics projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, D. S.

    2015-07-15

    Basic proposals of experiments aimed at precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and at searches for new particles, including dark-matter particles, are described along with future experimental projects considered by American Physical Society at the meeting in the summer of 2013 and intended for implementation within the next ten to twenty years.

  12. Future particle-physics projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, D. S.

    2015-08-25

    Basic proposals of experiments aimed at precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and at searches for new particles, including dark-matter particles, are described along with future experimental projects considered by American Physical Society at the meeting in the summer of 2013 and intended for implementation within the next ten to twenty years.

  13. Quarks, Leptons, and Bosons: A Particle Physics Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Robert; Goldsmith, Donald

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a non-technical introduction to particle physics. The material is adapted from chapter 3 of "Cosmic Horizons," (by Robert Wagoner and Don Goldsmith), a lay-person's introduction to cosmology. Among the topics considered are elementary particles, forces and motion, and higher level structures. (JN)

  14. Future particle-physics projects in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, D. S.

    2015-07-01

    Basic proposals of experiments aimed at precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and at searches for new particles, including dark-matter particles, are described along with future experimental projects considered by American Physical Society at the meeting in the summer of 2013 and intended for implementation within the next ten to twenty years.

  15. Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmelo, Graham

    1992-01-01

    Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…

  16. Insights and Puzzles in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    2015-03-01

    I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

  17. Insights and puzzles in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    2015-01-01

    I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

  18. Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmann, J.R.

    2012-08-25

    This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cutting-edge measurements from proton-antiproton collisions at the energy frontier.

  19. Research in theoretical and elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mitselmakher, G.

    1996-12-01

    In 1995 the University of Florida started a major expansion of the High Energy Experimental Physics group (HEE) with the goal of adding four new faculty level positions to the group in two years. This proposal covers the second year of operation of the new group and gives a projection of the planned research program for the next five years, when the group expects their activities to be broader and well defined. The expansion of the HEE group started in the Fall of 1995 when Guenakh Mitselmakher was hired from Fermilab as a Full Professor. A search was then performed for two junior faculty positions. The first being a Research Scientist/Scholar position which is supported for 9 months by the University on a faculty line at the same level as Assistant Professor but without the teaching duties. The second position is that of an Assistant Professor. The search has been successfully completed and Jacobo Konigsberg from Harvard University has accepted the position of Research Scientist and Andrey Korytov from MIT has accepted the position of Assistant Professor. They will join the group in August 1996. The physics program for the new group is focused on hadron collider physics. G. Mitselmakher has been leading the CMS endcap muon project since 1994. A Korytov is the coordinator of the endcap muon chamber effort for CMS and a member of the CDF collaboration and J. Konigsberg is a member of CDF where he has participated in various physics analyses and has been coordinator of the gas calorimetry group. The group at the U. of Florida has recently been accepted as an official collaborating institution on CDF. They have been assigned the responsibility of determining the collider beam luminosity at CDF and they will also be an active participant in the design and operation of the muon detectors for the intermediate rapidity region. In addition they expect to continue their strong participation in the present and future physics analysis of the CDF data.

  20. FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Isadore M.

    2008-03-04

    The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

  1. Theoretical particle physics. Progress report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    This report discusses the following topics: heavy quark physics; Chiral Perturbation theory; Skyrmions; quarkonia and nuclear matter; parity violating nuclear matrix elements; how precisely can one determine M{sub U}/M{sub D}; weak scale baryogenesis; constraints of baryogenesis form neutrino masses; majorons, double beta decay, supernova 1987A; rare decays; chiral lattice fermions; Pauli-Villars regulator and the Higgs mass bound; and Higgs and Yukawa interactions.

  2. Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

  3. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-01-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning [tau] and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z[degrees], and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the [tau] the leptonic branching fraction of the J/[psi], and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of [alpha][sub s] at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of [alpha][sub s] by a factor of about three from m[sub r] to m[sub z]. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b[bar b] fraction of Z[degrees] decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z[degree] coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z[degrees] mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z[degrees] decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

  4. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Burchat, P.; Dorfan, D.; Litke, A.; Heusch, C.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Seiden, A.

    1992-11-01

    Work for the coming year is a logical continuation of the efforts of the past year. Some special highlights of this past year which are discusses in more detail in this report are: (1) The move onto beamline and start of ZEUS data taking. (2) The completion of the SDC technical proposal including a detailed long-term plan for construction. (3) Continuing publication of very detailed physics results from ALEPH concerning {tau} and b physics, and a precision measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters. (4) Completion of very successful data taking for E-791 at Fermilab, with nearly twice as many events recorded as initially proposed. (5) First measurement of beam polarization at the SLC. These efforts have led to about 15 physics publications this past year centered mainly on topics related to QCD, couplings of flavors to the Z{degrees}, and heavy flavor decays. Taken as a whole, the results in jets from LEP, the ratio of hadronic to leptonic decays of the {tau} the leptonic branching fraction of the J/{psi}, and the charmonium mass spectrum provide a very consistent set of values of {alpha}{sub s} at a variety of scales. In particular, they show the running of {alpha}{sub s} by a factor of about three from m{sub r} to m{sub z}. Results from LEP also provide evidence of the triple gluon vertex. Similarly, the measurement of the b{bar b} fraction of Z{degrees} decays, from the MARK II as well as LEP, provide increasingly better measurements of the Z{degree} coupling to b quarks. Combined with earlier precision measurements of the Z{degrees} mass, width, and leptonic branching fractions, the Z{degrees} decays continue to provide a very precise verification of the Standard Model.

  5. Black hole bombs and explosions: from astrophysics to particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Vitor

    2013-11-01

    Black holes are the elementary particles of gravity, the final state of sufficiently massive stars and of energetic collisions. With a 40-year long history, black hole physics is a fully-blossomed field which promises to embrace several branches of theoretical physics. Here I review the main developments in highly dynamical black holes with an emphasis on high energy black hole collisions and probes of particle physics via superradiance. This write-up, rather than being a collection of well known results, is intended to highlight open issues and the most intriguing results.

  6. J-PARC Status, Nuclear and Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Susumu

    2011-06-01

    J-PARC accelerator research complex, consisting of LINAC, RCS and MR synchrotron, has successfully produced neutron, muons, kaons, and neutrinos by steady commissioning since November 2006. There are three experimental facilities, and for nuclear and particle physics, nine experiments are approved in a hadron physics facility, and one experiment is approved in a neutrino physics facility. Those experiments and status of J-PARC are described in this paper.

  7. Finite-particle-number approach to physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1982-10-01

    Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

  8. Summation of power series in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Jan

    1999-04-01

    The large-order behaviour of power series used in quantum theory (perturbation series and the operator-product expansion) is discussed and relevant summation methods are reviewed. It is emphasised that, in most physically interesting situations, the mere knowledge of the expansion coefficients is not sufficient for a unique determination of the function expanded, and the necessity of some additional, extra-perturbative, input is pointed out. Several possible nonperturbative inputs are suggested. Applications to various problems of quantum chromodynamics are considered. This lecture was presented on the special Memorial Day dedicated to Professor Ryszard R˛czka at this Workshop. The last section is devoted to my personal recollections of this remarkable personality.

  9. Cosmic rays and the birth of particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of cosmic rays, the methods of research and resulting discoveries were dramatically changed by the introduction of experimental methods that made visible the passage of individual particles. Between 1932 and 1955, tracks of cosmic rays were found in cloud chambers and special photographic emulsions. From measurements of the ionization produced along these tracks, the mass, charge and energy of a single relativistic particle could be determined. The dynamics of decays and collisions could be analyzed. Positrons and then electron-positron pairs were discovered, followed by muons and pions and then the inhabitants of the 'particle zoo'. Fundamental concepts were challenged. From the mid- 1950s, larger accelerators began to produce many of the 'new' particles, displacing cosmic rays from their prime role in particle studies. But without the initial discoveries in cosmic rays, there might well not be the modern industrial-scale particle physics research.

  10. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

  11. Beams for the Intensity Frontier of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirhart, Robert S.

    2014-02-01

    Advances in high intensity beams have driven particle physics forward since the inception of the field. State-of-the-art and next generation high intensity beams will drive experiments searching for ultrarare processes sensitive through quantum corrections to new particle states far beyond the reach of direct production in foreseeable beam colliders. The recent discovery of the ultrarare B meson decay Bs → μμ, with a branching fraction of 3 × 10-9 for example, has set stringent limits on new physics within direct reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Today, even in the context of the Higgs boson discovery, observation of finite neutrino masses is the only laboratory evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The tiny mass scale of neutrinos may foretell and one day expose physics that connects quarks and leptons together at the "grand unification" scale and may be the portal through which our world came to the matter-dominated state so different from conditions we expect in the early universe. Here we describe next generation neutrino and rare processes experiments that will deeply probe these and other questions central to the field of particle physics.

