Science.gov

Sample records for particle surface layer

  1. Particle Dispersion in the Neutral Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Sergey; Lebedev, Vladimir; Falkovich, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    We address theoretically the longstanding problem of particle dispersion in the lower atmosphere. The evolution of particle concentration under an absorbing boundary condition at the ground is described. We derive a close-form solution for the downwind surface density of deposited particles and find how the number of airborne particles decreases with time. The problem of the plume formation above the extended surface source is also solved analytically. At the end, we show how turbophoresis modifies the mean settling velocity of particles.

  2. Layer by Layer, Nano-particle "Only" Surface Modification of Filtration Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Ferrand, Luis

    Layer by Layer (LbL) deposition using primarily inorganic silica nanoparticles is employed for the modification of polymeric micro and ultrafiltration (MF/UF) membranes to produce thin film composites (TFC) with potential nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) capabilities.. A variety of porous substrate membranes with different membrane surface characteristics are employed, but exhibiting in common that wicking of water does not readily occur into the pore structure, including polycarbonate track etched (PCTE), polyethersulfone (PES) and sulfonated PES (SPEES) MF/UF membranes. Both spherical (cationic/anionic) and eccentric elongated (anionic) silica nanoparticles are deposited using conditions similar to those reported by Lee et al. Appropriate selection of the pH's for anionic and cationic particle deposition enables the construction of nanoparticle only layers 100--1200 nm in thickness atop the original membrane substrates. The surface layer thickness varies monotonically with the number of bilayers (anionic/cationic deposition cycles) as expected. The deposition process is optimized to eliminate drying induced cracking and to improve mechanical durability via thickness control and post-deposition hydro-thermal treatment. The hydrodynamic permeability of these TFC membranes is measured to evaluate their performance under typical NF operating conditions using dead-end permeation experiments and their performance compared quantitatively with realistic hydrodynamic models, with favorable results. For track etched polycarbonate MF substrates, surface modification causes a permeability reduction of approximately two orders of magnitude with respect to the bare substrates, to values comparable to those for typical commercial NF membranes. Good quantitative agreement with hydrodynamic models with no adjustable parameters was also established for this case, providing indirect confirmation that the LbL deposited surface layers are largely defect (crack) free. Imaging of our TFC membranes after permeation tests confirmed that no significant mechanical damage resulted, indicating integrity and robustness of the LbL deposited surface layers in typical applications. The selectivity of these novel TFC membranes was also tested using standard "rejection" tests normally used to characterize NF and RO membranes for their capabilities in typical applications, such as water softening or desalination. We report the dextran standards molecular weight "cut-off" (MWCO) using mixed dextrans from 1.5 to 500 KDa in dead-end stir cells, and the percentage of rejection of standard bivalent and monovalent salt solutions using steady cross flow permeation experiments. The results confirm rejection of at least 60% of even the smallest dextrans, an estimated dextran MWCO of 20 KDa, and rejection of 10% and 20% for monovalent (NaCl) and bivalent (MgSO4) salts, respectively, for all the TFC membranes studied, while the unmodified membranes showed no rejection capability at all. The work supports that nanoparticle based LbL surface modification of MF/UF membranes can produce filtration quality media for important water purification applications, such as nanofiltration (NF) softening processes, natural organic matter (NOM) elimination and possibly reverse osmosis (RO) desalination.

  3. Ti particle-reinforced surface layers in Al: Effect of particle size on microstructure, hardness and wear

    SciTech Connect

    Mordyuk, B.N.; Silberschmidt, V.V.; Prokopenko, G.I.; Nesterenko, Yu.V.; Iefimov, M.O.

    2010-11-15

    Two types of Ti particles are used in an ultrasonic impact peening (UIP) process to modify sub-surface layers of cp aluminium atomized, with an average size of approx. 20 {mu}m and milled (0.3-0.5 {mu}m). They are introduced into a zone of severe plastic deformation induced by UIP. The effect of Ti particles of different sizes on microstructure, phase composition, microhardness and wear resistance of sub-surface composite layers in aluminium is studied in this paper. The formed layers of a composite reinforced with smaller particles have a highly misoriented fine-grain microstructure of its matrix with a mean grain size of 200-400 nm, while reinforcement with larger particles results in relatively large Al grains (1-2 {mu}m). XRD, SEM, EDX and TEM studies confirm significantly higher particle/matrix bonding in the former case due to formation of a Ti{sub 3}Al interlayer around Ti particles with rough surface caused by milling. Different microstructures determine hardness and wear resistance of reinforced aluminium layers: while higher magnitudes of microhardness are observed for both composites (when compared with those of annealed and UIP-treated aluminium), the wear resistance is improved only in the case of reinforcement with small particles.

  4. The surface modified composite layer formation with boron carbide particles on magnesium alloy surfaces through pulse gas tungsten arc treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. B.; Jiang, H. Y.; Zeng, X. Q.; Li, D. H.; Yao, S. S.

    2007-02-01

    A novel fabrication process of surface modified composite layer by pulse current gas tungsten arc (GTA) surface modification process was used to deposit B 4C particles on the surface of magnesium alloy AZ31. This method is an effective technique in producing a high performance surface modified composite layer. During the pulse current GTA surface modification process, considerable convection can exist in the molten pool due to various driving forces and the pulse current could cause violent stirring in the molten pool, and the large temperature gradient across the boundary between the GTA modified surface and matrix metal resulted in rapid resolidification with high cooling rates in the molten pool, so that the process result notable grain refinement in the GTA surface modified composite layer. The hardness and wear resistance of the GTA surface modified composite layer are superior to that of as-received magnesium alloy AZ31. The hardness values and wear resistance of GTA surface modified composite layer depend on the GTA process parameters and the B 4C particles powder concentration and distribution. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of a homogeneous crack/defect-free and grain refinement microstructure were established.

  5. Friction of sheared granular layers: Role of particle dimensionality, surface roughness, and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Matthew; Marone, Chris

    2007-03-01

    We report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate three fundamental deformation mechanisms for frictional shear of granular fault gouge: sliding, rolling, and dilation. Mechanisms were isolated by shearing layers composed of rods in geometric configurations that resulted in one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and rolling-only particle interactions. Results of digital video are presented with measurements of friction and strain to illuminate the distribution of shear and the relationship between particle motions and friction. The double-direct-shear configuration was used with boundary conditions of constant layer normal stress (1 MPa) and controlled shear loading rate (10 ?m/s) with initial layer thickness of 6 mm. Layers were sheared in a servo-hydraulic testing machine at room temperature (22C) and relative humidity (5 to 10%). Three materials were studied: alloy 260 brass, dried semolina pasta, and hardwood dowels, with particle diameters of 1.59 mm, 1.86 mm, and 2.06 mm, respectively. Pasta layers had mean sliding friction coefficients of 0.24, 0.11, and 0.02 in 2-D, 1-D, and rolling configurations, respectively. Layers of brass rods had average friction coefficients of 0.23, 0.15, and 0.01, respectively, in 2-D, 1-D, and rolling configurations; and the wood samples exhibited friction values of 0.18, 0.19, and 0.09, respectively. Evolution of strength during shear correlated strongly with the displacement derivative of layer thickness. SEM images document the role of surface finish on frictional properties. Rapid reorientations of particles correspond to stick-slip stress drops and may be related to the collapse and reformation of granular force chains. We find a systematic relationship between the strength of granular layers and (1) the surface roughness of particles and (2) the number of particle contact dimensions. Our data provide important insights on the mechanics of granular fault gouge and constraints on the fundamental parameters used in numerical models of tectonic faulting.

  6. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, Kenneth L. (Dublin, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  7. Controlling mixed-protein adsorption layers on colloidal alumina particles by tailoring carboxyl and hydroxyl surface group densities.

    PubMed

    Meder, Fabian; Kaur, Supreet; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2013-10-01

    We show that different ratios of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ) can be achieved in a mixed protein adsorption layer by tailoring the amounts of carboxyl (-COOH) and aluminum hydroxyl (AlOH) groups on colloidal alumina particles (d50 ? 180 nm). The particles are surface-functionalized with -COOH groups, and the resultant surface chemistry, including the remaining AlOH groups, is characterized and quantified using elemental analysis, ? potential measurements, acid-base titration, IR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering. BSA and LSZ are subsequently added to the particle suspensions, and protein adsorption is monitored by in situ ? potential measurements while being quantified by UV spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. A comparison of single-component and sequential protein adsorption reveals that BSA and LSZ have specific adsorption sites: BSA adsorbs primarily via AlOH groups, whereas LSZ adsorbs only via -COOH groups (1-2 -COOH groups on the particle surface is enough to bind one LSZ molecule). Tailoring such groups on the particle surface allows control of the composition of a mixed BSA and LSZ adsorption layer. The results provide further insight into how particle surface chemistry affects the composition of protein adsorption layers on colloidal particles and is valuable for the design of such particles for biotechnological and biomedical applications. PMID:23875793

  8. Structure and function of airway surface layer of the human lungs & mobility of probe particles in complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liheng

    Numerous infectious particles such as bacteria and pathogens are deposited on the airway surface of the human lungs during our daily breathing. To avoid infection the lung has evolved to develop a smart and powerful defense system called mucociliary clearance. The airway surface layer is a critical component of this mucus clearance system, which consists of two parts: (1) a mucus layer, that traps inhaled particles and transports them out of the lung by cilia-generated flow; and (2) a periciliary layer, that provides a favorable environment for ciliary beating and cell surface lubrication. For 75 years, it has been dogma that a single gel-like mucus layer, which is composed of secreted mucin glycoproteins, is transported over a "watery" periciliary layer. This one-gel model, however, does not explain fundamental features of the normal system, e.g. formation of a distinct mucus layer, nor accurately predict how the mucus clearance system fails in disease. In the first part of this thesis we propose a novel "Gel-on-Brush" model with a mucus layer (the "gel") and a "brush-like" periciliary layer, composed of mucins tethered to the luminal of airway surface, and supporting data accurately describes both the biophysical and cell biological bases for normal mucus clearance and its failure in disease. Our "Gel-on-Brush" model describes for the first time how and why mucus is efficiently cleared in health and unifies the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is expected that this "Gel-on-Brush" model of airway surface layer opens new directions for treatments of airway diseases. A dilemma regarding the function of mucus is that, although mucus traps any inhaled harmful particulates, it also poses a long-time problem for drug delivery: mobility of cargos carrying pharmaceutical agents is slowed down in mucus. The second part of this thesis aims to answer the question: can we theoretically understand the relation between the motion of a probe particle and the local structure and dynamics of complex fluids such as mucus, or even one step back, simple polymer solutions and gels? It is well known that the thermal motion of a particle in simple solutions like water can be described by Stokes-Einstein relation, in which the mean-square displacement of the particle is (1) linearly proportional to time and (2) inversely proportional to the bulk viscosity of the solution. We found that these two statements become questionable if the particle size is relatively small and the solutions become complex fluids such as polymer solutions and gels. The motion of small particles with size smaller than the entanglement length (network mesh size) of a polymer solution (gel) is sub-diffusive with mean-square displacement proportional to the square root of time at relatively short time scales. Even at long time scales at which the mean-square displacement of the particles is diffusive, the mean-square displacement of the particles is not necessarily determined by the bulk viscosity, and is inversely proportional to an effective viscosity that is much smaller than the bulk value. An interesting question related to the particle motion in polymer gels is whether particles with size larger than the network mesh size can move through the gel? An intuitive answer would be that such large particles are trapped by the local network cages. We argue that the large particles can still diffuse via hopping mechanism, i.e., particles can wait for fluctuations of surrounding network cages that could be large enough to allow them to slip though. This hopping diffusion can be applied to understand the motion of large particles subjected to topological constraints such as permanent or reversible crosslinked networks as well as entanglements in high molecular weight polymer solutions, melts, and networks.

  9. Aerosol Measurements in the Atmospheric Surface Layer at L'Aquila, Italy: Focus on Biogenic Primary Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitari, Giovanni; Coppari, Eleonora; De Luca, Natalia; Di Carlo, Piero; Pace, Loretta

    2014-09-01

    Two year measurements of aerosol concentration and size distribution (0.25 ?m < d < 30 ?m) in the atmospheric surface layer, collected in L'Aquila (Italy) with an optical particle counter, are reported and analysed for the different modes of the particle size distribution. A different seasonal behaviour is shown for fine mode aerosols (largely produced by anthropogenic combustion), coarse mode and large-sized aerosols, whose abundance is regulated not only by anthropogenic local production, but also by remote natural sources (via large scale atmospheric transport) and by local sources of primary biogenic aerosols. The observed total abundance of large particles with diameter larger than 10 ?m is compared with a statistical counting of primary biogenic particles, made with an independent technique. Results of these two observational approaches are analysed and compared to each other, with the help of a box model driven by observed meteorological parameters and validated with measurements of fine and coarse mode aerosols and of an atmospheric primary pollutant of anthropogenic origin (NOx). Except in winter months, primary biogenic particles in the L'Aquila measurement site are shown to dominate the atmospheric boundary layer population of large aerosol particles with diameter larger than 10 ?m (about 80 % of the total during summer months), with a pronounced seasonal cycle, contrary to fine mode aerosols of anthropogenic origin. In order to explain these findings, the main mechanisms controlling the abundance and variability of particulate matter tracers in the atmospheric surface layer are analysed with the numerical box-model.

  10. Tuning Surface Wettability Using Single Layered and Hierarchically Ordered Arrays of Spherical Colloidal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhinojwala, Ali; Badge, Ila; Bhawalkar, Sarang; Jia, Li

    2014-03-01

    A control over wetting properties of a surface can be achieved by tuning surface roughness and surface chemistry. In this study, we formed single level and dual hierarchical roughness with hexagonal non-contiguously close packed (HNCP) patterns of spherical particles using colloidal lithography. Surface chemistry was controlled using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). A hexagonal unit cell model, which is representative of the HNCP pattern, was used to predict the contact angles. The predictions of this model were in good agreement with experimentally measured contact angles. The systematic thermodynamic analysis of wetting properties is important when using structured surfaces at different hydrostatic pressures, relative humidity, temperature fluctuations or prolonged exposure to water. Financial Support from National Science Foundation.

  11. Digital particle velocimetry technique for free-surface boundary layer measurements: Application to vortex pair interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsa, A. H.; Vogel, M. J.; Gayton, J. D.

    A variation of the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique was developed for the measurement of velocity at a free surface for low Froude number flows. The two-step process involves first determining the location of the free surface in the digital images of the seeded flow using the fast Fourier transform-based method of surface elevation mapping (SEM), which takes advantage of total internal reflection at the interface. The boundary-fitted DPIV code positions the interrogation windows below the computed location of the interface to allow for extrapolation of interfacial velocities. This technique was designed specifically to handle large surface-parallel vorticity which can occur when the Reynolds number is large and surface-active materials are present. The SEM technique was verified on capillary-gravity waves and the full boundary-fitted DPIV technique was applied to the interaction of vortex pairs with a free surface covered by an insoluble monolayer. The local rise and fall of the free surface as well as the passage and return of a contamination front was clearly observed in the DPIV data.

  12. Prediction and rational correlation of thermophoretically reduced particle mass transfer to hot surfaces across laminar or turbulent forced-convection gas boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Rosner, Daniel E.

    1986-01-01

    A formulation previously developed to predict and correlate the thermophoretically-augmented submicron particle mass transfer rate to cold surfaces is found to account for the thermophoretically reduced particle mass transfer rate to overheated surfaces such that thermophoresis brings about a 10-decade reduction below the convective mass transfer rate expected by pure Brownian diffusion and convection alone. Thermophoretic blowing is shown to produce effects on particle concentration boundary-layer (BL) structure and wall mass transfer rates similar to those produced by real blowing through a porous wall. The applicability of the correlations to developing BL-situations is demonstrated by a numerical example relevant to wet-steam technology.

  13. The uptake of O3 by myristic acid-oleic acid mixed particles: evidence for solid surface layers.

    PubMed

    Nash, David G; Tolocka, Michael P; Baer, Tomas

    2006-10-14

    The oleic acid ozonolysis in mixed oleic and myristic acid particles was studied in a flow tube reactor using single particle mass spectrometry. The change in reactivity was investigated as a function of the myristic acid concentration in these 2 micron particles. For pure oleic acid aerosol, the reactive ozone uptake coefficient, gamma, was found to be 3.4 (+/-0.3) x 10(-4) after taking secondary reactions into account. At the myristic acid crystallization point, where only 2.5% of the particle is in the solid phase, the uptake coefficient was reduced to 9.7 (+/-1.0) x 10(-5). This dramatic drop in the uptake coefficient is explained by the presence of a crystalline monolayer of myristic acid, through which ozone diffusion is reduced by several orders of magnitude, relative to liquid oleic acid. Scanning electron microscope images of the mixed particles confirm that the particle surface is crystalline when the myristic acid mole fraction exceeds 0.125. The findings of these experiments illustrate that particle morphology is important to understanding the reactivity of species in a mixed particle. The decay of myristic acid during the course of ozonolysis is explained in terms of a reaction with stabilized Criegee intermediates, which attack the acidic groups of the oleic and myristic acids with equal rate constants. PMID:17001415

  14. Simulation of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with dispersed particles in the propagation of breather in the surface layer of a liquid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Zabolotin, V.V.; Uvarova, L.A.

    2015-03-10

    A numerical simulation of the interaction of laser radiation with dispersed particles in the course of propagation of breather in the surface layer of the liquid breather was performed. The shape and amplitude of the acoustic signal formed in this interaction were obtained. Two acoustic signals, before and after the impact of a breather on the process of optical sound generation, were compared. Results of the comparison showed that the breather spreading over the surface of the liquid medium affecst the acoustic signal and its effect must be considered in the measurements.

  15. The Martian surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Moore, Henry J.

    1992-01-01

    The global characteristics of the Martian surface layer are discussed on the basis of thermal, albedo, color, and radar data for the region between approximately 60 deg S and 60 deg N. Thermal data reveal the presence of large low- and high-inertia regions of the northern hemisphere, with much of the south covered by material of moderate inertia. There is a strong anticorrelation between inertia and albedo, a correlation between inertia and rock abundance, and, over much of the planet, a correlation of radar-derived density with inertia. Viking Orbiter color data indicate the presence of three major surface materials: low-inertia, bright-red material that is presumably dust; high-inertia, dark-grey material interpreted to be lithic material mixed with palagonitelike dust; and moderate-inertia, dark-red material that is rough at subpixel scales and interpreted to be indurated. Observations from the Viking landing sites show rocks, fines of varying cohesion and crusts. These sites have indications of aeolian erosion and deposition in the recent past.

  16. Formulation of stability-dependent empirical relations for turbulent intensities from surface layer turbulence measurements for dispersion parameterization in a lagrangian particle dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-08-01

    Season- and stability-dependent turbulence intensity ( σ u / u *, σ v / u *, σ w / u *) relationships are derived from experimental turbulence measurements following surface layer scaling and local stability at the tropical coastal site Kalpakkam, India for atmospheric dispersion parameterization. Turbulence wind components ( u', v', w') measured with fast response UltraSonic Anemometers during an intense observation campaign for wind field modeling called Round Robin Exercise are used to formulate the flux-profile relationships using surface layer similarity theory and Fast Fourier Transform technique. The new relationships (modified Hanna scheme) are incorporated in a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF and tested by conducting simulations for a field tracer dispersion experiment at Kalpakkam. Plume dispersion analysis of a ground level hypothetical release indicated that the new turbulent intensity formulations provide slightly higher diffusivity across the plume relative to the original Hanna scheme. The new formulations for σ u , σ v , σ w are found to give better agreement with observed turbulent intensities during both stable and unstable conditions under various seasonal meteorological conditions. The simulated concentrations using the two methods are compared with those obtained from a classical Gaussian model and the observed SF6 concentration. It has been found that the new relationships provide comparatively higher diffusion across the plume relative to the model default Hanna scheme and provide downwind concentration results in better agreement with observations.

  17. Surface layers of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, T J; Graham, L L

    1991-01-01

    Since bacteria are so small, microscopy has traditionally been used to study them as individual cells. To this end, electron microscopy has been a most powerful tool for studying bacterial surfaces; the viewing of macromolecular arrangements of some surfaces is now possible. This review compares older conventional electron-microscopic methods with new cryotechniques currently available and the results each has produced. Emphasis is not placed on the methodology but, rather, on the importance of the results in terms of our perception of the makeup and function of bacterial surfaces and their interaction with the surrounding environment. Images PMID:1723487

  18. Surface layers of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T J; Graham, L L

    1991-12-01

    Since bacteria are so small, microscopy has traditionally been used to study them as individual cells. To this end, electron microscopy has been a most powerful tool for studying bacterial surfaces; the viewing of macromolecular arrangements of some surfaces is now possible. This review compares older conventional electron-microscopic methods with new cryotechniques currently available and the results each has produced. Emphasis is not placed on the methodology but, rather, on the importance of the results in terms of our perception of the makeup and function of bacterial surfaces and their interaction with the surrounding environment. PMID:1723487

  19. Single Layer Deposition of Polystyrene Particles onto Planar Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates.

    PubMed

    Mustin, B; Stoeber, B

    2016-01-12

    This work investigates the deposition of polystyrene particles onto cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates by using an impinging jet flow cell for different concentrations of sodium chloride in solution. Particle tracking reveals that particles near the substrate can be immobilized to different degrees. An attempt is made to classify the mobility of the particles close to the surface by distinguishing between weakly immobilized and strongly immobilized particles where only the latter ones are considered as deposited. Subsequently, the measured initial deposition rates for different concentrations of sodium chloride in solution are compared to the commonly applied theory based on the convective diffusion equation in which different surface interaction potentials were considered. With currently available data on the surface properties of PDMS, the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (extended DLVO) theory gave a better description of the observed deposition rates as compared to the DLVO theory; however, in either case, the presence of significant surface charge heterogeneity had to be assumed in order to capture the observed trend of the deposition rates with respect to the electrolyte concentration. Careful analysis of the more weakly immobilized particles through particle displacement step analysis reveals that there is a buildup of a particle accumulation layer near the substrate in which particle motion parallel to the substrate is hindered by nonhydrodynamic effects. Possible reasons for the reduced particle motion in the accumulation layer are discussed. As a result, the presence of lateral surface interaction forces resulting from charge heterogeneity and surface roughness of the PDMS substrate is found to be the most plausible explanation for the hindered particle motion in the accumulation layer. This suggests that particles associated with the secondary minimum of the surface interaction potential may not always be freely mobile in any direction parallel to the substrate. PMID:26646665

  20. Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.

  1. Particle tracking around surface nanobubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Erik; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Lohse, Detlef; Seddon, James R. T.

    2013-05-01

    The exceptionally long lifetime of surface nanobubbles remains one of the biggest questions in the field. One of the proposed mechanisms for producing the stability is the dynamic equilibrium model, which describes a constant flux of gas in and out of the bubble. Here, we describe results from particle tracking experiments carried out to measure this flow. The results are analysed by measuring the Vorono cell size distribution, the diffusion, and the speed of the tracer particles. We show that there is no detectable difference in the movement of particles above nanobubble-laden surfaces as compared to ones above nanobubble-free surfaces.

  2. Simple ray-tracing model for a rough surface of an ink layer including internal scattering particles printed on a light guide plate.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yoshifumi; Kaneko, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    For simulating light guide lighting systems, we have developed a ray-tracing model for an ink layer extracting light from a light guide. The model consists of the volume and the rough surface scattering calculated on the basis of Mie theory and the facet model, respectively. The model of an ink layer was required to conserve energy for analyzing how much light loss occurs in each component in the lighting system. Though a single-scattering rough surface model with a shadowing/masking function successfully describes the scattering distribution, shadowing light violates the energy conservation law because of a lack of multiple scattering. We developed the rough surface ray-tracing model (RSRT model), which includes the multiple scattering instead of the shadowing/masking effect. We investigated the applicability of the RSRT model for an ink layer by comparing the RSRT model with recent physical and facet models. Finally, we compared the calculated and measured scattering distributions of an ink layer, applied the developed ink layer model to the lighting system, and confirmed the developed model to be valid. PMID:26836100

  3. Light emission during impact stressing of a particle layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevskiy, A.; Aman, S.; Tatmyshevskiy, K.; Hirsch, S.; Tomas, J.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanical stress detection technique was developed based on light emission properties of ZnS:Mn particles. The light emission properties of ZnS:Mn particles were characterized by the use of the impact tester that includes a stressing tool, photomultiplier and a contact time measurement system. The mechanical stressing of particles was caused by the impact of a metallic ball, dropped from different heights. At impact, the metallic ball achieves direct contact with the upper surface of the metallic anvil. This allows the measurement of the contact time by means of the electrical current that flows between the anvil and the metallic ball during contact time. The stress, caused at the collision, is transmitted through a metallic anvil to the layer of particles and produces the deformation of particles. The applied stress was detected using a piezoelectric sensor. It was shown that the ZnS:Mn particles generate the light during the action of the loading force. After removal of the loading force the light emission from the particle layer disappears in a few microseconds. The measurement was carried out using different ranges of applied forces. In this way, it was shown that the particle layer exhibits a high damping factor and failure resistance. One of the possible applications of these sensor systems based on light emission properties of ZnS:Mn particles is structural health monitoring.

  4. Particle simulation of auroral double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bruce L.; Okuda, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    Work on the simulation of auroral double layers (DLs) with realistic particle-in-cell models is presented. An early model simulated weak DLs formed in a self-consistent circuit but under conditions subject to the ion-acoustic instability. Recent work has focused on strong DLs formed when currentless jets are injected into a dipole magnetic field.

  5. Detector for Particle Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A. (Inventor); Schwindt, Christian J. (Inventor); Mattson, Carl B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for detecting and quantizing particle fallout contamination particles which are collected on a transparent disk or other surface employs an optical detector, such as a CCD camera, to obtain images of the disk and a computer for analyzing the images. From the images, the computer detects, counts and sizes particles collected on the disk The computer also determines, through comparison to previously analyzed images, the particle fallout rate, and generates an alarm or other indication if the rate exceeds a maximum allowable value. The detector and disk are disposed in a housing having an aperture formed therein for defining the area on the surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout. A light source is provided for evenly illuminating the disk. A first drive motor slowly rotates the disk to increase the amount of its surface area which is exposed through the aperture to the particle fallout. A second motor is also provided for incrementally scanning the disk in a radial direction back and forth over the camera so that the camera eventually obtains images of the entire surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout.

  6. Double layers acting as particles accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Lozneanu, E.

    1995-12-31

    It is shown that self-consistent stable and unstable double layers generated in plasma after a self-organisation process are able to accelerate charged particles. The implication of cosmic double layers (Dls) in the acceleration of electrical charged particles long been advocated by Alfven and his Stockholm school is today disputed by argument that static electric fields associated with Dls are conservative and consequently the line integral of the electric field outside the DL balances the line integral inside it. Related with this dispute we will evidence some, so far not considered, facts which are in our opinion arguments that aurora Dls are able to energize particles. For justifying this assertion we start from recent experimental results concerning the phenomenology of self-consistent Dls whose generation involve beside ionisations the neutrals excitations which are at tile origin of the light phenomena as those observed in auroras.

  7. Formation of the Surface Space Charge Layer in Fair Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redin, Alexander; Kupovykh, Gennady; Boldyreff, Anton

    2014-05-01

    It is widely known that the positive space charge, caused by electrode effect action, is obtained near surface in fair weather. Space charge density depends on the different local features: meteorological conditions, aerosol particles concentration, convective transfer of the surface layer. Namely space charge determines the local variations of electric field. Space charge could be negative in condition of strong ionization rate in thin air layer near surface. The electrodynamic model, consisting of transfer equations of light ions and nucleuses, generated by interactions between lights ions and aerosol particles, and Poisson equation. The turbulent transfer members, electric field near the surface, the mobility of positive and negative ions, recombination coefficient, ionization rate, the number of elementary charges on the nuclei were took into account in the model equations. The time-space variations of positive and negative small and heavy ions, electric field, electrical conductivity, current density and space charge, depending on aerosol particles concentrations, turbulence and convective transfer ionization rate, aerosol particles size and number of charged on the particles are calculated. The mechanisms of turbulent and convection-turbulent surface layer electrodynamic structure forming in dependence of single and multi-charged aerosol particles for different physical and meteorological conditions are investigated. Increasing of turbulent mixing intensity leads to increasing of character electrode layer thickness, decreasing of space charge density value, decreasing of electric current conductivity value. The electrode effect of the whole layer remains constant. Increasing of aerosol particles concentration leads to decreasing of electrode effect within the whole electrode layer and increasing of electric field values, decreasing of space charge density values and current conductivity density. It was received that increasing of the aerosol particles concentration under weak turbulent mixing leads to increasing of the negative space charge density and its displacement to the surface level. Under severe contamination condition the electrodynamic structure of surface layer is primarily determined by negative space charge, generated by nucleuses. It was received that in case of small aerosol particles the surface layer electrodynamic structure is basically established by single- and double-charged particles. Single-charged and double-charged as triply-charged, fourfold-charged and fivefold-charged aerosol particles primarily affect on electrodynamic structure of the surface layer in case of increasing of aerosol particles size. The local variations of the electric field in different conditions were studied. Theoretical results are in a good agreement with experimental facts.

  8. Particle acceleration at reconnecting separator current layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threlfall, J.; Stevenson, J. E. H.; Parnell, C. E.; Neukirch, T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to investigate and characterise particle behaviour in a 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a reconnecting magnetic separator. Methods: We use a relativistic guiding-centre test-particle code to investigate electron and proton acceleration in snapshots from 3D MHD separator reconnection experiments, and compare the results with findings from an analytical separator reconnection model studied in a previous investigation. Results: The behaviour and acceleration of large distributions of particles are examined in detail for both analytical and numerical separator reconnection models. Accelerated particle orbit trajectories are shown to follow the separator before leaving the system along the separatrix surface of one of the nulls (determined by particle species) in the system of both models. A sufficiently localised electric field about the separator causes the orbits to appear to follow the spine bounding the separatrix surface field lines instead. We analyse and discuss the locations and spread of accelerated particle orbit final positions, which are seen to change over time in the numerical separator reconnection model. We deduce a simple relationship between the final energy range of particle orbits and the model dimensions, and discuss its implications for observed magnetic separators in the solar corona.

  9. Subnanometer Palladium Particles Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Hao P.; Libera, Joseph A.; Stair, Peter C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2011-06-03

    Monodispersed palladium nanoparticle catalysts were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using alternating exposures of Pd hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)₂) and formalin on an alumina support. The size of the ALD Pd particles could be tuned by adjusting the preparation conditions. Conventional ALD conditions produced Pd particles with an average size of 1.4 nm. Removal of surface hydroxyls from the alumina support by a chemical treatment using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) before performing Pd ALD led to nanoparticles larger than 2 nm. Ultrasmall (subnanometer) Pd particles were synthesized using low-temperature metal precursor exposures, followed by applying protective ALD alumina overcoats. The ALD Pd particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy techniques. The Pd loadings were measured by X-ray fluorescence. The catalytic performance of ALD Pd particles of different sizes was compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The specific activity (normalized by Pd loading) of the ultrasmall Pd particles was higher than those of the larger particles. Considering the metal dispersion factor, the turnover frequency (TOF) of the ultrasmall Pd particles is comparable to that of the medium-sized (1.4 nm, on average) Pd particles synthesized under standard ALD conditions. The large Pd particles (>2 nm) are a factor of 2 less active than the smaller Pd particles.

  10. Structure analysis of layer-by-layer multilayer films of colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batys, Piotr; Nosek, Magdalena; Weroński, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    We have mimicked the layer-by-layer self-assembling process of monodisperse colloidal particles at a solid-liquid interface using the extended random sequential adsorption model of hard spheres. We have studied five multilayer structures of similar thickness, each created at a different single-layer surface coverage. For each multilayer, we have determined its particle volume fraction as a function of distance from the interface. Additionally, we have characterized the film structure in terms of 2D and 3D pair-correlation functions. We have found that the coverage of about 0.3 is optimal for producing a uniform, constant-porosity multilayer in a minimum number of adsorption cycles. The single-layer coverage has also a significant effect on the primary maximum of 2D radial distribution function. In the case of multilayer with the coverage lower than 0.30 the 2D pair-correlation functions of even layers exhibit maxima decreasing with the increase in the layer number. We have verified our theoretical predictions experimentally. We have used fluorescence microscopy to determine the 2D pair-correlation functions for the second, third, and fourth layers of multilayer formed of micron-sized spherical latex particles. We have found a good agreement between our theoretical and experimental results, which confirms the validity of the extended RSA model.

  11. Onset of new particle formation in boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Hanna E.; Lampilahti, Janne; Mirme, Sander; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ehn, Mikael; Pullinen, Iida

    2014-05-01

    At this moment, the mechanisms of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), and the vapors participating in this process are not truly understood. Especially, in which part of the atmosphere the NPF takes place, is still an open question. To detect directly the very first steps of NPF in the atmosphere, we measured these chemical and physical processes within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). We used airborne Zeppelin and Cessna measurements, and ground based in-situ measurements. Using Zeppelin, we focused on the time of the development of the PBL (altitudes up to 1 km) from sunrise until noon to measure vertical profiles of aerosol particles and chemical compounds. This is also the time when NPF typically occurs at ground level. On summer 2012, Zeppelin was measuring nucleation occurring in the polluted Po Valley area, Northern Italy, especially over the San Pietro Capofiume field site. A year later, Zeppelin had a spring campaign in boreal forest area, close to Hyytil field site in Southern Finland. During both campaigns, we aimed on measuring the vertical and the horizontal extension for NPF events using an instrumented Zeppelin. The vertical profile measurements represent the particle and gas concentrations in the lower parts of the atmosphere: the residual layer, the nocturnal boundary layer, and the PBL. At the same time, the ground based measurements records present conditions in the surface layer. The key instruments to measure the onset of NPF were an Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF), a Particle Size Magnifier (PSM), and a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS). These instruments are able to measure particles at the size range ~1-2 nm where atmospheric nucleation and cluster activation takes place. The onset of NPF was usually observed onboard Zeppelin when it was measuring inside the rising mixed layer which is connected to the surface layer by effective vertical mixing. The newly formed, subsequently growing, particles were observed to be homogeneously distributed inside the mixed layer. These measurements are part of the PEGASOS project which aims to quantify the magnitude of regional to global feedbacks between the atmospheric chemistry and physics, and thus quantify the changing climate.

  12. Determination of physical and dynamic properties of suspended particles in water column with ultrasonic scanning in between the water surface and stable sediment layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Ozeren, Sinan; Cagatay, Namık; Sari, Erol; Vardar, Denizhan; Eris, Kadir

    2015-04-01

    The behavior of seafloor sediment with its water column should be known against any occurrences of anoxic or oxic conditions. The most important ones of these conditions are possible leakage of natural gas or escape of liquids from sediment. On the basis of combined solid/liquid flow dynamics in sedimentation, such kind of events can change, even in an effective manner, the dynamic movements of molecules and their cumulative mass of particules, i.e. the suspended materials. The deployment of suitable sediment traps or ultrasonic transducers somewhere in the water column are not easy attempts in order to obtain useful information about the state of suspended materials during sedimentation. These are usually bulky instruments; therefore they may behave like an anti-move suppresser on the particles moving in the float direction, in oxic and anoxic manner. These instruments, on the other hand, may cover the effects of diffusive flow or bubble formed gas and fluid escape from the sediment surface into the water column. Ultrasonic scanners, however, are able to make observations in a remote manner, without affecting such artificial events. Our field trials were successfully completed at the historical estuary called Halic of Marmara sea . The physical properties; such as the velocity of particles, their travel directions, their dimensions and the ability to observe anti-compositor crushes of shock waves of the bubbles are only a few of these observations in natural ambience. The most important problem solved about water pressure during 3 atmosphere . The sensor has been tested successfully few times. We used the ''High voltage electric isolator oil filling'' to the inside of the scanner for pressure equalization between outer side and inner body of probe at a depth of (20 meters) beneath the sea surface . The transmitted signals by the planar crystal of the transducer become weaker under the pressure of overlying water column in depths. Our efforts are now focused on the improved performance of transducer at higher than over 3 atm pressure. Keywords: ultrasonic , flow , particle , Sediment , Cumulative mass

  13. Vacuum probe sampler removes micron-sized particles from surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitfield, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Vacuum probe sampler removes micron-sized particles from sensitive surfaces, without damage to the surface. The probe has a critical orifice to ensure an optimum airflow rate that disturbs the boundary layer of air and raises bacteria from the surface into the probe with the moving air stream.

  14. Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, P. J.

    Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine-scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

  15. Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

  16. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  17. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali; Abuzriba, Mokhtar; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-01

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A & the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  18. Electropositive surface layer MPD thruster cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, F.R.; Kelly, A.J.; Jahn, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium and barium oxide have been used to generate electropositive surface layers on tungsten cathodes in low power steady state MPD thruster experiments. The electropositive surface layer decreases the cathode work function, resulting in substantial reductions in the steady state cathode operating temperature and erosion rate. Cathode temperature is reduced by 300 degrees with a lithium surface layer and by 800 degrees with a barium oxide surface layer at a 500 ampere thruster current level. These temperature reductions substantially reduce the calculated steady state evaporative erosion rate of the cathode by factors of 20 and 10,000 respectively. Cold cathode startup erosion is also reduced dramatically. The surface melting and arc cratering that is characteristic of pure tungsten cathodes does not occur with an electropositive surface layer cathode. In addition to reducing cathode erosion, the use of these materials increases thruster efficiency. 12 refs.

  19. Particle-Surface Interaction Model and Method of Determining Particle-Surface Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method and model of predicting particle-surface interactions with a surface, such as the surface of a spacecraft. The method includes the steps of: determining a trajectory path of a plurality of moving particles; predicting whether any of the moving particles will intersect a surface; predicting whether any of the particles will be captured by the surface and/or; predicting a reflected trajectory and velocity of particles reflected from the surface.

  20. Protein-building molecular recognition sites by layer-by-layer molecular imprinting on colloidal particles.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guijian; Liu, Renyong; Wu, Minghong; Li, Zhen; Liu, Bianhua; Wang, Zhenyang; Gao, Daming; Zhang, Zhongping

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we report a layer-by-layer (LbL) molecular imprinting strategy for constructing molecular recognition sites at the surface of colloidal silica particles by glutaraldehyde (GA)-mediated covalent assembly of gelatin protein in aqueous media. Accompanying the repeated coating of gelatin at the amine-capped silica particles, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) templates were synchronously imprinted into the formed gelatin shells by the charge-transfer interaction between the electron-deficient aromatic rings of TNT and the electron-rich amino groups of gelatin chains. The effective molecular recognition sites generated at the protein interlayers of gelatin shells of monodisperse silica@gelatin particles, and the rebinding TNT capacities changed nonlinearly with the layer number of imprinted gelatin. Three layers of imprinted gelatin produced the largest imprinting factor of approximately 3.0, which is explained by the covalent assembly mechanism. The imprinting protocol is applicable to a broad range of biomaterials (such as proteins, enzymes, chitosan and biopolymers) for imprinting various molecules in aqueous media. Therefore, these results reported here will open a new window of interest in the exploration of novel molecular recognition systems for application in chemosensors, selective separation, and drug screening and release. PMID:19684914

  1. Campylobacter Surface-Layers (S-Layers) and Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria have evolved mechanisms for evading host immune systems. One evasion mechanism is manifest by the surface layer (S-layer), a paracrystalline protein structure composed of S-layer proteins (SLPs). The S-layer, possessed by 2 Campylobacter species (C. fetus and C. rectus), is external to the bacterial outer membrane and can have multiple functions in immune avoidance. C. fetus is a pathogen of ungulates and immunocompromised humans, in whom it causes disseminated bloodstream disease. In C. fetus, the S-layer is required for dissemination and is involved in 2 mechanisms of evasion. First, the S-layer confers resistance to complement-mediated killing in non-immune serum by preventing the binding of complement factor C3b to the C. fetus cell surface. S-layer expressing C. fetus strains remain susceptible to complement-independent killing, utilizing opsonic antibodies directed against the S-layer. However, C. fetus has also evolved a mechanism for avoiding antibody-mediated killing by high-frequency antigenic variation of SLPs. Antigenic variation is accomplished by complex DNA inversion events involving a family of multiple SLP-encoding genes and a single SLP promoter. Inversion events result in the expression of antigenically variant S-layers, which require distinct antibody responses for killing. C. rectus is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and also possesses an S-layer that appears to be involved in evading the human system. Although studied less extensively than its C. fetus counterpart, the C. rectus S-layer appears to confer resistance to complement-mediated killing and to cause the down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:16013216

  2. Laser treatment of alumina surface with chemically distinct carbide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Bekir S.; Ali, Haider

    2014-12-01

    Laser treatment of pre-prepared alumina tile surface with a carbon film containing a mixture of 3 wt% TiC and 3 wt% B4C hard particles was conducted. Morphological and metallurgical changes at the laser treated surface were examined using optical and electron scanning microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the treated surface were measured together with indentation tests. Residual stress generated at the surface region was determined from the X-ray diffraction data. It was found that TiC and B4C hard particles cause micro-crack formation in the vicinity of hard particles on the surface. This behavior is attributed to the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of these particles. The laser treated surface is composed of a dense layer with fine sized grains and columnar structures formed below the dense layer. The presence of hard particles enhances the microhardness and lowers the fracture toughness of the surface. The formation of nitride compounds (AlN and AlON) contributes to volume shrinkage in the dense layer. Residual stress formed in the surface region is compressive.

  3. Layering of ionic liquids on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Alexis; Jurado, L Andres; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Arcifa, Andrea; Rossi, Antonella; Spencer, Nicholas D; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M

    2016-02-11

    Understanding the behavior of ionic liquids (ILs) either confined between rough surfaces or in rough nanoscale pores is of great relevance to extend studies performed on ideally flat surfaces to real applications. In this work we have performed an extensive investigation of the structural forces between two surfaces with well-defined roughness (<9 nm RMS) in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide by atomic force microscopy. Statistical studies of the measured layer thicknesses, layering force, and layering frequency reveal the ordered structure of the rough IL-solid interface. Our work shows that the equilibrium structure of the interfacial IL strongly depends on the topography of the contact. PMID:26821595

  4. Stable water layers on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ying-Jhan; Tai, Lin-Ai; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chang, Pin; Yang, Chung-Shi; Yew, Tri-Rung

    2016-02-17

    Liquid layers adhered to solid surfaces and that are in equilibrium with the vapor phase are common in printing, coating, and washing processes as well as in alveoli in lungs and in stomata in leaves. For such a liquid layer in equilibrium with the vapor it faces, it has been generally believed that, aside from liquid lumps, only a very thin layer of the liquid, i.e., with a thickness of only a few nanometers, is held onto the surface of the solid, and that this adhesion is due to van der Waals forces. A similar layer of water can remain on the surface of a wall of a microchannel after evaporation of bulk water creates a void in the channel, but the thickness of such a water layer has not yet been well characterized. Herein we showed such a water layer adhered to a microchannel wall to be 100 to 170 nm thick and stable against surface tension. The water layer thickness was measured using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and the water layer structure was characterized by using a quantitative nanoparticle counting technique. This thickness was found for channel gap heights ranging from 1 to 5 μm. Once formed, the water layers in the microchannel, when sealed, were stable for at least one week without any special care. Our results indicate that the water layer forms naturally and is closely associated only with the surface to which it adheres. Our study of naturally formed, stable water layers may shed light on topics from gas exchange in alveoli in biology to the post-wet-process control in the semiconductor industry. We anticipate our report to be a starting point for more detailed research and understanding of the microfluidics, mechanisms and applications of gas-liquid-solid systems. PMID:26856872

  5. Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Longrie, Delphine Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-01-15

    The number of possible applications for nanoparticles has strongly increased in the last decade. For many applications, nanoparticles with different surface and bulk properties are necessary. A popular surface modification technique is coating the particle surface with a nanometer thick layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known as a reliable method for depositing ultrathin and conformal coatings. In this article, agitation or fluidization of the particles is necessary for performing ALD on (nano)particles. The principles of gas fluidization of particles will be outlined, and a classification of the gas fluidization behavior of particles based on their size and density will be given. Following different reactor concepts that have been designed to conformally coat (nano)particles with ALD will be described, and a concise overview will be presented of the work that has been performed with each of them ending with a concept reactor for performing spatial ALD on fluidized particles.

  6. Buoyancy driven convection in a particle-fluid mixture layer heated from below

    SciTech Connect

    Rhazi, M.; Mir, A.; Zrikem, Z.; Gouesbet, G.

    1995-09-01

    An analytical study of thermal instability in a horizontal fluid layer with suspended particles is report. A linear stability analysis for an initially motionless suspension confined between horizontal isothermal solid surfaces and subject to density driven mechanism is presented. By accounting for the possibility of fluid-particle thermal interaction, calculations predict instability for heating from below. Response is strongly dependent on the volume fraction of the particles, the heavy loading and the particle aspect ratio.

  7. Mimicking localized surface plasmons with dielectric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devilez, Alexis; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Stout, Brian; Bonod, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the electromagnetic fields scattered by metallic particles hosting localized surface plasmons can be accurately reproduced by dielectric particles. We derive analytic formulas relating the permittivities of the dielectric and metallic particles that yield identical dipolar electromagnetic responses. This equivalence between dielectric and metallic particles permits the use of well-known pointlike dipolar models to predict the dipolar resonances of dielectric particles.

  8. Dry deposition of particles to a marine surface

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, A.K.; Leiming Zhang

    1996-12-31

    Improved estimates for dry deposition of particles on natural waters are needed for the calculation of air pollution fluxes to marine surfaces. Previous studies have investigated the effects of particle growth on V{sub d} due to humidity effect in the deposition layer and the effect of broken surface on V{sub d}. The humidity effect in the turbulent transfer layer was regarded as unimportant because particle growth is negligible at relative humidity below 98%. Effects of atmospheric stratification are also considered unimportant in previous studies and investigations are limited to special case of T{sub a}-T{sub w} = 0. The present study is an improvement to both models by Slinn and Slinn, and by Williams. In addition to including effects of spray formation and increased gravitational settling due to particle growth in the high relative humidity near the air/water interface, the present model also includes the variation of turbulent transfer with wind speed, air/water temperature difference, water surface temperature, surface roughness as well as relative humidity of air of the turbulent transfer layer. Relative humidity of the transfer layer has no influence on the particle growth but can significantly effect the atmospheric stability and therefore the turbulent transfer process.

  9. Theory for fine particle deposition in two-dimensional boundary layer flows and application to gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Menguturk, M.; Sverdrup, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    A theory is presented to predict deposition rates of fine particles in two-dimensional compressible boundary layer flows. The mathematical model developed accounts for diffusion due to both molecular and turbulent fluctuations in the boundary layer flow. Particle inertia is taken into account in establishing the condition on particle flux near the surface. Gravitational settling and thermophoresis are not considered. 22 refs.

  10. Improved methods for thin, surface boundary layer investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. J.; Perlin, M.

    New techniques are developed to improve the velocity flow-field measurement capability within a free-surface boundary layer region on which progressive capillary-gravity waves are present. Due to the extremely thin but rather vortical characteristics of the aforementioned boundary layer, conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods fail to estimate velocity (and vorticity) vectors at an acceptable detection rate. This failure is a direct consequence of optimal PIV parameters that are difficult to achieve in practice for such flow situations. A new technique, Sub-pattern PIV, is developed. This method has features similar to both the super-resolution PIV (Keane et al. 1995) and the particle image distortion (PID) technique (Huang et al. 1993), but is predicated upon a very differential philosophy. Another difficulty that arises in experiments to investigate surface boundary layer flows is that the oscillating and deforming air-water interface has a mirror-like behavior that affects the images, and generates very noisy data. An alternative experimental setup that utilizes the Brewster angle phenomenon is adopted and the specular effects of the free-surface are removed successfully. This Brewster angle imaging, along with the Sub-pattern PIV technique, is used for the target application - a free-surface boundary layer investigation. It proved to be very effective. The methodology of both techniques is discussed, and the modified PIV procedure is validated by numerical probabilistic simulations. Application to the capillary-gravity wave boundary layer is presented in a subsequent paper.

  11. Surface waves in a layered material

    SciTech Connect

    Kueny, A.; Grimsditch, M.

    1982-10-15

    Results of a numerical calculation of the velocities of surface waves in layered isotropic materials are presented. They do not explain the behavior of previous experimental results on Nb-Cu heterostructures. Mode crossings are found in certain cases between the Rayleigh wave and higher-order surface modes.

  12. The roles of particles in multiphase processes: Particles on bubble surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bournival, Ghislain; Ata, Seher; Wanless, Erica J

    2015-11-01

    Particle-stabilised foams (or froths) form the fundamental framework of industrial processes like froth flotation. This review provides an overview of the effects of particles on bubble surfaces. The characteristics of the particles have a profound effect on the stability of the bubbles although the stabilisation mechanisms may differ. It is well known that layers of particles may provide a steric barrier between two interfaces, which prevents the coalescence of bubbles. Although perhaps considered of lesser importance, it is interesting to note that particles may affect the bubble surface and momentarily suppress coalescence despite being absent from the film separating two bubbles. Foams are at best metastable and coalescence occurs to achieve a state of minimum energy. Despite this, particles have been reported to stabilise bubbles for significant periods of time. Bubble coalescence is accompanied by a release of energy triggered by the sudden change in surface area. This produces a distinctive oscillation of the bubble surface, which may be influenced by the presence of incompressible particles yielding unique surface properties. A survey of the literature shows that the properties of these composite materials are greatly affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the particles such as hydrophobicity and size. The intense energy released during the coalescence of bubbles may be sufficient to expel particles from the bubble surface. It is noted that the detachment of particles may preferentially occur from specific locations on the bubble surface. Examination of the research accounts again reveals that the properties of the particles may affect their detachment upon the oscillation of the bubble surface. However, it is believed that most parameters affecting the detachment of particles are in fact modifying the dynamics of the three-phase line of contact. Both the oscillation of a coalescing bubble and the resulting detachment of particles are highly dynamic processes. They would greatly benefit from computer simulation studies. PMID:26344866

  13. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.

    1993-12-31

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties.

  14. Paracrystalline surface layers of dairy propionibacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Lortal, S; Rouault, A; Cesselin, B; Sleytr, U B

    1993-01-01

    We examined 70 dairy propionibacteria and detected a crystalline surface layer (S-layer) in only 2 organisms (Propionibacterium freudenreichii CNRZ 722 and Propionibacterium jensenii CNRZ 87) by freeze-etching and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Both S-layers exhibited oblique (p2) symmetry (a = 9.9 nm; b = 5.4 nm; gamma = 80 degrees) and completely covered the cell surface. Treatment for 15 min at the ambient temperature with 5 M guanidine hydrochloride or acidic conditions (250 mM ammonium acetate, pH 2.7) efficiently extracted the S-layer protein from intact cells of strain CNRZ 722, whereas treatment with 5 M guanidine hydrochloride at 100 degrees C for 15 min was necessary to isolate the S-layer protein of strain CNRZ 87. The precipitates obtained after dialysis of the extracting agents produced no regular patterns. The molecular masses of the two S-layer proteins, as estimated by SDS-PAGE, were 58.5 kDa for the strain CNRZ 722 and 67.3 kDa for the strain CNRZ 87. Mass spectrometry of the isolated S-layer protein of strain CNRZ 722 gave a molecular mass value close to the expected value (56,533 Da). The N-terminal sequences of the two purified S-layer proteins differed, as did their amino acid compositions, except that the same high hydrophobic amino acid content (52%) was observed. Images PMID:8304753

  15. Development of Encoded Particle-Polymer Arrays for the Accelerated Screening of Antifouling Layers

    PubMed Central

    Kithva, Prakash; Bax, Jacinda; Surawski, Peter P.T.; Montero, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A multiplexed screening methodology for the rapid development of antifouling polymer surfaces is presented. An array of protein resistant polymer layers with high grafting (>100 mg/m2) were polymerized on optically encoded particles. Multiplexed analysis showed a 97% reduction in nonspecific protein adsorption for all polymer layers created. PMID:21773613

  16. Limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode with dense particle layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wero?ski, P.; Nosek, M.; Batys, P.

    2013-09-01

    Exploiting the concept of diffusion permeability of multilayer gel membrane and porous multilayer we have derived a simple analytical equation for the limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode (RDE) covered by a thin layer with variable tortuosity and porosity, under the assumption of negligible convection in the porous film. The variation of limiting diffusion current with the porosity and tortuosity of the film can be described in terms of the equivalent thickness of stagnant solution layer, i.e., the average ratio of squared tortuosity to porosity. In case of monolayer of monodisperse spherical particles, the equivalent layer thickness is an algebraic function of the surface coverage. Thus, by means of cyclic voltammetry of RDE with a deposited particle monolayer we can determine the monolayer surface coverage. The effect of particle layer adsorbed on the surface of RDE increases non-linearly with surface coverage. We have tested our theoretical results experimentally by means of cyclic voltammetry measurements of limiting diffusion current at the glassy carbon RDE covered with a monolayer of 3 ?m silica particles. The theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreement at the surface coverage higher than 0.7. This result suggests that convection in a monolayer of 3 ?m monodisperse spherical particles is negligibly small, in the context of the coverage determination, in the range of very dense particle layers.

  17. Algorithm for Computing Particle/Surface Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm has been devised for predicting the behaviors of sparsely spatially distributed particles impinging on a solid surface in a rarefied atmosphere. Under the stated conditions, prior particle-transport models in which (1) dense distributions of particles are treated as continuum fluids; or (2) sparse distributions of particles are considered to be suspended in and to diffuse through fluid streams are not valid.

  18. Water vapor interactions with FeOOH particle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-Franois

    2013-02-01

    Interactions between iron (oxyhydr)oxide particle surfaces and water are of fundamental importance to natural and technological processes. In this Letter, we probe the interactions between submicron-sized lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) surfaces and gaseous water using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Formation of hydrogen bonds between different lepidocrocite surface OH functional groups and water was specifically monitored in the O-H stretching region. Molecular dynamics simulations of the dominant crystallographic terminations of these particles provided insights into interfacial water structures and hydrogen bonding networks. Theoretical power spectra were moreover used to validate interpretations of experimental spectra. This Letter constrains our understanding of incipient water adsorption reactions leading to thermodynamically stable and reversible thin water films at FeOOH particle surfaces. It also suggests that these water layers are structurally analogous precursors to those occurring at a FeOOH surfaces contacted with liquid water.

  19. Alumina surface recovery for the particle reduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Wook; Song, Hyo Seok; Kim, Hyun Jun; Ryu, Je Hyeok; Ji, Young Yeon; Chae, Hee Sun

    2014-12-01

    The method for the alumina surface regeneration and the particle reduction in an inductively coupled plasma are described. Due to the chemical reaction between the alumina surface and the oxygen gas in high temperature plasma, the by product AI(OH)3 is formed. Then, it fell out to the wafer as the particle. Since the particles mainly generated from the alumina surface, the seasoning process was progressed after the photoresist (PR) strip process. As the results, the byproduct of the alumina surface changed from Al(OH)3 to Al2O3 after the seasoning process. Then, total number of the particles on the wafer was considerably reduced. For the surface analysis, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR were applied to comparing the status of the alumina surface before and after the seasoning process. PMID:25971087

  20. Characterization of carbides composite surface layers produced by PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, M.; Tajouri, A.

    2015-03-01

    Composite surface layer of nickel base with titanium carbide in powder form was deposited on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard by using plasma transferred arc technique. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hardfacin process was successfully conducted by using PMNICr50P alloy plus titanium carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 754 HV and minimum dilution of 4.6 % were achieved by using an arc current of 80 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A& the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base with titanium carbide feature uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with irregular grain shape and relatively small particles size, and regular boundary line between the substrate and over layer with presence of black area along the boundary line. A few micro - porosities are located in the matrix.

  1. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Constant Behavior: IV. Diffuse Layer Charge/Potential Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most current electrostatic surface complexation models describing ionic binding at the particle/water interface rely on the use of Poisson - Boltzmann (PB) theory for relating diffuse layer charge densities to diffuse layer electrostatic potentials. PB theory is known to contain ...

  2. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  3. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W. (1033 Tramway La. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); VanDevender, J. Pace (7604 Lamplighter NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109)

    1999-01-01

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

  4. Transition induced by fixed and freely convecting spherical particles in laminar boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, H. L.; Morris, P. J.; Bajwa, A. R.; Vincent, D. C.

    1993-08-01

    An experimental and analytical study of aspects of transition induced by disturbances from spherical particles in laminar boundary layers is discussed. The generation of turbulent wedges by fixed spherical particles in a laminar boundary layer on or near the surface of a flat plate is considered experimentally using flow visualization with fluorescent dye and laser Doppler velocimetry. Turbulent spots generated by freely convecting spherical particles that are released in the freestream to fall into a flat plate laminar boundary layer and impact the plate are also discussed. A combination of dye flow visualization and a video based particle tracking technique was used to study the convecting particle problem. Although the Reynolds number at the critical condition for turbulent wedge generation by fixed particles and turbulent spot generation by convecting particles are similar, transition in these two situations appears to be fundamentally different. The development of a turbulent wedge near the critical condition is a relatively gradual process. In contrast, turbulent spots form relatively quickly after the convecting particles enter the boundary layer and impact the plate. Turbulent wedge formation downstream of a fixed particle results from the destabilization of the near wall flow by the vortical structures shed into particle wake. This shedding process is dominated by periodically shed loop shaped hairpin vortices. Observation of subharmonic oscillations at 1/2 and 1/4 of this shedding frequency suggest that a chaotic route to turbulence by a series of period doubling bifurcations is possible.

  5. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models are extended to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface ('constant flux') layer. The atmospheric surface layer consists of an interfacial sublayer immediately adjacent to the ground and an overlying fully turbulent surface sublayer where wind-shear production of turbulence dominates buoyancy production. Within the interfacial sublayer, sensible and latent heat are transported by non-steady molecular diffusion into small-scale eddies which intermittently burst through this zone. Both the thickness of the interfacial sublayer and the characteristics of the turbulent eddies penetrating through it depend on whether airflow is aerodynamically smooth or aerodynamically rough, as determined by the Roughness Reynold's number. Within the overlying surface sublayer, similarity theory can be used to express the mean vertical windspeed, temperature, and water vapor profiles in terms of a single parameter, the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed using data from the TPRC Data Series and the first-order Chapman-Cowling expressions; the required collision integrals were approximated using the Lenard-Jones potential. Parameterizations for specific heat and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Brutsart model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length was modified to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface sublayers offer roughly comparable resistance to sensible heat and water vapor transport and are thus both important in determining the associated fluxes.

