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Sample records for particle surface layer

  1. Layer by Layer, Nano-particle "Only" Surface Modification of Filtration Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Ferrand, Luis

    Layer by Layer (LbL) deposition using primarily inorganic silica nanoparticles is employed for the modification of polymeric micro and ultrafiltration (MF/UF) membranes to produce thin film composites (TFC) with potential nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) capabilities.. A variety of porous substrate membranes with different membrane surface characteristics are employed, but exhibiting in common that wicking of water does not readily occur into the pore structure, including polycarbonate track etched (PCTE), polyethersulfone (PES) and sulfonated PES (SPEES) MF/UF membranes. Both spherical (cationic/anionic) and eccentric elongated (anionic) silica nanoparticles are deposited using conditions similar to those reported by Lee et al. Appropriate selection of the pH's for anionic and cationic particle deposition enables the construction of nanoparticle only layers 100--1200 nm in thickness atop the original membrane substrates. The surface layer thickness varies monotonically with the number of bilayers (anionic/cationic deposition cycles) as expected. The deposition process is optimized to eliminate drying induced cracking and to improve mechanical durability via thickness control and post-deposition hydro-thermal treatment. The hydrodynamic permeability of these TFC membranes is measured to evaluate their performance under typical NF operating conditions using dead-end permeation experiments and their performance compared quantitatively with realistic hydrodynamic models, with favorable results. For track etched polycarbonate MF substrates, surface modification causes a permeability reduction of approximately two orders of magnitude with respect to the bare substrates, to values comparable to those for typical commercial NF membranes. Good quantitative agreement with hydrodynamic models with no adjustable parameters was also established for this case, providing indirect confirmation that the LbL deposited surface layers are largely defect (crack) free

  2. The surface modified composite layer formation with boron carbide particles on magnesium alloy surfaces through pulse gas tungsten arc treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. B.; Jiang, H. Y.; Zeng, X. Q.; Li, D. H.; Yao, S. S.

    2007-02-01

    A novel fabrication process of surface modified composite layer by pulse current gas tungsten arc (GTA) surface modification process was used to deposit B 4C particles on the surface of magnesium alloy AZ31. This method is an effective technique in producing a high performance surface modified composite layer. During the pulse current GTA surface modification process, considerable convection can exist in the molten pool due to various driving forces and the pulse current could cause violent stirring in the molten pool, and the large temperature gradient across the boundary between the GTA modified surface and matrix metal resulted in rapid resolidification with high cooling rates in the molten pool, so that the process result notable grain refinement in the GTA surface modified composite layer. The hardness and wear resistance of the GTA surface modified composite layer are superior to that of as-received magnesium alloy AZ31. The hardness values and wear resistance of GTA surface modified composite layer depend on the GTA process parameters and the B 4C particles powder concentration and distribution. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of a homogeneous crack/defect-free and grain refinement microstructure were established.

  3. Influence of ionic strength on the surface charge and interaction of layered silicate particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Miller, Jan D; Yin, Xihui; Gupta, Vishal; Wang, Xuming

    2014-10-15

    The surface charge densities and surface potentials of selected phyllosilicate surfaces were calculated from AFM surface force measurements and reported as a function of ionic strength at pH 5.6. The results show that the silica faces of clay minerals follow the constant surface charge model because of isomorphous substitution in the silica tetrahedral layer. A decreasing surface charge density sequence was observed as follows: muscovite silica face>kaolinite silica face>talc silica face, which is expected to be due to the extent of isomorphous substitution. In contrast, at pH 5.6, the alumina face and the edge surface of kaolinite follow the constant surface potential model with increasing ionic strength, and the surface charge density increased with increasing ionic strength. The cluster size of suspended kaolinite particles at pH 5.6 was found to increase with increasing ionic strength due to an increase in the surface charge density for the alumina face and the edge surface. However, the cluster size decreased at 100mM KCl as a result of an unexpected decrease in the surface charge of the alumina face. When the ionic strength continued to increase above 100mM KCl, the van der Waals attraction dominated and larger clusters of micron size were stabilized. PMID:25086721

  4. Compliant layer chucking surface

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Spence, Paul A.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  5. Highly efficient silver particle layers on glass substrate synthesized by the sonochemical method for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy purposes.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Petr; Prucek, Robert; Černá, Klára; Fargašová, Ariana; Panáček, Aleš; Gedanken, Aharon; Zbořil, Radek; Kvítek, Libor

    2016-09-01

    A fast method for preparing of silver particle layers on glass substrates with high application potential for using in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is introduced. Silver particle layers deposited on glass cover slips were generated in one-step process by reduction of silver nitrate using several reducing agents (ethylene glycol, glycerol, maltose, lactose and glucose) under ultrasonic irradiation. This technique allows the formation of homogeneous layers of silver particles with sizes from 80nm up to several hundred nanometers depending on the nature of the used reducing agent. Additionally, the presented method is not susceptible to impurities on the substrate surface and it does not need any additives to capture or stabilize the silver particles on the glass surface. The characteristics of prepared silver layers on glass substrate by the above mentioned sonochemical approach was compared with chemically prepared ones. The prepared layers were tested as substrates for SERS using adenine as a model analyte. The factor of Raman signal enhancement reached up to 5·10(5). On the contrary, the chemically prepared silver layers does not exhibit almost any pronounced Raman signal enhancement. Presented sonochemical approach for preparation of silver particle layers is fast, simple, robust, and is better suited for reproducible fabrication functional SERS substrates than chemical one. PMID:27150757

  6. Ultrathin films of functional polyelectrolytes on flat surfaces and colloidal particles using the layer-by-layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi-Kyoung

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly techniques have been used to prepare ultrathin polymer films with controlled thicknesses and compositions. The technique is based on the alternate adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layers on substrates. This dissertation details the investigation of ultrathin films with functional polyelectrolytes coated on flat substrates and colloidal particles. Several systems were investigated including: liquid crystal (LC) photoalignment layers, photo-crosslinkable permselective membranes, luminescent hollow-shell particles, and conducting polymer colloidal particles. The multilayer films of an azo-polymer and a polycation were utilized to control azimuthal alignment of liquid crystals. Irradiation of a hybrid LC cell with linearly polarized light resulted in in-plane homogeneous LC alignment, which is dependent on the thickness, and irradiation time. The director of the LC molecules was found to be perpendicular to the polarization plane and can be reoriented. The photocross-linkable multilayer membranes comprising poly(acrylic acid) and poly(allyamine hydrochloride) modified with benzophenone groups have been prepared. It was demonstrated that the permeability of the multilayer films can be controlled by the number of layers as well as the UV irradiation time. Furthermore, a "smart" pH-switchable membrane was produced by adjusting the pH of the dipping solution while maintaining stability throughout the cross-linked structure. The membrane showed pH-sensitive permselectivity, that is, the film was permeable to the cationic molecules, but impermeable to the anionic molecules at pH 10 and vise versa at pH 3. Luminescent core-shell particles and hollow capsules were prepared by the LbL deposition of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and a water-soluble ionene precursor polymer containing fluorene units (PI) onto spherical colloid particles. Subsequent cross-linking of the PI in the multilayer shell formed luminescent conjugated oligo

  7. Structure and function of airway surface layer of the human lungs & mobility of probe particles in complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liheng

    Numerous infectious particles such as bacteria and pathogens are deposited on the airway surface of the human lungs during our daily breathing. To avoid infection the lung has evolved to develop a smart and powerful defense system called mucociliary clearance. The airway surface layer is a critical component of this mucus clearance system, which consists of two parts: (1) a mucus layer, that traps inhaled particles and transports them out of the lung by cilia-generated flow; and (2) a periciliary layer, that provides a favorable environment for ciliary beating and cell surface lubrication. For 75 years, it has been dogma that a single gel-like mucus layer, which is composed of secreted mucin glycoproteins, is transported over a "watery" periciliary layer. This one-gel model, however, does not explain fundamental features of the normal system, e.g. formation of a distinct mucus layer, nor accurately predict how the mucus clearance system fails in disease. In the first part of this thesis we propose a novel "Gel-on-Brush" model with a mucus layer (the "gel") and a "brush-like" periciliary layer, composed of mucins tethered to the luminal of airway surface, and supporting data accurately describes both the biophysical and cell biological bases for normal mucus clearance and its failure in disease. Our "Gel-on-Brush" model describes for the first time how and why mucus is efficiently cleared in health and unifies the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is expected that this "Gel-on-Brush" model of airway surface layer opens new directions for treatments of airway diseases. A dilemma regarding the function of mucus is that, although mucus traps any inhaled harmful particulates, it also poses a long-time problem for drug delivery: mobility of cargos carrying pharmaceutical agents is slowed down in mucus. The second part of this thesis aims to answer the question: can we theoretically understand the

  8. Aerosol Measurements in the Atmospheric Surface Layer at L'Aquila, Italy: Focus on Biogenic Primary Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitari, Giovanni; Coppari, Eleonora; De Luca, Natalia; Di Carlo, Piero; Pace, Loretta

    2014-09-01

    Two year measurements of aerosol concentration and size distribution (0.25 μm < d < 30 μm) in the atmospheric surface layer, collected in L'Aquila (Italy) with an optical particle counter, are reported and analysed for the different modes of the particle size distribution. A different seasonal behaviour is shown for fine mode aerosols (largely produced by anthropogenic combustion), coarse mode and large-sized aerosols, whose abundance is regulated not only by anthropogenic local production, but also by remote natural sources (via large scale atmospheric transport) and by local sources of primary biogenic aerosols. The observed total abundance of large particles with diameter larger than 10 μm is compared with a statistical counting of primary biogenic particles, made with an independent technique. Results of these two observational approaches are analysed and compared to each other, with the help of a box model driven by observed meteorological parameters and validated with measurements of fine and coarse mode aerosols and of an atmospheric primary pollutant of anthropogenic origin (NOx). Except in winter months, primary biogenic particles in the L'Aquila measurement site are shown to dominate the atmospheric boundary layer population of large aerosol particles with diameter larger than 10 μm (about 80 % of the total during summer months), with a pronounced seasonal cycle, contrary to fine mode aerosols of anthropogenic origin. In order to explain these findings, the main mechanisms controlling the abundance and variability of particulate matter tracers in the atmospheric surface layer are analysed with the numerical box-model.

  9. Atomic force microscopy surface analysis of layered perovskite La2Ti2O7 particles grown by molten flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orum, Aslihan; Takatori, Kazumasa; Hori, Shigeo; Ikeda, Tomiko; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Tani, Toshihiko

    2016-08-01

    Rectangular platelike particles of La2Ti2O7, a layered perovskite, were synthesized in KCl, NaCl, and LiCl by the molten flux method. The formation mechanism of the equilibrium shape in these alkali chloride fluxes was discussed in terms of the surface and interfacial energies of crystallographic planes. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the developed plane of the platelike particles is along the interlayers in the {110}-type layered crystal structure, and is considered to represent the lowest surface energy plane in which strong, periodic Ti–O bond chains terminate. Herein, for the first time, a growth mechanism for La2Ti2O7 particles is proposed and discussed. Triangular prism structures along the c-axis were observed on the developed planes of KCl-grown particles whereas no such structures were found on those of LiCl-grown ones. AFM measurements suggest that the prism facets are {210}-La2Ti2O7, which results in lower interfacial energy within KCl.

  10. Virosome engineering of colloidal particles and surfaces: bioinspired fusion to supported lipid layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleddermann, J.; Diamanti, E.; Azinas, S.; Košutić, M.; Dähne, L.; Estrela-Lopis, I.; Amacker, M.; Donath, E.; Moya, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Immunostimulating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs) are liposomes with functional viral envelope glycoproteins: influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase intercalated in the phospholipid bilayer. Here we address the fusion of IRIVs to artificial supported lipid membranes assembled on polyelectrolyte multilayers on both colloidal particles and planar substrates. The R18 assay is used to prove the IRIV fusion in dependence of pH, temperature and HA concentration. IRIVs display a pH-dependent fusion mechanism, fusing at low pH in analogy to the influenza virus. The pH dependence is confirmed by the Quartz Crystal Microbalance technique. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging shows that at low pH virosomes are integrated in the supported membrane displaying flattened features and a reduced vertical thickness. Virosome fusion offers a new strategy for transferring biological functions on artificial supported membranes with potential applications in targeted delivery and sensing.Immunostimulating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs) are liposomes with functional viral envelope glycoproteins: influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase intercalated in the phospholipid bilayer. Here we address the fusion of IRIVs to artificial supported lipid membranes assembled on polyelectrolyte multilayers on both colloidal particles and planar substrates. The R18 assay is used to prove the IRIV fusion in dependence of pH, temperature and HA concentration. IRIVs display a pH-dependent fusion mechanism, fusing at low pH in analogy to the influenza virus. The pH dependence is confirmed by the Quartz Crystal Microbalance technique. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging shows that at low pH virosomes are integrated in the supported membrane displaying flattened features and a reduced vertical thickness. Virosome fusion offers a new strategy for transferring biological functions on artificial supported membranes with potential applications in targeted delivery and sensing

  11. Particle transport and adjustments of the boundary layer over rough surfaces with an unrestricted, upwind supply of sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna Neuman, Cheryl

    1998-10-01

    Most natural surfaces containing non-erodible roughness elements are considerably more complex than those studied in modelling exercises and wind tunnel simulations. Unlike idealized roughness elements, which are uniform in size, shape (i.e., spheres or cylinders) and spacing, natural elements are challenging to measure in 3-dimensional space. Similarly, most deflation lag surfaces, such those as found on sandar and beaches, are spatially heterogeneous open systems in which sediment transport from an external supply is very likely. The development of irregular deflation lag surfaces, and the transport of sediment over these surfaces from an upwind source of sediment, was studied in a series of wind tunnel simulations. Surfaces prepared with crushed gravel and natural beach shingle respond conservatively in terms of the adjustment to the deflation and deposition of sediment. Deflation lag surfaces, prepared with no spacing between the roughness elements (i.e., close packed), demonstrate little to no change in coverage with the introduction of particles from an upwind source. Neither the element type nor the friction velocity affect this outcome. As the center-to-center element spacing increases to 60 mm, infilling of the lag surface eventually is observed, with the element coverage reduced by a factor between 2 and 4. For a given threshold ratio ( Rt), the roughness density ( λ) is smaller than observed in previous simulation studies based on idealized roughness elements.

  12. Simulation of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with dispersed particles in the propagation of breather in the surface layer of a liquid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Zabolotin, V.V.; Uvarova, L.A.

    2015-03-10

    A numerical simulation of the interaction of laser radiation with dispersed particles in the course of propagation of breather in the surface layer of the liquid breather was performed. The shape and amplitude of the acoustic signal formed in this interaction were obtained. Two acoustic signals, before and after the impact of a breather on the process of optical sound generation, were compared. Results of the comparison showed that the breather spreading over the surface of the liquid medium affecst the acoustic signal and its effect must be considered in the measurements.

  13. Formulation of stability-dependent empirical relations for turbulent intensities from surface layer turbulence measurements for dispersion parameterization in a lagrangian particle dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-08-01

    Season- and stability-dependent turbulence intensity ( σ u / u *, σ v / u *, σ w / u *) relationships are derived from experimental turbulence measurements following surface layer scaling and local stability at the tropical coastal site Kalpakkam, India for atmospheric dispersion parameterization. Turbulence wind components ( u', v', w') measured with fast response UltraSonic Anemometers during an intense observation campaign for wind field modeling called Round Robin Exercise are used to formulate the flux-profile relationships using surface layer similarity theory and Fast Fourier Transform technique. The new relationships (modified Hanna scheme) are incorporated in a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF and tested by conducting simulations for a field tracer dispersion experiment at Kalpakkam. Plume dispersion analysis of a ground level hypothetical release indicated that the new turbulent intensity formulations provide slightly higher diffusivity across the plume relative to the original Hanna scheme. The new formulations for σ u , σ v , σ w are found to give better agreement with observed turbulent intensities during both stable and unstable conditions under various seasonal meteorological conditions. The simulated concentrations using the two methods are compared with those obtained from a classical Gaussian model and the observed SF6 concentration. It has been found that the new relationships provide comparatively higher diffusion across the plume relative to the model default Hanna scheme and provide downwind concentration results in better agreement with observations.

  14. Surface layers of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, T J; Graham, L L

    1991-01-01

    Since bacteria are so small, microscopy has traditionally been used to study them as individual cells. To this end, electron microscopy has been a most powerful tool for studying bacterial surfaces; the viewing of macromolecular arrangements of some surfaces is now possible. This review compares older conventional electron-microscopic methods with new cryotechniques currently available and the results each has produced. Emphasis is not placed on the methodology but, rather, on the importance of the results in terms of our perception of the makeup and function of bacterial surfaces and their interaction with the surrounding environment. Images PMID:1723487

  15. [Surface layers of methanotrophic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Khmelenina, V N; Suzina, N E; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    Structural and functional characteristics of the regular glycoprotein layers in prokaryotes are analyzed with a special emphasis on aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. S-layers are present at the surfaces of Methylococcus, Methylothermus, and Methylomicrobium cells. Different Methylomicrobium species either synthesize S-layers with planar (p2, p4) symmetry or form cup-shaped or conicalstructures with hexagonal (p6) symmetry. A unique, copper-binding polypeptide 'CorA'/MopE (27/45 kDa), which is coexpressed with the diheme periplasmic cytochrome c peroxidase 'CorB'/Mca (80 kDa) was found in Methylomicrobium album BG8, Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, and Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. This tandem of the surface proteins is functionally analogous to a new siderophore, methanobactin. Importantly, no 'CorA'/MopE homologue was found in methanotrophs not forming S-layers. The role of surface proteins in copper metabolism and initial methane oxidation is discussed. PMID:25509389

  16. Surface sulfur measurements on stratospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.; Mogk, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The surface chemistries of three particulate samples collected from the lower stratosphere have been determined using a Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM). These samples are typical of the most abundant natural and anthropogenic particles observed within the stratosphere in the greater-than-2-micron diameter size fraction. Succsessive sputtering and analysis below the first few adsorbed monolayers of all particles shows the presence of a thin (less than 150A) sulfur layer. These sulfur regions probably formed by surface reaction of sulfur-rich aerosols with each particle within the stratosphere. Settling rate calculations show that a typical sphere (10-micron diameter) may reside within the aerosol layer for 20 days and thus provide a qualitative guide to surface sulfur reaction rates.

  17. Glycobiology of surface layer proteins.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, C; Messner, P

    2001-07-01

    Over the last two decades, a significant change of perception has taken place regarding prokaryotic glycoproteins. For many years, protein glycosylation was assumed to be limited to eukaryotes; but now, a wealth of information on structure, function, biosynthesis and molecular biology of prokaryotic glycoproteins has accumulated, with surface layer (S-layer) glycoproteins being one of the best studied examples. With the designation of Archaea as a second prokaryotic domain of life, the occurrence of glycosylated S-layer proteins had been considered a taxonomic criterion for differentiation between Bacteria and Archaea. Extensive structural investigations, however, have demonstrated that S-layer glycoproteins are present in both domains. Among Gram-positive bacteria, S-layer glycoproteins have been identified only in bacilli. In Gram-negative organisms, their presence is still not fully investigated; presently, there is no indication for their existence in this class of bacteria. Extensive biochemical studies of the S-layer glycoprotein from Halobacterium halobium have, at least in part, unravelled the glycosylation pathway in Archaea; molecular biological analyses of these pathways have not been performed, so far. Significant observations concern the occurrence of unusual linkage regions both in archaeal and bacterial S-layer glycoproteins. Regarding S-layer glycoproteins of bacteria, first genetic data have shed some light into the molecular organization of the glycosylation machinery in this domain. In addition to basic S-layer glycoprotein research, the biotechnological application potential of these molecules has been explored. With the development of straightforward molecular biological methods, fascinating possibilities for the expression of prokaryotic glycoproteins will become available. S-layer glycoprotein research has opened up opportunities for the production of recombinant glycosylation enzymes and tailor-made S-layer glycoproteins in large quantities

  18. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices.

  19. Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.

  20. Particle tracking around surface nanobubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Erik; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Lohse, Detlef; Seddon, James R. T.

    2013-05-01

    The exceptionally long lifetime of surface nanobubbles remains one of the biggest questions in the field. One of the proposed mechanisms for producing the stability is the dynamic equilibrium model, which describes a constant flux of gas in and out of the bubble. Here, we describe results from particle tracking experiments carried out to measure this flow. The results are analysed by measuring the Voronoï cell size distribution, the diffusion, and the speed of the tracer particles. We show that there is no detectable difference in the movement of particles above nanobubble-laden surfaces as compared to ones above nanobubble-free surfaces.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27443692

  2. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27443692

  3. Simple ray-tracing model for a rough surface of an ink layer including internal scattering particles printed on a light guide plate.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yoshifumi; Kaneko, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    For simulating light guide lighting systems, we have developed a ray-tracing model for an ink layer extracting light from a light guide. The model consists of the volume and the rough surface scattering calculated on the basis of Mie theory and the facet model, respectively. The model of an ink layer was required to conserve energy for analyzing how much light loss occurs in each component in the lighting system. Though a single-scattering rough surface model with a shadowing/masking function successfully describes the scattering distribution, shadowing light violates the energy conservation law because of a lack of multiple scattering. We developed the rough surface ray-tracing model (RSRT model), which includes the multiple scattering instead of the shadowing/masking effect. We investigated the applicability of the RSRT model for an ink layer by comparing the RSRT model with recent physical and facet models. Finally, we compared the calculated and measured scattering distributions of an ink layer, applied the developed ink layer model to the lighting system, and confirmed the developed model to be valid. PMID:26836100

  4. Light emission during impact stressing of a particle layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevskiy, A.; Aman, S.; Tatmyshevskiy, K.; Hirsch, S.; Tomas, J.

    2015-04-01

    The mechanical stress detection technique was developed based on light emission properties of ZnS:Mn particles. The light emission properties of ZnS:Mn particles were characterized by the use of the impact tester that includes a stressing tool, photomultiplier and a contact time measurement system. The mechanical stressing of particles was caused by the impact of a metallic ball, dropped from different heights. At impact, the metallic ball achieves direct contact with the upper surface of the metallic anvil. This allows the measurement of the contact time by means of the electrical current that flows between the anvil and the metallic ball during contact time. The stress, caused at the collision, is transmitted through a metallic anvil to the layer of particles and produces the deformation of particles. The applied stress was detected using a piezoelectric sensor. It was shown that the ZnS:Mn particles generate the light during the action of the loading force. After removal of the loading force the light emission from the particle layer disappears in a few microseconds. The measurement was carried out using different ranges of applied forces. In this way, it was shown that the particle layer exhibits a high damping factor and failure resistance. One of the possible applications of these sensor systems based on light emission properties of ZnS:Mn particles is structural health monitoring.

  5. Application of Analytical Model of the Electric Potential Distribution for Calculation of Charged Particle Dynamics in a Near-Wall Layer and Sputtering of the Plasma Facing Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodkina, I. E.; Komm, M.; Tsvetkov, I. V.

    2015-08-01

    Simple analytical formulas are derived for calculation of the electric field potential distribution in the magnetic pre-layer and the Debye layer near the plasma facing surfaces. It is shown that the calculated potential profiles are in good agreement with the dependences of the potential distribution on the magnetic field inclination obtained by solving the magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) equations and modeling using the PIC code SPICE2. Dependences of the angular distribution of ions incident on the surface of plasma facing elements on the magnetic field inclination are obtained. Results of calculations demonstrate that the surface areas, on which the magnetic field is incident at sliding angles, are critical from the viewpoint of the increase of sputtering.

  6. Detector for Particle Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A. (Inventor); Schwindt, Christian J. (Inventor); Mattson, Carl B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for detecting and quantizing particle fallout contamination particles which are collected on a transparent disk or other surface employs an optical detector, such as a CCD camera, to obtain images of the disk and a computer for analyzing the images. From the images, the computer detects, counts and sizes particles collected on the disk The computer also determines, through comparison to previously analyzed images, the particle fallout rate, and generates an alarm or other indication if the rate exceeds a maximum allowable value. The detector and disk are disposed in a housing having an aperture formed therein for defining the area on the surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout. A light source is provided for evenly illuminating the disk. A first drive motor slowly rotates the disk to increase the amount of its surface area which is exposed through the aperture to the particle fallout. A second motor is also provided for incrementally scanning the disk in a radial direction back and forth over the camera so that the camera eventually obtains images of the entire surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout.

  7. Production Rates of Noble Gases in the Near-Surface Layers of Europa by Energetic Charged Particles and the Potential for Determining Exposure Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.

    2003-01-01

    The surface of Europa is expected to be extremely active, undergoing tectonic and/or tidal geological activity and sputtering/ deposition, as well as impact cratering. Determination of the actual age of the surface at one or more places would greatly simplify trying to sort out what processes are occurring, and at what rate. If there is K present, as the spectral and compositional modeling discussed predict, it should be possible, in principle, to determine K-Ar crystallization ages. Whether or not there is K present, a consideration of the environment suggests we can determine an energetic particle exposure age if we can make in situ measurements of the abundances of major elements and of noble gas isotopes. This requires instrumentation that is within reach of current technology. In this paper, we calculate production rates for noble-gas isotopes in a simplified Europan surface, to quantify the amount of light noble gases produced by exposure to energetic particles.

  8. Particle simulation of auroral double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bruce L.; Okuda, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    Work on the simulation of auroral double layers (DLs) with realistic particle-in-cell models is presented. An early model simulated weak DLs formed in a self-consistent circuit but under conditions subject to the ion-acoustic instability. Recent work has focused on strong DLs formed when currentless jets are injected into a dipole magnetic field.

  9. Double layers acting as particles accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Lozneanu, E.

    1995-12-31

    It is shown that self-consistent stable and unstable double layers generated in plasma after a self-organisation process are able to accelerate charged particles. The implication of cosmic double layers (Dls) in the acceleration of electrical charged particles long been advocated by Alfven and his Stockholm school is today disputed by argument that static electric fields associated with Dls are conservative and consequently the line integral of the electric field outside the DL balances the line integral inside it. Related with this dispute we will evidence some, so far not considered, facts which are in our opinion arguments that aurora Dls are able to energize particles. For justifying this assertion we start from recent experimental results concerning the phenomenology of self-consistent Dls whose generation involve beside ionisations the neutrals excitations which are at tile origin of the light phenomena as those observed in auroras.