  12. Particle physics for primary schools—enthusing future physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, M.; Lazzeroni, C.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the realisation that children make decisions and choices about subjects they like in primary school, became widely understood. For this reason academic establishments focus some of their public engagement activities towards the younger ages. Taking advantage of Professor Lazzeroni’s long-standing experience in particle physics research, during the last academic year we designed and trialled a particle physics workshop for primary schools. The workshop allows young children (ages 8–11) to learn the world of fundamental particles, use creative design to make particle models. The workshop has already been trialled in many primary schools, receiving very positive evaluation. The initial resources were reviewed and improved, based on the feedback received from school teachers and communicators.

  13. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

  14. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

  15. Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Physical theory and techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Valberg, P A; Butler, J P

    1987-01-01

    Body tissues are not ferromagnetic, but ferromagnetic particles can be present as contaminants or as probes in the lungs and in other organs. The magnetic domains of these particles can be aligned by momentary application of an external magnetic field; the magnitude and time course of the resultant remanent field depend on the quantity of magnetic material and the degree of particle motion. The interpretation of magnetometric data requires an understanding of particle magnetization, agglomeration, random motion, and both rotation and translation in response to magnetic fields. We present physical principles relevant to magnetometry and suggest models for intracellular particle motion driven by thermal, elastic, or cellular forces. The design principles of instrumentation for magnetizing intracellular particles and for detecting weak remanent magnetic fields are described. Such magnetic measurements can be used for noninvasive studies of particle clearance from the body or of particle motion within body tissues and cells. Assumptions inherent to this experimental approach and possible sources of artifact are considered and evaluated. PMID:3676435

  16. Implications of cosmological observables for particle physics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2016-05-01

    I review how precision data from observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and the large-scale structure distribution can be used to probe particle physics. Some examples are the absolute neutrino mass scale, dark radiation, light sterile neutrinos, QCD axions, WIMP annihilation, and dark sector interactions.

  17. Research in elementary particle physics. [Ohio State Univ. , Columbus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.

  18. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

  19. My 50 years of research in particle physics

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

  20. Deep inelastic scaling in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    These lectures are intended to be a pedagogical introduction to some of the ideas and concepts concerning scaling phenomena which arise in nuclear and particle physics. Topics discussed are: classical scaling and dimensional analysis; non-relativistic treatment; dynamics and scaling; y-scaling; and relativistic treatment (QCD). 22 refs., 16 figs. (LSP)

  1. My 50 years of research in particle physics.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible. PMID:20431257

  2. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  3. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

  4. Current experiments in elementary particle physics, revision 1-85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, F. E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T. G.; Yost, G. P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D. C.; Grudtsin, S. N.; Ryabov, Y. G.; Frosch, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  5. Edward A. Bouchet Award Talk: Nuclear and Particle Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Oliver K.

    2002-04-01

    Nuclear and particle physics research at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's) can be invigorating and rewarding for those doing the work at these institutions. One example of this is given by the work of students, staff, and faculty at Hampton University and its collaborating HBCU's at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) and ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The nuclear physics research for the past decade has been focussed on the study of hadronic systems with strangeness degrees of freedom using electromagnetic probes at JLAB. The particle physics research is the building up of the detectors and development of the software needed to study electroweak physics at the TeV mass scale using ATLAS at the LHC when it is completed (around 2006). The speaker will present an overview of the physics results from these studies and their implications, the detectors used and their construction, and the impact that this work has had on young nuclear and particle physicists who have contributed to these efforts.

  6. Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study.

    PubMed

    Tuzón, Paula; Solbes, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students' lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical atomic models, particle physics, recent discoveries, social implications and students opinions about it. Contrary to our first suspicion, students' answers show a high variability. They have new physics ideas and show a great interest towards modern concepts. We suggest including an updated view of this topic as part of the curriculum. PMID:27253377

  7. Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study

    PubMed Central

    Solbes, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students’ lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical atomic models, particle physics, recent discoveries, social implications and students opinions about it. Contrary to our first suspicion, students’ answers show a high variability. They have new physics ideas and show a great interest towards modern concepts. We suggest including an updated view of this topic as part of the curriculum. PMID:27253377

  8. Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle. PMID:26520491

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA-2015) was held in Moscow, Russia, from October 5 to 10, 2015. The conference is organized by Center of Fundamental Research and Particle Physics of National Research Nuclear University ''MEPhI''. The aim of the Conference is to promote contacts between scientists and development of new ideas in fundamental research. We bring together experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical aspects of nuclear, particle, astroparticle physics and cosmology. The conference covers a wide range of topics such as accelerator physics, (astro) particle physics, cosmic rays, cosmology and methods of experimental physics - detectors and instruments. These directions are unified by development of the Standard Model (SM) which is evidently not complete. There are deviations from the Standard Model - neutrino oscillations, the dark matter existence. Together with strong interactions, they are main subjects of the Conference. New results from LHC collider as well as its future upgrade are discussed with the Higgs as the main point for discussion. Substantial development of experimental tools for astrophysical observations and new results from cosmic ray experiments is one of the main subjects of the conference. Various aspects of strong interaction are discussed. Among them: Charmonium and Bottomonium states, Flavor physics at Super B factories, Exotic Nuclei in Astrophysics. Another subject for discussion is the neutrino physics, promising and unique way to get new knowledge. In this content, several talks on BOREXINO experiment where new results in neutrino oscillations are presented. Special session is devoted to PAMELA experiment - 9 years in orbit and to the future GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with following main scientific goals: indirect dark matter origin study by the gamma-ray astronomy methods, discrete astrophysical sources observations, diffuse background γ-emission analysis

  10. A guide to experimental particle physics literature, 1991-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B.

    1996-10-01

    We present an indexed guide to experimental particle physics literature for the years 1991 - 1996. Approximately 4200 papers are indexed by (1) Beam/Target/Momentum (2) Reaction/Momentum/Data-Descriptor (including the final state) (3) Particle/Decay (4) Accelerator/Experiment/Detector. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and references in the ID/Reference/Title index. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly-updated DATAGUIDE database from the World Wide Web.

  11. Physics of molecular machines operated by a particle flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Carrasco, R.; Sancho, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    Here we present a basic theoretical analysis of molecular machines (turbines) operating with particle fluxes either such as motor or pump regimes. Our focus is on the physical observables: velocity, flux, power and efficiency. We will show that thermal fluctuations are essential to understand its behaviour changing completely the deterministic predictions. Thermal fluctuations introduce a finite domain where no useful output can be extracted from this device due to particle leakage. Furthermore, the maximum of efficiency does not follow the deterministic analysis. Our results also present a bottom line to address the study of these devices in more complex models and to inspire new experiments in this type of machines.

  12. MAJOR DETECOTRS IN ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS - May 1985 Suppl.

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.

    1985-05-01

    This report is the second edition of a loose-leaf compendium of the properties and performance characteristics of the major detectors of elementary particle physics. This introduces the second edition of the LBL-91 Supplement 'Major Detectors in Elementary Particle Physics.' For some detectors the update merely documents minor modifications or provides additional references. Others have undergone major rebuilding or have been augmented with new subsystems. The new LEP, SLC, TRISTAN, BEPC, and FNAL detectors have had their designs fixed and are now under construction. Some detectors have completed their programs since the last edition and so are omitted. The use of colored loose-leaf paper should allow users to maintain a historical record of each detector. We again thank those physicists working with each detector who took the time to summarize its properties and supply us with the appropriate drawings.

  13. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.

    1989-12-01

    The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

  14. Fundamental Constants as Monitors of Particle Physics and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rodger

    2016-03-01

    This contribution considers the constraints on particle physics and dark energy parameter space imposed by the astronomical observational constraints on the variation of the proton to electron mass ratio μ and the fine structure constant α. These constraints impose limits on the temporal variation of these parameters on a time scale greater than half the age of the universe, a time scale inaccessible by laboratory facilities such as the Large Hadron Collider. The limits on the variance of μ and α constrain combinations of the QCD Scale, the Higgs VEV and the Yukawa coupling on the particle physics side and a combination of the temporal variation of rolling scalar field and its coupling to the constants on the dark energy side.

  15. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  16. Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

  17. Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pospelov, Maxim

    2007-06-01

    We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X- does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X- particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX-/s less, approximately <3x10(-17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date. PMID:17677895

  18. Nuclear and particle physics aspects of hyperon and antinucleon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is given of hyperon (Y) and antinucleon (anti N) interactions with nucleons and nuclei, emphasizing some of the future prospects for nuclear structure and elementary particle physics studies at LEAR or a future kaon factory. The topics addressed include: (1) production and decay of strange dibaryons; (2) spectroscopy of strangeness S = -2 many body systems; (3) N anti N annihilation mechanisms; and (4) inelastic anti N-nucleus scattering and spin-flip excitations in nuclei. 36 references.