  6. Hygroscopic behavior and liquid-layer composition of aerosol particles generated from natural and artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Matthew E.; Freney, Evelyn J.; Tyree, Corey A.; Allen, Jonathan O.; Martin, Scot T.; Russell, Lynn M.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2009-02-01

    Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles affect the Earth's radiative balance and moderate heterogeneous chemistry in the marine boundary layer. Using conventional and environmental transmission electron microscopes (ETEM), we investigated the hygroscopic growth and liquid-layer compositions of particles generated from three types of aqueous salt solutions: sodium chloride, laboratory-synthesized seawater (S-SSA particles), and natural seawater (N-SSA particles). Three levels of morphological change were observed with the ETEM as the laboratory-generated particles were exposed to increasing relative humidity (RH). The first level, onset of observable morphological changes, occurred on average at 70, 48, and 35% RH for the NaCl, S-SSA, and N-SSA particles, respectively. The second level, rounding, occurred at 74, 66, and 57% RH for NaCl, S-SSA, and N-SSA particles, respectively. The third level, complete deliquescence, occurred at 75% RH for all particles. Collected ambient SSA particles were also examined. With the exception of deliquescence, they did not exhibit the same hygroscopic characteristics as the NaCl particles. The ambient particles, however, behaved most similarly to the synthesized and natural SSA particles, although the onset of morphological change was slightly higher for the S-SSA particles. We used energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry to study the composition of the liquid layer formed on the S-SSA and N-SSA particles. The layer was enriched in Mg, S, and O relative to the solid particle core. An important implication of these results is that MgSO4-enriched solutions on the surface of SSA particles may be the solvents of many heterogeneous reactions.

  7. Irreversible adsorption of particles on heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Jaszczółt, Katarzyna; Michna, Aneta; Siwek, Barbara; Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Zembala, Maria

    2005-12-30

    Methods of theoretical and experimental evaluation of irreversible adsorption of particles, e.g., colloids and globular proteins at heterogeneous surfaces were reviewed. The theoretical models were based on the generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach. Within the scope of these models, localized adsorption of particles occurring as a result of short-ranged attractive interactions with discrete adsorption sites was analyzed. Monte-Carlo type simulations performed according to this model enabled one to determine the initial flux, adsorption kinetics, jamming coverage and the structure of the particle monolayer as a function of the site coverage and the particle/site size ratio, denoted by lambda. It was revealed that the initial flux increased significantly with the site coverage theta(s) and the lambda parameter. This behavior was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the scaled particle theory. It also was demonstrated that particle adsorption kinetics and the jamming coverage increased significantly, at fixed site coverage, when the lambda parameter increased. Practically, for alpha = lambda2theta(s) > 1 the jamming coverage at the heterogeneous surfaces attained the value pertinent to continuous surfaces. The results obtained prove unequivocally that spherically shaped sites were more efficient in binding particles in comparison with disk-shaped sites. It also was predicted that for particle size ratio lambda < 4 the site multiplicity effect plays a dominant role, affecting significantly the structure of particle monolayers and the jamming coverage. Experimental results validating main aspects of these theoretical predictions also have been reviewed. These results were derived by using monodisperse latex particles adsorbing on substrates produced by covering uniform surface by adsorption sites of a desired size, coverage and surface charge. Particle deposition occurred under diffusion-controlled transport conditions and their coverage was evaluated by direct particle counting using the optical and electron microscopy. Adsorption kinetics was quantitatively interpreted in terms of numerical solutions of the governing diffusion equation with the non-linear boundary condition derived from Monte-Carlo simulations. It was proven that for site coverage as low as a few percent the initial flux at heterogeneous surfaces attained the maximum value pertinent to homogeneous surfaces. It also was demonstrated that the structure of larger particle monolayers, characterized in terms of the pair correlation function, showed much more short-range ordering than predicted for homogeneous surface monolayers at the same coverage. The last part of this review was devoted to detection of polyelectrolyte multilayers on various substrates via particle deposition experiments. PMID:15961056

  8. Electronic structure of bacterial surface protein layers

    SciTech Connect

    Maslyuk, Volodymyr V.; Mertig, Ingrid; Bredow, Thomas; Mertig, Michael; Vyalikh, Denis V.; Molodtsov, Serguei L.

    2008-01-15

    We report an approach for the calculation of the electronic density of states of the dried two-dimensional crystalline surface protein layer (S layer) of the bacterium Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602. The proposed model is based on the consideration of individual amino acids in the corresponding conformation of the peptide chain which additively contribute to the electronic structure of the entire protein complex. The derived results agree well with the experimental data obtained by means of photoemission (PE), resonant PE, and near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  9. Regular surface layer of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Bingle, W H; Doran, J L; Page, W J

    1984-07-01

    Washing Azotobacter vinelandii UW1 with Burk buffer or heating cells at 42 degrees C exposed a regular surface layer which was effectively visualized by freeze-etch electron microscopy. This layer was composed of tetragonally arranged subunits separated by a center-to-center spacing of approximately 10 nm. Cells washed with distilled water to remove an acidic major outer membrane protein with a molecular weight of 65,000 did not possess the regular surface layer. This protein, designated the S protein, specifically reattached to the surface of distilled-water-washed cells in the presence of the divalent calcium, magnesium, strontium, or beryllium cations. All of these cations except beryllium supported reassembly of the S protein into a regular tetragonal array. Although the surface localization of the S protein has been demonstrated, radioiodination of exposed envelope proteins in whole cells did not confirm this. The labeling behavior of the S protein could be explained on the basis of varying accessibilities of different tyrosine residues to iodination. PMID:6735982

  10. Lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiment: Plasma and energetic particles on the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.; Chase, L. M.; Lin, R. P.; Mccoy, J. E.; Mcguire, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiments aboard the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites and scientific reduction and analysis of the data to date are discussed with emphasis on four major topics: solar particles; interplanetry particle phenomena; lunar interactions; and topology and dynamics of the magnetosphere at lunar orbit. The studies of solar and interplanetary particles concentrated on the low energy region which was essentially unexplored, and the studies of lunar interaction pointed up the transition from single particle to plasma characteristics. The analysis concentrated on the electron angular distributions as highly sensitive indicators of localized magnetization of the lunar surface. Magnetosphere experiments provided the first electric field measurements in the distant magnetotail, as well as comprehensive low energy particle measurements at lunar distance.

  11. Temperature responsive surface layers of modified celluloses.

    PubMed

    Bodvik, Rasmus; Thormann, Esben; Karlson, Leif; Claesson, Per M

    2011-03-14

    The temperature-dependent properties of pre-adsorbed layers of methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were investigated on silica and hydrophobized silica surfaces. Three different techniques, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy imaging, were used, providing complementary and concise information on the structure, mass and viscoelastic properties of the polymer layer. Adsorption was conducted at 25 C, followed by a rinsing step. The properties of such pre-adsorbed layers were determined as a function of temperature in the range 25 C to 50 C. It was found that the layers became more compact with increasing temperature and that this effect was reversible, when decreasing the temperature. The compaction was more prominent for MC, as shown in the AFM images and in the thickness data derived from the QCM analysis. This is consistent with the fact that the phase transition temperature is lower, in the vicinity of 50 C, for MC than for HPMC. The water content of the adsorbed layers was found to be high, even at the highest temperature, 50 C, explored in this investigation. PMID:21246125

  12. Solid-Particle Erosion Behaviour of WC/Ni Composite Clad layers with Different Contents of WC Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, C. P.; Mishra, S. K.; Tiwari, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the solid particle erosion behaviour of WC-reinforced Ni-matrix based laser clad layers to improve the performance of engineering components for potential power plant applications. WC-reinforced Ni-matrix based laser clad layers having various compositions of WC (5, 10 and 15wt%) were deposited on austenitic stainless steel substrates. The laser clad layers were characterised using optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness testing and air-jet erosion testing. In solid particle erosion studies using the air-jet erosion tester, the set of testing parameters, including air-erodent compositions, erodent particle velocities and impact angles, was selected by using the Taguchi technique. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were used to predict the wear mechanisms. The results of a microstructural examination of the cross-sections of laser clad revealed a good metallurgical bond between the WC-reinforced Ni matrix and the austenitic stainless steel substrate. Dissociation/partial melting/full melting of WC particles was not observed in the laser clad layers. The microhardness value in the laser cladding zone was between 900-2400 VHN, while it was 230-270 VHN on the substrate. The results of erosion wear studies of the WC-Ni laser clad surface revealed that the erosion behaviour of the WC-Ni laser clad is primarily governed by erodent jet velocity followed by impact angle. The erosion does not much depend on the Ni-concentration in the MMC or the erodent feed rate. The wear signature at the erosion wear surface indicated that the erosion was primarily governed by a ductile erosion mechanism followed by the removal of WC particles from the matrix. The erosion resistance of the Ni-clad layer with WC was found to be at least four times higher than that without WC particles. The quantified contribution of various erosion parameters is useful for function-based design of components with extended service life.

  13. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Marston, Jeremy O; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-09-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. PMID:23919719

  14. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers extend elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface layer. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed. Parameterizations for specific heat and and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Prandtl and Schmidt numbers derived from these thermophysical properties were found to range from 0.78 - 1.0 and 0.47 - 0.70, respectively, for Mars. Brutsaert's model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the researchers modified the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. This length scale was then utilized with similarity theory turbulent flux profiles with the same form as those used by Businger et al. and others. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface sublayers offer roughly comparable resistance to sensible heat and water vapor transport and are thus both important in determining the associated fluxes.

  15. Numerical Modelling of Saltation in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yaping; Li, An

    A numerical model is developed to study the hopping motion of sand grains (saltation) in neutral atmospheric surface layers. Saltation is considered as a self-limiting process governed by the interaction of four components: aerodynamic entrainment, particle motion, splash entrainment and wind modification. The model comprises a large eddy simulation model for atmospheric surface-layer flows, a Lagrangian model for particle trajectories and a statistical description for aerodynamic entrainment and splash entrainment. The numerical simulation is focused on the aspects of saltation that are not well understood from experimental studies, including the role of splash, the evolution of wind and momentum flux profiles, and the effective roughness length, z 0s . It is shown that for splash to be effective, the surface friction velocity must exceed a critical value for a given particle size. The numerically estimated z 0s is compared with the analytical model of Raupach and the experimental data of Gillette et al. The model is also used to calculate the streamwise sand drift and the numerical results found to be in agreement with the existing wind-tunnel measurements.

  16. Creation of giant two-dimensional crystal of zinc oxide nanodisk by method of single-particle layer of organo-modified inorganic fine particles.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Honda, Nanami; Uchida, Saki; Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Shibata, Hirobumi; Fujimori, Atsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the formation and structure of a single-particle layer of organo-zinc oxide are investigated using surface-pressure-area (π-A) isotherms, out-of-plane X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further, techniques for achieving the solubilization of inorganic fine particles in general solvents have been proposed, and a single-particle layer has been formed using such an inorganic solution as a "spreading solution" for an interfacial film. Surface modification of ZnO is performed using a long-chain carboxylic acid. Accordingly, a regular arrangement of ZnO can be easily achieved in order to overcome the relatively weak van der Walls interactions between inorganic materials. A condensed Langmuir monolayer of these particles is also formed. A multiparticle layered structure is constructed by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Out-of-plane XRD measurement results for a single-particle layer of organo-ZnO clearly show a sharp peak at 42 Å. This peak is attributed to the distance between ZnO layers. The AFM image of this single-particle layer of organo-ZnO shows a particle assembly with a uniform height of 60 nm. These aggregated particles form large two-dimensional crystals. In other words, a regular periodic structure along the c-axis and a condensed single-particle layer had been fabricated using Langmuir and LB techniques. PMID:25978556

  17. Electrorotation of colloidal particles and cells depends on surface charge.

    PubMed Central

    Maier, H

    1997-01-01

    The importance of surface conductivity to the frequency-dependent polarizability and the rotation of particles in circular electric fields (electrorotation) is emphasized by various theoretical and experimental investigations. Although surface conductivity seems to be naturally related to the ionic double layer, there is rare experimental evidence of a direct relationship. To highlight the role of surface charges in electrorotation, an apparatus was developed with a symmetrical three-electrode arrangement for field frequencies between 25 Hz and 80 MHz. The three-dimensional electrostatic field distribution between the electrodes was evaluated numerically. With this device, rotating, gradient, and homogeneous electric fields of defined precision and homogeneity could be applied to slightly conducting suspensions. Surface properties of monodisperse latex particles (O 9.67 microm), carrying weak acid groups, were characterized by suspension conductometric titration. This procedure determined the amount of carboxyl groups and showed that strong acid groups were missing on the surface of these particles. To obtain the electrophoretic mobility, the spheres were separated by free-flow electrophoresis, and the zeta-potential was calculated from these data. Single-particle rotation experiments on fractions of specified electrophoretic mobility were carried out at frequencies between 25 Hz and 20 MHz. By analyzing the pH dependence of the rotation velocity, it could be shown that the rotation rate is determined by surface charges, both at the peak in rotation rate near the Maxwell-Wagner frequency (MWF) and at low frequencies. The inversion of the rotation direction at the MWF peak for vanishing surface charges was demonstrated. An analytical model for the double layer and dissociation on a charged surface was developed that is valid for low and high zeta-potentials. This model could provide convincing evidence of the linear dependence of the MWF rotation velocity on surface charge. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9284328

  18. Experimental study of shear layer instability below a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxation of a laminar boundary layer at a free surface is an inviscidly unstable process and can lead to millimeter-scale surface waves, influencing interfacial processes. Due to the small time- and length-scales involved, previous experimental studies have been limited to visual observations and point-wise measurements of the surface profile to determine instability onset and frequency. However, effects of viscosity, surface tension, and non-linearity of the wave profile have not been systematically studied. In fact, no data have been reported on the velocity fields associated with this instability. In the present study, planar laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry provide surface profiles coupled with liquid phase velocity fields for this instability in a time resolved manner. Wave steepness (ak, with a the amplitude and k the wave number) and Reynolds and Weber numbers based on momentum thickness range from 0 to 1.2, 143 to 177, and 4.79 to 6.61, respectively. Large datasets are analyzed to gain statistical information on the surface behavior. Discrete vortices are resolved, showing that the shear layer becomes unstable and rolls up above a Reynolds number of 140. The detection onset and steepness of the subsequent surface deformation by the vortices depend upon the Weber number. Non-linear behavior such as vortex motion and wave profile asymmetry are observed at steepness larger than 0.5.

  19. Conversion Surfaces for Neutral Particle Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, J. A.; Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.; Bochsler, P.; Hertzberg, E.; Fuselier, S. A.

    To measure neutral particles, first of all one has to find a suitable ionization technique. Surface ionization was identified as the only viable ionization technique to meet the requirements concerning ionization efficiency for the energy range of 10 eV to 1 keV within the limitations imposed by the resources available on a satellite. In recent years high fractions of negative ions have been observed while scattering neutral particles off several quite different insulating surfaces, i. e., natural diamond and MgO. We will present measurements which show a very good overall-performance for Diamond-Like-Carbon surfaces (DLC) and thus recommend these surfaces to be used as conversion surfaces for instruments on future missions like BepiColombo and Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX).

  20. Diurnal ocean surface layer model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; May, Douglas A.; Abell, Fred, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The diurnal ocean surface layer (DOSL) model at the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center forecasts the 24-hour change in a global sea surface temperatures (SST). Validating the DOSL model is a difficult task due to the huge areas involved and the lack of in situ measurements. Therefore, this report details the use of satellite infrared multichannel SST imagery to provide day and night SSTs that can be directly compared to DOSL products. This water-vapor-corrected imagery has the advantages of high thermal sensitivity (0.12 C), large synoptic coverage (nearly 3000 km across), and high spatial resolution that enables diurnal heating events to be readily located and mapped. Several case studies in the subtropical North Atlantic readily show that DOSL results during extreme heating periods agree very well with satellite-imagery-derived values in terms of the pattern of diurnal warming. The low wind and cloud-free conditions necessary for these events to occur lend themselves well to observation via infrared imagery. Thus, the normally cloud-limited aspects of satellite imagery do not come into play for these particular environmental conditions. The fact that the DOSL model does well in extreme events is beneficial from the standpoint that these cases can be associated with the destruction of the surface acoustic duct. This so-called afternoon effect happens as the afternoon warming of the mixed layer disrupts the sound channel and the propagation of acoustic energy.

  1. Particle aggregation with simultaneous surface growth

    SciTech Connect

    pablo.mitchell@cal.Berkeley.EDU

    2003-04-29

    Particle aggregation with simultaneous surface growth was modeled using a dynamic Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo algorithm begins in the particle inception zone and constructs aggregates via ensemble-averaged collisions between spheres and deposition of gaseous species on the sphere surfaces. Simulations were conducted using four scenarios. The first, referred to as scenario 0, is used as a benchmark and simulates aggregation in the absence of surface growth. Scenario 1 forces all balls to grow at a uniform rate while scenario 2 only permits them to grow once they have collided and stuck to each other. The last one is a test scenario constructed to confirm conclusions drawn from scenarios 0-2. The transition between the coalescent and the fully-developed fractal aggregation regimes is investigated using shape descriptors to quantify particle geometry. They are used to define the transition between the coalescent and fractal growth regimes. The simulations demonstrate that the morphology of aggregating particles is intimately related to both the surface deposition and particle nucleation rates.

  2. Surface Properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    WoodIII, David L; Rulison, Christopher; Borup, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    The wetting properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs) were quantified by surface characterization measurements and modeling of material properties. Single-fiber contact-angle and surface energy (both Zisman and Owens-Wendt) data of a wide spectrum of GDL types is presented to delineate the effects of hydrophobic post-processing treatments. Modeling of the basic sessile-drop contact angle demonstrates that this value only gives a fraction of the total picture of interfacial wetting physics. Polar forces are shown to contribute 10-20 less than dispersive forces to the composite wetting of GDLs. Internal water contact angles obtained from Owens-Wendt analysis were measured at 13-19 higher than their single-fiber counterparts. An inverse relationship was found between internal contact angle and both Owens-Wendt surface energy and % polarity of the GDL. The most sophisticated PEMFC mathematical models use either experimentally measured capillary pressures or the standard Young-Laplace capillary-pressure equation. Based on the results of the Owens-Wendt analysis, an advancement to the Young-Laplace equation is proposed for use in these mathematical models, which utilizes only solid surface energies and fractional surface coverage of fluoropolymer. Capillary constants for the spectrum of analyzed GDLs are presented for the same purpose.

  3. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics.

    PubMed

    Videler, J J

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, scales, riblets and roughness may influence the flow velocity gradient, the type of flow and the thickness of the boundary layer around animals, and may seriously affect their drag in a positive or negative way. The long-chain polymers found in mucus decrease the pressure gradient and considerably reduced drag due to friction. The effect is probably due to channelling of the flow particles in the direction of the main flow, resulting in a reduction of turbulence. Compliant surfaces could probably reduce drag by equalising and distributing pressure pulses. However, the existing evidence that drag reduction actually occurs is not convincing. There is no indication that instantaneous heating, reducing the viscosity in the boundary layer, is used by animals as a drag-reducing technique. Small longitudinal ridges on rows of scales on fish can reduce shear stress in the boundary by a maximum of 10% compared with the shear stress of a smooth surface. The mechanism is based on the impedance of cross flow under well-defined conditions. The effect has been visualized with the use of particle image velocimetry techniques. The function of the swords and spears of several fast, pelagic, predatory fish species is still enigmatic. The surface structure of the sword of a swordfish is shown to be both rough and porous. The height of the roughness elements on the tip of the sword is close to the critical value for the induction of a laminar-to-turbulent flow transition at moderate cruising speeds. A flow tank is described that is designed to visualize the effects of surface imperfections on flow in the boundary layer in direct comparison with a smooth flat wall. The flow in a 1 m long, 10 cm high and 1 cm wide channel is visualized by illuminating the particles in a thin laser light sheet. The first results show that a rough surface increases the shear stress in the boundary layer and makes it thinner. The function of the roughness on the sword of a swordfish is probably to reduce the total drag by generating premature turbulence and by boundary layer thinning, despite an increased friction over the surface of the sword. The function of the porous surface structures on the sword, and of the porous skins of sharks and of the castor oil fish, will probably be discovered soon using new particle image velocimetry techniques applied under strong magnification to visualize the local behaviour of the flow. PMID:8571218

  4. Thermal characteristics of the lunar surface layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, C. J.; Birkebak, R. C.; White, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the fines from the Apollo 12 landing site have been determined as a function of their relevant parameters. These properties include the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, directional reflectance and emittance. The density used was the same as that observed from the returned core-tube samples and so should be close to the true density of the surface layer at the Apollo 12 site. The measured properties are used to calculate the diurnal temperature variation of the moon's surface as well as for several depths below the surface. The maximum surface of 389 K is obtained at lunar noon while the minimum temperature of 86.1 K is obtained at sunrise. It is shown that the most significant effects on temperature, as compared with previous calculations, are caused by using the directional reflectance which controls the amount of solar energy absorption during the day in place of a constant hemispherical reflectance. The results are compared with previous analyses and remote measurements.

  5. Development of titanium oxide layer containing nanocrystalline zirconia particles with tetragonal structure: Structural and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won; Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the microstructural, mechanical and biological properties of oxide layers containing tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) particles on pure titanium produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this purpose, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 200mA/cm(2) for 180s in potassium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) electrolytes with and without t-ZrO2 powder. Structural investigations using transmission electron microscopy exhibited that the present nanocrystalline oxide layer evidenced the successful incorporation of a myriad of t-ZrO2 particles working as an intermediate medium to reinforce the adhesion strength between the substrate and oxide layer. Regarding biomimetic apatite formation, the t-ZrO2 particles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the nucleation and growth of biomimetic apatite on the surface of the oxide layer immersed in a simulated body fluid solution. The growth and proliferation rates of the osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cultured on the oxide layer with t-ZrO2 particles were higher than that without t-ZrO2 particles due to the higher roughness providing the better sites for the filopodia extension and interlocking. PMID:25956745

  6. Conversion surfaces for neutral particle imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, J. A.; Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.; Bochsler, P.; Hertzberg, E.; Fuselier, S. A.; Koeck, F. A.; Nemanich, R. J.; Schleberger, M.

    2006-01-01

    Low-energy neutral particles must be ionized before they are analyzed by mass spectrometric means. Within the limitations regarding space, weight and power consumption onboard a spacecraft surface ionization has been identified as the only viable ionization technique. In the study presented here molecular oxygen and hydrogen ions were scattered at grazing incidence from several diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces in the energy range from 190 to 2400 eV. Most surfaces were hydrogen terminated. For incident positive oxygen and hydrogen ions, scattered negative ion fractions of up to 28% and more than 6%, were measured, respectively. These values are among the highest ever reported, especially for oxygen. Furthermore, though these surfaces are amorphous, due to improved polishing techniques angular scattering distributions of the scattered beam have been observed, which were comparable to distributions of scattering experiments with single-crystal surfaces. Therefore, these DLC surfaces are strong candidates to work as conversion surfaces in a neutral particle imaging detector for the BepiColombo mission.

  7. Electrophoresis of a charged soft particle in a charged cavity with arbitrary double-layer thickness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei J; Keh, Huan J

    2013-08-22

    An analysis for the quasi-steady electrophoretic motion of a soft particle composed of a charged spherical rigid core and an adsorbed porous layer positioned at the center of a charged spherical cavity filled with an arbitrary electrolyte solution is presented. Within the porous layer, frictional segments with fixed charges are assumed to distribute uniformly. Through the use of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Laplace equation, the equilibrium double-layer potential distribution and its perturbation caused by the applied electric field are separately determined. The modified Stokes and Brinkman equations governing the fluid flow fields outside and inside the porous layer, respectively, are solved subsequently. An explicit formula for the electrokinetic migration velocity of the soft particle in terms of the fixed charge densities on the rigid core surface, in the porous layer, and on the cavity wall is obtained from a balance between its electrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. This formula is valid for arbitrary values of ?a, ?a, r0/a, and a/b, where ? is the Debye screening parameter, ? is the reciprocal of the length characterizing the extent of flow penetration inside the porous layer, a is the radius of the soft particle, r0 is the radius of the rigid core of the particle, and b is the radius of the cavity. In the limiting cases of r0 = a and r0 = 0, the migration velocity for the charged soft sphere reduces to that for a charged impermeable sphere and that for a charged porous sphere, respectively, in the charged cavity. The effect of the surface charge at the cavity wall on the particle migration can be significant, and the particle may reverse the direction of its migration. PMID:23898800

  8. Modeled heating and surface erosion comparing motile (gas borne) and stationary (surface coating) inert particle additives

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1982-09-27

    The unsteady, non-similar, chemically reactive, turbulent boundary layer equations are modified for gas plus dispersed solid particle mixtures, for gas phase turbulent combustion reactions and for heterogeneous gas-solid surface erosive reactions. The exterior (ballistic core) edge boundary conditions for the solutions are modified to include dispersed particle influences on core propellant combustion-generated turbulence levels, combustion reactants and products, and reaction-induced, non-isentropic mixture states. The wall surface (in this study it is always steel) is considered either bare or coated with a fixed particle coating which is conceptually non-reactive, insulative, and non-ablative. Two families of solutions are compared. These correspond to: (1) consideration of gas-borne, free-slip, almost spontaneously mobile (motile) solid particle additives which influence the turbulent heat transfer at the uncoated steel surface and, in contrast, (2) consideration of particle-free, gas phase turbulent heat transfer to the insulated surface coated by stationary particles. Significant differences in erosive heat transfer are found in comparing the two families of solutions over a substantial range of interior ballistic flow conditions. The most effective influences on reducing erosive heat transfer appear to favor mobile, gas-borne particle additives.

  9. Generation of alginate gel particles with AuNPs layers by polydimethylsiloxan template

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Li-Bo; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a feasible and simple microfluidic approach for synthesizing anisotropic gel particles based on template method. By filling arrays of microwells with alginate hydrogel and synthesizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the gel surface, anisotropic alginate gel particles with single side gold nanoparticles layers were produced in microwells on the polydimethylsiloxan template. AuNPs and the anisotropic feature were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectrum analyses. The anisotropic particles made of biocompatible gels could be released from the template and collected with uniform sizes, which might have a powerful potential in biological detection and sensing. PMID:21799724

  10. Lunar surface outgassing and alpha particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, Richard D.; Binder, Alan B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particle?; produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-2 18 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238.

  11. Double layer -- a particle accelerator in the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Xiangrong

    2015-07-16

    Slides present the material under the following topics: Introduction (What is a double layer (DL)? Why is it important? Key unsolved problems); Theory -- time-independent solutions of 1D Vlasov--Poisson system; Particle-in-cell simulations (Current-driven DLs); and Electron acceleration by DL (Betatron acceleration). Key problems include the generation mechanism, stability, and electron acceleration. In summary, recent observations by Van Allen Probes show large number of DLs in the outer radiation belt, associated with enhanced flux of relativistic electrons. Simulations show that ion acoustic double layers can be generated by field-aligned currents. Thermal electrons can gain energy via betatron acceleration in a dipole magnetic field.

  12. Surface preparation of substances for continuous convective assembly of fine particles

    DOEpatents

    Rossi, Robert (Rochester, MN)

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing periodic nanometer-scale arrays of metal or semiconductor junctions on a clean semiconductor substrate surface is provided comprising the steps of: etching the substrate surface to make it hydrophilic, forming, under an inert atmosphere, a crystalline colloid layer on the substrate surface, depositing a metal or semiconductor material through the colloid layer onto the surface of the substrate, and removing the colloid from the substrate surface. The colloid layer is grown on the clean semiconductor surface by withdrawing the semiconductor substrate from a sol of colloid particles.

  13. Stereo PIV studies of a free surface turbulent mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Bradley S.; Gharib, Morteza

    1999-11-01

    Experimental studies of turbulent mixing layers in the presence of a free surface will be discussed. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) results will be presented and comparisons will be made between the free surface flow and the "bulk" flow. The SPIV technique is employed using the Scheimpflug condition of camera/lens alignment, and the details of this setup will be discussed. Results of the technique as applied in two orientations will be demonstrated, and the utility of SPIV in studying this type of flow will be explored. Experiments have been performed at a location in the mixing layer where the local Reynolds number is approximately 12,000. Using thousands of consecutive (15 Hz sampling) 3-component velocity fields obtained by the SPIV technique, flow statistics and spectral (temporal and spatial) data will be presented. Of particular interest is the behavior in the region of free surface influence. Detailed comparisons will be shown between the turbulent flow properties in the free surface region and in the deeper "bulk" flow. This work is supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Contract N00014-98-1-0017.

  14. Inertial particle accelerations in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warhaft, Zellman; Gerashchenko, Sergiy; Sharp, Nicole; Neuscamman, Stephanie

    2008-11-01

    Two dimensional Lagrangian acceleration statistics of inertial particles in a turbulent boundary layer with free stream turbulence are determined by means of a high speed particle tracking technique (Ayyalasomayajula et al. PRL, 95, 144507, 2006). The boundary layer is formed above a flat plate, and water droplets are fed into the flow from sprays placed down-stream from an active grid, and from tubes fed into the boundary layer from humidifiers. The free stream Stokes number is varied from 0.035 to 0.47. As the boundary layer plate is approached, the tails of the pdfs narrow, become negatively skewed, and their peak occurs at negative accelerations (decelerations in the stream-wise direction). The mean deceleration and its r.m.s. increase to large values close to the plate and are more pronounced with increasing Stokes number, in marked contrast to what is found in isotropic turbulence where the acceleration r.m.s. decreases with increasing Stokes number. A model shows the significance of the combined effects of shear and gravity on the acceleration statistics. The work is funded by the US NSF.

  15. Surface chemistry of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particles coated by Al2O3 using atomic layer deposition for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Dong Hyeon; Oh, Dae Yang; Lee, Hyeyoun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2015-01-01

    The effects of depositing ultrathin (<1 nm) Al2O3 coatings on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) particles using atomic layer deposition (ALD) are presented. Promising electrochemical performance of the Al2O3 ALD coated LNMO at 30 C is demonstrated in not only significantly improved coulombic efficiency, cycle retention, and rate capability, but also in dramatically suppressed self-discharge and dissolution of transition metals. Combined analyses by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex-situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry reveal that the solid electrolyte interphase layer on the Al2O3 ALD coated LNMO is much thinner and contains fewer organic species than the one on the bare LNMO. This difference originates from the suppression of the side reaction at high voltage by the Al2O3 ALD protective coating. Also, fluorination of Al2O3 ALD layer upon repeated charge-discharge cycling is confirmed, and this can account for the capacity increases during the initial charge-discharge cycles. Finally, it is also demonstrated that a full LNMO/Li4Ti5O12 battery incorporating the Al2O3 ALD coated LNMO outperforms the one incorporating only bare LNMO.

  16. Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of nonspherical particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied to calculate the scattering by a layer of randomly positioned and oriented nonspherical particles. The scattering amplitude functions of each individual particle are calculated with Waterman's T matrix method, which utilizes vector spherical wave functions for expansion of incident, scattered, and surface fields. The orientation of the particles is described by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. A rotation matrix is used to relate the T matrix of the principal frame to that of the natural frame of the particle. The extinction matrix and phase matrix of the radiative transfer equations are expressed in terms of the T matrix elements. The extinction matrix for nonspherical particles is generally nondiagonal. There are only two attenuation rates in a specified direction of propagation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative method to first order in albedo. Numerical results are illustrated as functions of incidence angle and frequency with applications to active remote sensing.

  17. Particle Swarm Transport through Immiscible Fluid Layers in a Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, N. D.; Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Immiscible fluids occur either naturally (e.g. oil & water) or from anthropogenic processes (e.g. liquid CO2 & water) in the subsurface and complicate the transport of natural or engineered micro- or nano-scale particles. In this study, we examined the effect of immiscible fluids on the formation and evolution of particle swarms in a fracture. A particle swarm is a collection of colloidal-size particles in a dilute suspension that exhibits cohesive behavior. Swarms fall under gravity with a velocity that is greater than the settling velocity of a single particle. Thus a particle swarm of colloidal contaminants can potentially travel farther and faster in a fracture than expected for a dispersion or emulsion of colloidal particles. We investigated the formation, evolution, and break-up of colloidal swarms under gravity in a uniform aperture fracture as hydrophobic/hydrophyllic particle swarms move across an oil-water interface. A uniform aperture fracture was fabricated from two transparent acrylic rectangular prisms (100 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm) that are separated by 1, 2.5, 5, 10 or 50 mm. The fracture was placed, vertically, inside a glass tank containing a layer of pure silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) on distilled water. Along the length of the fracture, 30 mm was filled with oil and 70 mm with water. Experiments were conducted using silicone oils with viscosities of 5, 10, 100, or 1000 cSt. Particle swarms (5 ?l) were comprised of a 1% concentration (by mass) of 25 micron glass beads (hydrophilic) suspended in a water drop, or a 1% concentration (by mass) of 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (hydrophobic) suspended in a water drop. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera and by green (525 nm) LED arrays for illumination. Swarms were spherical and remained coherent as they fell through the oil because of the immiscibility of oil and water. However, as a swarm approached the oil-water interface, it decreased in speed and came to rest on the interface while maintaining its spherical shape. After the interface between a swarm and the oil thinned sufficiently, the swarm was rapidly released into the water layer. The time that this took depended on the viscosity of the oil layer, which determines the rate of thinning, and on the size and properties of the particles. The swarm geometry and velocity in the water layer depended on the aperture of the fracture, the viscosity of the oil and the hydrophobicity or hydrophyllicity of the particles in the swarm. Hydrophobic beads result in multiple mini swarms after breaking through the interface rather than a single large swarm like that observed for hydrophilic swarms. After many experiments a pile formed at the bottom of the tank near the center of the fracture, indicating that swarms can lead to locally high concentration of colloidal contaminants. Acknowledgment: The authors wish to acknowledge support of this work by the Geosciences Research Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences US Department of Energy (DE-FG02-09ER16022) and the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship program at Purdue University.

  18. Investigation of shock wave-boundary layer instability on the heated ramp surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushneva, A. V.; Saveliev, A. S.; Son, E. E.; Tereshonok, D. V.

    2015-11-01

    By means of particle image velocimetry method shock-wave boundary layer interaction on the pre-heated ramp surface was investigated. The influence of surface heating on separation region unsteadiness was proved. It was found experimentally that increasing of wall to outer flow temperature ratio raises amplitude of separation region oscillation.

  19. Layer silicates in a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy on individual grains from a portion of a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (aggregate W7029C1 from the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection) shows that layer silicates compose 50 percent of the silicate fraction examined. These layer silicates can be classified into two distinct crystallochemical groups: (1) fine-grained, polycrystalline smectite minerals; and (2) well-ordered, single crystals of kaolinite and Mg-poor talc. The layer silicates in this portion of sample W7029(asterisk)A are dissimilar to those described in other chondritic porous aggregates. The predominant layer silicate assemblage in W7029(asterisk)A indicates that heating of the aggregate during atmospheric entry was brief and probably to a temperature less than 300 C. Comparison with terrestrial phyllosilicate occurrences suggests that some layer silicates in aggregate W7029(asterisk)A may have been formed by alteratiton from preexisting silicate minerals at low temperatures (less than 25 C) after aggregate formation.

  20. Layer-by-layer modification of high surface curvature nanoparticles with weak polyelectrolytes using a multiphase solvent precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Ashvin T; You, Yil-Hwan; Choi, Jeong-Wan; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Meissner, Kenith E; McShane, Michael J

    2016-03-15

    The layer-by-layer modification of ≈5nm mercaptocarboxylic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles was studied in an effort to illustrate effective means to overcome practical issues in handling and performing surface modification of such extremely small materials. To accomplish this, each layer deposition cycle was separated into a multi-step process wherein solution pH was controlled in two distinct phases of polyelectrolyte adsorption and centrifugation. Additionally, a solvent precipitation step was introduced to make processing more amenable by concentrating the sample and exchanging solution pH before ultracentrifugation. The pH-dependent assembly on gold nanoparticles was assessed after each layer deposition cycle by monitoring the plasmon peak absorbance location, surface charge, and the percentage of nanoparticles recovered. The selection of solution pH during the adsorption phase was found to be a critical parameter to enhance particle recovery and maximize surface charge when coating with weak polyelectrolytes. One bilayer was deposited with a high yield and the modified particles exhibited enhanced colloidal stability across a broad pH range and increased ionic strength. These findings support the adoption of this multi-step processing approach as an effective and generalizable approach to improve stability of high surface curvature particles. PMID:26771506

  1. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  2. Particle acceleration at shocks with surface ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    The present treatment of superthermal-ion acceleration on the surface of a fast-mode hydromagnetic shock gives attention to (1) small-amplitude surface ripples characterized by width L and amplitude A that are large relative to the energetic-ion gyroradius, and (2) shocks which are on average quasi-perpendicular. An investigation is made of the effects of the confinement, evolving geometry, and finite shock curvature associated with the ripple, by integrating along the orbits of the proton test particles. As an upstream magnetic field line convects through the surface ripple, it intersects the shock at two points, thereby forming a temporary magnetic trap. Flux-line profiles and angular distributions in a given ripple differ substantially, depending on the path it takes through the ripple and its distance from the shock.

  3. Surface engineering of nanoparticles in suspension for particle based bio-sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Tapas; Bruce, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Surface activation of nanoparticles in suspension using amino organosilane has been carried out via strict control of a particle surface ad-layer of water using a simple but efficient protocol Tri-phasic Reverse Emulsion (TPRE). This approach produced thin and ordered layers of particle surface functional groups which allowed the efficient conjugation of biomolecules. When used in bio-sensing applications, the resultant conjugates were highly efficient in the hybrid capture of complementary oligonucleotides and the detection of food borne microorganism. TPRE overcomes a number of fundamental problems associated with the surface modification of particles in aqueous suspension viz. particle aggregation, density and organization of resultant surface functional groups by controlling surface condensation of the aminosilane. The approach has potential for application in areas as diverse as nanomedicine, to food technology and industrial catalysis. PMID:22872809

  4. Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Vortex Interaction with a Particle-Laden Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Fernando

    Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than for the fluid and is sensitive to the particle response time. The effects of inter-particle collisions are relatively strong and apparent throughout the flow, being most effective in the boundary layer. Gravitational settling increases the particle concentration near the wall and consequently increase inter-particle collisions.

  5. Energetic Particle Synthesis of Metastable Layers for Superior Mechanical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Myers, S.M.; Dugger, M.T.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P.; Monteiro, O.R.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G.; Christenson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Energetic particle methods have been used to synthesize two metastable layers with superior mechanical properties: amorphous Ni implanted with overlapping Ti and C, and amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) formed by vacuum-arc deposition or pulsed laser deposition. Elastic modulus, yield stress and hardness were reliably determined for both materials by fitting finite-element simulations to the observed layer/substrate responses during nanoindentation. Both materials show exceptional properties, i.e., the yield stress of amorphous Ni(Ti,C) exceeds that of hardened steels and other metallic glasses, and the hardness of DLC (up to 88 GPa) approaches that of crystalline diamond (approx. 100 GPa). Tribological performance of the layers during unlubricated sliding contact appears favorable for treating Ni-based micro-electromechanical systems: stick-slip adhesion to Ni is eliminated, giving a low coefficient of friction (approx. 0.3-0.2) and greatly reduced wear. We discuss how energetic particle synthesis is critical to forming these phases and manipulating their properties for optimum performance.

  6. Particle-hole pair states of layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokot, Lyubov E.

    2015-04-01

    In the paper a theoretical study of both the quantized energies of excitonic states and their wave functions in gapped graphene and in monolayer of MoS2 is presented. An integral two-dimensional Schrdinger equation of the electron-hole pairing for particles with electron-hole symmetry of reflection is analytically solved. The solutions of Schrdinger equation in momentum space in gapped graphene and in the direct band monolayer of MoS2 by projection the two-dimensional space of momentum on the three-dimensional sphere are found. We analytically solve an integral two-dimensional Schrdinger equation of the electron-hole pairing for particles with electron-hole symmetry of reflection and with strong spin-orbit coupling. In monolayer of MoS2 as well as in single-layer graphene (SLG) the electron-hole pairing leads to the exciton insulator states. Calculating an integral two-dimensional Schrdinger equation of the electron-hole pairing for bilayer graphene, exciton insulator states with a gap 3 meV are predicted. The particle-hole symmetry of Dirac equation of layered materials allows perfect pairing between electron Fermi sphere and hole Fermi sphere in the valence band and conduction band and hence driving the Cooper instability.

  7. Measuring the surface conductance of kaolinite particles

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, R.W.; Rowlands, W.N. . School of Chemistry)

    1993-09-01

    In this paper the authors use a procedure devised by Dukhin and Shilov to derive a formula for the electric dipole strength of a disc-shaped particle with surface conductance K[sup s]. The theory is then compared with experimental results obtained from complex conductivity measurements on a Na-kaolinite sol in the megahertz range. K[sup s] is determined by fitting the experimental and theoretical curves of dipole strength as a function of frequency, assuming a particle aspect ratio of 0.1. The value of K[sup s] obtained in this way is much greater than would be expected from the electrophoretic [zeta] potential, indicating that a substantial fraction of the conductance comes from the ions below the shear plane in the kaolinite. Such anomalous conductance will have a profound effect on all electrokinetic properties of kaolinite.

  8. Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Charged Latex Particle Surfaces in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Zifeng; Van Dyk, Antony K; Fitzwater, Susan J; Fichthorn, Kristen A; Milner, Scott T

    2016-01-19

    Charged particles in aqueous suspension form an electrical double layer at their surfaces, which plays a key role in suspension properties. For example, binder particles in latex paint remain suspended in the can because of repulsive forces between overlapping double layers. Existing models of the double layer assume sharp interfaces bearing fixed uniform charge, and so cannot describe aqueous binder particle surfaces, which are soft and diffuse, and bear mobile charge from ionic surfactants as well as grafted multivalent oligomers. To treat this industrially important system, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate a structurally realistic model of commercial binder particle surfaces, informed by extensive characterization of particle synthesis and surface properties. We determine the interfacial profiles of polymer, water, bound and free ions, from which the charge density and electrostatic potential can be calculated. We extend the traditional definitions of the inner and outer Helmholtz planes to our diffuse interfaces. Beyond the Stern layer, the simulated electrostatic potential is well described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The potential at the outer Helmholtz plane compares well to the experimental zeta potential. We compare particle surfaces bearing two types of charge groups, ionic surfactant and multivalent oligomers, with and without added salt. Although the bare charge density of a surface bearing multivalent oligomers is much higher than that of a surfactant-bearing surface at realistic coverage, greater counterion condensation leads to similar zeta potentials for the two systems. PMID:26735020

  9. Dry deposition of large, airborne particles onto a surrogate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene; Kalman, David; Larson, Timothy

    Simultaneous measurements of particle dry deposition flux and airborne number concentration in the open atmosphere were made using three different types of artificially generated particles in the size range 10-100 μm - perlite, diatomaceous earth and glass beads. A combination of gravimetric analysis, automated microscopy and sonic anemometry provided size-resolved estimates of both the inertial and gravitational components of the quasi-laminar layer particle deposition velocity, ( Vd) b, as a function of size. Eddy inertial deposition efficiency ( ηdI) was determined as a function of dimensionless eddy Stokes number (Stk e). In the range 3particles and gases to environmental surfaces. DOE Report PNL-SA-6721, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA), used in several regulatory models, significantly under-predicted (up to seven times) ( Vd) b for large particles ( da>10 μm).

  10. Wind Tunnel Experiments and Modelling of Particle-Laden Boundary Layer Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehning, M.; Walter, B.; Horender, S.; Groot Zwaaftink, C.

    2013-12-01

    Particle-laden boundary flows occur in many geophysical and industrial environments yet are difficult to understand and quantitatively describe because the interactions of an often turbulent boundary layer flow with surface and particle dynamics are complex. The SLF wind tunnel allows the investigation of snow and sand particle laden boundary layer flows over their natural surfaces with and without the presence of a grass canopy.The experimental results are used to investigate the two possible approaches in describing the surface dynamics: (i) Models of particle transport, which assume a stationary flow situation and predict a mass flux for an hypothetical equilibrium; (ii) Models that take the temporal variability of the mass flux explicitly into account such as Lagrangian Stochastic particle tracking Models (LSM) on the basis of large eddy simulation (LES) or direct numerical simulation (DNS) of flow and turbulence. This presentation shows that wind tunnel data support the form of semi-empirical equilibrium models, which predict mass flux, q, as a function of the mean wind speed or the friction velocity, u, and a threshold velocity, uth: q=a(u-uth)x. For the exponent "x", a value of approximately 3, as based on theoretical considerations, is consistent with the data. This simple form of equilibrium models as well as more complicated equilibrium models are all based on the hypothesis that the surface shear stress induced by a fluid on the ground during sediment saltation is constant, i.e. independent of the magnitude of the particle mass flux (Owen's second hypothesis). Our surface shear stress measurements in a drifting-sand wind tunnel show a constant value of the fluid shear stress for saltation layers of various mass-flux magnitudes, directly validating Owen's second hypothesis for the first time. The equilibrium models, however, only insufficiently describe the full dynamics of particle-laden flows. The second part of the presentation therefore discusses non-equilibrium features such as a high variability of the particle mass flux caused by flow turbulence and surface heterogeneity. Mass flux intermittency is primarily observed around the threshold value uth. Using a combination of LES and LSM models, we show how the simulation of individual feed-back processes leads to a more complete understanding of the mechanisms behind the flux variability.

  11. Particle nucleation in the tropical boundary layer and its coupling to marine sulfur sources

    PubMed

    Clarke; Davis; Kapustin; Eisele; Chen; Paluch; Lenschow; Bandy; Thornton; Moore; Mauldin; Tanner; Litchy; Carroll; Collins; Albercook

    1998-10-01

    New particle formation in a tropical marine boundary layer setting was characterized during NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics A program. It represents the clearest demonstration to date of aerosol nucleation and growth being linked to the natural marine sulfur cycle. This conclusion was based on real-time observations of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid (gas), hydroxide, ozone, temperature, relative humidity, aerosol size and number distribution, and total aerosol surface area. Classic binary nucleation theory predicts no nucleation under the observed marine boundary layer conditions. PMID:9756483

  12. Moving Surface Boundary-Layer Control: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, V. J.

    1997-08-01

    The paper briefly reviews developments in the exciting field of the moving surface boundary-layer control (MSBC). To begin with, application of the concept to a family of two-dimensional airfoils, investigated experimentally, is briefly summarized. The moving surface was provided by rotating cylinders located at the leading edge andsolaror trailing edge as well as the top surface of the airfoil. Results suggest that the concept is quite promising, leading to a substantial increase in lift and a delay in stall. Depending on the performance desired, appropriate combinations of cylinder location and speed can be selected to obtain favourable results over a wide range of the angle of attack. Next, the effectiveness of the concept in reducing drag of bluff bodies such as a two-dimensional flat plate at large angles of attack, rectangular prisms, and three-dimensional models of trucks is assessed. Results show that injection of momentum through moving surfaces, achieved here by introduction of bearing-mounted, motor-driven, hollow cylinders, can significantly delay separation of the boundary layer and reduce the pressure drag. The momentum injection procedure also proves effective in arresting wind-induced vortex resonance and galloping type of instabilities, suggesting possible application in the next generation of civil engineering structures. Now the attention is directed towards the role of computational fluid mechanics to this class of problems. The system performance, as predicted by results obtained using two distinctly different numerical procedures, shows good correlation with the wind tunnel data. Finally, results of a flow visualization study, conducted in a closed-circuit water tunnel using slit lighting and polyvinyl chloride tracer particles, are touched upon. They show, rather dramatically, the effectiveness of the MSBC.Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited

  13. Saltation and incipient suspension above a flat particle bed below a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, K.; Hunt, J. C. R.

    2000-08-01

    Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel in which a turbulent boundary layer was naturally grown over flat beds of three types of nearly mono-disperse spherical particles with different diameters, densities and coefficient of restitution (r) (snow, 0.48 mm, 910 kg m[minus sign]3; mustard seeds, 1.82 mm, 1670 kg m[minus sign]3, r = 0.7; ice particles, 2.80 mm, 910 kg m[minus sign]3, r = 0.8 0.9). The surface wind speeds (defined by the friction velocity u[low asterisk]) were varied between 1.0 and 1.9 times the threshold surface wind speed (defined by u[low asterisk]t). The trajectories, and ejection and impact velocities of the particles were recorded and analysed, even those that were raised only about one diameter into the flow.

  14. Effects of solar particle events on the hydroxyl airglow layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Holger; von Savigny, Christian; Maik Wissing, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The so-called Meinel emissions of vibrationally-rotationally excited hydroxyl molecules OH* near the mesopause are useful indicators for dynamical and chemical processes in this region. It is well established that the main source of OH* in the Earth's mesosphere is the reaction H + O3 → OH* + O2. During solar particle events (SPEs) energetic protons and electrons enter the polar atmosphere. The precipitating particles give rise to chemical perturbations. Of particular interest for the OH chemistry is the ion-chemical conversion of water molecules into H + OH. Additionally, there is SPE induced ozone loss. As the formation of OH* is dependent on O3 and H, large SPEs are expected to affect the hydroxyl airglow layer. Additionally, the changed abundance of atomic oxygen will impact the quenching of OH*. In addition to the direct initial chemical composition changes, SPEs are known to affect temperatures, and in turn reaction rates coefficients. We present satellite (SABER) observations of OH* emissions during the large SPE in October/November 2003. Preliminary results indicate significant disturbances of the OH* airglow layer, and a decrease in the OH* emission altitude. The measurement data are compared to results of model simulations. SPE effects on OH* are modelled by means of the UBIC (University of Bremen Ion Chemistry) model using SPE ionisation rates from AIMOS (Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabrück). Temperature effects are accounted for by synthetic temperature disturbances as well as Aura-MLS measurements.

  15. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma acceleratora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-01

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  16. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  17. Carbon Surface Layers on a High-Rate LiFePO4

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrisch, Heike; Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2005-09-06

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image particles of a high-rate LiFePO4 sample containing a small amount of in situ carbon. The particle morphology is highly irregular, with a wide size distribution. Nevertheless, coatings, varying from about 5-10 nm in thickness, could readily be detected on surfaces of particles as well as on edges of agglomerates. Elemental mapping using Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM) indicates that these very thin surface layers are composed of carbon. These observations have important implications for the design of high-rate LiFePO4 materials in which, ideally, a minimal amount of carbon coating is used.

  18. Thin Water Films at Multifaceted Hematite Particle Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Boily, Jean-François; Yeşilbaş, Merve; Md Musleh Uddin, Munshi; Baiqing, Lu; Trushkina, Yulia; Salazar-Alvarez, Germàn

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces exposed to moist air stabilize nanometer- to micrometer-thick water films. This study resolves the nature of thin water film formation at multifaceted hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticle surfaces with crystallographic faces resolved by selected area electron diffraction. Dynamic vapor adsorption (DVA) in the 0-19 Torr range at 298 K showed that these particles stabilize water films consisting of up to 4-5 monolayers. Modeling of these data predicts water loadings in terms of an "adsorption regime" (up to 16 H2O/nm(2)) involving direct water binding to hematite surface sites, and of a "condensation regime" (up to 34 H2O/nm(2)) involving water binding to hematite-bound water nanoclusters. Vibration spectroscopy identified the predominant hematite surface hydroxo groups (-OH, μ-OH, μ3-OH) through which first layer water molecules formed hydrogen bonds, as well as surface iron sites directly coordinating water molecules (i.e., as geminal η-(OH2)2 sites). Chemometric analyses of the vibration spectra also revealed a strong correspondence in the response of hematite surface hydroxo groups to DVA-derived water loadings. These findings point to a near-saturation of the hydrogen-bonding environment of surface hydroxo groups at a partial water vapor pressure of ∼8 Torr (∼40% relative humidity). Classical molecular dynamics (MD) resolved the interfacial water structures and hydrogen bonding populations at five representative crystallographic faces expressed in these nanoparticles. Simulations of single oriented slabs underscored the individual roles of all (hydro)oxo groups in donating and accepting hydrogen bonds with first layer water in the "adsorption regime". These analyses pointed to the preponderance of hydrogen bond-donating -OH groups in the stabilization of thin water films. Contributions of μ-OH and μ3-OH groups are secondary, yet remain essential in the stabilization of thin water films. MD simulations also helped resolve crystallographic controls on water-water interactions occurring in the "condensation regime". Water-water hydrogen bond populations are greatest on the (001) face, and decrease in importance in the order (001) > (012) ≈ (110) > (014) ≫ (100). Simulations of a single (∼5 nm × ∼ 6 nm × ∼ 6 nm) nanometric hematite particle terminated by the (001), (110), (012), and (100) faces also highlighted the key roles that sites at particle edges play in interconnecting thin water films grown along contiguous crystallographic faces. Hydroxo-water hydrogen bond populations showed that edges were the preferential loci of binding. These simulations also suggested that equilibration times for water binding at edges were slower than on crystallographic faces. In this regard, edges, and by extension roughened surfaces, are expected to play commanding roles in the stabilization of thin water films. Thus, in focusing on the properties of nanometric-thick water layers at hematite surfaces, this study revealed the nature of interactions between water and multifaced particle surfaces. Our results pave the way for furthering our understanding of mineral-thin water film interfacial structure and reactivity on a broader range of materials. PMID:26559158

  19. Lectins and/or xyloglucans/alginate layers as supports for immobilization of dengue virus particles.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edla M A; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; J, Tatiane A; Moreira, Renato A; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Frana, Rafael F O; Fonseca, Benedito A L; Petri, Denise F S

    2008-10-01

    Formation of stable thin films of mixed xyloglucan (XG) and alginate (ALG) onto Si/SiO(2) wafers was achieved under pH 11.6, 50mM CaCl(2), and at 70 degrees C. XG-ALG films presented mean thickness of (16+/-2)nm and globules rich surface, as evidenced by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The adsorption of two glucose/mannose-binding seed (Canavalia ensiformis and Dioclea altissima) lectins, coded here as ConA and DAlt, onto XG-ALG surfaces took place under pH 5. Under this condition both lectins present positive net charge. ConA and DAlt adsorbed irreversibly onto XG-ALG forming homogenous monolayers approximately (4+/-1)nm thick. Lectins adsorption was mainly driven by electrostatic interaction between lectins positively charged residues and carboxylated (negatively charged) ALG groups. Adhesion of four serotypes of dengue virus, DENV (1-4), particles to XG-ALG surfaces were observed by ellipsometry and AFM. The attachment of dengue particles onto XG-ALG films might be mediated by (i) H bonding between E protein (located at virus particle surface) polar residues and hydroxyl groups present on XG-ALG surfaces and (ii) electrostatic interaction between E protein positively charged residues and ALG carboxylic groups. DENV-4 serotype presented the weakest adsorption onto XG-ALG surfaces, indicating that E protein on DENV-4 surface presents net charge (amino acid sequence) different from E proteins of other serotypes. All four DENV particles serotypes adsorbed similarly onto lectin films adsorbed. Nevertheless, the addition of 0.005mol/L of mannose prevented dengue particles from adsorbing onto lectin films. XG-ALG and lectin layers serve as potential materials for the development of diagnostic methods for dengue. PMID:18579349

  20. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sra, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  1. Multiple angle ellipsometric analysis of surface layers and surface layer contaminants.

    PubMed

    Pedinoff, M E; Stafsudd, O M

    1982-02-01

    A multiple angle ellipsometric method is used for the measurement of substrates covered by contaminant layers and for the measurement of thin film layers on substrates. The method evaluates the fundamental optical constants N and K of the substrate and film layers deposited on it. Results are given for oxided aluminum films on glass, contamination layers on gallium arsenide, silicon oxide layers on silicon, and silicon nitride layers on silicon. This method is applicable to optical and semiconductor substrate and film evaluation, provided the number of layers in the sample is known and the layers are partially transparent. PMID:20372487

  2. Surface composition of silica particles embedded in an Australian bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Gong, B; Pigram, P J; Lamb, R N

    1999-07-01

    The composition and structure of the surface layers of a series of silica particles (10-20 microns across), embedded in a bituminous coal from the Whybrow seam, Sydney Basin, Australia, have been characterized in situ using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), ion imaging, and depth profiling. The silica particles investigated are typically encased in a multilayered shell, the composition of which differs from average composition of both the silica and the bulk coal. The analysis directly demonstrates the presence of a silanol-rich (Si-OH) interfacial layer 3 nm in thickness. This silanol-rich region separates the bulk silica and a complex non-silica layer encasing the particles. The interfacial region also shows significant lithium enrichment (approximately fivefold over bulk) which implies diffusion and precipitation of lithium-containing species during the authigenetic formation of the surface layers of the silica grains. The outer layer encasing the silica particles is 10 nm in thickness and is composed of clays and carbonates, and, in some cases, includes organic material. The elemental constituents of this layer include aluminium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and lesser amounts of titanium and copper. The variation in the aluminium concentration from the outermost surface to the deeper layers is less than that of other non-silica species. A relatively high amount of calcium is found associated with the silica bulk. Although only non-respirable-sized silica particles are examined in this work, the methods of analysis developed have potential in providing an insight into the surface composition of respirable particles and in further studies of the surface bioavailability of silica species. PMID:10461404

  3. Surface composition of silica particles embedded in an Australian bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, B.; Pigram, P.J.; Lamb, R.N.

    1999-07-01

    The composition and structure of the surface layers of a series of silica particles, embedded in a bituminous coal from the Why brown seam, Sydney Basin, Australia, have been characterized in situ using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), ion imaging, and depth profiling. The silica particles investigated are typically encased in a multilayered shell, the composition of which differs from average composition of both the silica and the bulk coal. The analysis directly demonstrates the presence of a silanol-rich (Si-OH) interfacial layer 3 nm in thickness. This silanol-rich region separates the bulk silica and a complex non-silica layer encasing the particles. The interfacial region also shows significant lithium enrichment (approximately fivefold over bulk) which implies diffusion and precipitation of lithium-containing species during the authigenetic formation of the surface layers of the silica grains. The outer layer encasing the cilica particles is 10 nm in thickness and is composed of clays and carbonates, and, in some cases, includes organic material. The elemental constituents of this layer include aluminum, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and lesser amounts of titanium and copper. The variation in the aluminum concentration from the outermost surface to the deeper layers is less than that of other non-silica species. A relatively high amount of calcium is found associated with the silica bulk. Although only non-respirable-sized silica particles are examined in this work, the methods of analysis developed have potential in providing an insight into the surface composition of respirable particles and in further studies of the surface bioavailability of silica species.