  10. Active particles on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fily, Yaouen; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael

    Active systems have proved to be very sensitive to the geometry of their environment. This is often achieved by spending significant time at the boundary, probing its shape by gliding along it. I will discuss coarse graining the microscopic dynamics of self-propelled particles on a general curved surface to predict the way the density profile on the surface depends on its geometry. Beyond confined active particles, this formalism is a natural starting point to study objects that cannot leave the boundary at all, such as cells crawling on a curved substrate, animals running on uneven ground, or active colloids trapped at an interface.

  11. Subnanometer Palladium Particles Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Hao P.; Libera, Joseph A.; Stair, Peter C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2011-06-03

    Monodispersed palladium nanoparticle catalysts were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using alternating exposures of Pd hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)₂) and formalin on an alumina support. The size of the ALD Pd particles could be tuned by adjusting the preparation conditions. Conventional ALD conditions produced Pd particles with an average size of 1.4 nm. Removal of surface hydroxyls from the alumina support by a chemical treatment using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) before performing Pd ALD led to nanoparticles larger than 2 nm. Ultrasmall (subnanometer) Pd particles were synthesized using low-temperature metal precursor exposures, followed by applying protective ALD alumina overcoats. The ALD Pd particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy techniques. The Pd loadings were measured by X-ray fluorescence. The catalytic performance of ALD Pd particles of different sizes was compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The specific activity (normalized by Pd loading) of the ultrasmall Pd particles was higher than those of the larger particles. Considering the metal dispersion factor, the turnover frequency (TOF) of the ultrasmall Pd particles is comparable to that of the medium-sized (1.4 nm, on average) Pd particles synthesized under standard ALD conditions. The large Pd particles (>2 nm) are a factor of 2 less active than the smaller Pd particles.

  12. Polyelectrolyte adsorption layers studied by streaming potential and particle deposition.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Z; Zembala, M; Michna, A

    2006-11-15

    Adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), having a molecular weight of 70,000 on mica was characterized by the streaming potential method and by deposition of negative polystyrene latex particles. Formation of PAH layers was followed by determining the apparent zeta potential of surface zeta as function of bulk PAH concentration. The zeta potential was calculated from the streaming potential measured in the parallel-plate channel formed by two mica plates precovered by the polyelectrolyte. The experimental data were expressed as the dependence of the reduced zeta potential zeta/zeta0 on the PAH coverage Theta(PAH), calculated using the convective diffusion theory. It was found that for the ionic strength of 10(-2) M, the dependence of zeta/zeta0 on Theta(PAH) can be reflected by the theoretical model formulated previously for surfaces covered by colloid particles. The electrokinetic measurements were complemented by particle deposition experiments on PAH-covered mica surfaces. A direct correlation between the polymer coverage and the initial deposition rate of particles, as well as the jamming coverage, was found. For ThetaPAH > 0.3 the initial deposition rate attained the value predicted from the convective diffusion theory for homogeneous surfaces. The initial deposition rates for surfaces modified by PAH were compared with previous experimental and theoretical results obtained for heterogeneous surfaces formed by preadsorption of colloid particles. It was revealed that negative latex deposition occurred at surfaces exhibiting negative apparent zeta potential, which explained the anomalous deposition of particles observed in previous works. It was suggested that the combined electrokinetic and particle deposition methods can be used for detecting adsorbed polyelectrolytes at surfaces for coverage range of a percent. This enables one to measure bulk polyelectrolyte concentrations at the level of 0.05 ppm. PMID:16949085

  13. Atmospheric boundary layer over steep surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil A.; Druzhinin, Oleg; Kandaurov, Alexander A.; Ermakova, Olga S.; Ezhova, Ekaterina V.; Esau, Igor; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2014-08-01

    Turbulent air-sea interactions coupled with the surface wave dynamics remain a challenging problem. The needs to include this kind of interaction into the coupled environmental, weather and climate models motivate the development of a simplified approximation of the complex and strongly nonlinear interaction processes. This study proposes a quasi-linear model of wind-wave coupling. It formulates the approach and derives the model equations. The model is verified through a set of laboratory (direct measurements of an airflow by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique) and numerical (a direct numerical simulation (DNS) technique) experiments. The experiments support the central model assumption that the flow velocity field averaged over an ensemble of turbulent fluctuations is smooth and does not demonstrate flow separation from the crests of the waves. The proposed quasi-linear model correctly recovers the measured characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer over the waved water surface.

  14. Structure analysis of layer-by-layer multilayer films of colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batys, Piotr; Nosek, Magdalena; Weroński, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    We have mimicked the layer-by-layer self-assembling process of monodisperse colloidal particles at a solid-liquid interface using the extended random sequential adsorption model of hard spheres. We have studied five multilayer structures of similar thickness, each created at a different single-layer surface coverage. For each multilayer, we have determined its particle volume fraction as a function of distance from the interface. Additionally, we have characterized the film structure in terms of 2D and 3D pair-correlation functions. We have found that the coverage of about 0.3 is optimal for producing a uniform, constant-porosity multilayer in a minimum number of adsorption cycles. The single-layer coverage has also a significant effect on the primary maximum of 2D radial distribution function. In the case of multilayer with the coverage lower than 0.30 the 2D pair-correlation functions of even layers exhibit maxima decreasing with the increase in the layer number. We have verified our theoretical predictions experimentally. We have used fluorescence microscopy to determine the 2D pair-correlation functions for the second, third, and fourth layers of multilayer formed of micron-sized spherical latex particles. We have found a good agreement between our theoretical and experimental results, which confirms the validity of the extended RSA model.

  15. Influence of particle surface roughness on creeping granular motion.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Li-Tsung; Chang, Wei-Ching; Hsiau, Shu-San

    2016-07-01

    A core is formed at the center of a quasi-two-dimensional rotating drum filled more than half with granular material. The core rotates slightly faster than the drum (precession) and decreases in radius over time (erosion) due to the granular creeping motion that occurs below the freely flowing layer. This paper focuses on the effect of the surface roughness of particles on core dynamics, core precession, and core erosion. Two different surface roughness of glass particles having the same diameter were used in the experiments. The surface structures of the particles were quantitatively compared by measuring the coefficients of friction and using a simple image contrast method. The experiments were performed with five different filling levels in a 50-cm-diameter rotating drum. According to the results, core precession and core erosion are both dependent on the particle surface roughness. Core precession becomes weaker and erosion becomes stronger when using particles having a rough surface in the experiments. To explain the physics of core dynamics, the particles' surface roughness effect on the freely flowing layer and the creeping motion region were also investigated. The granular bed velocity field, maximum flowing layer depth δ, shear rate in the flowing layer γ[over ̇], and the creeping region decay constant y_{0} were also calculated in this paper. The effect of the particles' surface roughness on these physical variables well illustrates the physics of core dynamics and creeping granular motion. PMID:27575202

  16. Influence of particle surface roughness on creeping granular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Li-Tsung; Chang, Wei-Ching; Hsiau, Shu-San

    2016-07-01

    A core is formed at the center of a quasi-two-dimensional rotating drum filled more than half with granular material. The core rotates slightly faster than the drum (precession) and decreases in radius over time (erosion) due to the granular creeping motion that occurs below the freely flowing layer. This paper focuses on the effect of the surface roughness of particles on core dynamics, core precession, and core erosion. Two different surface roughness of glass particles having the same diameter were used in the experiments. The surface structures of the particles were quantitatively compared by measuring the coefficients of friction and using a simple image contrast method. The experiments were performed with five different filling levels in a 50-cm-diameter rotating drum. According to the results, core precession and core erosion are both dependent on the particle surface roughness. Core precession becomes weaker and erosion becomes stronger when using particles having a rough surface in the experiments. To explain the physics of core dynamics, the particles' surface roughness effect on the freely flowing layer and the creeping motion region were also investigated. The granular bed velocity field, maximum flowing layer depth δ , shear rate in the flowing layer γ ˙, and the creeping region decay constant y0 were also calculated in this paper. The effect of the particles' surface roughness on these physical variables well illustrates the physics of core dynamics and creeping granular motion.

  17. Surface rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Stanimirova, R; Marinova, K; Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Stoyanov, S; Pelan, E

    2011-10-18

    min. Molecular interpretations of the observed trends are proposed when possible. Surprisingly, in the course of our study we found experimentally that the drop shape analysis method (DSA method) shows a systematically lower surface elasticity, in comparison with the other two methods used: Langmuir trough and capillary pressure tensiometry with spherical drops. The possible reasons for the observed discrepancy are discussed, and the final conclusion is that the DSA method has specific problems and may give incorrect results when applied to study the dynamic properties of systems with high surface elasticity, such as adsorption layers of saponins, lipids, fatty acids, solid particles, and some proteins. The last conclusion is particularly important because the DSA method recently became the preferred method for the characterization of fluid interfaces because of its convenience. PMID:21894983

  18. Determination of physical and dynamic properties of suspended particles in water column with ultrasonic scanning in between the water surface and stable sediment layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Ozeren, Sinan; Cagatay, Namık; Sari, Erol; Vardar, Denizhan; Eris, Kadir

    2015-04-01

    The behavior of seafloor sediment with its water column should be known against any occurrences of anoxic or oxic conditions. The most important ones of these conditions are possible leakage of natural gas or escape of liquids from sediment. On the basis of combined solid/liquid flow dynamics in sedimentation, such kind of events can change, even in an effective manner, the dynamic movements of molecules and their cumulative mass of particules, i.e. the suspended materials. The deployment of suitable sediment traps or ultrasonic transducers somewhere in the water column are not easy attempts in order to obtain useful information about the state of suspended materials during sedimentation. These are usually bulky instruments; therefore they may behave like an anti-move suppresser on the particles moving in the float direction, in oxic and anoxic manner. These instruments, on the other hand, may cover the effects of diffusive flow or bubble formed gas and fluid escape from the sediment surface into the water column. Ultrasonic scanners, however, are able to make observations in a remote manner, without affecting such artificial events. Our field trials were successfully completed at the historical estuary called Halic of Marmara sea . The physical properties; such as the velocity of particles, their travel directions, their dimensions and the ability to observe anti-compositor crushes of shock waves of the bubbles are only a few of these observations in natural ambience. The most important problem solved about water pressure during 3 atmosphere . The sensor has been tested successfully few times. We used the ''High voltage electric isolator oil filling'' to the inside of the scanner for pressure equalization between outer side and inner body of probe at a depth of (20 meters) beneath the sea surface . The transmitted signals by the planar crystal of the transducer become weaker under the pressure of overlying water column in depths. Our efforts are now focused on the

  19. Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

  20. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  1. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali; Abuzriba, Mokhtar; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-01

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A & the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  2. Uncertainties in Surface Layer Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, W.

    2015-12-01

    A central problem for micrometeorologists has been the relationship of air-surface exchange rates of momentum and heat to quantities that can be predicted with confidence. The flux-gradient profile developed through Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) provides an integration of the dimensionless wind shear expression where is an empirically derived expression for stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. Empirically derived expressions are far from universally accepted (Garratt, 1992, Table A5). Regardless of what form of these relationships might be used, their significance over any short period of time is questionable since all of these relationships between fluxes and gradients apply to averages that might rarely occur. It is well accepted that the assumption of stationarity and homogeneity do not reflect the true chaotic nature of the processes that control the variables considered in these relationships, with the net consequence that the levels of predictability theoretically attainable might never be realized in practice. This matter is of direct relevance to modern prognostic models which construct forecasts by assuming the universal applicability of relationships among averages for the lower atmosphere, which rarely maintains an average state. Under a Cooperative research and Development Agreement between NOAA and Duke Energy Generation, NOAA/ATDD conducted atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research using Duke renewable energy sites as research testbeds. One aspect of this research has been the evaluation of legacy flux-gradient formulations (the ϕ functions, see Monin and Obukhov, 1954) for the exchange of heat and momentum. At the Duke Energy Ocotillo site, NOAA/ATDD installed sonic anemometers reporting wind and temperature fluctuations at 10Hz at eight elevations. From these observations, ϕM and ϕH were derived from a two-year database of mean and turbulent wind and temperature observations. From this extensive measurement database, using a

  3. Nanoshells made easy: improving Au layer growth on nanoparticle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brinson, Bruce E; Lassiter, J Britt; Levin, Carly S; Bardhan, Rizia; Mirin, Nikolay; Halas, Naomi J

    2008-12-16

    The growth of a continuous, uniform Au layer on a dielectric nanoparticle is the critical step in the synthesis of nanoparticles such as nanoshells or nanorice, giving rise to their unique geometry-dependent plasmon resonant properties. Here, we report a novel, streamlined method for Au layer metallization on prepared nanoparticle surfaces using carbon monoxide as the reducing agent. This approach consistently yields plasmonic nanoparticles with highly regular shell layers and is immune to variations in precursor or reagent preparation. Single particle spectroscopy combined with scanning electron microscopy reveal that thinner, more uniform shell layers with correspondingly red-shifted optical resonances are achievable with this approach. PMID:19360963

  4. Particle-Surface Interaction Model and Method of Determining Particle-Surface Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method and model of predicting particle-surface interactions with a surface, such as the surface of a spacecraft. The method includes the steps of: determining a trajectory path of a plurality of moving particles; predicting whether any of the moving particles will intersect a surface; predicting whether any of the particles will be captured by the surface and/or; predicting a reflected trajectory and velocity of particles reflected from the surface.

  5. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  6. Laser-Based Transient Surface Acceleration of Thermoelastic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CETINKAYA, CETIN; WU, CUNLI; LI, CHEN

    2000-03-01

    The removal of particles from elastic substrates has been an important practical problem in the electronics industry especially as the sizes of electronic units shrink. In recent years, there has been an interest in removingsubmicron level particles from surfaces. The use of traditional surface cleaning methods, such as ultrasonically induced fluid flow, vibrational methods, centrifugal techniques, is limited to particles that require surface acceleration lower than 107m/s2. For the effective removal of submicron particles, a higher level surface acceleration is needed since the adhesion forces (mainly van der Waals force for dry surfaces) are related to the particle size and increase approximately linearly as the characteristic radius of small particles that are to be removed decreases. In current work, based on the generalized dynamic theory of thermoelasticity reported, a transfer matrix formulation including the second sound effect is developed for a thermoelastic layer. The transfer matrix for axisymmetric wave propagation in a thermoelastic layer is obtained by adopting a double integral transform approach. The second sound effect is included to eliminate the thermal wave travelling with infinite velocity as predicted by the diffusion heat transfer model, and, consequently, the immediate arrival of waves. Using the current formulation and the periodic systems framework, a transfer function formulation for calculating the accelerations is developed for transient analysis. A double integral transform inversion method is used for transient response calculations. Acceleration levels, sufficient for submicron particle removal, are reported. Various processes such as thermoelastic stresses, surface evaporation, and optical breakdown may be responsible for surface acceleration components and particle removal. In current work, only the surface acceleration due to transient thermoelastic wave propagation is under investigation.

  7. Laser treatment of alumina surface with chemically distinct carbide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Bekir S.; Ali, Haider

    2014-12-01

    Laser treatment of pre-prepared alumina tile surface with a carbon film containing a mixture of 3 wt% TiC and 3 wt% B4C hard particles was conducted. Morphological and metallurgical changes at the laser treated surface were examined using optical and electron scanning microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the treated surface were measured together with indentation tests. Residual stress generated at the surface region was determined from the X-ray diffraction data. It was found that TiC and B4C hard particles cause micro-crack formation in the vicinity of hard particles on the surface. This behavior is attributed to the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of these particles. The laser treated surface is composed of a dense layer with fine sized grains and columnar structures formed below the dense layer. The presence of hard particles enhances the microhardness and lowers the fracture toughness of the surface. The formation of nitride compounds (AlN and AlON) contributes to volume shrinkage in the dense layer. Residual stress formed in the surface region is compressive.

  8. Enrichment and association of lead and bacteria at particulate surfaces in a salt-marsh surface layer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Lion, Leonard W.; Young, L.Y.; Leckie, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    The particle-laden surface layer (approx 150-370 mu m) and subsurface waters of a South San Francisco Bay salt marsh were sampled over 2 tidal cycles and analyzed for particle numbers and particulate-associated and total concentrations of Pb and bacteria. Laboratory studies examined the ability of a bacterial isolate from the surface layer and a bacterial 'film-former' to sorb Pb at environmentally significant concentrations in seawater. Degrees by which Pb concentrated in the surface layer relative to the subsurface strongly correlated with enrichments of surface layer bacteria (bacterioneuston). A significant fraction of the bacterioneuston and surface layer Pb were associated with particles. Particle-bound bacterioneuston may interact with Pb at particulate surfaces in this microenvironment.

  9. Stable water layers on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ying-Jhan; Tai, Lin-Ai; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chang, Pin; Yang, Chung-Shi; Yew, Tri-Rung

    2016-02-17

    Liquid layers adhered to solid surfaces and that are in equilibrium with the vapor phase are common in printing, coating, and washing processes as well as in alveoli in lungs and in stomata in leaves. For such a liquid layer in equilibrium with the vapor it faces, it has been generally believed that, aside from liquid lumps, only a very thin layer of the liquid, i.e., with a thickness of only a few nanometers, is held onto the surface of the solid, and that this adhesion is due to van der Waals forces. A similar layer of water can remain on the surface of a wall of a microchannel after evaporation of bulk water creates a void in the channel, but the thickness of such a water layer has not yet been well characterized. Herein we showed such a water layer adhered to a microchannel wall to be 100 to 170 nm thick and stable against surface tension. The water layer thickness was measured using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and the water layer structure was characterized by using a quantitative nanoparticle counting technique. This thickness was found for channel gap heights ranging from 1 to 5 μm. Once formed, the water layers in the microchannel, when sealed, were stable for at least one week without any special care. Our results indicate that the water layer forms naturally and is closely associated only with the surface to which it adheres. Our study of naturally formed, stable water layers may shed light on topics from gas exchange in alveoli in biology to the post-wet-process control in the semiconductor industry. We anticipate our report to be a starting point for more detailed research and understanding of the microfluidics, mechanisms and applications of gas-liquid-solid systems. PMID:26856872

  10. Layering of ionic liquids on rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Alexis; Jurado, L. Andres; Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N.; Arcifa, Andrea; Rossi, Antonella; Spencer, Nicholas D.; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the behavior of ionic liquids (ILs) either confined between rough surfaces or in rough nanoscale pores is of great relevance to extend studies performed on ideally flat surfaces to real applications. In this work we have performed an extensive investigation of the structural forces between two surfaces with well-defined roughness (<9 nm RMS) in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide by atomic force microscopy. Statistical studies of the measured layer thicknesses, layering force, and layering frequency reveal the ordered structure of the rough IL-solid interface. Our work shows that the equilibrium structure of the interfacial IL strongly depends on the topography of the contact.Understanding the behavior of ionic liquids (ILs) either confined between rough surfaces or in rough nanoscale pores is of great relevance to extend studies performed on ideally flat surfaces to real applications. In this work we have performed an extensive investigation of the structural forces between two surfaces with well-defined roughness (<9 nm RMS) in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide by atomic force microscopy. Statistical studies of the measured layer thicknesses, layering force, and layering frequency reveal the ordered structure of the rough IL-solid interface. Our work shows that the equilibrium structure of the interfacial IL strongly depends on the topography of the contact. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optimized geometries and sizes for [HMIM] Ntf2, SEM images of the smooth and rough colloids, frequency of occurrence of layering in the resolved force-distance curves for all investigated systems with [HMIM] Ntf2, layer size and layering force measured with a sharp tip on mica for the same IL, and results of the kinetics experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07805a

  11. Effect of surface ionization on wetting layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A surface ionization model due to Langmuir is generalized to liquid mixtures of polar and nonpolar components in contact with ionizable substrates. When a predominantly nonpolar mixture is near a miscibility gap, thick wetting layers of the conjugate polar phase form on the substrate. Such charged layers can be much thicker than similar wetting layers stabilized by dispersion forces. This model may explain the 0.4- to 0.6-micron-thick wetting layers formed in stirred mixtures of nitromethane and carbon disulfide in contact with glass.

  12. The Role of Surface Layer Processes in Solid Propellant Combustion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Satyanarayanan R.

    The qualitative multidimensional theory of composite solid propellant combustion based on the sandwich burning methodology was applied to certain specific problems: (a) burning rate enhancement by ferric oxide, (b) plateau burning behavior caused by binder melt flow effects, and (c) characterization of the combustion of new energetic oxidizers--ADN and HNIW. Exothermic reactions at the interfacial contact lines between AP particles and the binder in the surface layer of the burning propellant assume significance in the presence of ferric oxide, and control the burning rate. Binder melt flow covers adjacent AP particle surfaces increasingly at higher pressures, and disperses the O/F leading edge flames attached to coarse particles. It also causes fine AP/binder matrix areas on the surface not to support a steady premixed flame at intermediate pressures, resulting in an overall decrease in the burning rate with increasing pressure, which implies plateau or mesa effects. ADN self -deflagration rate is significantly higher than that of AP, and controls the sandwich burning rate to a great extent. The O/F flame of ADN and binder still behaves as rate limiting, although strongly supported by ADN self-deflagration. ADN melts and vaporizes substantially before the binder, allowing for the possibility of complex physical processes in the surface layer. The strong exothermic decomposition of HNIW at moderate temperatures causes the oxidizer particles in the surface layer to be the sites of burning rate control. The problems addressed in this study combinedly point to the significance of crucial surface layer processes under the situations of interest, and signal a need to characterize such processes directly and in greater detail.

  13. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.

    1993-12-31

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties.

  14. Limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode with dense particle layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weroński, P.; Nosek, M.; Batys, P.

    2013-09-01

    Exploiting the concept of diffusion permeability of multilayer gel membrane and porous multilayer we have derived a simple analytical equation for the limiting diffusion current at rotating disk electrode (RDE) covered by a thin layer with variable tortuosity and porosity, under the assumption of negligible convection in the porous film. The variation of limiting diffusion current with the porosity and tortuosity of the film can be described in terms of the equivalent thickness of stagnant solution layer, i.e., the average ratio of squared tortuosity to porosity. In case of monolayer of monodisperse spherical particles, the equivalent layer thickness is an algebraic function of the surface coverage. Thus, by means of cyclic voltammetry of RDE with a deposited particle monolayer we can determine the monolayer surface coverage. The effect of particle layer adsorbed on the surface of RDE increases non-linearly with surface coverage. We have tested our theoretical results experimentally by means of cyclic voltammetry measurements of limiting diffusion current at the glassy carbon RDE covered with a monolayer of 3 μm silica particles. The theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreement at the surface coverage higher than 0.7. This result suggests that convection in a monolayer of 3 μm monodisperse spherical particles is negligibly small, in the context of the coverage determination, in the range of very dense particle layers.

  15. The surface layer for free-surface turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lian; Zhang, Xiang; Yue, Dick K. P.; Triantafyllou, George S.

    1999-05-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to examine low Froude number free-surface turbulence (FST) over a two-dimensional mean shear flow. The Navier Stokes equations are solved using a finite-difference scheme with a grid resolution of 1283. Twenty separate simulations are conducted to calculate the statistics of the flow. Based on the velocity deficit and the vertical extent of the shear of the mean flow, the Reynolds number is 1000 and the Froude number is 0.7. We identify conceptually and numerically the surface layer, which is a thin region adjacent to the free surface characterized by fast variations of the horizontal vorticity components. This surface layer is caused by the dynamic zero-stress boundary conditions at the free surface and lies inside a thicker blockage (or ‘source’) layer, which is due to the kinematic boundary condition at the free surface. The importance of the outer blockage layer is manifested mainly in the redistribution of the turbulence intensity, i.e. in the increase of the horizontal velocity fluctuations at the expense of the vertical velocity fluctuation. A prominent feature of FST is vortex connections to the free surface which occur inside the surface layer. It is found that as hairpin-shaped vortex structures approach the free surface, their ‘head’ part is dissipated quickly in the surface layer, while the two ‘legs’ connect almost perpendicularly to the free surface. Analysis of the evolution of surface-normal vorticity based on vortex surface-inclination angle shows that both dissipation and stretching decrease dramatically after connection. As a result, vortex structures connected to the free surface are persistent and decay slowly relative to non-connected vorticities. The effects of surface and blockage layers on the turbulence statistics of length scales, Reynolds-stress balance, and enstrophy dynamics are examined, which elucidate clearly the different turbulence mechanisms operating in the respective near-surface

  16. Algorithm for Computing Particle/Surface Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm has been devised for predicting the behaviors of sparsely spatially distributed particles impinging on a solid surface in a rarefied atmosphere. Under the stated conditions, prior particle-transport models in which (1) dense distributions of particles are treated as continuum fluids; or (2) sparse distributions of particles are considered to be suspended in and to diffuse through fluid streams are not valid.

  17. Resuspension of small particles from tree surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ould-Dada, Zitouni; Baghini, Nasser M.

    A detailed study of resuspension of 1.85 μm MMAD silica particles from five horizontal layers within a small scale spruce canopy was carried out in a wind tunnel in which saplings were exposed to a constant free stream wind speed of 5 m s -1. This provided quantitative estimates of the potential for a tree canopy contaminated with an aerosol deposit to provide (i) an airborne inhalation hazard within the forest environment and (ii) a secondary source of airborne contamination after an initial deposition event. Resuspension occurred with a flux of 1.05×10 -7 g m -2 s -1 from spruce saplings initially contaminated at a level of 4.1×10 -2 g m -2. An average resuspension rate ( Λ) of 4.88×10 -7 s -1 was obtained for the canopy as a whole. Values of Λ were significantly different (ANOVA, p<0.001) between canopy layers and Λ was markedly greater at the top of the canopy than lower down although there was a slight increase in Λ at the base of the canopy. The resuspended silica particles deposited onto the soil surface at an average rate of about 5.3×10 -8 μg cm -2 s -1. It is concluded that resuspension under wind velocities similar to that used in the reported experiments is likely to pose a relatively small inhalation hazard to humans and a relatively minor source of secondary contamination of adjacent areas. Furthermore, resuspension rates are likely to diminish rapidly with time. The results are discussed in relation to the growing interest in the tree planting schemes in urban areas to reduce the impacts of air pollution.