  19. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

  20. The 5th Generation model of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2009-05-01

    The Standard model of Particle Physics is able to account for all known HEP phenomenon, yet it is not able to predict the masses of the quarks or leptons nor can it explain why they have their respective values. The Checker Board Model (CBM) predicts that there are 5 generation of quarks and leptons and shows a pattern to those masses, namely each three quarks or leptons (within adjacent generations or within a generation) are related to each other by a geometric mean relationship. A 2D structure of the nucleus can be imaged as 2D plate spinning on its axis, it would for all practical circumstances appear to be a 3D object. The masses of the hypothesized ``up'' and ``dn'' quarks determined by the CBM are 237.31 MeV and 42.392 MeV respectively. These new quarks in addition to a lepton of 7.4 MeV make up one of the missing generations. The details of this new particle physics model can be found at the web site: checkerboard.dnsalias.net. The only areas were this theory conflicts with existing dogma is in the value of the mass of the Top quark. The particle found at Fermi Lab must be some sort of composite particle containing Top quarks.

  1. High Intensity Particle Physics at PW-class laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, Stepan; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Esirkepov, Timur; Kando, Masaki; Rosanov, Nikolay; Korn, Georg; Bulanov, Sergey V.; Leemans, Wim P.

    2015-11-01

    The processes typical for high intensity particle physics, i.e., the interactions of charged particles with strong electromagnetic fields, have attracted considerable interest recently. Some of these processes, previously believed to be of theoretical interest only, are now becoming experimentally accessible. High intensity electromagnetic (EM) fields significantly modify the interactions of particles and EM fields, giving rise to the phenomena that are not encountered either in classical or perturbative quantum theory of these interactions. One of such phenomena is the radiation reaction, which radically influences the electron motion in an electromagnetic standing wave formed by two super-intense counter-propagating laser pulses. Depending on the laser intensity and wavelength, either classical or quantum mode of radiation reaction prevail, or both are strong. When radiation reaction dominates, electron motion evolves to limit cycles and strange attractors. This creates a new framework for high energy physics experiments on an interaction of energetic charged particle beams and colliding super-intense laser pulses. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  2. Silicon Detectors-Tools for Discovery in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Krammer, Manfred

    2009-07-07

    Since the first application of Silicon strip detectors in high energy physics in the early 1980ies these detectors have enabled the experiments to perform new challenging measurements. With these devices it became possible to determine the decay lengths of heavy quarks, for example in the fixed target experiment NA11 at CERN. In this experiment Silicon tracking detectors were used for the identification of particles containing a c-quark. Later on, the experiments at the Large Electron Positron collider at CERN used already larger and sophisticated assemblies of Silicon detectors to identify and study particles containing the b-quark. A very important contribution to the discovery of the last of the six quarks, the top quark, has been made by even larger Silicon vertex detectors inside the experiments CDF and D0 at Fermilab. Nowadays a mature detector technology, the use of Silicon detectors is no longer restricted to the vertex regions of collider experiments. The two multipurpose experiments ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN contain large tracking detectors made of Silicon. The largest is the CMS Inner Tracker consisting of 200 m{sup 2} of Silicon sensor area. These detectors will be very important for a possible discovery of the Higgs boson or of Super Symmetric particles. This paper explains the first applications of Silicon sensors in particle physics and describes the continuous development of this technology up to the construction of the state of the art Silicon detector of CMS.

  3. Future large scale accelerator projects for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksan, R.

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of a new particle, the properties of which are compatible with the expected Brout-Englert-Higgs scalar field in the Standard Model (SM), is the starting point of an intense program for studying its couplings. With this particle, all the components of the SM have now been unraveled. Yet, the existence of dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the Universe and neutrino mass call for new physics at an energy scale, which is not determined so far. Therefore, new large scale accelerators are needed to investigate these mysteries through ultra-high precision measurements and/or the exploration of higher energy frontiers. In the following, we discuss the various accelerator projects aimed at the achievement of the above objectives. The physics reach of these facilities will be briefly described as well as their main technical features and related challenges, highlighting the importance of accelerator R&D not only for the benefit of particle physics but also for other fields of research, and more generally for the society.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Harold G; Kostelecky, V Alan; Musser, James A

    2013-07-29

    The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.

  5. Object Oriented Design and the Standard Model of particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovaca, Samir

    2007-04-01

    Inspired by the computer as both tool and metaphor, a new path emerges toward understanding life, physics, and existence. The path leads throughout all of nature, from the interior of cells to inside black holes. This view of science is based on the idea that information is the ultimate ``substance'' from which all things are made. Exploring this view, we will focus on Object - Oriented (OO) design as one of the most important designs in software development. The OO design views the world as composed of objects with well defined properties. The dynamics is pictured as interactions among objects. Interactions are mediated by messages that objects exchange with each other. This description closely resembles the view of the elementary particles world created by the Standard Model of particle physics. The object model (OM) provides a theoretical foundation upon which the OO design is built. The OM is based on the principles of abstraction, encapsulation, modularity and hierarchy. We will show that the Standard Model of particle physics follows the OM principles.

  6. The neutron and its role in cosmology and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dubbers, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael G.

    2011-10-01

    Experiments with cold and ultracold neutrons have reached a level of precision such that problems far beyond the scale of the present standard model of particle physics become accessible to experimental investigation. Because of the close links between particle physics and cosmology, these studies also permit a deep look into the very first instances of our Universe. First addressed in this article, in both theory and experiment, is the problem of baryogenesis, the mechanism behind the evident dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The question of how baryogenesis could have happened is open to experimental tests, and it turns out that this problem can be curbed by the very stringent limits on an electric dipole moment of the neutron, a quantity that also has deep implications for particle physics. Then the recent spectacular observation of neutron quantization in the Earth's gravitational field and of resonance transitions between such gravitational energy states is discussed. These measurements, together with new evaluations of neutron scattering data, set new constraints on deviations from Newton's gravitational law at the picometer scale. Such deviations are predicted in modern theories with extra dimensions that propose unification of the Planck scale with the scale of the standard model. These experiments start closing the remaining ''axion window'' on new spin-dependent forces in the submillimeter range. Another main topic is the weak-interaction parameters in various fields of physics and astrophysics that must all be derived from measured neutron-decay data. Up until now, about 10 different neutron-decay observables have been measured, much more than needed in the electroweak standard model. This allows various precise tests for new physics beyond the standard model, competing with or surpassing similar tests at high energy. The review ends with a discussion of neutron and nuclear data required in the synthesis of the elements during the

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    The quest for the nature of dark matter has reached a historical point in time, with several different and complementary experiments on the verge of conclusively exploring large portions of the parameter space of the most theoretically compelling particle dark matter models. This focus issue on dark matter and particle physics brings together a broad selection of invited articles from the leading experimental and theoretical groups in the field. The leitmotif of the collection is the need for a multi-faceted search strategy that includes complementary experimental and theoretical techniques with the common goal of a sound understanding of the fundamental particle physical nature of dark matter. These include theoretical modelling, high-energy colliders and direct and indirect searches. We are confident that the works collected here present the state of the art of this rapidly changing field and will be of interest to both experts in the topic of dark matter as well as to those new to this exciting field. Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics Contents DARK MATTER AND ASTROPHYSICS Scintillator-based detectors for dark matter searches I S K Kim, H J Kim and Y D Kim Cosmology: small-scale issues Joel R Primack Big Bang nucleosynthesis and particle dark matter Karsten Jedamzik and Maxim Pospelov Particle models and the small-scale structure of dark matter Torsten Bringmann DARK MATTER AND COLLIDERS Dark matter in the MSSM R C Cotta, J S Gainer, J L Hewett and T G Rizzo The role of an e+e- linear collider in the study of cosmic dark matter M Battaglia Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter Howard Baer, Eun-Kyung Park and Xerxes Tata INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS PAMELA and indirect dark matter searches M Boezio et al An indirect search for dark matter using antideuterons: the GAPS experiment C J Hailey Perspectives for indirect dark matter search with AMS-2 using cosmic-ray electrons and positrons B Beischer, P von

  8. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. Boston University is active in seven principal areas: (1) Task A: Colliding Beams - physics of e(sup +)e(sup -) and (anti p)p collisions; (2) Task C: MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; (3) Task D: Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; (4) Tasks E, J, and N: Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; (5) Task F: Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; (6) Task K: SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; (7) Task L: Muon Detectors for the GEM Experiment. The body of the proposal is devoted to detailed discussions of each of the tasks. The total budget request for the program appears in a summary chapter that includes a general budget discussion and individual budget requests and explanations for each of the tasks.