  4. Oxygen reduction reaction over silver particles with various morphologies and surface chemical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Junya; Okata, Yui; Watabe, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Makoto; Nakamura, Ayaka; Arikawa, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Ken-ichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Ueda, Wataru; Satsuma, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline solution was carried out using Ag powders having various particle morphologies and surface chemical states (Size: ca. 40-110 nm in crystalline size. Shape: spherical, worm like, and angular. Surface: smooth with easily reduced AgOx, defective with AgOx, and Ag2CO3 surface layer). The various Ag powders were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and stripping voltammetry of underpotential-deposited lead. Defective and oxidized surfaces enhanced the Ag active surface area during the ORR. The ORR activity was affected by the morphology and surface chemical state: Ag particles with defective and angular surfaces showed smaller electron exchange number between three and four but showed higher specific activity compared to Ag particles with smooth surfaces.

  5. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ommen, J. Ruud van Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.12–0.31 wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1 g min{sup −1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (10–40 m s{sup −1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100 °C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of core–shell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  6. Particle-Stabilized Defect Gel in Layered Mesophases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotocky, Martin

    1998-03-01

    Layered mesophases are characterized by a one-dimensional periodic variation in molecular density (in the case of smectic liquid crystals and lyotropic L_? systems) or molecular orientation (in the case of cholesteric liquid crystals). We report on how the structure and the macroscopic properties of such phases are modified when colloidal particles of a typical size that exceeds the layer spacing are dispersed in the system. The presence of the colloidal inclusions leads to the stabilization of a dense network of linear defects of the lamellar order. The defects have predominantly the structure of ``oily streaks''(M. Klman, Points, Lines and Walls) (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1983); O. D. Lavrentovich, M. Klman and V. M. Pergamenshchik, J. Phys. II France 4, 377 (1994)., and are prevented from annealing by the energetical preference of the inclusions to be located at the nodes of the oily streak network. A convenient system for the experimental study of this mechanism and its consequences is provided by cholesteric liquid crystals with cholesteric pitch (and hence the layer spacing) in the micrometer range. We present optical microscopy observations directly demonstrating the stabilization of the oily streak network in thin cholesteric films with colloidal inclusions. We also discuss experiments showing that in bulk cholesteric samples, the preference of the inclusions to be located at the nodes of the oily streak network leads to a novel mechanism for the stabilization of a 3-dimensional colloidal structure. On appropriate time scales, the described defect network structure can be viewed as a cross-linked network of elastic bonds, and gives raise to gel-like rheological behavior. We present measurements of the frequency dependence of the shear modulus, and discuss theoretically the highly unusual rheological properties of the material.

  7. Stability of boundary layers along curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cunff, Cedric

    The stability of a boundary layer along a curved wall was first studied by Gortler (27) in 1940. Further investigations have been conducted since 1980. An important contribution was made by Hall (29), when he first proposed a more rigorous approach to this problem. Gortler had used a simple approximation which allowed him to reduce the problem to a set of ordinary differential equations. However such an assumption ignored the growth of the boundary layer, which Hall showed could not be neglected. Hall then rederived the formulation to obtain a set of partial differential equations. We solved the system of equations, including the nonlinear terms, with a method proposed by Herbert (3), called the Parabolic Stability Equations (PSE). The flow is divided into a basic profile, which satisfies the Prandtl boundary layer equations, and a perturbation. We compared our results for the Blasius profile with those of Bottaro, Klinnmann, and Zebib (8) and found excellent agreement between our calculations and their finite- volume simulations. We then applied our code to the wall jet profile. We were able to capture the growth of steady vortices, located in the inner region of the jet for a concave wall, and the outer region for a convex wall, as predicted by Florian's (20) linear inviscid argument. Our calculations were in good agreement with Matsson's (49) experimental results. We also studied the influence of crossflow on a boundary layer. Crossflow might lead to streamwise vortices along a flat plate, and contrary to Gortler vortices, crossflow vortices are co-rotating instead of counter-rotating. We investigated the interactions between these two types of vortices and compared the results with experimental measurements obtained by Bippes (4). The final part of the thesis is the simulation of the secondary time-dependent instability originating from the shear profiles created by the primary streamwise vortices. The onset of the instability is studied by marching both in space and time. If no forcing is prescribed the time-dependent code predicts a steady solution. Time-dependent boundary conditions are then applied by solving the linear stability problem at some streamwise location to obtain the most dangerous streamwise perturbation velocity and the corresponding frequency. We found that the varicose mode is more amplified in the streamwise direction than the sinuous mode. Similarly, if both modes are included in the initial conditions, the varicose mode is still dominant. Furthermore, as the flow evolves downstream, the unsteady behavior exhibits a more complex time-dependence, which was also observed in the experiments of Swearingen and Blackwealder (66). In our computations, higher harmonics are observed near the wall and propagate into the boundary layer.

  8. Another kinetic mechanism of stabilizing multiple-layer surface steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruoxin; Huang, Hanchen

    2011-05-01

    This letter reports that a large three-dimensional Ehrlich-Schwoebel (3D ES) barrier kinetically stabilizes multiple-layer surface steps. The report is based on (1+1)D lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of Cu{111} surfaces. The larger 3D ES barrier leads to slower diffusion over multiple-layer steps, thereby slower dissociation and higher stability. The higher stability of multiple-layer surface steps, in turn, facilitates the operation of the 3D ES barrier; a positive feedback relationship. The mechanism of kinetically stabilizing multiple-layer surface steps allows another way of controlling surface morphology to promote the growth of either nanorods or smooth thin films.

  9. Laboratory study of opposition surge of rock chips and particle layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, T.; Nakamura, A. M..; Mukai, T.

    Surfaces of small bodies such as asteroids are covered with regolith particles The intensity of the scattered light from such surface nonlinearly increases at small solar phase angles the angle between the light source and the detector as seen from the target The degree and the sharpness of the phenomena opposition surge are considered to depend on the physical state of the surface It was shown the opposition surge appears on scattered light from surface of rocks Shepard and Arvidson 1999 However it remains to be incompletely understood how the opposition surge varies with the structure and optical characteristics of the scattering target First we performed measurements of scattered light from rock chips and particle layers at low phase angles Measurements were performed using a multi phase angle near infrared spectrometer at Kobe University with the incident angle fixed at 2 degree and the phase angle varied within 0-25 degrees A clear differences were found between the phase curves of dunite chip and particles whereas there were no apparent difference between the chips and the powders for a meteorite and mortar We then performed new measurements to focus on clarifying whether or not 1 bulk chips consisting of uniform composition also show opposition surge 2 difference in size of the constituent grains of bulk chips affects the opposition surge and 3 difference in surface roughness of bulk chips has dominant effect We will show the results of several types of bulk chips and sintered powders and will discuss on the possible

  10. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content. PMID:26269034

  11. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Z X; Zhang, C; Huang, X F; Liu, W B; Yang, Z G

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content. PMID:26269034

  12. Particle morphological and roughness controls on mineral surface charge development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boily, Jean-François; Kozin, Philipp A.

    2014-09-01

    Effects of mineral particle morphology and roughness on potential determining ion (p.d.i.; H+, OH-) loadings achieved at synthetic lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) surfaces were predominantly investigated by potentiometry and thermodynamic modeling. Nanosized rod- (RL) and lath-shaped (LL) particles exhibiting different proportions of the same predominant crystallographic faces acquired largely comparable pH, ionic strength and counterion (NaCl, NaClO4) dependencies on p.d.i. loadings. These results supported previous claims that faces ideally containing proton silent sites only, are likely populated by additional proton active sites. This concept was supported further by results of roughened LL-like particles (LLR) also showing highly congruent pH-, ionic strength- and composition-dependent p.d.i. loadings with those of LL and RL. These loadings thereby correspond to maximal levels allowed by net attractive and repulsive forces at each solution composition, irrespective of particle morphology. Contrasting equilibration times required to achieve these loadings revealed considerably slower exchange of p.d.i. and electrolyte ions near the point of zero charge in the rough LLR than in the more idealized LL and RL particles. Thermodynamic modeling was used to test various concepts accounting for these results. The model made use of a novel framework capable of isolating electrostatic contributions from different faces, and of accounting for ion-specific double-layer properties within a single crystallographic face. These efforts made use of capacitance values for each electrolyte ions within the framework of a recently developed Variable Capacitance Model. Attempts at modeling all three particle types were used to suggest that the (0 1 0) face contains ∼0.9 site nm-2 of proton active sites, a value notably constrained by recently published Na+, Cl-, and ClO4- loadings derived by cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The model presented in this work thus provides a means to predict p.d.i. loadings on multifaceted mineral particle surfaces, and can therefore be used to constrain further our understanding of mineral/water interface reactivity.

  13. Microstructure of Fe-B-Si Alloy Surface Layers Produced by Laser-Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Fusao; Takagi, Makoto; Mori, Hideshi; Kitoh, Yasuo; Imura, Toru

    1992-12-01

    Laser-quenching was performed to produce an amorphous alloy layer on metal blocks. Fe78B13Si9 alloy film brazed onto the surface of a stainless steel plate was melt-quenched by pulsed YAG or cw CO2 laser irradiation. Transmission electron microscope and high-resolution electron microscope observations were carried out to study the microstructure of the laser-quenched layers. In both cases, at the region very close to the free surface in the laser-quenched layer, amorphous and crystalline phases were observed. The internal area of the pulsed YAG laser-quenched layer consisted of an amorphous phase including a small amount of nanometer-size crystalline particles, while that of the cw CO2 laser-quenched layer consisted of mainly an amorphous single phase, partially including heat-affected zones in the neighborhood of the overlapped area of laser irradiation.

  14. Kinetics of dust particles around the scrape off layer in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    A kinetic model based on the balance of charge and energy over the dust particle surface around the scrape off layer (SOL) region in fusion devices has been developed; for describing the dust mass diminution, its temperature evolution and phase change process have been taken into account. The formulation has been utilized to determine the lifetime of cylindrical and spherical dust particles. A realistic situation in fusion devices, when the plasma exhibits meso-thermal flow, has been taken into account; for this purpose a rigorous approach, pioneered by Mott-Smith and Langmuir (1926 Phys. Rev. 28 727), has been adopted to derive the general expressions for the electron (ion) current on cylindrical dust surfaces and the corresponding mean energy of accreting electrons/ions in a flowing plasma. On the basis of analytical modelling the numerical results for the dust electric potential energy and the lifetime of the dust particles corresponding to a typical plasma environment near the SOL region of Mega Ampere Spherical tokamak (MAST)/Joint European Torus (JET) fusion devices have been evaluated for graphite and tungsten dust particles. The results are graphically illustrated as functions of particle size, electron/ion temperature and plasma ionization. It is seen that a large dust particle immersed in low temperature plasma can survive for long time; as an important outcome it is also noticed that the cylindrical particles of tungsten last longer than spherical particles. The findings are of relevance in characterizing and simulating the effects of a variety of dusts for experimental campaigns in large scale (ITER/Demo-like) fusion devices.

  15. Re-suspension Process In Turbulent Particle-fluid Mixture Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwinger, T.; Kluwick, A.

    Many theoretical applications of geophysical flows, such as sediment transport (e.g. Jenkins &Hanes, 1998) and aeolian transport of particles (e.g. Hopwood et al., 1995) utilize concepts for describing the near wall velocity profiles of particle suspensions originally arising from classical single phase theories. This approach is supported by experiments indicating the existence of a logarithmic fluid velocity profile similar to single phase flows also in case of high Reynolds number wall bounded particle sus- pension flows with low particle volume fractions (Nishimura &Hunt, 2000). Since the concept of a logarithmic near wall profile follows from classic asymptotic the- ory of high Reynolds number wall bounded flows the question arises to what extent this theory can be modified to account for particles being suspended in the ambient fluid. To this end, the asymptotic theory developed by Mellor (1972) is applied to the Favré-averaged equations for the carrier fluid as well as the dispersed phase derived on the basis of a volume averaged dispersed two-phase theory (Gray &Lee, 1977). Numerical solutions for profiles of main stream velocities and particle volume frac- tion in the fully turbulent region of the boundary layer for different turbulent Schmidt numbers are computed applying a Finite Difference box scheme. In particular, atten- tion is focused on the turbulent re-suspension process of particles from dense granular flow adjacent to the bounding surface into the suspension. From these results boundary conditions in form of wall functions for velocities as well as the volume fraction of the particles can be derived and the validity of analogy laws between turbulent mass and momentum transfer at the bounding surface can be proved from an asymptotic point of view. The application of these concepts in the field of snow avalanche simulation (Zwinger, 2000) is discussed.

  16. The stability of free convection in a particle-fluid mixture with a free surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rhazi, M.; Mir, A.; Zrikem, Z.; Gouesbet, G.

    1996-05-01

    The onset of thermal instability for simultaneous surface tension and buoyancy driven mechanisms in a horizontal fluid layer with suspended particles is theoretically investigated by means of a small disturbance analysis. The critical Marangoni, Rayleigh and wave numbers are computed and compared with those known for a pure fluid. The effect of the particles enters through three parameters: {gamma}, {phi} and {Lambda}. The first describes how much particles are present, the second is determined by the particle-fluid thermal energy change ratio (named the heat loading ratio) and the third characterizes the size of the individual particles (the particle aspect ratio). It is found that when {gamma} or {phi} increases the system is destabilized while the raise of {Lambda} destabilizes or stabilizes the layer depending on whether the Rayleigh number is positive or negative.

  17. Surface Collisions Involving Particles and Moisture (SCIP'M)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were performed on the collision of a solid sphere with a nearly horizontal flat surface covered with a thin layer of viscous liquid. High-speed collisions were obtained by dropping the ball onto the surface from various heights, using gravitational acceleration. Low-speed collisions were obtained using pendulums with long strings or by launching the balls at low velocities in the reduced-gravity environment of parabolic flight. The sphere bounces only when the impact velocity exceeds a critical value. The coefficient of restitution (ratio of rebound velocity to impact velocity) increases with increasing impact velocity above the critical value, indicating the increasing relative importance of elastic deformation to viscous dissipation. The critical impact velocity increases, and the coefficient of restitution decreases, with increasing viscosity or thickness of the liquid layer and with decreasing density or size of the sphere. The ratio of the wet and dry coefficients is expressed as a function of the Stokes number (ratio of particle inertia and viscous forces), showing good agreement between theory and experiment. Similar experiments were performed with the flat surface inclined at various angles to the approaching sphere. A modified Stokes number, which is a measure of the ratio of inertia of the sphere in the normal direction to the viscous forces exerted by the fluid layer, was used for the analysis of oblique collisions. Even for these oblique collisions, it was found that no rebound of the ball was observed below a certain critical Stokes number. The coefficient of normal restitution, defined as a ratio of normal rebound velocity to normal approach velocity, was found to increase beyond the critical Stokes number and even out as it approaches the value for dry restitution at high Stokes numbers. It was also found that, for smooth spheres like steel, the normal restitution at the same modified Stokes number is independent of the angle of impact. The tangential coefficient of restitution, defined as the ratio of tangential rebound velocity to tangential approach velocity, is found to be nearly unity, except for very low approach velocities. Thus, as a first approximation, the theories that predict the coefficient of restitution for head-on wet collisions can be extended to predict the coefficient of normal restitution for oblique wet collisions. Additional experiments were performed with soft surfaces in which a porous cloth or sponge layer was placed over the hard, flat surface. In these experiments, the coefficient of restitution was found to decrease with increasing impact velocity, due to inelastic losses in the soft material. A model combining inelastic deformation and flow through porous media was developed to describe these findings.

  18. Characteristics of surface layer structure formation during laser boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananko, I. A.; Levchenko, A. A.; Guiva, R. T.; Guiva, V. A.; Sittsevaia, E. Iu.

    1989-08-01

    The surface layers of a mild steel and steels 40 and U8 were studied metallographically following a laser boriding treatment. In particular, the structure and properties of the borided layer were investigated as a function of the irradiation rate and the thickness of the coating compound. It is shown that laser boriding produces a sharp increase in the hardness of the steels and leads to the formation of hardened layers that are as thick as those produced by diffusion boriding treatments.

  19. Contribution of the surface layer turbulence at Maidanak observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyasov, S.

    2006-08-01

    The results of night-time microthermal measurements of surface layer optical turbulence at Maidanak observatory in Uzbekistan are presented. The measurements were carried out in July-August 2002 using the micro temperature sensors developed at the University of Nice. Temperature sensors were installed on 8 levels between 3.0 and 25.5m on the preinstalled meteorological mast. Simultaneous measurements of total seeing by Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) allow us estimate the surface layer contribution to the total seeing - was found to be about 8%. The meteorological data, obtained at the same height as DIMM were used to estimate the relation of surface layer turbulence optical intensity to wind speed. It was found that during low wind speed (<0.5 m/s) or calm (windless) weather conditions surface layer turbulence increased which causes the deterioration of the total seeing.

  20. Thin gold layer in Ni electroforming process: optical surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Missaglia, N.; Paganini, L.

    2009-08-01

    Mandrel replication by Nickel electroforming is a well-suited process to manufacture X-ray mirrors, making use of Gold layer playing the twofold role of release agent and reflective coating. To increase the optical performances of mirrors it is crucial to minimize the impact of X-ray scattering effects related to surface microroughness, especially when the mirror is intended to operate in hard X-rays. In this case, the Gold layer simply acts as release agent because the reflection is demanded to interferential over-coatings. Even though the replicated optical surface is usually believed to reproduce the smooth topography of the master, a surface degradation is commonly observed. Such a worsening can also suffer from a contribution from the spontaneous roughness growth of the Gold layer itself: if this is the case, the mirror's optical quality could potentially benefit from the utilization of a thin Gold layer (< 100 nm) instead of the traditional thick gold layer (> 100 nm). To prove the effectiveness of the Gold thickness reduction, a microroughness characterization of replicated thin gold layers has been achieved. We report here a preliminary roughness study of 3 electroformed Ni samples replicated from a super-polished Zerodur flat master with various Gold layer thicknesses, in the spectral range 0.02-1000 ?m. The study is organized as follows: (a) characterization of the 3 replicated samples; (b) comparison of the Gold roughness for thin vs. thick layers; (c) comparison of the two sides of Gold layers.

  1. Two particle microrheology of quasi-2D viscous systems in the limit of shallow bulk layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Desmond, Kenneth; Sebel, James; Weeks, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) protein molecules at an air-water interface is a model system for which it is difficult to decouple the properties of the 2D interfacial film from those of the 3D fluid. Here we focus on the influence of the bulk confinement (i.e. the thickness of the layer of water) on the dynamics of HSA at an air-water interface. To do so, we have developed a setup which allows us to control the depth of the water layer over which HSA protein molecules are dispersed. In particular, we investigate the limit of shallow layers, for which we report measurements of the spatially correlated motion of colloidal particles embedded at the interface, for different surface viscosities. We describe the influence of the bulk finite size on the behaviour of the spatial correlation functions of the particle motion, and extend the description of the correlation functions in terms of a master curve first obtained for large bulk volumes, to the limit of shallow layers.

  2. Surface forces between colloidal particles at high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, D. W.; Pouligny, B.; Best, A.; Nick, T. A.; Berger, R.; Butt, H.-J.

    2016-02-01

    It was recently suggested that the electrostatic double-layer force between colloidal particles might weaken at high hydrostatic pressure encountered, for example, in deep seas or during oil recovery. We have addressed this issue by means of a specially designed optical trapping setup that allowed us to explore the interaction of a micrometer-sized glass bead and a solid glass wall in water at hydrostatic pressures of up to 1 kbar. The setup allowed us to measure the distance between bead and wall with a subnanometer resolution. We have determined the Debye lengths in water for salt concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM. We found that in the pressure range from 1 bar to 1 kbar the maximum variation of the Debye lengths was <1 nm for both salt concentrations. Furthermore, the magnitude of the zeta potentials of the glass surfaces in water showed no dependency on pressure.

  3. Near-Wall ?-PIV Reveals a Hydrodynamically Relevant Endothelial Surface Layer in Venules In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Long, David S.; Damiano, Edward R.; Ley, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution near-wall fluorescent microparticle image velocimetry (?-PIV) was used in mouse cremaster muscle venules in vivo to measure velocity profiles in the red cell-depleted plasma layer near the endothelial lining. ?-PIV data of the instantaneous translational speeds and radial positions of fluorescently labeled microspheres (0.47 ?m) in an optical section through the midsagittal plane of each vessel were used to determine fluid particle translational speeds. Regression of a linear velocity distribution based on near-wall fluid-particle speeds consistently revealed a negative intercept when extrapolated to the vessel wall. Based on a detailed three-dimensional analysis of the local fluid dynamics, we estimate a mean effective thickness of ?0.33 ?m for an impermeable endothelial surface layer or ?0.44 ?m assuming the lowest hydraulic resistivity of the layer that is consistent with the observed particle motions. The extent of plasma flow retardation through the layer required to be consistent with our ?-PIV data results in near complete attenuation of fluid shear stress on the endothelial-cell surface. These findings confirm the presence of a hydrodynamically effective endothelial surface layer, and emphasize the need to revise previous concepts of leukocyte adhesion, stress transmission to vascular endothelium, permeability, and mechanotransduction mechanisms. PMID:12829517

  4. Space Weathering on Itokawa Surface Deduced from Shape and Surface Features of Hayabusa Regolith Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Uesugi, M.; Yada, T.; Shimada, A.; Sakurama, T.; Kadokawa, T.

    2015-11-01

    Examination of shape and surface features of Itokawa particles showed that space-weathered rims developed on individual particle surfaces promoted spectral change of Itokawa, while mechanical abrasion and fragmentation suppressed the spectral change.

  5. Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.

  6. Medical applications of diamond particles and surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Boehm, R. D.; Sumant, A. V.

    2011-04-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon that is being considered for use in several medical applications. Ramachandran determined that the crystal structure of diamond consists of two close packed interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices; one lattice is shifted with respect to the other along the elemental cube space diagonal by one-quarter of its length. If one approximates carbon atoms as equal diameter rigid spheres, the filling of this construction is 34%. Due to the carbon-carbon distance (1.54 {angstrom}), diamond crystal exhibits the highest atomic density (1.76 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}) of any solid. The very high bond energy between two carbon atoms (83 kcal/mol) and the directionality of tetrahedral bonds are the main reasons for the high strength of diamond. Diamond demonstrates the highest Vickers hardness value of any material (10,000 kg/mm{sup 2}). The tribological properties of diamond are also impressive; the coefficient of friction of polished diamond is 0.07 in argon and 0.05 in humid air. Diamond is resistant to corrosion except in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures over 800 C. In addition, type IIa diamond exhibits the highest thermal conductivity of all materials (20 W cm{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature).

  7. Thermocapillary convection in two immiscible liquid layers with free surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, Takao; Koster, Jean N.

    1993-01-01

    Thermocapillary convection is studied in two immiscible liquid layers with one free surface, one liquid/liquid interface, and differential heating applied parallel to the interfaces. An analytical solution is introduced for infinite horizontal layers. The defining parameter for the flow pattern is lambda, the ratio of the temperature coefficient of the interfacial tension to that of the surface tension. Four different flow patterns exist under zero gravity conditions. 'Halt' conditions which halt the fluid motion in the lower encapsulated liquid layer have been found. A numerical experiment is carried out to study effects of vertical end walls on the double layer convection in a 2D cavity. The halt condition obtained from the analytical study is found to be valid in the limit of small Reynolds numbers. The flow in the encapsulated liquid layer can be suppressed substantially.

  8. Anisotropy measurement of pyrolytic carbon layers of coated particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesyolkin, Ju. A.; Ivanov, A. S.; Trushkina, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Equipment at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute intended for the anisotropy determination of pyrolytic carbon layers in coated particles (CPs) of the GT-MGR reactor is tested and calibrated. The dependence of the anisotropy coefficient on the size of the measurement region is investigated. The results of measuring the optical anisotropy factor (OPTAF) for an aluminum mirror, rutile crystal, and available CP samples with the known characteristics measured previously using ORNL equipment (United States) are presented. In addition, measurements of CP samples prepared at VNIINM are performed. A strong dependence of the data on the preparation quality of metallographic sections is found. Our investigations allow us to make the conclusion on the working capacity of the existing equipment for measuring the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon CP coatings using the equipment at the Kurchatov Institute with the relative error of about 1%. It is shown that the elimination of the errors caused by the stochastic fluctuations in a measuring path by mathematical processing of the signal allows us to decrease the relative error of OPTAF measurements to ~0.3%.

  9. Laser controlled melting of HSLA steel surface with presence of B4C particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Patel, F.; Karatas, C.

    2013-10-01

    Laser gas assisted melting of high strength low alloy steel surface is carried out. The alloy surface is pre-prepared to contain 5% B4C particles in a 40 ?m thick carbon film prior to laser treatment process. Metallurgical and morphological changes in the laser treated layer are examined by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The residual stress developed and the microhardness of the resulting surface is measured. It is found that B4C particles remain in solid phase in the surface region due to their high melting temperature. The dense layer consisting of fine grains are formed at the surface and the feathery like structure is observed below the surface vicinity, which consists of martensite and nitride precipitations. The use of nitrogen at high pressure causes the formation of nitride compounds at the surface, which contributes to the volume shrinkage in the dense layer. Surface microhardness increases considerably because of attainment of high cooling rates, formation of nitride compounds, and presence of B4C particles at the surface.

  10. Covalent bound sensing layers on surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensors.

    PubMed

    Bari, N; Rapp, M

    2001-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of immunosensors based on commercially available surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices working at 380 MHz. Approaches for coating the sensor surface with a sensing layer of receptive biomolecules are presented and discussed. It was found that the sensitivity strongly relates to the immobilization method. Additionally, the sensitivity can be influenced by the density of accessible biomolecules on the active sensing area. Usually, by most of the standard immobilization procedures, two-dimensional layers of receptive biomolecules are obtained. We present a three-dimensional layer, which provides a higher absolute amount of recognition molecules. A dextran layer is photoimmobilized to the sensor surface and the recognition molecules are covalently embedded into the dextran matrix. The feasibility of specific immunosensing is investigated using SAW sensors connected to a fluid handling system. PMID:11679278

  11. Modeling cross-hatch surface morphology in growing mismatched layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. M.; Speck, J. S.; Romanov, A. E.; Bobeth, M.; Pompe, W.

    2002-02-01

    We propose and investigate a model for the development of cross-hatch surface morphology in growing mismatched layers. The model incorporates two important elements: (i) strain relaxation due to dislocation glide in the layer (film) interior that is also associated with misfit dislocation formation at the film/substrate interface and (ii) lateral surface transport that eliminates surface steps that originated from dislocation glide. A combination of dislocation-assisted strain relaxation and surface step flow leads to the appearance of surface height undulations during layer growth. A Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to model dislocation nucleation events in the course of strain relaxation. The simulation was used to model the influence of dislocations on film surface height profiles. The surface height displacement was calculated from the analytic elasticity solutions for edge dislocations near a free surface. The results of the modeling predict that the average amplitude of the surface undulations and their apparent wavelength both increase with increasing film relaxation and film thickness. The developed cross-hatch pattern is characterized by an atomically smooth but mesoscopically (lateral dimensions 0.1-10 ?m) rough surface morphology. The conclusions of the model are in agreement with atomic force microscopy observations of cross-hatch surface relief in In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs samples grown well beyond the critical thickness for misfit dislocation formation.

  12. Response of the Tropical Boundary Layer to Weak Surface Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, D.; Rogers, D.

    1995-01-01

    During the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), a series of airborne thermal infrared observations and in situ atmospheric measurements were made near the sea surface through heights exceeding 4 km. Air movements associated with the sea surface temperature and the marine atmospheric boundary layer were studied.

  13. Deposition of gold nano-particles and nano-layers on polyethylene modified by plasma discharge and chemical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vor?k, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Zruba, K.; Krl, V.; Blhov, O.; Mackov, A.; Hnatowicz, V.

    2009-08-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was treated in Ar plasma discharge and then grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol to enhance adhesion of gold nano-particles or sputtered gold layers. The modified PE samples were either immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au nano-particles or covered by sputtered, 50 nm thick gold nano-layer. Properties of the plasma modified, dithiol grafted and gold coated PE were studied using XPS, UV-VIS, AFM, EPR, RBS methods and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain, creation of excessive free radicals and conjugated double bonds. After grafting with 1,2-ethanedithiol the concentration of free radicals declined but the concentration of double bonds remained unchanged. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness too. Another significant change in the surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au nano-particles. The presence of Au on the sample surface after the coating with Au nano-particles was proved by XPS and RBS methods. Nanoindentation measurements shown that the grafting of plasma activated PE surface with dithiol increases significantly adhesion of sputtered Au nano-layer.

  14. Cubical Shape Enhances the Interaction of Layer-by-Layer Polymeric Particles with Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jenolyn F; Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Chen, Jun; Kuncewicz, Thomas; Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Godin, Biana

    2015-12-01

    Blood-borne objects display a nonspherical shape with in-flow dimensions much larger than the vascular endothelial fenestrations, yet, at the diseased state, are able to traverse through these fenestrations owing to their elasticity. The role of physical parameters including shape and elasticity in the behavior of objects found in the tumor microenvironment needs to be understood to ultimately enhance chemotherapy and minimize its side effects. In this study, sphere- and cube-shaped biocompatible elastic microparticles (EM) made via layer-by-layer assembly of hydrogen-bonded tannic acid/poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (TA/PVPON) as hollow polymer shells and their rigid core-shell precursors (RM) are explored. In contrast to rigid five-bilayer (TA/PVPON) core shells, hollow elastic shells are unrecognized by J774A.1 macrophages, yet interact with endothelial and breast cancer cells. Internalization of cubical shells is fivefold more efficient by HMVEC (human microvascular endothelial cells) and sixfold and 2.5-fold more efficient by MDA-MB-231 and by SUM159 (breast cancer cells), respectively, compared to spherical shells. The interaction of cubical (TA/PVPON)5 shells with endothelial cells is similar under 10 s(-1) (characteristic of tumor vasculature) and 100 s(-1) shear rate (normal vasculature) while it is decreased at 100 s(-1) shear rate for the spherical shells. Our data suggest that cubical geometry promotes interaction of particles with breast cancer cells, while elasticity prevents engulfment by phagocytic cells in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26424126

  15. Nano-porous layer on steel surface as lubricant carrier.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Hiroshi; Kawajiri, Shogo; Takahira, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2011-02-01

    In cold forging of steels, metal soap on zinc-phosphate coating is excellent lubrication system. However, the system is not only less productive, but produces hazardous wastes. In this study, an alternative lubrication system using surface porous layer is proposed. Surface oxide on low carbon steel turns into porous layer by chemical reduction using hydrogen. It is found that liquid lubricant decreases the friction coefficient in compression greatly. The porous surface enhances the decrease, especially in the cases of heavy deformation. PMID:21456283

  16. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  17. Particle resuspension and associated coherent structures in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, David Alan

    Fundamental properties of particle resuspension from a surface solely by turbulent fluid forces was examined experimentally by observing intermittent particle resuspension and associated turbulent flow properties. Experiments were conducted in an environmental wind tunnel, where sparse beds of monodisperse Lycopodium spores (Club Moss) were placed flush with the floor of the wind tunnel, and exposed to a steady, well developed turbulent boundary layer flow. Particle bed concentration was monitored in situ throughout each experimental trial using an optical system designed to detect forward scattering from a HeNe laser beam. Simultaneous measurements of streamwise and vertical velocity were made immediately downstream of the illuminated particles using hot film anemometry. Experimental trials were conducted at three free-stream velocities (6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 m s(-1)) for a duration of 35 minutes. A Monte-Carlo particle resuspension model was developed to simulate the resuspension process associated with coherent structures of varying magnitude. Simulations were compared with experimental results to identify a probability distribution of coherent structure magnitude.

  18. Alpha particle backscattering measurements used for chemical analysis of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Alpha particle backscattering performs a chemical analysis of surfaces. The apparatus uses a curium source and a semiconductor detector to determine the energy spectrum of the particles. This in turn determines the chemical composition of the surface after calibration to known samples.

  19. Particle-surface interactions in chemical mechanical polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Resnick, P.J.; Jeon, J.S.; Raghavan, S.

    1996-10-01

    Material removal in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) occurs by a pressure accentuated chemical attack of the surface. The polishing slurry typically consists of abrasive particles and reactive chemicals that may or may not include an oxidant. Post-CMP cleaning processes must remove both the ionic contaminants and any remaining polishing slurry particles. Central to the effectiveness of a clean is the use of conditions that will minimize the binding force between the residual particles and the wafer surface. The morphology and composition of the particle, the surface from which it must be removed, and the environment surrounding the wafer will determine the magnitude of forces that hold a particle to the wafer surface. At the Sandia/SEMATECH Center for Contamination Free Manufacturing, two techniques--atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrokinetic deposition--are being used to explore these interactions for CMP of both oxide and tungsten surfaces. A basic understanding of particle-surface interaction forces and how they are affected by the chemical/physical environment of the particle and surface is the objective of this task. Modification of the binding forces between particles and wafer surfaces may be used to maximize post-CMP cleaning effectiveness.

  20. Cryoclastic origin of particles on the surface of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degruyter, W.; Manga, M.

    2011-08-01

    Analogous to volcanic deposits on Earth, we can infer eruption characteristics on Enceladus from the relationship between particle size and distance from the vent. We develop a model in which ice particles feeding plumes are accelerated by the gas. We consider two cases: drag-limited and collision-limited acceleration, which link particle size to exit velocity. After being ejected at the vent, particles follow ballistic trajectories. We fit the model to observations of particle size on the surface inferred from modeled VIMS data collected by the Cassini spacecraft. We obtain a relationship between gas temperature and characteristic acceleration length, whereby lower gas temperatures require longer acceleration lengths. The model shows that the large size of particles on the surface is consistent with the size of particles observed with the CDA and VIMS instruments at heights of Cassini flybys, and the size of particles that reach escape velocity and are found in Saturn's E-ring.

  1. Generalized optical theorem for surface waves and layered media

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, David; Curtis, Andrew

    2009-05-15

    We present a generalized optical theorem for surface waves. The theorem also applies to body waves since under many circumstances body waves can be written in terms of surface-wave modal summations. This theorem therefore extends the domain of applicability of the optical theorem from homogeneous background media to a general class of body and surface-wave propagation regimes within layered elastic media.

  2. Generalized optical theorem for surface waves and layered media.

    PubMed

    Halliday, David; Curtis, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    We present a generalized optical theorem for surface waves. The theorem also applies to body waves since under many circumstances body waves can be written in terms of surface-wave modal summations. This theorem therefore extends the domain of applicability of the optical theorem from homogeneous background media to a general class of body and surface-wave propagation regimes within layered elastic media. PMID:19518578

  3. Deposition of polymer powder particles on the product surface at jet spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyaev, V. L.; Galimov, E. R.; Gimranov, I. R.; Takhaviev, M. S.; Morenko, I. V.; Siraev, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Gas-thermodynamic processes taking place during spraying of polymer powder materials are considered. Numerical and analytical models describing these processes are proposed. For the case of circular cylinder rotating with a constant angular velocity results of calculations and engineering formulas for estimating the thickness of powder particles layer deposited on the processed surface are present.

  4. Colloid Particle Adsorption on Partially Covered (Random) Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Weronski, Pawel; Musial, Elizeusz

    2001-09-01

    The random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach was used to model irreversible adsorption of colloid particles at surfaces precovered with smaller particles having the same sign of surface charge. Numerical simulations were performed to determine the initial flux of larger particles as a function of surface coverage of smaller particles θ(s) at various size ratios lambda=a(l)/a(s). These numerical results were described by an analytical formula derived from scaled particle theory. Simulations of the long-time adsorption kinetics of larger particles have also been performed. This allowed one to determine upon extrapolation the jamming coverage θ(l)(infinity) as a function of the lambda parameter at fixed smaller particle coverage θ(s). It was found that the jamming coverage θ(l)(infinity) was very sensitive to particle size ratios exceeding 4. Besides yielding θ(l)(infinity), the numerical simulations allowed one to determine the structure of large particle monolayers at the jamming state which deviated significantly from that observed for monodisperse systems. The theoretical predictions suggested that surface heterogeneity, e.g., the presence of smaller sized contaminants or smaller particles invisible under microscope, can be quantitatively characterized by studying larger colloid particle adsorption kinetics and structure of the monolayer. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11502108

  5. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O. (Oswego, IL); Hershberger, Jeffrey G. (Berwyn, IL)

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  6. Dual-layered-coated mechanically-durable superomniphobic surfaces with anti-smudge properties.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Palanikkumaran; Bhushan, Bharat; Yun, Kyungsung; Kondo, Hirofumi

    2013-11-01

    Bio-inspired surfaces that exhibit high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis for various liquids and demonstrate mechanical durability and anti-smudge properties are of interest for various applications. The fabrication of such surfaces has often involved complex or expensive processes, required techniques that may not be suitable for various substrates and particles, may require surface post-treatment, or may lack durability. Dual layered coatings of roughness-induced superomniphobic surfaces that demonstrate good mechanical durability were fabricated on glass substrates using hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles and low surface energy fluorobinders using dip coating and spray coating techniques. The particle-to-binder ratio was optimized for contact angles of interest. The mechanical durability of these coatings was examined under mechanical rubbing action. The anti-smudge properties were examined by wiping an artificially contaminated coating using oil-impregnated microfiber cloth. PMID:23993782

  7. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, A.; Smolander, S.; Vuollekoski, H.; Sihto, S.-L.; Mammarella, I.; Laakso, L.; Rannik, .; Boy, M.

    2011-06-01

    We carried out column model simulations to study particle fluxes and deposition and to evaluate different particle formation mechanisms at a boreal forest site in Finland. We show that kinetic nucleation of sulphuric acid cannot be responsible for new particle formation alone as the simulated vertical profile of particle number concentration does not correspond to observations. Instead organic induced nucleation leads to good agreement confirming the relevance of the aerosol formation mechanism including organic compounds emitted by the biosphere. The simulation of aerosol concentration within the atmospheric boundary layer during nucleation event days shows a highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated the suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing the most important characteristics of particle dynamics within the boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  8. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, A.; Smolander, S.; Vuollekoski, H.; Sihto, S.-L.; Mammarella, I.; Laakso, L.; Rannik, .; Boy, M.

    2010-08-01

    We carried out column model simulations to study particle fluxes and deposition and to evaluate different particle formation mechanisms at a boreal forest site in Finland. We show that kinetic nucleation of sulphuric acid cannot be responsible for new particle formation alone as the vertical profile of particle number distribution does not correspond to observations. Instead organic induced nucleation leads to good agreement confirming the relevance of the aerosol formation mechanism including organic compounds emitted by biosphere. Simulation of aerosol concentration inside the atmospheric boundary layer during nucleation days shows highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing most important characteristics of particle dynamics inside the atmospheric boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles at the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  9. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  10. Effect of different burs on the topography of smear layer formation on the dentinal surface: a scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pooja; Dube, Moulshree; Pandya, Mihir; Sonigra, Hitesh; Vachhani, Kiran; Attur, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Whenever a hand or a rotary instrument is used to eliminate tooth tissue, the mineralized matrix shatters rather then being uniformly sheared, producing considerably quantities of cutting debris. Much of the debris made up of very small particles of mineralized collagen matrix over the surface of dentin is known as smear layer. The clinical outcome of dental restorations is dependent upon the surface preparations, smear layer formation and hybrid layer which which provides a stable adhesion. Different surface morphology is produced by use of different burs. The thickness of the smear layer is affected by various factors as type of the bur, use of water spray and speed of rotation. Bonding is enhanced when smear layer is completely removed or modifed. The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effect of different burs on the topography of the smear layer formation and thickness on dentinal surface. PMID:25095836

  11. Synthesis and characterization of macromolecular layers grafted to polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtovyy, Oleksandr

    The composition and behavior of surfaces and interfaces play a pivotal role in dictating the overall efficiency of the majority of polymeric materials and devices. Surface properties of the materials can be altered using surface modification techniques. It is necessary to highlight that successful methods of surface modification should affect only the upper layer of the polymer material without changing bulk properties. The processes must introduce new functionalities to the surface, optimize surface roughness, lubrication, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, adhesion, conductivity, and/or biocompatibility. Research presented in this dissertation is dedicated to the synthesis, characterization, and application of thin macromolecular layers anchored to polymer substrates. Specifically, attachment of functional polymers via a "grafting to" approach has been extensively studied using PET and nylon model substrates. First, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) was used to introduce permanent functionalities to the model substrates by anchoring it to model films. Then, three different functional polymers were grafted on top of the previous layer. As one part of this study, the temperature and time dependence of grafting functional layers were studied. The surface coverage by hydrophobic polymer was determined from experimental data and predicted by a model. In general, the model has a high degree of predictive capability. Next, surface modification of polymeric fibers and membranes is presented as an important application of the polymer thin layers targeted in the study. Specifically, the procedures developed for surface modification of model substrates was employed for modification of PET, nylon, and cotton fabrics as well as PET track-etched membranes. Since epoxy groups are highly reactive in various chemical reactions, the approach becomes virtually universal, allowing both various surfaces and end-functionalized macromolecules to be used in the grafted layer synthesis. PET membranes modified with a reactive anchoring layer can be successfully used to build membrane assemblies by incorporating silica, aluminum, or titanium oxide microparticles as spacers. It is expected that the proposed approaches for the surface modification of the membranes and for the generation of multilayered membrane assemblies can be employed straightforwardly to provide an efficient platform for fabrication of breathable protective materials. Characterization of modified membranes with a cantilever-based method, which can be used for prediction of properties and behavior of thin grafted films, is reported. This technique can be used as a method for fast screening of modified membranes. The method is very robust and capable of detecting very small quantities of substance adsorbed; kinetics of the process can be tracked, as well. This approach can be further developed as a handheld sensor for early warning of the presence of chemical vapors and nerve agents.

  12. Alternative barrier layers for surface covers in dry climates

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Surface covers are one of the most widespread remediation and waste management options in all climates. Barrier layers to limit percolation through cover systems are principal features of engineered, multi-component cover designs. Conventional barrier layer components developed for humid climates have limitations in dry climates. One alternative barrier layer is a capillary barrier, which consists of a fine-over-coarse soil arrangement. The capacity of capillary barrier to laterally divert downward moving water is the key to their success. Another alternative is a dry barrier, in which atmospheric air is circulated through a coarse layer within the cover to remove water vapor. Incorporating a coarse layer which stores water for subsequent removal by air flow reduces the requirements for the air flow velocity and increases the applicability of the dry barrier.

  13. New-particle formation events in a continental boundary layer: First results from the SATURN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, F.; Siebert, H.; Spindler, G.; Wehner, B.; Althausen, D.; Heintzenberg, J.; Hellmuth, O.; Rinke, R.; Schmieder, U.; Seidel, C.; Tuch, T.; Uhrner, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wandinger, U.; Wendisch, M.; Schell, D.; Stohl, A.

    2003-03-01

    During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 4 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.

  14. New-particle formation events in a continental boundary layer: first results from the SATURN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, F.; Siebert, H.; Spindler, G.; Wehner, B.; Althausen, D.; Heintzenberg, J.; Hellmuth, O.; Rinke, R.; Schmieder, U.; Seidel, C.; Tuch, T.; Uhrner, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wandinger, U.; Wendisch, M.; Schell, D.; Stohl, A.

    2003-09-01

    During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.

  15. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.

  16. Structural rearrangements in self-assembled surfactant layers at surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun

    2010-03-25

    The transition from compact to extended configuration in ionic surfactant layers under the influence of salt, surfactant surface density and temperature is studied using the classical density functional theory (cDFT). The increase in ionic strength of aqueous salt solution or in surfactant surface density leads to the transition from the hemicylindrical to the perpendicular monolayer configuration of the molecules. Although producing the same structural rearrangement in the surfactant layer the origin of the effect of salt and surface density is different. While the addition of salt increases the out-of-plane attractive interactions with the solvent, the increase in density results in the increase in the in-plane repulsion in surfactant layer. The temperature effects are subtler and are mainly manifested in the reduction of the solution structuring at elevated temperatures.

  17. The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Rough Curvilinear Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droblenkov, V. F.

    1958-01-01

    A number of semiempirical approximate methods exist for determining the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a curvilinear surface. At present, among these methods, the one proposed by L. G. Loitsianskii is given frequent practical application. This method is sufficiently effective and permits, in the case of wing profiles with technically smooth surfaces, calculating the basic characteristics of the boundary layer and the values of the overall drag with an accuracy which suffices for practical purposes. The idea of making use of the basic integral momentum equation ((d delta(sup xx))/dx) + ((V' delta(sup xx))/V) (2 + H) = (tau(sub 0))/(rho V(exp 2)) proves to be fruitful also for the solution of the problems in the determination of the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a rough surface.

  18. Cake filtration with particle penetration at the cake surface

    SciTech Connect

    Corapcioglu, M.Y. ); Abboud, N.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Particles in drilling muds build a filter cake on borehole walls and can migrate into the adjacent porous formation and cause formation damage. This study analyzes cake formation, including particle penetration at the cake surface. Mass-balance equations for captured and suspended particles and the fluid phase are averaged along the cake thickness, taking into account conditions of the surface and the septum. Capture mechanisms, such as surface straining, and internal cake erosion and particle capture are included in the analysis. The results are ordinary differential equations in terms of thickness, average particle concentration, average porosity, and such operational parameters as slurry concentration, injection rate, and volumetric solid fraction. Results show that during early stages of cake formation, penetrated-particle concentration peaks and then declines rapidly shortly thereafter.

  19. Mechanisms of drag reduction of superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Tian, Haiping; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei; Jiang, Nan

    2015-09-01

    The drag-reducing property of a superhydrophobic surface is investigated along with its mechanism. A superhydrophobic surface with micro-nanotextures is fabricated and tested using SEM and contact angle measurement. Velocity distributions in the turbulent boundary layer with a superhydrophobic surface and a smooth surface are measured by particle image velocimetry at Re θ = 810, 990, and 1220. An upward lift effect on the velocity profile caused by the rugged air layer on the superhydrophobic surface is observed, which indicates drag reduction. Estimated by the wall shear stress, a drag reduction of 10.1, 20.7, and 24.1 % is observed for Re θ equal to 810, 990, and 1220, respectively. The drag reduction is caused mainly by slip on the interface and modifications in the turbulent structures, and the latter plays a more important role as Re θ increases. Suppressions are observed in turbulence intensities, and reductions in the total Reynolds shear stress T {turb/+} are 2.5, 18.5, and 23.1 % for Re θ = 810, 990, and 1220, respectively. Vortex fields above the superhydrophobic and smooth surfaces at Re θ = 990 are investigated. Vortexes are weakened and lifted upward by the superhydrophobic surface, and the position of the maximum swirling strength is lifted 0.17 δ ( δ is the boundary layer thickness) upward in the wall-normal direction. This modification in turbulence structures contributes significantly to the drag reduction in the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  20. Particle current on flexible surfaces excited by harmonic waves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neeta; DasGupta, Anirvan

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a study on the directed particle current on flexible surfaces excited by a harmonic wave is reported. The proposed theory considers three different models for the kinematics of the surface, namely the Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko, and Rayleigh surface wave models. The particle-surface interaction terms in the theory incorporate Coulomb friction and inelastic collision between the particle and the surface. Three possible phases of motion, namely sticking, sliding, and jumping, are considered, and the phase transition boundaries are estimated analytically for a general surface model. The effect of various parameters on the particle current and certain statistical features of the particle motion are then studied numerically. Remarkably, the particle current spectra exhibit, in addition to resonance modes, antiresonance and secondary resonance modes and transversal zero crossings. These features have interesting implications for the particle dynamics in terms of dynamic jamming states and particle eddies, which are pointed out. Under certain restricted conditions, averaging calculations are also performed and compared with the corresponding numerical simulations. PMID:24329339

  1. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  2. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, T. H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, P. J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, G. C.; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, D. A.; Petzold, L.; Renschler, P.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, B. A.; Wstling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrino-mass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by diffusion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  3. Particle sizing in two-layer turbid media using polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincu, Niculae E.; Bartlett, Matthew; Jiang, Huabei

    2001-04-01

    Tissue-like phantom experiments were performed in order to investigate the possibility of using the polarized light scattering spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis. Using a two-layer model, particle size distribution (PSD) was analyzed for a thin layer of latex spheres on top of 1% Intralipid. The results show that PSD of the latex spheres in the top layer can be extracted with and without a priori information about the shape of the particle size distribution.

  4. Well-defined PMMA brush on silica particles fabricated by surface-initiated photopolymerization (SIPP).

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengting; Jiang, Xuesong; Liu, Rui; Yin, Jie

    2010-04-01

    The photochemical method is a convenient and simple way to synthesize the polymer brush on surface. We presented here a facile approach to fabricate PMMA brush on silica particles (SPs) by combination of self-assembly monolayer of hyperbranched polymeric thioxanthone (HPTX) and surface-initiated photopolymerization (SIPP). HPTX was immobilized on the surface of silica particles (SPs) through nucleophilic addition between amine and epoxy groups, and then initiated photopolymerization of MMA to generate PMMA brush on SPs at room temperature. The whole process was well-traced by FT-IR, TGA, SEM, and TEM. The results show that it is easy to create PMMA brushes of tunable thickness under UV irradiation. Especially, TEM images reveal the obvious formation of well-defined hybrid particles with SPs as the core and PMMA layers as the shell. The obtained hybrid particles can be implanted into PMMA matrix to produce PMMA composite with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. PMID:20423123

  5. Surface modification of polypropylene based particle foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, P.; Trassl, C.; Altstdt, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the modification of the surface properties of expanded polypropylene (EPP). EPP is a semi-hard to soft elastic thermoplastic foam. The characteristic surface of EPP shows process-related steam nozzle imprints and gussets. Therefore EPP does not satisfy the quality requirements for visible automotive applications. In order to meet these demands, plastic surfaces are usually enhanced with functional or decorative coatings, e.g. textiles, plastic films or paint. The coating of plastics with low surface energies such as PP often leads to adhesion problems by reason of the missing polar and functional groups. This paper gives an evaluation of activation and pre-treatment methods of EPP, with the aim to identify the most suitable pre-treatment method. For this purpose five typical surface treatment methods - flame treatment, corona, fluorination, atmospheric and low-pressure plasma - were performed on EPP samples. As a comparison criterion the maximum increase in the adhesion force between a polyurethane-based coating and the modified EPP substrate was selected. Moreover the influence of the selected pre-treatment method on the increase in the total surface energy and its polar component was investigated by the drop shape analysis method. The results showed that the contact angle measurement is a suitable method to determine the polar and disperse fractions of the surface tension of EPP. Furthermore, all performed methods increased the adhesion of EPP.

  6. Theoretical study of the amphoteric oxide nanoparticle surface charge during multi-particle interactions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfimov, A. V.; Aryslanova, E. M.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticle surface charge plays an important role in many biological applications. In this study, an analytical surface charging model for the amphoteric oxide nanoparticles has been presented. The model accounts for the particle's electric double layer self-action on the charging process and the charge regulation during multi-particle interactions in aqueous solutions. The employment of the model allows to explicitly describe the nanoparticle agglomeration process and the accompanying agglomerate surface charge variation.

  7. Surface morphological evolution during annealing of epitaxial Cu(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Purswani, J. M.; Gall, D.

    2008-08-15

    Single crystal Cu(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering at T{sub s}=100 deg. C. Quantitative surface morphological analyses by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy show that the surfaces exhibit self-affine mound structures with a scaling exponent of 0.82{+-}0.03 and a mound radius r{sub c} that increases from 31{+-}8 to 39{+-}6 nm for increasing layer thickness t=24-120 nm. In situ annealing at 200 and 300 deg. C leads to a thermodynamically driven mass transport that minimizes the surface step density, resulting in broader mounds and a smaller root mean square surface roughness {sigma}. This effect is most pronounced for t=24 nm, for which r{sub c} increases from 31{+-}8 to 70{+-}20 nm and {sigma} decreases from 1.3{+-}0.1 to 0.74{+-}0.08 nm, resulting in a decrease in the average surface slope from {chi}=7 deg. to 2 deg. and an increase in the average terrace width w{sub T} by more than a factor of 4. In contrast, w{sub T} increases by only 20% for t=120 nm. This remarkable difference between 'thin' and 'thick' layers is attributed to diverging surface morphological pathways during annealing: The strong smoothening for t=24 nm is due to a competitive coalescence process where some mounds grow laterally at the expense of their smaller neighbors, which die out. In contrast, the initially wider mounds of thicker layers (t=120 nm) combine to form a quasistable surface morphology that exhibits anisotropic mound structures, which limit mass transport and stabilize the surface step density.

  8. Many-body microhydrodynamics of colloidal particles with active boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Ghose, Somdeb; Adhikari, R.

    2015-06-01

    Colloidal particles with active boundary layers—regions surrounding the particles where non-equilibrium processes produce large velocity gradients—are common in many physical, chemical and biological contexts. The velocity or stress at the edge of the boundary layer determines the exterior fluid flow and, hence, the many-body interparticle hydrodynamic interaction. Here, we present a method to compute the many-body hydrodynamic interaction between N spherical active particles induced by their exterior microhydrodynamic flow. First, we use a boundary integral representation of the Stokes equation to eliminate bulk fluid degrees of freedom. Then, we expand the boundary velocities and tractions of the integral representation in an infinite-dimensional basis of tensorial spherical harmonics and, on enforcing boundary conditions in a weak sense on the surface of each particle, obtain a system of linear algebraic equations for the unknown expansion coefficients. The truncation of the infinite series, fixed by the degree of accuracy required, yields a finite linear system that can be solved accurately and efficiently by iterative methods. The solution linearly relates the unknown rigid body motion to the known values of the expansion coefficients, motivating the introduction of propulsion matrices. These matrices completely characterize hydrodynamic interactions in active suspensions just as mobility matrices completely characterize hydrodynamic interactions in passive suspensions. The reduction in the dimensionality of the problem, from a three-dimensional partial differential equation to a two-dimensional integral equation, allows for dynamic simulations of hundreds of thousands of active particles on multi-core computational architectures. In our simulation of 104 active colloidal particle in a harmonic trap, we find that the necessary and sufficient ingredients to obtain steady-state convective currents, the so-called ‘self-assembled pump’, are (a) one-body self-propulsion and (b) two-body rotation from the vorticity of the Stokeslet induced in the trap.

  9. CORRELATIVE SURFACE ANALYSIS STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various surface analysis techniques (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were evaluated in a correlative regimen for the chemical characterizat...

  10. MICROANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL LAYERED PARTICLES BY SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry is evaluated for application to the determination of the composition and structure of individual particles. Analyses of many elemental constituents at the ppm level can be obtained in individual particles as small as micrometers in diameter. Molecu...

  11. Impact of small changes in particle surface chemistry for unentangled polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ranka, Moulik; Varkey, Nihal; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Zukoski, Charles F

    2015-02-28

    We report microstructural and rheological consequences of altering silica particle surface chemistry when the particles are suspended in unentangled polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 400. The particle surfaces are altered by reacting them with isobutyltrimethyoxysilane. Levels of silanization are chosen so that the particles remain dispersed in the polymer at all volume fractions studied. Our studies indicate that at the levels studied, silanization does not alter the hydrodynamic thickness of the absorbed polymer layer thickness. Rheological properties are not sensitive to levels of silanization up to particle volume fractions where the average particle separation h ? 6Rg (4.8 nm). At these volume fractions, composite microstructure undergoes changes associated with jamming of soft particles (decorrelations in the first peak of the particle structure factor and the onset of a non-diffusive mechanism that dominates particle density fluctuations at short times.) In the region of volume fractions where h/Rg < 6, the zero-shear rate viscosity of the composites is extremely sensitive to level of silanization with a decrease in the zero-shear rate viscosity by four orders of magnitude observed for the highest levels of silanization studied in comparison to the bare particles. PMID:25600762

  12. Corrugations on the Free Surface of Nematic Liquid Crystal Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virga, Epifanio G.; Schadt, Martin

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we quantitatively treat an equilibrium problem for the free surface of a monomeric or polymeric nematic liquid crystal layer, which has been suggested by some novel industrial applications. Think of a layer deposited on a plane, rigid substrate, whose optical axis is anchored in such a way that the azimuthal angle is everywhere defined, whereas the polar angle may freely vary. Let further the azimuthal anchoring be discontinuous along a line on the substrate. To accommodate this singularity within a continuous field, the optic axis must flip out of the substrate plane and become orthogonal to it at the anchoring discontinuity. Such a distortion entrains a corrugation on the free surface of the layer. Experimentally, the existence of corrugations at the alignment boundaries of nematic liquid crystal polymer films on single glass substrates is demonstrated by photo-aligning and photo-patterning such films by the linear photopolymerization (LPP)-technology of ROLIC.