  18. Particle motion inside Ekman and Bödewadt boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran Matute, Matias; van der Linden, Steven; van Heijst, Gertjan

    2014-11-01

    We present results from both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of the motion of heavy particles inside Ekman and Bödewadt boundary layers. The particles are initially at rest on the bottom of a rotating cylinder filled with water and with its axis parallel to the axis of rotation. The particles are set into motion by suddenly diminishing the rotation rate and the subsequent creation of a swirl flow with the boundary layer above the bottom plate. We consider both spherical and non-spherical particles with their size of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. It was found that the particle trajectories define a clear logarithmic spiral with its shape depending on the different parameters of the problem. Numerical simulations show good agreement with experiments and help explain the motion of the particles. This research is funded by NWO (the Netherlands) through the VENI Grant 863.13.022.

  19. Introduction of Coating Technology of Superfine Particle Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jieguang; Zhang, Lianmeng; Li, Junguo; Song, Jianrong

    With the fast development of new materials investigation, attention is paid to. The performance of superfine powders, which must be modified on the surface to acquire some points. Coating technology of particles is one especial method of surface modification. In this paper, coating methods of particles are classified into solid state, liquid state, and gaseous state, main methods and mechanisms during current time are reviewed, respectively, and some research examples are listed. The choice of diversified coating technologies is decided synthetically based on powder materials, performance of the modified substance, and application of coated powders. In the future, the researches of the core-shell modification mechanism, coated particles with an ordered arrangement coating layer, a new surface active agent, the facilities of suiting surface modification, and the evaluation methodology of the surface coating effect are very exigent and necessary for the preparation and application of superfine powders.

  20. Characterization of carbides composite surface layers produced by PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, M.; Tajouri, A.

    2015-03-01

    Composite surface layer of nickel base with titanium carbide in powder form was deposited on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard by using plasma transferred arc technique. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hardfacin process was successfully conducted by using PMNICr50P alloy plus titanium carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 754 HV and minimum dilution of 4.6 % were achieved by using an arc current of 80 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A& the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base with titanium carbide feature uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with irregular grain shape and relatively small particles size, and regular boundary line between the substrate and over layer with presence of black area along the boundary line. A few micro - porosities are located in the matrix.

  1. The structure and magnetic properties of ultrafine iron particles with oxide layer

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, A.G.; Sadykov, R.A.

    1994-12-01

    Ultrafine iron particles (UFIPs) are promising as materials for high-density magnetic recording and ferrofluids because the superparamagnetic state in these particles develops at smaller particle sizes than in conventional magnetic materials. The basic obstacle to producing UFIPs is their high reactivity, which leads to strong oxidation of these particles. Given this, effort is being devoted to extending chemical stabilization to iron particles of the smallest size possible. One possible approach involves the formation of a thin passivating oxide layer on iron particles [1-3], for example, by atmospheric-air oxidation or by oxidation in a special atmosphere. This results in the formation of an interesting structure - an ultrafine particle whose magnetic properties exhibit a marked variation from its center to the surface. The UFIP oxidized at room temperature was shown to consist of an unoxidized {alpha}-Fe core with an average diameter of 110 {Angstrom} and a 45-{Angstrom}-thick oxide layer with a spinel-type structure. The hyperfine magnetic field at the particle core coincides with the field in an infinite sample, whereas in the oxide layer, the average magnetic field was lower. Magnetic interaction between the central region of the UFIP and the oxide layer was found to suppress superparamagnetism and to result in development of a hyperfine structure in the Moessbauer subspectrum of the oxide layer. The observed shape of the Moessbauer spectrum is related to the surface state of the oxide phase and, to some extent, to the presence of defects.

  2. Surface shear rheology of saponin adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Golemanov, Konstantin; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Pelan, Edward; Stoyanov, Simeon D

    2012-08-21

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial biological activities. The molecular mechanisms behind these unusual properties are unknown, and, therefore, the saponins have attracted significant research interest in recent years. In our previous study (Stanimirova et al. Langmuir 2011, 27, 12486-12498), we showed that the triterpenoid saponins extracted from Quillaja saponaria plant (Quillaja saponins) formed adsorption layers with unusually high surface dilatational elasticity, 280 ± 30 mN/m. In this Article, we study the shear rheological properties of the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins. In addition, we study the surface shear rheological properties of Yucca saponins, which are of steroid type. The experimental results show that the adsorption layers of Yucca saponins exhibit purely viscous rheological response, even at the lowest shear stress applied, whereas the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins behave like a viscoelastic two-dimensional body. For Quillaja saponins, a single master curve describes the data for the viscoelastic creep compliance versus deformation time, up to a certain critical value of the applied shear stress. Above this value, the layer compliance increases, and the adsorption layers eventually transform into viscous ones. The experimental creep-recovery curves for the viscoelastic layers are fitted very well by compound Voigt rheological model. The obtained results are discussed from the viewpoint of the layer structure and the possible molecular mechanisms, governing the rheological response of the saponin adsorption layers. PMID:22830458

  3. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Constant Behavior: IV. Diffuse Layer Charge/Potential Relationships

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most current electrostatic surface complexation models describing ionic binding at the particle/water interface rely on the use of Poisson - Boltzmann (PB) theory for relating diffuse layer charge densities to diffuse layer electrostatic potentials. PB theory is known to contain ...

  4. Surface state and normal layer effects

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, R.A.; Ledvij, M.; Liu, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    In addition to the conducting CuO{sub 2} (S) layers, most high-T{sub c} superconductors also contain other conducting (N) layers, which are only superconducting due to the proximity effect. The combination of S and N layers can give rise to complicated electronic densities of states, leading to quasilinear penetration depth and NMR relaxation rate behavior at low temperatures. Surface states can also complicate the analysis of tunneling and, photoemission measurements. Moreover, geometrical considerations and in homogeneously trapped flux axe possible explanations of the paramagnetic Meissner effect and of corner and ring SQUID experiments. Hence, all of the above experiments could be consistent with isotropic s-wave superconductivity within the S layers.

  5. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.; VanDevender, J. Pace

    1999-01-01

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

  6. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  7. Spontaneous dispersion of particles on liquid surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra; Joseph, Daniel D.; Gurupatham, Sathish K.; Dalal, Bhavin; Nudurupati, Sai

    2009-01-01

    When small particles (e.g., flour, pollen, etc.) come in contact with a liquid surface, they immediately disperse. The dispersion can occur so quickly that it appears explosive, especially for small particles on the surface of mobile liquids like water. This explosive dispersion is the consequence of capillary force pulling particles into the interface causing them to accelerate to a relatively large velocity. The maximum velocity increases with decreasing particle size; for nanometer-sized particles (e.g., viruses and proteins), the velocity on an air-water interface can be as large as ≈47 m/s. We also show that particles oscillate at a relatively high frequency about their floating equilibrium before coming to stop under viscous drag. The observed dispersion is a result of strong repulsive hydrodynamic forces that arise because of these oscillations. PMID:19906995

  8. Irreversible adsorption of particles on heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Jaszczółt, Katarzyna; Michna, Aneta; Siwek, Barbara; Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Zembala, Maria

    2005-12-30

    Methods of theoretical and experimental evaluation of irreversible adsorption of particles, e.g., colloids and globular proteins at heterogeneous surfaces were reviewed. The theoretical models were based on the generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach. Within the scope of these models, localized adsorption of particles occurring as a result of short-ranged attractive interactions with discrete adsorption sites was analyzed. Monte-Carlo type simulations performed according to this model enabled one to determine the initial flux, adsorption kinetics, jamming coverage and the structure of the particle monolayer as a function of the site coverage and the particle/site size ratio, denoted by lambda. It was revealed that the initial flux increased significantly with the site coverage theta(s) and the lambda parameter. This behavior was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the scaled particle theory. It also was demonstrated that particle adsorption kinetics and the jamming coverage increased significantly, at fixed site coverage, when the lambda parameter increased. Practically, for alpha = lambda2theta(s) > 1 the jamming coverage at the heterogeneous surfaces attained the value pertinent to continuous surfaces. The results obtained prove unequivocally that spherically shaped sites were more efficient in binding particles in comparison with disk-shaped sites. It also was predicted that for particle size ratio lambda < 4 the site multiplicity effect plays a dominant role, affecting significantly the structure of particle monolayers and the jamming coverage. Experimental results validating main aspects of these theoretical predictions also have been reviewed. These results were derived by using monodisperse latex particles adsorbing on substrates produced by covering uniform surface by adsorption sites of a desired size, coverage and surface charge. Particle deposition occurred under diffusion-controlled transport conditions and their coverage was

  9. Surface structuring of particle laden drops using electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommersnes, P.; Fossum, J. O.

    2016-07-01

    Emulsion drops readily adsorb particles at their surfaces, which may lead to a fluid or solid layer encapsulating the drop, known as an armored drop. In this review, we discuss how electric fields can be used to manipulate colloidal surface structures, by dielectrophoretic or electro-hydrodynamic mechanisms and we also compare this to related phenomena in lipid bilayer vesicles. The phenomena discussed are important for a wide range of uses of particle laden drops, including emulsion stabilization, Janus or patchy mesocapsule-, scaffold- or other materials-production.

  10. Transition induced by fixed and freely convecting spherical particles in laminar boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, H. L.; Morris, P. J.; Bajwa, A. R.; Vincent, D. C.

    1993-08-01

    An experimental and analytical study of aspects of transition induced by disturbances from spherical particles in laminar boundary layers is discussed. The generation of turbulent wedges by fixed spherical particles in a laminar boundary layer on or near the surface of a flat plate is considered experimentally using flow visualization with fluorescent dye and laser Doppler velocimetry. Turbulent spots generated by freely convecting spherical particles that are released in the freestream to fall into a flat plate laminar boundary layer and impact the plate are also discussed. A combination of dye flow visualization and a video based particle tracking technique was used to study the convecting particle problem. Although the Reynolds number at the critical condition for turbulent wedge generation by fixed particles and turbulent spot generation by convecting particles are similar, transition in these two situations appears to be fundamentally different. The development of a turbulent wedge near the critical condition is a relatively gradual process. In contrast, turbulent spots form relatively quickly after the convecting particles enter the boundary layer and impact the plate. Turbulent wedge formation downstream of a fixed particle results from the destabilization of the near wall flow by the vortical structures shed into particle wake. This shedding process is dominated by periodically shed loop shaped hairpin vortices. Observation of subharmonic oscillations at 1/2 and 1/4 of this shedding frequency suggest that a chaotic route to turbulence by a series of period doubling bifurcations is possible.

  11. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models are extended to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface ('constant flux') layer. The atmospheric surface layer consists of an interfacial sublayer immediately adjacent to the ground and an overlying fully turbulent surface sublayer where wind-shear production of turbulence dominates buoyancy production. Within the interfacial sublayer, sensible and latent heat are transported by non-steady molecular diffusion into small-scale eddies which intermittently burst through this zone. Both the thickness of the interfacial sublayer and the characteristics of the turbulent eddies penetrating through it depend on whether airflow is aerodynamically smooth or aerodynamically rough, as determined by the Roughness Reynold's number. Within the overlying surface sublayer, similarity theory can be used to express the mean vertical windspeed, temperature, and water vapor profiles in terms of a single parameter, the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed using data from the TPRC Data Series and the first-order Chapman-Cowling expressions; the required collision integrals were approximated using the Lenard-Jones potential. Parameterizations for specific heat and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Brutsart model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length was modified to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface

  12. Electronic structure of bacterial surface protein layers

    SciTech Connect

    Maslyuk, Volodymyr V.; Mertig, Ingrid; Bredow, Thomas; Mertig, Michael; Vyalikh, Denis V.; Molodtsov, Serguei L.

    2008-01-15

    We report an approach for the calculation of the electronic density of states of the dried two-dimensional crystalline surface protein layer (S layer) of the bacterium Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602. The proposed model is based on the consideration of individual amino acids in the corresponding conformation of the peptide chain which additively contribute to the electronic structure of the entire protein complex. The derived results agree well with the experimental data obtained by means of photoemission (PE), resonant PE, and near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  13. Regular surface layer of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, W H; Doran, J L; Page, W J

    1984-01-01

    Washing Azotobacter vinelandii UW1 with Burk buffer or heating cells at 42 degrees C exposed a regular surface layer which was effectively visualized by freeze-etch electron microscopy. This layer was composed of tetragonally arranged subunits separated by a center-to-center spacing of approximately 10 nm. Cells washed with distilled water to remove an acidic major outer membrane protein with a molecular weight of 65,000 did not possess the regular surface layer. This protein, designated the S protein, specifically reattached to the surface of distilled-water-washed cells in the presence of the divalent calcium, magnesium, strontium, or beryllium cations. All of these cations except beryllium supported reassembly of the S protein into a regular tetragonal array. Although the surface localization of the S protein has been demonstrated, radioiodination of exposed envelope proteins in whole cells did not confirm this. The labeling behavior of the S protein could be explained on the basis of varying accessibilities of different tyrosine residues to iodination. Images PMID:6735982

  14. Particle generation by ultraviolet-laser ablation during surface decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh-Won; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2006-11-01

    A novel photonic decontamination method was developed for removal of pollutants from material surfaces. Such a method relies on the ability of a high-energy laser beam to ablate materials from a contaminated surface layer, thus producing airborne particles. In this paper, the authors presented the results obtained using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system and an aerosol particle sizer (APS). Particles generated by laser ablation from the surfaces of cement, chromium-embedded cement, and alumina were experimentally investigated. Broad particle distributions from nanometer to micrometer in size were measured. For stainless steel, virtually no particle > 500 nm in aerodynamic size was detected. The generated particle number concentrations of all three of the materials were increased as the 266-nm laser fluence (millijoules per square centimeter) increased. Among the three materials tested, cement was found to be the most favorable for particle removal, alumina next, and stainless steel the least. Chromium (dropped in cement) showed almost no effects on particle production. For all of the materials tested except for stainless steel, bimodal size distributions were observed; a smaller mode peaked at approximately 50-70 nm was detected by SMPS and a larger mode (peaked at approximately 0.70-0.85 microm) by APS. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, the authors concluded that particles in the range of 50-70 nm were aggregates of primary particles, and those of size larger than a few hundred nanometers were produced by different mechanisms, for example, massive object ejection from the material surfaces. PMID:17117745

  15. Lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiment: Plasma and energetic particles on the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.; Chase, L. M.; Lin, R. P.; Mccoy, J. E.; Mcguire, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiments aboard the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites and scientific reduction and analysis of the data to date are discussed with emphasis on four major topics: solar particles; interplanetry particle phenomena; lunar interactions; and topology and dynamics of the magnetosphere at lunar orbit. The studies of solar and interplanetary particles concentrated on the low energy region which was essentially unexplored, and the studies of lunar interaction pointed up the transition from single particle to plasma characteristics. The analysis concentrated on the electron angular distributions as highly sensitive indicators of localized magnetization of the lunar surface. Magnetosphere experiments provided the first electric field measurements in the distant magnetotail, as well as comprehensive low energy particle measurements at lunar distance.

  16. Surface layer effect on nuclear deformation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Sanzhur, A. I.; Reznychenko, B. V.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we apply the direct variational method to derive the nuclear deformation energy. The extended Thomas-Fermi approximation (ETFA) for the energy functional with Skyrme forces is used. We study the influence of the finite surface layer of the nuclear density profile function on the formation of the fission barrier and the scission configuration. Comparison of the variational approach with the traditional liquid drop model (LDM) is presented. We show the sensitivity of the numerical results to the surface diffuseness parameter.

  17. Solid-Particle Erosion Behaviour of WC/Ni Composite Clad layers with Different Contents of WC Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, C. P.; Mishra, S. K.; Tiwari, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the solid particle erosion behaviour of WC-reinforced Ni-matrix based laser clad layers to improve the performance of engineering components for potential power plant applications. WC-reinforced Ni-matrix based laser clad layers having various compositions of WC (5, 10 and 15wt%) were deposited on austenitic stainless steel substrates. The laser clad layers were characterised using optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness testing and air-jet erosion testing. In solid particle erosion studies using the air-jet erosion tester, the set of testing parameters, including air-erodent compositions, erodent particle velocities and impact angles, was selected by using the Taguchi technique. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were used to predict the wear mechanisms. The results of a microstructural examination of the cross-sections of laser clad revealed a good metallurgical bond between the WC-reinforced Ni matrix and the austenitic stainless steel substrate. Dissociation/partial melting/full melting of WC particles was not observed in the laser clad layers. The microhardness value in the laser cladding zone was between 900-2400 VHN, while it was 230-270 VHN on the substrate. The results of erosion wear studies of the WC-Ni laser clad surface revealed that the erosion behaviour of the WC-Ni laser clad is primarily governed by erodent jet velocity followed by impact angle. The erosion does not much depend on the Ni-concentration in the MMC or the erodent feed rate. The wear signature at the erosion wear surface indicated that the erosion was primarily governed by a ductile erosion mechanism followed by the removal of WC particles from the matrix. The erosion resistance of the Ni-clad layer with WC was found to be at least four times higher than that without WC particles. The quantified contribution of various erosion parameters is useful for function-based design of components with extended service life.

  18. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers extend elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface layer. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed. Parameterizations for specific heat and and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Prandtl and Schmidt numbers derived from these thermophysical properties were found to range from 0.78 - 1.0 and 0.47 - 0.70, respectively, for Mars. Brutsaert's model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the researchers modified the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. This length scale was then utilized with similarity theory turbulent flux profiles with the same form as those used by Businger et al. and others. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface sublayers offer roughly comparable resistance to sensible heat and water vapor transport and are thus both important in determining the associated fluxes.

  19. Equivalent medium theory of layered sphere particle with anisotropic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingcai; Wang, Minzhong; Zhang, Beidou

    2016-08-01

    Researches on the optical properties of small particle have been widely concerned in the atmospheric science, astronomy, astrophysics, biology and medical science. This paper provides an equivalent dielectric theory for the functional graded particle with anisotropic shells, in which inhomogeneous and anisotropic particle was equivalently transformed into a new kind of homogeneous, continuous and isotropic sphere with same size but different permittivity, and then greatly simplify the calculation process of particle's optical property. Meanwhile, the paper also discusses whether the charge on the particle can change the expression of its equivalent permittivity or not. These results proposed in this paper can be used to simulate the electrical, optical properties of layered sphere, it also meet the research requirement in the design of functional graded particles in different subjects.

  20. Surface impregnation by particle injection — laser impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinkfeldt, J. E.

    1988-02-01

    Wear resistance can be improved by laser impregnation — the surface layer of a base material is melted and hard wear resistant carbide particles are injected into the melted pool. Previously, experiments were mainly performed in a vacuum chamber at a laser power of 10 kW. In this paper, results are presented of experiments carried out with 1.5 and 2.5 kW lasers at ambient atmospheric pressure. Laser impregnated layers show increased wear resistance of the order of 20-40 times for impregnated compared to untreated aluminium, and 5-20 times for impregnated compared to hardened carbon steels.

  1. Surface roughness scattering in multisubband accumulation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Han; Reich, K. V.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation layers with very large concentrations of electrons where many subbands are filled became recently available due to ionic liquid and other new methods of gating. The low-temperature mobility in such layers is limited by the surface roughness scattering. However, theories of roughness scattering so far dealt only with the small-density single subband two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Here we develop a theory of roughness-scattering limited mobility for the multisubband large concentration case. We show that with growing 2D electron concentration n the surface dimensionless conductivity σ /(2 e2/h ) first decreases as ∝n-6 /5 and then saturates as ˜(d aB/Δ2)≫1 , where d and Δ are the characteristic length and height of the surface roughness and aB is the effective Bohr radius. This means that in spite of the shrinkage of the 2DEG thickness and the related increase of the scattering rate the 2DEG remains a good metal.

  2. Diurnal ocean surface layer model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; May, Douglas A.; Abell, Fred, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The diurnal ocean surface layer (DOSL) model at the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center forecasts the 24-hour change in a global sea surface temperatures (SST). Validating the DOSL model is a difficult task due to the huge areas involved and the lack of in situ measurements. Therefore, this report details the use of satellite infrared multichannel SST imagery to provide day and night SSTs that can be directly compared to DOSL products. This water-vapor-corrected imagery has the advantages of high thermal sensitivity (0.12 C), large synoptic coverage (nearly 3000 km across), and high spatial resolution that enables diurnal heating events to be readily located and mapped. Several case studies in the subtropical North Atlantic readily show that DOSL results during extreme heating periods agree very well with satellite-imagery-derived values in terms of the pattern of diurnal warming. The low wind and cloud-free conditions necessary for these events to occur lend themselves well to observation via infrared imagery. Thus, the normally cloud-limited aspects of satellite imagery do not come into play for these particular environmental conditions. The fact that the DOSL model does well in extreme events is beneficial from the standpoint that these cases can be associated with the destruction of the surface acoustic duct. This so-called afternoon effect happens as the afternoon warming of the mixed layer disrupts the sound channel and the propagation of acoustic energy.

  3. Electrohydrodynamic manipulation of particles on drop surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amah, Edison; Shah, Kinnari; Fischer, Ian; Singh, Pushpendra

    2014-11-01

    We have recently shown that particles adsorbed on the surface of a drop can be self-assembled at the poles or the equator of the drop by applying a uniform ac electric field, and that this method can be used to separate on the surface of a drop those particles experiencing positive dielectrophoresis from those experiencing negative dielectrophoresis. In this talk we show that the frequency of the electric field is an important parameter which can be used to modify the intensities of the dielectrophoretic and the hydrodynamic-flow induced forces, and thus control the distribution of self-assembled monolayers. The work was supported by National Science Foundation.

  4. Rebound characteristics for ash particles impacting a planar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ming; Li, Sufen; Han, Jian; Xie, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The formation of ash deposition on the heat transfer tubes in a boiler reduces the heat transfer coefficient by about 25%. Because of these fouling layers, the efficiency with which energy can be absorbed from flue gases is reduced. The growth of ash deposition is strongly dependent on the interaction of the incident particle with the surface of heat transfer tubes. In this study the interaction is modeled as the outcome of collision between an incident fly ash particle and planar surface that represents a heat transfer surface. The present paper focuses on the applicability of the experimental results to indicate the rebound characteristics of fly ash particles impacting a planar surface. This is studied by impaction experiments of fly ash particles from the power plant dust, under various particle diameters and with different velocities (ranging from 0.1 to 20 m/s). The experiments are carried out in an atmospheric column, and using a digital camera system, individual impacts are recorded. Furthermore, the measured coefficient of restitution values can be predicted by a dynamic simulation model.

  5. Surface Properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    WoodIII, David L; Rulison, Christopher; Borup, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    The wetting properties of PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs) were quantified by surface characterization measurements and modeling of material properties. Single-fiber contact-angle and surface energy (both Zisman and Owens-Wendt) data of a wide spectrum of GDL types is presented to delineate the effects of hydrophobic post-processing treatments. Modeling of the basic sessile-drop contact angle demonstrates that this value only gives a fraction of the total picture of interfacial wetting physics. Polar forces are shown to contribute 10-20 less than dispersive forces to the composite wetting of GDLs. Internal water contact angles obtained from Owens-Wendt analysis were measured at 13-19 higher than their single-fiber counterparts. An inverse relationship was found between internal contact angle and both Owens-Wendt surface energy and % polarity of the GDL. The most sophisticated PEMFC mathematical models use either experimentally measured capillary pressures or the standard Young-Laplace capillary-pressure equation. Based on the results of the Owens-Wendt analysis, an advancement to the Young-Laplace equation is proposed for use in these mathematical models, which utilizes only solid surface energies and fractional surface coverage of fluoropolymer. Capillary constants for the spectrum of analyzed GDLs are presented for the same purpose.

  6. Double-layer polarization of a non-conducting particle in an alternating current field with applications to dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui

    2011-09-01

    Dielectrophoresis is becoming one of the most important techniques in particle manipulation including particle separation, particle assembly, and biomolecule characterization. Understanding dielectrophoretic properties of particles is a key step toward effective and efficient particle manipulation. Theoretical studies of polarization of a particle can help to understand experimental observations and also go beyond to develop a predictive theory to guide the experimental design. This article discusses recent theoretical advances in the polarization of a dielectric particle, in particular, the polarization of the electric double layer. The double-layer polarization is critical to determine particle dynamics in dielectrophoresis. The dipole moment characterizing the strength of this polarization depends on the double-layer thickness, the electric field frequency, the particle's surface charge, and other surface's properties (Pohl, H. A., Dielectrophoresis, Cambridge University Press, New York 1978). After a brief review of the mathematical model, the focus is on the following problems: (i) the polarization of a spherical particle; (ii) the polarization of an elongated cylindrical particle; (iii) the effect of the slip on the polarization of a particle. The double-layer polarization is examined here in the context of high-frequency and low-frequency dispersions induced by surface conduction and diffusion, respectively. PMID:21823130

  7. Thermal characteristics of the lunar surface layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, C. J.; Birkebak, R. C.; White, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the fines from the Apollo 12 landing site have been determined as a function of their relevant parameters. These properties include the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, directional reflectance and emittance. The density used was the same as that observed from the returned core-tube samples and so should be close to the true density of the surface layer at the Apollo 12 site. The measured properties are used to calculate the diurnal temperature variation of the moon's surface as well as for several depths below the surface. The maximum surface of 389 K is obtained at lunar noon while the minimum temperature of 86.1 K is obtained at sunrise. It is shown that the most significant effects on temperature, as compared with previous calculations, are caused by using the directional reflectance which controls the amount of solar energy absorption during the day in place of a constant hemispherical reflectance. The results are compared with previous analyses and remote measurements.

  8. Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by surface modification of alumina particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Edna; Aruna, S. T.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2012-10-01

    The fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted intense interest because of their widespread potential applications in various industrial fields. Recently, some attempts have been carried out to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using metal oxide nanoparticles. In the present work, superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated with low surface energy material on alumina particles with different sizes. It was found that particle size of alumina is an important factor in achieving stable superhydrophobic surface. It was possible to obtain alumina surface with water contact angle (WCA) of 156° and a sliding angle of <2°. Superhydrophobicity of the modified alumina is attributed to the combined effect of the micro-nanostructure and low surface energy of fatty acid on the surface. The surface morphology of the alumina powder and coatings was determined by FESEM. The stability of the coatings was assessed by conducting water immersion test. Effect of heat treatment on WCA of the coating was also studied. The transition of alumina from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic state was explained using Wenzel and Cassie models. The method is shown to have potential application for creating superhydrophobic surface on cotton fabrics.