  9. Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2003-10-15

    Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  10. Life at the interface of particle physics and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2013-10-01

    If the results of the first LHC run are not betraying us, many decades of particle physics are culminating in a complete and consistent theory for all nongravitational physics: the standard model. But despite this monumental achievement there is a clear sense of disappointment: many questions remain unanswered. Remarkably, most unanswered questions could just be environmental, and disturbingly to some the existence of life may depend on that environment. Meanwhile there has been increasing evidence that the seemingly ideal candidate for answering these questions, string theory, gives an answer few people initially expected: a large “landscape” of possibilities that can be realized in a multiverse and populated by eternal inflation. At the interface of “bottom-up” and “top-down” physics, a discussion of anthropic arguments becomes unavoidable. Developments in this area are reviewed, focusing especially on the last decade.

  11. Physical interactions of charged particles for radiotherapy and space applications.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Cary

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the basic physics by which energetic charged particles deposit energy in matter is reviewed. Energetic charged particles are used for radiotherapy and are encountered in spaceflight, where they pose a health risk to astronauts. They interact with matter through nuclear and electromagnetic forces. Deposition of energy occurs mostly along the trajectory of the incoming particle, but depending on the type of incident particle and its energy, there is some nonzero probability for energy deposition relatively far from the nominal trajectory, either due to long-ranged knock-on electrons (sometimes called delta rays) or from the products of nuclear fragmentation, including neutrons. In the therapy setting, dose localization is of paramount importance, and the deposition of energy outside nominal treatment volumes complicates planning and increases the risk of secondary cancers as well as noncancer effects in normal tissue. Statistical effects are also important and will be discussed. In contrast to radiation therapy patients, astronauts in space receive comparatively small whole-body radiation doses from energetic charged particles and associated secondary radiation. A unique aspect of space radiation exposures is the high-energy heavy-ion component of the dose. This is not present in terrestrial exposures except in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Designers of space missions must limit exposures to keep risk within acceptable limits. These limits are, at present, defined for low-Earth orbit, but not for deep-space missions outside the geomagnetosphere. Most of the uncertainty in risk assessment for such missions comes from the lack of understanding of the biological effectiveness of the heavy-ion component, with a smaller component due to uncertainties in transport physics and dosimetry. These same uncertainties are also critical in the therapy setting. PMID:23032883

  12. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  13. Method of Improving the Teaching of Particle Physics in a Noncalculus Course of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Robert L. W.

    The Klein Gordon equation-which describes mesons-can be reformulated to suit students who have no calculus background. The method is arrived at from a review and a reinterpretation of the mechanics of small oscillations. It may serve as a model for the design of new instructions for other areas of particle physics.

  14. Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Doke, T.

    2010-07-15

    This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

  15. Physics of leptoquarks in precision experiments and at particle colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doršner, I.; Fajfer, S.; Greljo, A.; Kamenik, J. F.; Košnik, N.

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive review of physics effects generated by leptoquarks (LQs), i.e., hypothetical particles that can turn quarks into leptons and vice versa, of either scalar or vector nature. These considerations include discussion of possible completions of the Standard Model that contain LQ fields. The main focus of the review is on those LQ scenarios that are not problematic with regard to proton stability. We accordingly concentrate on the phenomenology of light leptoquarks that is relevant for precision experiments and particle colliders. Important constraints on LQ interactions with matter are derived from precision low-energy observables such as electric dipole moments, (g - 2) of charged leptons, atomic parity violation, neutral meson mixing, Kaon, B, and D meson decays, etc. We provide a general analysis of indirect constraints on the strength of LQ interactions with the quarks and leptons to make statements that are as model independent as possible. We address complementary constraints that originate from electroweak precision measurements, top, and Higgs physics. The Higgs physics analysis we present covers not only the most recent but also expected results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We finally discuss direct LQ searches. Current experimental situation is summarized and self-consistency of assumptions that go into existing accelerator-based searches is discussed. A progress in making next-to-leading order predictions for both pair and single LQ productions at colliders is also outlined.

  16. Major detectors in elementary-particle physics. [Portfolio

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    With the 1983 issue of LBL-91 we introduce a supplement - a folio of descriptions of the world's major elementary particle physics detectors. Modern high energy physics usually involves the use of massive, costly, carefully engineered, large solid angle detectors. These detectors require a long lead time for construction, are often integrated with an accelerator, accumulate data over many years, and are in reality a combination of numerous subsystems. As was the case with bubble chambers, many experiments are performed with the same data, or with data taken after relatively minor changes or additions to the detector configuration. These experiments are often reported in journals whose space limitations make repeated full descriptions of the detector impossible. The detailed properties and performance of the detector are usually described in a fragmented series of papers in more specialized, technologically oriented journals. New additions are often not well documented. Several detectors often make similar measurements and physicists want to make quick comparisons of their respective capabilities. Designers of new large detectors and even of smaller experiments need to know what already exists and what performance has been achieved. To aid the physics community, the Particle Data Group has produced this brief folio of the world's major large detectors. This first edition has some notable omissions: in particular, the bubble chambers and any associated spectrometers, and the still somewhat tentative LEP, SLC, and TRISTAN detectors.

  17. Energetic Particle Instrumentation for Future Space Physics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Griffin, D. K.; Dunlop, M. W.; Davies, J. A.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    Collisionless plasmas frequently exhibit strong fluxes of electrons and ions at energies well above the mean plasma energy. These suprathermal particles play an important role in the identification and interpretation of the fundamental properties and physical processes within space plasmas. Investigations of these energetic populations require both good angular and temporal resolution measurements. Large geometric factors and fast electronics are vital to ensure adequate sampling of the tail of the particle distribution. We present the status of the energetic particle instrument development activity that is currently underway at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. This is in preparation for both the proposed HEP instrument for Cross-Scale mission, which is currently undergoing assessment for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme, and the IEPS instrument for the Chinese KuaFu mission. The activities are based on the heritage of instruments already successfully flown on the NASA/Polar and ESA/Cluster spacecraft. The design consists of a simple ‘pin-hole' aperture and segmented silicon solid state detector array capable of measuring energetic particle distributions in the range 30-1000 keV. Key features of the activities include the development of 1) a modular mechanical design that can easily support different spacecraft accommodation constraints and scientific requirements, 2) combined detector configurations for ions and electrons, and 3) multi-channel hybrid ASICs for the sensor electronics which is crucial for low mass and power.

  18. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.

    1995-12-01

    This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s high-resolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.

  19. Nuclear and Particle Physics Simulations: The Consortium of Upper-Level Physics Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Roberta; Moloney, Michael J.; Philpott, John; Rothberg, Joseph

    1995-06-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  20. Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2013-03-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

  1. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

  2. Particle physics for everybody. [Depiction of elementary particle as known today

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.

    1987-12-01

    The impact of particle physics on astronomy and cosmology is discussed in a historical context. Consideration is given to the four (recognized) fundamental forces in nature: gravitation, electromagnetism, and weak and strong nuclear forces. Antimatter is discussed as well as fermions and bosons (and their subclasses) and symmetry. Various unification schemes are presented, and it is noted that, depending on the properties of the various cosmions, their gravitating power may be sufficient to halt the expansion of the universe.

  3. A guide to data in elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.; Armstrong, B.; Ferguson, M. Jr.; Levine, B.S.; Simpson, K.H.; Trippe, T.G.; Visser, M.J.; Wagman, G.S.; Wohl, C.G.

    1986-09-01

    We present an indexed guide to experimental high energy physics literature for the years 1977 through 1985. While no actual data are included, approximately 9000 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction/Momentum (including the final state), Particle, and Accelerator/Detector. All indices are cross-referenced via an ID to the paper's title and references in the ID/Reference/Title Index. Black marks (bleeder tabs) at the side of the page enable each section to be located quickly, using the Table of Contents on the back cover. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly updated SLAC-SPIRES database called DATAGUIDE.

  4. A Summer Research Experience in Particle Physics Using Skype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Curran; Alexander, Steven; Mahmood, A. K.

    2012-10-01

    This last summer I did research in particle physics as part of a ``remote REU.'' This poster will describe that experience and the results of my project which was to experimentally verify the mass ranges of the Z' boson. Data from the LHC's Atlas detector was filtered by computers to select for likely Z boson decays; my work was in noting all instances of Z or Z' boson decays in one thousand events and their masses, separating the Z from Z' bosons, and generating histograms of the masses.

  5. Counterfactual quantum-information transfer without transmitting any physical particles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum information can be transferred between two distant participants without any physical particles traveling between them. The key procedure of the counterfactual scheme is to entangle two nonlocal qubits with each other without interaction, so the scheme can also be used to generate nonlocal entanglement counterfactually. We here illustrate the scheme by using flying photon qubits and Rydberg atom qubits assisted by a mesoscopic atomic ensemble. Unlike the typical teleportation, the present scheme can transport an unknown qubit in a nondeterministic manner without prior entanglement sharing or classical communication between the two distant participants. PMID:25672936

  6. Applications of gaseous particle detectors in physics and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    1995-08-01

    The multi-wire proportional chamber, introduced in 1967 by Georges Charpak (recipient of the 1992 Nobel prize for physics) allows to achieve high-rate, fully electronics detection and localization of ionizing radiation. The myriad of devices inspired by this initial work generated a revolution in the conception of detectors for elementary particle physics experiments; examples are the time projection chamber, the drift chamber, the micro-strip gas chamber. After a brief introduction on the basic operating principles of the device, I will describe several examples of application of advanced gas detectors in medicine and biology and analyze the operating characteristics that make the new devices attractive when confronted with classic detectors.