  13. Surface modification of layered zirconium phosphate with PNIPAM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhao, Di; Medina, Ilse B Nava; Diaz, Agustin; Wang, Huiliang; Clearfield, Abraham; Mannan, M Sam; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-04-01

    A new method was reported to modify layered zirconium phosphate (ZrP) with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM (poly N-isopropylacrylamide). PNIPAM was proved to be covalently grafted onto ZrP. (60)Co γ-rays irradiation produced peroxide groups on the surface which, upon heating, initiated free radical polymerization and subsequent attachment of PNIPAM. PMID:26966882

  14. Fabrication of nanocrystalline surface composite layer on Cu plate under ball collisions.

    PubMed

    Romankov, S; Park, Y C; Yoon, J M

    2014-10-01

    It was demonstrated that the severe plastic deformation of a surface induced by repeated ball collisions can be effectively used for fabrication of the nanocrystalline surface composite layers. The Cu disk was fixed at the top of a vibration chamber and ball treated. Al, Zr, Ni, Co and Fe were introduced into a Cu plate as contaminants from the grinding media one after the other by 15-min ball treatment. The composite structure was formed as a result of mechanical intermixing of the components. The particle size in as-fabricated layer ranged from 2 nm to 20 nm, with average values of about 7 nm. As-fabricated layer contained non-equilibrium multicomponent solid solution based on FCC Cu crystal structure, Zr-based phase, nanosized steel debris and amorphous phase. The hardness of the as-fabricated composite was almost ten times that of the initial Cu plate. PMID:25942932

  15. NMR of thin layers using a meanderline surface coil

    DOEpatents

    Cowgill, Donald F. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature meanderline sensor coil which extends the capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to provide analysis of thin planar samples and surface layer geometries. The sensor coil allows standard NMR techniques to be used to examine thin planar (or curved) layers, extending NMRs utility to many problems of modern interest. This technique can be used to examine contact layers, non-destructively depth profile into films, or image multiple layers in a 3-dimensional sense. It lends itself to high resolution NMR techniques of magic angle spinning and thus can be used to examine the bonding and electronic structure in layered materials or to observe the chemistry associated with aging coatings. Coupling this sensor coil technology with an arrangement of small magnets will produce a penetrator probe for remote in-situ chemical analysis of groundwater or contaminant sediments. Alternatively, the sensor coil can be further miniaturized to provide sub-micron depth resolution within thin films or to orthoscopically examine living tissue. This thin-layer NMR technique using a stationary meanderline coil in a series-resonant circuit has been demonstrated and it has been determined that the flat meanderline geometry has about he same detection sensitivity as a solenoidal coil, but is specifically tailored to examine planar material layers, while avoiding signals from the bulk.

  16. Tape method of forming a thin layer of doped lanthanum chromite particles and of bonding such on an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Von L. (Murrysville, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA); Pal, Uday B. (Cambridge, MA)

    1992-01-01

    A combustible polymer film, useful for application of an interconnection on an electrode is made by: (1) providing doped LaCro.sub.3 particles; (2) dispersing doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles in a solvent, to provide a dispersion; (3) screening the dispersion to provide particles in the range of from 30 micrometers to 80 micrometers; (4) admixing a fugitive polymer with the particles; (5) casting the dispersion to provide a film; (6) drying the film; and (7) stripping the film. The film can then be applied to a porous, preheated electrode top surface, and then electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal LaCrO.sub.3 structure, between and around the doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles. Additional solid oxide electrolyte and fuel electrode layers can then be added to provide a fuel cell.

  17. Tape method of forming a thin layer of doped lanthanum chromite particles and of bonding such on an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.; Pal, U.B.

    1992-07-21

    A combustible polymer film, useful for application of an interconnection on an electrode is made by: (1) providing doped LaCro[sub 3] particles; (2) dispersing doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles in a solvent, to provide a dispersion; (3) screening the dispersion to provide particles in the range of from 30 micrometers to 80 micrometers; (4) admixing a fugitive polymer with the particles; (5) casting the dispersion to provide a film; (6) drying the film; and (7) stripping the film. The film can then be applied to a porous, preheated electrode top surface, and then a dense skeletal LaCrO[sub 3] structure is electrochemically vapor deposited between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. Additional solid oxide electrolyte and fuel electrode layers can then be added to provide a fuel cell. 4 figs.

  18. Structure and properties of titanium surface layers after electron beam alloying with powder mixtures containing carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenivtseva, O. G.; Bataev, I. A.; Golkovskii, M. G.; Bataev, A. A.; Samoilenko, V. V.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    The structure and tribological properties of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) samples after non-vacuum electron beam surface alloying with carbon were studied. Two types of powders were used to introduce carbon in surface layer of cp-Ti: titanium carbide (TiC) and mixture of pure titanium and graphite ("Ti + C"). Single layer and multilayer coatings were studied. Application of electron beam for alloying provided cladding rate of 4.5 m2/h. The thickness of the clad coatings was 1.6-2.0 mm. The main phases received after "Ti + C" powder cladding were α-titanium, TiC, and retained graphite. In the samples obtained by cladding of TiC, graphite was not observed. A factor determining the microhardness and tribological properties of the cladded layer was the volume fraction of TiC. Maximum coating microhardness of 8 GPa was obtained by cladding of single layer of TiC powder or two layers of the "Ti + C" mixture. Two types of tests were carried out to evaluate the wear resistance of the samples. In friction tests against loose abrasive particles, the wear rate of the best samples was 9.3 times lower than that of cp-Ti. In wear tests using fixed abrasive particles, the relative wear resistance of the best samples was 2.3 times higher than that of cp-Ti.

  19. A scheme for computing surface layer turbulent fluxes from mean flow surface observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Storch, J.

    1978-01-01

    A physical model and computational scheme are developed for generating turbulent surface stress, sensible heat flux and humidity flux from mean velocity, temperature and humidity at some fixed height in the atmospheric surface layer, where conditions at this reference level are presumed known from observations or the evolving state of a numerical atmospheric circulation model. The method is based on coupling the Monin-Obukov surface layer similarity profiles which include buoyant stability effects on mean velocity, temperature and humidity to a force-restore formulation for the evolution of surface soil temperature to yield the local values of shear stress, heat flux and surface temperature. A self-contained formulation is presented including parameterizations for solar and infrared radiant fluxes at the surface. Additional parameters needed to implement the scheme are the thermal heat capacity of the soil per unit surface area, surface aerodynamic roughness, latitude, solar declination, surface albedo, surface emissivity and atmospheric transmissivity to solar radiation.

  20. Surface boundary layer turbulence in the Southern ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, Sophia; St. Laurent, Louis; Owens, Breck; Naveira Garabato, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Due to the remote location and harsh conditions, few direct measurements of turbulence have been collected in the Southern Ocean. This region experiences some of the strongest wind forcing of the global ocean, leading to large inertial energy input. While mixed layers are known to have a strong seasonality and reach 500m depth, the depth structure of near-surface turbulent dissipation and diffusivity have not been examined using direct measurements. We present data collected during the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) field program. In a range of wind conditions, the wave affected surface layer (WASL), where surface wave physics are actively forcing turbulence, is contained to the upper 15-20m. The lag-correlation between wind stress and turbulence shows a strong relationship up to 6 hours (1/2 inertial period), with the winds leading the oceanic turbulent response, in the depth range between 20-50m. We find the following characterize the data: i) Profiles that have a well-defined hydrographic mixed layer show that dissipation decays in the mixed layer inversely with depth, ii) WASLs are typically 15 meters deep and 30% of mixed layer depth, iii) Subject to strong winds, the value of dissipation as a function of depth is significantly lower than predicted by theory. Many dynamical processes are known to be missing from upper-ocean parameterizations of mixing in global models. These include surface-wave driven processes such as Langmuir turbulence, submesocale frontal processes, and nonlocal representations of mixing. Using velocity, hydrographic, and turbulence measurements, the existence of coherent structures in the boundary layer are investigated.

  1. Financial Brownian particle in the layered order-book fluid and fluctuation-dissipation relations.

    PubMed

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets as that of an effective colloidal Brownian particle embedded in fluid particles. The analysis of comprehensive market data enables us to identify all motions of the fluid particles. Correlations between the motions of the Brownian particle and its surrounding fluid particles reflect specific layering interactions; in the inner layer the correlation is strong and with short memory, while in the outer layer it is weaker and with long memory. By interpreting and estimating the contribution from the outer layer as a drag resistance, we demonstrate the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation in this nonmaterial Brownian motion process. PMID:24655287

  2. Financial Brownian Particle in the Layered Order-Book Fluid and Fluctuation-Dissipation Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets as that of an effective colloidal Brownian particle embedded in fluid particles. The analysis of comprehensive market data enables us to identify all motions of the fluid particles. Correlations between the motions of the Brownian particle and its surrounding fluid particles reflect specific layering interactions; in the inner layer the correlation is strong and with short memory, while in the outer layer it is weaker and with long memory. By interpreting and estimating the contribution from the outer layer as a drag resistance, we demonstrate the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation in this nonmaterial Brownian motion process.

  3. Thermal radiation and Hall effects on boundary layer flow past a non-isothermal stretching surface embedded in porous medium with non-uniform heat source/sink and fluid-particle suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gireesha, B. J.; Mahanthesh, B.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Manjunatha, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    Theoretical study on hydromagnetic heat transfer in dusty viscous fluid on continuously stretching non-isothermal surface, with linear variation of surface temperature or heat flux has been carried out. Effects of Hall current, Darcy porous medium, thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink are taken into the account. The sheet is considered to be permeable to allow fluid suction or blowing, and stretching with a surface velocity varied according to a linear. Two cases of the temperature boundary conditions were considered at the surface namely, PST and PHF cases. The governing partial differential equations are transferred to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations by employing suitable similarity transformations and then they are solved numerically. Effects of various pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer for both phases is analyzed and discussed through graphs in detail. The values of skin friction and Nusselt number for different governing parameters are also tabulated. Comparison of the present results with known numerical results is presented and an excellent agreement is found.

  4. Influence of rigid core permittivity and double layer polarization on the electrophoresis of a soft particle: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; De, Simanta

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear electrophoresis of a soft particle with a polarizable uncharged rigid core coated with a polyelectrolyte layer is studied. Due to the coupled nature of the governing electrokinetic equations, a numerical approach is adopted. Our numerical solutions are in good agreement with the existing experimental and theoretical results for a particle with a non-polarizable core when the impacts of the nonlinear effects are low. The induced surface potential of the dielectric rigid core has an impact on the soft particle electrophoresis. The combined effects of the solid polarization of the core and double layer polarization have not been addressed previously in the context of soft particle electrophoresis. We have found that both these effects create retardation on the electrophoresis and are significant when the applied electric field is not weak. The double layer polarization is significant when the Debye length is in the order of the particle size. The range of the applied electric field for which the electrophoretic velocity of a soft particle with a non-polarizable core varies linearly with the applied electric field may create a nonlinear variation in electrophoretic velocity when the core is considered to be polarizable.

  5. Assessment of Fluorescent Particles for Surface Flow Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tauro, Flavia; Mocio, Gabriele; Rapiti, Emiliano; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic performance assessment of the measurement system for surface flow analysis developed by our group in (Tauro et al., Sensors, 2010) is presented. The system is based on the detection of buoyant fluorescent microspheres through a low-cost apparatus, which incorporates light sources to elicit fluorescence response and a digital camera to identify the particles' transit. Experiments are conducted using green fluorescent particles and further tests are executed to evaluate the system performance for red and orange particles varying in emission wavelength, degree of biocompatibility, and cost. The influence of the following parameters on surface flow sensing using fluorescent beads is investigated: (i) distance of the light sources from the water surface, (ii) presence of an ad-hoc filter tuned at the particle emission wavelength, (iii) camera resolution and frame rate, (iv) flow regime, and (v) ambient light. Experimental results are used to inform implementation guidelines for surface flow analysis in natural environments. PMID:23202234

  6. Spectrometers for particle measurements in space based on surface reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.

    2012-04-01

    This is a review talk on space particle spectrometers based on the surface reflection technique. We sum up the experience in development and operation of such instruments accumulated for the last 15 years at the Swedish Institute of space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden in close cooperation with University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. The technique is relatively new and used in space for measurements of few eV - few keV particles. It was first introduced for neutral atom detection in the GAS instrument onboard the ESA/NASA Ulysses mission (Witte et al., 1992) and later for ion measurements (Barabash et al., 2007) onboard Indian Chandrayaan-1. When a particle hit a surface, secondary electrons release and the particle is either absorbed by the surface or get scattered or reflected. The charge state of the reflected particles normally does not depend on the initial charge state and is neutral but also includes a fraction of negative and positive ions. These charged particles can be analyzed by conventional ion optics. The secondary electrons can be used for triggering a time-of-flight system. The surface reflection technique is close to the usage of foils/ulta-thin foils for particle detections but has a number of advantages. First, it does not require high pre-acceleration potentials and thus allows making more compact and light weight instruments. Secondly, it permits detection of neutral atoms down to 10 eV. Despite the interaction with the surface modifies the original particle velocity, the proper design of the following analyzer section and ion optics can mitigate this effect. We shortly introduce main characteristics of the particle - surface interactions important for this application, describe designs of the instruments flown in space, and show performances of the surface reflection based ENA and ion spectrometers developed for Mars / Venus Express, Chandrayaan-1, BepiColombo, Phobos-Grunt, and Swedish PRISMA.

  7. Hierarchy of adhesion forces in patterns of photoreactive surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawacek, Gregor; Shen, Quan; Teichert, Christian; Lex, Alexandra; Trimmel, Gregor; Kern, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Precise control of surface properties including electrical characteristics, wettability, and friction is a prerequisite for manufacturing modern organic electronic devices. The successful combination of bottom up approaches for aligning and orienting the molecules and top down techniques to structure the substrate on the nano- and micrometer scale allows the cost efficient fabrication and integration of future organic light emitting diodes and organic thin film transistors. One possibility for the top down patterning of a surface is to utilize different surface free energies or wetting properties of a functional group. Here, we used friction force microscopy (FFM) to reveal chemical patterns inscribed by a photolithographic process into a photosensitive surface layer. FFM allowed the simultaneous visualization of at least three different chemical surface terminations. The underlying mechanism is related to changes in the chemical interaction between probe and film surface.

  8. Influence of layer-by-layer laser sintering conditions on the quality of sintered surface layer of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Borovikov, I. F.; Sharkeev, Y. P.

    2015-09-01

    The influence of technological modes of sintering: the displacement velocity of laser beam V, laser power P, scanning step S and preheating temperature of powder material t on the quality of sintered surface layer of aluminum powder PA-4, copper powder PMS-1 and cobalt- chromium-molybdenum powder DSK-F75 were studied.

  9. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. PMID:22972299

  10. Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.

  11. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 510 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  12. Friedel oscillations at the surfaces of rhombohedral N -layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutreix, C.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy physics of rhombohedral N -layer graphene mainly arises on the external layers, where most of the ? electrons are located. Their Bloch band structure defines a two-band semimetal; the dispersion relation scales as qN with the momentum norm q in the vicinity of two nonequivalent valleys. In this paper, we address the problem of elastic scattering through a localized impurity located either on the surface of the material or within the bulk, and focus on the quantum interferences it induces on the two external layers. It is apprehended in the framework of a T -matrix approach, both numerically and analytically, regardless of the impurity magnitude, which enables the description of realistic scatters. In rhombohedral multilayer graphene, the impurity induces Friedel oscillations that always decay as 1 /r . As a result, monolayer graphene is the only material of the rhombohedral class that exhibits 1 /r2 -decaying Friedel oscillations. The interference patterns are subsequently analyzed in momentum space. This analysis enables a clear distinction between monolayer graphene and multilayer graphene. It also shows that the interference pattern reveals the whole Bloch band structure, and highlights the number of layers stacked in the material, as well as the ? -quantized Berry phases that characterize the existence of nodal points in the semimetallic spectrum. Experimentally, these features may be probed from scanning tunneling microscopy, when imaging the local density of states at the surfaces of suspended rhombohedral N -layer graphene.

  13. Homogenous Surface Nucleation of Solid Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Hamill, P.; Salcedo, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A general surface nucleation rate theory is presented for the homogeneous freezing of crystalline germs on the surfaces of aqueous particles. While nucleation rates in a standard classical homogeneous freezing rate theory scale with volume, the rates in a surface-based theory scale with surface area. The theory is used to convert volume-based information on laboratory freezing rates (in units of cu cm, seconds) of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) aerosols into surface-based values (in units of sq cm, seconds). We show that a surface-based model is capable of reproducing measured nucleation rates of NAT and NAD aerosols from concentrated aqueous HNO3 solutions in the temperature range of 165 to 205 K. Laboratory measured nucleation rates are used to derive free energies for NAT and NAD germ formation in the stratosphere. NAD germ free energies range from about 23 to 26 kcal mole, allowing for fast and efficient homogeneous NAD particle production in the stratosphere. However, NAT germ formation energies are large (greater than 26 kcal mole) enough to prevent efficient NAT particle production in the stratosphere. We show that the atmospheric NAD particle production rates based on the surface rate theory are roughly 2 orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from a standard volume-based rate theory. Atmospheric volume and surface production of NAD particles will nearly cease in the stratosphere when denitrification in the air exceeds 40 and 78%, respectively. We show that a surface-based (volume-based) homogeneous freezing rate theory gives particle production rates, which are (not) consistent with both laboratory and atmospheric data on the nucleation of solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  14. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    PubMed

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected. PMID:25556290

  15. Electron Scattering at Surfaces of Epitaxial Metal Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Jasmeet Singh

    In the field of electron transport in metal films and wires, the 'size effect' refers to the increase in the resistivity of the films and wires as their critical dimensions (thickness of film, width and height of wires) approach or become less than the electron mean free path lambda, which is, for example, 39 nm for bulk copper at room temperature. This size-effect is currently of great concern to the semiconductor industry because the continued downscaling of feature sizes has already lead to Cu interconnect wires in this size effect regime, with a reported 2.5 times higher resistivity for 40 nm wide Cu wires than for bulk Cu. Silver is a possible alternate material for interconnect wires and titanium nitride is proposed as a gate metal in novel field-effect-transistors. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of how the growth, the surface morphology, and the microstructure of ultrathin (few nanometers) Cu, Ag and TiN layers affect their electrical properties. This dissertation aims to advance the scientific knowledge of electron scattering at surfaces (external surfaces and grain boundaries), that are, the primary reasons for the size-effect in metal conductors. The effect of surface and grain boundary scattering on the resistivity of Cu thin films and nanowires is separately quantified using (i) in situ transport measurements on single-crystal, atomically smooth Cu(001) layers, (ii) textured polycrystalline Cu(111) layers and patterned wires with independently varying grain size, thickness and line width, and (iii) in situ grown interfaces including Cu-Ta, Cu-MgO, Cu-vacuum and Cu-oxygen. In addition, the electron surface scattering is also measured in situ for single-crystal Ag(001), (111) twinned epitaxial Ag(001), and single-crystal TiN(001) layers. Cu(001), Ag(001), and TiN(001) layers with a minimum continuous thickness of 4, 3.5 and 1.8 nm, respectively, are grown by ultra-high vacuum magnetron sputter deposition on MgO(001) substrates with and without thin epitaxial TiN(001) wetting layers and are studied for structure, crystalline quality, surface morphology, density and composition by a combination of x-ray diffraction theta-2theta scans, o-rocking curves, pole figures, reciprocal space mapping, Rutherford backscattering, x-ray reflectometry and transmission electron microscopy. The TiN(001) surface suppresses Cu and Ag dewetting, yielding lower defect density, no twinning, and smaller surface roughness than if grown on MgO(001). Textured polycrystalline Cu(111) layers 25-50-nm-thick are deposited on a stack of 7.5-nm-Ta on SiO2/Si(001), and subsequent in situ annealing at 350°C followed by sputter etching in Ar plasma yields Cu layers with independently variable thickness and grain size. Cu nanowires, 75 to 350 nm wide, are fabricated from Cu layers with different average grain size using a subtractive patterning process. In situ electron transport measurements at room temperature in vacuum and at 77 K in liquid nitrogen for single-crystal Cu and Ag layers is consistent with the Fuchs-Sondheimer (FS) model and indicates specular scattering at the metal-vacuum boundary with an average specularity parameter p = 0.8 and 0.6, respectively. In contrast, layers measured ex situ show diffuse surface scattering due to sub-monolayer oxidation. Also, addition of Ta atoms on Cu(001) surface perturbs the smooth interface potential and results in completely diffuse scattering at the Cu-Ta interface, and in turn, a higher resistivity of single-crystal Cu layers. In situ exposure of Cu(001) layers to O2 between 10 -3 and 105 Pa-s results in a sequential increase, decrease and increase of the electrical resistance which is attributed to specular surface scattering for clean Cu(001) and for surfaces with a complete adsorbed monolayer, but diffuse scattering at partial coverage and after chemical oxidation. Electron transport measurements for polycrystalline Cu layers and wires show a 10-15% and 7-9% decrease in resistivity, respectively, when increasing the average lateral grain size by a factor of 1.8. The maximum resistivity decrease that can be achieved by increasing the grain size of polycrystalline Cu layers with an average grain size approximately ˜2.5x the layer thickness is 20-26%.

  16. Surface layer seeing at San Pedro Mrtir revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snchez, L. J.; Avila, R.; Agabi, A.; Azouit, M.; Cuevas, S.; Cruz, D. X.; Cruz-Gonzlez, I.; Garfias, F.; Gonzlez, S. I.; Harris, O.; Masciadri, E.; Orlov, V. G.; Vernin, J.; Ruelas-Mayorga, A.; Voitsekhovich, V. V.

    2007-10-01

    Results from experiments measuring the contribution of the surface layer (2.3 to 15 m) to the optical seeing at the Observatorio Astronmico Nacional at San Pedro Mrtir (OAN-SPM) are reported. Microthermal sensors placed at 7 heights on a 15-m-high instrumented mast were used to measure the structure constant of the refractive index C_{mathrm{n}}(2) . The integrated seeing parameter was measured with a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) during 23 nights. Log-normal statistics were found for the DIMM seeing with a median value of 0rlap .(arcsec) 84. The surface layer average seeing was found to be 0rlap .(arcsec) 16. The measured optical turbulence of this layer has a mean contribution of 5.2% to the total C_{mathrm{n}}(2) , which corresponds to a mean degradation of 3.2% of the total seeing. These values are similar to those found in other observatories around the world, suggesting that the presence of trees in the OAN-SPM does not have a significant effect on the surface layer seeing.

  17. Rod-like cyanophenyl probe molecules nanoconfined to oxide particles: Density of adsorbed surface species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunza, Stefan; Frunza, Ligia; Ganea, Constantin Paul; Zgura, Irina; Brás, Ana Rita; Schönhals, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Surface layers have already been observed by broadband dielectric spectroscopy for composite systems formed by adsorption of rod-like cyanophenyl derivates as probe molecules on the surface of oxide particles. In this work, features of the surface layer are reported; samples with different amounts of the probe molecules adsorbed onto oxide (nano) particles were prepared in order to study their interactions with the surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied to analyze the amount of loaded probe molecules. The density of the surface species ns was introduced and its values were estimated from quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TGA. This parameter allows discriminating the composites into several groups assuming a similar interaction of the probe molecules with the hosts of a given group. An influence factor H is further proposed as the ratio of the number of molecules in the surface layer showing a glassy dynamics and the number of molecules adsorbed tightly on the surface of the support: It was found for aerosil composites and used for calculating the maximum filling degree of partially filled silica MCM-41 composites showing only one dielectric process characteristic for glass-forming liquids and a bulk behavior for higher filling degrees.

  18. NEUTRON DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN FRICTION STIR PROCESSED NANOCOMPOSITE SURFACE LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hanbing; Hubbard, Camden R; An, Ke; Wang, Xun-Li; Feng, Zhili; Qu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was successfully used to stir and mix nano-sized Al2O3 particles into a Al6061-T6 aluminum plate to form a nanocomposite layer up to 3 mm thick. This nanocomposite surface has demonstrated significantly improved surface hardness, yield strength, and wear-resistance without sacrificing the substrate ductility and conductivity. Neutron diffraction analysis was conducted to determine the residual stress distribution in the nanocomposite surface layer. For comparison, the residual stress of the aluminum surface that was processed similarly but had no particle involved was also measured. Results showed that the macro-level residual stresses in the FSP zone without particles are low due to the annealing effect induced by the long heating time and large heat input. The macro-level residual stresses in the FSP-processed Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite zone are tensile up to 100 MPa in all three directions. The details of the results will be further discussed in the paper.

  19. Plasma behavior in the boundary layer near a railgun surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sang-Wook; McCallen, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Viscous flow and thermal characteristics are theoretically analyzed for the plasma behind a moving projectile inside a railgun. When only convective effects are included in the turbulent boundary layer analysis, the results suggest a temperature maximum in the wall region for very high velocity flows. The case of radiative as well as convective transport has also been investigated for an optically-thick boundary layer flow by application of an approximate method. Results show a sizable effect of radiation on the flow characteristics, especially on the heat-transfer rate to the railgun surface. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be discussed together with meteorological parameters and trace gas measurements. Acknowledgement: PEGASOS project funded by the European Commission and the Framework Program 7 (FP7-ENV-2010-265148).

  1. Microhydrodynamics of flotation processes in the sea surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatika, Marianne; Zimmerman, William B.

    2001-10-01

    The uppermost surface of the ocean forms a peculiarly important ecosystem, the sea surface microlayer (SML). Comprising the top 1-1000 ?m of the ocean surface, the SML concentrates many chemical substances, particularly those that are surface active. Important economically as a nursery for fish eggs and larvae, the SML unfortunately is also especially vulnerable to pollution. Contaminants that settle out from the air, have low solubility, or attach to floatable matter tend to accumulate in the SML. Bubbles contribute prominently to the dynamics of air-sea exchanges, playing an important role in geochemical cycling of material in the upper ocean and SML. In addition to the movement of bubbles, the development of a bubble cloud interrelates with the single particle dynamics of all other bubbles and particles. In the early sixties, several in situ oceanographic techniques revealed an "unbelievably immense" number of coastal bubbles of radius 15-300 ?m. The spatial and temporal variation of bubble numbers were studied; acoustical oceanographers now use bubbles as tracers to determine ocean processes near the ocean surface. Sea state and rain noises have both been definitively ascribed to the radiation from huge numbers of infant micro bubbles [The Acoustic Bubble. Academic Press, San Diego]. Our research programme aims at constructing a hydrodynamic model for particle transport processes occurring at the microscale, in multi-phase flotation suspensions. Current research addresses bubble and floc microhydrodynamics as building blocks for a microscale transport model. This paper reviews sea surface transport processes in the microlayer and the lower atmosphere, and identifies those amenable to microhydrodynamic modelling and simulation. It presents preliminary simulation results including the multi-body hydrodynamic mobility functions for the modelling of "dynamic bubble filters" and floc suspensions. Hydrodynamic interactions versus spatial anisotropy and size of particle clouds are investigated.

  2. Modification of Surface Layers by Surfacing Intermetallic Coatings with Variable Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, D. N.; Zakharov, O. V.; Vinogradov, A. N.; Kochetkov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper considers the possibility of forming coating layers for parts within wide limits of microhardness. The technology uses surfacing of intermetallic coatings provided by a unique experimental setup. Theoretical and experimental dependence of the coating layer microhardness on the filler concentration using the changes in the speed of the filler wire feed and current intensity were determined.

  3. Adhering grains and surface features on two Itokawa particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrică, E.; Ogliore, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the surface texture and chemical compositions of two ~40-μm particles returned from the surface regolith of asteroid Itokawa (RB-DQ04-0062 and RB-DQ04-0091) by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hayabusa mission. We identified splash melts, surface blistering, and many small adhering particles. Seven focused ion beam sections were extracted from both Itokawa particles, targeting one splash melt and ten adhering particles to investigate their composition and provenance and the role of micrometeoroid impacts on Itokawa's surface. Based on the particle's structure, mineralogy, and interface between the adhering particle and host grain, we identified lithic fragments and particles deposited by impact. These have morphologies and compositions consistent with impact-generated deposits: two have morphologies and compositions that are consistent with impact-generated silica glass, and one was a Ni-free, metallic Fe, and S-rich assemblage that was likely generated by vapor recondensation during a micrometeoroid impact. This study shows that, even though its regolith is young, micrometeoroid impacts have altered the regolith of asteroid Itokawa.

  4. Is surface roughness a "scapegoat" or a primary factor when defining particle-substrate interactions?

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofei; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Hoek, Eric M V

    2010-02-16

    Extended DLVO interaction potentials were determined for spherical particles approaching nanopatterned substrates using the numerical surface element integration (SEI) technique. In most cases, nanopatterned ("rough") surfaces produced smaller interaction potentials than chemically identical planar ("smooth") surfaces. For unfavorable scenarios, electrostatic double layer and acid-base potentials were reduced to a greater extent than van der Waals potentials, which made rough surfaces "more attractive" than smooth ones. Two influential surface morphological descriptors emerged: (1) the ratio of particle size to asperity size, a/r, and (2) the ratio of asperity separation to asperity size, p/r. As a/r increased, particle-substrate interaction energy decreased, while the opposite was true for p/r. The simple morphological descriptors gave rise to an analytical model based on the Derjaguin integration (DI) method that compared reasonably well with numerical SEI results, where the size and density of nanopatterned surface features dictated the magnitude of interaction potentials. In fact, changes in the size of nanopatterned surface features impacted the magnitudes of interaction potentials to the same extent as similar changes in the magnitudes of acid-base free energy and zeta potential, which begs the question, "is surface morphology a 'scapegoat' or a primary consideration when defining particle-substrate interactions?" PMID:19908846

  5. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. |

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  6. The formation of multiple layers of ice particles in the polar summer mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional theoretical model to study the formation process of multiple layers of small ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere as measured by rockets and associated with polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The proposed mechanism primarily takes into account the transport processes induced by gravity waves through collision coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ice particles. Numerical solutions of the model indicate that the dynamic influence of wind variation induced by gravity waves can make a significant contribution to the vertical and horizontal transport of ice particles and ultimately transform them into thin multiple layers. Additionally, the pattern of the multiple layers at least partially depends on the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave, the ice particle size and the wind velocity. The results presented in this paper will be helpful to better understand the occurrence of multiple layers of PMSE as well as its variation process.

  7. Boundary layer flow past a stretching sheet with fluid-particle suspension and convective boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, G. K.; Gireesha, B. J.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2015-08-01

    The steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a viscous dusty fluid over a stretching sheet with the bottom surface of the sheet heated by convection from a hot fluid is considered. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method (RKF45 Method) with the help of MAPLE. The effects of convective Biot number, fluid particle interaction parameter, and Prandtl number on the heat transfer characteristics are discussed. It is found that the temperature of both fluid and dust phase increases with increasing Biot number. A comparative study between the previous published and present results in a limiting sense is found in an excellent agreement.

  8. THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOILING OF SURFACES BY AIRBORNE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model is developed which can be used to predict the change in reflectance from a surface as a function of time. Reflectance change is a measure of soiling caused by the deposition of particles on a surface. The major inputs to the model are the parameters to a bimodal distribut...

  9. Thin-layer high-temperature surface thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroy, J. C.; Gageant, C.; Portat, M.; Francois, D.

    Surface thermometers have been designed for use on turbine blades up to temperatures of 1100 C. The thermometers consist of three thin layers: (1) a coating of NiCoCrAlY alloy; (2) an isolated layer of aluminum; and (3) a Platinel-type thermocouple. The layers are successively deposited by RF diode cathode sputtering onto In100, DS200, or CMSX2 superalloys. The success rates (defined as the ability to obtain elevated electrical isolated resistances of 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 9th ohms from the thermocouple) of the thermometers rose from 30 percent to 85 percent when residual isolated defects were removed by vacuum vaporization.

  10. Lateral optical force on chiral particles near a surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. B.; Chan, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Light can exert radiation pressure on any object it encounters and that resulting optical force can be used to manipulate particles. It is commonly assumed that light should move a particle forward and indeed an incident plane wave with a photon momentum ?k can only push any particle, independent of its properties, in the direction of k. Here we demonstrate, using full-wave simulations, that an anomalous lateral force can be induced in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident photon momentum if a chiral particle is placed above a substrate that does not break any leftright symmetry. Analytical theory shows that the lateral force emerges from the coupling between structural chirality (the handedness of the chiral particle) and the light reflected from the substrate surface. Such coupling induces a sideway force that pushes chiral particles with opposite handedness in opposite directions. PMID:24598792

  11. Surface morphological evolution of epitaxial CrN(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Gall, D.

    2005-09-01

    CrN layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at T{sub s}=600-800 deg. C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges from an oblique deposition angle {alpha}=80 deg. . Layers grown at 600 deg. C nucleate as single crystals with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. However, rough surfaces with cauliflower-type morphologies cause the nucleation of misoriented CrN grains that develop into cone-shaped grains that protrude out of the epitaxial matrix to form triangular faceted surface mounds. The surface morphology of epitaxial CrN(001) grown at 700 deg. C is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along the orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped super mounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are attributed to a Bales-Zangwill instability while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing which leads to the formation of epitaxial inverted pyramids that are separated from the surrounding layer by tilted nanovoids. Growth at 800 deg. C yields complete single crystals with smooth surfaces. The root-mean-square surface roughness for 230-nm-thick layers decreases from 18.8 to 9.3 to 1.1 nm as T{sub s} is raised from 600 to 700 to 800 deg. C. This steep decrease is due to a transition in the roughening mechanism from atomic shadowing to kinetic roughening. Atomic shadowing is dominant at 600 and 700 deg. C, where misoriented grains and supermounds, respectively, capture a larger fraction of the oblique deposition flux in comparison to the surrounding epitaxial matrix, resulting in a high roughening rate that is described by a power law with an exponent {beta}>0.5. In contrast, kinetic roughening controls the surface morphology for T{sub s}=800 deg. C, as well as the epitaxial fraction of the layers grown at 600 and 700 deg. C, yielding relatively smooth surfaces and {beta}{<=}0.27.

  12. Characterizing the Effect of Surface Hydrophobicity on the Depletion Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Erin; Petersen, Shannon; Jeroski, Jessica; Statman, Ariel; Poynor, Adele

    2013-03-01

    When water is forced into contact with an extended hydrophobic surface, a uniform region of reduced density forms along the interface. We seek to identify both a qualitative and a quantitative relationship between the hydrophobicity of a surface and the characteristics of the corresponding depletion layer, specifically its thickness and density. We determine these qualities using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR). We produce surfaces of different hydrophobicities through the formation of self-assembled monolayers of organothiols on gold-plated slides. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 1-octadecanethiol are used to produce surfaces with high hydrophobicity, as the terminal methyl group is highly nonpolar, while 11-mercapto-1-undecanol is used to produce surfaces with minimal hydrophobicity, as the terminal hydroxyl group is hydrophilic. Surfaces of intermediate hydrophobicity are fabricated using mixed SAMs of 1-octadecanethiol and 11-mercapto-1-undecanol. We measure surface hydrophobicity for the resulting SAM-coated slides by their contact angle with water droplets. In order to ensure an unchanging hydrophobicity throughout SPR trials, we analyze the stability of the surfaces to through repeated testing of contact angle variability over time and after extended submersion both in water and in ethanol.

  13. [Particle dispersion by order motion in mixing layers

    SciTech Connect

    Troutt, T.R.

    1993-09-01

    Multiphase mixing in turbulent flows is a key element in many energy conversion and chemical processes. There is considerable need for improving the design and control of these processes. Free turbulent shear flows are the primary agents for particle mixing in these systems. Previous studies by this research group have shown that, if particle coupling effects are neglected, the organized vortex structures generated by these shear flows control the character of the particle mixing process. A coordinated experimental and numerical study is proposed to investigate the coupled effects of droplet mass and energy transfer on the turbulent multiphase mixing process in free shear flows. This study has important implications concerning the design of reacting flow systems. Experimental visualizations of the multiphase flow will be carried out using laser-sheet lighting and high speed photography. Local measurements of droplet size, velocity and concentration diagnostics, will be made with laser anemometry and phase Doppler diagnostics. Complementary analytical and numerical analyses will be carried out to assess the effect of coupling on vortex structure, stability and growth. The results of the proposed research will provide basic understanding concerning the coupled effects of particle concentration on the rate of multiphase mixing in turbulent flows. Information of this nature is essential to the improved designs of engineering systems with particulate or droplet flows.

  14. Interaction between surface and atmosphere in a convective boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Anirban

    Solar heating of the surface causes the near surface air to warm up and with sufficient buoyancy it ascends through the atmosphere as surface-layer plumes and thermals. The cold fluid from the upper part of the boundary layer descends as downdrafts. The downdrafts and thermals form streamwise roll vortices. All these turbulent coherent structures are important because they contribute most of the momentum and heat transport. While these structures have been studied in depth, their imprint on the surface through energy budget in a convective atmospheric boundary layer has received little attention. The main objective of the present study is to examine the turbulence-induced surface temperature fluctuations for different surface properties and stratification. Experiments were performed to measure atmospheric turbulence using sonic anemometers, fine wire thermocouples and LIDAR; and surface temperature using an infra-red camera over grass and artificial turf fields. The surface temperature fluctuations were found to be highly correlated to the turbulent coherent structures and follow the processes postulated in the surface renewal theory. The spatio-temporal scales and advection speed of the surface temperature fluctuation were found to match with those of turbulent coherent structures. A parametric direct numerical simulation (DNS) study was then performed by solving the solid-fluid heat transport mechanism numerically for varying solid thermal properties, solid thickness and strength of stratification. Even though there were large differences in the friction Reynolds and Richardson numbers between the experiments and numerical simulations, similar turbulent characteristics were observed. The ejection (sweep) events tend to be aligned with the streamwise direction to form roll vortices with unstable stratification. The solid-fluid interfacial temperature fluctuations increase with the decreases in solid thermal inertia; and with the increase in solid thickness to attain a constant value for a sufficiently thick solid. The temperature fluctuation changes from a Gaussian distribution near the wall to a positively skewed distribution away from the wall. The turbulent temperature fluctuations influence the solid interfacial temperature by thermal conduction only. These studies provided unique insights into the solid-fluid coupled heat transport in low and high Reynolds number flows. This turbulence induced surface temperature fluctuation can influence the performances of several satellite remote sensing models.

  15. Arctic Cloud-driven Mixed Layers and Surface Coupling State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.; Persson, O. P.; Solomon, A.; de Boer, G.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic low-level clouds interact with the atmosphere and underlying surface via many inter-related processes. The balance of cloud radiative warming and cooling effects imparts a strong control on the net surface energy budget. Cloud-driven atmospheric circulations can impact surface turbulent heat fluxes and influence the vertical mixing of atmospheric state parameters and aerosols. Large-scale advection of heat and moisture provides the background context within which these local interactions unfold. Importantly, these radiative, dynamical, and advective processes also contribute to a complex web of self-sustaining cloud processes that can promote cloud maintenance over long periods of time. We examine many of these processes, with a specific focus on the dynamical linkages between Arctic clouds and the surface that influence low-level atmospheric structure and mixing. Comprehensive, ground-based observations from meteorological towers, remote-sensors, and radiosondes are used to simultaneously characterize surface fluxes, atmospheric structure, cloud properties, in-cloud motions, and the depth of the cloud-driven mixed layer in multiple Arctic environments. Relationships among these parameters are explored to elucidate the properties of the system that determine the degree of vertical atmospheric mixing and the coupling state between cloud and surface. The influence of temperature and moisture inversions on this system is also explored. Transitions in the coupling state are utilized to illustrate the relative roles of different processes. Cases from a coastal Arctic site at Barrow, Alaska and a station embedded in the Arctic sea-ice pack are used to contrast conditional influences related to season and surface type. It is found that over sea-ice, where surface turbulent fluxes are weak, the coupling of cloud-level processes to the surface layer is largely due to proximity of the cloud-driven mixed layer to the surface, which appears to be primarily influenced by the larger-scale, advective environment. In contrast, surface-forced turbulence can also play a significant role in vertical atmospheric mixing and cloud maintenance in the presence of open ocean or land processes.

  16. Bidirectional reflectance study on dry, wet, and submerged particulate layers: effects of pore liquid refractive index and translucent particle concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Voss, Kenneth J.

    2006-12-01

    We performed extensive bidirectional reflectance measurements on dry, wet, and submerged particulate layers with various albedos to investigate the darkening effect caused by wetting with fluids. It was found that, in addition to the reduction of the refractive index contrast when there is a pore liquid (wetted), the concentration of translucent grains in a particulate layer and the surface roughness conditions of the individual grains make important contributions to the wetting-induced darkening effect. Reflectance measurements on glass-sediment mixtures confirmed that, as the concentration of translucent particles increases, the reflectance of the dry layers increases while that of the wetted layers decreases. Measurements indicate that neither the prediction made by the theory of Twomey et al. [Appl. Opt. 25, 431 (1986)] nor that of Lekner and Dorf [Appl. Opt. 27, 1278 (1988)] is sufficient.

  17. Bidirectional reflectance study on dry, wet, and submerged particulate layers: effects of pore liquid refractive index and translucent particle concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Voss, Kenneth J

    2006-12-01

    We performed extensive bidirectional reflectance measurements on dry, wet, and submerged particulate layers with various albedos to investigate the darkening effect caused by wetting with fluids. It was found that, in addition to the reduction of the refractive index contrast when there is a pore liquid (wetted), the concentration of translucent grains in a particulate layer and the surface roughness conditions of the individual grains make important contributions to the wetting-induced darkening effect. Reflectance measurements on glass-sediment mixtures confirmed that, as the concentration of translucent particles increases, the reflectance of the dry layers increases while that of the wetted layers decreases. Measurements indicate that neither the prediction made by the theory of Twomey et al. [Appl. Opt. 25, 431 (1986)] nor that of Lekner and Dorf [Appl. Opt. 27, 1278 (1988)] is sufficient. PMID:17119572

  18. On the Effects of Surface Roughness on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Edwards, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Surface roughness can influence laminar-turbulent transition in many different ways. This paper outlines selected analyses performed at the NASA Langley Research Center, ranging in speed from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and highlighting the beneficial as well as adverse roles of the surface roughness in technological applications. The first theme pertains to boundary-layer tripping on the forebody of a hypersonic airbreathing configuration via a spanwise periodic array of trip elements, with the goal of understanding the physical mechanisms underlying roughness-induced transition in a high-speed boundary layer. The effect of an isolated, finite amplitude roughness element on a supersonic boundary layer is considered next. The other set of flow configurations examined herein corresponds to roughness based laminar flow control in subsonic and supersonic swept wing boundary layers. A common theme to all of the above configurations is the need to apply higher fidelity, physics based techniques to develop reliable predictions of roughness effects on laminar-turbulent transition.

  19. Effects of surface wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hailun; Chen, Dake

    2011-04-01

    Existing laboratory studies suggest that surface wave breaking may exert a significant impact on the formation and evolution of oceanic surface boundary layer, which plays an important role in the ocean-atmosphere coupled system. However, present climate models either neglect the effects of wave breaking or treat them implicitly through some crude parameterization. Here we use a one-dimensional ocean model (General Ocean Turbulence Model, GOTM) to investigate the effects of wave breaking on the oceanic boundary layer on diurnal to seasonal time scales. First a set of idealized experiments are carried out to demonstrate the basic physics and the necessity to include wave breaking. Then the model is applied to simulating observations at the northern North Sea and the Ocean Weather Station Papa, which shows that properly accounting for wave breaking effects can improve model performance and help it to successfully capture the observed upper ocean variability.

  20. Marangoni instability in a liquid layer with two free surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Oron, Alxander; Duh, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The onset of the Marangoni instability in a liquid layer with two free nearly insulating surfaces heated from below is studied. Linear stability analysis yields a condition for the emergence of a longwave or a finite wavelength instability from the quiescent equilibrium state. Using the method of asymptotic expansions, a weakly nonlinear evolution equation describing the spatiotemporal behavior of the velocity and temperature fields at the onset of the longwave instability is derived. The latter is given by delta(M) = 24, delta(M) being the difference between the upper and the lower Marangoni numbers. It is shown that in some parametric range one convective cell forms across the layer, while in other parametric domains two convective cells emerge between the two free surfaces.

  1. Particle transport and flow modification in planar temporally evolving laminar mixing layers. I. Particle transport under one-way coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Chidambaram; Lakehal, Djamel

    2006-09-01

    Simulations of two-dimensional, particle-laden mixing layers were performed for particles with Stokes numbers of 0.3, 0.6, 1, and 2 under the assumption of one-way coupling using the Eulerian-Lagrangian method; two-way coupling is addressed in Part II. Analysis of interphase momentum transfer was performed in the Eulerian frame of reference by looking at the balance of fluid-phase mean momentum, mean kinetic energy, modal kinetic energy, and particle-phase mean momentum. The differences in the dominant mechanisms of vertical transport of streamwise momentum between the fluid and particle phases is clearly brought out. In the fluid phase, growth of the mixing layer is due to energy transfer from the mean flow to the unstable Kelvin-Helmholtz modes, and transport of mean momentum by these modes. In contrast, in the particle phase, the primary mechanism of vertical transport of streamwise momentum is convection due to the mean vertical velocity induced by the centrifuging of particles by the spanwise Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. Although the drag force and the particle-phase modal stress play an important role in the early stages of the evolution of the mixing layer, their role is shown to decrease during the pairing process. After pairing, the particle-phase mean streamwise momentum balance is accounted for by the convection and drag force term. The particle-phase modal stress term is shown to be strongly connected to the fluid phase modal stress with a Stokes-number-dependent time lag in its evolution.

  2. Rotating compact bodies with a disk surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggag, Salah

    2016-03-01

    The Senovilla family for a subclass of Petrov type-D stationary axisymmetric differentially rotating perfect fluids is considered. A scheme is presented to construct from a solution an interior of a rotating compact body satisfying dominant energy conditions and with a boundary of vanishing pressure. The equatorial disk of the body is a surface layer due to a jump in the second fundamental form. However, unlike previous results, the body is free from curvature singularities.

  3. Surface-plasmons lasing in double-graphene-layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, A. A.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Ryzhii, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2014-01-28

    We consider the concept of injection terahertz lasers based on double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures with metal surface-plasmon waveguide and study the conditions of their operation. The laser under consideration exploits the resonant radiative transitions between GLs. This enables the double-GL laser room temperature operation and the possibility of voltage tuning of the emission spectrum. We compare the characteristics of the double-GL lasers with the metal surface-plasmon waveguides with those of such laser with the metal-metal waveguides.

  4. Programming nanostructured soft biological surfaces by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Szilgyi, Imre Mikls; Teucher, Georg; Hrknen, Emma; Frm, Elina; Hatanp, Timo; Nikitin, Timur; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Rsnen, Markku; Ritala, Mikko; Leskel, Markku

    2013-06-21

    Here, we present the first successful attempt to programme the surface properties of nanostructured soft biological tissues by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The nanopatterned surface of lotus leaf was tuned by 3-125 nm TiO2 thin films. The lotus/TiO2 composites were studied by SEM-EDX, XPS, Raman, TG-DTA, XRR, water contact angle and photocatalysis measurements. While we could preserve the superhydrophobic feature of lotus, we managed to add a new property, i.e. photocatalytic activity. We also explored how surface passivation treatments and various ALD precursors affect the stability of the sensitive soft biological tissues. As we were able to gradually change the number of nanopatterns of lotus, we gained new insight into how the hollow organic nanotubes on the surface of lotus influence its superhydrophobic feature. PMID:23680967

  5. Programming nanostructured soft biological surfaces by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikls Szilgyi, Imre; Teucher, Georg; Hrknen, Emma; Frm, Elina; Hatanp, Timo; Nikitin, Timur; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Rsnen, Markku; Ritala, Mikko; Leskel, Markku

    2013-06-01

    Here, we present the first successful attempt to programme the surface properties of nanostructured soft biological tissues by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The nanopatterned surface of lotus leaf was tuned by 3-125 nm TiO2 thin films. The lotus/TiO2 composites were studied by SEM-EDX, XPS, Raman, TG-DTA, XRR, water contact angle and photocatalysis measurements. While we could preserve the superhydrophobic feature of lotus, we managed to add a new property, i.e. photocatalytic activity. We also explored how surface passivation treatments and various ALD precursors affect the stability of the sensitive soft biological tissues. As we were able to gradually change the number of nanopatterns of lotus, we gained new insight into how the hollow organic nanotubes on the surface of lotus influence its superhydrophobic feature.

  6. Surface-cooling effects on compressible boundary-layer instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seddougui, Sharon O.; Bowles, R. I.; Smith, F. T.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of surface cooling on compressible boundary layer instability is discussed theoretically for both viscous and inviscid modes, at high Reynolds numbers. The cooling enhances the surface heat transfer and shear stress, creating a high heat transfer sublayer. This has the effect of distorting and accentuating the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting modes to such an extent that their spatial growth rates become comparable with, and can even exceed, the growth rates of inviscid modes, including those found previously. This is for moderate cooling, and it applies at any Mach number. In addition, the moderate cooling destabilizes otherwise stable viscous or inviscid modes, in particular triggering outward-traveling waves at the edge of the boundary layer in the supersonic regime. Severe cooling is also discussed as it brings compressible dynamics directly into play within the viscous sublayer. All the new cooled modes found involve the heat transfer sublayer quite actively, and they are often multi-structured in form and may be distinct from those observed in previous computational and experimental investigations. The corresponding nonlinear processes are also pointed out with regard to transition in the cooled compressible boundary layer. Finally, comparisons with Lysenko and Maslov's (1984) experiments on surface cooling are presented.

  7. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, J.; Farrar, J. T.; Weller, R. A.

    2013-09-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models.

  8. Detection of charged particles in amorphous silicon layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, S.N.; Morel, J.R.; Mulera, T.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schnurmacher, G.; Street, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    The successful development of radiation detectors made from amorphous silicon could offer the possibility for relatively easy construction of large area position-sensitive detectors. We have conducted a series of measurements with prototype detectors, on signals derived from alpha particles. The measurement results are compared with simple model calculations, and projections are made of potential applications in high-energy and nuclear physics. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Particle simulation of auroral double layers. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.L.

    1992-06-01

    Externally driven magnetic reconnection has been proposed as a possible mechanism for production of auroral electrons during magnetic substorms. Fluid simulations of magnetic reconnection lead to strong plasma flows towards the increasing magnetic field of the earth. These plasma flows must generate large scale potential drops to preserve global charge neutrality. We have examined currentless injection of plasma along a dipole magnetic field into a bounded region using both analytic techniques and particle simulation.

  10. Microstructural evolution of surface layers during Electrolytic Plasma Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionea, Cristian

    Electrolytic Plasma Processing is an emerging technology for surface modification. The EPP process is based on electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte by application of an electrical potential between the workpiece and counter-electrode, and the production of plasma (micro-arc discharges on the workpiece surface). The plasma micro-arcs provide a heat source for surface modification via localized surface melting and rapid cooling (cleaning process) and, if desirable, enhance ion deposition on a given substrate (coating). Three substrates (low carbon steel, pure Al and pure Ti) were "cleaned" by EPP and their near surface layer microstructure was studied. It was found that the uppermost layer for all three substrate materials was developing a "hill and valley" surface morphology, with individual characteristics influence by material's properties such as melting point, undercooling and surface energy. The affected layer extends up to 2mum for all three substrates and the top layer was found to exhibit ultrafine grains. The EPP modified surface layer developed compressive residual stresses. The magnitude of the stress is correlated to the melting point which controls the annealing and grain growth kinetics, for each material. Three coating materials, Zn, Ni and Mo, with a wide range of melting temperature were deposited by EPP on steel substrates. The topography exhibited by each coating was found to be influenced by its surface energy. Low surface energy coating material will present large nodules, high deposition rate and increased porosity. Medium surface energy coating materials were found to develop large nodules, lower deposition rates and low porosity. High surface energy coatings tend to present nodule coalescence and may exhibit crack formation, depending on the difference in TM between the substrate and the coating material. The microstructure at the coating/substrate interface was studied. Two controlling parameters were found regarding substrate/coating interface evolution. These are difference in melting point between substrate and coating material and the phase diagram characteristics. The extent of the interface was related to the difference in TM between the coating and the substrate material. A low TM coating material (Zn) interface will form intermetallics as predicted by the phase diagram. A coating with comparable TM with the substrate (Ni) results in a liquid phase with both elements soluble and depending on the phase diagram characteristics, significant mixing can occur at the interface. The formation of the high melting temperature coating (Mo) was found to be dominated by its large TM compared to the substrate. The continuous presence of a liquid phase of the substrate material was resulting in the extension of the interface far into the coating. Depending on the phase diagram, intermetallics may form at the interface. The present findings show that a judicious selection of coating materials can be made by considering the coupling substrate -- coating TM and their binary phase diagram.

  11. Enceladus: Correlation of Surface Particle Distribution and Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R. H.; Clark, R. N.; Filacchione, G.; Buratti, B. J.; Nelson, R. M.; Nicholson, P. D.; Le Moulic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Hansen, G. B.; Roatsch, T.; Capaccionii, F.; Sotin, C.

    2012-04-01

    The surface of Enceladus consists almost completely of water ice [1,2]. The band depths of water ice absorptions are sensitive to the size of particles [2,3,4] covering the surface. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer [5] observed Enceladus with high spatial resolution during multiple Cassini fly-bys. Based on these data we measured the band depths of water ice absorptions over Enceladus' surface and mapped their distribution. The spatial resolution of VIMS is sufficient to distinguish three major geologic units: heavily cratered terrain, fractured and ridged terrain and complex tectonically deformed regions of troughs and ridges [6], which include the south pole region. Surface ages, as derived from the impact flux models of [7,8] indicate the cratered terrain being oldest while the Sulci the youngest unit [2,9]. From the distribution of particle sizes we can conclude that the largest particle diameters are those inside the tectonically deformed regions, with a decrease in size departing from the fractures. These occur not only at the south pole but also in older tectonic regions [2]. The basic correlation between particle diameter, geologic unit and age suggests the following relative stratigraphic sequence [2,10]: (1) Formation of a primary crust (heavily cratered terrain); (2) Mechanical weathering of the surface particles by microimpacts and sputtering during the last 4 billion years; (3) Tectonic disruption of the surface and deposition of new material with large particles. Although this newly deposited material has undergone mechanical weathering of the particles by microimpacts and sputtering, these particles are larger due to a shorter exposure time; (4) Recent deposition of larger particles in the south polar region. If the larger particles in the tectonically deformed regions have of the same cryovolcanic origin as at the south pole, the volcanic activity must have a temporal evolution. However, there are still different possibilities to explain this observation [2]: (1) The eruption zones may have moved from north to south. (2) Cryovolcanic eruptions might have occurred across the entire surface and later shrunk to a small zone at the south pole, which would be indicative of a probable decrease in internal heat transfer. (3) The intensity of cryovolcanic eruptions had a different temporal evolution at different locations with maximum activity in the south polar region.

  12. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A.; Koshel, Konstantin V.

    2015-10-01

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero-oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.

  13. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Koshel, Konstantin V

    2015-10-01

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero-oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations. PMID:26520074

  14. Exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mints, R. I.; Alimov, V. I.; Melekhin, V. P.; Milman, I. I.; Kryuk, V. I.; Kunin, L. L.; Tarasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    A secondary electron multiplier was used to study the thermostimulated exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station. The natural exoemission from fragments of slag, glass, anorthosite, and a metallic particle was recorded in the isochronic and isothermal thermostimulation regimes. The temperature of emission onset depended on the type of regolith fragment. For the first three particles the isothermal drop in emission is described by first-order kinetic equations. For the anorthosite fragment, exoemission at constant temperature is characterized by a symmetric curve with a maximum. These data indicate the presence of active surface defects, whose nature can be due to the prehistory of the particles.

  15. Modes of surface premelting in colloidal crystals composed of attractive particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Di; Peng, Yi; Ni, Ran; Han, Yilong

    2016-03-24

    Crystal surfaces typically melt into a thin liquid layer at temperatures slightly below the melting point of the crystal. Such surface premelting is prevalent in all classes of solids and is important in a variety of metallurgical, geological and meteorological phenomena. Premelting has been studied using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, but the lack of single-particle resolution makes it hard to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Colloids are good model systems for studying phase transitions because the thermal motions of individual micrometre-sized particles can be tracked directly using optical microscopy. Here we use colloidal spheres with tunable attractions to form equilibrium crystal-vapour interfaces, and study their surface premelting behaviour at the single-particle level. We find that monolayer colloidal crystals exhibit incomplete premelting at their perimeter, with a constant liquid-layer thickness. In contrast, two- and three-layer crystals exhibit conventional complete melting, with the thickness of the surface liquid diverging as the melting point is approached. The microstructures of the surface liquids differ in certain aspects from what would be predicted by conventional premelting theories. Incomplete premelting in the monolayer crystals is triggered by a bulk isostructural solid-solid transition and truncated by a mechanical instability that separately induces homogeneous melting within the bulk. This finding is in contrast to the conventional assumption that two-dimensional crystals melt heterogeneously from their free surfaces (that is, at the solid-vapour interface). The unexpected bulk melting that we observe for the monolayer crystals is accompanied by the formation of grain boundaries, which supports a previously proposed grain-boundary-mediated two-dimensional melting theory. The observed interplay between surface premelting, bulk melting and solid-solid transitions challenges existing theories of surface premelting and two-dimensional melting. PMID:26976448

  16. Surface charge features of kaolinite particles and their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vishal

    Kaolinite is both a blessing and a curse. As an important industrial mineral commodity, kaolinite clays are extensively used in the paper, ceramic, paint, plastic and rubber industries. In all these applications the wettability, aggregation, dispersion, flotation and thickening of kaolinite particles are affected by its crystal structure and surface properties. It is therefore the objective of this research to investigate selected physical and surface chemical properties of kaolinite, specifically the surface charge of kaolinite particles. A pool of advanced analytical techniques such as XRD, XRF, SEM, AFM, FTIR and ISS were utilized to investigate the morphological and surface chemistry features of kaolinite. Surface force measurements revealed that the silica tetrahedral face of kaolinite is negatively charged at pH>4, whereas the alumina octahedral face of kaolinite is positively charged at pH<6, and negatively charged at pH>8. Based on electrophoresis measurements, the apparent iso-electric point for kaolinite particles was determined to be less than pH 3. In contrast, the point of zero charge was determined to be pH 4.5 by titration techniques, which corresponds to the iso-electric point of between pH 4 and 5 as determined by surface force measurements. Results from kaolinite particle interactions indicate that the silica face--alumina face interaction is dominant for kaolinite particle aggregation at low and intermediate pH values, which explains the maximum shear yield stress at pH 5-5.5. Lattice resolution images reveal the hexagonal lattice structure of these two face surfaces of kaolinite. Analysis of the silica face of kaolinite showed that the center of the hexagonal ring of oxygen atoms is vacant, whereas the alumina face showed that the hexagonal surface lattice ring of hydroxyls surround another hydroxyl in the center of the ring. High resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation of kaolinite has indicated that kaolinite is indeed composed of silica/alumina bilayers with a c-spacing of 7.2 A. The surface charge densities of the silica face, the alumina face and the edge surface of kaolinite all influence particle interactions, and thereby affect the mechanical properties of kaolinite suspensions. The improved knowledge of kaolinite surface chemistry from this dissertation research provides a foundation for the development of improved process strategies for both the use and disposal of clay particles such as kaolinite.