  9. Surface shear stress fluctuations in the atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monty, Jason; Hutchins, Nick; Chong, Min

    2005-11-01

    A lightweight, high frequency response (25Hz), floating element sensor was used to measure wall shear stress fluctuations in the atmospheric surface layer formed over a salt flat at the SLTEST site, Utah, USA. The sensor uses a laser position measurement system to track the motion of the floating element which consisted of a 50mm diameter foam disc, as described by Heuer & Marusic (Meas. Sci. Tech., Vol. 16, 1644- -1649, 2005). The measurements were taken as part of an internationally coordinated experimental program designed to make extensive spatial and temporal measurements of velocity, temperature and wall shear stress of the surface layer. Velocity measurements were made with both a 30m high vertical array and a 100m wide horizontal array of sonic anemometers; 18 anemometers in total were employed. Cross-correlations of shear stress and streamwise velocity fluctuations were analysed in an attempt to identify structure angles in the flow. The results were also compared with experimental data from controlled, laboratory turbulent boundary layers having three orders of magnitude lower Reynolds number.

  10. Modeled heating and surface erosion comparing motile (gas borne) and stationary (surface coating) inert particle additives

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1982-09-27

    The unsteady, non-similar, chemically reactive, turbulent boundary layer equations are modified for gas plus dispersed solid particle mixtures, for gas phase turbulent combustion reactions and for heterogeneous gas-solid surface erosive reactions. The exterior (ballistic core) edge boundary conditions for the solutions are modified to include dispersed particle influences on core propellant combustion-generated turbulence levels, combustion reactants and products, and reaction-induced, non-isentropic mixture states. The wall surface (in this study it is always steel) is considered either bare or coated with a fixed particle coating which is conceptually non-reactive, insulative, and non-ablative. Two families of solutions are compared. These correspond to: (1) consideration of gas-borne, free-slip, almost spontaneously mobile (motile) solid particle additives which influence the turbulent heat transfer at the uncoated steel surface and, in contrast, (2) consideration of particle-free, gas phase turbulent heat transfer to the insulated surface coated by stationary particles. Significant differences in erosive heat transfer are found in comparing the two families of solutions over a substantial range of interior ballistic flow conditions. The most effective influences on reducing erosive heat transfer appear to favor mobile, gas-borne particle additives.

  11. Small particle transport across turbulent nonisothermal boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction between turbulent diffusion, Brownian diffusion, and particle thermophoresis in the limit of vanishing particle inertial effects is quantitatively modeled for applications in gas turbines. The model is initiated with consideration of the particle phase mass conservation equation for a two-dimensional boundary layer, including the thermophoretic flux term directed toward the cold wall. A formalism of a turbulent flow near a flat plate in a heat transfer problem is adopted, and variable property effects are neglected. Attention is given to the limit of very large Schmidt numbers and the particle concentration depletion outside of the Brownian sublayer. It is concluded that, in the parameter range of interest, thermophoresis augments the high Schmidt number mass-transfer coefficient by a factor equal to the product of the outer sink and the thermophoretic suction.

  12. Lunar surface outgassing and alpha particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, Richard D.; Binder, Alan B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particle?; produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-2 18 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238.

  13. Surface preparation of substances for continuous convective assembly of fine particles

    DOEpatents

    Rossi, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing periodic nanometer-scale arrays of metal or semiconductor junctions on a clean semiconductor substrate surface is provided comprising the steps of: etching the substrate surface to make it hydrophilic, forming, under an inert atmosphere, a crystalline colloid layer on the substrate surface, depositing a metal or semiconductor material through the colloid layer onto the surface of the substrate, and removing the colloid from the substrate surface. The colloid layer is grown on the clean semiconductor surface by withdrawing the semiconductor substrate from a sol of colloid particles.

  14. Adsorption of sterically stabilized latex particles at liquid surfaces: effects of steric stabilizer surface coverage, particle size, and chain length on particle wettability.

    PubMed

    Reed, K M; Borovicka, J; Horozov, T S; Paunov, V N; Thompson, K L; Walsh, A; Armes, S P

    2012-05-01

    A series of five near-monodisperse sterically stabilized polystyrene (PS) latexes were synthesized using three well-defined poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) macromonomers with mean degrees of polymerization (DP) of 30, 50, or 70. The surface coverage and grafting density of the PGMA chains on the particle surface were determined using XPS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, respectively. The wettability of individual latex particles adsorbed at the air-water and n-dodecane-water interfaces was studied using both the gel trapping technique and the film calliper method. The particle equilibrium contact angle at both interfaces is relatively insensitive to the mean DP of the PGMA stabilizer chains. For a fixed stabilizer DP of 30, particle contact angles were only weakly dependent on the particle size. The results are consistent with a model of compact hydrated layers of PGMA stabilizer chains at the particle surface over a wide range of grafting densities. Our approach could be utilized for studying the adsorption behavior of a broader range of sterically stabilized inorganic and polymeric particles of practical importance. PMID:22502638

  15. Double layer -- a particle accelerator in the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Xiangrong

    2015-07-16

    Slides present the material under the following topics: Introduction (What is a double layer (DL)? Why is it important? Key unsolved problems); Theory -- time-independent solutions of 1D Vlasov--Poisson system; Particle-in-cell simulations (Current-driven DLs); and Electron acceleration by DL (Betatron acceleration). Key problems include the generation mechanism, stability, and electron acceleration. In summary, recent observations by Van Allen Probes show large number of DLs in the outer radiation belt, associated with enhanced flux of relativistic electrons. Simulations show that ion acoustic double layers can be generated by field-aligned currents. Thermal electrons can gain energy via betatron acceleration in a dipole magnetic field.

  16. Strength improvement via coating of a cylindrical hole by layer-by-layer assembled polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuqing; Garfield, Lucas B; Rupert, Nicholas E; Grady, Brian P; Funkhouser, Gary P

    2010-04-01

    Negatively charged colloidal poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (P(MMA-BA)) particles and positively charged dissolved poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) were adsorbed onto a cement block using a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. The block was fashioned so as to have a cylindrical hole running from one face to another along the long axis of the rectangular block, and a fluid containing either of the two charged materials was pumped through the block. The result was a film tens of micrometers thick, and the pressure required to crack the cement block was measured after one end of the hole was sealed. Latex particles with a T(g) near the use temperature showed the maximum improvement in the cracking stress of the blocks. In a multilayer coating with identically sized particles, the cracking stress of the blocks increased to an improvement of 25% and then dropped off with increasing number of layers, even though the relationship between film thickness and the number of layers was linear. An improvement of about 30% in the cracking stress of the coated blocks was obtained when using multiple layers with different particle sizes. The effects of the number of layers and particle size on the cracking stress suggest that both the morphology and the thickness of the film play a role in performance. Tests done under confinement, e.g., with an external stress applied to the outside of the blocks, suggest that not only does a film-forming mechanism contribute to performance but that filling of microcracks in the rock may also play a role. PMID:20423142

  17. Turbulent boundary layer over porous surfaces with different surface geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, F. Y.; Schetz, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The turbulent boundary layer over three porous walls with different surface geometries was studied in order to investigate the individual influences of porosity and small roughness, as well as their combined effects, on turbulent boundary layer behavior. The tests were conducted in a 2 m x 2 m tunnel on a large axisymmetric model at speeds corresponding to Re(L) = 5,000,000-6,000,000. The development of the turbulent boundary layer was compared for that of sintered metal, bonded screening, and perforated sheet and then to that for the flow over a solid smooth wall and a solid, sand-roughened wall. The comparisons reveal that the effect of porosity is to shift the logarithmic region of the wall law down by a certain amount from the solid wall results and to increase the skin friction values by about 30-40%. The downward shift of the logarithmic region of the wall law and the increase of the skin friction value by the combined effects of small roughness and porosity are found to be roughly the sum of their individual effects.

  18. Particle detectors based on semiconducting InP epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, R.; Grym, J.; Zdansky, K.

    2011-01-01

    A study of electrical properties and detection performance of two types of Indium Phosphide detector structures was performed: (i) with p-n-junction and (ii) with Schottky contact prepared on high purity p-type InP. The p-n junction detectors were based on a high purity InP:Pr layers of both n- and p- type conductivity with carrier concentration on the order of 1014 cm-3 grown on Sn doped n-type substrate. Schottky barrier detectors were prepared by vacuum evaporation of Pd on high purity p-type epitaxial layer grown on Mn doped p-type substrate. The detection performance of particle detectors was measured by pulse-height spectra with alpha particles emitted from 241Am source at room temperature.

  19. Surface Layer Turbulence During a Frontal Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, M; Lundquist, J K

    2004-06-15

    Some recent investigations have begun to quantify turbulence and dissipation in frontal zones to address the question of what physical mechanism counteracts the intensification of temperature and velocity gradients across a developing front. Frank (1994) examines the turbulence structure of two fronts that passed a 200m instrumented tower near Karlsruhe, Germany. In addition to showing the mean vertical structure of the fronts as they pass the tower, Frank demonstrates that there is an order of magnitude or more increase in turbulent kinetic energy across the frontal zone. Blumen and Piper (1999) reported turbulence statistics, including dissipation rate measurements, from the MICROFRONTS field experiment, where high-frequency turbulence data were collected from tower-mounted hotwire and sonic anemometers in a cold front and in a density current. Chapman and Browning (2001) measured dissipation rate in a precipitating frontal zone with high-resolution Doppler radar. Their measurements were conducted above the surface layer, to heights of 5km. The dissipation rate values they found are comparable to those measured in Kennedy and Shapiro (1975) in an upper-level front. Here, we expand on these recent studies by depicting the behavior of the fine scales of turbulence near the surface in a frontal zone. The primary objective of this study is to quantify the levels of turbulence and dissipation occurring in a frontal zone through the calculation of kinetic energy spectra and dissipation rates. The high-resolution turbulence data used in this study are taken during the cold front that passed the MICROFRONTS site in the early evening hours of 20 March 1995. These new measurements can be used as a basis for parameterizing the effects of surface-layer turbulence in numerical models of frontogenesis. We present three techniques for calculating the dissipation rate: direct dissipation technique, inertial dissipation technique and Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. Dissipation rate

  20. Methotrexate intercalated layered double hydroxides with different particle sizes: structural study and controlled release properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Zeng, Mei-Gui; Li, Shu-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2014-05-01

    To study the influence of particle size on release properties, drug efficacy and other properties, a series of methotrexate intercalated layered double hydroxides (MTX/LDHs) nanohybrids with different particle sizes were synthesized through traditional coprecipitation method, by using the mixture of water and polyethylene glycol (volume ratio is 3:1) as solvent. The relationship between particle size and hydrothermal treatment conditions (i.e., time and temperature) had been systematically investigated, and the results indicate that the particle size can be precisely controlled between 70 and 300 nm. Elemental C/H/N and inductive coupled plasma (ICP) analysis indicated that different hydrothermal treatment almost has no effect on compositions of the nanohybrids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations manifested the successful intercalation of MTX anions. MTX/LDHs particles exhibited hexagonal platelet morphology with round corner, due to the adsorption of MTX anions on positively charged LDHs surface. In addition, the crystallinity of MTX/LDHs increased with the particle diameters and the thermal stability of MTX anions was enhanced by holding together with LDHs layers. The in vitro release showed that bigger particles have much longer release duration, and the bioassay tests indicated that bigger particles are more efficient in the suppression of the tumor cells. PMID:24632036

  1. Preparation and Surface Layer Modification of Silicon Nanoparticles Dispersed in 2-Propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong; S, Iwasaki; K, Kimura; Zhang, Li-de

    1998-12-01

    Silicon nanoparticles dispersed in 2-propanol were prepared by using an arc plasma with gas flow method in a new designed home-made apparatus. The particles are composed of silicon crystal core covered by oxidized amorphous silicon shell. The composition of the particle surface layer can be modified by preparing the sample in different atmosphere. The particles can be also obtained with different core composition and different size which we need.

  2. a Conduction Model Describing Particle-Particle Interaction in the Case of Surface Conducting Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Foulc, J.-N.; Atten, P.

    We propose an analytical conduction model describing particle-particle interactions for the case of electrorheological fluids based on surface conducting particles. The system consisting of two contacting spheres immersed in a dielectric liquid is modeled by a distributed impedances network, from which we derive analytical expressions for the potential at the spheres surface, for the electric field in the liquid phase, and finally for the interaction force. The theoretical interaction force is compared with experimental results obtained on insulating spheres coated with a thin conducting polyaniline film. A good agreement is found between the theory and experiment.

  3. Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of nonspherical particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied to calculate the scattering by a layer of randomly positioned and oriented nonspherical particles. The scattering amplitude functions of each individual particle are calculated with Waterman's T matrix method, which utilizes vector spherical wave functions for expansion of incident, scattered, and surface fields. The orientation of the particles is described by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. A rotation matrix is used to relate the T matrix of the principal frame to that of the natural frame of the particle. The extinction matrix and phase matrix of the radiative transfer equations are expressed in terms of the T matrix elements. The extinction matrix for nonspherical particles is generally nondiagonal. There are only two attenuation rates in a specified direction of propagation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative method to first order in albedo. Numerical results are illustrated as functions of incidence angle and frequency with applications to active remote sensing.

  4. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  5. Surface engineering of nanoparticles in suspension for particle based bio-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Tapas; Bruce, Ian J.

    2012-08-01

    Surface activation of nanoparticles in suspension using amino organosilane has been carried out via strict control of a particle surface ad-layer of water using a simple but efficient protocol `Tri-phasic Reverse Emulsion' (TPRE). This approach produced thin and ordered layers of particle surface functional groups which allowed the efficient conjugation of biomolecules. When used in bio-sensing applications, the resultant conjugates were highly efficient in the hybrid capture of complementary oligonucleotides and the detection of food borne microorganism. TPRE overcomes a number of fundamental problems associated with the surface modification of particles in aqueous suspension viz. particle aggregation, density and organization of resultant surface functional groups by controlling surface condensation of the aminosilane. The approach has potential for application in areas as diverse as nanomedicine, to food technology and industrial catalysis.

  6. Particle Swarm Transport through Immiscible Fluid Layers in a Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, N. D.; Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Immiscible fluids occur either naturally (e.g. oil & water) or from anthropogenic processes (e.g. liquid CO2 & water) in the subsurface and complicate the transport of natural or engineered micro- or nano-scale particles. In this study, we examined the effect of immiscible fluids on the formation and evolution of particle swarms in a fracture. A particle swarm is a collection of colloidal-size particles in a dilute suspension that exhibits cohesive behavior. Swarms fall under gravity with a velocity that is greater than the settling velocity of a single particle. Thus a particle swarm of colloidal contaminants can potentially travel farther and faster in a fracture than expected for a dispersion or emulsion of colloidal particles. We investigated the formation, evolution, and break-up of colloidal swarms under gravity in a uniform aperture fracture as hydrophobic/hydrophyllic particle swarms move across an oil-water interface. A uniform aperture fracture was fabricated from two transparent acrylic rectangular prisms (100 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm) that are separated by 1, 2.5, 5, 10 or 50 mm. The fracture was placed, vertically, inside a glass tank containing a layer of pure silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) on distilled water. Along the length of the fracture, 30 mm was filled with oil and 70 mm with water. Experiments were conducted using silicone oils with viscosities of 5, 10, 100, or 1000 cSt. Particle swarms (5 μl) were comprised of a 1% concentration (by mass) of 25 micron glass beads (hydrophilic) suspended in a water drop, or a 1% concentration (by mass) of 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (hydrophobic) suspended in a water drop. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera and by green (525 nm) LED arrays for illumination. Swarms were spherical and remained coherent as they fell through the oil because of the immiscibility of oil and water. However, as a swarm approached the oil-water interface, it

  7. Layer-by-layer modification of high surface curvature nanoparticles with weak polyelectrolytes using a multiphase solvent precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Ashvin T; You, Yil-Hwan; Choi, Jeong-Wan; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Meissner, Kenith E; McShane, Michael J

    2016-03-15

    The layer-by-layer modification of ≈5 nm mercaptocarboxylic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles was studied in an effort to illustrate effective means to overcome practical issues in handling and performing surface modification of such extremely small materials. To accomplish this, each layer deposition cycle was separated into a multi-step process wherein solution pH was controlled in two distinct phases of polyelectrolyte adsorption and centrifugation. Additionally, a solvent precipitation step was introduced to make processing more amenable by concentrating the sample and exchanging solution pH before ultracentrifugation. The pH-dependent assembly on gold nanoparticles was assessed after each layer deposition cycle by monitoring the plasmon peak absorbance location, surface charge, and the percentage of nanoparticles recovered. The selection of solution pH during the adsorption phase was found to be a critical parameter to enhance particle recovery and maximize surface charge when coating with weak polyelectrolytes. One bilayer was deposited with a high yield and the modified particles exhibited enhanced colloidal stability across a broad pH range and increased ionic strength. These findings support the adoption of this multi-step processing approach as an effective and generalizable approach to improve stability of high surface curvature particles. PMID:26771506

  8. Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Vortex Interaction with a Particle-Laden Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Fernando

    Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than

  9. Neutral surface layer turbulence over complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.

    1995-09-01

    Accurate turbulence estimates are important input to atmospheric dispersion models since they characterize downwind dispersion and hence, potential pollutant concentrations. When only basic wind information is available, an atmospheric modeler must first estimate roughness length (z{sub 0},) at the location of interest, ({mu}*) from similarity theory using average wind speed ({mu}) and z{sub 0}, and finally apply experimentally derived relationships to determine the turbulence intensities. Even when turbulence coefficients are measured, the turbulence profile must be estimated in the surface layer, using, for example, the power law recommended in a US Environmental Protection Agency guidance document. In this study, turbulent intensities and wind profiles are analyzed in eight direction sectors during near neutral stability. ``Local`` and ``regional`` roughness lengths are calculated from wind speed profiles and from longitudinal turbulence intensities ({sigma}{sub {mu}}) at both sites. With ``regional`` roughness length, complex terrain features are in effect the roughness elements. Profiles of median, 15-minute averaged turbulence intensities {sigma}{sub {mu}}, {sigma}{sub {nu}} and {sigma}{sub w} are calculated at both sites. Profiles of median {sigma}{sub {theta}} and {sigma}{sub {phi}} are also calculated using four mean values of regional z{sub 0} at both sites. Finally, differences between widely-used turbulence relationships and the relationships determined in this study, and their possible effect on model results, are discussed.

  10. A Turbulent Boundary Layer over Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunwook; Kim, John

    2015-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL) developing over superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) were performed in order to investigate the underlying physics of turbulent flow over SHS. SHS were modeled through the shear-free boundary condition, assuming that the gas-liquid interfaces remained as non-deformable. Pattern-averaged turbulence statistics were examined in order to determine the effects of SHS on turbulence in no-slip and slip regions separately. Near-wall turbulence over the slip region was significantly affected by SHS due to insufficient mean shear required to sustain near-wall turbulence. SHS also indirectly affected near-wall turbulence over the no-slip region. In addition to the effects of the spanwise width of SHS on skin-friction drag reduction reported previously, spatial effects in the streamwise direction were examined. A guideline for optimal design of SHS geometry will be discussed. This research was supported by the ONR (Grant No. N000141410291).

  11. Layer silicates in a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; MacKinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-11-01

    Analytical electron microscopy on individual grains from a portion of a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (aggregate W7029C1 from the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection) shows that layer silicates compose 50 percent of the silicate fraction examined. These layer silicates can be classified into two distinct crystallochemical groups: (1) fine-grained, polycrystalline smectite minerals; and (2) well-ordered, single crystals of kaolinite and Mg-poor talc. The layer silicates in this portion of sample W7029(asterisk)A are dissimilar to those described in other chondritic porous aggregates. The predominant layer silicate assemblage in W7029(asterisk)A indicates that heating of the aggregate during atmospheric entry was brief and probably to a temperature less than 300 C. Comparison with terrestrial phyllosilicate occurrences suggests that some layer silicates in aggregate W7029(asterisk)A may have been formed by alteratiton from preexisting silicate minerals at low temperatures (less than 25 C) after aggregate formation.

  12. Effects of Surface Oxide on the Nitridation Behavior of Aluminum Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Noh, Jae-Hong; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Jaegab; Yang, Heang Ryeal; Lee, Kon-Bae

    2015-01-01

    A detailed transmission electron microscopy study coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy was conducted on AlN formed by the direct nitridation of Al particles under nitrogen atmosphere. The nitridation mechanism comprised two steps: the formation of AlN shell on Al particles and the growth of AlN with a lath type in Al droplets. Here, we found that the surface oxide layer of the Al particles acted as a channel layer, which supplied nitrogen in the atomic state to liquid Al, after being transformed into a thin AlON layer during the initial nitridation. In the Al particles, the inward growth of AlN with a shell structure occurred at the sub layer of the AlON layer. On the other hand, the extracted liquid Al droplets formed after the cracking of the AlN shell rested on the Al particles surrounded by the AlON layer. The nitridation of the droplets began at the interface between the Al particle and droplet and not at the free surface and grew outward from the droplet. Herein, based on the observation of the AlON layer formation, we propose a new mechanism for the nitridation of Al particles.

  13. Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Charged Latex Particle Surfaces in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Zifeng; Van Dyk, Antony K; Fitzwater, Susan J; Fichthorn, Kristen A; Milner, Scott T

    2016-01-19

    Charged particles in aqueous suspension form an electrical double layer at their surfaces, which plays a key role in suspension properties. For example, binder particles in latex paint remain suspended in the can because of repulsive forces between overlapping double layers. Existing models of the double layer assume sharp interfaces bearing fixed uniform charge, and so cannot describe aqueous binder particle surfaces, which are soft and diffuse, and bear mobile charge from ionic surfactants as well as grafted multivalent oligomers. To treat this industrially important system, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate a structurally realistic model of commercial binder particle surfaces, informed by extensive characterization of particle synthesis and surface properties. We determine the interfacial profiles of polymer, water, bound and free ions, from which the charge density and electrostatic potential can be calculated. We extend the traditional definitions of the inner and outer Helmholtz planes to our diffuse interfaces. Beyond the Stern layer, the simulated electrostatic potential is well described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The potential at the outer Helmholtz plane compares well to the experimental zeta potential. We compare particle surfaces bearing two types of charge groups, ionic surfactant and multivalent oligomers, with and without added salt. Although the bare charge density of a surface bearing multivalent oligomers is much higher than that of a surfactant-bearing surface at realistic coverage, greater counterion condensation leads to similar zeta potentials for the two systems. PMID:26735020

  14. Particle transport and flow modulation in particle-laden mixing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao-Ling

    Shear flows provide a means to rapidly mix and disperse discrete solid particles and droplets in natural and industrial processes. Moderate mass loadings of particles in a gas mixing layer may also alter the gas shear flow. While the modeling of single-phase shear flows has undergone several decades of development and validation, the consideration of the corresponding problem in two- phase shear flows has just began. This dissertation represents a systematic effort to use a tool known as direct numerical simulations (DNS) to advance our understanding of particle transport and flow modulation in a gas mixing layer laden with solid particles. In DNS, almost all dynamically important flow scales are directly resolved. Previously, DNS of three-dimensional (3D) particle-laden shear flows have not been possible due to their high computational cost. Therefore, we first set out to develop and validate a computationally efficient and numerically accurate DNS methodology for particle-laden mixing layer. The method relies on a Fourier vorticity-based formulation together with a divergence-free decomposition. While almost all previous numerical studies adopted the trajectory approach for the dispersed phase in the context of DNS, a continuum approach has been developed and shown to reduce the computational time by a factor of 15 for the simulations of 3D particle-laden mixing layers. The validity and interpretation of the continuum approach were illustrated analytically with a stagnation point flow model. Detailed comparisons showed that the continuum approach and the trajectory approach yielded very similar results. Since the particulate field is compressible, numerical diffusion must be applied to remove local singularities. A dynamic-diffusion model has been developed as an optimum numerical diffusion model to ensure spectral resolution of particulate continuum fields. The numerical method was then used to study the interactions of finite-inertia particles with 3D flow

  15. Dry deposition of large, airborne particles onto a surrogate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene; Kalman, David; Larson, Timothy

    Simultaneous measurements of particle dry deposition flux and airborne number concentration in the open atmosphere were made using three different types of artificially generated particles in the size range 10-100 μm - perlite, diatomaceous earth and glass beads. A combination of gravimetric analysis, automated microscopy and sonic anemometry provided size-resolved estimates of both the inertial and gravitational components of the quasi-laminar layer particle deposition velocity, ( Vd) b, as a function of size. Eddy inertial deposition efficiency ( ηdI) was determined as a function of dimensionless eddy Stokes number (Stk e). In the range 3particles and gases to environmental surfaces. DOE Report PNL-SA-6721, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA), used in several regulatory models, significantly under-predicted (up to seven times) ( Vd) b for large particles ( da>10 μm).

  16. Groupwise surface correspondence using particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangxu; Kim, Hyoungseop; Tan, Joo Kooi; Ishikawa, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    To obtain an effective interpretation of organic shape using statistical shape models (SSMs), the correspondence of the landmarks through all the training samples is the most challenging part in model building. In this study, a coarse-tofine groupwise correspondence method for 3-D polygonal surfaces is proposed. We manipulate a reference model in advance. Then all the training samples are mapped to a unified spherical parameter space. According to the positions of landmarks of the reference model, the candidate regions for correspondence are chosen. Finally we refine the perceptually correct correspondences between landmarks using particle filter algorithm, where the likelihood of local surface features are introduced as the criterion. The proposed method was performed on the correspondence of 9 cases of left lung training samples. Experimental results show the proposed method is flexible and under-constrained.

  17. Saltation and incipient suspension above a flat particle bed below a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, K.; Hunt, J. C. R.