  7. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  8. Model of cosmology and particle physics at an intermediate scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bastero-Gil, M.; Di Clemente, V.; King, S. F.

    2005-05-15

    We propose a model of cosmology and particle physics in which all relevant scales arise in a natural way from an intermediate string scale. We are led to assign the string scale to the intermediate scale M{sub *}{approx}10{sup 13} GeV by four independent pieces of physics: electroweak symmetry breaking; the {mu} parameter; the axion scale; and the neutrino mass scale. The model involves hybrid inflation with the waterfall field N being responsible for generating the {mu} term, the right-handed neutrino mass scale, and the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale. The large scale structure of the Universe is generated by the lightest right-handed sneutrino playing the role of a coupled curvaton. We show that the correct curvature perturbations may be successfully generated providing the lightest right-handed neutrino is weakly coupled in the seesaw mechanism, consistent with sequential dominance.

  9. Molecular Rotation Signals: Molecule Chemistry and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2015-06-01

    Molecules - large or small - are attractive academic resources, with numerous questions on their chemical behaviour as well as problems in fundamental physics now (or still) waiting to be answered: Targeted by high-resolution spectroscopy, a rotating molecular top can turn into a laboratory for molecule chemistry or a laboratory for particle physics. Once successfully entrained (many species - depending on size and chemical composition - have insufficient vapour pressures or are of transient nature, such that specifically designed pulsed-jet sources are required for their transfer into the gas phase or in-situ generation) into the collision-free environment of a supersonic-jet expansion, each molecular top comes with its own set of challenges, theoretically and experimentally: Multiple internal interactions are causing complicated energy level schemes and the resulting spectra will be rather difficult to predict theoretically. Experimentally, these spectra are difficult to assess and assign. With today's broad-banded chirp microwave techniques, finding and identifying such spectral features have lost their major drawback of being very time consuming for many molecules. For other molecules, the unrivalled resolution and sensitivity of the narrow-banded impulse microwave techniques provide a window to tackle - at the highest precision available to date - fundamental questions in physics, even particle physics - potentially beyond the standard model. Molecular charge distribution, properties of the chemical bond, details on internal dynamics and intermolecular interaction, the (stereo-chemical) molecular structure (including the possibility of their spatial separation) as well as potential evidence for tiny yet significant interactions encode their signature in pure molecular rotation subjected to time-domain microwave spectroscopic techniques. Ongoing exciting technical developments promise rapid progress. We present recent examples from Hannover, new directions, and

  10. Particle Physics Catalysis of Thermal Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pospelov, Maxim

    2007-06-08

    We point out that the existence of metastable, {tau}>10{sup 3} s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X{sup -}) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X{sup -} with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10{sup 8} K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of {sup 6}Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X{sup -} does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X{sup -} particles ({tau}>10{sup 5} s) relative to entropy of n{sub X{sup -}}/s < or approx. 3x10{sup -17}, which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date.

  11. Early developments: Particle physics aspects of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays is the birthplace of elementary particle physics. The 1936 Nobel prize was shared between Victor Hess and Carl Anderson. Anderson discovered the positron in a cloud chamber. The positron was predicted by Dirac several years earlier. In subsequent cloud chamber investigations Anderson and Neddermeyer saw the muon, which for some time was considered to be a candidate for the Yukawa particle responsible for nuclear binding. Measurements with nuclear emulsions by Lattes, Powell, Occhialini and Muirhead clarified the situation by the discovery of the charged pions in cosmic rays. The cloud chamber continued to be a powerful instrument in cosmic ray studies. Rochester and Butler found V's, which turned out to be shortlived neutral kaons decaying into a pair of charged pions. Also Λ's, Σ's, and Ξ's were found in cosmic rays. But after that accelerators and storage rings took over. The unexpected renaissance of cosmic rays started with the search for solar neutrinos and the observation of the supernova 1987A. Cosmic ray neutrino results were best explained by the assumption of neutrino oscillations opening a view beyond the standard model of elementary particles. After 100 years of cosmic ray research we are again at the beginning of a new era, and cosmic rays may contribute to solve the many open questions, like dark matter and dark energy, by providing energies well beyond those of accelerators.

  12. FOREWORD: Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Fanourakis, George; Kehagias, Alexandros; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Wess, Julius; Zoupanos, George

    2006-12-01

    These are the Proceedings of the Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005) (http://corfu2005.physics.uoi.gr), which took place in Corfu, Greece from 4 - 26 September 2005. The Corfu Summer Institute has a very long, interesting and successful history, some elements of which can be found in http://www.corfu-summer-institute.gr. In short, the Corfu Meeting started as a Summer School on Elementary Particle Physics (EPP) mostly for Greek graduate students in 1982 and has developed into a leading international Summer Institute in the field of EPP, both experimental and theoretical, providing in addition a very rich outreach programme to teachers and school students. The CORFU2005 Summer Institute on EPP, although based on the general format that has been developed and established in the Corfu Meetings during previous years, is characterized by the fact that it was a full realization of a new idea, which started experimentally in the previous two Corfu Meetings. The successful new ingredient was that three European Marie Curie Research Training Networks decided to hold their Workshops in Corfu during September 2005 and they managed to coordinate the educational part of their meetings to a huge Summer School called `The 8th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics' (4 - 11 September). The European Networks which joined forces to materialize this project and the corresponding dates of their own Workshops are:

  13. The Third Generation as a Probe for New Physics: Experimental and Technological Approach (4 - 11 September)
  14. The Quest for Unification Theory Confronts Experiment (11 - 18 September)
  15. Constituents Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe (20 - 26 September)
  16. To these Workshops has been added a Satellite one called `Noncommutative Geometry in Field and String Theory', and some extra speakers have been invited to complement the full programme of CORFU2005, some of whom have integrated into the Workshop

  17. [Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the high-resolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks.

  18. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; D`Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  19. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, J.

    1991-08-31

    The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise.

  20. Research Activities on MHD and Energetic Particle Physics in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoung-Ho; Kwak, Jong-Gu; Lee, San-Gon; Yoon, Si-Woo; Bae, Young-Sun; Kim, Jin-Young; KSTAR Team

    2014-10-01

    In this talk, the recent achievements in MHD and energetic particle physics in KSTAR will be presented. Throughout the 2014 campaign, strategically important works in achieving KSTAR milestone including NTM stabilization, error field measurement, establishing disruption mitigation system, and identification of Alfvenic eigenmode are conducted. Real time feedback control of 2/1 NTM is successfully demonstrated with the search and suppression algorithm and the improved ECCD mirror control system. 3-D structure of n=1 intrinsic error field are fully explored with L- and H-mode plasma aiming not only to complete MID IVCC compass scan but also to set a groundwork toward understanding of KSTAR's unique feature, ELM suppression by n = 1 RMP. Elaborated q95 ~ 2 discharge regime is achieved without any error field correction by virtue of the extremely low intrinsic error field of KSTAR. The integrated disruption avoidance/mitigation system for the safety secured MA-class operation is well assessed. Further investigations of the energetic particle mode have been done with various control nobs of ECH, RMP and tailoring of NBI profile and mode identification efforts have been followed. Besides high priority works above, studies on sawtooth and run-away electron have made progresses.

  21. PREFACE: High Energy Particle Physics Workshop (HEPPW2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, Alan S.; Mellado, B.

    2015-10-01

    The motivation for this workshop began with the discovery of the Higgs boson three years ago, and the realisation that many problems remain in particle physics, such as why there is more matter than anti-matter, better determining the still poorly measured parameters of the strong force, explaining possible sources for dark matter, naturalness etc. While the newly discovered Higgs boson seems to be compatible with the Standard Model, current experimental accuracy is far from providing a definitive statement with regards to the nature of this new particle. There is a lot of room for physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge in the exploration of the Higgs boson. Recent measurements in high-energy heavy ion collisions at the LHC have shed light on the complex dynamics that govern high-density quark-gluon interactions. An array of results from the ALICE collaboration have been highlighted in a recent issue of CERN courier. The physics program of high-energy heavy ion collisions promises to further unveil the intricacies of high-density quark-gluon plasma physics. The great topicality of high energy physics research has also seen a rapid increase in the number of researchers in South Africa pursuing such studies, both experimentally through the ATLAS and ALICE colliders at CERN, and theoretically. Young researchers and graduate students largely populate these research groups, with little experience in presenting their work, and few support structures (to their knowledge) to share experiences with. Whilst many schools and workshops have sought to educate these students on the theories and tools they will need to pursue their research, few have provided them with a platform to present their work. As such, this workshop discussed the various projects being pursued by graduate students and young researchers in South Africa, enabling them to develop networks for future collaboration and discussion. The workshop took place at the iThemba Laboratories - North facility, in

  22. J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics Talk: Physics with Hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2011-04-01

    After many years of sustained effort, The LHC has started operation and physics results have started to be released. This marks the beginning of a new era in High Energy Physics during which the fundamental mechanism underlying the source of masses for the elextro-weak gauge bosons will be probed exhaustively. These results will, over the next decade, enable questions such as ``Does the Higgs boson exist?'' ``Are there extra space time dimensions,'' ``Is there supersymmetry?'' ``can dark matter be produced at a particle accelerator?'' to be addressed, and the large variety of theoretical ideas developed over the last 20 years to be ``weighed in the balance.'' My presentation will discuss some of the physics program of the ATLAS experiment, the discoveries that we expect to make in the next few years and their role in the ``weighing'' that will occur.