  17. Dust Devils on Mars: Effects of Surface Roughness on Particle Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neakrase, Lynn D.; Greeley, Ronald; Iversen, James D.; Balme, Matthew L.; Foley, Daniel J.; Eddlemon, Eric E.

    2005-01-01

    Dust devils have been proposed as effective mechanisms for lofting large quantities of dust into the martian atmosphere. Previous work showed that vortices lift dust more easily than simple boundary layer winds. The aim of this study is to determine experimentally the effects of non-erodable roughness elements on vortex particle threshold through laboratory simulations of natural surfaces. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. Surface clusters of colloid particles produced by deposition on sites.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Jaszczółt, Katarzyna; Siwek, Barbara; Weroński, Paweł

    2005-09-13

    The possibility of producing surface clusters of well-defined structure formed by colloid particles was analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical results were derived by performing Monte Carlo-type simulations according to the generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) mechanism. In these simulations, the jamming coverage of particles adsorbing irreversibly on spherical sites was determined as a function of the particle-to-site size ratio lambda. It was revealed that, by properly choosing lambda, a targeted site coordination can be achieved; for example, there can be one, two, three, and so forth particles attached to one site. The structure of the heterogeneous clusters produced in this way was described in terms of the pair correlation function. It was predicted that the extent of ordering within surface clusters was diminished as the concentration of sites increased. These theoretical predictions were checked by performing deposition experiments of negatively charged polystyrene latex particles (average diameter 0.9 mum) under the diffusion-controlled transport regime. Mica sheets precovered by positively charged polystyrene latex (average diameters 0.45 and 0.95 microm) were used as the substrate surface in these experiments. Positive latex (site) deposition was also carried out under diffusion-controlled transport conditions. The concentration of the sites and the adsorbed particles was determined by direct particle counting using optical microscopy. It was found, in quantitative agreement with theoretical simulations, that the structure of surface clusters produced in this way exhibits a significant degree of short-range ordering. It also was proven experimentally that clusters containing a targeted number of colloid particles (e.g., 2 and 4) could be produced by the deposition procedure. PMID:16142984

  19. Dense medium radiative transfer theory for two scattering layers with a Rayleigh distribution of particle sizes

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.; Tsang, Leung; Winebrenner, D.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Dense medium radiative transfer theory is applied to a three-layer model consisting of two scattering layers overlying a homogeneous half space with a size distribution of particles in each layer. A model with a distribution of sizes gives quite different results than those obtained from a model with a single size. The size distribution is especially important in the low frequency limit when scattering is strongly dependent on particle size. The size distribution and absorption characteristics also affect the extinction behavior as a function of fractional volume. Theoretical results are also compared with experimental data. The sizes, permittivities, and densities used in the numerical illustrations are typical values for snow.

  20. Three-Dimensional Porous Particles Composed of Curved, Two-Dimensional, Nano-Sized Layers for Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yushin, Gleb; Evanoff, Kara; Magasinski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Thin Si films coated on porous 3D particles composed of curved 2D graphene sheets have been synthesized utilizing techniques that allow for tunable properties. Since graphene exhibits specific surface area up to 100 times higher than carbon black or graphite, the deposition of the same mass of Si on graphene is much faster in comparison -- a factor which is important for practical applications. In addition, the distance between graphene layers is tunable and variation in the thickness of the deposited Si film is feasible. Both of these characteristics allow for optimization of the energy and power characteristics. Thicker films will allow higher capacity, but slower rate capabilities. Thinner films will allow more rapid charging, or higher power performance. In this innovation, uniform deposition of Si and C layers on high-surface area graphene produced granules with specific surface area (SSA) of 5 sq. m/g.

  1. Surface fluxes and vertical profiles in the radix layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Edi

    The bottom two kilometers of the earth's atmosphere, called the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), can be vigorously mixed by convective circulations when the underlying surface is warmer than the air. Mixing can be so complete that the mean wind speed, MUL , and potential temperature, MUL , in the interior of the ABL are uniform with height. Between this uniform layer (UL) and the surface is a region of order 100 m thick called the radix layer (RxL), named because it contains the roots of convective thermals. These thermals not only cause vertical heat and momentum fluxes near the surface, but they control the shape of wind and temperature profiles in the RxL and UL. A new field campaign called Boundary-Layer Experiment 1996 (BLX96) was conducted using an instrumented aircraft to study these convective processes. The BLX96 flight pattern was designed by first test ``flying'' a virtual aircraft through a synthetic ABL. Results from BLX96 suggest that convective transport theory should be modified to give the surface kinematic heat flux as w'q' s=CH*˙w* ˙Dq+w'q'o, where CH*, is an empirical coefficient, w* is the Deardorff velocity, Dq is the potential temperature difference between the UL and the surface skin, and w'q' o is a radiative or non-stationary flux contribution. A similar formula is found for friction velocity u* as a measure of momentum flux: u2 *=CD*˙w* ˙MUL , where CD* is shown to depend on surface aerodynamic roughness. These relationships are validated against published data from seven other field programs. In the RxL, the vertical profiles of wind and potential temperature are found to obey new similarity equations: M(z)/MUL=F(z*) , and [q(z)-qUL]/( qskin- qUL)=1- F(z* ) , where F(z*)=( zD*)A ˙[A˙(1-z D*)] in the RxL, and F = 1 in the UL. The dimensionless height is found to be z*≡(1/C) ˙(z/zi)˙( w*/u*)B , where physical height z must be measured above the canopy displacement distance, and zi, is ABL depth. RxL parameters A, B and C are found to be universal when validated against published data from two other field programs. Shape parameter D for wind profile is found to depend on the standard deviation of terrain elevation.

  2. Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface.

    PubMed

    Canlas, Christian P; Lu, Junling; Ray, Natalie A; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolas A; Lee, Sungsik; Elam, Jeffrey W; Winans, Randall E; Van Duyne, Richard P; Stair, Peter C; Notestein, Justin M

    2012-12-01

    New porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and mesostructured oxides are of immense practical utility for gas storage, separations and heterogeneous catalysis. Their extended pore structures enable selective uptake of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites contained within. However, diffusion within pores can be problematic for biomass and fine chemicals, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present a novel approach that adds reactant selectivity to existing, non-porous oxide catalysts by first grafting the catalyst particles with single-molecule sacrificial templates, then partially overcoating the catalyst with a second oxide through atomic layer deposition. This technique is used to create sieving layers of Al(2)O(3) (thickness, 0.4-0.7nm) with 'nanocavities' (<2nm in diameter) on a TiO(2) photocatalyst. The additional layers result in selectivity (up to 9:1) towards less hindered reactants in otherwise unselective, competitive photocatalytic oxidations and transfer hydrogenations. PMID:23174984

  3. Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canlas, Christian P.; Lu, Junling; Ray, Natalie A.; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolas A.; Lee, Sungsik; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Winans, Randall E.; van Duyne, Richard P.; Stair, Peter C.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2012-12-01

    New porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and mesostructured oxides are of immense practical utility for gas storage, separations and heterogeneous catalysis. Their extended pore structures enable selective uptake of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites contained within. However, diffusion within pores can be problematic for biomass and fine chemicals, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present a novel approach that adds reactant selectivity to existing, non-porous oxide catalysts by first grafting the catalyst particles with single-molecule sacrificial templates, then partially overcoating the catalyst with a second oxide through atomic layer deposition. This technique is used to create sieving layers of Al2O3 (thickness, 0.4-0.7 nm) with nanocavities (<2 nm in diameter) on a TiO2 photocatalyst. The additional layers result in selectivity (up to 9:1) towards less hindered reactants in otherwise unselective, competitive photocatalytic oxidations and transfer hydrogenations.

  4. Laser surface treatment of aluminum based composite mixed with B4C particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Karakoc, Halil; Abdul Aleem, B. J.; Khan, S.; Al-Aqeeli, N.

    2015-03-01

    Laser treatment of hot pressed mixture of aluminum (85 wt%) and B4C (15 wt%) is carried out. Metallurgical and morphological changes at the laser treated surface are examined using the analytical tools. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the workpiece surfaces are determined prior to and after the laser treatment process. Texture and hydrophobicity of the laser treated surface is assessed incorporating the atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. It is found that a dense layer consisting of fine grains of sub-micron sizes (0.8-0.4 ?m) and B4C particles is formed at the laser treated surface. Microhardness increases at the laser treated surface because of the presence of the dense layer and the formation of AlN compounds at the surface. Fracture toughness of the laser treated surface reduces slightly because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The textures of the laser treated surface compose of micro/nano poles, which result in higher contact angles than that of the untreated surface, and formation of AlN compound adds to the surface hydrophobicity enhancements.

  5. Tribology and Superhydrophobicity of Laser-Controlled-Melted Alumina Surfaces with Hard Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Bhushan, Bharat; Abdul Aleem, B. J.; Gaseem, Zuhair

    2014-06-01

    Laser-controlled melting of alumina surface with a carbon film of about 40- ?m thickness formed prior to the laser treatment process is carried out to improve its hardness, durability, and superhydrophocity. The carbon film consisted of a uniformly distributed mixture of hard particles of WC, SiC, and B4C. The presence of carbon film improves the absorption of the laser beam during the treatment process. The morphology and hydrophobicity of the laser-treated surface were evaluated using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and the contact angle measurement, respectively. The chemical changes of the treated layer were examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The structure of the nitride compound formed at the surface was characterized using x-ray diffraction, which was also used to determine the residual stress at the surface. Both microhardness and fracture toughness of the laser-treated surface were determined using indentation tests. Scratch tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficient and scratch resistance of the laser-treated surface. Laser treatment produces micropoles, nanopoles, and small size cavities at the surface, which enhance hydrophobicity of the surface. The microhardness of the laser-treated surface increases almost 50% because of the dense layer formed at the surface and the residual stress is in the order of -2 GPa, which is compressive. The scratch resistance and friction coefficient of the laser-treated surface is superior.

  6. Nano sized clay detected on chalk particle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skovbjerg, L. L.; Hassenkam, T.; Makovicky, E.; Hem, C. P.; Yang, M.; Bovet, N.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2012-12-01

    Chalk is a sedimentary rock consisting mostly of micrometer sized particles of biogenic calcite (CaCO3). It forms the reservoirs for oil in the Danish part of the North Sea and important drinking water aquifers in northern Europe. The interaction between organic molecules and the particle surfaces has a strong influence on the migration of oil in the reservoirs. Adhesion of oil components to chalk particle surfaces is thought to significantly reduce production and efforts are being made to determine the mechanisms behind enhanced/improved oil recovery (EOR/IOR) during water flooding. Aquifers beneath industrial areas can be heavily polluted with organic compounds and similar adsorption mechanisms could influence the geographical extent of the contaminant plume. Chalk, as a sedimentary rock, has been studied extensively for many years but the properties of the particle surfaces, where adsorption takes place, are largely unknown. In this study, we have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that the grain surfaces in offshore and onshore chalk are more heterogeneous than previously assumed. The particles are not simply calcite surfaces but are partially covered by clay that is only 1-4 nm thick. With chemical force mapping (CFM), we have probed the surface using a tip coated with organic molecules to represent a tiny, mono-functionalized oil droplet. The functional groups of the self assembled monolayer on the tip were either -CH3 or -COO-. From maps of adhesion, it is evident that in calcite saturated water, both the polar and the nonpolar functional groups adhere to the nano sized clay particles but not to calcite. This is fundamentally important information for the development of conceptual and chemical models to explain wettability alterations in chalk reservoirs.

  7. Turbulence effects on concentration statistics in the atmospheric surface layer

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, C.; Bowers, J.; Yee, E.; Klewicki, J.; Metzger, M.

    1996-12-31

    The dispersion of windborne material released near the earth`s surface is strongly influenced by this impenetrable boundary, which inhibits downward mixing and creates sharp vertical gradients in wind, temperature, turbulence. These strong gradients and the continuous creation of turbulence at the surface cause a rapid evolution of the vertical concentration structure for material released into the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). Recent developments in fast-response instrumentation and an increased realization of potential hazards from the release of common industrial chemicals into the ASL have led to a series of tripartite (US, UK, Canada) field experiments at the US Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This paper contains a preliminary analysis of the data from the most recent follow-on experiments, which included measurements of the vertical profiles of mean and peak concentrations.

  8. Nanoscale Structuring of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Controlled structuring of surfaces is interesting for a wide variety of areas, including microelectronic device fabrication, optical devices, bio(sensing), (electro-, photo)catalysis, batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and sorption. A unique feature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the possibility to form conformal uniform coatings on arbitrarily shaped materials with controlled atomic-scale thickness. In this Minireview, we discuss the potential of ALD for the nanoscale structuring of surfaces, highlighting its versatile application to structuring both planar substrates and powder materials. Recent progress in the application of ALD to porous substrates has even made the nanoscale structuring of high-surface-area materials now feasible, thereby enabling novel applications, such as those in the fields of catalysis and alternative energy. PMID:26538495

  9. Surface energy absorbing layers produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarie, V. N.; Orlov, A. V.; Williams, J. S.

    1997-05-01

    Single crystals of magnesia have been ion implanted with 80 keV Si - and Cr + ions at variable doses and then subjected to testing in a shock plasma. The peak surface temperature has been calibrated by measuring the size and temperature deformation of the fragments formed by multiple microcracking during thermal shock. The crack density curves for MgO crystals demonstrate that in a wide range of thermal shock intensity the ion implanted crystals develop a system of microcracks of a considerably higher density than the unimplanted ones. The high density of cracks nucleated in the ion implanted samples results in the formation of a surface energy absorbing layer which effectively absorbs elastic strain energy induced by thermal shock. As a consequence the depth of crack penetration in the layer and hence the degree of fracture damage are decreased. The results indicate that a Si implant decreases the temperature threshold of cracking and simultaneously increases the crack density in MgO crystals. However, in MgO crystals implanted with Cr a substantial increase in the crack density is achieved without a noticable decrease in the temperatutre threshold of fracture. This effect is interpreted in terms of different Cr and Si implantation conditions and damage. The mechanical properties of the energy-absorbing layer and the relation to implantation-induced lattice damage are discussed.

  10. Linear stability of a layered fluid with mobile surface plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffett, B. A.; Gable, C. W.; O'Connell, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a general method of calculating the linear stability of a fluid with homogeneous layers that is heated from below. The method employs a propagator technique to obtain expressions for the fluid velocity, stress, and temperature. The principal advantage of the method is the ease with which solutions are adapted to a wide variety of boundary conditions and fluid properties. We demonstrate the utility of the method using three examples which quantify the effects of (1) rheological layering, (2) mobile plates at the surface, and (3) multiple phase transitions. Each example is presented in the context of Earth's mantle. In the first example, we predict that convection becomes confined to the upper mantle once the viscosity increase between the upper and lower mantle exceeds a factor of 2000, consistent with the nonlinear calculations of Davies (1977). In the second example we find that the heat flux variations in a convecting fluid with variably sized, surface plates can be attributed, in part, to changes in the critical Rayleigh number. The linear stability of a fluid with multiple phase transitions is significantly affects by the locations of the transitions. We find that phase transitions have their largest effect when they are located at the center of the fluid layer and become much less important when they are located near the exterior boundaries.

  11. Spatially selective surface platforms for binding fibrinogen prepared by particle lithography with organosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Englade-Franklin, Lauren E.; Saner, ChaMarra K.; Garno, Jayne C.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an approach based on particle lithography to prepare spatially selective surface platforms of organosilanes that are suitable for nanoscale studies of protein binding. Particle lithography was applied for patterning fibrinogen, a plasma protein that has a major role in the clotting cascade for blood coagulation and wound healing. Surface nanopatterns of mercaptosilanes were designed as sites for the attachment of fibrinogen within a protein-resistant matrix of 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl] trichlorosilane (PEG-silane). Preparing site-selective surfaces was problematic in our studies, because of the self-reactive properties of PEG-organosilanes. Certain organosilanes presenting hydroxyl head groups will cross react to form mixed surface multi-layers. We developed a clever strategy with particle lithography using masks of silica mesospheres to protect small, discrete regions of the surface from cross reactions. Images acquired with atomic force microscopy (AFM) disclose that fibrinogen attached primarily to the surface areas presenting thiol head groups, which were surrounded by PEG-silane. The activity for binding anti-fibrinogen was further evaluated using ex situ AFM studies, confirming that after immobilization the fibrinogen nanopatterns retained capacity for binding immunoglobulin G. Studies with AFM provide advantages of achieving nanoscale resolution for detecting surface changes during steps of biochemical surface reactions, without requiring chemical modification of proteins or fluorescent labels. PMID:24427541

  12. Multi-layer topological transmissions of spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bai Cao; Zhao, Jie; Liao, Zhen; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in microwave frequency provide a high field confinement in subwavelength scale and low-loss and flexible transmissions, which have been widely used in novel transmission waveguides and functional devices. To play more important roles in modern integrated circuits and systems, it is necessary and helpful for the SPP modes to propagate among different layers of devices and chips. Owing to the highly confined property and organized near-field distribution, we show that the spoof SPPs could be easily transmitted from one layer into another layer via metallic holes and arc-shaped transitions. Such designs are suitable for both the ultrathin and flexible single-strip SPP waveguide and double-strip SPP waveguide for active SPP devices. Numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the broadband and high-efficiency multi-layer topological transmissions with controllable absorption that is related to the superposition area of corrugated metallic strips. The transmission coefficient of single-strip SPP waveguide is no worse than −0.8 dB within frequency band from 2.67 GHz to 10.2 GHz while the transmission of double-strip SPP waveguide keeps above −1 dB within frequency band from 2.26 GHz to 11.8 GHz. The proposed method will enhance the realizations of highly complicated plasmonic integrated circuits. PMID:26939995

  13. Multi-layer topological transmissions of spoof surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bai Cao; Zhao, Jie; Liao, Zhen; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in microwave frequency provide a high field confinement in subwavelength scale and low-loss and flexible transmissions, which have been widely used in novel transmission waveguides and functional devices. To play more important roles in modern integrated circuits and systems, it is necessary and helpful for the SPP modes to propagate among different layers of devices and chips. Owing to the highly confined property and organized near-field distribution, we show that the spoof SPPs could be easily transmitted from one layer into another layer via metallic holes and arc-shaped transitions. Such designs are suitable for both the ultrathin and flexible single-strip SPP waveguide and double-strip SPP waveguide for active SPP devices. Numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the broadband and high-efficiency multi-layer topological transmissions with controllable absorption that is related to the superposition area of corrugated metallic strips. The transmission coefficient of single-strip SPP waveguide is no worse than -0.8 dB within frequency band from 2.67 GHz to 10.2 GHz while the transmission of double-strip SPP waveguide keeps above -1 dB within frequency band from 2.26 GHz to 11.8 GHz. The proposed method will enhance the realizations of highly complicated plasmonic integrated circuits. PMID:26939995

  14. Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovcharenko, Andrey; Bondarenko, Sergey; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Scotto, Cathy; Merritt, Charles; Hart, Matthew; Eversole, Jay; Videen, Gorden

    2006-10-01

    We present the backscattering of particulate surfaces consisting of dry biological particles using two laboratory photopolarimeters that measure intensity and degree of linear polarization in a phase-angle range 0.2 60. We measure scattering properties from three samples composed of dry biological particles, Bacillus subtilis var. niger (BG) spores and samples of fungi Aspergillus terreus and Sporisorium cruentum spores. We find that the surfaces display a prominent brightness opposition effect and significant negative polarization near backscattering angles. The brightness and polarimetric phase curves are different for B. subtilis and the fungi.

  15. Self-assembly and manipulation of particles on drop surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, M.; Fischer, I. S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    We have recently shown that particles adsorbed on the surface of a drop can be self-assembled at the poles or the equator of the drop by applying a uniform electric field, and that this method can be used to separate on the surface of a drop particles experiencing positive dielectrophoresis from those experiencing negative dielectrophoresis. In this talk we show that the frequency of the electric field is an important parameter which can be used to modify the distribution of self-assembled monolayers.

  16. Monolayers of charged particles in a Langmuir trough: Could particle aggregation increase the surface pressure?

    PubMed

    Petkov, Plamen V; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A

    2016-01-15

    The effect of aggregation on the surface pressure, Π, of monolayers from charged micrometer-sized colloidal particles on the air/water interface is investigated. Π is completely due to the long-range electrostatic repulsion between the particles mediated by their electrostatic field in the air. The most probable origin of particle aggregation is the attraction between capillary quadrupoles due to undulated contact lines on particle surfaces. Aggregates have higher charge and repel each other stronger than single particles. The data analysis by means of a theoretical model implies that Π linearly increases with n(1/2); n is the mean aggregation number, which can be determined from the experimental Π vs. area curves. The presence of electrolyte promotes aggregation, which tends to increase Π, but simultaneously reduces the surface charge that leads to lower Π. For our system, the first effect prevails and apparently paradoxical behavior is observed: the addition of salt in water enhances the electrostatic surface pressure. The data indicate limited aggregation: the rise of the electrostatic barrier prevents the further coalescence of aggregates if they have become sufficiently large. The results contribute for a better understanding of the factors that control the interactions in monolayers of charged particles at liquid interfaces. PMID:26454382

  17. The Zeta Potential of Surface-Functionalized Metallic Nanorod Particles in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, G M; Rose, K A; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Chuang, F S; Sha, M Y; Chakarova, G; Penn, S G

    2007-05-07

    Metallic nanoparticles suspended in aqueous solutions, and functionalized with chemical and biological surface coatings, are important elements in basic and applied nanoscience research. Many applications require an understanding of the electrokinetic or colloidal properties of such particles. In this paper we describe the results of experiments to measure the zeta potential of metallic nanorod particles in aqueous saline solutions, including the effects of pH, ionic strength, metallic composition, and surface functionalization state. Particle substrates tested include gold, silver, and palladium monometallic particles as well as gold/silver bimetallic particles. Surface functionalization conditions included 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), mercaptoethanol (ME), and mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), as well as MUA layers subsequently derivatized with proteins. Zeta potential data for typical charge-stabilized polystyrene particles are also presented for comparison. Experimental data are compared with theory. The results of these studies are useful in predicting and controlling the aggregation, adhesion, and transport of functionalized metallic nanoparticles within microfluidic devices and other systems.

  18. Soil moisture sensor calibration for organic soil surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, S.; Andreasen, M.; Vuollet, J.; Vehviläinen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Jonard, F.; Weihermüller, L.; Zakharova, E.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper's objective is to present generic calibration functions for organic surface layers derived for the soil moisture sensors Decagon ECH2O 5TE and Delta-T ThetaProbe ML2x, using material from northern regions, mainly from the Finish Meteorological Institute's Arctic Research Center in Sodankylä and the study area of the Danish Center for Hydrology HOBE. For the Decagon 5TE sensor such a function is currently not reported in literature. Data were compared with measurements from underlying mineral soils including laboratory and field measurements. Shrinkage and charring during drying were considered. For both sensors all field and lab data showed consistent trends. For mineral layers with low soil organic matter (SOM) content the validity of the manufacturer's calibrations was demonstrated. Deviating sensor outputs in organic and mineral horizons were identified: for the Decagon 5TE apparent relative permittivities at a given moisture content decreased for increased SOM content, which was attributed to an increase of bound water in organic materials with large surface areas compared to the studied mineral soils. ThetaProbe measurements from organic horizons showed stronger non-linearity in the sensor response and signal saturation in the high level data. The derived calibration fit functions between sensor response and volumetric water content hold for samples spanning a wide range of humus types with differing SOM characteristics. This strengthens confidence in their validity under various conditions, rendering them highly suitable for large-scale applications in remote sensing and land surface modeling studies. Agreement between independent Decagon 5TE and ThetaProbe time series from an organic surface layer at the Sodankylä site was significantly improved when the here proposed fit functions were used. Decagon 5TE data also well-reflected precipitation events. Thus, Decagon 5TE network data from organic surface layers at the Sodankylä and HOBE sites are based on the here proposed natural log fit. The newly derived ThetaProbe fit functions should be used for hand-held applications only, but in that case proof of value for the acquisition of instantaneous large-scale soil moisture estimates.

  19. Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.

  20. Controlled formation of surface hydrophilicity enhanced chitosan film by layer-by-layer electro-assembly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Liu, Kuo; Ye, Jia-Ru; Shen, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Several surface hydrophilicity enhanced chitosan, CS, films were controllably formed by using the layer-by-layer electro-assembly, LBLEA, method with varied voltages. Experimentally, an employed electrostatic generator was employed by taking its anode and cathode electrodes alternatively linking to the CS solution or silicon plate to form two opposite cycles corresponding to the electrostatic force, EF, enhancement or reduction, respectively. Wetting results showed that the water contact angle, θW, on those CS film surfaces was gradually reduced with the applied voltage increase, especially by EF reduction, e.g. the θW on 0V sample at about 55° and on 4kV EF-reduction formed sample at about 20°. AFM images comparison showed that the LBLEA process can control the surface structure for CS film. ATR-FTIR spectra comparison showed that the EF reduction process would reveal the C-O groups on CS film surface to enhance the hydrophilicity. PMID:26249622

  1. The effect of polyaniline layer deposited on silica particles on electrorheological and dielectric properties of their silicone oil suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlnek, Vladimr; Sha, Petr; Kitano, Takeshi; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Quadrat, Otakar

    2005-08-01

    Investigation of the electrorheological (ER) effect of silicone-oil suspensions of silica particles coated with polyaniline (PANI) base in a DC electric field revealed that breaking stress, as a criterion of the intensity of the ER phenomenon, steeply increased at first with coating thickness. At relatively low PANI content (weight fraction ?0.05), it reached a value several times higher than that with suspension of uncoated silica. Then it became virtually constant or slightly increased. The frequency spectra of dielectric characteristics of these systems reflect high relaxation times. The results suggest that the interfacial polarization of particles is predominantly controlled by polarizability of their surface layer, and the influence of the layer thickness is of secondary importance.

  2. Copolyimide Surface Modifying Agents for Particle Adhesion Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Marine biofouling, insect adhesion on aircraft surfaces, microbial contamination of sterile environments, and particle contamination all present unique challenges for which researchers have adopted an array of mitigation strategies. Particulate contamination is of interest to NASA regarding exploration of the Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.1 Lunar dust compromised seals, clogged filters, abraded visors and space suit surfaces, and was a significant health concern during the Apollo missions.2 Consequently, NASA has instituted a multi-faceted approach to address dust including use of sacrificial surfaces, active mitigation requiring the use of an external energy source, and passive mitigation utilizing materials with an intrinsic resistance to surface contamination. One passive mitigation strategy is modification of a material s surface energy either chemically or topographically. The focus of this paper is the synthesis and evaluation of novel copolyimide materials with surface modifying agents (SMA, oxetanes) enabling controlled variation of surface chemical composition.

  3. Fabrication and application of responsive polymer surfaces on planar substrates and colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupitskyy, Robert

    2009-11-01

    In the present dissertation, the problem of controlling interactions of material surfaces with the environment was addressed. Using chemical modification of surfaces with responsive polymers, it is possible to use external stimuli to regulate surface wettability, protein adsorption, stability, and interfacial properties of colloidal particles. The research work presented in this dissertation consists of four independent parts. In the first part (Chapter II), the responsive behavior of a novel heteroarm star-copolymer, poly(2-vinylpyridine)-star-poly(styrene) (PS7-P2VP7), was investigated. For grafted layers of PS7-P2VP7,surface composition, morphology, and wettability can be reversibly changed by treatment with solvents of different thermodynamic quality. Grafted layers of the star-copolymer exhibit a pronounced solvent-dependent phase segregation characteristic and behave similarly to mixed polymer brushes with incompatible components. In the second part (Chapter III), the regulation of fibrinogen adsorption by changing surface composition and microstructure of a mixed polymer brush was explored. The brush is a combination of a protein-repelling component, poly(ethylene glycol), and a protein-attracting component, poly(acrylic acid)-b-polystyrene. Treatment with different organic solvents changes the degree of adsorption of a test protein, fibrinogen, whereas treatment with calcium chloride solution results in virtually no protein adsorption at all. Studies of brush morphology and brush extension in aqueous medium revealed that treatment with different solvents results in different size and distribution of polystyrene domains, which in turn affects the adsorption of fibrinogen. In the third part (Chapter IV), a responsive colloidal system was developed by grafting poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer onto the surface of 200 nm silica particles. This type of grafted polymer layer is both pH- and solvent-sensitive. These properties could be used for reversible formation of particle aggregates, for regulation of particles transport across the interface between immiscible liquids, and for stabilization of oil-water emulsions. In the last part (Chapter V), composite particles for optical indication of pH changes, based on the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles, were developed. Poly(2-vinylpyridine) grafted to the surface of silica particles was used as a host for 12 nm gold nanoparticles. Conformational transitions of the P2VP molecules, induced by pH changes, were transformed into a detectible optical signal by the gold nanoparticles.

  4. Tunable surface free energies of functionalized molecular layers on Si surfaces for microfluidic immunosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepyala, Ramchander; Panda, Siddhartha

    2013-04-01

    Enhanced antigen-antibody interactions in microfluidic immunosensors can be effected by tailoring the surface free energies of the antibody immobilized surfaces to obtain the appropriate fluid-wall interactions. We report a systematic study to evaluate the surface free energies from contact angle measurements, using the LWAB method, of different antibody (anti-BSA, anti-PSA, and anti-CRP) surfaces, each immobilized separately on to non- and nanotextured Si surfaces via a stack of functionalized layers including aminosilanes of which three different types were used. The apolar surface free energy components were independent of the physical modification in the non-functionalized and the intermediate hydrolyzed surfaces where as they depended on the nature of the surface and the chemical modifications in the subsequent functionalized stages. Surface free energies of the different antibodies immobilized with the shorter chain length aminosilane (APTES) on non- and nanotextured surfaces were in the order of anti-BSA < anti-PSA < anti-CRP. A tunability of the surface free energy up to 9.6 mJ/m2 was achieved which is reasonably significant when compared to the surface free energy window (??s = 40 mJ/m2) of biofunctionalized surfaces. This fundamental understanding of the surface energetics of the biofunctionalized surfaces can be utilized in modulating the surface properties to design efficient immunosensors.

  5. Seaglider observations of surface mixed layer physics and biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen; Thompson, Andrew; Henson, Stephanie; Rumyantseva, Anya

    2013-04-01

    The Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Sub-mesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) aims to develop new, physically-based parameterisations of processes that deepen and shoal the ocean surface boundary layer. As part of this project, 2 Seagliders were deployed in September 2012 at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site in the North Atlantic, to measure the structure and evolution of the ocean surface boundary layer over the seasonal cycle. The gliders measured temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, dive-averaged currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence and PAR. We present results from the first 6 months of the Seaglider deployments, examining particular case studies of deepening/shoaling events and their impact on the biogeochemistry. Shoaling events appear to be more abrupt than deepening events. We also discuss the water masses found in the area, in particular, the occurrences of Mediterranean Water observed at a depth of approximately 800 m. As a contribution to the GROOM project, we assess the advantages and challenges of maintaining a continuous glider-based multidisciplinary observing system at the PAP site, with 2 gliders being turned around approximately every 4 months.

  6. High temperature steam oxidation of SiC coating layer of TRISO fuel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Silva, Chinthaka M.

    2015-05-01

    High-temperature oxidation behavior of SiC coating layer of TRISO fuel particles in 1500-1700 C steam at 1 atm has been examined inside a zirconia furnace. The SiC coating layers experienced a thickness loss of less than 2.5 ?m under these conditions up to 24 h. The thickness of the oxide layer formed under these conditions was consistent with prior steam oxidation tests on high-purity bulk SiC. Upon reducing the presence volatile impurities from the test environment (particularly Al) by conducting the tests inside a zirconia furnace, melting of the silica layer at 1700 C was avoided.

  7. Nature of the Martian surface as inferred from the particle-size distribution of lunar-surface material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of lunar particle size distribution data indicates that the surface material is composed of two populations. One population is caused by comminution from the impact of the larger-sized meteorites, while the other population is caused by the melting of fine material by the impact of smaller-sized meteorites. The results are referred to Mars, and it is shown that the Martian atmosphere would vaporize the smaller incoming meteorites and retard the incoming meteorites of intermediate and large size, causing comminution and stirring of the particulate layer. The combination of comminution and stirring would result in fine material being sorted out by the prevailing circulation of the Martian atmosphere and the material being transported to regions where it could be deposited. As a result, the Martian surface in regions of prevailing upward circulation is probably covered by either a rubble layer or by desert pavement; regions of prevailing downward circulation are probably covered by sand dunes.

  8. Detecting surface roughness effects on the atmospheric boundary layer via AIRSAR data: A field experiment in Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The part of the troposphere influenced by the surface of the earth is termed the atmospheric boundary layer. Flow within this layer is influenced by the roughness of the surface; rougher surfaces induce more turbulence than smoother surfaces and, hence, higher atmospheric transfer rates across the surface. Roughness elements also shield erodible particles, thus decreasing the transport of windblown particles. Therefore, the aerodynamic roughness length (z(sub 0)) is an important parameter in aeolian and atmospheric boundary layer processes as it describes the aerodynamic properties of the underlying surface. z(sub 0) is assumed to be independent of wind velocity or height, and dependent only on the surface topography. It is determined using in situ measurements of the wind speed distribution as a function of height. For dry, unvegetated soils the intensity of the radar backscatter (sigma(sup 0)) is affected primarily by surface roughness at a scale comparable with the radar wavelength. Thus, both wind and radar respond to surface roughness variations on a scale of a few meters or less. Greeley showed the existence of a correlation between z(sub 0) and sigma(sup 0). This correlation was based on measurements over lava flows, alluvial fans, and playas in the southwest deserts of the United States. It is shown that the two parameters behave similarly also when there are small changes over a relatively homogeneous surface.

  9. Atomic-layer electroless deposition: a scalable approach to surface-modified metal powders.

    PubMed

    Cappillino, Patrick J; Sugar, Joshua D; El Gabaly, Farid; Cai, Trevor Y; Liu, Zhi; Stickney, John L; Robinson, David B

    2014-04-29

    Palladium has a number of important applications in energy and catalysis in which there is evidence that surface modification leads to enhanced properties. A strategy for preparing such materials is needed that combines the properties of (i) scalability (especially on high-surface-area substrates, e.g. powders); (ii) uniform deposition, even on substrates with complex, three-dimensional features; and (iii) low-temperature processing conditions that preserve nanopores and other nanostructures. Presented herein is a method that exhibits these properties and makes use of benign reagents without the use of specialized equipment. By exposing Pd powder to dilute hydrogen in nitrogen gas, sacrificial surface PdH is formed along with a controlled amount of dilute interstitial hydride. The lattice expansion that occurs in Pd under higher H2 partial pressures is avoided. Once the flow of reagent gas is terminated, addition of metal salts facilitates controlled, electroless deposition of an overlayer of subnanometer thickness. This process can be cycled to create thicker layers. The approach is carried out under ambient processing conditions, which is an advantage over some forms of atomic layer deposition. The hydride-mediated reaction is electroless in that it has no need for connection to an external source of electrical current and is thus amenable to deposition on high-surface-area substrates having rich, nanoscale topography as well as on insulator-supported catalyst particles. STEM-EDS measurements show that conformal Rh and Pt surface layers can be formed on Pd powder with this method. A growth model based on energy-resolved XPS depth profiling of Rh-modified Pd powder is in general agreement. After two cycles, deposits are consistent with 70-80% coverage and a surface layer with a thickness from 4 to 8 Å. PMID:24738575

  10. Particles induce apical plasma membrane enlargement in epithelial lung cell line depending on particle surface area dose

    PubMed Central

    Brandenberger, Christina; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Blank, Fabian; Gehr, Peter; Mhlfeld, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background Airborne particles entering the respiratory tract may interact with the apical plasma membrane (APM) of epithelial cells and enter them. Differences in the entering mechanisms of fine (between 0.1 ?m and 2.5 ?m) and ultrafine ( ? 0.1 ?m) particles may be associated with different effects on the APM. Therefore, we studied particle-induced changes in APM surface area in relation to applied and intracellular particle size, surface and number. Methods Human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549 cell line) were incubated with various concentrations of different sized fluorescent polystyrene spheres without surface charge (? fine 1.062 ?m, ultrafine 0.041 ?m) by submersed exposure for 24 h. APM surface area of A549 cells was estimated by design-based stereology and transmission electron microscopy. Intracellular particles were visualized and quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results Particle exposure induced an increase in APM surface area compared to negative control (p < 0.01) at the same surface area concentration of fine and ultrafine particles a finding not observed at low particle concentrations. Ultrafine particle entering was less pronounced than fine particle entering into epithelial cells, however, at the same particle surface area dose, the number of intracellular ultrafine particles was higher than that of fine particles. The number of intracellular particles showed a stronger increase for fine than for ultrafine particles at rising particle concentrations. Conclusion This study demonstrates a particle-induced enlargement of the APM surface area of a pulmonary epithelial cell line, depending on particle surface area dose. Particle uptake by epithelial cells does not seem to be responsible for this effect. We propose that direct interactions between particle surface area and cell membrane cause the enlargement of the APM. PMID:19284624

  11. Surface impacts and collisions of particle-laden nanodrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplik, Joel

    2015-08-01

    The surface impact and collisions of particle-laden nanodrops are studied using molecular dynamics computer simulations. The drops are composed of Lennard-Jones dimers and the particles are rigid spherical sections of a cubic lattice, with radii about 11 nm and 0.6 nm, respectively. Uniform suspensions of 21% and 42% particle concentrations and particle-coated drops are studied, and their behavior is compared to that of pure fluid drops of the same size. The relative velocities studied span the transition to splashing, and both wetting/miscible and non-wetting/immiscible cases are considered. Impacts normal to the surface and head-on collisions are studied and compared. In surface impact, the behavior of low-density suspensions and liquid marble drops is qualitatively similar to that of pure liquid, while the concentrated drops are solid-like on impact. Collisions produce a splash only at velocities significantly higher than in impact, but the resulting drop morphology shows a similar dependence on solid concentration as in impact. In all cases, the collision or impact produces a strong local enhancement in the kinetic energy density and temperature but not in the particle or potential energy densities. Mixing of the two colliding species is not enhanced by collisions, unless the velocity is so high as to cause drop disintegration.

  12. Layer-like Structure of Radio-Frequency Discharge with Dust Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, O. Y.; Vakulenko, A. V.; Lisitchenko, T. Y.; Levada, G. I.

    2008-09-07

    In this paper we are carried out the computer simulation of the dust particles dynamics in the radio frequency discharges at the microgravity conditions using PIC/MCC method for electrons and ions and hydrodynamics model for dust particles. The moving of dust particles is governed by the electrostatic force, ion and neutral drag forces, which are averaged over period of RF discharge. The obtained results show that dust particles form layers with sharp boundaries in the discharge chamber that is response on the instability of the radio-frequency discharge.

  13. Theory and particle simulation of nonlinear double layers in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seung-Shik; Kim, Tae-Han; Kim, Ho-Yeun

    2007-05-15

    Theoretical investigation and particle simulation of obliquely propagating nonlinear double layers (NDLs) of nonmonotonic type are performed in a magnetized plasma, which consists of a positively charged ion fluid and trapped, as well as free electrons. The modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived by the usual reductive perturbation technique in a three-dimensional system. A nonlinear double layer solution is presented. Furthermore using Sagdeev's pseudopotential technique, nonlinear double layer solution, which is associated with a set of nonlinear eigenvalue conditions, is also presented. These solutions are the analytic extensions of the monotonic double layers and solitary holes. The effects of physical parameters of nonlinear double layers are discussed. In particle simulations of a current driven system, physical relations among the obliqueness, the propagating velocity, the inverse scale length, and the maximum potential are investigated. The maximum potential and the width of the NDL decreases as the degree of the angle increases. In a chosen field, a decrease of potential width (or maximum potential) is clearly shown in the case of less than 10 deg. Variation of propagating velocity is clearly shown in the range of 10 deg. -16 deg. Particle simulations are performed with an axially bounded electrostatic particle-in-cell code XPDP1, which is a workstation version of a one-dimensional bounded plasma code PDW1 [J. Comput. Phys. 80, 253 (1989)]. These particle simulation results are in good agreement with the qualitative theoretical results.

  14. Gust structure in the neutral surface boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Powell, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Measured characteristics of gust amplitudes and times in the neutral surface boundary layer are presented. The probability of gust amplitudes exceeding a prescribed level is shown to decrease exponentially with amplitude, provided the amplitude is scaled with the root-mean-square turbulent speed. The 25 and 75 percentile conditional probabilities of gust duration obey power laws in the scaled amplitudes if the durations are normalized by N/sub 0/, the frequency of occurance of all gusts. These relationships are nearly independent of mean wind speed and measurement height. The effects of digital filtering of the data also are discussed.

  15. Affinity of red blood cell membrane for particle surfaces measured by the extent of particle encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Evans, E; Buxbaum, K

    1981-04-01

    An experimental technique and a simple analysis are presented that can be used to quantitate the affinity of red blood cell membrane for surfaces of small beads or microsomal particles up to 3 micrometers Diam. The technique is demonstrated with an example of dextran-mediated adhesion of small spherical red cell fragments to normal red blood cells. Cells and particles are positioned for contact by manipulation with glass micropipets. The mechanical equilibrium of the adhesive contact is represented by the variational expression that the decrease in interfacial free energy due to a virtual increase in contact area is balanced by the increase in elastic energy of the membrane due to virtual deformation. The surface affinity is the reduction in free energy per unit area of the interface associated with the formation of adhesive contact. From numerical computations of equilibrium configurations, the surface affinity is derived as a function of the fractional extent of particle encapsulation. The range of surface affinities for which the results are applicable is increased over previous techniques to several times the value of the elastic shear modulus. It is shown that bending rigidity of the membrane has little effect on the analytical results for particles 1--3 micrometers Diam and that results are essentially the same for both cup- and disk-shaped red cells. A simple analytical model is shown to give a good approximation for surface affinity (normalized by the elastic shear modulus) as a function of the fractional extent of particle encapsulation. The model predicts that a particle would be almost completely vacuolized for surface affinities greater than or equal to 10 times the elastic shear modulus. Based on an elastic shear modulus of 6.6 x 10(-3) dyn/cm, the range for the red cell-particle surface affinity as measured by this technique is from approximately 7 x 10(-4) to 7 x 10(-2) erg/cm2. Also, an approximate relation is derived for the level of surface affinity necessary to produce particle vacuolization by a phospholipid bilayer surface which possesses bending rigidity and a fixed tension. PMID:7213927

  16. Low energy charged particles interacting with amorphous solid water layers

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Asscher, Micha

    2012-04-07

    The interaction of charged particles with condensed water films has been studied extensively in recent years due to its importance in biological systems, ecology as well as interstellar processes. We have studied low energy electrons (3-25 eV) and positive argon ions (55 eV) charging effects on amorphous solid water (ASW) and ice films, 120-1080 ML thick, deposited on ruthenium single crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Charging the ASW films by both electrons and positive argon ions has been measured using a Kelvin probe for contact potential difference (CPD) detection and found to obey plate capacitor physics. The incoming electrons kinetic energy has defined the maximum measurable CPD values by retarding further impinging electrons. L-defects (shallow traps) are suggested to be populated by the penetrating electrons and stabilize them. Low energy electron transmission measurements (currents of 0.4-1.5 {mu}A) have shown that the maximal and stable CPD values were obtained only after a relatively slow change has been completed within the ASW structure. Once the film has been stabilized, the spontaneous discharge was measured over a period of several hours at 103 {+-} 2 K. Finally, UV laser photo-emission study of the charged films has suggested that the negative charges tend to reside primarily at the ASW-vacuum interface, in good agreement with the known behavior of charged water clusters.

  17. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This is the third semi-annual, technical progress report for this project. The following items are covered in the report: (1) Progress on the development of an instrument to perform ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, UPS, on surfaces in air. (2) Further development plans for the video particle image analyzer. (3) Calculations on the effect of space charge on the electric field inside a separator. (4) Outreach education involving two Arkansas high school students in the project. (5) Additional data on the effects of processing atmosphere on beneficiation. Included in the last section is a description of planned experiments using charged, fluorescent, polystyrene micro-particles to map the charge distribution on the larger coal particles and on polished coal surfaces.

  18. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:26572322

  19. Physico-chemical characterisation of surface modified particles for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Stank, Katharina; Steckel, Hartwig

    2013-05-01

    Surface modification of drugs for inhalation is a possibility to influence interparticulate forces. This can be necessary to achieve a sufficient aerosolisation during powder inhalation as the cohesiveness of the micronised drug can be reduced. In addition, the interaction with propellants in pressurised metered dose inhaler can be changed. This can be used to improve the physical stability of the suspension based formulations. A dry particle coating process was used for the alteration of particle surfaces. The blending of micronised salbutamol sulphate (SBS) with different concentrations of magnesium stearate (Mgst) or glycerol monostearate (GMS) was followed by co-milling with an air jet mill. The powder properties were characterised by SEM, EDX, laser diffraction, BET and inverse gas chromatography. Physical mixtures generated by Turbula blending were compared to co-milled samples. A slight particle size reduction was determined. The Mgst deposition on SBS particles was detected by EDX measurements. The dispersive surface energy of SBS is lowered and the energy distribution is more homogenous for the co-milled samples. This study proves the application of co-milling for surface modification in the inhalation area. PMID:23518364

  20. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Mazumder; D.A. Lindquist; K.B. Tennal

    1999-04-01

    We have developed a video image analyzer for measuring the size and charge of airborne particles. Particles are illuminated by laser light and subjected to a sinusoidal electric field while images of the trajectories of the particles are captured using a video camera and a frame grabber. Analysis of the particle tracks allows the size and charge of the particles to be determined. The instrument can be used to measure size and charge spectra of charged coal and mineral particles in real time. Appendix I shows size and charge distributions of coal and flyash particles measured with the image analyzer. A second instrument, an Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectrometer (UPS) for measuring effective work functions of insulator and semiconductor surfaces in air is under development. Work function data for individual macerals and minerals in a coal matrix will be related to triboelectric charging properties. In this instrumental method, originally developed by Kirhata, the surface of a test sample is bombarded by monochromatic ultraviolet light of known wavelength. At atmospheric pressure, the photo-ejected electrons attach to air molecules forming negative ions. The ions are attracted by an applied electric field into a detector where they are accelerated to sufficient energy that they cause momentary dielectric breakdown or discharge in the air inside the detector. The rate at which these discharges occur is proportional to the rate at which photoelectrons are generated at the sample surface. From a plot of the discharge rate as a function of photon energy the minimum energy needed to remove an electron can be determined. The mechanical components of our instrument have been completed. A number of electronic circuit difficulties remain to be solved. The counting circuits are able to produce a count rate proportional to the ion concentration generated using a corona gun. However, when the high voltage accelerating potential is applied the circuit oscillates preventing proper operation. Our current focus on this instrument is to attain stability of operation.

  1. Lofting of Triboelectrostatically Charged Particles From the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S.; Marshall, J.; Richard, D.; Laub, J.

    2008-12-01

    Tribocharging of lunar regolith can occur by micrometeorite gardening and by anthropogenic interaction with the lunar surface. The tribocharged material may then be lofted into the exosphere by near-surface electrical fields created by solar wind and radiation effects. On the basis of a simple charge-to-mass ratio, the finest dust should be the most readily lofted. However, this model assumes that all particles in the affected material become charged, and that charging is a homogeneous process. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that it is not simply the smallest particles that are subject to lofting. In an analog Debye-sheath electrical field between capacitor plates, tribocharged (vibrated) lunar simulant materials released both dust and silt/sand size materials into the electrical field. This observation was made with scanning electron microscopy of particle traps within the electrical field. The lab experiments also demonstrated an extreme inhomogeneity of tribocharging in the test samples. Ostensibly, the tribocharging vibrational energy was uniform throughout the sample, but observations of surface 'bursting', ' ballistic fountaining', and other phenomena indicated localized (millimeter-scale) electrical inhomogeneity. Theoretical modeling of tribocharging also suggests that there may be an optimum size fraction for charging. The coarsest particles undergo the greatest number of contact electrification events, but are too massive to be lifted. The finest particles are hidden or shielded from tribocharging by adhering to larger host grains in mechanical recesses. Medium-size particles receive moderate charging and are light enough to be lifted in the electrical fields; particles of several tens of microns may be optimally sized for lofting.

  2. Aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion of semiconductor nanoplates into single-crystalline 2D nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and ionic surface capping.

    PubMed

    Ji, Muwei; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-02-16

    A controllable aqueous oxidation reaction enabled layer-by-layer corrosion has been proposed to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor nanocrystals with single layer accuracy and well-retained hexagonal shapes. The appropriate oxidizing agent, such as H2O2, Fe(NO3)3, and HNO3, could not only corrode the layered-crystalline-structured Bi2Te3 nanoplates layer-by-layer to be a single quintuple layer, but also replace the organic barriers to be ionic ligands on the surface synergistically. AFM analysis was used to confirm the layer-by-layer exfoliation from the side to the center. Together with precise XRD, LRTEM and HRTEM characterizations, the controllable oxidation reaction enabled aqueous layer-by-layer corrosion mechanism has been studied. PMID:26832626

  3. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, H.; Bethge, K.; Bilger, G.; Jones, D.; Symietz, I.

    2002-11-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (?,?) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction 1H( 15N,??) 12C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of marrow bone cells on the implanted sample surface with that of titanium.

  4. A theory and a simulation capability for the growth of a solid electrolyte interphase layer at an anode particle in a Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejovitzky, Elisha; Di Leo, Claudio V.; Anand, Lallit

    2015-05-01

    A major mechanism for electrochemical aging of Li-ion batteries is the growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the surface of anode particles, which leads to capacity fade and also results in a rise in cell resistance. We have formulated a continuum theory for the growth of an SEI layer-a theory which accounts for the generation of the attendant growth stresses. The theory has been numerically implemented in a finite-element program. This simulation capability for SEI growth is coupled with our previously published chemo-mechanical simulation capability for intercalation of Li-ions in electrode particles. Using this new combined capability we have simulated the formation and growth of an SEI layer during cyclic lithiation and delithiation of an anode particle, and predicted the evolution of the growth stresses in the SEI layer. The evolution of the stress state within the SEI layer and at the SEI/anode-particle interface for spherical- and spheroidal-shaped graphite particles is studied. This knowledge of the local interfacial stresses provides a good estimate for the propensity of potential delamination of an SEI layer from an anode particle.

  5. Thermophoretic motion behavior of submicron particles in boundary-layer-separation flow around a droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Song, Qiang; Ji, Bingqiang; Yao, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    As a key mechanism of submicron particle capture in wet deposition and wet scrubbing processes, thermophoresis is influenced by the flow and temperature fields. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the characteristics of the flow and temperature fields around a droplet at three droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) that correspond to three typical boundary-layer-separation flows (steady axisymmetric, steady plane-symmetric, and unsteady plane-symmetric flows). The thermophoretic motion of submicron particles was simulated in these cases. Numerical results show that the motion of submicron particles around the droplet and the deposition distribution exhibit different characteristics under three typical flow forms. The motion patterns of particles are dependent on their initial positions in the upstream and flow forms. The patterns of particle motion and deposition are diversified as Re increases. The particle motion pattern, initial position of captured particles, and capture efficiency change periodically, especially during periodic vortex shedding. The key effects of flow forms on particle motion are the shape and stability of the wake behind the droplet. The drag force of fluid and the thermophoretic force in the wake contribute jointly to the deposition of submicron particles after the boundary-layer separation around a droplet.

  6. Growth of the interaction layer around fuel particles in dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, D.

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion of uranium particles in dispersion fuel by the aluminum matrix produces interaction layers (an intermetallic-compound corrosion product) around the shrinking fuel spheres. The rate of this process was modeled as series resistances due to Al diffusion through the interaction layer and reaction of aluminum with uranium in the fuel particle to produce UAl x. The overall kinetics are governed by the relative rates of these two steps, the slowest of which is reaction at the interface between Al in the interaction layer and U in the fuel particle. The substantial volume change as uranium is transferred from the fuel to the interaction layer was accounted for. The model was compared to literature data on in-reactor growth of the interaction layer and the Al/U gradient in this layer, the latter measured in ex-reactor experiments. The rate constant of the Al-U interface reaction and the diffusivity of Al in the interaction layer were obtained from this fitting procedure. The second feature of the corrosion process is the transfer of fission products from the fuel particle to the interaction layer due to the reaction. It is commonly assumed that the observed swelling of irradiated fuel elements of this type is due to release of fission gas in the interaction layer to form large bubbles. This hypothesis was tested by using the model to compute the quantity of fission gas available from this source and comparing the pressure of the resulting gas with the observed swelling of fuel plates. It was determined that the gas pressure so generated is too small to account for the observed delamination of the fuel.

  7. Dynamics of Swollen Gel Layers Anchored to Solid Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytas, George; Gianneli, Maria; Roskamp, Robert; Jonas, Ulrich; Koynov, Kaloian; Knoll, Wolfgang; Loppinet, Benoit

    2008-03-01

    Thin responsive hydrogel films are currently under development for biosensor applications. Photocrosslinkable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based chains are spin coated as thin films (about 1 micron) and UV irradiated with variable doses to control the crosslink density. The obtained anchored gel layers can swell in ethanol or water up to about 10 microns for low crosslinking densities. Dynamics of the swollen layers and diffusion of different tracers (as analyte mimicks) are studied by dynamic light scattering (PCS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). PCS resolved fast and slow diffusions, attributed to cooperative diffusion and long range concentration heterogeneities. Higher crosslink densities give rise to faster cooperative diffusion, i.e. short dynamic mesh sizes. FCS revealed the importance of electrostatic interactions between probe and negatively charged network. While a negatively charged dye senses local dynamics with a moderate slow down, a positively charged dye exhibited substantially retarded diffusion. Larger tracers are used to assess the size dependent gel penetrability, whereas large particles, trapped into the network, expectedly follow the network dynamics.

  8. Large-eddy simulation of particle-laden atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Marcel; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2008-11-01

    Pollen dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is numerically investigated using a hybrid large-eddy simulation (LES) Lagrangian approach. Interest in prediction of pollen dispersion stems from two reasons, the allergens in the pollen grains and increasing genetic manipulation of plants leading to the problem of cross pollination. An efficient Eulerian-Lagrangian particle dispersion algorithm for the prediction of pollen dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer is outlined. The volume fraction of the dispersed phase is assumed to be small enough such that particle-particle collisions are negligible and properties of the carrier flow are not modified. Only the effect of turbulence on particle motion has to be taken into account (one-way coupling). Hence the continuous phase can be treated separate from the particulate phase. The continuous phase is determined by LES in the Eulerian frame of reference whereas the dispersed phase is simulated in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Numerical investigations are conducted for the convective, neutral and stable boundary layer as well different topographies. The results of the present study indicate that particles with small diameter size follow the flow streamlines, behaving as tracers, while particles with large diameter size tend to follow trajectories which are independent of the flow streamlines. Particles of ellipsoidal shape travel faster than the ones of spherical shape.

  9. Electron density modification in ionospheric E layer by inserting fine dust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we have developed the kinetics of E-region ionospheric plasma comprising of fine dust grains and shown that the electron density in E-layer can purposely be reduced/enhanced up to desired level by inserting fine dust particles of appropriate physical/material properties; this may certainly be promising for preferred rf-signal processing through these layers. The analytical formulation is based on average charge theory and includes the number and energy balance of the plasma constituents along with charge balance over dust particles. The effect of varying number density, work function, and photo-efficiency of dust particles on ionospheric plasma density at different altitude in E-layer has been critically examined and presented graphically.

  10. Parameterization of turbulence characteristics of Atmospheric surface layer in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Arindam; Sadr, Reza

    2011-11-01

    Turbulent characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer are of utmost importance in modeling the large-scale meteorological processes, diffusion of atmospheric contaminants, heat transfer and evaporation from the earth surface. Available data are for some areas on the globe and are really sparse in tropical regions, except a few recent studies in Asia. There had been some recent studies in tropical weather in southwestern Asia but no study is carried out in Persian Gulf region. An atmospheric measurement station has been designed and installed in a site in the coastal region of Doha, Qatar, to characterize the nature of atmosphere surface layer (ASL) and ocean wave characteristics in this field. The aim of the present study is to report the micrometeorological data collected from this site. The normalized variation of the turbulent velocity components and temperature were studied using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). This study also attempts to verify the validity of MOST in the context of the data collected for a marine ASL in Qatar, and compares the modeling parameters with other investigations around the world. This is the first ever study of ASL in this area, and is expected to be a foundation of further atmospheric research endeavors in Qatar.

  11. Spectral characteristics of atmospheric surface layer turbulence in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Reza; Singha, Arindam; Micro Scale Thermofluids Laboratory Team

    2012-11-01

    Turbulent characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer are of utmost importance in modeling the large-scale meteorological processes, diffusion of atmospheric contaminants, heat transfer and evaporation from the earth surface. Meteorological data are available for some areas of the globe but are sparse in tropical regions. There had been some recent studies in tropical weather in southwestern Asia but no study is carried out in Persian Gulf region. The present study reports the micrometeorological data collected from an atmospheric measurement station in the coastal region of Doha, Qatar, to characterize the nature of atmosphere surface layer (ASL) and ocean wave in this region. In the present work turbulence velocity spectra in this region is presented and compared with the available data from other locations. Also, empirical relationship for the normalized dissipation function in this region is suggested. Finally, variation of different length scales with the stability parameter z/ L is investigated and compare with the existing values in available literatures. This is the first ever study of ASL in this area, and is expected to be a foundation of further atmospheric research endeavors in Qatar.