    2000-08-01

    Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel in which a turbulent boundary layer was naturally grown over flat beds of three types of nearly mono-disperse spherical particles with different diameters, densities and coefficient of restitution (r) (snow, 0.48 mm, 910 kg m[minus sign]3; mustard seeds, 1.82 mm, 1670 kg m[minus sign]3, r = 0.7; ice particles, 2.80 mm, 910 kg m[minus sign]3, r = 0.8 0.9). The surface wind speeds (defined by the friction velocity u[low asterisk]) were varied between 1.0 and 1.9 times the threshold surface wind speed (defined by u[low asterisk]t). The trajectories, and ejection and impact velocities of the particles were recorded and analysed, even those that were raised only about one diameter into the flow.

  18. Oxidation at Surfaces of Uranium Oxide Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueneman, Richard; Burgraff, Larry

    2001-04-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO2 (S)) is unstable in an oxidizing environment and oxidizes until covered with a layer of uranium trioxide (UO3 (C)). During the oxidation process, uranium cations change from U+4 to U+6 and the oxide crystal structure changes from face centered cubic to orthorhombic. Seven UO2(S) samples were prepared by pressing UO2 (S) powder into a tungsten screen and then subjected to five different temperatures and three partial pressures of oxygen. UO2 (S) oxidation was monitored with in situ photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Quantitative oxidation data was obtained with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The in situ PL spectra did not identify UO3 (C) forming on the sample surfaces however, a new PL signature not associated with uranyl was observed. SIMS and XPS data from oxidized UO2 (S) samples indicated that at low temperatures, surface oxidation is kinetically limited and at high temperatures, surface oxidation is limited by diffusion. A model for the oxidation rate to UO3 (C) was not developed due to the temperature dependant oxidation process and high vacuum reduction of amorphous UO3 (A) present on the UO2 (S) sample surfaces prior to oxidation. A PL emission spectra intensity reduction was noticed on a UO3 (C) sample at room temperature under high vacuum. A reduction and re-oxidation of three additional UO3 (C) samples identified a kinetically irreversible reduction process for UO3(C) under high vacuum. A SIMS surface scan was performed on a fourth UO3(C) sample before and after exposure to ultra-high vacuum (10-8 torr) and the results suggest the reduction of UO3(C) to lower oxides (U3O8, U3O7 and UO2) at room temperature.

  19. Layers of Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Robust Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    In nature, birds exhibit multiple layers of superhydrophobic feathers that repel water. Inspired by bird feathers, we utilize porous superhydrophobic surfaces and compare the wetting and dewetting characteristics of a single surface to stacks of multiple surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces were submerged in water in a closed chamber. Pressurized gas was regulated to measure the critical pressure for the water to fully penetrate through the surfaces. In addition to using duck feathers, two-tier porous superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated to serve as synthetic mimics with a controlled surface structure. The energy barrier for the wetting transition was modeled as a function of the number of layers and their orientations with respect to each other. Moreover, after partial impalement into a subset of the superhydrophobic layers, it was observed that a full dewetting transition was possible, which suggests that natural organisms can exploit their multiple layers to prevent irreversible wetting.

  20. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  1. Carbon Surface Layers on a High-Rate LiFePO4

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrisch, Heike; Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2005-09-06

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image particles of a high-rate LiFePO4 sample containing a small amount of in situ carbon. The particle morphology is highly irregular, with a wide size distribution. Nevertheless, coatings, varying from about 5-10 nm in thickness, could readily be detected on surfaces of particles as well as on edges of agglomerates. Elemental mapping using Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM) indicates that these very thin surface layers are composed of carbon. These observations have important implications for the design of high-rate LiFePO4 materials in which, ideally, a minimal amount of carbon coating is used.

  2. Thin Water Films at Multifaceted Hematite Particle Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Boily, Jean-François; Yeşilbaş, Merve; Uddin, Munshi Md Musleh; Baiqing, Lu; Trushkina, Yulia; Salazar-Alvarez, Germàn

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces exposed to moist air stabilize nanometer- to micrometer-thick water films. This study resolves the nature of thin water film formation at multifaceted hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticle surfaces with crystallographic faces resolved by selected area electron diffraction. Dynamic vapor adsorption (DVA) in the 0-19 Torr range at 298 K showed that these particles stabilize water films consisting of up to 4-5 monolayers. Modeling of these data predicts water loadings in terms of an "adsorption regime" (up to 16 H2O/nm(2)) involving direct water binding to hematite surface sites, and of a "condensation regime" (up to 34 H2O/nm(2)) involving water binding to hematite-bound water nanoclusters. Vibration spectroscopy identified the predominant hematite surface hydroxo groups (-OH, μ-OH, μ3-OH) through which first layer water molecules formed hydrogen bonds, as well as surface iron sites directly coordinating water molecules (i.e., as geminal η-(OH2)2 sites). Chemometric analyses of the vibration spectra also revealed a strong correspondence in the response of hematite surface hydroxo groups to DVA-derived water loadings. These findings point to a near-saturation of the hydrogen-bonding environment of surface hydroxo groups at a partial water vapor pressure of ∼8 Torr (∼40% relative humidity). Classical molecular dynamics (MD) resolved the interfacial water structures and hydrogen bonding populations at five representative crystallographic faces expressed in these nanoparticles. Simulations of single oriented slabs underscored the individual roles of all (hydro)oxo groups in donating and accepting hydrogen bonds with first layer water in the "adsorption regime". These analyses pointed to the preponderance of hydrogen bond-donating -OH groups in the stabilization of thin water films. Contributions of μ-OH and μ3-OH groups are secondary, yet remain essential in the stabilization of thin water films. MD simulations also helped resolve crystallographic

  3. Model of Heat and Mass Transfer in Random Packing Layer of Powder Particles in Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, I.; Kovalev, O.; Smurov, I.

    Discretegrid model of heat transfer in granular porous mediumto describe the processes of selective laser melting of powdersis developed. The thermal conductivity in this mediumis performed through thecontact surfaces between the particles. The calculation method of morphology of random packing layer of powder considering the adhesive interaction between the particles is proposed. The internal structure of the obtained loose powder layer is a granular medium where spherical particles of different sizes are arranged in contact with each other randomly. Analytical models of powder balling process and formation of the remelted track are proposed.

  4. Modeling of turbulent transport in the surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The turbulence equations as written by Donaldson using the method of invariant modeling have been applied to the following limiting cases of the surface or constant flux layer of the planetary boundary layer: (1) Neutrally stable; (2) stable (above influence of surface roughness); (3) nearly neutrally stable; and (4) very unstable (free convection). For the neutrally stable case, the equations are shown to admit as a solution the familiar logarithmic profile. By use of this result, boundary conditions suitable for the surface layer are defined and are simple to apply to rough surfaces.

  5. Droplet morphologies on particles with macroscopic surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Stepánek, Frantisek; Rajniak, Pavol

    2006-01-31

    The equilibrium configuration of liquid droplets on the surface of macroscopically rough solid particles was determined by numerical simulations using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. The fractional surface coverage of the particle as a function of the droplet size, equilibrium contact angle, and the particle surface roughness amplitude and correlation length has been systematically investigated. Droplet size and contact angle were found to generally have a stronger effect on surface coverage than particle surface roughness. Because of droplet coalescence, a relatively large variation in surface coverage was observed for any given total liquid volume, particularly for larger values of the equilibrium contact angle. PMID:16430249

  6. From surface to subsurface and back again: the contribution of subsurface particle motion to surface armoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdowsi, B.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Ortiz, C. P.; Houssais, M.

    2015-12-01

    Armoring is the development of a coarse surface layer of sediments on a river bed, which overlies a smaller and typically more heterogeneous substrate. All existing models for this phenomenon are predicated on the idea that armoring develops due to size-selective transport and kinetic sieving at the surface of the granular bed. Here examine the development of armoring in the absence of size-selective surface transport, and demonstrate that subsurface particle movement can create an armored surface layer. We first conduct experiments in a laminar and annular flume, over a range of Shields stresses, with bimodal and refractive index-matched spherical sediments; this allows us to image the internal motion of the granular bed that is sheared from above by a viscous oil. Fluid-driven particle motion of the surface layer results in granular shear, that drives motion deep into the bed. This subsurface motion causes an upward migration of coarser particles, at a rate that is proportional to the granular shear rate. Comparison of experimental results to an existing continuum-granular flow model suggest that armoring in our bed-load exeriments is entirely consistent with shear-induced segregation in dry avalanches - but is slower. There is no size-selective transport at the surface in the experiments, as the annular flume is mass conserving and all particles move as bed load; this was confirmed by observation. To probe the granular physics of armor development further, we perform numerical simulations using a discrete element model (DEM) of granular flow, with and without damping. Simulations reproduce salient features of the experiments, and indicate that armoring is robust but that the rate of segregation is related to the degree of viscous damping. We posit that subsurface granular flow is an important and perhaps dominant contributor to surface armoring in rivers. More generally, this work shows how information is transferred from the surface to the subsurface and back

  7. Formation of Hard Surfacing Layers of WC-Co with Electron Beam Cladding Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Nobuyuki; Morimoto, Junji

    Hard surfacing layers of WC-Co/Ni-base self-fluxing alloy were successfully formed on a steel substrate using an electron beam cladding method. The WC particles were densely and homogenously dispersed within the Ni-base self-fluxing alloy without porosity. The effect of the electron beam conditions on layer formation was investigated, and the cladding layer properties were examined by hardness tests, abrasive wear tests and immersion corrosion tests. It was found that the cladding layers showed higher hardness and abrasion resistance with increasing WC-Co mixing ratio, however, corrosion resistance decreased with WC-Co mixing ratio. A coating layer having high abrasive and corrosion resistance simultaneously was achieved by multiple cladding of high WC-Co mixing ratio layers after low WC-Co mixing ratio layers.

  8. ac conductance of surface layer in lithium tetraborate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chung-Sik; Park, Jong-Ho; Moon, Byung Kee; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Byung-Chun; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae; Kim, Hyung Kook; Kim, Jung Nam

    2003-12-01

    ac conductance for the electrode effect in Li2B4O7 single crystal was investigated by use of a coplanar electrode applied on the surface of a (001) plate. A coplanar electrode in this material more clearly shows conduction of the electrode effect than a conventional parallel planar electrode. The electrode effect in ac conductance is likely to be controlled by the surface layer, which is a poorly conductive depletion layer possibly filled with vacancies of lithium ions. We found that the surface layer is not locally distributed near the electrodes, but, rather, on the broad area of the surface (001) plane of the material. So we conclude that the electrode effect in ac conduction of Li2B4O7 single crystal is mainly due to the poor conductive surface layer distributed over the whole surface of the (001) plane and is not a secondary phase formed by reaction with the electrode material.

  9. Equilibrium of wetting layers on rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Yu

    The objective of this dissertation is to study physical adsorption on solids with complex surface geometry--especially on self-similar and self-affine fractal surfaces--in the context of three phase equilibria. Such studies will facilitate the prediction of the adsorbed film from known surface properties, e.g., topography or interactions (direct problem), and the inference of unknown surface properties from experimental data (inverse problem). These results will then be compared against wetting phenomena on planar surfaces and with other methods of probing complex surface geometries of solids. Chapter One offers the basic context, including wetting phenomena on planar surfaces, the cornerstone prediction of wetting transition on planar surfaces by Cahn, the concepts of fractal geometry, and the formation of fractal objects, for later comparison. The rest of this dissertation will be devoted to the study of multilayer adsorption on fractal surfaces. When a liquid film completely wets the surface, the number of adsorbed molecules as a function of the vapor pressure will depend strongly on the underlying surface geometry. The fractal structure leads to the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill type isotherms with the exponents in the corresponding power laws depending on the fractal dimension and on whether the dominant influence is from the substrate potential (van der Waals wetting) or from the film-vapor surface tension (capillary wetting). The transition between the two is the analog of Cahn's transition: The thermal disorder is replaced by the quenched disorder. This analogy is studied in Chapter Two for self-similar surfaces, and in Chapter Four for self-affine surfaces. In Chapter Two the derivation framework also automatically identifies well-defined coexistence lines in the pressure-dimension diagram. The effect of the repulsive part is examined there too. A simple analysis of adsorption/desorption hysteresis on self-similar surfaces in Chapter Three concludes that the

  10. Fabrication of TI/SIC Surface Nano-Composite Layer by Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipur, Ali; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid; Zareie-Hanzaki, Abbas

    In the present investigation, novel Ti/SiC surface nano-composite layer was successfully fabricated by dispersing nano-sized SiC particles into commercially pure titanium plates employing friction stir processing technique. The process parameters such as tool rotation and advancing speeds were adjusted to produce defect-free surface composite layer, however, uniform distribution of the nano-size SiC particles in a matrix of titanium was achieved after the second pass. The micro hardness value of the Ti/SiC nano-composite surface layer was found to be 534 HV; this is 3.3 times higher than that of the commercially pure titanium substrate. No reaction was detected between SiC powders and the titanium matrix after friction stir processing.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of light reflection from cosmetic powder particles near the human skin surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Kumagawa, Tatsuya; Motoda, Masafumi; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke

    2013-06-01

    The reflection and scattering properties of light incident on human skin covered with powder particles have been investigated. A three-layer skin structure with a pigmented area is modeled, and the propagation of light in the skin's layers and in a layer of particles near the skin's surface is simulated using the Monte Carlo method. Assuming that only single scattering of light occurs in the powder layer, the simulation results show that the reflection spectra of light from the skin change with the size of powder particles. The color difference between normal and discolored skin is found to decrease considerably when powder particles with a diameter of approximately 0.25 μm are present near the skin's surface. The effects of the medium surrounding the particles, and the influence of the distribution of particle size (polydispersity), are also examined. It is shown that a surrounding medium with a refractive index close to that of the skin substantially suppresses the extreme spectral changes caused by the powder particles covering the skin surface.

  12. Ice nucleating particles in the Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boose, Yvonne; Sierau, Berko; García, M. Isabel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Alastuey, Andrés; Linke, Claudia; Schnaiter, Martin; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Kanji, Zamin A.; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    This study aims at quantifying the ice nucleation properties of desert dust in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL), the warm, dry and dust-laden layer that expands from North Africa to the Americas. By measuring close to the dust's emission source, before aging processes during the transatlantic advection potentially modify the dust properties, the study fills a gap between in situ measurements of dust ice nucleating particles (INPs) far away from the Sahara and laboratory studies of ground-collected soil. Two months of online INP concentration measurements are presented, which were part of the two CALIMA campaigns at the Izaña observatory in Tenerife, Spain (2373 m a.s.l.), in the summers of 2013 and 2014. INP concentrations were measured in the deposition and condensation mode at temperatures between 233 and 253 K with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC). Additional aerosol information such as bulk chemical composition, concentration of fluorescent biological particles as well as the particle size distribution was used to investigate observed variations in the INP concentration. The concentration of INPs was found to range between 0.2 std L-1 in the deposition mode and up to 2500 std L-1 in the condensation mode at 240 K. It correlates well with the abundance of aluminum, iron, magnesium and manganese (R: 0.43-0.67) and less with that of calcium, sodium or carbonate. These observations are consistent with earlier results from laboratory studies which showed a higher ice nucleation efficiency of certain feldspar and clay minerals compared to other types of mineral dust. We find that an increase of ammonium sulfate, linked to anthropogenic emissions in upwind distant anthropogenic sources, mixed with the desert dust has a small positive effect on the condensation mode INP per dust mass ratio but no effect on the deposition mode INP. Furthermore, the relative abundance of biological particles was found to be significantly higher in INPs compared to the ambient

  13. Surface and interface properties of thin pentacene and parylene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Andrej; Jakabovič, Ján; Srnánek, Rudolf; Šatka, Alexander; Kováč, Jaroslav; Kováč, Jaroslav

    2009-06-01

    To improve Organic Thin Film Transistor (OTFT) properties we study OTFT semiconductor/dielectric interfacial properties via examination of the gate dielectric using thin Parylene C layer. Structural and morphology properties of pentacene layers deposited on parylene layer and SiO2/Si substrate structure were compared. The surface morphology was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). AFM topography of pentacene layer in non-contact mode confirmed the preferable pentacene grain formation on parylene surface in dependence on layer thickness. The distribution of chemical species on the surfaces and composition depth profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and surface imaging. The depth profiles of the analyzed structures show a homogenous pentacene layer, characterized with C or C2 ions. Relatively sharp interface between pentacene and parylene layers was estimated by characteristic increased intensity of CCl ions peak. For revealing the pentacene phases in the structures the Micro-Raman spectroscopy was utilized. Conformal coatings of parylene and pentacene layers without pinholes resulted from the deposition process as was confirmed by SIMS surface imaging. For the pentacene layers thicker than 20 nm, both thin and bulk pentacene phases were detected by Micro-Raman spectroscopy, while for the pentacene layer thickness of 5 and 10 nm the preferable thin phase was detected. The complete characterisation of pentacene layers deposited on SiO2 and parylene surface revealed that the formation of large grains suggests 3D pentacene growth at parylene layer with small voids between grains and more than one monolayer step growth. The results will be utilized for optimization of the deposition process.

  14. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-01-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record. PMID:27221593

  15. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-01-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer "ghosts" during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record. PMID:27221593

  16. TEM studies of the nitrided Ni-Ti surface layer.

    PubMed

    Lelatko, J; Paczkowski, P; Wierzchoń, T; Morawiec, H

    2006-09-01

    The structure of surface layer, obtained on the nearly equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy after nitriding under glow discharge conditions at temperatures 700 or 800 degrees C, was investigated. The structural characterization of the intruded layer was performed on cross-sectional thin foils by the use of the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The obtained results show that the nitrided layers consist mainly of the nanocrystalline TiN phase and small amount of Ti(2)N. Between the nitrided layers and beta-NiTi matrix an intermediate Ti(2)Ni phase layer was observed. PMID:17059538

  17. Wave-Particle Interactions in the Turbulent Plasmaspheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Evgeny

    2015-11-01

    A wealth of wave activity around the plasmasphere's boundary enhances during substorm injection events. A turbulent plasmaspheric boundary layer forms initially near the pre-substorm plasmapause due to interactions between the injected and plasmaspheric populations. The free energy for plasma instabilities driving lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic turbulence and broadband hiss-like VLF waves come from substorm-injected hot plasma particles impacting the cold plasmasphere. In particular, the hot electron diamagnetic drift and the highly anisotropic hot ion distribution drive the modified two-stream and ion-ring instabilities in the entry layer and the central part, respectively. The diamagnetic drift of hot ions dominates near the inner edge. Enhanced plasma turbulence leads to heating of the cold plasma and to acceleration of suprathermal electron tails, thereby enhancing the downward heat transport and concomitant heating of the ionospheric electrons. Broadband, hiss-like VLF waves have amplitudes sufficient to provide rapid precipitation of the radiation belt electrons thereby shaping the outer radiation belt boundary. In addition, the hot ions penetrating inside the plasmasphere satisfy the orbit chaotization condition and become demagnetized. These results can also be helpful for understanding impulsive penetration at the magnetopause. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  18. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ommen, J. Ruud van Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.12–0.31 wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1 g min{sup −1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (10–40 m s{sup −1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100 °C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of core–shell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  19. Generation and characterization of surface layers on acoustically levitated drops.

    PubMed

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Bauerecker, Sigurd; Cammenga, Heiko K

    2007-06-15

    Surface layers of natural and technical amphiphiles, e.g., octadecanol, stearic acid and related compounds as well as perfluorinated fatty alcohols (PFA), have been investigated on the surface of acoustically levitated drops. In contrast to Langmuir troughs, traditionally used in the research of surface layers at the air-water interface, acoustic levitation offers the advantages of a minimized and contact-less technique. Although the film pressure cannot be directly adjusted on acoustically levitated drops, it runs through a wide pressure range due to the shrinking surface of an evaporating drop. During this process, different states of the generated surface layer have been identified, in particular the phase transition from the gaseous or liquid-expanded to the liquid-condensed state of surface layers of octadecanol and other related amphiphiles. Characteristic parameters, such as the relative permeation resistance and the area per molecule in a condensed surface layer, have been quantified and were found comparable to results obtained from surface layers generated on Langmuir troughs. PMID:17376468

  20. Observation of Surface Layering in a Nonmetallic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Mo,H.; Evmenenko, G.; Kewalramani, S.; Kim, K.; Ehrlich, S.; Dutta, P.

    2006-01-01

    Oscillatory density profiles (layers) have previously been observed at the free surfaces of liquid metals but not in other isotropic liquids. We have used x-ray reflectivity to study a molecular liquid, tetrakis(2-ethylhexoxy)silane. When cooled to T/T{sub c}{approx}0.25 (well above the freezing point for this liquid), density oscillations appear at the surface. Lateral order within the layers is liquidlike. Our results confirm theoretical predictions that a surface-layered state will appear even in dielectric liquids at sufficiently low temperatures, if not preempted by freezing.

  1. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Z X; Zhang, C; Huang, X F; Liu, W B; Yang, Z G

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content. PMID:26269034

  2. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content.

  3. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surface layer, which causes the fast oxidation in the initial oxidation stage. The formation of (Fe,Cr)2O3 inner layer would inhabit fast diffusion of alloy elements in the nanocrystalline surface layer of P91 steel in the later oxidation stage, and it causes a decrease in the parabolic oxidation rate compared with conventional specimens. This study provides a novel approach to improve the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steel without changing its Cr content. PMID:26269034

  4. Effect of gold nano-particle layers on ablative acceleration of plastic foil targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhareshwar, L. J.; Gupta, N. K.; Chaurasia, S.; Ayyub, P.; Kulkarni, N.; Badziak, J.; Pisarczyk, T.; Kasperczuk, A.; Parys, P.; Rosiński, M.; Wolowski, J.; Krousky, E.; Krasa, J.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Velyhan, A.; Margarone, D.; Mezzasalma, A.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2010-08-01

    Presence of nano-particles on target surface has been observed to lead to increased laser absorption of laser pulse in plasma. Therefore, a coating of nano-particles on foil targets could lead to an enhanced ablative acceleration. The work presented in this paper concerns this possibility. The results of experiments performed with PALS laser system (125 J, ~250 ps at 1.3 μm) with a focused intensity of about 1014 W/cm2 are presented. 15 μm thick Polyethylene teraphthalate (C10 H8 O4)n or PET foils show an almost 40% increase in target movement when coated with a layer of gold nano-particles. Comparison between targets with coating of bulk gold and nano-gold shows about 15% higher target movement in gold nano-particle coated PET targets as compared to bulk gold coating. This result is a clear indication of enhanced laser energy absorption in targets with nano-structured surface of gold. We also present evidence to show the effect of nano-particle coating on lateral thermal conduction.

  5. Surface Collisions Involving Particles and Moisture (SCIP'M)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were performed on the collision of a solid sphere with a nearly horizontal flat surface covered with a thin layer of viscous liquid. High-speed collisions were obtained by dropping the ball onto the surface from various heights, using gravitational acceleration. Low-speed collisions were obtained using pendulums with long strings or by launching the balls at low velocities in the reduced-gravity environment of parabolic flight. The sphere bounces only when the impact velocity exceeds a critical value. The coefficient of restitution (ratio of rebound velocity to impact velocity) increases with increasing impact velocity above the critical value, indicating the increasing relative importance of elastic deformation to viscous dissipation. The critical impact velocity increases, and the coefficient of restitution decreases, with increasing viscosity or thickness of the liquid layer and with decreasing density or size of the sphere. The ratio of the wet and dry coefficients is expressed as a function of the Stokes number (ratio of particle inertia and viscous forces), showing good agreement between theory and experiment. Similar experiments were performed with the flat surface inclined at various angles to the approaching sphere. A modified Stokes number, which is a measure of the ratio of inertia of the sphere in the normal direction to the viscous forces exerted by the fluid layer, was used for the analysis of oblique collisions. Even for these oblique collisions, it was found that no rebound of the ball was observed below a certain critical Stokes number. The coefficient of normal restitution, defined as a ratio of normal rebound velocity to normal approach velocity, was found to increase beyond the critical Stokes number and even out as it approaches the value for dry restitution at high Stokes numbers. It was also found that, for smooth spheres like steel, the normal restitution at the same modified Stokes number is independent of the angle of impact

  6. Re-suspension Process In Turbulent Particle-fluid Mixture Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwinger, T.; Kluwick, A.

    Many theoretical applications of geophysical flows, such as sediment transport (e.g. Jenkins &Hanes, 1998) and aeolian transport of particles (e.g. Hopwood et al., 1995) utilize concepts for describing the near wall velocity profiles of particle suspensions originally arising from classical single phase theories. This approach is supported by experiments indicating the existence of a logarithmic fluid velocity profile similar to single phase flows also in case of high Reynolds number wall bounded particle sus- pension flows with low particle volume fractions (Nishimura &Hunt, 2000). Since the concept of a logarithmic near wall profile follows from classic asymptotic the- ory of high Reynolds number wall bounded flows the question arises to what extent this theory can be modified to account for particles being suspended in the ambient fluid. To this end, the asymptotic theory developed by Mellor (1972) is applied to the Favré-averaged equations for the carrier fluid as well as the dispersed phase derived on the basis of a volume averaged dispersed two-phase theory (Gray &Lee, 1977). Numerical solutions for profiles of main stream velocities and particle volume frac- tion in the fully turbulent region of the boundary layer for different turbulent Schmidt numbers are computed applying a Finite Difference box scheme. In particular, atten- tion is focused on the turbulent re-suspension process of particles from dense granular flow adjacent to the bounding surface into the suspension. From these results boundary conditions in form of wall functions for velocities as well as the volume fraction of the particles can be derived and the validity of analogy laws between turbulent mass and momentum transfer at the bounding surface can be proved from an asymptotic point of view. The application of these concepts in the field of snow avalanche simulation (Zwinger, 2000) is discussed.

  7. Erosion of Galilean satellite surfaces by Jovian magnetosphere particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Brown, W. L.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects on the surfaces of the Galilean satellites Europa, Ganymede and Callisto of impacts by particles of the Jupiter magnetosphere in which they are immersed are estimated. Differential ion fluxes measured by the Voyager low-energy magnetosphere particle analyzer as a function of ion energy were used to calculate ice erosion fluxes for the satellites under the assumption that each is 50% ice covered. Calculations were performed on the basis of laboratory data concerning the ice sputtering coefficients of protons and oxygen ions of various energies. A water erosion rate of greater than 10 to the 10th/sq cm per sec is obtained for Europa, which implies a total erosion over 1 billion years of an ice layer 100 m deep. Atmospheric column densities of the H2O molecules sputtered from the surface but not escaping the satellites are also calculated for the three satellites assuming a sputtered ion temperature of 2000 K, and are found to dominate those produced by sublimation. Finally, estimates are presented of the source and loss processes for an oxygen atmosphere around Ganymede created by sputtering or sublimation.