  23. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1990--1991]. [Dept. of Physics, Purdue Univ. , West Lafayette, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1991-05-01

    Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included.

  24. Physical Aging within Hairy NanoParticle Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerner, H.; Bockstaller, M.; Dang, A.; Mahoney, C.; Matyjaszewski, K.; Hui, C.-M.; Vaia, R.; Carnegie Mellon U Collaboration; Afrl-Wpafb Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymer grafted nanoparticles provide solutions to overcome dispersion challenges in conventional polymer-inorganic nanocomposites (NCs). While most research has focused on blends of these hairy nanoparticles (HNPs) into polymer matrices, recent work has demonstrated substantial promise for solvent- or matrix-free assemblies of HNPs (aHNPs). Significant progress has been made in understanding the relationship between the structure of the polymer corona at intermediate and high graft densities and the morphology, mechanical properties and melts dynamics of the assembly. However, very little is known about the behavior of aHNPs with low graft densities (σ<0.05 nm-2) of high molecular weight chains that are above entanglement (>60kDa). Such aHNPs contain more than 30 vol% inorganic, with maximum separation between particle surfaces less than 10 nanometers. For such materials, we discuss the physical aging characteristics from enthalpy relaxation experiments of these highly confined poly(styrene) and poly(methylmethacrylate) grafts. Physical aging is substantially suppressed in the low σ (σ<0.05) regime, as compared to conventional NCs at similar nanoparticle loadings. Furthermore, relaxation rate, distribution and fragility indicate that aHNPs with high σ exhibit behavior deep within the glass similar to conventional NCs and their neat polymers, however deviate substantially from Arrhenius behavior as Tg-T approaches 0.

  1. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Bernard, C.; Blum, T.; Colangelo, G.; Della Morte, M.; Dürr, S.; El-Khadra, A. X.; Fukaya, H.; Horsley, R.; Jüttner, A.; Kaneko, T.; Laiho, J.; Lellouch, L.; Leutwyler, H.; Lubicz, V.; Lunghi, E.; Necco, S.; Onogi, T.; Pena, C.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sharpe, S. R.; Simula, S.; Sommer, R.; Van de Water, R. S.; Vladikas, A.; Wenger, U.; Wittig, H.

    2014-09-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K -> pi transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio fK/fpi of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements Vus and Vud. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)LxSU(2)R and SU(3)LxSU(3)R Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, for this review, we focus on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_s.

  2. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Bernard, C.; Blum, T.; Colangelo, G.; Della Morte, M.; Dürr, S.; El-Khadra, A. X.; Fukaya, H.; Horsley, R.; et al

    2014-09-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K -> pi transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio fK/fpi of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements Vus and Vud. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)LxSU(2)R and SU(3)LxSU(3)R Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination ofmore » the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, for this review, we focus on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_s.« less

  3. European Particle Physics Masterclasses Make Students into Scientists for a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Kobel, M.; Hillebrandt, D.; Engeln, K.; Euler, M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the European particle physics masterclasses attracted 3000 students from 18 European countries to visit one of 58 universities and education centres. The participants worked with data from real high energy particle collisions, learned about particle physics, and experienced research and education environments at European universities. In…

  4. Guide to QSPIRES and the particle physics databases on SLACVM

    SciTech Connect

    Galic, H.

    1992-06-01

    SLAC, in collarboration with DESY, LBL, and several other institutions, maintains many databases of interest to the high energy physics community. You do not to have a computer account at SLAC to search through some of these databases, they can be reached via the remote server QSPIRES, set at the BITNET node SLACVM. This text describes, in great detail, how to search in the popular HEP database via QSPIRES, HEP contains bibliographic summaries of more than 200,000 particle physics papers. Other databases available remotely are also reviewed, and the registration procedure for those who would like to use QSPIRES is explained. To utilize QSPIRES, you must have access to a large computer network. It is not necessary that the network be BITNET; it may be a different one. However, a gateway must exist between your network and BITNET. It should be mentioned at BITNET users have some advantages in searching, e.g., the possibility of interactive communication with QSPIRES. Therefore, if you have a choice, let a BITNET machine be your base for QSPIRES searches. You will also need an authorization to use HEP and other databases; and should know the set of relevant commands and rules. The authorization is free, the commands are simple, and BITNET can be reached from all over the world. Join, therefore, the group of thousands of satisfied users, log on to your local computer, and from the comfort of your office or home fine, e.g., the number of citations of your most famous high energy physics paper.

  5. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Task A: theoretical elementary particle physics; Task B: experimental elementary particle physics; Task C: axion project; Task G: experimental research in collider physics; and Task S: computer acquisition. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Experimental particle physics at the University of Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, E. Jr.; Perera, U.; Shepard, P.F.; Thompson, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    During the past year Task A completed the HELIOS single and pair electron analyses and found no anomalous production or multiplicity dependence. The HELIOS electron-muon pair analysis continued in its search for lepton physics beyond the expected charm yields. Data taking began at the CMD2 detector at Novosibirsk. Measurements of the U. V. reflectivity and photomultiplier tests for the first Cerenkov counter to be used in the E865 experiment at BNL were carried out, along with the development of a general ray-tracing code. The design of the Cerenkov counter for E865 along with development of light mirror fabrication techniques were a major part of the Task A program. The principal efforts of Task B, the Fermilab program, have been the completion of the analysis of the 1987--1988 data with resulting publications, completion of the 1990--1991 data run, and the beginning of the analysis of the 1990--1991 data. In addition, the Task B group is taking a leadership role in developing a proposal to Fermilab for the upgrade of the CDF silicon vertex detector in preparation for the 1995 data run. This proposal is to be presented to the laboratory management in time for the fall Fermilab Program Advisory Committee meeting. Task C has recently submitted results of its fractionally charged particle searches, placing new upper limits on the abundance of naturally-occurring fractionally-charged particles in various materials. This group has recently been approved by the Brookhaven management for an exposure of their p-i-n diodes in a high intensity proton beam. This measurement, along with its subsequent analysis, will complete the program.

  7. A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

    2014-04-01

    We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

  8. Particle physics meets cosmology - The search for decaying neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physical implications of the possible detection of massive neutrinos are discussed, with an emphasis on the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) of matter. The Newtonian and general-relativistic pictures of the fundamental forces are compared, and the reduction of electromagnetic and weak forces to one force in the GUTs is explained. The cosmological consequences of the curved-spacetime gravitation concept are considered. Quarks, leptons, and neutrinos are characterized in a general treatment of elementary quantum mechanics. The universe is described in terms of quantized fields, the noninteractive 'particle' fields and the force fields, and cosmology becomes the study of the interaction of gravitation with the other fields, of the 'freezing out' of successive fields with the expansion and cooling of the universe. While the visible universe is the result of the clustering of the quark and electron fields, the distribution of the large number of quanta in neutrino field, like the mass of the neutrino, are unknown. Cosmological models which attribute anomalies in the observed motions of galaxies and stars to clusters or shells of massive neutrinos are shown to be consistent with a small but nonzero neutrino mass and a universe near the open/closed transition point, but direct detection of the presence of massive neutrinos by the UV emission of their decay is required to verify these hypotheses.

  9. Studies in theoretical particle physics. Progress report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1991-07-01

    This proposal focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: (1) Nonperturbative QCD. I tend to continue work on analytic modelling of nonperturbative effects in the strong interactions. I have been investigating the theoretical connection between the nonrelativistic quark model and QCD. The primary motivation has been to understand the experimental observation of nonzero matrix elements involving current strange quarks in ordinary matter -- which in the quark model has no strange quark component. This has led to my present work on understanding constituent (quark model) quarks as collective excitations of QCD degrees of freedom. (2) Weak Scale Baryogenesis. A continuation of work on baryogenesis in the early universe from weak interactions. In particular, an investigation of baryogenesis occurring during the weak phase transition through anomalous baryon violating processes in the standard model of weak interactions. (3) Flavor and Compositeness. Further investigation of a new mechanism that I recently discovered for dynamical mass generation for fermions, which naturally leads to a family hierarchy structure. A discussion of recent past work is found in the next section, followed by an outline of the proposed research. A recent publication from each of these three areas is attached to this proposal.