  12. Thermal stability of nanocrystalline layers fabricated by surface nanocrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Yong-jin; Jie, Xiao-hua; Liu, Li-li; Yu, Neng; Zheng, Xiang-xin

    2010-01-01

    A nanocrystalline layer with ultrafine grains (about 30-40 nm) on the surface of 7050 aluminum alloy was fabricated by a new technique called High Pressure Shot Peening (HPSP) which is the combination of common Shot Peening equipment with a pressurizing vessel. Relationship between hot flow and temperature was observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and the activation energy, calculated by Kisssinger equation, of the as-treated sample increased 26.6 kJ/mol when it is compared with the as-reserved sample. The Bragg peaks of the as-prepared samples, respectively treated with various annealing treatments were characterized by XRD and the microhardness distribution along the depth from the treated surface were measured at the same time, which indicated that the broadening of Bragg peaks decreased with the increasing of anneal temperature; the grain size, calculated by Scherrer-Wilson equation, increased obviously during 180-220 C, accordingly, the microhardness obviously decreased. According to the results of DSC, XRD and microhardness, it is reasonable to deduce that the temperature range of thermal stability for aluminum alloy nanocrystalline layer is lower than 200 C.

  13. Surface enhanced Raman correlation spectroscopy of particles in solution.

    PubMed

    Asiala, Steven M; Schultz, Zachary D

    2014-03-01

    Surface enhanced Raman correlation spectroscopy (SERCS) is shown as a label-free, chemically specific method for monitoring individual polymer beads and lipid vesicles interacting with a 2-D planar surface enhanced Raman (SERS) substrate in solution. The enhancement afforded by the SERS substrate allows for spectral data to be acquired in series at rates between 31 and 83 Hz. Auto- and cross-correlation of spectral data facilitates the measurement of diffusion constants for particles ranging in radius from 50 to 500 nm while discriminating signal associated with the target analyte from extraneous fluctuations. The measured diffusion coefficients are on the order of 10(-10)-10(-11) cm(2)/s, a factor of 40 times slower than predicted from the Stokes-Einstein equation, suggesting that particles are experiencing hindered diffusion at the surface. The enhanced signals appear to originate from particles less than 5 nm of the SERS substrate, consistent with adsorption to the surface. This work provides a means to measure and monitor surface interactions and demonstrates the utility and limits of SERS detection in solution over planar SERS substrates. PMID:24502388

  14. Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin platinum films on tungsten atomic layer deposition adhesion layers: Application to high surface area substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Clancey, Joel W.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Kukreja, Ratandeep S.; Kongkanand, Anusorn; George, Steven M.

    2015-01-15

    Platinum (Pt) atomic layer deposition (ALD) usually yields Pt nanoparticles during initial film growth. In contrast, deposition of continuous and ultrathin Pt films is needed for many important applications, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. A continuous and high radius of curvature Pt film is more stable and has a higher area-specific activity than the Pt nanoparticles commonly used in PEM fuel cells. However, the Pt film must be ultrathin and have a large surface area to be cost effective. In this paper, a review of earlier Pt ALD studies on flat substrates is presented that demonstrates that tungsten, with a higher surface energy than platinum, can serve as an adhesion layer to achieve Pt ALD films that are continuous at ultrathin thicknesses of ∼1.5 nm. This work utilized MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and H{sub 2} plasma as the Pt ALD reactants. The deposition of continuous and ultrathin Pt ALD films using MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and H{sub 2} plasma as the reactants is then studied on two high surface area substrate materials: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and 3M nanostructured thin film (NSTF). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed uniform and continuous Pt films with thicknesses of ∼4 nm on the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TEM with electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis revealed W ALD and Pt ALD films with thicknesses of ∼3 nm that were continuous and conformal on the high aspect ratio NSTF substrates. These results demonstrate that cost effective use of Pt ALD on high surface area substrates is possible for PEM fuel cells.

  15. The role of adsorbed water on the friction of a layer of submicron particles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sammis, Charles G.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously low values of friction observed in layers of submicron particles deformed in simple shear at high slip velocities are explained as the consequence of a one nanometer thick layer of water adsorbed on the particles. The observed transition from normal friction with an apparent coefficient near μ = 0.6 at low slip speeds to a coefficient near μ = 0.3 at higher slip speeds is attributed to competition between the time required to extrude the water layer from between neighboring particles in a force chain and the average lifetime of the chain. At low slip speeds the time required for extrusion is less than the average lifetime of a chain so the particles make contact and lock. As slip speed increases, the average lifetime of a chain decreases until it is less than the extrusion time and the particles in a force chain never come into direct contact. If the adsorbed water layer enables the otherwise rough particles to rotate, the coefficient of friction will drop to μ = 0.3, appropriate for rotating spheres. At the highest slip speeds particle temperatures rise above 100°C, the water layer vaporizes, the particles contact and lock, and the coefficient of friction rises to μ = 0.6. The observed onset of weakening at slip speeds near 0.001 m/s is consistent with the measured viscosity of a 1 nm thick layer of adsorbed water, with a minimum particle radius of approximately 20 nm, and with reasonable assumptions about the distribution of force chains guided by experimental observation. The reduction of friction and the range of velocities over which it occurs decrease with increasing normal stress, as predicted by the model. Moreover, the analysis predicts that this high-speed weakening mechanism should operate only for particles with radii smaller than approximately 1 μm. For larger particles the slip speed required for weakening is so large that frictional heating will evaporate the adsorbed water and weakening will not occur.

  16. Surface wave effects on long range IR imaging in the marine surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francius, M. J.; Kunz, G. J.; van Eijk, A. M. J.

    2005-08-01

    The quality of long range infrared (IR) imaging depends on the effects of atmospheric refraction and other pathintegrated effects (e.g., transmission losses, scintillation and blurring), which are strongly related to the prevailing meteorological conditions. EOSTAR is a PC based computer program to quantify these strong nonlinear effects in the marine atmospheric surface layer and to present a spectrally resolved target image influenced by atmospheric effects using ray tracing techniques for the individual camera pixels. Presently, the propagation is predicted with bulk atmospheric models and the sea surface is idealized by steady regular periodic Stokes' waves. Dynamical wind-waves interactions are not taken into account in this approach, although they may strongly modify the refractive index in the near-surface layer. Nonetheless, the inclusion of the sea surface in the ray tracer module already has a great impact on the near-surface grazing rays and thus influences the images especially in situations of super refraction and mirage. This work aims at improving the description of the sea surface in EOSTAR taking into account the non-uniformity of spatially resolved wind-generated waves and swell. A new surface module is developed to model surface wind-waves and swell in EOSTAR on the basis of meteorological observations and spectral wave modeling. Effects due to these new surfaces will be analyzed and presented.

  17. ELECTRONIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    M.K.Mazumder; D.A. Linduist; K.B. Tennal

    2001-04-01

    Surface science studies related to tribocharging and charge separation studies were performed on electrostatic beneficiation of coal. In contrast to other cleaning methods, electrostatic beneficiation is a dry cleaning process requiring no water or subsequent drying. Despite these advantages, there is still uncertainty in implementing large-scale commercial electrostatic beneficiation of coal. The electronic surface states of coal macerals and minerals are difficult to describe due to their chemical complexity and variability. The efficiency in separation of mineral particles from organic macerals depends upon these surface states. Therefore, to further understand and determine a reason for the bipolar charging observed in coal separation, surface analysis studies using Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on coal samples and several materials that are used or considered for use in tribocharging. Electrostatic charging is a surface phenomenon, so the electronic surface states of the particles, which are influenced by the environmental conditions, determine both polarity and magnitude of tribocharging. UPS was used to measure the work function of the materials as typically used in ambient air. XPS was used to determine the surface chemistry in the form of contamination and degree of oxidation under the same environmental conditions.

  18. Characterization of poly(ethylene imine) layers on mica by the streaming potential and particle deposition methods.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Michna, Aneta; Szaraniec, Magdalena; Bratek, Anna; Barbasz, Jakub

    2007-09-01

    Deposition kinetics of polystyrene latex (averaged particle size of 0.66 microm) on mica covered by poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), a cationic polyelectrolyte having an average molecular mass of 75,000 g mol(-1), was studied using the impinging-jet method. The hydrodynamic radius of PEI, determined by PCS measurements, was 5.3 nm. The electrophoretic mobility of PEI was measured as a function of pH for ionic strengths of 10(-3) and 10 (-2) M, which made it possible one to determine the amount of electrokinetic charge of the molecule and its zeta potential. Formation of the polyelectrolyte layer on mica was followed by measuring the streaming potential in the parallel-plate channel. From these measurements, the dependence of the apparent zeta potential of mica on the surface coverage of PEI was determined. The amount of adsorbed PEI on mica was calculated from the convective diffusion theory. These results were quantitatively interpreted in terms of the theoretical model postulating a particle-like adsorption mechanism for PEI with not too significant shape deformation upon adsorption. On the other hand, the Gouy-Chapman model postulating the adsorption in the form of flat disks was proved inappropriate. After the surface was fully characterized, particle deposition experiments were carried out with the aim of finding the correlation between the polymer coverage and the initial rate of latex particle deposition. In the range of small polyelectrolyte coverage, a monotonic relation between the polymer coverage and the initial deposition rate of particles, as well as the jamming coverage, was found. For Theta(PEI)>0.25, the initial particle deposition rate attained the value predicted from the convective diffusion theory for homogeneous surfaces. These results were interpreted theoretically by postulating that an effective immobilization of colloid particles occurred on local polyelectrolyte assemblages containing between two and three PEI molecules. PMID:17521663

  19. Plasma-enhanced deposition of antifouling layers on silicone rubber surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan

    In food processing and medical environments, biofilms serve as potential sources of contamination, and lead to food spoilage, transmission of diseases or infections. Because of its ubiquitous and recalcitrant nature, Listeria monocytogenes biofilm is especially hard to control. Generating antimicrobial surfaces provide a method to control the bacterial attachment. The difficulty of silver deposition on polymeric surfaces has been overcome by using a unique two-step plasma-mediated method. First silicone rubber surfaces were plasma-functionalized to generate aldehyde groups. Then thin silver layers were deposited onto the functionalized surfaces according to Tollen's reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that silver particles were deposited. By exposing the silver coated surfaces to L. monocytogenes, it was demonstrated that they were bactericidal to L. monocytogenes. No viable bacteria were detected after 12 to 18 h on silver-coated silicone rubber surfaces. Another antifouling approach is to generate polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin layer instead of silver on polymer surfaces. Covalent bond of PEG structures of various molecular weights to cold-plasma-functionalized polymer surfaces, such as silicone rubber, opens up a novel way for the generation of PEG brush-like or PEG branch-like anti-fouling layers. In this study, plasma-generated surface free radicals can react efficiently with dichlorosilane right after plasma treatment. With the generation of halo-silane groups, this enables PEG molecules to be grafted onto the modified surfaces. XPS data clearly demonstrated the presence of PEG molecules on plasma-functionalized silicone rubber surfaces. AFM images showed the changed surface morphologies as a result of covalent attachment to the surface of PEG molecules. Biofilm experiment results suggest that the PEG brush-like films have the potential ability to be the next generation antifouling deposition. However, the coverage on FSR needs to be improved. Different PEG structures (brush, branched, oxirane-group terminated and PEG terminated structures) were developed in this study to understand the bacterial attachment behavior and the antifouling mechanism of PEG-like structures. Results from biofilm experiments demonstrated the absence of antifouling behavior. The presence of PEG structure on substrate surfaces cannot guarantee antifouling ability.

  20. Atmospheric new particle formation as a source of CCN in the eastern Mediterranean marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivitis, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kouvarakis, G.; Stavroulas, I.; Bougiatioti, A.; Nenes, A.; Manninen, H. E.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2015-08-01

    While cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is thought to be frequent throughout the continental boundary layers, few studies on this phenomenon in marine air exist. Here, based on simultaneous measurement of particle number size distributions, CCN properties and aerosol chemical composition, we present the first direct evidence on CCN production resulting from NPF in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles to CCN sizes in this environment during the summertime. Sub-100 nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the period with active NPF and growth (the value of κ was lower by 0.2-0.4 for 60 nm particles compared with 120 nm particles), probably due to enrichment of organic material in the sub-100 nm size range. The aerosol hygroscopicity tended to be at minimum just before the noon and at maximum in the afternoon, which was very likely due to the higher sulfate-to-organic ratios and higher degree of oxidation of the organic material during the afternoon. Simultaneous with the formation of new particles during daytime, particles formed during the previous day or even earlier were growing into the size range relevant to cloud droplet activation, and the particles formed in the atmosphere were possibly mixed with long-range-transported particles.

  1. Crystalline particle packings on constant mean curvature (Delaunay) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendito, Enrique; Bowick, Mark J.; Medina, Agustin; Yao, Zhenwei

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the structure of crystalline particle arrays on constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces of revolution. Such curved crystals have been realized physically by creating charge-stabilized colloidal arrays on liquid capillary bridges. CMC surfaces of revolution, classified by Delaunay in 1841, include the 2-sphere, the cylinder, the vanishing mean curvature catenoid (a minimal surface), and the richer and less investigated unduloid and nodoid. We determine numerically candidate ground-state configurations for 1000 pointlike particles interacting with a pairwise-repulsive 1/r3 potential, with distance r measured in three-dimensional Euclidean space R3. We mimic stretching of capillary bridges by determining the equilibrium configurations of particles arrayed on a sequence of Delaunay surfaces obtained by increasing or decreasing the height at constant volume starting from a given initial surface, either a fat cylinder or a square cylinder. In this case, the stretching process takes one through a complicated sequence of Delaunay surfaces, each with different geometrical parameters, including the aspect ratio, mean curvature, and maximal Gaussian curvature. Unduloids, catenoids, and nodoids all appear in this process. Defect motifs in the ground state evolve from dislocations at the boundary to dislocations in the interior to pleats and scars in the interior and then isolated sevenfold disclinations in the interior as the capillary bridge narrows at the waist (equator) and the maximal (negative) Gaussian curvature grows. We also check theoretical predictions that the isolated disclinations are present in the ground state when the surface contains a geodesic disk with integrated Gaussian curvature exceeding -?/3. Finally, we explore minimal energy configurations on sets of slices of a given Delaunay surface, and we obtain configurations and defect motifs consistent with those seen in stretching.

  2. Crystalline particle packings on constant mean curvature (Delaunay) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bendito, Enrique; Bowick, Mark J; Medina, Agustin; Yao, Zhenwei

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the structure of crystalline particle arrays on constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces of revolution. Such curved crystals have been realized physically by creating charge-stabilized colloidal arrays on liquid capillary bridges. CMC surfaces of revolution, classified by Delaunay in 1841, include the 2-sphere, the cylinder, the vanishing mean curvature catenoid (a minimal surface), and the richer and less investigated unduloid and nodoid. We determine numerically candidate ground-state configurations for 1000 pointlike particles interacting with a pairwise-repulsive 1/r(3) potential, with distance r measured in three-dimensional Euclidean space R(3). We mimic stretching of capillary bridges by determining the equilibrium configurations of particles arrayed on a sequence of Delaunay surfaces obtained by increasing or decreasing the height at constant volume starting from a given initial surface, either a fat cylinder or a square cylinder. In this case, the stretching process takes one through a complicated sequence of Delaunay surfaces, each with different geometrical parameters, including the aspect ratio, mean curvature, and maximal Gaussian curvature. Unduloids, catenoids, and nodoids all appear in this process. Defect motifs in the ground state evolve from dislocations at the boundary to dislocations in the interior to pleats and scars in the interior and then isolated sevenfold disclinations in the interior as the capillary bridge narrows at the waist (equator) and the maximal (negative) Gaussian curvature grows. We also check theoretical predictions that the isolated disclinations are present in the ground state when the surface contains a geodesic disk with integrated Gaussian curvature exceeding -?/3. Finally, we explore minimal energy configurations on sets of slices of a given Delaunay surface, and we obtain configurations and defect motifs consistent with those seen in stretching. PMID:23944467

  3. Submicrometer surface patterning using interfacial colloidal particle self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Ray, Matthew A; Shewmon, Nathan; Bhawalkar, Sarang; Jia, Li; Yang, Yuzhen; Daniels, Eric S

    2009-07-01

    Hexagonal noncontiguously packed (HNCP) arrays of submicrometer-sized particles trapped at an air-water interface are successfully transferred to solid substrates. The long-range order of the hexagonal arrays at the interface can be improved by compression-relaxation cycles. The interparticle distance (i.e., the periodicity of the hexagonal array) can be controlled by varying the degree of compression of the particle film. The critical characteristics of the substrate surface are hydrophobicity (advancing water contact angle of >70 degrees) and a charge complementary to the surface of the particles. Suitable silicon and glass substrates are easily prepared by treatment with commercially available organosilicon compounds. Two transfer processes have been developed. When the parallel transfer process is used, the HNCP arrays are deposited on the solid substrates with minimal pattern distortion. The vertical dipping transfer distorts the pattern and renders a sense of directionality perpendicular to the dipping direction. This surface patterning technique is applied to fabrication of subwavelength grating for antireflection in the visible region. Antireflective HNCP arrays comprising varied particle diameters and pattern periodicities are fabricated on glass substrates to demonstrate the effects of these parameters on the antireflection performance. PMID:19499940

  4. Paint removal and surface cleaning using ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Visaisouk, S.

    1993-03-01

    Research into the possibility of using ice particles as a blast medium was first initiated at Defence Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) in an effort to develop a more environmentally acceptable paint removal method. A paint removal process was also required that could be used in areas where normal grit blasting could not be used due to the possibility of the residual blasting grit contaminating machinery and other equipment. As a result of this research a commercial ice blasting system was developed by RETECH. This system is now being used to remove paint from substrates that cannot be easily blasted by conventional techniques and also to clean soiled or contaminated surfaces. The problems involved in the development of an ice blast system, and its components and their functions are described. Due to the complexity of paint removal using ice blasting, parameters such as air pressure, ice particle size and ice particle flow rate were studied and adjusted to suit the nature of the particular coating and substrate of interest. The mechanism of paint removal by ice particles has also been investigated. A theoretical model has been developed to explain the different paint removal mechanisms such as erosion by abrasion and erosion by fracture as they relate to ice blasting. Finally, the use of ice blasting to removal paint from a variety of substrates is presented as well as examples of surface cleaning and surface decontamination.

  5. Crystalline Bacterial Surface Layer (S-Layer) Opens Golden Opportunities for Nanobiotechnology in Textiles.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Narges; Chand, Nima; Rassa, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the successful recrystallization of bacterial S-layer arrays of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 at textile surfaces to create a novel method and material. Optimum bacterial growth was obtained at approximately 45 (°)C, pH 5.0, and 14 h pi. The cells were resuspended in guanidine hydrochloride and the 43 kDa S-protein was dialyzed and purified. The optimum reassembly on the polypropylene fabric surface in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reflectance, and uniformity (spectrophotometry) was obtained at 30 (°)C, pH 5.0 for 30 minutes in the presence of 2 gr/l (liquor ratio; 1:40) of the S-protein. Overall, our data showed that the functional aspects and specialty applications of the fabric would be very attractive for the textile and related sciences, and result in advanced technical textiles. PMID:26552090

  6. Cr Ni Mo Co surface alloying layer formed by plasma surface alloying in pure iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Gao, Yuan; Li, Zhonghou; Xu, Zhong; Tian, Wenhuai; Tang, Bin

    2006-03-01

    Using double glow plasma alloying technique, a multi-elements alloyed layer containing elements of Cr, Ni, Mo and Co was formed on the surface of pure iron. After undergoing suitable aging treatment followed solid solution treatment, the formed alloying layer keeps a good combination of corrosion resistance and wear resistance. The relationship between the process parameters of heat treatments and the properties of the formed Cr-Ni-Mo-Co alloying layer, such as the chemical composition, hardness, corrosion resistance and wear resistance, was investigated in this study. It was revealed that the formed alloying layer exhibits a better behavior than that of 304 stainless steel and pure iron by employing a suitable heat treatment system. The temperature employed in solid solution treatment is 1453 K (1180 °C) followed by water quenching and the aging temperature is 813 K (540 °C) followed by water cooling.

  7. Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Gregory M; Knepper, Robert Allen; Weihs, Timothy P; Gash, Alexander E; Sze, John S

    2013-04-30

    An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

  8. Shear-Layer Interactions Between Surface-Mounted Obstacles at Varying Streamwise Spacings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Best, J. L.; Christensen, K. T.

    2012-11-01

    Surface obstacles occur in a variety of flows, such as roughness elements in engineering flows and barchan dunes in natural eolian environments on both the Earth and Mars. Depending upon the arrangement and spacing between such obstacles, the flow over one obstacle can significantly alter the flow over those positioned downstream. Such flow interactions occur in fields of barchan dunes that are closely spaced and aligned in the flow direction, and where flow sheltering may play a significant role. To better understand these flow interactions, experiments were conducted for a pair of identical, upright cylinders extending into the log layer and aligned at various spacings in the streamwise direction of a turbulent channel flow at Re? ~ 1200 . Particle-image velocimetry measurements of the flow around the cylinders reveal strong interactions between the shear layers generated downstream of the cylinders, and particularly a weakening of the downstream-most shear layer for small cylinder spacings (< 4 - 6 D). Modifications of the vortex-shedding processes at the downstream cylinder are under investigation, as these interactions are thought to play a critical role in the formation and evolution of surface obstacles when the surface is cohesionless and mobile.

  9. Solar radiation transfer in the surface snow layer in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrvinen, Onni; Leppranta, Matti

    2013-03-01

    Spectroradiometer measurements of solar radiation (the broadest band used 400-900 nm) were performed above and inside the surface snow layer in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, during the austral summer of 2009-2010. The vertical distributions of transmittance and the extinction coefficient were examined from the surface to a depth of 30 cm. Physical characterization of the snowpack included measurements of thickness, density, hardness (hand test), liquid-water content, and grain size and shape (from photographs of grains). The transmittance was <1% in the upper 20 cm and <27% in the upper 10 cm. The mean spectral diffuse extinction coefficient varied between 0.04 and 0.31 cm-1 (10-20-cm layer). Using the spectral extinction coefficients of the 0-10-cm and 10-20-cm layers, the depth, where broadband (400-700-nm band) irradiance was 1% of the downwelling irradiance at the surface, was 50 cm. The density of the snow in the upper part of the snowpack (depth of 0-55 cm) varied from 300 to 440 kg m-3. The predominant grain type was large rounded particles (RGlr) and the predominant grain size was 1 mm.

  10. Spontaneous formation and spin of particle pairs in a single-layer complex plasma crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Thomas, H. M.; Carmona-Reyes, J.; Hyde, T. W.

    2015-11-01

    In an experiment with a single-layer plasma crystal, spontaneous pairing of particles was observed upon a sudden reduction of the discharge power. The pairs were oriented vertically with the upper particle above the crystal layer and the lower particle beneath it, the pair size was about 0.2 mm. The pairs were spinning around their vertical axis with the upper particle leading and the lower one following it; the rotation speed was 1013 Hz. Spinning particle pairs disturbed the plasma crystal through interaction with their neighbors. Upon further reduction of the discharge power, the spinning pairs proliferated in the plasma crystal and eventually it melted. The experiment was performed with micron-size polymer particles suspended in the radio-frequency (rf) argon plasma at a pressure of 157 mtorr. We propose a theoretical model of a spinning particle pair based on the plasma wake effect. Spinning particle pairs can be used as a diagnostic tool for plasma wakes or as a generic model of a 2D system of vortices.

  11. Analysing the Properties of Surface Layers Generated by Sheet Metal Forming Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ugrov, Jana; ugr, Peter; Zemko, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper brings results of the surface layers properties analysis of a thin wall hollow sheet metal parts, produced by metal spinning and deep drawing. The influence of mandrel (workpiece) frequency of rotation on the spun parts surface layer strainhardening is studied and compared with the quality of the formed part surface layer produced by deep drawing technology.

  12. Functionalization of Ag nanoparticles using local hydrophilic pool segment designed on their particle surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Motoyuki; Kurumiya, Aki; Esashi, Junki; Miyazaki, Hayato; Kamiya, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    The preparation of SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles dispersible in various organic solvents has been achieved using a solgel reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), in the localized hydrophilic pool segments designed on Ag nanoparticle surfaces. First, oleylamine-capped core Ag nanoparticles were synthesized, followed by ligand exchange with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and further adsorption of an anionic surfactant comprising hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and hydrophobic alkyl chains, which has previously been reported to improve the stability of nanoparticles in various solvents. Then, a reaction of TEOS with the localized hydrophilic PEI layer on the Ag nanoparticles' surface was conducted by stirring a toluene/TEOS solution of surface-modified Ag nanoparticles at various temperatures. It was found that a SiO2 layer was successfully formed on Ag nanoparticles when the reaction temperature was increased to 60 °C. It was also found, however, that at this elevated temperature, the primary particle size of Ag nanoparticles increased to several tens of nm, attributable to the dissolution and re-reduction of Ag+. Because the surface modifier, PEI and anionic surfactant all remained on the nanoparticle surface during the SiO2 coating process, the prepared SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles were found to be dispersible in various organic solvents near to their primary particle size.

  13. Numerical Computations of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer over Surface Irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Surface irregularities such as protuberances inside a hypersonic boundary layer may lead to premature transition on the vehicle surface. Early transition in turn causes large localized surface heating that could damage the thermal protection system. Experimental measurements as well as numerical computations aimed at building a knowledge base for transition Reynolds numbers with respect to different protuberance sizes and locations have been actively pursued in recent years. This paper computationally investigates the unsteady wake development behind large isolated cylindrical roughness elements and the scaled wind-tunnel model of the trip used in a recent flight measurement during the reentry of space shuttle Discovery. An unstructured mesh, compressible flow solver based on the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations for the flow past a roughness element under several wind-tunnel conditions. For a cylindrical roughness element with a height to the boundary-layer thickness ratio from 0.8 to 2.5, the wake flow is characterized by a mushroom-shaped centerline streak and horse-shoe vortices. While time-accurate solutions converged to a steady-state for a ratio of 0.8, strong flow unsteadiness is present for a ratio of 1.3 and 2.5. Instability waves marked by distinct disturbance frequencies were found in the latter two cases. Both the centerline streak and the horse-shoe vortices become unstable downstream. The oscillatory vortices eventually reach an early breakdown stage for the largest roughness element. Spectral analyses in conjunction with the computed root mean square variations suggest that the source of the unsteadiness and instability waves in the wake region may be traced back to possible absolute instability in the front-side separation region.

  14. Explosive particle soil surface dispersion model for detonated military munitions.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, John E; Rishel, Jeremy P; Walsh, Marianne E; Walsh, Michael R; Taylor, Susan

    2015-07-01

    The accumulation of high explosive mass residue from the detonation of military munitions on training ranges is of environmental concern because of its potential to contaminate the soil, surface water, and groundwater. The US Department of Defense wants to quantify, understand, and remediate high explosive mass residue loadings that might be observed on active firing ranges. Previously, efforts using various sampling methods and techniques have resulted in limited success, due in part to the complicated dispersion pattern of the explosive particle residues upon detonation. In our efforts to simulate particle dispersal for high- and low-order explosions on hypothetical firing ranges, we use experimental particle data from detonations of munitions from a 155-mm howitzer, which are common military munitions. The mass loadings resulting from these simulations provide a previously unattained level of detail to quantify the explosive residue source-term for use in soil and water transport models. In addition, the resulting particle placements can be used to test, validate, and optimize particle sampling methods and statistical models as applied to firing ranges. Although the presented results are for a hypothetical 155-mm howitzer firing range, the method can be used for other munition types once the explosive particle characteristics are known. PMID:26050065

  15. Layer-by-Layer Surface Molecular Imprinting on Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxuan; Cao, Bing; Jia, Peng; An, Junhu; Luo, Chao; Ma, Lijing; Chang, Jiao; Pan, Kai

    2015-06-25

    Surface molecular imprinting in layer-by-layer (SMI-LbL) film is known as a facile and effective strategy to build imprinting sites that are more accessible to template molecules compared with molecular imprinting in polymers. Herein, we accomplished the formation of SMI-LbL film on electrospun nanofibers for the first time. The SMI-LbL nanofibers were prepared by a template-induced LbL process on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber substrates, followed by postinfiltrating and photo-cross-linking of photosensitive agent 4,4'-diazostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt (DAS). The obtained nanofiber mat maintained the nanofibrous structure and showed rapid absorption and extraction of template molecules of meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)-porphine (Por). The binding capacity of Por reached 2.1 mg/g when 3.5 bilayers were deposited on the nanofibers. After six cycles of extraction and reabsorption, the binding capacity of Por remained at 83%. Moreover, the absorption results of the targeted templated molecule of Por and the control molecule of Fast Green, which had a very similar chemical structure and charge status to Por, indicated the specific absorption for template molecule of Por. Thus, a surface molecular imprinted nanofiber mat with high selectivity of the templated molecule has been demonstrated. PMID:26038802

  16. Physiochemical Properties of Sodium Chloride Particles on Laboratory Ice Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, E. P.; Simpson, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Aqueous halides (e.g. Cl- and Br-) on environmental ice surfaces are converted to reactive gases through heterogeneous chemistry that has broad consequences for springtime Arctic tropospheric oxidation chemistry. Recent studies indicate that atmospherically contaminated snow (e.g. more acidic snow) is more effective at activating halogens than frozen seawater. This study investigates the microstructure created by the addition of salts onto ice surfaces as a function of temperature. Microscopic sodium chloride salt crystals were labeled with a fluorescent dye (fluorescein) and placed onto laboratory ice surface below the hydrohalite (NaCl 2H2O)-water eutectic temperature. As temperature was increased above the eutectic, a discrete brine area formed around the crystal. Size and morphology of the brine area was determined using an Axioscope II epifluorescence microscope. Initially, the salt crystal did not entirely dissolve and three distinct phases (solid salt, brine, ice) were present for some time. Timescales for crystal dissolving, brine formation, and wetting across the ice surfaces where thus constrained. Similar experiments using a fluorescently labeled, laboratory-generated sea salt aerosol particles were also carried out and compared to the larger microscopic sodium chloride crystals. This work gives insight into how atmospheric particles deliver contaminants to ice surfaces, how those contaminants interact with ice surfaces and thus how they may impact halogen activation.

  17. Erosion processes due to energetic particle-surface interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, K.; Roth, J.

    2010-05-20

    The interaction of the fast particles from the hot plasma of a magnetic confinement fusion experiment with the first wall is one of the most challenging problems toward the realization of a fusion power plant. The erosion of the first wall by the fast particles leads to life time limitations and the radiative cooling of the plasma by the eroded impurity species lowers the energy confinement. Apart from these obvious consequences also the trapping of large quantities of the fuelling species (deuterium and tritium) in re-deposited layers of the eroded species poses a problem due to accumulation of large radiative inventories and plasma fuelling inefficiency. The source of all these challenges is the erosion of first wall components due to physical sputtering, chemical erosion and radiation enhanced sublimation. This paper will give an overview about the physical principles behind these erosion channels.

  18. Land-Surface Heterogeneity Effects in the Planetary Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reen, Brian P.; Stauffer, David R.; Davis, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the cumulative added value of assimilating temperature, moisture, and wind observations in the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic Fifth-Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model MM5 and use these forecasts to analyze the relationship between surface forcing and planetary boundary-layer (PBL) depth. A data assimilation methodology focused on the surface and the PBL, previously tested in a one-dimensional version of MM5, is applied to 29 May, 6 June, and 7 June 2002 during the International Project over the Southern Great Plains. Model-predicted PBL depth is evaluated against PBL depth diagnosed from data across 4,800 km of airborne lidar data (flight tracks 100-300 km long). The forecast with data assimilation verifies better against observations and is thus used to investigate the environmental conditions that govern PBL depth. The spatial structure in PBL depth is found to be most affected by spatial variations in surface buoyancy flux and capping inversion strength. The spatial scales of surface flux forcing reflected in the PBL depth are found through Fourier analysis and multiresolution decomposition. Correlations are at scales of 64 km or less and increase at larger scales for 29 May and 6 June, but on 7 June low correlations are found at all scales, possibly due to greater within-PBL wind speeds, a stronger capping inversion on this day, and clouds. The results suggest a minimum scale, a function of wind speed, below which heterogeneity in surface buoyancy fluxes is not reflected directly in PBL depth.

  19. Characterization of cathode keeper wear by surface layer activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the erosion rates of the discharge cathode keeper in a 30 cm NSTAR configuration ion thruster were measured using a technique known as Surface Layer Activation (SLA). This diagnostic technique involves producing a radioactive tracer in a given surface by bombardment with high energy ions. The decrease in activity of the tracer material may be monitored as the surface is subjected to wear processes and correlated to a depth calibration curve, yielding the eroded depth. Analysis of the activities was achieved through a gamma spectroscopy system. The primary objectives of this investigation were to reproduce erosion data observed in previous wear studies in order to validate the technique, and to determine the effect of different engine operating parameters on erosion rate. The erosion profile at the TH 15 (23 kw) setting observed during the 8200 hour Life Demonstration Test (LDT) was reproduced. The maximum keeper erosion rate at this setting was determined to be 0.085 pm/hr. Testing at the TH 8 (1.4 kw) setting demonstrated lower erosion rates than TH 15, along with a different wear profile. Varying the keeper voltage was shown to have a significant effect on the erosion, with a positive bias with respect to cathode potential decreasing the erosion rate significantly. Accurate measurements were achieved after operating times of only 40 to 70 hours, a significant improvement over other erosion diagnostic methods.

  20. Exploring the bronzing effect at the surface of ink layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hbert, Mathieu; Mallet, Maxime; Deboos, Alexis; Chavel, Pierre; Kuang, Deng-Feng; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Besbes, Mondher; Cazier, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the optical phenomenon responsible for the colored shine that sometimes appears at the surface of ink layers in the specular direction, often called bronzing or gloss differential. It seems to come from the wavelength-dependent refractive index of the ink, which induces a wavelength-dependent reflectance of the ink-air interface. Our experiments on cyan and magenta inkjet inks confirm this theory. Complex refractive indices can be obtained from measurements of the spectral reflectance and transmittance of a transparency film coated with the ink. We propose a correction of the classical Clapper-Yule model in order to include the colored gloss in the prediction of the spectral reflectance of an inked paper. We also explored effects of scattering by the micrometric or nanometric roughness of the ink surface. The micrometric roughness, easy to model with a geometrical optics model, can predict the spreading of the colored gloss over a large cone. Electromagnetic models accounting for the effect of the nanometric roughness of the surface also predict the attenuation of short wavelengths observed under collimated illumination.

  1. Controlling molecular deposition and layer structure with supramolecular surface assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, James A.; Oxtoby, Neil S.; Phillips, Michael A.; Champness, Neil R.; Beton, Peter H.

    2003-08-01

    Selective non-covalent interactions have been widely exploited in solution-based chemistry to direct the assembly of molecules into nanometre-sized functional structures such as capsules, switches and prototype machines. More recently, the concepts of supramolecular organization have also been applied to two-dimensional assemblies on surfaces stabilized by hydrogen bonding, dipolar coupling or metal co-ordination. Structures realized to date include isolated rows, clusters and extended networks, as well as more complex multi-component arrangements. Another approach to controlling surface structures uses adsorbed molecular monolayers to create preferential binding sites that accommodate individual target molecules. Here we combine these approaches, by using hydrogen bonding to guide the assembly of two types of molecules into a two-dimensional open honeycomb network that then controls and templates new surface phases formed by subsequently deposited fullerene molecules. We find that the open network acts as a two-dimensional array of large pores of sufficient capacity to accommodate several large guest molecules, with the network itself also serving as a template for the formation of a fullerene layer.

  2. Remote sensing of Arctic boundary layer clouds above snow surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Andr; Bierwirth, Eike; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    In the Arctic remote sensing of clouds using reflected solar radiation is mostly related to high uncertainties as the contrast between the bright sea ice and snow surface and the clouds is low. Additionally, uncertainties result from variation of the snow grain size which changes the absorption of solar radiation similarly to the size of cloud particles. This is a major issue for understanding the response of Arctic clouds to climate warming as the quantification of cloud properties in this remote region mostly relies on satellite observations. We used spectral radiation measurements of the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART-Albedometer) to improve common used cloud remote sensing algorithms in case of snow surfaces. The measurements were collected during the airborne research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) above the Canadian Beaufort where both sea ice covered and ice free ocean areas were present during the observation period. Based on the spectral absorption characteristics of snow and clouds (assuming to be dominated by the liquid fraction) a combination of wavelengths was found which allows to separate the impact of clouds and snow surface on the reflected radiation measured above the clouds. While snow grain size dominates the absorption at a wavelength of 1.0 ?m, information on cloud optical thickness and cloud particle effective radius can be extracted at wavelengths of 1.7 ?m and 2.1 ?m, respectively. Based on radiative transfer simulations lookup tables for the retrieval algorithm were calculated and used to estimate the theoretical uncertainties of the retrieval. It was found that using ratios instead of absolute radiances reduces the uncertainties significantly. The new algorithm was applied to a specific case observed during the VERDI campaign where a stratocumulus clouds was located above an ice edge. It could be shown that the method works also over water surfaces and provides similar cloud optical properties above ice covered and ice free surfaces. In addition the snow grain size could be derived also in cloud covered areas.

  3. Discovering sub-micron ice particles across Dione' surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Schenk, Pual; Tosi, Federico; Clark, Roger; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Combe, Jean-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Water ice is the most abundant component of Saturn’s mid-sized moons. However, these moons show an albedo asymmetry - their leading sides are bright while their trailing side exhibits dark terrains. Such differences arise from two surface alteration processes: (i) the bombardment of charged particles from the interplanetary medium and driven by Saturn’s magnetosphere on the trailing side, and (ii) the impact of E-ring water ice particles on the satellites’ leading side. As a result, the trailing hemisphere appears to be darker than the leading side. This effect is particularly evident on Dione's surface. A consequence of these surface alteration processes is the formation or the implantation of sub-micron sized ice particles.The presence of such particles influences and modifies the surfaces' spectrum because of Rayleigh scattering by the particles. In the near infrared range of the spectrum, the main sub-micron ice grains spectral indicators are: (i) asymmetry and (ii) long ward minimum shift of the absorption band at 2.02 μm (iii) a decrease in the ratio between the band depths at 1.50 and 2.02 μm (iv) a decrease in the height of the spectral peak at 2.6 μm (v) the suppression of the Fresnel reflection peak at 3.1 μm and (vi) the decrease of the reflection peak at 5 μm relative to those at 3.6 μm.We present results from our ongoing work mapping the variation of sub-micron ice grains spectral indicators across Dione' surface using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). To characterize the global variations of spectral indicators across Dione' surface, we divided it into a 1°x1° grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.We will investigate if there exist a correspondence with water ice abundance variations by producing water ice' absorption band depths at 1.25, 1.52 and 2.02 μm, and with surface morphology by comparing the results with ISS color maps in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared ranges. Finally, we will compare the results with those obtained for Enceladus, Tethys, and Mimas

  4. Characterization of Surface-Tethered Particles by TIRFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajraj, Arivalagan

    2005-03-01

    Tethered particle experiments track the Brownian motion of a microsphere to obtain information about intra-molecular processes involving the tethering biopolymer. While these experiments are very powerful techniques that yield insight into intra-molecular dynamics, accurate quantitative analysis can be a limiting factor. For instance, most of these experiments suffer from incomplete information about the out of plane trajectory of the microsphere. Also, tethered-particles generally exhibit a large variation in behavior from molecule to molecule. Further complications can arise from electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions of the surface with the microsphere. To address these complications we have extensively characterized the temporal and spatial trajectories of DNA tethers obtained from a stroboscopically illuminated TIRF microscope. To eliminate visual bias, we have developed automatic acquisition and selection criteria. Our results permit a comparison to theoretical models for tethered particle behavior and allow a more sophisticated understanding of large- scale biopolymer conformations such as those associated with DNA looping.

  5. Controllable surface-plasmon resonance in engineered nanometer epitaxial silicide particles embedded in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Iannelli, J. M.; George, T.

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxial CoSi2 particles in a single-crystal silicon matrix are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy using a technique that allows nanometer control over particle size in three dimensions. These composite layers exhibit resonant absorption predicted by effective-medium theory. Selection of the height and diameter of disklike particles through a choice of growth conditions allows tailoring of the depolarization factor and hence of the surface-plasmon resonance energy. Resonant absorption from 0.49 to 1.04 eV (2.5 to 1.2 micron) is demonstrated and shown to agree well with values predicted by the Garnett (1904, 1906) theory using the bulk dielectric constants for CoSi2 and Si.

  6. Preparation and antifrictional properties of surface modified hybrid fluorine-containing silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, T. I.; Zapevalov, A. Ya.; Beketov, I. V.; Demina, T. M.; Timoshenkova, O. R.; Murzakaev, A. M.; Gaviko, V. S.; Safronov, A. P.; Saloutin, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    Modified SiO2 particles were successfully prepared via [(perfluorobutyl)methyl]oxirane and [(perfluorobutyl)methyl]thiirane in sol-gel conditions using basic catalysis. As a result of acid catalysis non-modified nano-sized SiO2 particles were formed. Chemically modified SiO2 particles were characterized by means of FT-IR, BET, TEM, XRD- and XPS-analyses. Friction coefficients were determined at steel surface for base oil with modified SiO2 additives (5, 10 and 15 wt.%) at 10, 20, 30 and 60 N loads. Friction was reduced most strongly in the oil mix with the lowest content of the additive. A possible mechanism of antifrictional improvement is the formation of boundary lubrication layers containing iron salts.

  7. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    It is the purpose of this research to study electrostatic charging mechanisms related to electrostatic beneficiation of coal with the goal of improving models of separation and the design of electrostatic separators. Areas addressed in this technical progress report are (a) electrostatic beneficiation of Pittsburgh #8 coal powders as a function of grind size and processing atmosphere; (b) the use of fluorescent micro-spheres to probe the charge distribution on the surfaces of coal particles; (c) the use of electrostatic beneficiation to recover unburned carbon from flyash; (d) the development of research instruments for investigation of charging properties of coal. Pittsburgh #8 powders were beneficiated as a function of grind size and under three atmosphere conditions: fresh ground in air , after 24 hours of air exposure, or under N2 atmosphere. The feed and processed powders were analyzed by a variety of methods including moisture, ash, total sulfur, and pyritic sulfur content. Mass distribution and cumulative charge of the processed powders were also measured. Fresh ground coal performed the best in electrostatic beneficiation. Results are compared with those of similar studies conducted on Pittsburgh #8 powders last year (April 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997). Polystyrene latex spheres were charged and deposited onto coal particles that had been passed through the electrostatic separator and collected onto insulating filters. The observations suggest bipolar charging of individual particles and patches of charge on the particles which may be associated with particular maceral types or with mineral inclusions. A preliminary investigation was performed on eletrostatic separation of unburned carbon particles from flyash. Approximately 25% of the flyash acquired positive charge in the copper tribocharger. This compares with 75% of fresh ground coal. The negatively charged material had a slightly reduced ash content suggesting some enrichment of carbonaceous material. There was also evidence that the carbon is present at a higher ratio in larger particles than in small particles. An ultraviolet photoelectron counter for use in ambient atmosphere is nearing completion. The counter will be used to measure work functions of different maceral and mineral types in the coal matrix. A Particle Image Analyzer for measuring size and charge of airborne particles is also under contruction and its current status is presented. A charged, monodisperse, droplet generator is also being constructed for calibration of the Particle Image Analyzer and other airborne particle analyzers in our labs.

  8. On the interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, H.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2013-07-01

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the closed-cell state imposes its horizontal spatial structure on surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, on the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The responsible mechanism is the entrainment of dry free tropospheric air into the boundary layer. The open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Here, the responsible mechanism is the periodic formation of clouds, rain, and of cold and moist pools with elevated wind speed. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial structure of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that the open-cell state creates conditions conducive to its maintenance by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux. The open-cell state also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, in aerosol-depleted conditions, the enhancement of the sea-salt flux may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation and hence contribute to the maintenance of the open-cell state. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have only a small effect on cloud properties in the investigated cases. This indicates that sub-grid scale spatial variability in the surface flux of sensible and latent heat and of sea salt aerosol may not be required in large scale and global models to describe marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness.

  9. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-17

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer. PMID:26416162

  10. Microthermal measurements of surface layer seeing at Devasthal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, P.; Stalin, C. S.; Sagar, R.

    1999-04-01

    In order to detect the microthermal fluctuations introduced by the atmospheric turbulence very near to the ground at Devasthal site, a PC based instrumentation has been developed. The optical image degradation due to such turbulence has been quantified. The results of the optical seeing due to the surface layer at Devasthal site are presented and compared with the seeing results obtained from the Differential Image Motion Monitor. Microthermal measurements were taken on 20 nights between March and June 1998, using sensors placed at three equally spaced levels on a 18 m high mast. We found a significant decrease in the optical turbulence over the height of the mast with a mean value of 0.32'' for the 12 to 18 m slab and 1.28'' for the 6 to 12 m slab. For Devasthal site, a seeing of ~ 0.6'' can be achieved, if the telescope is located at a height of ~ 13 m above the ground.

  11. Tokamak dust particle size and surface area measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W.J.; Smolik, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Hembree, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    The INEEL has analyzed a variety of dust samples from experimental tokamaks: General Atomics` DII-D, Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s Alcator CMOD, and Princeton`s TFTR. These dust samples were collected and analyzed because of the importance of dust to safety. The dust may contain tritium, be activated, be chemically toxic, and chemically reactive. The INEEL has carried out numerous characterization procedures on the samples yielding information useful both to tokamak designers and to safety researchers. Two different methods were used for particle characterization: optical microscopy (count based) and laser based volumetric diffraction (mass based). Surface area of the dust samples was measured using Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller, BET, a gas adsorption technique. The purpose of this paper is to present the correlation between the particle size measurements and the surface area measurements for tokamak dust.

  12. Secondary electron emission from the surface covered by a dust layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richterova, Ivana; Vaverka, Jakub; Pavlu, Jiri; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Bodies immersed in the plasma are charged to the floating potential that is determined by a balance of the currents onto/from the surface. The collection of charged particles and the photoemission current dominate but if the temperature of the electron component of the ambient plasma is high enough (10 eV or more) the secondary electron emission current should be considered. For an explanation of observed surface potentials of the bodies covered with a dust layer like the Moon, a depression of the secondary electron emission yield by a factor of 2 or 3 with respect to the smooth planar surface is expected. However, our previous calculations of an influence of the surface roughness on the secondary electron emission from dust grains have shown that these effects do not lead to required yield reduction. The present paper is devoted to a search for dust grain configurations on a planar surface that can provide the yield reduction consistent with observed surface potentials. The results are compared with the calculations of the yield from porous (lava type) surfaces. This approach can be also applied to other processes as the photoemission or ion induced electron emission.

  13. GYROSCOPIC PUMPING IN THE SOLAR NEAR-SURFACE SHEAR LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Miesch, Mark S.; Hindman, Bradley W.

    2011-12-10

    We use global and local helioseismic inversions to explore the prevailing dynamical balances in the solar near-surface shear layer (NSSL). The differential rotation and meridional circulation are intimately linked, with a common origin in the turbulent stresses of the upper solar convection zone. The existence and structure of the NSSL cannot be attributed solely to the conservation of angular momentum by solar surface convection, as is often supposed. Rather, the turbulent angular momentum transport accounts for the poleward meridional flow while the often overlooked meridional force balance is required to maintain the mid-latitude rotational shear. We suggest that the base of the NSSL is marked by a transition from baroclinic to turbulent stresses in the meridional plane which suppress Coriolis-induced circulations that would otherwise establish a cylindrical rotation profile. The turbulent angular momentum transport must be nondiffusive and directed radially inward. Inferred mean flows are consistent with the idea that turbulent convection tends to mix angular momentum but only if the mixing efficiency is inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic. The latitudinal and longitudinal components of the estimated turbulent transport are comparable in amplitude and about an order of magnitude larger than the vertical component. We estimate that it requires 2%-4% of the solar luminosity to maintain the solar NSSL against the inertia of the mean flow. Most of this energy is associated with the turbulent transport of angular momentum out of the layer, with a spin-down timescale of {approx}600 days. We also address implications of these results for numerical modeling of the NSSL.

  14. Analysis of Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layers for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Chaoyue; Posen, Sam; Hall, Daniel Leslie; Groll, Nickolas; Proslier, Thomas; Cook, Russell; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Liepe, Matthias; Pellin, Michael; Zasadzinski, John

    2015-02-23

    We present an analysis of Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layers grown on a bulk Niobium (Nb) coupon prepared at the same time and by the same vapor diffusion process used to make Nb{sub 3}Sn coatings on 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a well-developed, homogeneous superconducting density of states at the surface with a gap value distribution centered around 2.7 ± 0.4 meV and superconducting critical temperatures (T{sub c}) up to 16.3 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy performed on cross sections of the sample's surface region shows an ∼2 μm thick Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layer. The elemental composition map exhibits a Nb:Sn ratio of 3:1 and reveals the presence of buried sub-stoichiometric regions that have a ratio of 5:1. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments indicate a polycrystalline Nb{sub 3}Sn film and confirm the presence of Nb rich regions that occupy about a third of the coating volume. These low T{sub c} regions could play an important role in the dissipation mechanisms occurring during RF tests of Nb{sub 3}Sn-coated Nb cavities and open the way for further improving a very promising alternative to pure Nb cavities for particle accelerators.

  15. Analysis on the formation and growth of condensing aerosol particles in a turbulent mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kun; Attili, Antonio; Al-Shaarawi, Amjad; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2013-11-01

    A simulation of the formation and growth of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) particles in a three-dimensional turbulent mixing layer is performed to investigate the effects of turbulence on the aerosol evolution. A fast, hot stream with DBP vapor is mixed with a slow, cold stream achieving supersaturation by turbulent mixing. The aerosol dynamics are solved with the quadrature method of moments, and the moments are transported via a Lagrangian particles scheme. The results show that aerosol particles are formed in the cold stream, while they grow rapidly in the hot stream. The differential diffusion of temperature/vapor concentration and aerosol particles is investigated through conditional statistics in the mixture fraction space. Aerosol particles formed in the cold stream tend to drift towards the hot stream and grow substantially there.

  16. A Lagrangian-Eulerian model of particle dispersion in a turbulent plane mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. A.; Costa, V. A. F.; Baliga, B. R.

    2002-10-01

    A Lagrangian-Eulerian model for the dispersion of solid particles in a two-dimensional, incompressible, turbulent flow is reported and validated. Prediction of the continuous phase is done by solving an Eulerian model using a control-volume finite element method (CVFEM). A Lagrangian model is also applied, using a Runge-Kutta method to obtain the particle trajectories. The effect of fluid turbulence upon particle dispersion is taken into consideration through a simple stochastic approach. Validation tests are performed by comparing predictions for both phases in a particle-laden, plane mixing layer airflow with corresponding measurements formerly reported by other authors. Even though some limitations are detected in the calculation of particle dispersion, on the whole the validation results are rather successful.

  17. Method of evaluating the integrity of the outer carbon layer of triso-coated reactor fuel particles

    DOEpatents

    Caputo, Anthony J. (Knoxville, TN); Costanzo, Dante A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lackey, Jr., Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Layton, Frank L. (Clinton, TN); Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for determining defective final layers of carbon on triso-coated fuel particles and the like. Samples of the particles are subjected to a high temperature treatment with gaseous chlorine and thereafter radiographed. The chlorine penetrates through any defective carbon layer and reacts with the underlying silicon carbide resulting in the volatilization of the silicon as SiCl.sub.4 leaving carbon as a porous layer. This porous carbon layer is easily detected by the radiography.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring surface density of explosive and inert dust in stratified layers

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Perlee, Henry E.

    1988-01-01

    A method for determining the surface density of coal dust on top of rock dust or rock dust on top of coal dust is disclosed which comprises directing a light source at either a coal or rock dust layer overlaying a substratum of the other, detecting the amount of light reflected from the deposit, generating a signal from the reflected light which is converted into a normalized output (V), and calculating the surface density from the normalized output. The surface density S.sub.c of coal dust on top of rock dust is calculated according to the equation: S.sub.c =1/-a.sub.c ln(V) wherein a.sub.c is a constant for the coal dust particles, and the surface density S.sub.r of rock dust on top of coal dust is determined by the equation: ##EQU1## wherein a.sub.r is a constant based on the properties of the rock dust particles. An apparatus is also disclosed for carrying out the method of the present invention.

  19. Characterization of nano-sized iron particle layers spin coated on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehipawala, Sunil; Samarasekara, Pubudu; Dahanayake, Rasika; Tremberger, George; Cheung, Tak D.; Gafney, Harry D.

    2015-08-01

    Nanometer scale iron particles have a variety of technological applications. They are vastly utilized in optical and microwave devices. Thin films with varying compositions of iron (III) nitrate and ethylene glycol were deposited on glass substrate using a spin coating technique. The thicknesses of the films were controlled by the spin rate. Precursor films on the substrate were then annealed to different temperatures ranging from 200C to 600C for 1-3 hours in air. The microstructures of iron particles in films prepared under different conditions were investigated using X-ray Absorption spectroscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The main absorption edge peak position and pre-edge energy position were identical in samples with different numbers of layers, but prepared under similar conditions. This indicates that there was no change in the charge state of the iron regardless of the number of layers. However the intensity of the pre-edge feature decreases as the number of layers increases, which shows a decrease of Fe-O compounds as the number of layers increases. Mossbauer spectrum of these iron particles contains only quadrupole doublets. The absence of six-linespectrum confirms the nano-size nature of the particles.

  20. Airborne observations of new particle formation events in the boundary layer using a Zeppelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mirme, Sander; Pullinen, Iida; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kontkanen, Jenni; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Ehn, Mikael; Mentel, Thomas F.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a frequent and ubiquitous process in the atmosphere and a major source of newly formed aerosol particles [1]. However, it is still unclear how the aerosol particle distribution evolves in space and time during an NPF. We investigated where in the planetary boundary layer does NPF begin and how does the aerosol number size distribution develop in space and time during it. We measured in Hyytiälä, southern Finland using ground based and airborne measurements. The measurements were part of the PEGASOS project. NPF was studied on six scientific flights during spring 2013 using a Zeppelin NT class airship. Ground based measurements were simultaneously conducted at SMEAR II station located in Hyytiälä. The flight profiles over Hyytiälä were flown between sunrise and noon during the growth of the boundary layer. The profiles over Hyytiälä covered vertically a distance of 100-1000 meters reaching the mixed layer, stable (nocturnal) boundary layer and the residual layer. Horizontally the profiles covered approximately a circular area of four kilometers in diameter. The measurements include particle number size distribution by Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS), Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) [2], meteorological parameters and position (latitude, longitude and altitude) of the Zeppelin. Beginning of NPF was determined from an increase in 1.7-3 nm ion concentration. Height of the mixed layer was estimated from relative humidity measured on-board the Zeppelin. Particle growth rate during NPF was calculated. Spatial inhomogeneities in particle number size distribution during NPF were located and the birthplace of the particles was estimated using the growth rate and trajectories. We observed a regional NPF event that began simultaneously and evolved uniformly inside the mixed layer. In the horizontal direction we observed a long and narrow high concentration plume of growing particles that moved over the measurement site. The particles of the regional event as well as the particles of the plume were uniformly distributed in the vertical direction and showed a similar growth rate of approximately 2 nm/h. The plume caused sharp discontinuities in the number size distribution of the growing particle mode. These kinds of discontinuities are seen quite often on SMEAR II data during NPF events and it is likely that they are caused by inhomogeneous NPF in the horizontal direction (possibly narrow long plumes). This work is supported by European Commission under the Framework Programme 7 (FP7-ENV-2010-265148) and by the Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence program (project no. 1118615). The Zeppelin is accompanied by an international team of scientists and technicians. They are all warmly acknowledged. References [1] Kulmala, M., et al., (2013), Direct Observations of Atmospheric Aerosol Nucleation, Science, 339, 943-946 [2] Kulmala, M., et al., (2012), Measurement of the nucleation of atmospheric aerosol particles, Nature Protocols, 7, 1651-1667

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of a superficially porous particle with unique, elongated pore channels normal to the surface.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ta-Chen; Mack, Anne; Chen, Wu; Liu, Jia; Dittmann, Monika; Wang, Xiaoli; Barber, William E

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, superficially porous particles (SPPs) have drawn great interest because of their special particle characteristics and improvement in separation efficiency. Superficially porous particles are currently manufactured by adding silica nanoparticles onto solid cores using either a multistep multilayer process or one-step coacervation process. The pore size is mainly controlled by the size of the silica nanoparticles and the tortuous pore channel geometry is determined by how those nanoparticles randomly aggregate. Such tortuous pore structure is also similar to that of all totally porous particles used in HPLC today. In this article, we report on the development of a next generation superficially porous particle with a unique pore structure that includes a thinner shell thickness and ordered pore channels oriented normal to the particle surface. The method of making the new superficially porous particles is a process called pseudomorphic transformation (PMT), which is a form of micelle templating. Porosity is no longer controlled by randomly aggregated nanoparticles but rather by micelles that have an ordered liquid crystal structure. The new particle possesses many advantages such as a narrower particle size distribution, thinner porous layer with high surface area and, most importantly, highly ordered, non-tortuous pore channels oriented normal to the particle surface. This PMT process has been applied to make 1.8-5.1μm SPPs with pore size controlled around 75Å and surface area around 100m(2)/g. All particles with different sizes show the same unique pore structure with tunable pore size and shell thickness. The impact of the novel pore structure on the performance of these particles is characterized by measuring van Deemter curves and constructing kinetic plots. Reduced plate heights as low as 1.0 have been achieved on conventional LC instruments. This indicates higher efficiency of such particles compared to conventional totally porous and superficially porous particles. PMID:26920663

  2. Bombarding effects of gas cluster ion beams on sapphire surfaces: Characteristics of modified layers and their mechanical and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, D.; Matsuo, J.; Yamada, I.