  8. Polymer hollow particles with controllable holes in their surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyuk Im, Sang; Jeong, Unyong; Xia, Younan

    2005-09-01

    Colloidal particles with hollow interiors play important roles in microencapsulation-a process that has found widespread use in applications such as controlled release of drugs, cosmetics, inks, pigments or chemical reagents; protection of biologically active species; and removal of pollutants. The hollow particles are most commonly prepared by coating the surfaces of colloidal templates with thin layers of the desired material (or its precursor), followed by selective removal of the templates by means of calcination or chemical etching. This simple and straightforward approach works for a variety of materials that include polymers, ceramics, composites and metals. For polymers, methods such as emulsion polymerization, phase separation, crosslinking of micelles and self-assembly have also been demonstrated for generating hollow structures. However, diffusion through these closed shells with pores <10 nm is often a slow process. To solve this problem, macroporous capsules have been fabricated by organizing colloids around liquid droplets to form colloidosomes or by controlling the mixing of liquid droplets. Here we report the preparation of another class of macroporous capsules-polymer shells with controllable holes in their surfaces. After loading of functional materials, the holes can be closed by means of thermal annealing or solvent treatment.

  9. Surface forces between colloidal particles at high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, D. W.; Pouligny, B.; Best, A.; Nick, T. A.; Berger, R.; Butt, H.-J.

    2016-02-01

    It was recently suggested that the electrostatic double-layer force between colloidal particles might weaken at high hydrostatic pressure encountered, for example, in deep seas or during oil recovery. We have addressed this issue by means of a specially designed optical trapping setup that allowed us to explore the interaction of a micrometer-sized glass bead and a solid glass wall in water at hydrostatic pressures of up to 1 kbar. The setup allowed us to measure the distance between bead and wall with a subnanometer resolution. We have determined the Debye lengths in water for salt concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM. We found that in the pressure range from 1 bar to 1 kbar the maximum variation of the Debye lengths was <1 nm for both salt concentrations. Furthermore, the magnitude of the zeta potentials of the glass surfaces in water showed no dependency on pressure.

  10. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  11. Thin gold layer in Ni electroforming process: optical surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Missaglia, N.; Paganini, L.

    2009-08-01

    Mandrel replication by Nickel electroforming is a well-suited process to manufacture X-ray mirrors, making use of Gold layer playing the twofold role of release agent and reflective coating. To increase the optical performances of mirrors it is crucial to minimize the impact of X-ray scattering effects related to surface microroughness, especially when the mirror is intended to operate in hard X-rays. In this case, the Gold layer simply acts as release agent because the reflection is demanded to interferential over-coatings. Even though the replicated optical surface is usually believed to reproduce the smooth topography of the master, a surface degradation is commonly observed. Such a worsening can also suffer from a contribution from the spontaneous roughness growth of the Gold layer itself: if this is the case, the mirror's optical quality could potentially benefit from the utilization of a thin Gold layer (< 100 nm) instead of the traditional thick gold layer (> 100 nm). To prove the effectiveness of the Gold thickness reduction, a microroughness characterization of replicated thin gold layers has been achieved. We report here a preliminary roughness study of 3 electroformed Ni samples replicated from a super-polished Zerodur flat master with various Gold layer thicknesses, in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm. The study is organized as follows: (a) characterization of the 3 replicated samples; (b) comparison of the Gold roughness for thin vs. thick layers; (c) comparison of the two sides of Gold layers.

  12. Determination of colloidal particle surface charge from dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Marko; Nuansri, Rittirong; Mazza, Jacob; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Electrophoresis (EP) is used to determine colloidal particle surface charge. However, when the Debye length is comparable to or larger than the particle size, electrophoresis cannot be reliably used to determine the surface charge due to counter ion retardation flow. Alexander et al. developed a theory relating colloidal osmotic pressure and particle surface charge. We use dielectrophoresis (DEP) to obtain a potential landscape based on the number density distribution of the particles in a non-uniform AC electric field. We determine the osmotic pressure from the DEP force and density profiles using Einstein's osmotic equilibrium equation. Surface charge obtained by DEP (thermodynamics) will be compared to that obtained by EP (electrokinetics).

  13. Subgrid-scale Modeling in the Atmospheric Surface Layer^1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Wyngaard, J. C.; Brasseur, J. G.

    1996-11-01

    Subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling is crucial in the surface layer of wall-bounded flows where the vertical velocity fluctuations cannot be well resolved. We focus on the distinct characteristics of the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), and analyze, from a highly resolved surface-layer field of a moderately convective ABL, the extent to which Smagorinsky-based SGS models predict these characteristics. The fields were generated using a nested-mesh large-eddy simulation (LES) with the finest mesh having an effective grid resolution of 512^3 covering 1/16^th of the boundary-layer depth. At a height where the fine mesh resolves 90 % of the total fluxes and variances, the resolved fields were treated as surrogate fully resolved fields that were filtered onto a coarser mesh to get ``resolvable'' and ``subgrid'' fields. Preliminary results show that Smagorinsky-based models fail to capture many of the distinctive characteristics of the ABL surface layer. For example, they do not capture the anisotropic distribution of subgrid-scale energy among the horizontal and the vertical components, and they grossly underestimate the SGS horizontal temperature flux. Currently we are focusing on more suitable closures for the atmospheric surface layer. A DNS-based study is also underway and will be used to supplement this analysis. ^1 supported by ARO (# DAAL03-92-G-0117) and ONR (# N00014-92-J-1688)

  14. Particle-Resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a Particle-Laden Mixing Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Tenneti, Sudheer; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2013-11-01

    The stability of a homogeneous gas-solid suspension has been investigated in the context of kinetic theory (Koch, Phys. Fluids, 1990) and the averaged two-fluid equations (Glasser et al., PRL, 1998) by considering perturbation of the number density. Koch's analysis points to the dependence of average drag on average volume fraction as the mechanism for the development of instabilities in the number density. However, the physical origins of instabilities in the number density have not been firmly established through microscale simulations at the scale of individual particles. In this study, particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) is used to ascertain the exact physical origins of the growth of number density instabilities in a particle-laden mixing layer. Self-similarity of the temporally evolving number density profile, and the diffusive/convective nature of the instability is examined to ascertain the role of granular temperature in instability growth. The growth of streamwise and cross-stream structures in the particle field are analyzed to draw analogies with the classical Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanisms. This work is partially supported by NSF CBET 1134500.

  15. Fabrication of Nano-Composite Surface Layers on Aluminium Employing Friction Stir Processing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorg, S. F. K.; Zarghani, A. S.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.

    2010-03-01

    Al/Al2O3 nano-composite surface layer was fabricated via friction stir processing technique. Commercial AA6082 aluminium alloy extruded bar and nanometric Al2O3 powder were subjected to friction stir processing at a substrate travel speed of 80 mm/min and a tool rotation speed of 1000 rpm using a hardened H-13 tool steel. The grain structure and reinforcement particles were investigated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Al2O3 particles can be more uniformly dispread in aluminium substrate by increasing the number of processing passes. Also, hardness enhancement of the nano-composite surface layer was found. This is attributed to uniform dispersion of Al2O3 particles.

  16. Fabrication of Nano-Composite Surface Layers on Aluminium Employing Friction Stir Processing Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorg, S. F. K.; Zarghani, A. S.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.

    2010-03-11

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-composite surface layer was fabricated via friction stir processing technique. Commercial AA6082 aluminium alloy extruded bar and nanometric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder were subjected to friction stir processing at a substrate travel speed of 80 mm/min and a tool rotation speed of 1000 rpm using a hardened H-13 tool steel. The grain structure and reinforcement particles were investigated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles can be more uniformly dispread in aluminium substrate by increasing the number of processing passes. Also, hardness enhancement of the nano-composite surface layer was found. This is attributed to uniform dispersion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles.

  17. Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.

  18. Medical applications of diamond particles and surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Boehm, R. D.; Sumant, A. V.

    2011-04-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon that is being considered for use in several medical applications. Ramachandran determined that the crystal structure of diamond consists of two close packed interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices; one lattice is shifted with respect to the other along the elemental cube space diagonal by one-quarter of its length. If one approximates carbon atoms as equal diameter rigid spheres, the filling of this construction is 34%. Due to the carbon-carbon distance (1.54 {angstrom}), diamond crystal exhibits the highest atomic density (1.76 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}) of any solid. The very high bond energy between two carbon atoms (83 kcal/mol) and the directionality of tetrahedral bonds are the main reasons for the high strength of diamond. Diamond demonstrates the highest Vickers hardness value of any material (10,000 kg/mm{sup 2}). The tribological properties of diamond are also impressive; the coefficient of friction of polished diamond is 0.07 in argon and 0.05 in humid air. Diamond is resistant to corrosion except in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures over 800 C. In addition, type IIa diamond exhibits the highest thermal conductivity of all materials (20 W cm{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature).

  19. Effects of dust particles and layer properties on organic electronic devices fabricated by stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yifang; Kim, Changsoon; Forrest, Stephen R.; Soboyejo, Wole

    2005-08-01

    The mechanical properties of organic semiconductor thin films are determined using nanoindentation. The measured mechanical properties are incorporated into finite element simulations of deformation that arise during cathode patterning of organic electronic devices by pressure stamping methods. Simulations show that dust particles interposed between the stamp and film surface affect the evolution of contact areas when silicon or compliant polydimethyl-siloxane stamp dies are employed. We also examine the effects of the transferred metal layer thickness and stamp bulk modulus. Experimental and modeling results are found to be in good agreement. The implications of the results are discussed for the fabrication of a range of organic electronic devices.

  20. Particle-particle interactions in electrorheological fluids based on surface conducting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Foulc, J.-N.; Atten, P.; Boissy, C.

    1999-12-01

    We develop a simple, analytical conduction model for the case of electrorheological fluids based on surface conducting particles. By modeling two contacting spheres in a dielectric liquid by a distributed impedances network we derive analytical expressions for the potential and current at the spheres surface, and for the electric field and the current in the liquid phase. The knowledge of the electric field in the dielectric liquid allows us to calculate the interparticle interaction force as a function of the applied voltage. The theoretical interaction force is compared with experimental results obtained on insulating spheres coated with a thin conducting polyaniline film. We find a good agreement between the theory and experiment. The materials properties which govern the response of the system are outlined. In this regard, the product of the liquid conductivity by the sheet resistance of the surface coating appears as a key parameter. Some applications of this model for the practical design of electrorheological fluids are given.

  1. Laser controlled melting of HSLA steel surface with presence of B4C particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Patel, F.; Karatas, C.

    2013-10-01

    Laser gas assisted melting of high strength low alloy steel surface is carried out. The alloy surface is pre-prepared to contain 5% B4C particles in a 40 μm thick carbon film prior to laser treatment process. Metallurgical and morphological changes in the laser treated layer are examined by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The residual stress developed and the microhardness of the resulting surface is measured. It is found that B4C particles remain in solid phase in the surface region due to their high melting temperature. The dense layer consisting of fine grains are formed at the surface and the feathery like structure is observed below the surface vicinity, which consists of martensite and nitride precipitations. The use of nitrogen at high pressure causes the formation of nitride compounds at the surface, which contributes to the volume shrinkage in the dense layer. Surface microhardness increases considerably because of attainment of high cooling rates, formation of nitride compounds, and presence of B4C particles at the surface.

  2. Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P.

    1993-08-01

    Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.

  3. Thermocapillary convection in two immiscible liquid layers with free surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, Takao; Koster, Jean N.

    1993-01-01

    Thermocapillary convection is studied in two immiscible liquid layers with one free surface, one liquid/liquid interface, and differential heating applied parallel to the interfaces. An analytical solution is introduced for infinite horizontal layers. The defining parameter for the flow pattern is lambda, the ratio of the temperature coefficient of the interfacial tension to that of the surface tension. Four different flow patterns exist under zero gravity conditions. 'Halt' conditions which halt the fluid motion in the lower encapsulated liquid layer have been found. A numerical experiment is carried out to study effects of vertical end walls on the double layer convection in a 2D cavity. The halt condition obtained from the analytical study is found to be valid in the limit of small Reynolds numbers. The flow in the encapsulated liquid layer can be suppressed substantially.

  4. Surface functionalized hydrophobic porous particles toward water treatment application.

    PubMed

    Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Carroll, Nick J; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Weitz, David A

    2013-06-18

    A microfluidic-based approach for the fabrication of organic contaminants absorbing core-shell particles is demonstrated. The hydrophobic porous core absorbs oil while the hydrophilic surface enables the particles to be well-dispersed in aqueous solutions. These particles can uptake oil from aqueous solution saturated with oil or via direct contact with oil blobs as depicted in the figure. PMID:23649837

  5. Anisotropy measurement of pyrolytic carbon layers of coated particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesyolkin, Ju. A.; Ivanov, A. S.; Trushkina, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Equipment at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute intended for the anisotropy determination of pyrolytic carbon layers in coated particles (CPs) of the GT-MGR reactor is tested and calibrated. The dependence of the anisotropy coefficient on the size of the measurement region is investigated. The results of measuring the optical anisotropy factor (OPTAF) for an aluminum mirror, rutile crystal, and available CP samples with the known characteristics measured previously using ORNL equipment (United States) are presented. In addition, measurements of CP samples prepared at VNIINM are performed. A strong dependence of the data on the preparation quality of metallographic sections is found. Our investigations allow us to make the conclusion on the working capacity of the existing equipment for measuring the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon CP coatings using the equipment at the Kurchatov Institute with the relative error of about 1%. It is shown that the elimination of the errors caused by the stochastic fluctuations in a measuring path by mathematical processing of the signal allows us to decrease the relative error of OPTAF measurements to ~0.3%.

  6. Anisotropy measurement of pyrolytic carbon layers of coated particles

    SciTech Connect

    Vesyolkin, Ju. A. Ivanov, A. S.; Trushkina, T. V.

    2015-12-15

    Equipment at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute intended for the anisotropy determination of pyrolytic carbon layers in coated particles (CPs) of the GT-MGR reactor is tested and calibrated. The dependence of the anisotropy coefficient on the size of the measurement region is investigated. The results of measuring the optical anisotropy factor (OPTAF) for an aluminum mirror, rutile crystal, and available CP samples with the known characteristics measured previously using ORNL equipment (United States) are presented. In addition, measurements of CP samples prepared at VNIINM are performed. A strong dependence of the data on the preparation quality of metallographic sections is found. Our investigations allow us to make the conclusion on the working capacity of the existing equipment for measuring the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon CP coatings using the equipment at the Kurchatov Institute with the relative error of about 1%. It is shown that the elimination of the errors caused by the stochastic fluctuations in a measuring path by mathematical processing of the signal allows us to decrease the relative error of OPTAF measurements to ∼0.3%.

  7. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlov, A. V.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  8. Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendin, Gali; Toledo, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface Gali Hendin(1), Yaron Toledo(1) January 13, 2016 (1)School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Israel Understanding the boundary layer flow over surface gravity waves is of great importance as various atmosphere-ocean processes are essentially coupled through these waves. Nevertheless, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of this complex flow behaviour. The present work investigates the fundamentals of the boundary layer air flow over progressive, small-amplitude waves. It aims to extend the well-known Blasius solution for a boundary layer over a flat plate to one over a moving wavy surface. The current analysis pro- claims the importance of the small curvature and the time-dependency as second order effects, with a meaningful impact on the similarity pattern in the first order. The air flow over the ocean surface is modelled using an outer, inviscid half-infinite flow, overlaying the viscous boundary layer above the wavy surface. The assumption of a uniform flow in the outer layer, used in former studies, is now replaced with a precise analytical solution of the potential flow over a moving wavy surface with a known celerity, wavelength and amplitude. This results in a conceptual change from former models as it shows that the pressure variations within the boundary layer cannot be neglected. In the boundary layer, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are formulated in a curvilinear, orthogonal coordinate system. The formulation is done in an elaborate way that presents additional, formerly neglected first-order effects, resulting from the time-varying coordinate system. The suggested time-dependent curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system introduces a platform that can also support the formulation of turbulent problems for any surface shape. In order to produce a self-similar Blasius-type solution, a small wave-steepness is assumed and a perturbation method is applied. Consequently, a

  9. Deposition of gold nano-particles and nano-layers on polyethylene modified by plasma discharge and chemical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Záruba, K.; Král, V.; Bláhová, O.; Macková, A.; Hnatowicz, V.

    2009-08-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was treated in Ar plasma discharge and then grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol to enhance adhesion of gold nano-particles or sputtered gold layers. The modified PE samples were either immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au nano-particles or covered by sputtered, 50 nm thick gold nano-layer. Properties of the plasma modified, dithiol grafted and gold coated PE were studied using XPS, UV-VIS, AFM, EPR, RBS methods and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain, creation of excessive free radicals and conjugated double bonds. After grafting with 1,2-ethanedithiol the concentration of free radicals declined but the concentration of double bonds remained unchanged. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness too. Another significant change in the surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au nano-particles. The presence of Au on the sample surface after the coating with Au nano-particles was proved by XPS and RBS methods. Nanoindentation measurements shown that the grafting of plasma activated PE surface with dithiol increases significantly adhesion of sputtered Au nano-layer.

  10. Particle-surface interactions in chemical mechanical polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Resnick, P.J.; Jeon, J.S.; Raghavan, S.

    1996-10-01

    Material removal in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) occurs by a pressure accentuated chemical attack of the surface. The polishing slurry typically consists of abrasive particles and reactive chemicals that may or may not include an oxidant. Post-CMP cleaning processes must remove both the ionic contaminants and any remaining polishing slurry particles. Central to the effectiveness of a clean is the use of conditions that will minimize the binding force between the residual particles and the wafer surface. The morphology and composition of the particle, the surface from which it must be removed, and the environment surrounding the wafer will determine the magnitude of forces that hold a particle to the wafer surface. At the Sandia/SEMATECH Center for Contamination Free Manufacturing, two techniques--atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrokinetic deposition--are being used to explore these interactions for CMP of both oxide and tungsten surfaces. A basic understanding of particle-surface interaction forces and how they are affected by the chemical/physical environment of the particle and surface is the objective of this task. Modification of the binding forces between particles and wafer surfaces may be used to maximize post-CMP cleaning effectiveness.

  11. Alpha particle backscattering measurements used for chemical analysis of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Alpha particle backscattering performs a chemical analysis of surfaces. The apparatus uses a curium source and a semiconductor detector to determine the energy spectrum of the particles. This in turn determines the chemical composition of the surface after calibration to known samples.

  12. Particle resuspension and associated coherent structures in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, David Alan

    Fundamental properties of particle resuspension from a surface solely by turbulent fluid forces was examined experimentally by observing intermittent particle resuspension and associated turbulent flow properties. Experiments were conducted in an environmental wind tunnel, where sparse beds of monodisperse Lycopodium spores (Club Moss) were placed flush with the floor of the wind tunnel, and exposed to a steady, well developed turbulent boundary layer flow. Particle bed concentration was monitored in situ throughout each experimental trial using an optical system designed to detect forward scattering from a HeNe laser beam. Simultaneous measurements of streamwise and vertical velocity were made immediately downstream of the illuminated particles using hot film anemometry. Experimental trials were conducted at three free-stream velocities (6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 m s(-1)) for a duration of 35 minutes. A Monte-Carlo particle resuspension model was developed to simulate the resuspension process associated with coherent structures of varying magnitude. Simulations were compared with experimental results to identify a probability distribution of coherent structure magnitude.

  13. Surface charge and wetting characteristics of layered silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xihui; Gupta, Vishal; Du, Hao; Wang, Xuming; Miller, Jan D

    2012-11-01

    The surface characteristics, including surface charge and wettability, of layered silicates are reviewed based on experimental results and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) results. The surface charge features of important layered silicates including mica, talc, and kaolinite are described from atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, electrophoresis measurements, and/or results from potentiometric titration. In addition, the wetting characteristics of the silica tetrahedral surface which is common to all layered silicates are examined with different experimental techniques and results are discussed. The wettability of trilayer silicates and bilayer silicates is discussed, particularly the wettability of the silica tetrahedral face and alumina octahedral face of kaolinite based on MDS results as well as recent AFM results. PMID:22809732

  14. Influence of particle/solid surface zeta potential on particle adsorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Savaji, Kunal V; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we attempt to understand monolayer formation of spherical particles on a solid surface immersed in a suspension and driven by electrostatic interaction force. The study focuses on the theoretical aspects of the particle adsorption and modeling work based on the random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach is done in order to describe the particle adsorption kinetics and the saturation coverage. The theoretical model is then compared with experimental data obtained under conditions similar to those of the modeling work. Studying the adsorption of polystyrene particles on a silicon wafer in an aqueous system was employed to experimentally validate the theoretical framework. It has been shown both theoretically and experimentally that the particle and solid surface zeta potential values do influence the adsorption kinetics but the effect is too negligible to be of any use in accelerating the kinetics. We have shown that the electrostatically driven particle adsorption is a transport limited process and the rate of transport is not a major function of the zeta potential values of the particle and the solid surface. The faster kinetics seen when the ionic concentration of the suspension is increased is because of the blocking effects and not due to faster approach of particles towards the solid surface. Finally, we have made an important addition to the existing models by incorporating the variation in the flux as a function of particle/solid surface zeta potentials, surface coverage and the randomized position of incidence of an incoming particle on the solid surface. PMID:24996026

  15. Cubical Shape Enhances the Interaction of Layer-by-Layer Polymeric Particles with Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jenolyn F; Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Chen, Jun; Kuncewicz, Thomas; Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Godin, Biana

    2015-12-01

    Blood-borne objects display a nonspherical shape with in-flow dimensions much larger than the vascular endothelial fenestrations, yet, at the diseased state, are able to traverse through these fenestrations owing to their elasticity. The role of physical parameters including shape and elasticity in the behavior of objects found in the tumor microenvironment needs to be understood to ultimately enhance chemotherapy and minimize its side effects. In this study, sphere- and cube-shaped biocompatible elastic microparticles (EM) made via layer-by-layer assembly of hydrogen-bonded tannic acid/poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (TA/PVPON) as hollow polymer shells and their rigid core-shell precursors (RM) are explored. In contrast to rigid five-bilayer (TA/PVPON) core shells, hollow elastic shells are unrecognized by J774A.1 macrophages, yet interact with endothelial and breast cancer cells. Internalization of cubical shells is fivefold more efficient by HMVEC (human microvascular endothelial cells) and sixfold and 2.5-fold more efficient by MDA-MB-231 and by SUM159 (breast cancer cells), respectively, compared to spherical shells. The interaction of cubical (TA/PVPON)5 shells with endothelial cells is similar under 10 s(-1) (characteristic of tumor vasculature) and 100 s(-1) shear rate (normal vasculature) while it is decreased at 100 s(-1) shear rate for the spherical shells. Our data suggest that cubical geometry promotes interaction of particles with breast cancer cells, while elasticity prevents engulfment by phagocytic cells in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26424126

  16. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W. J.; Clark, D. T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for using plasma in the synthesis and modification of materials in ways impossible by conventional routes are introduced. The equipment used in these methods is described. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries.

  17. Vapor layer evolution during drop impact on a heated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghyeon; Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Jisan; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-11-01

    When a liquid drop impacts on a sufficiently hot surface above the boiling point, a vapor layer is formed between the drop and the surface, preventing direct contact between them and as a result levitating the drop, known as the Leidenfrost effect. Understanding the evolution of the vapor layer is largely unexplored despite its importance in estimating heat transfer in cooling systems of thermal or nuclear power plants. The side-profile visualization of the vapor layer, as absolutely required for investigating its evolution, has been however unavailable by conventional optical microscopy. In this study, by employing ultrafast X-ray phase contrast imaging, we directly visualize the profiles of the vapor layers during liquid drop impact on a hot surface and elucidate the evolution of the vapor layers during spreading and retraction of the drop as functions of impact height and surface temperature. We reveal that the evolution is governed by the propagation of capillary waves generated in retraction and the wavelength of capillary waves λ is inversely proportional to the impact height h with a relation ~σ/ρh ~We-1 where We is weber number. Capillary waves that converge at the center of the vapor layers are linked to the bouncing behavior of the drop.

  18. Flux-Profile Relationship for Dust Concentration in the Stratified Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, L. S.; Chamecki, M.; Gillies, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    Flux-profile relationships are usually obtained under the assumption that the mean field of interest is in equilibrium with the associated surface fluxes. In this study, the existence of an equilibrium state for dust concentration in the atmospheric surface layer above sources and sinks is evaluated using large-eddy simulation. Results show that for steady-state turbulence and negligible horizontal advection, an equilibrium mean vertical profile of dust concentration is reached after one boundary-layer eddy turnover time. This is true for cases over a source or sink, under different atmospheric stabilities, and for particles with negligible or significant settling velocity. A new model relating the net surface flux to the vertical concentration profile that accounts for both atmospheric stability and particle settling velocity is proposed. The model compares well with the simulation results for all particle sizes and atmospheric stability conditions evaluated, and it can be used to estimate the concentration profile based on the surface flux, and also to estimate the surface flux by fitting the vertical concentration profile. The resulting equation can be considered as an extension of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to the concentration of settling particles, such as mineral dust, sea-salt, pollen and other suspended aerosols.

  19. Flux-Profile Relationship for Dust Concentration in the Stratified Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, L. S.; Chamecki, M.; Gillies, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Flux-profile relationships are usually obtained under the assumption that the mean field of interest is in equilibrium with the associated surface fluxes. In this study, the existence of an equilibrium state for dust concentration in the atmospheric surface layer above sources and sinks is evaluated using large-eddy simulation. Results show that for steady-state turbulence and negligible horizontal advection, an equilibrium mean vertical profile of dust concentration is reached after one boundary-layer eddy turnover time. This is true for cases over a source or sink, under different atmospheric stabilities, and for particles with negligible or significant settling velocity. A new model relating the net surface flux to the vertical concentration profile that accounts for both atmospheric stability and particle settling velocity is proposed. The model compares well with the simulation results for all particle sizes and atmospheric stability conditions evaluated, and it can be used to estimate the concentration profile based on the surface flux, and also to estimate the surface flux by fitting the vertical concentration profile. The resulting equation can be considered as an extension of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to the concentration of settling particles, such as mineral dust, sea-salt, pollen and other suspended aerosols.