  10. Physics of Alfvén waves and energetic particles in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of shear Alfvén waves and energetic particles are crucial to the performance of burning fusion plasmas. This article reviews linear as well as nonlinear physics of shear Alfvén waves and their self-consistent interaction with energetic particles in tokamak fusion devices. More specifically, the review on the linear physics deals with wave spectral properties and collective excitations by energetic particles via wave-particle resonances. The nonlinear physics deals with nonlinear wave-wave interactions as well as nonlinear wave-energetic particle interactions. Both linear as well as nonlinear physics demonstrate the qualitatively important roles played by realistic equilibrium nonuniformities, magnetic field geometries, and the specific radial mode structures in determining the instability evolution, saturation, and, ultimately, energetic-particle transport. These topics are presented within a single unified theoretical framework, where experimental observations and numerical simulation results are referred to elucidate concepts and physics processes.

  11. Energetic particles in geospace: Physics and space weather effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I.

    2013-09-01

    Geospace is populated by charged particles covering a wide range of energies and densities. Influenced by electromagnetic fields and waves, a subset of these particles are accelerated and driven into the inner magnetosphere, creating the storm-time ring current and the radiation belts - the two dominant energetic particle populations in geospace. The acceleration processes are associated with a variety of space weather related phenomena, some of which are detrimental for space infrastructure and ground facilities alike. We present recent advances in our understanding of the complex interplay of particles, fields and waves in geospace, with an emphasis on the role of magnetic storms and wave-particle interactions.

  12. A data transmission method for particle physics experiments based on Ethernet physical layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xi-Ru; Cao, Ping; Zheng, Jia-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Due to its advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design for modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with the TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to implement readout systems because designers have to use the operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on the physical layer (PHY) is proposed. In this method, TCP/IP is replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which makes it easier to implement. On each readout module, data from the front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. From the side of the data acquisition system (DAQ), however, the absence of a standard protocol causes problems for the network related applications. To solve this problem, in the operating system kernel space, data received by the network interface card is redirected from the traditional flow to a specified memory space by a customized program. This memory space can easily be accessed by applications in user space. For the purpose of verification, a prototype system has been designed and implemented. Preliminary test results show that this method can meet the requirements of data transmission from the readout module to the DAQ with an efficient and simple manner. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107) and Independent Projects of State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (201301)

  13. Aspects of Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan

    This dissertation describes a few aspects of particles beyond the Standard Model, with a focus on the remaining questions after the discovery of a Standard Model-like Higgs boson. In specific, three topics are discussed in sequence: neutrino mass and baryon asymmetry, naturalness problem of Higgs mass, and placing constraints on theoretical models from precision measurements. First, the consequence of the neutrino mass anarchy on cosmology is studied. Attentions are paid in particular to the total mass of neutrinos and baryon asymmetry through leptogenesis. With the assumption of independence among mass matrix entries in addition to the basis independence, Gaussian measure is the only choice. On top of Gaussian measure, a simple approximate U(1) flavor symmetry makes leptogenesis highly successful. Correlations between the baryon asymmetry and the light-neutrino quantities are investigated. Also discussed are possible implications of recently suggested large total mass of neutrinos by the SDSS/BOSS data. Second, the Higgs mass implies fine-tuning for minimal theories of weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Non-decoupling effects can boost the Higgs mass when new states interact with the Higgs, but new sources of SUSY breaking that accompany such extensions threaten naturalness. I will show that two singlets with a Dirac mass can increase the Higgs mass while maintaining naturalness in the presence of large SUSY breaking in the singlet sector. The modified Higgs phenomenology of this scenario, termed "Dirac NMSSM", is also studied. Finally, the sensitivities of future precision measurements in probing physics beyond the Standard Model are studied. A practical three-step procedure is presented for using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. A detailed explanation is

  14. PREFACE: The EPS High Energy Particle Physics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Roger

    2008-03-01

    HEPP2007, the EPS High Energy Particle Physics Conference, was held in Manchester from July 19-26 2007. It brought together 580 delegates across the whole subject: from string theorists to detector technologists, from young postgraduate students to senior professors. Geographically they came from the UK, from the rest of Europe, from North America, and from the rest of the world. It covered the whole spectrum of the subject, not only accelerator-based experiments but also its astrophysical and cosmological aspects. The parallel and plenary talks can be found in these proceedings. A key feature of the conference, as always, was the award of the prizes: this year the EPS prize was awarded to Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa for their explanation of CP violation with a 6 quark model—Kobayashi came to accept it in person. The Gribov medal went to Niklas Beisert, the outreach prize to Richard Jacobsson and Charles Timmermans and the Young Physicist prizer to I Furic, G Gomez-Ceballos and S Menzemer. Parallel sessions were held in Manchester University, and plenary talks were held in the Bridgewater Hall in Manchester Town centre, a magnificent modern venue whose positive and co-operative staff enabled the conference to make the most of the impressive surroundings. We were able to put the hall to its proper purpose one evening with a concert by the Fairey Band—one of the distinctive brass bands who form part of the rich musical tradition of the North of England, and came as something new and different to many of the delegates. The conference ran smoothly and successfully, thanks largely to hard work by the local organising committee who devoted a lot of time to planning, producing ideas, and anticipating potential problems. Many of them were not from Manchester itself but from other universities and laboratories in the North of England, so their dedication was especially appreciated. The EPS committee also played a major part, by the selection of plenary

  15. Grand unified theories and supersymmetry in particle physics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, W.

    A review is given on the consistency checks of Grand Unified Theories (GUT), which unify the electroweak and strong nuclear forces into a single theory. Such theories predict a new kind of force, which could provide answers to several open questions in cosmology. The possible role of such a ``primeval'' force will be discussed in the framework of the Big Bang Theory. Although such a force cannot be observed directly, there are several predictions of GUT's, which can be verified at low energies. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) distinguishes itself from other GUT's by a successful prediction of many unrelated phenomena with a minimum number of parameters. Among them: a) Unification of the couplings constants; b) Unification of the masses; c) Existence of dark matter; d) Proton decay; e) Electroweak symmetry breaking at a scale far below the unification scale. A fit of the free parameters in the MSSM to these low energy constraints predicts the masses of the as yet unobserved superpartners of the SM particles, constrains the unknown top mass to a range between 140 and 200 GeV, and requires the second order QCD coupling constant to be between 0.108 and 0.132. ``The possibility that the universe was generated from nothing is very interesting and should be further studied. A most perplexing question relating to the singularity is this: what preceded the genesis of the universe? This question appears to be absolutely methaphysical, but our experience with metaphysics tells us that metaphysical questions are sometimes given answers by physics.'' A. Linde (1982)

  16. Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmic-ray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.

  17. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1990--1991]. Progress report, January 1990--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1991-05-01

    Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included.

  18. J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics Talk: The Boundless Horizons of Supercollider Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2011-04-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is moving the experimental frontier of particle physics to the domain of electroweak symmetry breaking, reaching energies around one trillion electron volts for collisions among the basic constituents of matter. We do not know what the new wave of exploration will find, but the discoveries we make and the new puzzles we encounter are certain to change the face of particle physics and echo through neighboring sciences. In this new world, we confidently expect to learn what sets electromagnetism apart from the weak interactions, with profound implications for deceptively simple questions: Why are there atoms? Why chemistry? What makes stable structures possible? A pivotal step will be finding the Higgs boson-or whatever takes its place -and exploring its properties. But we hope for much more. More predictive extensions of the electroweak theory, including dynamical symmetry breaking and supersymmetry, imply new kinds of matter that would be within reach of LHC experiments. We suspect that candidates for the dark matter of the Universe could also await discovery on the TeV scale. The strong interactions may hold their own surprises. As we unravel the riddle of electroweak symmetry breaking, prospects arise for other new insights: into the different forms of matter, the unity of quarks and leptons, and the nature of spacetime. The questions in play all seem linked to one another-and to the kinship of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. I will speak of the evolving dialogue between theory and experiment, highlighting the work before us. Fermilab is operated by the Fermi Research Alliance under contract no. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 8: Instrumentation Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.; et al.

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 8, on the Instrumentation Frontier, discusses the instrumentation needs of future experiments in the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers, promising new technologies for particle physics research, and issues of gathering resources for long-term research in this area.

  20. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on electronics for particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blanar, G.J.; Sumner, R.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Sixth Conference on Electronics for Particle Physics continued the LeCroy tradition of providing a unique forum for the leaders in the field to meet, report and compare notes on what has become one of the most important (and expensive) components of a particle physics physics experiments today. As our field continues to depend on special electronics developed for particle physics to even make the experiments possible, this conference, along with the IEEE National Science Symposium and the LHC Electronics Conference have become essential if we are to meet the experiment`s severe time and financial commitments.