    1996-12-31

    Gas cluster ions contain tens, hundreds or even more than thousands of atoms or molecules as ionized particles. It has been shown that the bombarding effects of gas cluster ions on solid surfaces are quite different from those by monomer ions and involve unique material processing characteristics. In order to make clear the bombarding effects, a study of surface modification of sapphire by Ar and CO{sub 2} gas cluster ion beams has been performed. Thickness of the damaged layer and surface roughness produced on sapphire depends strongly on cluster ion energy. Damage layer thickness on a sapphire surface bombarded by 150 keV clusters with average size of about 3,000 atoms was 40 {angstrom}. No significant difference was observed in IR transmittance after cluster bombardment. Mechanical properties of sapphire surfaces can be changed by cluster irradiation at a dose of 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Investigation of surface properties of soil particles and model materials with contrasting hydrophobicity using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuying; Bryant, Robert; Doerr, Stefan H; Wright, Christopher I; Williams, P Rhodri

    2009-09-01

    Surface images and force measurements obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to assess the hydrophobicity of particles from soils and model soil material (smooth glass and acid-washed sand (AWS) exposed to soil-derived humic acid (HA) or lecithin (LE)). Height and phase images, and phase distributions (from soil particles) show complex morphology and heterogeneously distributed organic matter. Forces at model surfaces indicate that, in air, reduction in adhesion corresponded with increased hydrophobicity, but in water, corresponded with a decrease (and serve to guide interpretation of data from natural particles). Adhesion forces on hydrophobic soil particles in water were larger than those for hydrophilic ones, but surface roughness and complexity may obscure any opposite trend for measurements in air. Combination of force measurements, applied forthe first time to soil particles, together with those on model surfaces, and independent assessments of hydrophobicity of corresponding single particle layers, indicate good, but not consistent qualitative agreement between hydophobicity at bulk and nanoscales. AFM is likely to facilitate detailed evaluation of soil particle surface hydrophobicity, which contributes to bulk wetting behavior of soils and other porous systems, including assessments of the potential for contributons to supehydrophobicity from surfaces at the micro- and nanoscales. PMID:19764208

  4. In situ observation of oxidation of liquid droplets of tin and melting behavior of a tin particle covered with a tin oxide layer.

    PubMed

    Mima, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Hironori; Arai, Shigeo; Kishita, Keisuke; Kuroda, Kotaro; Saka, Hiroyasu

    2009-03-01

    Oxidation of a liquid droplet of tin (Sn) was observed using an in situ specimen heating holder in an oxygen environment. The surface of the Sn liquid droplet was covered with a tin oxide layer, Sn(3)O(4), the thickness of which depended on the oxygen pressure and temperature. Subsequent cooling of the droplet resulted in the formation of a solid Sn particle covered with a Sn(3)O(4) layer. The solid Sn particle was then heated above the melting temperature of Sn, and the melting behavior of Sn was observed. PMID:19156703

  5. Novel routes for direct preparation of surface-modifying polyelectrolyte layers and patterned polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankhe, Amit Y.

    The focus of this research was on the use of surface-confined atom transfer radical polymerization (SC-ATRP) for growing surface-tethered brushes of electrolytic or charged monomers on solid substrates. The use of SC-ATRP to produce well-defined polymer brushes from monomers with non-ionic functionalities in aprotic solvents has been well documented. Although it is possible to produce PE brushes by postpolymerization chemical conversion of some neutral brushes, this approach limits the types of PE brushes that can be produced and uses organic solvents. Thus, to more widely open the design envelope in terms of types of PE brushes that can be made and to reduce the use of organic solvents, it would be beneficial to directly synthesize PE brushes using more environmentally friendly, "green" solvents, such as water, for the reaction media. But the direct ATRP of hydrophilic monomers with ionic groups presents new challenges due to the complex interactions of the charged monomers and water with the ATRP catalyst. In this dissertation, I report findings on SC-ATRP of charged monomers such as itaconic acid (IA), methacrylic acid (MAA) and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (SS) in aqueous solutions. Surface-tethered polyelectrolyte brushes comprised of poly(itaconic acid) (PIA), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) were grown using surface-confined atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The surface-tethered initiator monolayer was formed by self-assembling 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide terminated thiol molecules on gold coated silicon substrates. This polymerization initiator molecule and a copper-based organometallic catalyst allowed tethered polyelectrolyte chains to be grown via radical polymerization at room temperature in aqueous solutions. To suppress consumption of the ATRP deactivator, a halide salt was added to the reaction mixture, which enabled controlled growth of the polyelectrolyte layers. Phase-modulated ellipsometry was used to follow the kinetics of layer growth and also to study the stretching and swelling behavior of the polyelectrolyte layers as a function of pH. It was found that the change in layer thickness of the diacid PIA brush was greater than that of the monoacid PMAA brush. Combining inkjet printing and atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) provides a facile and versatile method for producing patterned surfaces that may serve as platforms for a variety of applications. Through this dissertation, I also report the use of drop-on-demand technology to print chemically-graded interfacial layers or simple patterns that allow surface wetting characteristics to be tailored. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Selective co-deposition of anionic silica particles at hydrophobic surfaces from formulations of oppositely charged polymers and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Johnson, Eric S; Nylander, Tommy; Ellingson, Pete; Schubert, Beth; Piculell, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The surface-selective surface deposition of anionic hydrophilic silica particles from aqueous polymer-surfactant formulations was investigated by in-situ null-ellipsometry. The formulations, with or without silica particles, contained anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and a cationic polymer, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose (cat-HEC) or a copolymer of acrylamide and methacrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride (AAm/MAPTAC). Surface deposition from the formulations onto model surfaces of either anionic hydrophilic, or hydrophobized, silica was induced by controlled dilution of the formulations into the coacervation region, and was monitored with time by ellipsometry. The dilution simulated a rinsing process in a typical application. In all cases a steady-state surface layer remained after extensive dilution. An enhanced deposition from the silica-containing formulations was found on the hydrophobized silica surface, indicating a substantial co-deposition of silica particles. Much less co-deposition, or none at all, was found on hydrophilic silica. The opposite trend, enhanced co-deposition on hydrophilic silica, was previously found in similar experiments with hydrophobic silicone oil droplets as co-deposants (Clauzel et al., 2011). The amphiphilic cationic polymers evidently favor a "mismatched" co-deposition of anionic particles to hydrophobic surfaces, or vice versa. The findings suggest a strategy for surface-specific delivery of particles to surfaces. PMID:26802279

  7. Surface composition of solid-rocket exhausted aluminum oxide particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Winstead, Edward L.; Key, Lawrence E.

    1989-01-01

    Particulate samples of aluminum oxide were collected on Teflon filters from the exhaust plume of the Space Shuttle (STS-61A, October 30, 1985) over the altitude interval 4.6-7.6 km immediately after launch. These particles were analyzed using SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy, and conventional wet-chemical techniques. The samples were 0.6-1.0 percent surface-chlorided (chlorided meaning predominantly aluminum chlorides and oxychlorides, possibly including other adsorbed forms of chloride) by weight. This level of chloriding is about one-third of the amount determined previously from laboratory-prepared alumina and surface site samples of solid-rocket-produced alumina (SRPA) after both had been exposed to moist HCl vapor at temperatures down to ambient. This level is equivalent to previous laboratory results with samples exposed to moist HCl at temperatures above the boiling point of water. It is suggested that the present lower chloriding levels, determined for samples from a 'dry' Shuttle exhaust cloud, underscore the importance of a liquid water/hydrochloric acid phase in governing the extent of surface chloriding of SRPA. The reduced chloriding is not trivial with respect to potential physical/chemical modification of the SRPA particle surfaces and their corresponding interaction with the atmosphere.

  8. Exothermic surface chemistry on aluminum particles promoting reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulamba, Oliver; Pantoya, Michelle L.

    2014-10-01

    The exothermic surface chemistry associated with the alumina passivation shell surrounding aluminum (Al) particles and fluorine from fluoropolymer materials is investigated. In particular, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been synthesized with varying chain lengths and combined with nanometric Al fuel particles. The Al-PTFE kinetics were analyzed using equilibrium diagnostics including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for calorific and phase change behavior coupled with additional flame speed measurements. The objective was to understand the effects of varying PTFE molecular structure on the kinetic and energy propagation behaviors of these composites. Results showed a pre-ignition reaction (PIR) with longer chained PTFE samples and not with the shorter chained PTFE samples. The PIR is attributed to fluorine dislodging hydroxyls from the alumina (Al2O3) passivation surface and forming Al-F structures. Composites exhibiting the PIR correspondingly result in significantly higher flame speeds. The PIR surface chemistry may contribute to promoting the melt dispersion mechanism (MDM) responsible for propagating energy in nano Al reactions. Composites with a PIR also have higher heats of combustion in both the PIR and main reaction exotherms. These results help elucidate the influence of molecular scale surface chemistry on macroscopic energy propagation.

  9. High-Speed Transport of Fluid Drops and Solid Particles via Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Lih, Shyh-shiuh

    2012-01-01

    A compact sampling tool mechanism that can operate at various temperatures, and transport and sieve particle sizes of powdered cuttings and soil grains with no moving parts, has been created using traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs) that are emitted by an inter-digital transducer (IDT). The generated waves are driven at about 10 MHz, and it causes powder to move towards the IDT at high speed with different speeds for different sizes of particles, which enables these particles to be sieved. This design is based on the use of SAWs and their propelling effect on powder particles and fluids along the path of the waves. Generally, SAWs are elastic waves propagating in a shallow layer of about one wavelength beneath the surface of a solid substrate. To generate SAWs, a piezoelectric plate is used that is made of LiNbO3 crystal cut along the x-axis with rotation of 127.8 along the y-axis. On this plate are printed pairs of fingerlike electrodes in the form of a grating that are activated by subjecting the gap between the electrodes to electric field. This configuration of a surface wave transmitter is called IDT. The IDT that was used consists of 20 pairs of fingers with 0.4-mm spacing, a total length of 12.5 mm. The surface wave is produced by the nature of piezoelectric material to contract or expand when subjected to an electric field. Driving the IDT to generate wave at high amplitudes provides an actuation mechanism where the surface particles move elliptically, pulling powder particles on the surface toward the wavesource and pushing liquids in the opposite direction. This behavior allows the innovation to separate large particles and fluids that are mixed. Fluids are removed at speed (7.5 to 15 cm/s), enabling this innovation of acting as a bladeless wiper for raindrops. For the windshield design, the electrodes could be made transparent so that they do not disturb the driver or pilot. Multiple IDTs can be synchronized to transport water or powder over larger distances. To demonstrate the transporting action, a video camera was used to record the movement. The speed of particles was measured from the video images.

  10. Surface acoustic wave concentration of particle and bioparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Friend, James R; Yeo, Leslie Y

    2007-10-01

    A rapid particle concentration method in a sessile droplet has been developed using asymmetric surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation on a substrate upon which the droplet is placed. Due to the asymmetry in the SAW propagation, azimuthal bulk liquid recirculation (acoustic streaming) is generated. Once the local particle concentration is sufficiently high within a particular streamline of the acoustic streaming convective flow, shear-induced migration gives rise to an inward radial force that concentrates the particles at the centre of the droplet. In this paper, a SAW device consists of a 0.75-mm thick, 127.68 degrees Y-X-axis-rotated cut, X-propagating LiNbO3 for a substrate and an interdigital transducer electrode (IDT) with 25 straight finger pairs in a simple repeating pattern, 12 mm aperture, and a wavelength of lambda=440 microm was patterned on the substrate. The IDT was then driven with a sinusoidal signal at the resonance frequency f0 of 8.611 MHz. To investigate the effect of particle type and size on the concentration process, three types of particles were used in this study, including fluorescent particles (1 microm), polystyrene microspheres (3, 6, 20, 45 microm), and living yeast cells (10-20 microm). Different RF powers were applied ranging from 120 to 510 mW. The concentration processes occurs within 2 to 20 s, depending on the particle size, type and input radio frequency (RF) power, much faster than currently available particle concentration mechanisms due to the large convective velocities achieved using the SAW device. Moreover, this concentration method is efficient, concentrating the particles into an aggregate one-tenth the size of the original droplet. Most importantly, bioparticles can also be concentrated by this method; we have verified that yeast cells are not lysed by the SAW radiation during concentration. By using the rapid concentration process described in this work, the breadth of applications and measurement sensitivity of SAW biosensor systems should be greatly enhanced. PMID:17530412

  11. Erosion in disturbed liquid/particle pipe flow: Effects of flow geometry and particle surface roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Postlethwaite, J.; Nesic, S. . Dept of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    Erosion rates were measured along the length of a tubular flow cell of type 304 (UNS S30400) stainless steel (SS) carrying dilute slurries of silica sand (0.43 mm diam) and smooth glass beads of a similar size. The segmented test cell contained a sudden constriction, a sudden expansion, and a groove to produce disturbed flow conditions. Erosion rates were reduced by changes in the cell wall geometry that resulted from erosion at positions of high local metal loss and from erosion further downstream because of the reduction in turbulence and particle dispersion. Smoothing of the sand particles in the test system halved the erosion rates; however, reduced erosion rates obtained with the sand were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those produced with the glass beads. This difference was attributed to surface microroughness of the particles.

  12. Producing Nanocomposite Layer on the Surface of As-Cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy by Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, P.; Besharati Givi, M. K.; Faraji, G.

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is an effective tool to produce a surface composite layer with enhanced mechanical properties and modified microstructure of as-cast and sheet metals. In the present work, the mechanical and microstructural properties of as-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy were enhanced by FSP and an AZ91/SiC surface nanocomposite layer has been produced using 30 nm SiC particles. Effect of the FSP pass number on the microstructure, grain size, microhardness, and powder distributing pattern of the surface developed has been investigated. The developed surface nanocomposite layer presents a higher hardness, an ultra fine grain size and a better homogeneity. Results show that, increasing the number of FSP passes enhances distribution of nano-sized SiC particles in the AZ91 matrix, decreases the grain size, and increases the hardness significantly. Also, changing of the tool rotating direction results much uniform distribution of the SiC particles, finer grains, and a little higher hardness.

  13. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of theoretical calculation methods, more experimental measurement results and data analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04366b

  14. Motion of particles with inertia in a compressible free shear layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, M.; Lele, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the inertia of a particle on its flow-tracking accuracy and particle dispersion are studied using direct numerical simulations of 2D compressible free shear layers in convective Mach number (Mc) range of 0.2 to 0.6. The results show that particle response is well characterized by tau, the ratio of particle response time to the flow time scales (Stokes' number). The slip between particle and fluid imposes a fundamental limit on the accuracy of optical measurements such as LDV and PIV. The error is found to grow like tau up to tau = 1 and taper off at higher tau. For tau = 0.2 the error is about 2 percent. In the flow visualizations based on Mie scattering, particles with tau more than 0.05 are found to grossly misrepresent the flow features. These errors are quantified by calculating the dispersion of particles relative to the fluid. Overall, the effect of compressibility does not seem to be significant on the motion of particles in the range of Mc considered here.

  15. A Study of the Surface Photovoltage of ZnO-Resin Layers.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, I; Kimura, T; Endo, K

    1969-01-01

    The surface photovoltage of ZnO resin layer has been used as the basis for an imaging process generally known as chargeless electrophotography. This paper explores effects of the ambient air pressure and the layer temperature on the surface photovoltage of ZnO resin layers. Experiments were made by using ZnO-silicone resin layer, ZnO-alkyd resin layer, and ZnO-acryl resin layer. The surface potential of the dark adapted layers were measured while the ambient air pressure decreased, and the surface photovoltage and its decay curve were measured under various ambient air pressures. ZnO-silicone resin layer showed a remarkably high sensitivity in terms of surface photovoltage to the ambient air pressure changes. Marked variations were observed in the surface potential of the dark adapted layers both in air and in a vacuum of 5 x 10(-5) Torr when the layer temperature had been slowly raised. The surface potential exhibited a maximum peak when silicone resin was used as a binder and a minimum peak when alkyd resin or acryl resin was used, both peaks being registered at a temperature slightly higher than room temperature in air. After the layers had been annealed for a few hours at a high temperature, relationships between the surface photovoltage and the layer temperature were measured while the layer temperature decreased. The surface photovoltage and its decay of the ZnO-silicone resin layer revealed higher sensitivity to the changes of ambient air pressure and layer temperature than to those of other ZnO-resin layers. This difference is accounted for by a specific property of the silicone resin that enforces adsorption of the water molecule onto the surface of ZnO. Some applications of the above experiments are also discussed. PMID:20076122

  16. The Point of Departure of a Particle Sliding on a Curved Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    A particle is thrown tangentially on a surface. It is shown that for some surfaces and for special initial velocities the thrown particle immediately leaves the surface, and for special conditions it never leaves the surface. The conditions for leaving the surface are investigated. The problem is studied for a surface with the cross-section y =…

  17. The Point of Departure of a Particle Sliding on a Curved Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    A particle is thrown tangentially on a surface. It is shown that for some surfaces and for special initial velocities the thrown particle immediately leaves the surface, and for special conditions it never leaves the surface. The conditions for leaving the surface are investigated. The problem is studied for a surface with the cross-section y =

  18. A detailed look beneath the surface: Evidence of a surface reconstruction beneath a capping layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krull, D.; Tesch, M. F.; Schönbohm, F.; Lühr, T.; Keutner, C.; Berges, U.; Mertins, H.-Ch.; Westphal, C.

    2016-03-01

    Many physical effects are strongly depending on the composition of the interfaces between separating layers. Hence, the knowledge of the interfacial characteristics such as structure, chemical bonds, or magnetic properties of the corresponding materials is essential for an understanding and optimization of these effects. This study reports on a combined magnetic and structural analysis using X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) and transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect (T-MOKE). The information depth of these methods is demonstrated by investigating the uppermost GaAs(001) layer beneath a Fe-film and the interfacial regimes of Fe/GaAs(001) beneath an MgO capping layer. Iron was prepared on a clean GaAs(001) surface and a GaAs(001)-(4 × 2)-reconstructed surface. Beneath the Fe-film, the (4 × 2)-reconstruction is not lifted, which is clearly shown by the diffraction pattern of the GaAs(4 × 2)-Fe surface. It is shown that Fe inter-diffusion, resulting in an amorphous interface, is almost prevented by the Ga-rich reconstruction. The magneto-optical measurements with T-MOKE clearly demonstrated the Fe-interlayer in a ferromagnetic state. We find no evidence for magnetic properties neither within the signal of the GaAs-substrate nor the MgO-film.

  19. Material transport in a convective surface mixed layer under weak wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensa, Jean A.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Poje, Andrew C.; Imberger, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Flows in the upper ocean mixed layer are responsible for the transport and dispersion of biogeochemical tracers, phytoplankton and buoyant pollutants, such as hydrocarbons from an oil spill. Material dispersion in mixed layer flows subject to diurnal buoyancy forcing and weak winds (| u10 | = 5m s-1) are investigated using a non-hydrostatic model. Both purely buoyancy-forced and combined wind- and buoyancy-forced flows are sampled using passive tracers, as well as 2D and 3D particles to explore characteristics of horizontal and vertical dispersion. It is found that the surface tracer patterns are determined by the convergence zones created by convection cells within a time scale of just a few hours. For pure convection, the results displayed the classic signature of Rayleigh-Benard cells. When combined with a wind stress, the convective cells become anisotropic in that the along-wind length scale gets much larger than the cross-wind scale. Horizontal relative dispersion computed by sampling the flow fields using both 2D and 3D passive particles is found to be consistent with the Richardson regime. Relative dispersion is an order of magnitude higher and 2D surface releases transition to Richardson regime faster in the wind-forced case. We also show that the buoyancy-forced case results in significantly lower amplitudes of scale-dependent horizontal relative diffusivity, kD(ℓ), than those reported by Okubo (1970), while the wind- and buoyancy-forced case shows a good agreement with Okubo's diffusivity amplitude, and the scaling is consistent with Richardson's 4/3rd law, kD ∼ ℓ4/3. These modeling results provide a framework for measuring material dispersion by mixed layer flows in future observational programs.

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition of sodium percarbonate: role of the surface product layer.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    The reaction mechanism and overall kinetics of the thermal decomposition of sodium percarbonate crystals were investigated by thermoanalytical measurements and morphological observations. The reaction proceeds via a surface reaction and subsequent advancement of the as-produced reaction interface toward the center of the crystals, where the seemingly smooth mass-loss behavior can be described by the apparent activation energy Ea of ca. 100 kJ mol(-1). However, considering the rate behavior, as the reaction advances, it is expected that the secondary reaction step characterized by an autocatalytic rate behavior takes part in the overall reaction. The hindrance of the diffusional removal of the evolved gases by the surface product layer, Na2CO3, is the most probable reason for the change in the reaction mechanism. In the deceleration part of the first reaction step, the second reaction step is accelerated due to an increase in the water vapor pressure at the reaction interface inside the reacting particles. We also expect the self-generated reaction condition of the high water vapor pressure and the existence of liquid phase due to the formation of Na2CO3 whiskers as the solid product and the insensitive rate behavior of the second reaction step to a higher atmospheric water vapor pressure. A relevant reaction model for the thermal decomposition of SPC crystals are discussed by focusing on the role of the surface product layer. PMID:23402671

  1. Superhydrophobic surfaces: A model approach to predict contact angle and surface energy of soil particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirtcliffe, Neil; Hamlett, Christopher; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael; Bachmann, Joerg; Woche, S.

    2010-05-01

    C. Hamlett(a), G. McHALE(a), N. Shirtcliffe(a), M. Newton(a), S.K. Woche(b), and J. BACHMANN(b) aSchool of Science & Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK and bInstitute of Soil Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str.2, 30419, Hannover, Germany. Summary Wettability of soil affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. The problem of determining contact angles and surface energy of powders, such as soil particles, remains unsolved. So far, several theories and approaches have been proposed, but formulation of surface and interfacial free energy, as regards its components, is still a very debatable issue. In the present study, the general problem of the interpretation of contact angles and surface free energy on chemically heterogeneous and rough soil particle surfaces are evaluated by a reformulation of the Cassie-Baxter equation assuming that the particles are attached on to a plane and rigid surface. Compared with common approaches, our model considers a roughness factor which depends on the Young's Law contact angle determined by the surface chemistry. Results of the model are discussed and compared with independent contact angle measurements using the Sessile Drop and the Wilhelmy Plate methods. Based on contact angle data, the critical surface tension of the grains were determined by the method proposed by Zisman. Experiments were made with glass beads and three soil materials ranging from sand to clay. Soil particles were coated with different loadings of dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS) to vary the wettability. Varying the solid surface tension using DCDMS treatments provided pure water wetting behaviours ranging from wettable to extremely hydrophobic with contact angles >150. Results showed that the critical surface energy measured on grains with the highest DCDMS loadings was similar to the surface energy measured independently on ideal DCDMS -coated smooth glass plates, except for the clay soil. Contact angles measured on plane surfaces were related to contact angles measured on rough grain surfaces using the new model based on the combined Cassie-Baxter Wenzel equation which takes into account the particle packing density on the sample surface.

  2. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, N.B.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Alpen, E.L.

    1988-12-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. This study concerns the cell population and cell cycle kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain, and the effects of charged particle irradiations on this cell population. Quantitative high resolution autoradiography was used to study the kinetic parameters in this cell layer. This study should help in understanding the effects of these high-energy heavy ions on normal mammalian brain tissue. The response of the mammalian brain exposure to charged particle ionizing radiation may be extremely variable. It varies from minimal physiological changes to overt tissue necrosis depending on a number of factors such as: the administered dose, dose-rate, the volume of the irradiated tissue, and the biological end-point being examined.

  3. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  4. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have only a small effect on cloud properties in the investigated cases. This indicates that sub-grid scale spatial variability in the surface flux of sensible and latent heat and of sea salt aerosol may not be required in large scale and global models to describe marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness.

  5. Application of silicon surface barrier detector for fast neutral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Ohara, Y.; Konagai, C.; Kimura, H.

    1985-05-01

    A design study of a small-size neutral particle analyzer using a silicon surface barrier detector (SSD) is performed. The SSD is very sensitive to x rays or photons, so that a pair of 45/sup 0/ sector magnets to separate a reionized neutral from x rays and photons will be used for this analyzer. In order to examine the performance, the SSD was applied to measure the species ratio of the prototype neutral beam injector for JT-60. It was confirmed that the energy resolution was 12% at 40 keV and the linear relation between the incident energy of particles and the pulse height was held over the energy range from 16.7 to 100 keV. The species ratio measured by the SSD was in good agreement with that by the Doppler-shift spectrometer. The SSD has a sufficient capability for the energy analysis of fast neutrals.

  6. Surface studies with (clean) supported metal particles and clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppa, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    Small particles are ideal for combined studies with surface analytical and electron microscopy/diffraction methods. In this way crystallography, microstructure, morphology, physical stability, and electronic structure can be correlated directly with chemical reactivity. Various integrated experimental approaches for conducting model studies with UHV-evaporated particles have been successfully developed; they entail the use of TPD, AES, XPS, and work function measurements on one hand and standard TEM/TED, in-situ TEM/TED, and in-situ STED/TEM techniques on the other hand. The essential features of four particular experimental approaches are discussed and a selection of representative results is presented to illustrate the potential usefulness of such studies in the field of catalysis.

  7. Hydrate layers on ice particles and superheated ice: a {sup 1}H NMR microimaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Moudrakovski, I.L.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; McLaurin, G.E.; Simard, B.; Ripmeester, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    Recent observations on the interaction of methane gas with ice surfaces have led to the suggestion that the resulting hydrate layer prevents the encapsulated ice from melting at its usual temperature. This would require ice to exist in a superheated state. The authors have examined the product of the gas-solid reaction with {sup 1}H NMR imaging. The imaging experiments show that the hydrate-encapsulated ice is able to melt at its usual melting point. As a possible alternative model, the authors suggest that a considerable amount of ice inside the hydrate layer can be converted to hydrate and liquid water under isothermal and constant volume conditions, the hydrate layer acting as an insulating, semipermeable layer that insulates processes inside the hydrate layer from external bulk temperature and pressure measurements.

  8. Surface Preparation Effects for Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of ZnSe Layers on InGaP Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shinji; Nishikawa, Yukie; Onomura, Masaaki; Parbrook, Peter; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Hatakoshi, Genichi

    1994-05-01

    The effect of InGaP surface preparation has been investigated for the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of ZnSe. The net acceptor concentration profile near the interface of nitrogen-doped p-type ZnSe layers was strongly affected by the surface preparation of InGaP layers. The low net acceptor concentration region for the samples grown on a thermally treated (580C) or P2S5-treated InGaP surface was narrower than that region for the sample grown on a surface exposed to neither thermal treatment nor P2S5 treatment. Structures with InGaP buffer layers exposed to the surface treatments outlined here hold much promise for the reduction of the blue-green laser operation voltage.

  9. Wind induced mixing processes in the coastal surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraunie, Philippe; Schaeffer, Amandine; Molcard, Anne; Forget, Philippe; Garreau, Pierre; Poitevin, Joel

    2010-05-01

    Mesoscale and submescale patterns participate in mixing processes in the coastal surface layer. A process oriented numerical investigation using MARS 3D code and high resolution atmospheric forcing using AROME is presented by comparison with HF radar measurements in the Gulf of Lions, Western Mediterranean Sea. As a result, wind reversal conditions have been observed to be responsible for inertial motion and anticyclonic eddy formation when vertical mixing due to internal waves is expected to erode the halocline. Acknowledgements : MeteoFrance and Ifremer support Amandine Schaeffer's PhD. This work is part of the GIRAC project in the framework of the Pole Mer http://polemerpaca.tvt.fr/ References : Andr G., Garreau P., Garnier V., Fraunie P., 2005. Modelled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions. Ocean Dynamics, 55: 294-308 Andr G., Garreau P., Frauni P., (2009) Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimensional model, Cont. Shelf Res.29, 407-423 Bouttier F., 2007, "AROME, avenir de la prvision rgionale", La Mtorologie, 58, 12-20 Langlais C., Barnier B., Frauni P. and Schiller A. 2009b: Resolving the diurnal variability of atmospheric forcing in a coastal ocean circulation model of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): impact on the thermodynamical state of the upper ocean. Submitted. Schaeffer A. Molcard A. Forget P. Frauni P. Gareau P. Generation mechanism of sub-mesoscale eddy in the Gulf of Lions : radar observation and modelling. Submitted Xing J., A.M. Davies, P. Frauni, Model studies of near-inertial motion on the continental shelf off northeast Spain : a 3D/2D model comparison study, 24p, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C01017, doi:10.1029/2003JC001822, 2004.

  10. The surface and through crack problems in layered orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, Fazil; Wu, Binghua

    1991-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for a relatively accurate calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in a laminated orthotropic plate containing a through or part-through crack. The laminated plate is assumed to be under bending or membrane loading and the mode 1 problem is considered. First three transverse shear deformation plate theories (Mindlin's displacement based first-order theory, Reissner's stress-based first-order theory, and a simple-higher order theory due to Reddy) are reviewed and examined for homogeneous, laminated and heterogeneous orthotropic plates. Based on a general linear laminated plate theory, a method by which the stress intensity factors can be obtained in orthotropic laminated and heterogeneous plates with a through crack is developed. Examples are given for both symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated plates and the effects of various material properties on the stress intensity factors are studied. In order to implement the line-spring model which is used later to study the surface crack problem, the corresponding plane elasticity problem of a two-bonded orthotropic plated containing a crack perpendicular to the interface is also considered. Three different crack profiles: an internal crack, an edge crack, and a crack terminating at the interface are considered. The effect of the different material combinations, geometries, and material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors and on the power of stress singularity for a crack terminating at the interface is fully examined. The Line Spring model of Rice and Levy is used for the part-through crack problem. The surface crack is assumed to lie in one of the two-layered laminated orthotropic plates due to the limitation of the available plane strain results. All problems considered are of the mixed boundary value type and are reduced to Cauchy type of singular integral equations which are then solved numerically.

  11. Layer by layer removal of Au atoms from passivated Au(111) surfaces using the scanning tunneling microscope: Nanoscale ``paint stripping''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, J. M.; Yin, J.; Guo, Q.; Palmer, R. E.

    2002-04-01

    Layer by layer removal of gold atoms from the (111) surface of gold has been performed using the scanning tunneling microscope. The process is made possible by a chemisorbed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of dodecanethiol molecules on the surface, which gives rise to a reduced bonding strength between the top two layers of gold atoms. The gold atoms and associated adsorbed molecules are peeled off and displaced laterally by the STM tip, and the size of the modified area (down to 1010 nm) is more or less determined by the scan size.

  12. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes a plurality M of doped layers, where M is an integer greater than 1. The dopant sheet densities in the M doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. M-1 interleaved layers provided between the M doped layers are not deliberately doped (also referred to as "undoped layers"). Structures with M=2, M=3 and M=4 have been demonstrated and exhibit improved passivation.

  13. Electronic Surface Structures of Coal and Mineral Particles

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Mazumder; D.A. Lindquist; K.B. Tennal; Steve Trigwell; Steve Farmer; Albert Nutsukpul; Alex Biris

    2001-04-01

    Surface science studies related to tribocharging and charge separation studies were performed on electrostatic beneficiation of coal. In contrast to other cleaning methods, electrostatic beneficiation is a dry cleaning process requiring no water or subsequent drying. Despite these advantages, there is still uncertainty in implementing large scale commercial electrostatic beneficiation of coal. The electronic surface states of coal macerals and minerals are difficult to describe due to their chemical complexity and variability [1]. The efficiency in separation of mineral particles from organic macerals depends upon these surface states. Therefore, to further understand and determine a reason for the bipolar charging observed in coal separation, surface analysis studies using Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on coal samples and several materials that are used or considered for use in tribocharging. Electrostatic charging is a surface phenomenon, so the electronic surface states of the particles, which are influenced by the environmental conditions, determine both polarity and magnitude of tribocharging. UPS was used to measure the work function of the materials as typically used in ambient air. XPS was used to determine the surface chemistry in the form of contamination and degree of oxidation under the same environmental conditions. Mineral bearing coals are those amenable to electrostatic beneficiation. Three types of coal, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Kentucky No. 9 were investigated in this study. Pulverized coal powder was tribocharged against copper. Pyritic and other ashes forming minerals in coal powders should charge with a negative polarity from triboelectrification, and organic macerals should acquire positive charge, according to the relative differences in the surface work functions between the material being charged and the charging medium. Different types of minerals exhibit different magnitudes of negative charge and some may also charge positively against copper [2]. Only the mineral sulfur fraction of the total sulfur content is accessible by the electrostatic method since organic sulfur is covalently bound with carbon in macerals. The sizes of mineral constituents in coal range from about 0.1 to 100 {micro}m, but pyrites in many coals are on the lower end of this scale necessitating fine grinding for their liberation and separation. A ready explanation for coal powder macerals to charge positively by triboelectrification is found in the large numbers of surface carbon free radicals available to release electrons to form aromatic carbocations. There is evidence that these cationic charges are delocalized over several atoms [3]. Only perhaps one in one hundred thousand of the surface atoms is charged during triboelectrification [4], making it difficult to predict charging levels since the data depends upon the surface chemical species involved in charging. Based on the high electron affinity of oxygen atoms, oxidation is expected to decrease the extent of a coal particle to charge positively. Also, ion transfer may contribute to the increasingly negative charging character of oxidized coal carbons. A variety of oxidized surface functional groups may influence charge properties. For example, carboxylic acid functions can lose protons to form carboxylate anions. The samples of coal investigated in this study showed differing degrees of beneficiation, consistent with a more extensively oxidized Illinois No. 6 coal sample relative to that of Pittsburgh No. 8. Even though oxygen in air is deleterious to coal stored prior to beneficiation, other gases might favorably influence charge properties. To this end, coal exposed to vapors of acetone, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide also were beneficiated and analyzed in this study.

  14. Enhanced erythrocyte suspension layer stability achieved by surface tension lowering additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.; Absolom, D. R.; Van Oss, C. J.; Neumann, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a fractionation procedure involving the separation of particles, a dilute suspension of these particles in a liquid is carefully layered on a dense liquid. Under ideal conditions, the suspension forms a zone of finite thickness with a 'sharp' interface between the suspension layer and the supporting liquid. Under an applied field, e.g., gravitational or electrical, the particles in the suspension layer migrate to form different layers according to their size and/or density or according to their electrophoretic mobilities. However, in many cases the ideal conditions necessary for the fractionation process are not obtained. Many studies have been conducted to explore the reasons for suspension layer 'instability'. The present investigation represents an extension of a study conducted by Omenyi et al. (1981). An electrostatic repulsion-van der Waals mechanism was used to study the stability of fixed erythrocyte suspensions layered on a D2O cushion.

  15. Patterning of gold nanoparticles on fluoropolymer films by using patterned surface grafting and layer-by-layer deposition techniques.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak; Kwon, Oh-Sun; Shin, Kwanwoo

    2013-09-11

    The patterning of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the surface of a fluoropolymer substrate by using patterned surface grafting and layer-by-layer deposition techniques is described. The surface of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl ether) (PFA) substrate was selectively implanted with 150 keV proton ions. Peroxide groups were successfully formed on the implanted PFA surface, and their concentration depended on the fluence. Acrylic acid was graft polymerized onto the implanted regions of the PFA substrate, resulting in well-defined patterns of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on the PFA substrate. The surface properties of the PAA-patterned PFA surface, such as chemical compositions, wettability, and morphology, were investigated. The surface analysis results revealed that PAA was definitely present on the implanted regions of the PFA surface, and the degree of grafting was dependent on three factors: fluence, grafting time, and monomer concentration. Furthermore, GNP patterns were generated on the prepared PAA-patterned PFA surface by layer-by-layer deposition of GNPs and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride). The multilayers of GNPs were deposited only onto the PAA-grafted regions separated by bare PFA regions, and the resulting GNP patterns exhibited good electrical conductivity. PMID:23927646

  16. Retrieving the aerosol particle distribution in Titan's detached layer from ISS limb observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seignovert, B.; Rannou, P.; Lavvas, P.; Cours, T.; West, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    The study of the detached haze layer above Titan's thick atmosphere is one of the key elements to understand the growth of the aerosols in the upper atmosphere of Titan. In this work we will present the results of a radiative transfer inversion of the vertical profile distribution of aerosols in the detached haze layer (from 300 to 600 km) by using the I/F ratio ob- served by Cassini ISS camera. The analyses will focus on the derivation of the particle size distribution.

  17. Heat budget of the surface mixed layer south of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Vincent; Arhan, Michel; Speich, Sabrina; Gladyshev, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    ARGO hydrographic profiles, two hydrographic transects and satellite measurements of air-sea exchange parameters were used to characterize the properties and seasonal heat budget variations of the Surface Mixed Layer (SML) south of Africa. The analysis distinguishes the Subtropical domain (STZ) and the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and Antarctic Zone (AZ) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. While no Subantarctic Mode Water forms in that region, occurrences of deep SML (up to 450 m) are observed in the SAZ in anticyclones detached from the Agulhas Current retroflection or Agulhas Return Current. These are present latitudinally throughout the SAZ, but preferentially at longitudes 10-20 E where, according to previous results, the Subtropical Front is interrupted. Likely owing to this exchange window and to transfers at the Subantarctic Front also enhanced by the anticyclones, the SAZ shows a wide range of properties largely encroaching upon those of the neighbouring domains. Heat budget computations in each zone reveal significant meridional changes of regime. While air-sea heat fluxes dictate the heat budget seasonal variability everywhere, heat is mostly brought through lateral geostrophic advection by the Agulhas Current in the STZ, through lateral diffusion in the SAZ and through air-sea fluxes in the PFZ and AZ. The cooling contributions are by Ekman advection everywhere, lateral diffusion in the STZ (also favoured by the 10 breach in the Subtropical Front) and geostrophic advection in the SAZ. The latter likely reflects an eastward draining of water warmed through mixing of the subtropical eddies.

  18. Planetary boundary layer response to surface temperature anomalies forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Xavier; Lapeyre, Guillaume; Plougonven, Riwal

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies showed that strong sea surface temperature (SST) fronts, on the scale of the western boundary currents, strongly affect the planetary boundary layer (PBL) but also all the troposphere. This renewed the interest of air-sea interactions at oceanic meso-scales. Mainly two mechanisms are proposed in the literature, the first one (due to Wallace et al 1989) is based on the destabilization of the PBL above SST anomalies, the second one (Lindzen and Nigam 1987) is based on the pressure anomalies linked to the atmosphere temperature adjustment to the SST. These two mechanisms predict different responses of the PBL to the SST. We did numerical simulations with a meso-scale atmospheric model (WRF) with the same configuration as the one described in Lambert et al 2013. The model is forced by a SST anomaly which is first a zonally or meridionally constant field and secondly a field of meso-scale structures. Firstly we studied the influence of the initial wind strength on the PBL response for the two different types of SST anomalies. We showed that the dominant mechanism can change according to weak or strong wind and to the orientation of the SST anomaly. Secondly after considering a dry atmosphere we switched on the humidity in our configuration. We studied how it influences the PBL response and whether the mechanism driving the PBL response is still the same as in the dry case.

  19. Surface pressure fluctuations in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The surface pressure fluctuations on a flat plate model at hypersonic Mach numbers of 5.2, 7.4 and 10.4 with an attached turbulent boundary layer were measured using flush mounted small piezoelectric sensors. A high frequency resolution of the pressure field was achieved using specially designed small piezoelectric sensors that had a good frequency response well above 300 KHz. The RMS pressures and non-dimensional energy spectra for all above Mach numbers are presented. The convective velocities, obtained from space time correlation considerations are equal to 0.7 U sub infinity. The results indicate the RMS pressures vary from 5 to 25 percent of the mean static pressures. The ratios of RMS pressure to dynamic pressure are less than the universally accepted subsonic value of 6 x 10/3. The ratio decreases in value as the Mach number or the dynamic pressure is increased. The ratio of RMS pressure to wall shear for Mach number 7.4 satisfies one smaller than or equal to p/tau sub w smaller than or equal to three.

  20. Phosphate recovery from wastewater using engineered superparamagnetic particles modified with layered double hydroxide ion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Drenkova-Tuhtan, Asya; Mandel, Karl; Paulus, Anja; Meyer, Carsten; Hutter, Frank; Gellermann, Carsten; Sextl, Gerhard; Franzreb, Matthias; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2013-10-01

    An innovative nanocomposite material is proposed for phosphate recovery from wastewater using magnetic assistance. Superparamagnetic microparticles modified with layered double hydroxide (LDH) ion exchangers of various compositions act as phosphate adsorbers. Magnetic separation and chemical regeneration of the particles allows their reuse, leading to the successful recovery of phosphate. Based upon the preliminary screening of different LDH ion exchanger modifications for phosphate selectivity and uptake capacity, MgFe-Zr LDH coated magnetic particles were chosen for further characterization and application. The adsorption kinetics of phosphate from municipal wastewater was studied in dependence with particle concentration, contact time and pH. Adsorption isotherms were then determined for the selected particle system. Recovery of phosphate and regeneration of the particles was examined via testing a variety of desorption solutions. Reusability of the particles was demonstrated for 15 adsorption/desorption cycles. Adsorption in the range of 75-97% was achieved in each cycle after 1 h contact time. Phosphate recovery and enrichment was possible through repetitive application of the desorption solution. Finally, a pilot scale experiment was carried out by treating 125 L of wastewater with the particles in five subsequent 25 L batches. Solid-liquid separation on this scale was carried out with a high-gradient magnetic filter (HGMF). PMID:23863389

  1. Simple solution route to uniform MoS{sub 2} particles with randomly stacked layers

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qing; Li Ming; Chen Zhiqian; Li Chunmei

    2004-06-08

    MoS{sub 2} particles of uniform size (ca. 70 nm) consisting of random and loosely stacked layers have been synthesized from hydrazine solution with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Mo{sub 3}S{sub 13} as the precursor at 180 deg. C for 16 h under hydrothermal conditions. The particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM). The influences of reaction conditions are discussed while a mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of this peculiar morphology.

  2. Charged Particle Alterations of Surfaces in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The surfaces of 'airless' bodies in the solar system are exposed to the ambient plasma, micrometeorites, and the solar UV. The effects of these space weathering agents on surfaces in the solar system has been studied in this project. In the last three years work was carried out on volatile depletion at Mars, on sputtering of the lunar surface, on absorption by implanted S in vapor-deposited H2O and its relevance to observations of Europa's surface in the UV, and on the spectral changes produced on irradiating SO2 and its possible relevance to Io. In addition, the role of plasma-induced charging of E-ring grains was evaluated because of its relevance to E-ring particle source and the lifetime of the E-ring. Finally, the detection of sputtered material from Dione by the CAPS instrument on CASSINI was evaluated as a tool for analysis of satellite surface composition, and the role of sputtering on the ambient OH in the vicinity of the ice satellites and the E-ring was evaluated.

  3. Analytic expressions for atomic layer deposition: Coverage, throughput, and materials utilization in cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, the authors present analytic models for atomic layer deposition (ALD) in three common experimental configurations: cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial ALD. These models, based on the plug-flow and well-mixed approximations, allow us to determine the minimum dose times and materials utilization for all three configurations. A comparison between the three models shows that throughput and precursor utilization can each be expressed by universal equations, in which the particularity of the experimental system is contained in a single parameter related to the residence time of the precursor in the reactor. For the case of cross-flow reactors, the authors show how simple analytic expressions for the reactor saturation profiles agree well with experimental results. Consequently, the analytic model can be used to extract information about the ALD surface chemistry (e.g., the reaction probability) by comparing the analytic and experimental saturation profiles, providing a useful tool for characterizing new and existing ALD processes.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Momentum Transfer in a Neutral Boundary Layer over a Rough Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, Severine; Eiff, Olivier; Masson, Valery

    2011-03-01

    The turbulent characteristics of the neutral boundary layer developing over rough surfaces are not well predicted with operational weather-forecasting models. The problem is attributed to inadequate mixing-length models, to the anisotropy of the flow and to a lack of controlled experimental data against which to validate numerical studies. Therefore, in order to address directly the modelling difficulties for the development of a neutral boundary layer over rough surfaces, and to investigate the turbulent momentum transfer of such a layer, a set of hydraulic flume experiments were carried out. In the experiments, the mean and turbulent quantities were measured by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The measured velocity variances and fluxes {(overline{{ui^'{uj^')} in longitudinal vertical planes allowed the vertical and longitudinal gradients (?/? z and ?/? x) of the mean and turbulent quantities (fluxes, variances and third-order moments) to be evaluated and the terms of the evolution equations for ? e/? t, {partial overline{u^' 2}}/partial t}, {partial overline{w^' 2}}/partial t} and {partial overline{{u^'{w^'/partial t} to be quantified, where e is the turbulent kinetic energy. The results show that the pressure-correlation terms allow the turbulent energy to be transferred equitably from {overline{{u^'2}} to {overline{{w^'2}}. It appears that the repartition between the constitutive terms of the budget of e, {overline{{u^'2}}, {overline{{w^'2}} and {overline{{u^'{w^' is not significantly affected by the development of the rough neutral boundary layer. For the whole evolution, the transfers of energy are governed by the same terms that are also very similar to the smooth-wall case. The PIV measurements also allowed the spatial integral scales to be computed directly and to be compared with the dissipative and mixing length scales, which were also computed from the data.

  5. Estimation of new surface generation and energy analysis during particle fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Manoj; Tomas, Jrgen

    2013-06-01

    Breakage of particles is a common phenomenon in handling, storage, transportation and processing of particles. Severity of breakage depends on particle loading types and environment as well as on the particle properties and strengths. The loading energy applied to the particle is used to generate new surfaces in the particles; as a result fragmentation of particles occurs. In this regard, the paper estimates the new surface generation during particle fracture using discrete element modeling. The paper also deals with the compression and impact loading of particles.

  6. Linking Boundary Layer Circulations and Surface Processes during FIFE 89. Part II: Maintenance of Secondary Circulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, Mickey M.-K.; Smith, Eric A.

    1998-04-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions are examined for three different synoptic situations during a 21-day period in the course of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment 1989 to better understand the relationship between biophysical feedback processes, boundary layer structure, and circulations in the boundary layer. The objective is to understand how the secondary circulation discussed in Part I of this paper was able to sustain itself throughout the duration of the 1989 intensive field campaign. The study is based on diagnostic analysis of measurements obtained from a network of surface meteorology and energy budget stations, augmented with high vertical resolution radiosonde measurements. Shallow convection associated with an undisturbed boundary layer situation and rainfall occurring during two different disturbed boundary layer situations-one associated with a surface trough, the other with the passage of a cold front-led to markedly different impacts on the surface layer and the boundary layer recovery timescale. In the undisturbed case, the growth of a cloud layer produced a negative feedback on the boundary layer by stabilizing the surface layer, and cutting off the turbulence transport of heat and moisture into the subcloud layer. The deficits in heat and moisture then led to cloud dissipation. During the surface trough development and cold front passage events, rainfall reaching the surface led to the collapse of the surface layer, decrease of surface and subsurface soil temperatures, depressed sensible heating, and a slow reduction and even temporary termination of evapotranspiration. After the rains subsided, the boundary layer recovery process began with vigorous evapotranspiration rates drying the upper soil layers on a timescale of 1-2 days. During this period, 55%-65% of the net surface available heating was used for evapotranspiration, whereas only 30%-35% went directly into boundary layer heating. As the near-surface soil moisture dropped, surface sensible heating became more important in influencing boundary layer energetics. The boundary layer required approximately two days to recover to its initial temperature in the case of the surface trough. After passage of the cold front, both the soil and boundary layer cooled and dried due to cold temperature advection. Evapotranspiration rates remained relatively large for about two days after the frontal passage. The boundary layer had not completely recovered by the end of the intensive data collection period after the frontal passage, so recovery time was at least a week. The analysis shows that with the exception of three days during the surface trough event, and two or three days during the frontal passage event, the surface-driven secondary circulation persisted.

  7. Optical detector having a plurality of matrix layers with cobalt disilicide particles embedded therein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (inventor); Schowalter, Leo (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Silicon and metal are coevaporated onto a silicon substrate in a molecular beam epitaxy system with a larger than stoichiometric amount of silicon so as to epitaxially grow particles of metal silicide embedded in a matrix of single crystal epitaxially grown silicon. The particles interact with incident photons by resonant optical absorption at the surface plasmon resonance frequency. Controlling the substrate temperature and deposition rate and time allows the aspect ratio of the particles to be tailored to desired wavelength photons and polarizations. The plasmon energy may decay as excited charge carriers of phonons, either of which can be monitored to indicate the amount of incident radiation at the selected frequency and polarization.

  8. Effect of Surfaces on the Distribution of Orientations of Rod-Like Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Raffy; Gottlieb, Moshe; Mondy, Lisa A.; Graham, Alan L.

    2003-03-01

    The rheology and mechanical properties of suspensions, liquid-crystalline materials, and fiber-reinforced composites are determined to large extent by the concentration profile and the configuration distribution of the particles. The orientation distributions of non-Brownian, rigid rods in suspension are determined numerically for both confined and unbounded suspensions. The effects of fiber concentration, fiber length, and cylindrical container walls on the orientation state of a suspension of otherwise randomly oriented and distributed rod-like particles are examined. Experimental determination of the distribution of orientations in a suspension confined to a cylindrical vessel is used to validate the results of our computer simulation. For unbounded systems, the simulations correctly predict the theoretical departure from isotropic. For systems confined into cylinders the rods are not completely isotropic, even when the concentration of particles is very low. A linear dependence of the anisotropy on the concentration up to nL^3=76 is found. Finally, we determine that over a large range of concentrations and rod sizes above a critical ratio of container-diameter to rod-length of 2, the effect of solid surfaces is confined to a distance of half rod-length from the bounding surfaces. Despite the intrinsic biaxial orientation imposed by the curved solid surfaces we found no evidence for a logarithmically increasing boundary layer and the complete nematic wetting observed theoretically near flat walls following the uniaxial-biaxial phase transition.

  9. Evaluation of a surface panel method coupled with several boundary layer analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjelgaard, S. O.

    1983-01-01

    Three boundary layer models are interacted with an inviscid panel method to evaluate their capabilities to predict aerodynamic performance characteristics. These boundary layer models include two two-dimensional boundary layer models and one three-dimensional boundary layer model. Previously reported discrepancies between the transpiration and surface displacement inviscid boundary layer simulations are discussed and resolved. Results from each of the models are compared with experimental data.

  10. Ammonia Surface-Atmosphere Exchange in the Arctic Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. G.; Wentworth, G.; Tremblay, J. E.; Gagnon, J.; Côté, J. S.; Courchesne, I.

    2014-12-01

    The net flux of ammonia between the ocean and the atmosphere is poorly known on global and regional scales. Data from high-latitude research cruises suggest that deposition from the atmosphere to the surface dominates, but the magnitude and drivers of this flux are not well understood. In the polar marine boundary layer, the surface may be composed of not only open ocean, but also first-year or multi-year sea ice which may be covered with meltponds. To characterize the air-sea exchange of ammonia in the polar marine boundary layer, data were collected aboard the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen between July 10 and Aug 14, 2014 in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. The Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph was used to make hourly measurements of the mixing ratio of gas phase ammonia, and the water-soluble constituents of fine particle matter (PM2.5). Fluorometry was used to measure dissolved ammonium concentrations in the ocean between 0 and 20 m, and in low-salinity melt ponds encountered in regions of extensive sea ice. Observations indicate that the atmosphere contains higher levels of ammonia than are calculated to be in equilibrium with surface reservoirs, implying net deposition of ammonia from the atmosphere. While ammonium levels tended to be higher in melt ponds, the lower water temperatures still mean that these are unlikely to be sources of NH3 to the atmosphere. The disequilibrium between atmospheric and surface reservoirs of ammonia imply relatively large sources to the atmosphere (possibly nearby bird colonies) or high consumption rates in surface waters.

  11. Particle image velocimetry for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment using a particle displacement tracking technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Pline, Alexander D.

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electronic, two-dimensional particle image velocimetry technique called particle displacement tracking (PDT) which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. The PDT system is successful in producing velocity vector fields from the raw video data. Application of the PDT technique to a sample data set yielded 1606 vectors in 30 seconds of processing time. A bottom viewing optical arrangement is used to image the illuminated plane, which causes keystone distortion in the final recorded image. A coordinate transformation was incorporated into the system software to correct this viewing angle distortion. PDT processing produced 1.8 percent false identifications, due to random particle locations. A highly successful routine for removing the false identifications was also incorporated, reducing the number of false identifications to 0.2 percent.

  12. Particle image velocimetry for the surface tension driven convection experiment using a particle displacement tracking technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Pline, Alexander D.

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission planned for 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electronic, two-dimensional particle image velocimetry technique called particle displacement tracking (PDT) which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. The PDT system is successful in producing velocity vector fields from the raw video data. Application of the PDT technique to a sample data set yielded 1606 vectors in 30 seconds of processing time. A bottom viewing optical arrangement is used to image the illuminated plane, which causes keystone distortion in the final recorded image. A coordinate transformation was incorporated into the system software to correct this viewing angle distortion. PDT processing produced 1.8 percent false identifications, due to random particle locations. A highly successful routine for removing the false identifications was also incorporated, reducing the number of false identifications to 0.2 percent.

  13. Mass loading of soil particles on plant surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Radionuclide-bearing soil particles on plant surfaces can be ingested and contribute to human dose, but evaluating the potential dose is limited by the relatively few data available on the masses of soil particles present on plant surfaces. This report summarizes mass loading data (i.e., mass of soil per unit of vegetation) for crops in the southeastern United States and compares these data to (1) those from other regions and (2) the mass loadings used in radionuclide transfer models to predict soil contamination of plant surfaces. Mass loadings were estimated using the 238Pu content of crops as an indicator of soil on plant surfaces. Crops were grown in two soils: a sandy clay loam soil and a loamy sand soil. Concentrations of soil on southeastern crops (i.e., mg soil g-1 plant) differed by more than a factor of 100 due to differences in crop growth form and biomass. Mean concentrations ranged from 1.7 mg g-1 for corn to 260 mg g-1 for lettuce. Differences in mass loadings between soils were less than those among crops. Concentrations differed by less than a factor of two between the two soil types. Because of (1) the differences among crops and (2) the limited data available from other systems, it is difficult to draw conclusions regarding regional or climatic variation in mass loadings. There is, however, little evidence to suggest large differences among regions. The mass loadings used to predict soil contamination in current radionuclide transfer models appear to be less than those observed for most crops.

  14. Structural properties of particle deposits at heterogeneous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojiljković, D.; Šćepanović, J. R.; Vrhovac, S. B.; Švrakić, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    The random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach is used to analyze adsorption of spherical particles of a fixed radius on nonuniform flat surfaces covered by rectangular cells. The configuration of the cells (heterogeneities) was produced by performing RSA simulations to a prescribed coverage fraction θ_0{(cell)} . Adsorption was assumed to occur if the particle (projected) center lies within a rectangular cell area, i.e. if sphere touches the cells. The jammed-state properties of the model were studied for different values of cell size α (comparable with the adsorbing particle size) and density θ_0{(cell)} . Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, jamming coverage, and structure of coverings. Structural properties of the jammed-state coverings were analyzed in terms of the radial distribution function g(r) and distribution of the Delaunay ‘free’ volumes P(v). It was demonstrated that adsorption kinetics and the jamming coverage decreased significantly, at a fixed density θ_0{(cell)} , when the cell size α increased. The predictions following from our calculation suggest that the porosity (pore volumes) of deposited monolayer can be controlled by the size and shape of landing cells, and by anisotropy of the cell deposition procedure.

  15. Monolithic surface micromachined fluidic devices for dielectrophoretic preconcentration and routing of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Conrad D.; Okandan, Murat; Mani, Seethambal S.; Galambos, Paul C.; Shul, Randy

    2006-10-01

    We describe a batch fabrication process for producing encapsulated monolithic microfluidic structures. The process relies on sacrificial layers of silicon oxide to produce surface micromachined fluid channels. Bulk micromachined interconnects provide an interface between the microchannels and meso-scale fluidics. The full integration of the fabrication processing significantly increases device reproducibility and reduces long-term costs. The design and fabrication of dielectrophoresis (DEP) gating structures configured in both batch-flow and continuous-flow modes are detailed. Highly efficient microparticle preconcentration (up to ~100 in 100 s) and valving (97% particle routing efficiency) are demonstrated using ac DEP and an accompanying phase separation. The low aspect-ratio fluid channels with integrated microelectrodes are well suited for m and sub-m particle manipulation with electric fields.

  16. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, scar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures. PMID:26503506

  17. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-01

    Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  18. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures. PMID:26503506

  19. Mass transport of deposited particles by surface-to-surface contact.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, A; Sextro, R G; Byrne, M A

    2012-08-15

    The spread of particle-borne contamination by surface-to-surface contact and its implications for exposures within the indoor environment have been observed - largely qualitatively. The present study was conducted with the aim of quantifying the mass transfer efficiency (TE) of deposited aerosol particles when selected soft and hard surfaces come in contact. The surfaces used were 100% cotton, synthetic fleece, plastic laminate and brass. Contact transfer efficiencies ranging from 2 to 45% were observed; these are very significant numbers in terms of hazardous aerosol transport in the environment. Other observations include an increase in the mass transferred with increased surface roughness. An increase in the applied pressure between the two surfaces in contact leads to a step change in transfer efficiency, so that two pressure regimes can be identified, with a transition pressure between them that depends on surface type. Time of contact appears to have little to no effect on the mass transfer efficiency for the surfaces studied, while contaminant loading has some effect that is not systematic. PMID:22683108

  20. Modification of surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing lifetime of neutron tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. M.; Dvoichenkova, O. A.; Evsin, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The peculiarities of interaction of hydrogen ions with a titanium target and its surface oxide layer were studied. Two ways of modification of the surface oxide layers of titanium targets for increasing the lifetime of neutron tubes were proposed: (1) deposition of an yttrium oxide barrier layer on the target surface; (2) implementation of neutron tube work regime in which the target is irradiated with ions with energies lower than 1000 eV between high-energy ion irradiation pulses.

  1. Surface plasmon sensors on ZnO:Ga layer surfaces: Electric field distributions and absorption-sensitivity enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Ikehata, Akifumi; Tabata, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) on ZnO:Ga layer surfaces (ZnO-SPR) enhanced absorption bands related to molecular-vibrations (OH and CH3 modes) in the near-infrared range by controlling layer thickness. These behaviors were due to the interaction between SPR excitations and molecular vibrations. Further investigation revealed that the high detection sensitivity of SPRs on ZnO:Ga layer surfaces was 6837 nm/RIU using water and methanol mixtures. The detection region of ZnO-SPR was limited within several hundred nanometers from the layer surfaces, which is discussed relative to theoretical analysis of field distributions and spatial coherence of SPRs on ZnO:Ga layer surfaces.

  2. Observations of the sensitivity of beam attenuation to particle size in a coastal bottom boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. S.; Boss, E.; Newgard, J. P.; Law, B. A.; Milligan, T. G.