  20. Particle-induced indentation of the alveolar epithelium caused by surface tension forces.

    PubMed

    Mijailovich, S M; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2010-10-01

    Physical contact between an inhaled particle and alveolar epithelium at the moment of particle deposition must have substantial effects on subsequent cellular functions of neighboring cells, such as alveolar type-I, type-II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophage, as well as afferent sensory nerve cells, extending their dendrites toward the alveolar septal surface. The forces driving this physical insult are born at the surface of the alveolar air-liquid layer. The role of alveolar surfactant submerging a hydrophilic particle has been suggested by Gehr and Schürch's group (e.g., Respir Physiol 80: 17-32, 1990). In this paper, we extended their studies by developing a further comprehensive and mechanistic analysis. The analysis reveals that the mechanics operating in the particle-tissue interaction phenomena can be explained on the basis of a balance between surface tension force and tissue resistance force; the former tend to move a particle toward alveolar epithelial cell surface, the latter to resist the cell deformation. As a result, the submerged particle deforms the tissue and makes a noticeable indentation, which creates unphysiological stress and strain fields in tissue around the particle. This particle-induced microdeformation could likely trigger adverse mechanotransduction and mechanosensing pathways, as well as potentially enhancing particle uptake by the cells. PMID:20634359

  1. Particle-induced indentation of the alveolar epithelium caused by surface tension forces

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, M.; Tsuda, A.

    2010-01-01

    Physical contact between an inhaled particle and alveolar epithelium at the moment of particle deposition must have substantial effects on subsequent cellular functions of neighboring cells, such as alveolar type-I, type-II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophage, as well as afferent sensory nerve cells, extending their dendrites toward the alveolar septal surface. The forces driving this physical insult are born at the surface of the alveolar air-liquid layer. The role of alveolar surfactant submerging a hydrophilic particle has been suggested by Gehr and Schürch's group (e.g., Respir Physiol 80: 17–32, 1990). In this paper, we extended their studies by developing a further comprehensive and mechanistic analysis. The analysis reveals that the mechanics operating in the particle-tissue interaction phenomena can be explained on the basis of a balance between surface tension force and tissue resistance force; the former tend to move a particle toward alveolar epithelial cell surface, the latter to resist the cell deformation. As a result, the submerged particle deforms the tissue and makes a noticeable indentation, which creates unphysiological stress and strain fields in tissue around the particle. This particle-induced microdeformation could likely trigger adverse mechanotransduction and mechanosensing pathways, as well as potentially enhancing particle uptake by the cells. PMID:20634359

  2. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Hershberger, Jeffrey G.

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  3. Directional dependence of surface morphological stability of heteroepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayashi, Y.; Shintani, K.

    1998-09-01

    Surface morphological stability in coherent heteroepitaxial layers is analyzed focusing on the directional dependence of surface undulations created by surface diffusion. The critical stability condition is defined in terms of the free energy of the system which is assumed to be the sum of the elastic strain energy and the surface free energy. The displacement and stress fields of the semi-infinite anisotropic solid with the slightly undulating surface are calculated by using the surface admittance tensor and the vector complex potential function. Numerical results for the Si1-xGex/Si systems show that the critical wavelength of the <100> surface undulations is smaller than that of the <110> surface undulations, which means that surface undulations are likely to be formed in the <100> directions. It is also found that the critical wavelength decreases with the increase of Ge fraction. These tendencies are in good agreement with the observations in annealing experiments for the Si1-xGex/Si systems in the literature. If the substrate is assumed to be rigid, the range of layer thickness where the system is absolutely stable against a surface undulation of any wavelength exists. Finally, the growth rate of the amplitude of surface undulations is estimated from an evolution equation for the surface shape. It is shown that even if anisotropy is taken into account, the growth rate of the amplitude takes the maximum value when the wavelength is 4/3 times the critical wavelength, which is the same as in the isotropic approximation.

  4. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  5. Multi-layer surface profiling using gated wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Nordin, Nur Dalilla; Tik, Eddy Chow Mun; Tan, ChingSeong; Chew, Kuew Wai; Menoni, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multi-layer surface profiling and inspection has been considered an emerging topic that can be used to solve various manufacturing inspection problems, such as graded index lenses, TSV (Thru-Silicon Via), and optical coating. In our study, we proposed a gated wavefront sensing approach to estimate the multi-layer surface profile. In this paper, we set up an experimental platform to validate our theoretical models and methods. Our test bed consists of pulse laser, collimator, prism, well-defined focusing lens, testing specimen, and gated wavefront sensing assembly (e.g., lenslet and gated camera). Typical wavefront measurement steps are carried out for the gated system, except the reflectance is timed against its time of flight as well as its intensity profile. By synchronizing the laser pulses to the camera gate time, it is possible to discriminate a multi-layer wavefront from its neighbouring discrete layer reflections.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of macromolecular layers grafted to polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtovyy, Oleksandr

    The composition and behavior of surfaces and interfaces play a pivotal role in dictating the overall efficiency of the majority of polymeric materials and devices. Surface properties of the materials can be altered using surface modification techniques. It is necessary to highlight that successful methods of surface modification should affect only the upper layer of the polymer material without changing bulk properties. The processes must introduce new functionalities to the surface, optimize surface roughness, lubrication, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, adhesion, conductivity, and/or biocompatibility. Research presented in this dissertation is dedicated to the synthesis, characterization, and application of thin macromolecular layers anchored to polymer substrates. Specifically, attachment of functional polymers via a "grafting to" approach has been extensively studied using PET and nylon model substrates. First, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) was used to introduce permanent functionalities to the model substrates by anchoring it to model films. Then, three different functional polymers were grafted on top of the previous layer. As one part of this study, the temperature and time dependence of grafting functional layers were studied. The surface coverage by hydrophobic polymer was determined from experimental data and predicted by a model. In general, the model has a high degree of predictive capability. Next, surface modification of polymeric fibers and membranes is presented as an important application of the polymer thin layers targeted in the study. Specifically, the procedures developed for surface modification of model substrates was employed for modification of PET, nylon, and cotton fabrics as well as PET track-etched membranes. Since epoxy groups are highly reactive in various chemical reactions, the approach becomes virtually universal, allowing both various surfaces and end-functionalized macromolecules to be used in the grafted layer synthesis. PET

  7. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann’s triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates. PMID:27166087

  8. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann's triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates. PMID:27166087

  9. Surface stress of graphene layers supported on soft substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Duan, Huiling; Xiong, Chunyang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-05-01

    We obtain the surface stress of a single layer and multilayers of graphene supported on silicone substrates by measuring the deformation of the graphene-covered substrates induced by the surface tension of liquid droplets together with the Neumann’s triangle concept. We find that the surface stress of the graphene-covered substrate is significant larger than that of the bare substrate, and it increases with increasing graphene layers, and finally reaches a constant value of about 120 mN/m on three and more layers of graphene. This work demonstrates that the apparent surface stress of graphene-substrate systems can be tuned by the substrate and the graphene layers. The surface stress and the tuning effect of the substrate on it may have applications in design and characterization of graphene-based ultra-sensitive sensors and other devices. Moreover, the method may also be used to measure the surface stress of other ultrathin films supported on soft substrates.

  10. The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Rough Curvilinear Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droblenkov, V. F.

    1958-01-01

    A number of semiempirical approximate methods exist for determining the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a curvilinear surface. At present, among these methods, the one proposed by L. G. Loitsianskii is given frequent practical application. This method is sufficiently effective and permits, in the case of wing profiles with technically smooth surfaces, calculating the basic characteristics of the boundary layer and the values of the overall drag with an accuracy which suffices for practical purposes. The idea of making use of the basic integral momentum equation ((d delta(sup xx))/dx) + ((V' delta(sup xx))/V) (2 + H) = (tau(sub 0))/(rho V(exp 2)) proves to be fruitful also for the solution of the problems in the determination of the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a rough surface.

  11. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.

  12. Mechanisms of drag reduction of superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Tian, Haiping; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei; Jiang, Nan

    2015-09-01

    The drag-reducing property of a superhydrophobic surface is investigated along with its mechanism. A superhydrophobic surface with micro-nanotextures is fabricated and tested using SEM and contact angle measurement. Velocity distributions in the turbulent boundary layer with a superhydrophobic surface and a smooth surface are measured by particle image velocimetry at Re θ = 810, 990, and 1220. An upward lift effect on the velocity profile caused by the rugged air layer on the superhydrophobic surface is observed, which indicates drag reduction. Estimated by the wall shear stress, a drag reduction of 10.1, 20.7, and 24.1 % is observed for Re θ equal to 810, 990, and 1220, respectively. The drag reduction is caused mainly by slip on the interface and modifications in the turbulent structures, and the latter plays a more important role as Re θ increases. Suppressions are observed in turbulence intensities, and reductions in the total Reynolds shear stress T {turb/+} are 2.5, 18.5, and 23.1 % for Re θ = 810, 990, and 1220, respectively. Vortex fields above the superhydrophobic and smooth surfaces at Re θ = 990 are investigated. Vortexes are weakened and lifted upward by the superhydrophobic surface, and the position of the maximum swirling strength is lifted 0.17 δ ( δ is the boundary layer thickness) upward in the wall-normal direction. This modification in turbulence structures contributes significantly to the drag reduction in the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  13. Assessment of surface turbulent fluxes using geostationary satellite surface skin temperatures and a mixed layer planetary boundary layer scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diak, George R.; Stewart, Tod R.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the fluxes of sensible and latent heating at the land surface, using satellite-measured surface temperature changes in a composite surface layer-mixed layer representation of the planetary boundary layer. The basic prognostic model is tested by comparison with synoptic station information at sites where surface evaporation climatology is well known. The remote sensing version of the model, using satellite-measured surface temperature changes, is then used to quantify the sharp spatial gradient in surface heating/evaporation across the central United States. An error analysis indicates that perhaps five levels of evaporation are recognizable by these methods and that the chief cause of error is the interaction of errors in the measurement of surface temperature change with errors in the assigment of surface roughness character. Finally, two new potential methods for remote sensing of the land-surface energy balance are suggested which will relay on space-borne instrumentation planned for the 1990s.

  14. Surface reactions on thin layers of silane coupling agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, D.G.; Bein, T. )

    1993-11-01

    The reactivity of immobilized functional groups in thin layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APS), (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, (3-bromopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and (8-bromooctyl)trimethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum substrates was studied with reflection-adsorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), optical ellipsometry and contact-angle measurements. Mass changes on the surface associated with the surface-confined reactions were measured with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Single layers of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane on oxidized aluminum react with chlorodimethylsilane to give [(-O)[sub 3]Si(CH[sub 2])[sub 3]NH[sub 2][sup +]SiMe[sub 2]H]Cl[sup [minus

  15. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  16. Deposition Behavior of Copper Fine Particles onto Flat Substrate Surface in Cold Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, M.; Mashiko, M.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Cold spray is a promising process to fabricate high-quality metallic coatings. However, it is necessary to improve some properties, especially the adhesive strength of the coating to the substrate to clarify deposition mechanism of the solid particles onto substrate surface. In this study, deposition behavior of the cold sprayed copper fine particles was observed precisely and the adhesive strength of the coating was evaluated. The deposition behavior of the sprayed individual copper particles on mirror polished stainless steel substrate was fundamentally investigated. The interface microstructure between sprayed particle and substrate revealed that an amorphous-like band region was recognized at interface during coating fabrication at high power conditions. For the deposition mechanism of the cold sprayed particles onto substrate surface, it was indicated that the deformation of the particles initially induce the destruction of its surface oxide and an appearance of the active fresh surface of the material may enhance the bonding between particles and substrate. On the other hand, in coating fabrication at high power condition, bonding between particle and substrate may be possibly formed via oxygen-rich amorphous-like layer at interface.

  17. Theoretical study of the amphoteric oxide nanoparticle surface charge during multi-particle interactions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfimov, A. V.; Aryslanova, E. M.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticle surface charge plays an important role in many biological applications. In this study, an analytical surface charging model for the amphoteric oxide nanoparticles has been presented. The model accounts for the particle's electric double layer self-action on the charging process and the charge regulation during multi-particle interactions in aqueous solutions. The employment of the model allows to explicitly describe the nanoparticle agglomeration process and the accompanying agglomerate surface charge variation.

  18. Assembled monolayers of hydrophilic particles on water surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moon, Geon Dae; Lee, Tae Il; Kim, Bongsoo; Chae, GeeSung; Kim, Jinook; Kim, SungHee; Myoung, Jae-Min; Jeong, Unyong

    2011-11-22

    A facile and quick approach to prepare self-assembled monolayers of water-dispersible particles on the water surface is presented. Particle suspensions in alcohols were dropped on a water reservoir to form long-range ordered monolayers of various particles, including spherical solid particles, soft hydrogel particles, metal nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanowires, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), nanoplates, and nanosheets. A systematic study was conducted on the variables affecting the monolayer assembly: the solubility parameter of spreading solvents, particle concentration, zeta potential of the particles in the suspension, surface tension of the water phase, hardness of the particles, and addition of a salt in the suspension. This method requires no hydrophobic surface treatment of the particles, which is useful to exploit these monolayer films without changing the native properties of the particles. The study highlights a quick 2D colloidal assembly without cracks in the wafer scale as well as transparent conductive thin films made of SWCNTs and graphenes. PMID:21962177

  19. Surface modification of polypropylene based particle foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, P.; Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the modification of the surface properties of expanded polypropylene (EPP). EPP is a semi-hard to soft elastic thermoplastic foam. The characteristic surface of EPP shows process-related steam nozzle imprints and gussets. Therefore EPP does not satisfy the quality requirements for visible automotive applications. In order to meet these demands, plastic surfaces are usually enhanced with functional or decorative coatings, e.g. textiles, plastic films or paint. The coating of plastics with low surface energies such as PP often leads to adhesion problems by reason of the missing polar and functional groups. This paper gives an evaluation of activation and pre-treatment methods of EPP, with the aim to identify the most suitable pre-treatment method. For this purpose five typical surface treatment methods - flame treatment, corona, fluorination, atmospheric and low-pressure plasma - were performed on EPP samples. As a comparison criterion the maximum increase in the adhesion force between a polyurethane-based coating and the modified EPP substrate was selected. Moreover the influence of the selected pre-treatment method on the increase in the total surface energy and its polar component was investigated by the drop shape analysis method. The results showed that the contact angle measurement is a suitable method to determine the polar and disperse fractions of the surface tension of EPP. Furthermore, all performed methods increased the adhesion of EPP.

  20. Saturn's rings - Particle size distributions for thin layer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, H. A.; Marouf, E. A.; Tyler, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    A model incorporating limited interaction between the incident energy and particles in the ring is considered which appears to be consistent with the multiple scattering process in Saturn's rings. The model allows for the small physical thickness of the rings and can be used to relate Voyager 1 observations of 3.6- and 13-cm wavelength microwave scatter from the rings to the ring particle size distribution function for particles with radii ranging from 0.001 to 20 m. This limited-scatter model yields solutions for particle size distribution functions for eight regions in the rings, which exhibit approximately inverse-cubic power-law behavior.

  1. Evolving surface cusps during strained-layer epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Jesson, D.E.; Pennycook, S.J.; Baribeau, J.M.; Houghton, D.C.

    1993-04-01

    We have combined Z-contrast imaging and Ge marker layer experiments to study the evolving surface morphology of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Surface cusps are seen to arise as the intersection lines between coherent islands. The potential implications of stress concentrations associated with cusps are considered with a view to strain relaxation in the film via dislocation nucleation.

  2. Surface morphological evolution during annealing of epitaxial Cu(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Purswani, J. M.; Gall, D.

    2008-08-15

    Single crystal Cu(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering at T{sub s}=100 deg. C. Quantitative surface morphological analyses by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy show that the surfaces exhibit self-affine mound structures with a scaling exponent of 0.82{+-}0.03 and a mound radius r{sub c} that increases from 31{+-}8 to 39{+-}6 nm for increasing layer thickness t=24-120 nm. In situ annealing at 200 and 300 deg. C leads to a thermodynamically driven mass transport that minimizes the surface step density, resulting in broader mounds and a smaller root mean square surface roughness {sigma}. This effect is most pronounced for t=24 nm, for which r{sub c} increases from 31{+-}8 to 70{+-}20 nm and {sigma} decreases from 1.3{+-}0.1 to 0.74{+-}0.08 nm, resulting in a decrease in the average surface slope from {chi}=7 deg. to 2 deg. and an increase in the average terrace width w{sub T} by more than a factor of 4. In contrast, w{sub T} increases by only 20% for t=120 nm. This remarkable difference between 'thin' and 'thick' layers is attributed to diverging surface morphological pathways during annealing: The strong smoothening for t=24 nm is due to a competitive coalescence process where some mounds grow laterally at the expense of their smaller neighbors, which die out. In contrast, the initially wider mounds of thicker layers (t=120 nm) combine to form a quasistable surface morphology that exhibits anisotropic mound structures, which limit mass transport and stabilize the surface step density.

  3. Many-body microhydrodynamics of colloidal particles with active boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Ghose, Somdeb; Adhikari, R.

    2015-06-01

    Colloidal particles with active boundary layers—regions surrounding the particles where non-equilibrium processes produce large velocity gradients—are common in many physical, chemical and biological contexts. The velocity or stress at the edge of the boundary layer determines the exterior fluid flow and, hence, the many-body interparticle hydrodynamic interaction. Here, we present a method to compute the many-body hydrodynamic interaction between N spherical active particles induced by their exterior microhydrodynamic flow. First, we use a boundary integral representation of the Stokes equation to eliminate bulk fluid degrees of freedom. Then, we expand the boundary velocities and tractions of the integral representation in an infinite-dimensional basis of tensorial spherical harmonics and, on enforcing boundary conditions in a weak sense on the surface of each particle, obtain a system of linear algebraic equations for the unknown expansion coefficients. The truncation of the infinite series, fixed by the degree of accuracy required, yields a finite linear system that can be solved accurately and efficiently by iterative methods. The solution linearly relates the unknown rigid body motion to the known values of the expansion coefficients, motivating the introduction of propulsion matrices. These matrices completely characterize hydrodynamic interactions in active suspensions just as mobility matrices completely characterize hydrodynamic interactions in passive suspensions. The reduction in the dimensionality of the problem, from a three-dimensional partial differential equation to a two-dimensional integral equation, allows for dynamic simulations of hundreds of thousands of active particles on multi-core computational architectures. In our simulation of 104 active colloidal particle in a harmonic trap, we find that the necessary and sufficient ingredients to obtain steady-state convective currents, the so-called ‘self-assembled pump’, are (a) one

  4. Fabrication of nanocrystalline surface composite layer on Cu plate under ball collisions.

    PubMed

    Romankov, S; Park, Y C; Yoon, J M

    2014-10-01

    It was demonstrated that the severe plastic deformation of a surface induced by repeated ball collisions can be effectively used for fabrication of the nanocrystalline surface composite layers. The Cu disk was fixed at the top of a vibration chamber and ball treated. Al, Zr, Ni, Co and Fe were introduced into a Cu plate as contaminants from the grinding media one after the other by 15-min ball treatment. The composite structure was formed as a result of mechanical intermixing of the components. The particle size in as-fabricated layer ranged from 2 nm to 20 nm, with average values of about 7 nm. As-fabricated layer contained non-equilibrium multicomponent solid solution based on FCC Cu crystal structure, Zr-based phase, nanosized steel debris and amorphous phase. The hardness of the as-fabricated composite was almost ten times that of the initial Cu plate. PMID:25942932

  5. Structure and properties of titanium surface layers after electron beam alloying with powder mixtures containing carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenivtseva, O. G.; Bataev, I. A.; Golkovskii, M. G.; Bataev, A. A.; Samoilenko, V. V.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    The structure and tribological properties of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) samples after non-vacuum electron beam surface alloying with carbon were studied. Two types of powders were used to introduce carbon in surface layer of cp-Ti: titanium carbide (TiC) and mixture of pure titanium and graphite ("Ti + C"). Single layer and multilayer coatings were studied. Application of electron beam for alloying provided cladding rate of 4.5 m2/h. The thickness of the clad coatings was 1.6-2.0 mm. The main phases received after "Ti + C" powder cladding were α-titanium, TiC, and retained graphite. In the samples obtained by cladding of TiC, graphite was not observed. A factor determining the microhardness and tribological properties of the cladded layer was the volume fraction of TiC. Maximum coating microhardness of 8 GPa was obtained by cladding of single layer of TiC powder or two layers of the "Ti + C" mixture. Two types of tests were carried out to evaluate the wear resistance of the samples. In friction tests against loose abrasive particles, the wear rate of the best samples was 9.3 times lower than that of cp-Ti. In wear tests using fixed abrasive particles, the relative wear resistance of the best samples was 2.3 times higher than that of cp-Ti.

  6. A scheme for computing surface layer turbulent fluxes from mean flow surface observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Storch, J.

    1978-01-01

    A physical model and computational scheme are developed for generating turbulent surface stress, sensible heat flux and humidity flux from mean velocity, temperature and humidity at some fixed height in the atmospheric surface layer, where conditions at this reference level are presumed known from observations or the evolving state of a numerical atmospheric circulation model. The method is based on coupling the Monin-Obukov surface layer similarity profiles which include buoyant stability effects on mean velocity, temperature and humidity to a force-restore formulation for the evolution of surface soil temperature to yield the local values of shear stress, heat flux and surface temperature. A self-contained formulation is presented including parameterizations for solar and infrared radiant fluxes at the surface. Additional parameters needed to implement the scheme are the thermal heat capacity of the soil per unit surface area, surface aerodynamic roughness, latitude, solar declination, surface albedo, surface emissivity and atmospheric transmissivity to solar radiation.

  7. Tape method of forming a thin layer of doped lanthanum chromite particles and of bonding such on an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.; Pal, U.B.

    1992-07-21

    A combustible polymer film, useful for application of an interconnection on an electrode is made by: (1) providing doped LaCro[sub 3] particles; (2) dispersing doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles in a solvent, to provide a dispersion; (3) screening the dispersion to provide particles in the range of from 30 micrometers to 80 micrometers; (4) admixing a fugitive polymer with the particles; (5) casting the dispersion to provide a film; (6) drying the film; and (7) stripping the film. The film can then be applied to a porous, preheated electrode top surface, and then a dense skeletal LaCrO[sub 3] structure is electrochemically vapor deposited between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. Additional solid oxide electrolyte and fuel electrode layers can then be added to provide a fuel cell. 4 figs.

  8. Tape method of forming a thin layer of doped lanthanum chromite particles and of bonding such on an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Von L.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Pal, Uday B.

    1992-01-01

    A combustible polymer film, useful for application of an interconnection on an electrode is made by: (1) providing doped LaCro.sub.3 particles; (2) dispersing doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles in a solvent, to provide a dispersion; (3) screening the dispersion to provide particles in the range of from 30 micrometers to 80 micrometers; (4) admixing a fugitive polymer with the particles; (5) casting the dispersion to provide a film; (6) drying the film; and (7) stripping the film. The film can then be applied to a porous, preheated electrode top surface, and then electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal LaCrO.sub.3 structure, between and around the doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles. Additional solid oxide electrolyte and fuel electrode layers can then be added to provide a fuel cell.

  9. Surface modification of layered zirconium phosphate with PNIPAM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhao, Di; Medina, Ilse B Nava; Diaz, Agustin; Wang, Huiliang; Clearfield, Abraham; Mannan, M Sam; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-04-01

    A new method was reported to modify layered zirconium phosphate (ZrP) with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM (poly N-isopropylacrylamide). PNIPAM was proved to be covalently grafted onto ZrP. (60)Co γ-rays irradiation produced peroxide groups on the surface which, upon heating, initiated free radical polymerization and subsequent attachment of PNIPAM. PMID:26966882

  10. Laminarization of Turbulent Boundary Layer on Flexible and Rigid Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the control of turbulent boundary layer flow over flexible and rigid surfaces downstream of a concave-convex geometry has been made. The concave-convex curvature induces centrifugal forces and a pressure gradient on the growth of the turbulent boundary layer. The favorable gradient is not sufficient to overcome the unfavorable; thus, the net effect is a destabilizing, of the flow into Gortler instabilities. This study shows that control of the turbulent boundary layer and structural loading can be successfully achieved by using localized surface heating because the subsequent cooling and geometrical shaping downstream over a favorable pressure gradient is effective in laminarization of the turbulence. Wires embedded in a thermally insulated substrate provide surface heating. The laminarized velocity profile adjusts to a lower Reynolds number, and the structure responds to a lower loading. In the laminarization, the turbulent energy is dissipated by molecular transport by both viscous and conductivity mechanisms. Laminarization reduces spanwise vorticity because of the longitudinal cooling gradient of the sublayer profile. The results demonstrate that the curvature-induced mean pressure gradient enhances the receptivity of the flow to localized surface heating, a potentially viable mechanism to laminarize turbulent boundary layer flow; thus, the flow reduces the response of the flexible structure and the resultant sound radiation.

  11. NMR of thin layers using a meanderline surface coil

    DOEpatents

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2001-01-01

    A miniature meanderline sensor coil which extends the capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to provide analysis of thin planar samples and surface layer geometries. The sensor coil allows standard NMR techniques to be used to examine thin planar (or curved) layers, extending NMRs utility to many problems of modern interest. This technique can be used to examine contact layers, non-destructively depth profile into films, or image multiple layers in a 3-dimensional sense. It lends itself to high resolution NMR techniques of magic angle spinning and thus can be used to examine the bonding and electronic structure in layered materials or to observe the chemistry associated with aging coatings. Coupling this sensor coil technology with an arrangement of small magnets will produce a penetrator probe for remote in-situ chemical analysis of groundwater or contaminant sediments. Alternatively, the sensor coil can be further miniaturized to provide sub-micron depth resolution within thin films or to orthoscopically examine living tissue. This thin-layer NMR technique using a stationary meanderline coil in a series-resonant circuit has been demonstrated and it has been determined that the flat meanderline geometry has about he same detection sensitivity as a solenoidal coil, but is specifically tailored to examine planar material layers, while avoiding signals from the bulk.