  1. Physics at the Frontier HS Teacher Workshop: bringing particle physics and cloud chambers into the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Alyx; Bedard, Jamie; Bellis, Matthew; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    In the summer of 2015, we hosted 10 high school teachers for a three-day ``Physics at the Frontier'' Workshop. The mornings were spent learning about particle physics, CMS and the LHC, and radiation safety while the afternoons were spent building turn-key cloud chambers for use in their classrooms. The basic cloud chamber design uses Peltier thermoelectric coolers, rather than dry ice, and instructions can be found in multiple places online. For a robust build procedure and for easy use in the classroom, we redesigned parts of the construction process to make it easier to put together while holding costs below 200 per chamber. In addition to this new design, we also created a website with instructions for those who are interested in building their own using this design. This workshop was funded in part by a minigrant for Outreach and Education from the USCMS collaboration. Our experience with the workshop and the lessons learned from the cloud chamber design will be discussed. This work was funded in part by NSF Grants PHY-1307562 and a USCMS-administered minigrant for Outreach and Education.

  2. Elementary particles and the laws of physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures

    SciTech Connect

    Feynman, R.P.; Weinberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics contains transcriptions of the two lectures given in Cambridge, England, in 1986 by Nobel Laureates Richard P. Feynman and Steven Weinberg to commemorate the famous British physicist Paul Dirac. The talks focus on the fundamental problems of physics and the present state of our knowledge. Professor Feynman discusses how the laws of physics require the existence of antiparticles; Professor Weinberg examines the development of the fundamental laws of elementary particle intersection.

  3. Fluorescent eco-particles for surface flow physics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, we describe a novel methodology for fabricating inexpensive environmentally-friendly fluorescent microparticles for quantitative surface flow visualization. Particles are synthesized from natural white beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. Bead fluorescence exhibits a long lifetime in adverse conditions, such as exposure to weathering agents, and is enhanced by Ultra Violet radiation. The fluorescent eco-particles are integrated in a particle image velocimetry study of circular hydraulic jump to demonstrate their feasibility in tracing complex surface flows.

  4. Defective Interfering Particles of Poliovirus I. Isolation and Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Charles N.; Smoler, Donna; Wimmer, Eckard; Baltimore, David

    1971-01-01

    A class of defective interfering (DI) poliovirus particles has been identified. The first was found as a contaminant of a viral stock; others have been isolated by serial passage at a high multiplicity of infection. The DI particles are less dense than standard virus and sediment more slowly. Their ribonucleic acid (RNA) sediments more slowly than standard RNA and has a higher electrophoretic mobility. Competition hybridization experiments with double-stranded viral RNA indicate that DI RNA is 80 to 90% of the length of standard RNA. The proteins of DI particles are indistinguishable from those of standard poliovirus. PMID:4329564

  5. Particle Physics Primer: Explaining the Standard Model of Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondracek, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Standard Model, a basic model of the universe that describes electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force radioactivity, and the strong nuclear force responsible for holding particles within the nucleus together. (YDS)

  6. Final Report for Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Piilonen, Leo; Takeuchi, Tatsu; Minic, Djordje; Link, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    This is the final report of DOE Grant DE-FG05-92ER40709 awarded to the Virginia Tech high energy physics group. It covers the period February 1, 2010 through April 30, 2013. The high energy physics program at Virginia Tech supported by this grant is organized into three tasks: A for theory (Profs. Tatsu Takeuchi and Djordje Minic), B for heavy flavor physics with the Belle and Belle II experiments (Prof. Leo Piilonen), and N for neutrino physics (Profs. Jonathan Link and Piilonen).

  7. Laser induced x-ray `RADAR' particle physics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, D.; Deas, R.; Moss, R.; Wilson, L. A.; Rusby, D.; Neely, D.

    2016-05-01

    The technique of high-power laser-induced plasma acceleration can be used to generate a variety of diverse effects including the emission of X-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons and radio-frequency radiation. A compact variable source of this nature could support a wide range of potential applications including single-sided through-barrier imaging, cargo and vehicle screening, infrastructure inspection, oncology and structural failure analysis. This paper presents a verified particle physics simulation which replicates recent results from experiments conducted at the Central Laser Facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, UK. The RAL experiment demonstrated the generation of backscattered X-rays from test objects via the bremsstrahlung of an incident electron beam, the electron beam itself being produced by Laser Wakefield Acceleration. A key initial objective of the computer simulation was to inform the experimental planning phase on the predicted magnitude of the backscattered X-rays likely from the test objects. This objective was achieved and the computer simulation was used to show the viability of the proposed concept (Laser-induced X-ray `RADAR'). At the more advanced stages of the experimental planning phase, the simulation was used to gain critical knowledge of where it would be technically feasible to locate key diagnostic equipment within the experiment. The experiment successfully demonstrated the concept of X-ray `RADAR' imaging, achieved by using the accurate timing information of the backscattered X-rays relative to the ultra-short laser pulse used to generate the electron beam. By using fast response X-ray detectors it was possible to derive range information for the test objects being scanned. An X-ray radar `image' (equivalent to a RADAR B-scan slice) was produced by combining individual X-ray temporal profiles collected at different points along a horizontal distance line scan. The same image formation process was used to generate

  8. James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics: The Physics of Magnetic Reconnection and Associated Particle Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, James

    2010-11-01

    Solar and stellar flares, substorms in the Earth's magnetosphere, and disruptions in laboratory fusion experiments are driven by the explosive release of magnetic energy through the process of magnetic reconnection. During reconnection oppositely directed magnetic fields break and cross-connect. The resulting magnetic slingshots convert magnetic energy into high velocity flows, thermal energy and energetic particles. A major scientific challenge has been the multi-scale nature of the problem: a narrow boundary layer, ``the dissipation region,'' breaks field lines and controls the release of energy in a macroscale system. Significant progress has been made on fundamental questions such as how magnetic energy is released so quickly and why the release occurs as an explosion. At the small spatial scales of the dissipation region the motion of electrons and ions decouples, the MHD description breaks down and whistler and kinetic Alfven dynamics drives reconnection. The dispersive property of these waves leads to fast reconnection, insensitive to system size and weakly dependent on dissipation, consistent with observations. The evidence for these waves during reconnection in the magnetosphere and the laboratory is compelling. The role of turbulence within the dissipation region in the form of ``secondary islands'' or as a source of anomalous resistivity continues to be explored. A large fraction of the magnetic energy released during reconnection appears in the form of energetic electrons and protons -- up to 50% or more during solar flares. The mechanism for energetic particle production during magnetic reconnection has remained a mystery. Models based on reconnection at a single large x-line are incapable of producing the large numbers of energetic electrons seen in observations. Scenarios based on particle acceleration in a multi-x-line environment are more promising. In such models a link between the energy gain of electrons and the magnetic energy released, a

  9. Physical and technological principles of creating biocompatible superparamagnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Yevgen; Koval, Alla; Vedernikova, Irina; Ol'khovik, Larissa; Tkachenko, Mykola

    2011-01-01

    Nanodisperse powder of zinc-substituted magnetite has been developed. Functional characteristics (biocompatibility, dispersion, magnetic state) allow to recommend it for approbation in medical and biologic technologies. The character of the temperature dependences of magnetization investigated in the magnetic fields lower than the anisotropy field indicates that transfer from the magnetically stable state into the superparamagnetic state was realized for particles of 3-13 nm in the temperature range of 4.2-150 K. It reflects specificity of small particles magnetism. PMID:21796937

  10. SOLAR NEUTRINO PHYSICS: SENSITIVITY TO LIGHT DARK MATTER PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilidio; Silk, Joseph E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2012-06-20

    Neutrinos are produced in several neutrino nuclear reactions of the proton-proton chain and carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle that take place at different radii of the Sun's core. Hence, measurements of solar neutrino fluxes provide a precise determination of the local temperature. The accumulation of non-annihilating light dark matter particles (with masses between 5 GeV and 16 GeV) in the Sun produces a change in the local solar structure, namely, a decrease in the central temperature of a few percent. This variation depends on the properties of the dark matter particles, such as the mass of the particle and its spin-independent scattering cross-section on baryon-nuclei, specifically, the scattering with helium, oxygen, and nitrogen among other heavy elements. This temperature effect can be measured in almost all solar neutrino fluxes. In particular, by comparing the neutrino fluxes generated by stellar models with current observations, namely {sup 8}B neutrino fluxes, we find that non-annihilating dark matter particles with a mass smaller than 10 GeV and a spin-independent scattering cross-section with heavy baryon-nuclei larger than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -37} cm{sup -2} produce a variation in the {sup 8}B neutrino fluxes that would be in conflict with current measurements.