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the aggregated state of natural marine particles constrains the sensitivity of optical beam attenuation to particle size. An instrumented bottom tripod was deployed at the 12-m node of the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory to monitor particle size distributions, particle size-versus-settling-velocity relationships, and the beam attenuation coefficient (cp) in the bottom boundary layer in September 2007. An automated in situ filtration system on the tripod collected 24 direct estimates of suspended particulate mass (SPM) during each of five deployments. On a sampling interval of 5 min, data from a Sequoia Scientific LISST 100x Type B were merged with data from a digital floc camera to generate suspended particle volume size distributions spanning diameters from approximately 2 μm to 4 cm. Diameter-dependent densities were calculated from size-versus-settling-velocity data, allowing conversion of the volume size distributions to mass distributions, which were used to estimate SPM every 5 min. Estimated SPM and measured cp from the LISST 100x were linearly correlated throughout the experiment, despite wide variations in particle size. The slope of the line, which is the ratio of cp to SPM, was 0.22 g m-2. Individual estimates of cp:SPM were between 0.2 and 0.4 g m-2 for volumetric median particle diameters ranging from 10 to 150 μm. The wide range of values in cp:SPM in the literature likely results from three factors capable of producing factor-of-two variability in the ratio: particle size, particle composition, and the finite acceptance angle of commercial beam-transmissometers.

  3. Electrical Double-Layer Effects on the Brownian Diffusivity and Aggregation Rate of Laponite Clay Particles.

    PubMed

    Tawari, Santosh L.; Koch, Donald L.; Cohen, Claude

    2001-08-01

    Dynamic light scattering was used to study the Brownian translational diffusion and rate of Brownian aggregation of Laponite (RD) clay particles at low (millimolar) electrolyte concentrations. Laponite is a manufactured clay consisting of monodisperse disk-shaped particles with a 30-nm diameter and a 1-nm thickness. The stability ratio, defined as the ratio of the coagulation rate for Brownian spheres with no particle interactions to the observed coagulation rate, was quite large O(10(5)), suggesting that there was a large potential energy barrier to Brownian aggregation. The apparent potential energy barrier for face-edge aggregation was rationalized on the basis of a calculation of the electrostatic interactions between two disks with negative face charges and positive rim charges. The aggregation rate increased with increasing electrolyte concentration owing to the screening of the electrostatic repulsion associated with the net charge on the particle. The rate decreased with increasing pH because of the decreasing positive charge on the rim. The translational diffusivity of the individual particles before the onset of aggregation exhibited a strong dependence on the electrolyte concentration and was as much as 50% smaller than the diffusivity for an uncharged disk. This effect is attributed to the added drag resulting from the electroviscous effects in the deformed double layer. The electroviscous effect on the diffusion of the disk-like particles is much stronger than that on rods and spheres. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11446786

  4. In situ study of particle growth in convective eddies of the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfldy, B.; Groma, V.; Brcsk, E.; Nagy, A.; Czitrovszky, A.; Trk, S.

    2011-11-01

    A measurement flight was performed by a motorglider equipped with an aerosol size spectrometer and nano-particle counter over a large area in the rural vicinity of Budapest, Hungary. The flight was carried out in the early afternoon under unstable air dynamical conditions in August 2010. These conditions allowed flying in glider mode, with the engine switched off, using thermal lifts for altitude gain. A significant part of the flight was spent in thermals that allow studying how the atmospheric dynamics acts on the particle formation. It was found that hygroscopic growth affects the particle size distribution in the 30-500 nm interval. In the 30-280 nm interval, the growth rate was found to be similar to that of ammonium sulphate particles. Indirect signs of cloud droplet formation were found during cloud cross, as a concentration drop in size bins fallen in the 280-400 nm size range. In three thermal lifts significantly higher ultrafine particle concentration (30 < d < 280 nm) was measured, with decreased average diameter. The results support the supposition that convective eddies in the boundary layer affect the aerosol composition via hygroscopic growth and secondary particle formation.

  5. Effect of mechanical vibration on platinum particle agglomeration and growth in proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diloyan, Georgiy

    The objective of the current research is to study the effect of mechanical vibration on catalyst layer degradation via Platinum (Pt) particle agglomeration and growth in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM Fuel Cell). This study is of great importance, since many PEM fuel cells operate under a vibrating environment, such as the case of vehicular applications, and this may influence the catalyst layer degradation and fuel cell performance. Through extensive literature review, there are only few researches that have been studied the effect of mechanical vibration on PEM fuel cells. These studies focused only on PEM fuel cell performance under vibration for less than 50 hours and none of them considered the degradation of the fuel cell components, such as MEA and its catalyst layer. To study the effect of the mechanical vibration on the catalyst layer an accelerated test with potential cycling was specially designed to simulate a typical vehicle driving condition. The length of the accelerated test was designed to be 300 hour with potential cycling comprised of idle running, constant load, triangle (variable) load and overload running at various mechanical vibration conditions. These mechanical vibration conditions were as follows: 1g 20 Hz, 1g 40 Hz, 4g 20 Hz and 4g 40 Hz. No vibration tests were also conducted to study the influence of operating time and were used as a baseline for comparison study. The series of accelerated tests were followed by microscopy and spectroscopy analyses using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). An ESEM was used to qualitatively analyze pristine and degraded catalyst. TEM and XRD were used to quantitatively analyze catalyst layer degradation via Pt agglomeration and growth in pristine and degraded states. For each test condition, PEM fuel cell performance by means of Voltage - Current (VI) curves was monitored and recorded. It was observed that the mean diameter of Pt particles tested under mechanical vibration is 10% smaller than the ones that were tested under no vibration conditions. The Pt particles in the order of 2 to 2.5 nm in the pristine state have grown to 6.14 nm (after 300 hour accelerated test at no vibration condition), to 5.64 nm (after 300 hours accelerated test under 4g 20 Hz vibration condition) and to 5.55 nm (after 300 hours accelerated test under 1g 20 Hz vibration condition). The mean Pt particle diameters, after 300 hour accelerated test under 1g 40 Hz and 4g 40 Hz vibration conditions, were 5.89 nm. With an increase of the mean Pt particle diameter, the active surface area of the catalyst layer of the MEA decreases and as a result, performance of MEA and PEM fuel also decreases. It was observed that performance of the MEA tested under no vibration condition is about 10% lower than the one tested under 1g 20 Hz. The VI curve showed that the lowest performance of the MEA after 300 hour accelerated test corresponded to no vibration conditions and equaled to 7.85 Watts at 0.5 V (Pt particle size 6.14 nm) and highest performance, corresponded to the MEA tested under 1g 20 Hz, and equaled to 8.66 Watts at 0.5 V (Pt particle size 5.55 nm).

  6. A simple stochastic quadrant model for the transport and deposition of particles in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, C.; Potts, I.; Reeks, M. W.

    2015-05-01

    We present a simple stochastic quadrant model for calculating the transport and deposition of heavy particles in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer based on the statistics of wall-normal fluid velocity fluctuations obtained from a fully developed channel flow. Individual particles are tracked through the boundary layer via their interactions with a succession of random eddies found in each of the quadrants of the fluid Reynolds shear stress domain in a homogeneous Markov chain process. In this way, we are able to account directly for the influence of ejection and sweeping events as others have done but without resorting to the use of adjustable parameters. Deposition rate predictions for a wide range of heavy particles predicted by the model compare well with benchmark experimental measurements. In addition, deposition rates are compared with those obtained from continuous random walk models and Langevin equation based ejection and sweep models which noticeably give significantly lower deposition rates. Various statistics related to the particle near wall behavior are also presented. Finally, we consider the model limitations in using the model to calculate deposition in more complex flows where the near wall turbulence may be significantly different.

  7. A simple stochastic quadrant model for the transport and deposition of particles in turbulent boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, C.; Potts, I.; Reeks, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    We present a simple stochastic quadrant model for calculating the transport and deposition of heavy particles in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer based on the statistics of wall-normal fluid velocity fluctuations obtained from a fully developed channel flow. Individual particles are tracked through the boundary layer via their interactions with a succession of random eddies found in each of the quadrants of the fluid Reynolds shear stress domain in a homogeneous Markov chain process. In this way, we are able to account directly for the influence of ejection and sweeping events as others have done but without resorting to the use of adjustable parameters. Deposition rate predictions for a wide range of heavy particles predicted by the model compare well with benchmark experimental measurements. In addition, deposition rates are compared with those obtained from continuous random walk models and Langevin equation based ejection and sweep models which noticeably give significantly lower deposition rates. Various statistics related to the particle near wall behavior are also presented. Finally, we consider the model limitations in using the model to calculate deposition in more complex flows where the near wall turbulence may be significantly different.

  8. Enhancing photocatalytic activity of LaTiO2N by removal of surface reconstruction layer.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Michinori; Ishikawa, Ryo; Hisatomi, Takashi; Moriya, Yosuke; Shibata, Naoya; Kubota, Jun; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-02-12

    LaTiO2N is an oxynitride photocatalyst that has ability to generate H2 and O2 from water under irradiation of light with wavelengths up to 600 nm. However, LaTiO2N necessitates sacrificial reagents that capture either photoexcited electrons or holes efficiently to be active in the photocatalytic reactions because of a considerable number of defects that cause trapping and recombination of photoexcited carriers. Therefore, identifying defect structures of LaTiO2N is important. In this study, using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we evidence that eliminating defective surface reconstructed layers of LaTiO2N particles by the treatment with aqua regia can double the photocatalytic activity. PMID:24460145

  9. Influence of atomic layer deposition Al2O3 nano-layer on the surface passivation of silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decheng, Yang; Fang, Lang; Zhuo, Xu; Jinchao, Shi; Gaofei, Li; Zhiyan, Hu; Jingfeng, Xiong

    2014-05-01

    A stack of Al2O3/SiNx dual layer was applied for the back side surface passivation of p-type multi-crystalline silicon solar cells, with laser-opened line metal contacts, forming a local aluminum back surface field (local Al-BSF) structure. A slight amount of Al2O3, wrapping around to the front side of the wafer during the thermal atomic layer deposition process, was found to have a negative influence on cell performance. The different process flow was found to lead to a different cell performance, because of the Al2O3 wrapping around the front surface. The best cell performance, with an absolute efficiency gain of about 0.6% compared with the normal full Al-BSF structure solar cell, was achieved when the Al2O3 layer was deposited after the front surface of the wafer had been covered by a SiNx layer. We discuss the possible reasons for this phenomenon, and propose three explanations as the Ag paste, being hindered from firing through the front passivation layer, degraded the SiNx passivation effect and the Al2O3 induced an inversion effect on the front surface. Characterization methods like internal quantum efficiency and contact resistance scanning were used to assist our understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Effect of particle size on the surface properties and morphology of ground flax.

    PubMed

    Csiszr, E; Fekete, E; Tth, A; Bandi, E; Koczka, B; Saj, I

    2013-05-15

    Flax fibers were ground with a ball-mill and four fractions with different size ranges were collected by sieving. These were tested for water sorption, degree of polymerization (DP), copper number, hydroxyl number and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Significant differences were found between the properties of the flax fiber and those of the ground versions, including fragmentation of fibers, increase of water sorption, copper number, hydroxyl number and surface O/C ratio, and decrease of DP, crystallite size and dispersive component of surface energy (?s(d)). Some parameters depended on the particle size: O/C ratio and hydroxyl number had local maxima at 315-630 ?m, while ?s(d) increased steadily with the decrease of particle size. These relationships were explained by fiber disintegration, destruction of waxy surface layer, exposure of cellulosic components, increase of surface area and crystalline imperfections. PMID:23544651

  11. Characterization of silane layers on modified stainless steel surfaces and related stainless steel-plastic hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkanen, Mari; Hoikkanen, Maija; Vippola, Minnamari; Vuorinen, Jyrki; Lepist, Toivo; Jussila, Petri; Ali-Lytty, Harri; Lampimki, Markus; Valden, Mika

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize silane layers on the modified stainless steel surfaces and relate it to the adhesion in the injection-molded thermoplastic urethane-stainless steel hybrids. The silane layers were characterized with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, allowing the direct quantization of silane layer thickness and its variation. The surface topographies were characterized with atomic force microscope and chemical analyses were performed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical strength of the respective stainless steel-thermoplastic urethane hybrids was determined by peel test. Polishing and oxidation treatment of the steel surface improved the silane layer uniformity compared to the industrially pickled surface and increased the adhesion strength of the hybrids, resulting mainly cohesive failure in TPU. XPS analysis indicated that the improved silane bonding to the modified steel surface was due to clean Fe 2O 3-type surface oxide and stronger interaction with TPU was due to more amino species on the silane layer surface compared to the cleaned, industrially pickled surface. Silane layer thickness affected failure type of the hybrids, with a thick silane layer the hybrids failed mainly in the silane layer and with a thinner layer cohesively in plastic.

  12. Electric double-layer potentials and surface regulation properties measured by colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F. Javier; Trefalt, Gregor; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal

    2014-07-01

    We show how the colloidal-probe technique, which is based on force measurements made with the atomic force microscope, can be used to accurately determine the charging parameters of water-solid interfaces. Besides yielding accurate values of the double-layer or diffuse-layer potential, the method also allows reliable determination of the charge regulation properties of the surfaces. The latter can be quantified with a regulation parameter, which is essential to properly describe forces between interfaces, especially in asymmetric situations when one of the interfaces is charged and the other one is close to neutral. The technique relies on a highly charged probe particle, for which the charging properties are accurately determined by interpreting the double-layer contribution of the measured force profiles in the symmetric sphere-sphere geometry with Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. Once the probe particle is calibrated, this particle is used to measure the force profile between an unknown substrate in the asymmetric sphere-sphere or sphere-plane geometry. From this profile, the diffuse-layer potential and regulation parameter of the substrate can be again determined with PB theory. The technique is highly versatile, as it can be used for a wide variety of substrates, including colloidal particles and planar substrates. The technique is also applicable in salt solutions containing multivalent ions. The current drawbacks of the technique are that it can only be applied up to moderately high salt levels, typically to 10 mM, and only for relatively large particles, typically down to about 1 ?m in diameter. How the technique could be extended to higher salt levels and smaller particle size is also briefly discussed.

  13. An improved analysis of the scattering properties of half-space problem with multiple defect particles for an optical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, L.; Wu, Z. S.; Li, Z. J.; Zhang, G.

    2015-09-01

    Based on the practical situation of nondestructive examination, an improved analysis of the scattering properties of multiple-defect particles for an optical surface is shown. Using finite difference time domain method, the generalized perfectly matched layer can work very well against the half-space problem of optical surface and defect particles. Boundary-connecting condition is reduced by three-wave method. Reciprocity theorem is applied to near-far field extrapolation. Results are compared with those obtained using CST Microwave Studio software, and both are found to match each other very well, thereby proving the reliability of the proposed method. Angle distributions of double particles with different positions are shown. Some selected calculations on the effects of sphere number and sphere separation distance are described. As the most important factor, the position factor is numerically analyzed in detail. Theory and model are valuable in examining inspect optical or wafer surface.

  14. Optical model for simulation and optimization of luminescent down-shifting layers filled with phosphor particles for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lipovšek, Benjamin; Solodovnyk, Anastasiia; Forberich, Karen; Stern, Edda; Krč, Janez; Brabec, Christoph J; Topič, Marko

    2015-07-27

    We developed an optical model for simulation and optimization of luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layers for photovoltaics. These layers consist of micron-sized phosphor particles embedded in a polymer binder. The model is based on ray tracing and employs an effective approach to scattering and photoluminescence modelling. Experimental verification of the model shows that the model accurately takes all the structural parameters and material properties of the LDS layers into account, including the layer thickness, phosphor particle volume concentration, and phosphor particle size distribution. Finally, using the verified model, complete organic solar cells on glass substrate covered with the LDS layers are simulated. Simulations reveal that an optimized LDS layer can result in more than 6% larger short-circuit current of the solar cell. PMID:26367688

  15. Multiscale structure, interfacial cohesion, adsorbed layers, miscibility and properties in dense polymer-particle mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Ken

    2012-02-01

    A major goal in polymer nanocomposite research is to understand and predict how the chemical and physical nature of individual polymers and nanoparticles, and thermodynamic state (temperature, composition, solvent dilution, filler loading), determine bulk assembly, miscibility and properties. Microscopic PRISM theory provides a route to this goal for equilibrium disordered mixtures. A major prediction is that by manipulating the net polymer-particle interfacial attraction, miscibility is realizable via the formation of thin thermodynamically stable adsorbed layers, which, however, are destroyed by entropic depletion and bridging attraction effects if interface cohesion is too weak or strong, respectively. This and related issues are quantitatively explored for miscible mixtures of hydrocarbon polymers, silica nanospheres, and solvent using x-ray scattering, neutron scattering and rheology. Under melt conditions, quantitative agreement between theory and silica scattering experiments is achieved under both steric stabilization and weak depletion conditions. Using contrast matching neutron scattering to characterize the collective structure factors of polymers, particles and their interface, the existence and size of adsorbed polymer layers, and their consequences on microstructure, is determined. Failure of the incompressible RPA, accuracy of PRISM theory, the nm thickness of adsorbed layers, and qualitative sensitivity of the bulk modulus to interfacial cohesion and particle size are demonstrated for concentrated PEO-silica-ethanol nanocomposites. Temperature-dependent complexity is discovered when water is the solvent, and nonequilibrium effects emerge for adsorbing entangled polymers that strongly impact structure. By varying polymer chemistry, the effect of polymer-particle attraction on the intrinsic viscosity is explored with striking non-classical effects observed. This work was performed in collaboration with S.Y.Kim, L.M.Hall, C.Zukoski and B.Anderson.

  16. The role of mixing layer on changes of particle properties in lower troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L.; Bolzacchini, E.; Perrone, M. G.; Petraccone, S.; Sangiorgi, G.; Ferrini, B. S.; Lo Porto, C.; Lazzati, Z.; Cocchi, D.; Bruno, F.; Greco, F.

    2009-08-01

    Vertical profiles of atmospheric particulate matter number concentration, size distribution and chemical composition were directly measured in the city of Milan, over three years (2005-2008) of field campaigns. An optical particle counter, a portable meteorological station and a miniaturized cascade impactor were deployed on a tethered balloon. Mixing layer height was estimated by PM dispersion along height. More than 300 PM vertical profiles were measured both in the winter and summer, mainly in clear and dry sky conditions. Under these conditions, no significant changes in NO3-, SO42- or NH4+ into or over the mixing layer were found. From experimental measurements we observed changes in size distribution along height. An increase of the mean particle diameter, in the accumulation mode, passing through the mixing layer under stable conditions was highlighted; the mean relative growth was 2.10.1% in the winter and 3.90.3% in the summer. At the same time, sedimentation processes occurred across the ML height for coarse particles leading to a mean particle diameter reduction (14.90.6% in the winter and 10.71.0% in summer). A hierarchical statistical model for the PM size distribution has been developed to describe the aging process of the finest PM fraction along height. The proposed model is able to estimate the typical vertical profile that characterises launches within pre-specified groups. The mean growth estimated on the basis of the model was 1.90.5% in the winter and 6.11.2% in the summer, in accordance with experimental evidence.

  17. Surface coating for flame retardant behavior of cotton fabric by layer-by-layer processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant behavior has been prepared by the layer-by layer assemblies of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), kaolin, urea, diammonium phosphate (dibasic) on cotton fabrics. Three different kinds of cotton fabrics (print cloth, mercerized print cloth, and mercerized twill fabric) were prepared wi...

  18. Electromotive force measurements in the combustion wave front during layer-by-layer surface laser sintering of exothermic powder compositions.

    PubMed

    Shishkovskiy, Igor V; Morozov, Yury G; Kuznetsov, Maxim V; Parkin, Ivan P

    2009-05-14

    Electric potentials arise between the combustion wave front and final products during layer-by-layer surface laser sintering of exothermic powder compositions (Ni-Ti, Ni-Al, Ti-Al). By using an analog-digital-analog converter to control the laser movement and hence the exothermic reaction itself, we show that near optimal conditions can be obtained for the formation of layered 3D articles. Comparative results of the structural-phase transformations that occur during laser-controlled SHS in related reaction-capable compositions are also presented. PMID:19421554

  19. On the generation and evolution of aeroelectric structures in the surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, S. V.; Mareev, E. A.; Bakastov, S. S.

    1999-06-01

    Ultralow frequency pulsations of electric field in the surface atmospheric layer were investigated under fair weather conditions. A new method of structural-temporal analysis has been applied to the study of spatiotemporal structures of the electric field described previously by [Anisimov et al., 1994]. The method is based on exploration of the structural function by averaging the remote sensing data over respective temporal spans. This analysis allows quantitative estimations of spatial scales L ? 500 - 103 m and temporal scales not less than ? = 10 min for the structural elements of the planetary boundary layer electricity; we call these recently examined elements "aeroelectric structures" (AES). Quasiperiodic sequences and high-amplitude solitary AES have been recognized. Three-dimensional structural-temporal patterns are presented which directly characterize the level of electric energy perturbations connected with AES formation during night-day evolution. A model of AES formation has been developed, taking into account the occurence of convective cells with respective turbulent air and space charge density distributions that are transferred by the wind over the ground and cause the electric field fluctuations at the points of observation. Therefore formation of such submesoscale structures can be explained by the redistribution of space charge within the surface layer, with the structures of the smallest scales coupled to the turbulent mixing of the ions and aerosols. In addition to the advection and turbulent mixing of space charge, we also consider the cooperative electroaerodynamic effects which might occur in a system of bipolar ion and aerosol particles under the influence of a terrestrial electric field. We have proposed an advanced model treating the AES formation as the result of instability arising in such a system, taking into account the dependence of the effective ion-aerosol attachment coefficient on the external electric field strength.

  20. Flux measurements in the near surface layer over a non-uniform crop surface in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Z.; Bian, L.; Liu, S.

    2005-06-01

    Eddy covariance measurements were conducted on fluxes of moisture, heat and CO2 in a near-surface layer over a non-uniform crop surface in an agricultural ecosystem in the central plain of China from 10 June to 20 July 2002. During this period, the mean canopy height was about 0.50 m. The study site consisted of grass (10% of area), bean (15%), corn (15%) and rice (60%). Based on footprint analysis, we expected >90% of the measured flux (at a height of 4 m above ground surface) to occur within the nearest 600 m of upwind area. We examined interdiurnal variations in the components of the surface energy balance and in CO2 flux. Results show that the pattern of energy partition had no obvious variation during the season. Daytime absorption of CO2 flux by the crop canopy suddenly increased after thunderstorm events. We examined the energy budget closure and found it to be around 0.85. We compared energy partitioning for all rain-free days, and found energy imbalance was more significant for the 1~3 days after rainy events and energy components almost achieve balance for the other rain-free days. It indicated that the cold or warm rainwater infiltrating into soil made problems.

  1. A two-dimensional particle simulation of the magnetopause current layer

    SciTech Connect

    Berchem, J.; Okuda, H.

    1988-11-01

    We have developed a 2/1/2/-D (x, y, v/sub x/, v/sub y/, v/sub z/) electromagnetic code to study the formation and the stability of the magnetopause current layer. This code computes the trajectories of ion and electron particles in their self-consistently generated electromagnetic field and an externally imposed 2-D vacuum dipolar magnetic field. The results presented here are obtained for the simulation of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the subsolar region of the equatorial plane. We observe the self-consistent establishment of a current layer resulting from both diamagnetic drift and E /times/ B drift due to the charge separation. The simulation results show that during the establishment of the current layer, its thickness is of the order of the hybrid gyroradius /rho//sub H/ = ..sqrt../rho//sub i//rho//sub e/ predicted by the Ferraro-Rosenbluth model. However, diagnostics indicate that the current sheet is subject to an instability which broadens the width of the current layer. Ripples with amplitudes of the order of the ion gyroradius appear at the interface between the field and the particles. These pertubations are observed both on the electrostatic field and on the compressional component of the magnetic field. This instability has a frequency of the order of the local ion cyclotron frequency. However, the modulation propagates in the same direction as the electron diamagnetic drift which indicates that the instability is not a classical gradient-driven instability, such as the lower hybrid or ion drift cyclotron instabilities. The nonlinear phase of the instability is characterized by the filamentation of the current layer which causes anomalous diffusion inside the central current sheet. 79 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Investigation of superconductivity in single layer FeSe on SrTiO3 (001) by quasi-particle interference and impurity states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Fan, Qin; Zhang, Wenhao; Liu, Xi; Xia, Miao; Chen, Hongyan; Peng, Rui; Xu, Haichao; Xie, Binping; Feng, Donglai

    2015-03-01

    Recently, single layer FeSe films on SrTiO3 (001) were discovered to have much enhanced superconductivity. Here by using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, we investigated the superconductivity of single layer FeSe through quasi-particle interference (QPI), magnetic vortex mapping and impurity induced bound states. The films were grown by MBE and transfer to STM in-situ. The magnetic vortex lattice was observed in dI/dV mappings in the field. QPI mappings show that intra-band and inter-band scattering of superconducting quasi-particles have significant anisotropy. Single atom impurities were introduced on the surface by in-situ deposition. We found that nonmagnetic impurities (Zn, Ag, K) do not induce bound states in the superconducting gap, but the magnetic ones (Cr, Mn) do. Upon these observations, the paring symmetry of single layer FeSe will be discussed.

  3. Controllable surface haptics via particle jamming and pneumatics.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Andrew A; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    The combination of particle jamming and pneumatics allows the simultaneous control of shape and mechanical properties in a tactile display. A hollow silicone membrane is molded into an array of thin cells, each filled with coffee grounds such that adjusting the vacuum level in any individual cell rapidly switches it between flexible and rigid states. The array clamps over a pressure-regulated air chamber with internal mechanisms designed to pin the nodes between cells at any given height. Various sequences of cell vacuuming, node pinning, and chamber pressurization allow the surface to balloon into a variety of shapes. Experiments were performed to expand existing physical models of jamming at the inter-particle level to define the rheological characteristics of jammed systems from a macroscopic perspective, relevant to force-displacement interactions that would be experienced by human users. Force-displacement data show that a jammed cell in compression fits a Maxwell model and a cell deflected in the center while supported only at the edges fits a Zener model, each with stiffness and damping parameters that increase at higher levels of applied vacuum. This provides framework to tune and control the mechanical properties of a jamming haptic interface. PMID:25594980

  4. The surface deposition of meteoric smoke particles - possible climate impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M.; Dhomse, S.; Saunders, R. W.; Tian, W.; Chipperfield, M.

    2013-12-01

    There are large uncertainties in the transport and surface deposition of upper atmospheric particles, such as meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) formed in the upper mesosphere. Here we use a 3D chemistry-climate model (CCM) to simulate the transport and deposition of MSPs from the upper mesosphere. The CCM was first validated by predicting the deposition of plutonium-238 oxide nanoparticles formed after the ablation of a power unit in the upper stratosphere (~11o S) in 1964. The observed hemispheric asymmetry and timescale of Pu-238 deposition is well-captured. In the case of MSPs, the model predicts more deposition in Greenland than Antarctica by a factor of ~15, in agreement with ice core measurements. The strongest MSP deposition is predicted to occur at mid-latitudes, providing a significant source of Fe fertilization to the Southern Ocean where there is a shortage of bio-available Fe. The resulting increase in CO2 drawdown may have a significant climate impact. Map of annual mean Fe deposition rate (?mol Fe m-2 y-1)

  5. Leonid's Particle Analyses from Stratospheric Balloon Collection on Xerogel Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Phillips, Tony; Horack, John; Porter, Linda; Myszka, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Recovered from a stratospheric balloon above 20 km on 17-18 November 1998, at least eight candidate microparticles were collected and analyzed from low-density silica xerogel collection plates. Capture time at Leonids' storm peak was validated locally along the balloon trajectory by direct video imaging of meteor fluence up to 24/hr above 98% of the Earth's atmosphere. At least one 30 micron particle agrees morphologically to a smooth, unmelted spherule and compares most closely in non-volatile elemental ratios (Mg/Si, Al/Si, and Fe/Si) to compositional data in surface/ocean meteorite collections. A Euclidean tree diagram based on composition makes a most probable identification as a non-porous stratospherically collected particle and a least probable identification as terrestrial matter or an ordinary chondrite. If of extraterrestrial origin, the mineralogical class would be consistent with a stony (S) type of silicate, olivine [(Mg,Fe)2SiO4] and pyroxene [(Mg, Fe)Si!O3)--or oxides, herecynite [(Fe,Mg) Al2O4].

  6. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry Near Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Multi-dimensional and transient flows play a key role in many areas of science, engineering, and health sciences but are often not well understood. The complex nature of these flows may be studied using particle image velocimetry (PIV), a laser-based imaging technique for optically accessible flows. Though many forms of PIV exist that extend the technique beyond the original planar two-component velocity measurement capabilities, the basic PIV system consists of a light source (laser), a camera, tracer particles, and analysis algorithms. The imaging and recording parameters, the light source, and the algorithms are adjusted to optimize the recording for the flow of interest and obtain valid velocity data. Common PIV investigations measure two-component velocities in a plane at a few frames per second. However, recent developments in instrumentation have facilitated high-frame rate (> 1 kHz) measurements capable of resolving transient flows with high temporal resolution. Therefore, high-frame rate measurements have enabled investigations on the evolution of the structure and dynamics of highly transient flows. These investigations play a critical role in understanding the fundamental physics of complex flows. A detailed description for performing high-resolution, high-speed planar PIV to study a transient flow near the surface of a flat plate is presented here. Details for adjusting the parameter constraints such as image and recording properties, the laser sheet properties, and processing algorithms to adapt PIV for any flow of interest are included. PMID:23851899

  7. Degree of ice particle surface roughness inferred from polarimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, S.; Yang, P.; Baum, B. A.; Platnick, S.; Meyer, K. G.; King, M. D.; Riedi, J.

    2015-12-01

    The degree of surface roughness of ice particles within thick, cold ice clouds is inferred from multi-directional, multi-spectral satellite polarimetric observations over oceans, assuming a column-aggregate particle habit. An improved roughness inference scheme is employed in the analysis that provides a more noise-resilient roughness estimate than the conventional best-fit approach. The improvements include the introduction of a quantitative roughness parameter based on empirical orthogonal function analysis and proper treatment of polarization due to atmospheric scattering above clouds. A global one-month data sample supports the use of a severely roughened ice habit to simulate the polarized reflectivity associated with ice clouds over ocean. The density distribution of the roughness parameter inferred from the global one-month data sample and further analyses of a few case studies demonstrate the significant variability of ice cloud single-scattering properties. The present theoretical results are in close agreement with observations in the extratropics but not in the tropics. Potential improvements are discussed to enhance the depiction of the natural variability on a global scale.

  8. Turbulent structure of scalars in the eddy surface layer over land and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Sahlee, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent structure of scalars in the 'eddy surface layer' over land and sea. In a study of the kinematic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer, Hgstrm, Hunt and Smedman, 2002, it was demonstrated that a model with detached eddies from above the surface layer impinging on to the surface (Hunt and Morison, 2000) could explain some of the observed features in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Thus the detached eddy model proved successful in explaining the dynamic structure of the near neutral atmospheric surface layer (eddy surface layer), especially the shape of the spectra of the wind components and corresponding fluxes. However, the structure of temperature and humidity fluctuations in the eddy surface layer shows quite different behaviour. In particular the efficiency of turbulent exchange of sensible and latent heat is observed to be more strongly enhanced than is consistent with standard similarity theory. Also the profiles of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature fluctuation variance are found to depend on the height of the eddy surface layer and not the height above the surface. All these features are found to be similar in measurements at a marine site, a flat land site and during hurricane conditions (hurricane Fabian and Isabel). Hunt, J.C.R and Morrison, J.F., 2000: Eddy structure in turbulent boundary layers, Euro. J. Mech. B-Fluids, 19, 673-694.. Hgstrm, U., Hunt, J.C.R., and Smedman, A., 2002: Theory and measurements for turbulence spectra and variances in the atmospheric neutral surface layer, Bound.-Layer Meteorol., 103,101-124.

  9. Low-energy particle layer outside of the plasma sheet boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, G. K.; Fitzenreiter, R.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Huang, C.; Anderson, K. A.; Dandouras, J.; Frank, L.; Lin, R. P.; Mccarthy, M.; Reme, H.

    1992-01-01

    The ISEE spacecraft in the geomagnetic tail frequently crossed the high-latitude boundary of the plasma sheet. On a number of these crossings on the morningside (between 15 RE and 22 RE) the ISEE instruments detected an enhanced population of low-energy electrons and ions immediately adjacent to the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). The electrons in this low-energy layer (LEL) have energies less than a few hundred eV, and they are aligned along the magnetic field direction propagating in the tailward direction. The ions have energies less than 100 eV and are also streaming along the magnetic field direction but in the earthward direction. These particles are clearly distinguished from the bulk of the particles in the plasma sheet and the PSBL. These observations may help clarify where the various particle features in the geomagnetic tail map to in the ionosphere. It is suggested that the LEL maps to the soft (less than 1 keV) electron precipitation region poleward of the plasma sheet boundary.

  10. The accuracy of tomographic particle image velocimetry for measurements of a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Callum; Coudert, Sebastien; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Stanislas, Michel; Soria, Julio

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the accuracy of tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) for turbulent boundary layer measurements, a series of synthetic image-based simulations and practical experiments are performed on a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer at Re? = 7,800. Two different approaches to Tomo-PIV are examined using a full-volume slab measurement and a thin-volume "fat" light sheet approach. Tomographic reconstruction is performed using both the standard MART technique and the more efficient MLOS-SMART approach, showing a 10-time increase in processing speed. Random and bias errors are quantified under the influence of the near-wall velocity gradient, reconstruction method, ghost particles, seeding density and volume thickness, using synthetic images. Experimental Tomo-PIV results are compared with hot-wire measurements and errors are examined in terms of the measured mean and fluctuating profiles, probability density functions of the fluctuations, distributions of fluctuating divergence through the volume and velocity power spectra. Velocity gradients have a large effect on errors near the wall and also increase the errors associated with ghost particles, which convect at mean velocities through the volume thickness. Tomo-PIV provides accurate experimental measurements at low wave numbers; however, reconstruction introduces high noise levels that reduces the effective spatial resolution. A thinner volume is shown to provide a higher measurement accuracy at the expense of the measurement domain, albeit still at a lower effective spatial resolution than planar and Stereo-PIV.

  11. Low loss Sendust powder cores comprised of particles coated by sodium salt insulating layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ding; Wang, Xian; Nie, Yan; Feng, Zekun; Gong, Rongzhou; Chen, Yajie; Harris, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    Toroid-shaped Sendust powder cores were prepared from cold pressing mechanically pulverized Fe-Si-Al powder that had been coated using an inorganic insulating layer. The present work focuses on the effect of the sodium salt-coated Sendust particles upon the high frequency magnetic properties. Sendust powders, having a particle size range of ˜125 μm, exhibit a high saturation magnetization of 118.9 A.m2/kg and a low coercivity of 56 A/m. The experiments indicate that the sodium-based glass insulating layer synthesized from sodium metaphosphate and sodium metaborate can effectively reduce the change in permeability with frequency or DC bias field, yielding high effective permeability (μe) of ˜113 over a wide frequency range from 10 kHz-1 MHz. Furthermore, the effective permeability is measured at ˜27 at H = 7854 A/m, indicating stable and high effective permeability under a DC bias field. The measurements of permeability under DC bias field indicate a peak in the quality factor (Q) values corresponding to a DC-bias field of 1.5-6 (kA/m) at frequencies from 50 to 200 kHz: The effective permeability remains at ˜74. The sodium salt-coated granular cores demonstrate a core loss of 68 mW/cm3 at Bm = 50 mT and f = 50 kHz: These values compare favorably to those of silicone coated Sendust particles.

  12. One-dimensional particle simulations of Knudsen-layer effects on D-T fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Bruce I.; Dimits, Andris M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Wilks, Scott C.

    2014-12-15

    Particle simulations are used to solve the fully nonlinear, collisional kinetic equation describing the interaction of a high-temperature, high-density, deuterium-tritium plasma with absorbing boundaries, a plasma source, and the influence of kinetic effects on fusion reaction rates. Both hydrodynamic and kinetic effects influence the end losses, and the simulations show departures of the ion velocity distributions from Maxwellian due to the reduction of the population of the highest energy ions (Knudsen-layer effects). The particle simulations show that the interplay between sources, plasma dynamics, and end losses results in temperature anisotropy, plasma cooling, and concomitant reductions in the fusion reaction rates. However, for the model problems and parameters considered, particle simulations show that Knudsen-layer modifications do not significantly affect the velocity distribution function for velocities most important in determining the fusion reaction rates, i.e., the thermal fusion reaction rates using the local densities and bulk temperatures give good estimates of the kinetic fusion reaction rates.

  13. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J. S.; Sun, S. L.; Cheng, Y. L.; Chen, G. S.; Chin, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO4. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  14. Distributions of Surface-Layer Buoyancy Versus Lifting Condensation Level over a Heterogeneous Land Surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrieber, Kelly; Stull, Roland; Zhang, Qing

    1996-04-01

    Onset and coverage of small cumulus clouds depend on the relative abundance of surface-layer air parcels possessing favourable buoyancy and moisture-two variables that are coupled through the surface energy budget. This abundance is described using a joint frequency distribution (JFD) as a function of virtual potential temperature v. and height of lifting condensation level zLCL. It is shown analytically that the shape and spread of this JFD depends on die ranges of Bowen ratios and solar forcings (albedoes, cloud shading, etc.) that exist within a domain of heterogeneous land use.To sample the character of such JFDs in the real atmosphere, a case study is presented using turbulence data gathered by aircraft flying in the surface layer of southwest France. This case study includes 4 days of clear skies during the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment (HAPEX) of 1986. The full flight track during HAPEX overflew a wide range of land use including evergreen forest, corn, vineyards, pastures, and irrigated fields over varied topography. The JFDs from these full tracks are found to he quite complex, being frequently multimodal with a convoluted perimeter. However. when a full track is broken into segments, each over a subdomain of quasi-homogeneous land use, the resulting segment JFDs are mono-modal with simpler topology.Such a characterization of IFDs provides guidance toward eventual subgrid cumulus parameterization in large-scale forecast models, with associated impacts in aviation forecasting, pollutant venting and chemical reactions, vertical dispersion and turbulence modulation, and radiation balance in climate-change models.

  15. Layered devices having surface curvature and method of constructing same

    DOEpatents

    Woodbury, Richard C. (Provo, UT); Perkins, Raymond T. (Provo, UT); Thorne, James M. (Provo, UT)

    1989-01-01

    A method of treating a substrate having first and second sides with corresponding oppositely facing first and second surfaces, to produce curvature in the first surface. The method includes the steps of removing material, according to a predetermined pattern, from the second side of the substrate, and applying a stress-producing film of material to at least one surface of the substrate to thereby cause the substrate to bend to produce the desired curvature in the first surface.

  16. When do pyroclastic particles move? Wind tunnel experiments on saltation threshold and surface roughness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G. A.; Rasmussen, K. R.; Kueppers, U.; Merrison, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2012-04-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is largely based on the study of their deposits. Pyroclasts have strongly deviating properties in density and angularity compared to the wind blown and fluvial sand usually studied in clastic sedimentology. In order to test whether these specificities have an impact on the sedimentation processes and dynamic behavior of dilute PDCs, wind tunnel experiments were carried out in order to characterize the onset of saltation and surface roughness induced by pyroclastic material. Saltation is the major transport process occurring at the boundary between a flow and the sediment, and corresponds to alternate, sub-planar jumps and landing of particles on the ground. The surface roughness is a measure of how rough a bed is seen by a wind, and is a property of the bed depending on grains' size and shape. The static saltation threshold corresponds to the minimum shearing necessary for particles to be lifted off the ground and begin to bounce. The dynamic saltation threshold corresponds to the minimum shearing necessary to maintain an already saltating bed in that state. Experiments were done in a 6 m long, inclinable, wind tunnel in Aarhus (Denmark). Two sample types (pumices and scoriaceous particles) were investigated individually at 1 Phi grain-size intervals between 0.125 and 16 mm. The surface roughness was measured over a quiescent bed of particles. The static saltation threshold was derived from wind profiles reaching the onset of particle transport and was measured for bed slopes between -20° and 25° (every 5°). The surface roughness measured are of the order expected for rounded particles of similar grain sizes (c.a. 1/30th of the grain diameter). However, a slight deviation to smaller surface roughness is observed for particles < 1 mm, possibly due to the occurrence of a laminar sub-layer near the bed, and a deviation to higher surface roughness values for particles > 1 mm, possibly showing the increasing influence of shape for larger grains. The static saltation thresholds (given as a shear velocity value) for horizontal surfaces show that the shearing necessary to initiate transport is smaller for fines than for coarse grains, thus only macro-scale forces are acting over the whole range of grain sizes. The shear velocity necessary to erode scoria is 2 to 3 times higher than for low-density pumices. The results agree remarkably well with standard curves for rounded particles of similar densities for both pumice and scoria, suggesting that shape is not a relevant factor in these experiments. Additionally, a downslope wind lowers the threshold shear velocity by a factor 0.6 to 0.9, whereas it increases the value when blowing upslope by a factor up to 1.2. Dynamic saltation threshold is predicted (15-20% lower than static) derived from the static saltation threshold and the ratio of dynamic over static repose angles for grain piles. Our experimental results contribute to a better understanding of the genesis of dune bedforms produced by dilute pyroclastic density currents, provide inputs for models, and serve as analogue for other sedimentary environments (other planets, nuclear base surges). They also permit to give a lower estimate of near bed velocities for field-observed erosion-planes truncating stratification.

  17. Assessment of PEG on polymeric particles surface, a key step in drug carrier translation.

    PubMed

    Rabanel, Jean-Michel; Hildgen, Patrice; Banquy, Xavier

    2014-07-10

    Injectable drug nanocarriers have greatly benefited in their clinical development from the addition of a superficial hydrophilic corona to improve their cargo pharmacokinetics. The most studied and used polymer for this purpose is poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. However, in spite of its wide use for over two decades now, there is no general consensus on the optimum PEG chain coverage-density and size required to escape from the mononuclear phagocyte system and to extend the circulation time. Moreover, cellular uptake and active targeting may have conflicting requirements in terms of surface properties of the nanocarriers which complicate even more the optimization process. These persistent issues can be largely attributed to the lack of straightforward characterization techniques to assess the coverage-density, the conformation or the thickness of a PEG layer grafted or adsorbed on a particulate drug carrier and is certainly one of the main reasons why so few clinical applications involving PEG coated particle-based drug delivery systems are under clinical trial so far. The objective of this review is to provide the reader with a brief description of the most relevant techniques used to assess qualitatively or quantitatively PEG chain coverage-density, conformation and layer thickness on polymeric nanoparticles. Emphasis has been made on polymeric particle (solid core) either made of copolymers containing PEG chains or modified after particle formation. Advantages and limitations of each technique are presented as well as methods to calculate PEG coverage-density and to investigate PEG chains conformation on the NP surface. PMID:24768790

  18. Surface boundary layer evolution and near-inertial wind power input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbourne, B. F.; Girton, J. B.

    2015-11-01

    Deep weakly stratified surface layers in the Southern Ocean complicate the identification of the mixed-layer base, which is critical in estimating the wind power input through the ocean surface. Typically used mixed-layer depth criteria often ignore weak stratification, which traps momentum near the surface and significantly enhances the near-inertial-band wind power input. The thickness of the active mixing-layer, the turbulent layer in contact with wind stress, is needed to accurately estimate wind power input. A fine-density-threshold criterion of 0.005 kg m-3, just above the noise floor of most autonomous instruments, was applied to observed profiles of potential density to estimate the thickness of the actively mixing-layer. Vertical shear, Langmuir cells, and buoyant convection are investigated as possible mechanisms maintaining turbulence within the mixing-layer. Over 90% of the observed variance of the mixing-layer thickness is explained by either shear-driven entrainment, which is simulated using the Price-Weller-Pinkel model, or by a parameterization of downwelling plumes due to Langmuir cell convergence. In general, surface buoyancy fluxes are too weak to drive mixed-layer turbulence. Comparison of National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) climatological mixed-layer thickness to those determined using the 0.005 kg m-3 density threshold suggests a multiplicative seasonally varying correction of 1.5-3.5 should be applied to wind work estimates made using the NODC climatological mixed-layer thickness in the Southern Ocean.

  19. Surface Layer Investigation of a Shot-Peened Duplex Stainless Steel Utilizing X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qiang; Wu, Xueyan; Jiang, Chuanhai; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    Distributions of residual stresses and microstructure in the surface layers of shot-peened duplex stainless steel (DSS) S32205 were investigated. The results reveal that both compressive residual stresses (CRS) and microhardness increase with the enhancement of shot-peening (SP) intensity in the surface deformation layers. The maximum value of CRS of ferrite lies in the surface layer but that of austenite locates below the surface layer after SP. SP influence on the microstructure of DSS was studied using x-ray diffraction profiles, and the domain size and microstrain were calculated via Voigt method. After SP, the domain sizes are refined, and microstrain becomes severe at surface layers in both phases. On comparing the calculated results, it is found that the more evident domain size subdivision and the more serious microstrain increase in austenite than those in ferrite are due to the higher work hardening of austenite.

  20. Influence of ultrathin water layer on the van der Waals/Casimir force between gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palasantzas, G.; Zwol, P. J. van; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we investigate the influence of ultrathin water layer ({approx}1-1.5 nm) on the van der Waals/Casimir force between gold surfaces. Adsorbed water is inevitably present on gold surfaces at ambient conditions as jump-up-to contact during adhesion experiments demonstrate. Calculations based on the Lifshitz theory give very good agreement with the experiment in the absence of any water layer for surface separations d > or approx. 10 nm. However, a layer of thickness h < or approx. 1.5 nm is allowed by the error margin in force measurements. At shorter separations, d < or approx. 10 nm, the water layer can have a strong influence as calculations show for flat surfaces. Nonetheless, in reality the influence of surface roughness must also be considered, and it can overshadow any water layer influence at separations comparable to the total sphere-plate rms roughness w{sub shp}+w.

  1. Turbulent boundary layer over solid and porous surfaces with small roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, F. Y.; Schetz, J. A.; Collier, F.

    1982-01-01

    Skin friction and profiles of mean velocity, axial and normal turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress in the untripped boundary layer were measured directly on a large diameter, axisymmetric body with: (1) a smooth, solid surface; (2) a sandpaper-roughened, solid surface; (3) a sintered metal, porous surface; (4) a smooth, perforated titanium surface; (5) a rough solid surface made of fine, diffusion bonded screening, and (6) a rough, porous surface of the same screening. Results obtained for each of these surfaces are discussed. It is shown that a rough, porous wall simply does not influence the boundary layer in the same way as a rough solid wall. Therefore, turbulent transport models for boundary layers over porous surfaces either with or without injection or suction, must include both surface roughness and porosity effects.

  2. Surface processes on the asteroid deduced from the external 3D shapes and surface features of Itokawa particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2015-10-01

    Particles on the surface of S-type Asteroid 25143 Itokawa were successfully recovered by the Hayabusa mission of JAXA (e.g., [1,2]). They are not only the first samples recovered from an asteroid, but also the second extraterrestrial regolith to have been sampled, the first being the Moon by Apollo and Luna missions. The analysis of tiny sample particles (20-200 μm) shows that the Itokawa surface material is consistent with LL chondrites suffered by space weathering as expected and brought an end to the origin of meteorites (e.g., [2-4]). In addition, the examination of Itokawa particles allow studies of surface processes on the asteroid because regolith particles can be regarded as an interface with the space environment, where the impacts of small objects and irradiation by the solar wind and galactic cosmic rays should have been recorded. External 3D shapes and surface features of Itokawa regolith particles were examined. Two kinds of surface modification, formation of space-weathering rims mainly by solar wind implantation and surface abrasion by grain migration, were recognized. Spectral change of the asteroid proceeded by formation of space-weathering rims and refreshment of the regolith surfaces. External 3D shapes and surface morphologies of the regolith particles can provide information about formation and evolution history of regolith particles in relation to asteroidal surface processes. 3D shapes of Itokawa regolith particles were obtained using microtomography [3]. The surface nanomiromorpholgy of Itokawa particles were also observed using FE-SEM [5]. However, the number of particles was limited and genial feature on the surface morphology has not been understood. In this study, the surface morphology of Itokawa regolith particles was systematically investigated together with their 3D structures.

  3. Packing patterns of silica nanoparticles on surfaces of armored polystyrene latex particles.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Sara; Colard, Catheline A L; Troisi, Alessandro; Bon, Stefan A F

    2009-11-01

    Fascinating packing patterns of identical spherical and discotic objects on curved surfaces occur readily in nature and science. Examples include C(60) fullerenes, (1, 2) 13-atom cuboctahedral metal clusters, (3) and S-layer proteins on outer cell membranes. (4) Numerous situations with surface-arranged objects of variable size also exist, such as the lenses on insect eyes, biomineralized shells on coccolithophorids, (5) and solid-stabilized emulsion droplets (6) and bubbles. (7) The influence of size variations on these packing patterns, however, is studied sparsely. Here we investigate the packing of nanosized silica particles on the surface of polystyrene latex particles fabricated by Pickering miniemulsion polymerization of submicrometer-sized armored monomer droplets. We are able to rationalize the experimental morphology and the nearest-neighbor distribution with the help of Monte Carlo simulations. We show that broadening of the nanoparticle size distribution has pronounced effects on the self-assembled equilibrium packing structures, with original 12-point dislocations or grain-boundary scars gradually fading out. PMID:19438175

  4. Multistep Kinetic Behavior of the Thermal Decomposition of Granular Sodium Percarbonate: Hindrance Effect of the Outer Surface Layer.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Nakano, Masayoshi; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2015-09-24

    The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal decomposition of granular sodium percarbonate (SPC), which is used as a household oxygen bleach, were studied by thermoanalytical measurements under systematically changing conditions and morphological observation of the reactant solids at different reaction stages. A physico-geometrical kinetic behavior of the reaction that occurs in a core-shell structure composed of an outer surface layer and internal aggregates of SPC crystalline particles was illustrated through detailed kinetic analyses using the kinetic deconvolution method. Simultaneously, the hazardous nature of SPC as a combustion improver was evaluated on the basis of the kinetic behavior of the thermal decomposition. It was found that the outer surface layers of the SPC granules hinder the diffusional removal of product gases generated by the thermal decomposition of the internal SPC crystalline particles. The reaction rate decelerates because of an increase in the internal gaseous pressure as the reaction advances. However, the reaction rate accelerates once crack formation occurs in the outer surface layer at the midpoint of the reaction. Therefore, the overall reaction was empirically demonstrated to consist of two overlapping reaction steps owing to the changes in the self-generated reaction conditions in the interior of the SPC granules. PMID:26372469

  5. Effect of impurities in the description of surface nanobubbles: Role of nonidealities in the surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddhartha

    2011-06-01

    In a recent study [S. Das, J. H. Snoeijer, and D. Lohse, Phys. Rev. E1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.056310 82, 056310 (2010)], we provided quantitative demonstration of the conjecture [W. A. Ducker, LangmuirLANGD50743-746310.1021/la902011v 25, 8907 (2009)] that the presence of impurities at the surface layer (or the air-water interface) of surface nanobubbles can substantially lower the gas-side contact angle and the Laplace pressure of the nanobubbles. Through an analytical model for any general air-water interface without nonideality effects, we showed that a large concentration of soluble impurities at the air-water interface of the nanobubbles ensures significantly small contact angles (matching well with the experimental results) and Laplace pressure (though large enough to forbid stability). In this paper this general model is extended to incorporate the effect of nonidealities at the air-water interface in impurity-induced alteration of surface nanobubble properties. Such nonideality effects arise from finite enthalpy or entropy of mixing or finite ionic interactions of the impurity molecules at the nanobubble air-water interface and ensure significant lowering of the nanobubble contact angle and Laplace pressure even at relatively small impurity coverage. In fact for impurity molecules that show enhanced tendency to get adsorbed at the nanobubble air-water interface from the bulk phase, impurity-induced lowering of the nanobubble contact angle is witnessed for extremely small bulk concentration. Surface nanobubble experiments being typically performed in an ultraclean environment, the bulk concentration of impurities is inevitably very small, and in this light the present calculations can be viewed as a satisfactory explanation of the conjecture that impurities, even in trace concentration, have significant impact on surface nanobubbles.

  6. Surface tension-driven convection patterns in two liquid layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juel, Anne; M. Burgess, John; McCormick, W. D.; Swift, J. B.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2000-09-01

    Two superposed liquid layers display a variety of convective phenomena that are inaccessible in the traditional system where the upper layer is a gas. We consider several pairs of immiscible liquids. Once the liquids have been selected, the applied temperature difference and the depths of the layers are the only independent control parameters. Using a perfluorinated hydrocarbon and silicone oil system, we have made the first experimental observation of convection with the top plate hotter than the bottom plate. Since the system is stably stratified, this convective flow is solely due to thermocapillary forces. We also have found oscillatory convection at onset in an acetonitrile and n-hexane system heated from below. The experimental observations are in reasonable agreement with linear stability analyses.

  7. A layer tracking approach to buried surface detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, Peter J.; Wilson, Joseph N.; Smock, Brandon

    2015-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices use sensors to capture one-dimensional representations, or A-scans, of the soil and buried properties at each sampling point. Previous work uses reciprocal pointer chains (RPCs) to find one-dimensional layers in two-dimensional data (B-scans). We extend this work to find two-dimensional layers in three-dimensional data. We explore the application and differences of our technique when applied to vehicular mounted systems versus handheld systems and their distinct detection sequences. Not only can this work be used to display subsurface structure to a system operator, but we can also use changes in the subsurface structure of a local region to help identify buried objects within the data. We propose distinguishing buried objects from layers can reduce false alarm rates and may help increase probability of detection.

  8. Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes at least two doped layers fabricated using MBE methods. The dopant sheet densities in the doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. The electrically active dopant sheet densities are quite high, reaching more than 1.times.10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, and locally exceeding 10.sup.22 per cubic centimeter. It has been found that silicon detector devices that have two or more such dopant layers exhibit improved resistance to degradation by UV radiation, at least at wavelengths of 193 nm, as compared to conventional silicon p-on-n devices.

  9. Engineering the surface characteristics of wear resistant white layers with reference to the design of tribosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Furze, D.C.; Griffiths, B.J.; Bertolotti, G.P

    1988-01-01

    The presence of white layers on a surface has often been linked with poor performance and low surface integrity. The properties of white layer surfaces can be engineered however so that they exhibit high wear resistance. This is achieved by deliberately generating a white layer by machining under controlled abusive conditions; in this case turning. This paper explores the viability of abusive turning a sa surface modification technique. The influence of specimen microstructure and of an asymmetric specimen configuration are examined with respect to the running-in behaviour and wear mechanisms.

  10. Bonding of copper surface in ambient air using propylene carbonate as passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Min; Phillips, Oluwadamilola; Liu, Lisha; Jin, Yufeng

    2015-07-01

    Bonding of a copper surface in a nonvacuum environment has been studied for the purpose of reducing manufacturing costs. Cu-Cu bonding in ambient air is demonstrated by using propylene carbonate (PPC) as a passivation layer. The decomposition of the PPC passivation layer during bonding would protect the copper surface from oxidation by providing a shielding gas atmosphere between the copper surface and the air. Further, the PPC passivation layer would also overcome the degradation of copper surface during storage in the atmosphere.

  11. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-05-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution.

  12. A literature review of surface alteration layer effects on waste glass behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    When in contact with an aqueous solution, nuclear waste glass is subject to a chemical attack that results in progressive alteration. During tills alteration, constituent elements of the glass pass into the solution; elements initially in solution diffuse into, or are adsorbed onto, the solid; and new phases appear. This results in the formation of surface layers on the reacted glass. The glass corrosion and radionuclide release can be better understood by investigating these surface layer effects. In the past decade, there have been numerous studies regarding the effects of surface layers on glass reactions. This paper presents a systematic analysis and summary of the past knowledge regarding the effects of surface layers on glass-water interaction. This paper describes the major formation mechanisms of surface layers; reviews the role of surface layers in controlling mass transport and glass reaction affinity (through crystalline phases, an amorphous silica, a gel layer, or all the components in the glass); and discusses how the surface layers contribute to the retention of radionuclides during glass dissolution.

  13. Surface Layering at the Mercury-Electrolyte Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ocko, B.M.; Elsen, A.; Murphy, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Deutsch, M.; Kuzmenko, I.; Magnussen, O.M.

    2010-03-12

    X-ray reflectometry reveals atomic layering at a liquid-liquid interface--mercury in a 0.01 M NaF solution. The interface width exceeds capillary wave theory predictions and displays an anomalous dependence on the voltage applied across it, displaying a minimum positive of the potential of zero charge. The latter is explained by electrocapillary effects and an additional intrinsic broadening of the interface profile, tentatively assigned to polarization of the conduction electrons due to the electric field of the electrochemical double layer at the interface.

  14. Scaling properties and anomalous transport of particles inside the stochastic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, G. M.; Abdullaev, S. S.

    1995-05-01

    Particle motion in a two-wave field is considered as a model for studying the kinetic (transport) properties inside the stochastic layer. The existence of an exact renormalization invariance of the separatrix with respect to the perturbation parameter and the approximate renormalization invariance for the exact equation of motion near a saddle point is shown. High accuracy symplectic integration is used to obtain the distribution function, its moments, and transport exponents. Scaling properties and anomalous transport have been found. It is shown that, depending on the parameters of the system, there is a possibility of modifying the fine (islands) structure of the stochastic layer, which leads to variations of the transport properties from the anomalous to the normal (Gaussian) ones.

  15. Chemical-thermal quantitative methodology for carbon speciation in damage layers on building surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nadia Ghedini; Cristina Sabbioni; Alessandra Bonazza; Giancarlo Gobbi

    2006-02-01

    Carbonaceous particles emitted by combustion processes are the main factors responsible for the blackening of buildings. The identification and evaluation of the carbon species constituting the noncarbonate fraction of total carbon in damage layers, particularly in urban areas, are required in order to investigate atmospheric deposition on building surfaces. Since noncarbonate carbon contains organic and elemental carbon originating from various human activities, its measurement and speciation are crucial to the protection and conservation of monuments and ancient masonry, playing an important role both in the proposal of mitigation strategies and in the definition of conservation treatments. The availability of a correct, accurate, and reproducible analytical method for a complete carbon balance is essential in studying the effects of atmospheric pollutants on the environment, including those affecting cultural heritage