  12. Influence of rigid core permittivity and double layer polarization on the electrophoresis of a soft particle: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; De, Simanta

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear electrophoresis of a soft particle with a polarizable uncharged rigid core coated with a polyelectrolyte layer is studied. Due to the coupled nature of the governing electrokinetic equations, a numerical approach is adopted. Our numerical solutions are in good agreement with the existing experimental and theoretical results for a particle with a non-polarizable core when the impacts of the nonlinear effects are low. The induced surface potential of the dielectric rigid core has an impact on the soft particle electrophoresis. The combined effects of the solid polarization of the core and double layer polarization have not been addressed previously in the context of soft particle electrophoresis. We have found that both these effects create retardation on the electrophoresis and are significant when the applied electric field is not weak. The double layer polarization is significant when the Debye length is in the order of the particle size. The range of the applied electric field for which the electrophoretic velocity of a soft particle with a non-polarizable core varies linearly with the applied electric field may create a nonlinear variation in electrophoretic velocity when the core is considered to be polarizable.

  13. Financial Brownian Particle in the Layered Order-Book Fluid and Fluctuation-Dissipation Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets as that of an effective colloidal Brownian particle embedded in fluid particles. The analysis of comprehensive market data enables us to identify all motions of the fluid particles. Correlations between the motions of the Brownian particle and its surrounding fluid particles reflect specific layering interactions; in the inner layer the correlation is strong and with short memory, while in the outer layer it is weaker and with long memory. By interpreting and estimating the contribution from the outer layer as a drag resistance, we demonstrate the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation in this nonmaterial Brownian motion process.

  14. Particle accumulation on periodic orbits by repeated free surface collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Ernst; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.

    2011-07-01

    The motion of small particles suspended in cylindrical thermocapillary liquid bridges is investigated numerically in order to explain the experimentally observed particle accumulation structures (PAS) in steady two- and time-dependent three-dimensional flows. Particles moving in this flow are modeled as perfect tracers in the bulk, which can undergo collisions with the free surface. By way of free-surface collisions the particles are transferred among different streamlines which represents the particle trajectories in the bulk. The inter-streamline transfer-process near the free surface together with the passive transport through the bulk is used to construct an iterative map that can describe the accumulation process as an attraction to a stable fixed point which represents PAS. The flow topology of the underlying azimuthally traveling hydrothermal wave turns out to be of key importance for the existence of PAS. In a frame of reference exactly rotating with the hydrothermal wave the three-dimensional flow is steady and exhibits co-existing regular and chaotic streamlines. We find that particles are attracted to accumulation structures if a closed regular streamline exists in the rotating frame of reference which closely approaches the free surface locally. Depending on the closed streamline and the particle radius PAS can arise as a specific trajectory which winds about the closed regular streamline or as the surface of a particular stream tube containing the closed streamline.

  15. Thermal radiation and Hall effects on boundary layer flow past a non-isothermal stretching surface embedded in porous medium with non-uniform heat source/sink and fluid-particle suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gireesha, B. J.; Mahanthesh, B.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Manjunatha, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    Theoretical study on hydromagnetic heat transfer in dusty viscous fluid on continuously stretching non-isothermal surface, with linear variation of surface temperature or heat flux has been carried out. Effects of Hall current, Darcy porous medium, thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink are taken into the account. The sheet is considered to be permeable to allow fluid suction or blowing, and stretching with a surface velocity varied according to a linear. Two cases of the temperature boundary conditions were considered at the surface namely, PST and PHF cases. The governing partial differential equations are transferred to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations by employing suitable similarity transformations and then they are solved numerically. Effects of various pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer for both phases is analyzed and discussed through graphs in detail. The values of skin friction and Nusselt number for different governing parameters are also tabulated. Comparison of the present results with known numerical results is presented and an excellent agreement is found.

  16. Mercurian megaregolith layer and surface heat flows constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egea-Gonzalez, Isabel; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Mercury is covered by a thermally insulating megaregolith layer. Despite the fact that it is known that this poor conducting layer has important influences on surface heat flows, most thermal modeling studies have overlooked it. Mercurian megaregolith is not very well known, but data provided by MESSENGER suggest that mercurian megaregolith is less insulating than its lunar counterpart. This information together with brittle-ductile transition (BDT) depths, estimated from the analysis of fault geometries associated with lobate scarps, allow us to constrain the surface heat flow on Mercury at the time of scarps formation. In this work, we have solved the heat conduction equation in order to constrain surface heat flows. Firstly, we obtain an upper limit in surface heat flows by using published values of the BDT depth and by neglecting the megaregolith layer. Then, we calculate a lower limit by including in the heat equation a top layer with thermal properties representative of the lunar megaregolith. In our calculations we have taken into account volumetric heat production rates obtained from the surface abundances of radioactive elements provided by MESSENGER. Heat equation solutions constrain surface heat flows to a range of 6 - 29 mWm-2. These results suggest the possibility that surface heat flows could be lower than those calculated in previous works, which is in agreement with the small amount of radial contraction detected on Mercury. Furthermore, the procedure followed in this article can be easily applied to other planets and satellites, which will improve our knowledge about the thermal evolution of these bodies.

  17. Hierarchy of adhesion forces in patterns of photoreactive surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawacek, Gregor; Shen, Quan; Teichert, Christian; Lex, Alexandra; Trimmel, Gregor; Kern, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Precise control of surface properties including electrical characteristics, wettability, and friction is a prerequisite for manufacturing modern organic electronic devices. The successful combination of bottom up approaches for aligning and orienting the molecules and top down techniques to structure the substrate on the nano- and micrometer scale allows the cost efficient fabrication and integration of future organic light emitting diodes and organic thin film transistors. One possibility for the top down patterning of a surface is to utilize different surface free energies or wetting properties of a functional group. Here, we used friction force microscopy (FFM) to reveal chemical patterns inscribed by a photolithographic process into a photosensitive surface layer. FFM allowed the simultaneous visualization of at least three different chemical surface terminations. The underlying mechanism is related to changes in the chemical interaction between probe and film surface.

  18. Homogenous Surface Nucleation of Solid Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Hamill, P.; Salcedo, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A general surface nucleation rate theory is presented for the homogeneous freezing of crystalline germs on the surfaces of aqueous particles. While nucleation rates in a standard classical homogeneous freezing rate theory scale with volume, the rates in a surface-based theory scale with surface area. The theory is used to convert volume-based information on laboratory freezing rates (in units of cu cm, seconds) of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) aerosols into surface-based values (in units of sq cm, seconds). We show that a surface-based model is capable of reproducing measured nucleation rates of NAT and NAD aerosols from concentrated aqueous HNO3 solutions in the temperature range of 165 to 205 K. Laboratory measured nucleation rates are used to derive free energies for NAT and NAD germ formation in the stratosphere. NAD germ free energies range from about 23 to 26 kcal mole, allowing for fast and efficient homogeneous NAD particle production in the stratosphere. However, NAT germ formation energies are large (greater than 26 kcal mole) enough to prevent efficient NAT particle production in the stratosphere. We show that the atmospheric NAD particle production rates based on the surface rate theory are roughly 2 orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from a standard volume-based rate theory. Atmospheric volume and surface production of NAD particles will nearly cease in the stratosphere when denitrification in the air exceeds 40 and 78%, respectively. We show that a surface-based (volume-based) homogeneous freezing rate theory gives particle production rates, which are (not) consistent with both laboratory and atmospheric data on the nucleation of solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  19. Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.

  20. Eliminated Phototoxicity of TiO2 Particles by an Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2 O3 Coating Layer for UV-Protection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunyong; Sridharan, Kishore; Park, Young Min; Park, Tae Joo

    2016-08-16

    We demonstrate the conformal coating of an ultrathin Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 nanoparticles through atomic layer deposition by using a specifically designed rotary reactor to eliminate the phototoxicity of the particles for cosmetic use. The ALD reactor is modified to improve the coating efficiency as well as the agitation of the particles for conformal coating. Elemental and microstructural analyses show that ultrathin Al2 O3 layers are conformally deposited on the TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled thickness. Rhodamine B dye molecules on Al2 O3 -coated TiO2 exhibited a long life time under UV irradiation, that is, more than 2 h, compared to that on bare TiO2 , that is, 8 min, indicating mitigation of photocatalytic activity by the coated layer. The effect of carbon impurities in the film resulting from various deposition temperatures and thicknesses of the Al2 O3 layer on the photocatalytic activity are also thoroughly investigated with controlled experimental condition by using dye molecules on the surface. Our results reveal that an increased carbon impurity resulting from a low processing temperature provides a charge conduction path and generates reactive oxygen species causing the degradation of dye molecule. A thin coated layer, that is, less than 3 nm, also induced the tunneling of electrons and holes to the surface, hence oxidizing dye molecules. Furthermore, the introduction of an Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 improves the light trapping thus, enhances the UV absorption. PMID:27405514

  1. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  2. Rod-like cyanophenyl probe molecules nanoconfined to oxide particles: Density of adsorbed surface species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunza, Stefan; Frunza, Ligia; Ganea, Constantin Paul; Zgura, Irina; Brás, Ana Rita; Schönhals, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Surface layers have already been observed by broadband dielectric spectroscopy for composite systems formed by adsorption of rod-like cyanophenyl derivates as probe molecules on the surface of oxide particles. In this work, features of the surface layer are reported; samples with different amounts of the probe molecules adsorbed onto oxide (nano) particles were prepared in order to study their interactions with the surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied to analyze the amount of loaded probe molecules. The density of the surface species ns was introduced and its values were estimated from quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TGA. This parameter allows discriminating the composites into several groups assuming a similar interaction of the probe molecules with the hosts of a given group. An influence factor H is further proposed as the ratio of the number of molecules in the surface layer showing a glassy dynamics and the number of molecules adsorbed tightly on the surface of the support: It was found for aerosil composites and used for calculating the maximum filling degree of partially filled silica MCM-41 composites showing only one dielectric process characteristic for glass-forming liquids and a bulk behavior for higher filling degrees.

  3. Friedel oscillations at the surfaces of rhombohedral N -layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutreix, C.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy physics of rhombohedral N -layer graphene mainly arises on the external layers, where most of the π electrons are located. Their Bloch band structure defines a two-band semimetal; the dispersion relation scales as ±qN with the momentum norm q in the vicinity of two nonequivalent valleys. In this paper, we address the problem of elastic scattering through a localized impurity located either on the surface of the material or within the bulk, and focus on the quantum interferences it induces on the two external layers. It is apprehended in the framework of a T -matrix approach, both numerically and analytically, regardless of the impurity magnitude, which enables the description of realistic scatters. In rhombohedral multilayer graphene, the impurity induces Friedel oscillations that always decay as 1 /r . As a result, monolayer graphene is the only material of the rhombohedral class that exhibits 1 /r2 -decaying Friedel oscillations. The interference patterns are subsequently analyzed in momentum space. This analysis enables a clear distinction between monolayer graphene and multilayer graphene. It also shows that the interference pattern reveals the whole Bloch band structure, and highlights the number of layers stacked in the material, as well as the π -quantized Berry phases that characterize the existence of nodal points in the semimetallic spectrum. Experimentally, these features may be probed from scanning tunneling microscopy, when imaging the local density of states at the surfaces of suspended rhombohedral N -layer graphene.

  4. Ultrastructure of the Bacteroides nodosus cell envelope layers and surface.

    PubMed Central

    Every, D; Skerman, T M

    1980-01-01

    The surface structure and cell envelope layers of various virulent Bacteroides nodosus strains were examined by light microscopy and by electron microscopy by using negative staining, thin-section, and freeze-fracture-etch techniques. Three surface structures were described: pili and a diffuse material, both of which emerged from one or both poles of the bacteria (depending on the stage of growth and division), and large rodlike structures (usually 30 to 40 nm in diameter) associated with a small proportion of the bacterial population. No capsule was detected. The cell envelope consisted of four layers: a plasma membrane, a peptidoglycan layer, an outer membrane, and an outermost additional layer. The additional layer was composed of subunits, generally hexagonally packed with center-to-center spacing of 6 to 7 nm. The outer membrane and plasma membrane freeze-fractured through their hydrophobic regions revealing four fracture faces with features similar to those of other gram-negative bacteria. However, some unusual features were seen on the fracture faces of the outer membrane: large raised ring structure (11 to 12 nm in diameter) on cw 3 at the poles of the bacteria; complementary pits or ring-shaped depressions on cw 2; and small raised ring structures (7 to 8 nm in diameter) all over cw 2. Images PMID:6154040

  5. Fluorescent eco-particles for surface flow physics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, we describe a novel methodology for fabricating inexpensive environmentally-friendly fluorescent microparticles for quantitative surface flow visualization. Particles are synthesized from natural white beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. Bead fluorescence exhibits a long lifetime in adverse conditions, such as exposure to weathering agents, and is enhanced by Ultra Violet radiation. The fluorescent eco-particles are integrated in a particle image velocimetry study of circular hydraulic jump to demonstrate their feasibility in tracing complex surface flows.

  6. NEUTRON DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN FRICTION STIR PROCESSED NANOCOMPOSITE SURFACE LAYER

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hanbing; Hubbard, Camden R; An, Ke; Wang, Xun-Li; Feng, Zhili; Qu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was successfully used to stir and mix nano-sized Al2O3 particles into a Al6061-T6 aluminum plate to form a nanocomposite layer up to 3 mm thick. This nanocomposite surface has demonstrated significantly improved surface hardness, yield strength, and wear-resistance without sacrificing the substrate ductility and conductivity. Neutron diffraction analysis was conducted to determine the residual stress distribution in the nanocomposite surface layer. For comparison, the residual stress of the aluminum surface that was processed similarly but had no particle involved was also measured. Results showed that the macro-level residual stresses in the FSP zone without particles are low due to the annealing effect induced by the long heating time and large heat input. The macro-level residual stresses in the FSP-processed Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite zone are tensile up to 100 MPa in all three directions. The details of the results will be further discussed in the paper.

  7. Oxygen inhibition layer of composite resins: effects of layer thickness and surface layer treatment on the interlayer bond strength.

    PubMed

    Bijelic-Donova, Jasmina; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-02-01

    An oxygen inhibition layer develops on surfaces exposed to air during polymerization of particulate filling composite. This study assessed the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer of short-fiber-reinforced composite in comparison with conventional particulate filling composites. The effect of an oxygen inhibition layer on the shear bond strength of incrementally placed particulate filling composite layers was also evaluated. Four different restorative composites were selected: everX Posterior (a short-fiber-reinforced composite), Z250, SupremeXT, and Silorane. All composites were evaluated regarding the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer and for shear bond strength. An equal amount of each composite was polymerized in air between two glass plates and the thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer was measured using a stereomicroscope. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were prepared for measurement of shear bond strength by placing incrementally two layers of the same composite material. Before applying the second composite layer, the first increment's bonding site was treated as follows: grinding with 1,000-grit silicon-carbide (SiC) abrasive paper, or treatment with ethanol or with water-spray. The inhibition depth was lowest (11.6 μm) for water-sprayed Silorane and greatest (22.9 μm) for the water-sprayed short-fiber-reinforced composite. The shear bond strength ranged from 5.8 MPa (ground Silorane) to 36.4 MPa (water-sprayed SupremeXT). The presence of an oxygen inhibition layer enhanced the interlayer shear bond strength of all investigated materials, but its absence resulted in cohesive and mixed failures only with the short-fiber-reinforced composite. Thus, more durable adhesion with short-fiber-reinforced composite is expected. PMID:25556290

  8. Adhering grains and surface features on two Itokawa particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrică, E.; Ogliore, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the surface texture and chemical compositions of two ~40-μm particles returned from the surface regolith of asteroid Itokawa (RB-DQ04-0062 and RB-DQ04-0091) by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hayabusa mission. We identified splash melts, surface blistering, and many small adhering particles. Seven focused ion beam sections were extracted from both Itokawa particles, targeting one splash melt and ten adhering particles to investigate their composition and provenance and the role of micrometeoroid impacts on Itokawa's surface. Based on the particle's structure, mineralogy, and interface between the adhering particle and host grain, we identified lithic fragments and particles deposited by impact. These have morphologies and compositions consistent with impact-generated deposits: two have morphologies and compositions that are consistent with impact-generated silica glass, and one was a Ni-free, metallic Fe, and S-rich assemblage that was likely generated by vapor recondensation during a micrometeoroid impact. This study shows that, even though its regolith is young, micrometeoroid impacts have altered the regolith of asteroid Itokawa.

  9. Microhydrodynamics of flotation processes in the sea surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatika, Marianne; Zimmerman, William B.

    2001-10-01

    The uppermost surface of the ocean forms a peculiarly important ecosystem, the sea surface microlayer (SML). Comprising the top 1-1000 μm of the ocean surface, the SML concentrates many chemical substances, particularly those that are surface active. Important economically as a nursery for fish eggs and larvae, the SML unfortunately is also especially vulnerable to pollution. Contaminants that settle out from the air, have low solubility, or attach to floatable matter tend to accumulate in the SML. Bubbles contribute prominently to the dynamics of air-sea exchanges, playing an important role in geochemical cycling of material in the upper ocean and SML. In addition to the movement of bubbles, the development of a bubble cloud interrelates with the single particle dynamics of all other bubbles and particles. In the early sixties, several in situ oceanographic techniques revealed an "unbelievably immense" number of coastal bubbles of radius 15-300 μm. The spatial and temporal variation of bubble numbers were studied; acoustical oceanographers now use bubbles as tracers to determine ocean processes near the ocean surface. Sea state and rain noises have both been definitively ascribed to the radiation from huge numbers of infant micro bubbles [The Acoustic Bubble. Academic Press, San Diego]. Our research programme aims at constructing a hydrodynamic model for particle transport processes occurring at the microscale, in multi-phase flotation suspensions. Current research addresses bubble and floc microhydrodynamics as building blocks for a microscale transport model. This paper reviews sea surface transport processes in the microlayer and the lower atmosphere, and identifies those amenable to microhydrodynamic modelling and simulation. It presents preliminary simulation results including the multi-body hydrodynamic mobility functions for the modelling of "dynamic bubble filters" and floc suspensions. Hydrodynamic interactions versus spatial anisotropy and size of

  10. Plasma behavior in the boundary layer near a railgun surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.W.; McCallen, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Viscous flow and thermal characteristics are theoretically analyzed for the plasma behind a moving projectile inside a railgun. When only convective effects are included in the turbulent boundary layer analysis, the results suggest a temperature maximum in the wall region for very high velocity flows. The case of radiative as well as convective transport has also been investigated for an optically thick boundary layer flow by application of an approximate method. Results show a sizable effect of radiation on the flow characteristics, especially on the heat transfer rate to the railgun surface.

  11. Plasma behavior in the boundary layer near a railgun surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sang-Wook; McCallen, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Viscous flow and thermal characteristics are theoretically analyzed for the plasma behind a moving projectile inside a railgun. When only convective effects are included in the turbulent boundary layer analysis, the results suggest a temperature maximum in the wall region for very high velocity flows. The case of radiative as well as convective transport has also been investigated for an optically-thick boundary layer flow by application of an approximate method. Results show a sizable effect of radiation on the flow characteristics, especially on the heat-transfer rate to the railgun surface. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Modification of Surface Layers by Surfacing Intermetallic Coatings with Variable Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, D. N.; Zakharov, O. V.; Vinogradov, A. N.; Kochetkov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper considers the possibility of forming coating layers for parts within wide limits of microhardness. The technology uses surfacing of intermetallic coatings provided by a unique experimental setup. Theoretical and experimental dependence of the coating layer microhardness on the filler concentration using the changes in the speed of the filler wire feed and current intensity were determined.

  13. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  14. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. |

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  15. Consideration of the effects on fuel particle behavior from shrinkage cracks in the inner pyrocarbon layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gregory K.; Petti, David A.; Varacalle, Dominic J.; Maki, John T.

    2001-06-01

    The fundamental design for a gas-cooled pebble bed reactor relies on an understanding of the behavior of coated particle fuel. The coating layers surrounding the fuel kernels in these spherical particles consist of pyrolytic carbon layers and a silicon carbide (SiC) layer. These coating layers act as a pressure vessel that retains fission product gases. A small percentage of fuel particles may fail during irradiation in the mode of a traditional pressure vessel failure. Fuel performance models used to predict particle behavior have traditionally been one-dimensional models that focus on this failure mechanism. Results of irradiation experiments, however, show that many more fuel particles fail than would be predicted by this mechanism alone. Post-irradiation examinations indicate that multi-dimensional effects, such as the presence of shrinkage cracks in the inner pyrolytic carbon layer (IPyC), contribute to these unexplained failures. Results of a study performed to evaluate the significance of cracking in the IPyC layer on behavior of a fuel particle are presented herein, which indicate that shrinkage cracks could contribute significantly to fuel particle failures.

  16. The impact of surface properties on particle-interface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Anna; Kaz, David; McGorty, Ryan; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    2013-03-01

    The propensity for particles to bind to oil-water interfaces was first noted by Ramsden and Pickering over a century ago, and has been attributed to the huge reduction in surface energy when a particle breaches an oil-water interface and straddles it at its equilibrium height. Since then materials on a variety of length scales have been fabricated using particles at interfaces, from Pickering emulsions to Janus particles. In these applications, it is simply assumed that the particle sits at its hugely energetically favourable equilibrium position. However, it was recently shown that the relaxation of particles towards their equilibrium position is logarithmic in time and could take months, much longer than typical experiments. Here we investigate how surface charge and particle 'hairiness' impact the interaction between micron-sized particles and oil-water interfaces, and explore a molecular kinetic theory model to help understand these results. We use digital holographic microscopy to track micron-sized particles as they approach an oil-water interface with a resolution of 2 nm in all three dimensions at up to thousands of frames per second.

  17. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Y.; Nanbu, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Komotori, J.

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP) treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  18. On the interaction of a vertical shear layer with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, Dana

    2003-04-01

    New experiments have been conducted using a combined free-surface gradient detector (FSGD) and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique to study the interaction between a vertical shear layer, created by a surface-piercing splitter plate, and a free surface. The emphasis of this study is on understanding aspects of the interaction between the free-surface deformation (FSD) and the near-surface turbulence through the correlations between the elevation and the vorticity fields, and the spectral behaviour of the near-surface pressure. The Reynolds number of the present study, based on visual thickness and the velocity average of the two streams, is 12 100. Mean results for the velocity and vorticity fields show that self-similarity is achieved. Instantaneous data sets show that at the free surface, vortex tubes within the main rollers connect normally with the free surface as is evidenced by strong vorticity as well as the strong deformations at the free surface. The instantaneous data sets also show that the streamwise vortices near the braid regions, while weaker than those seen in the main rollers, also reconnect with the free surface. Statistical analyses show that the FSD is strongly correlated with the near-surface vorticity field, as the correlation coefficients are quite high (˜ 0.7-0.8). The pressure spectrum slope within the shear layer near the surface is found to be -10/3, compared with the analytically derived value of -11/3 (George et al. 1984) found for a shear layer in unbounded flow.

  19. THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOILING OF SURFACES BY AIRBORNE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model is developed which can be used to predict the change in reflectance from a surface as a function of time. Reflectance change is a measure of soiling caused by the deposition of particles on a surface. The major inputs to the model are the parameters to a bimodal distribut...

  20. Lateral optical force on chiral particles near a surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. B.; Chan, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Light can exert radiation pressure on any object it encounters and that resulting optical force can be used to manipulate particles. It is commonly assumed that light should move a particle forward and indeed an incident plane wave with a photon momentum ħk can only push any particle, independent of its properties, in the direction of k. Here we demonstrate, using full-wave simulations, that an anomalous lateral force can be induced in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident photon momentum if a chiral particle is placed above a substrate that does not break any left–right symmetry. Analytical theory shows that the lateral force emerges from the coupling between structural chirality (the handedness of the chiral particle) and the light reflected from the substrate surface. Such coupling induces a sideway force that pushes chiral particles with opposite handedness in opposite directions. PMID:24598792

  1. Lateral optical force on chiral particles near a surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, S B; Chan, C T

    2014-01-01

    Light can exert radiation pressure on any object it encounters and that resulting optical force can be used to manipulate particles. It is commonly assumed that light should move a particle forward and indeed an incident plane wave with a photon momentum ħk can only push any particle, independent of its properties, in the direction of k. Here we demonstrate, using full-wave simulations, that an anomalous lateral force can be induced in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident photon momentum if a chiral particle is placed above a substrate that does not break any left-right symmetry. Analytical theory shows that the lateral force emerges from the coupling between structural chirality (the handedness of the chiral particle) and the light reflected from the substrate surface. Such coupling induces a sideway force that pushes chiral particles with opposite handedness in opposite directions. PMID:24598792

  2. A multi-layer soil moisture data assimilation using support vector machines and ensemble particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhongbo; Liu, Di; Lü, Haishen; Fu, Xiaolei; Xiang, Long; Zhu, Yonghua

    2012-12-01

    SummaryHybrid data assimilation (DA) is greatly used in recent hydrology and water resources research. In this study, one newly introduced technique, the ensemble particle filter (EnPF), formed by coupling ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with particle filter (PF), is applied for a multi-layer soil moisture prediction in the Meilin watershed based on the support vector machines (SVMs). The data used in this paper includes six-layer soil moisture: 0-5 cm, 30 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 200 cm and 300 cm and five meteorological parameters: soil temperature at 5 cm and 20 cm, air temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation in the study area. In order to investigate this EnPF approach, another two filters, EnKF and PF are applied as another two data assimilation methods to conduct a comparison. In addition, the SVM model simulated data without updating with data assimilation technique is discussed as well to evaluate the data assimilation technique. Two experimental cases are explored here, one with 200 initial training ensemble members in the SVM training phase while the other with 1000 initial training ensemble members. Three main findings are obtained in this study: (1) the SVMs machine is a statistically sound and robust model for soil moisture prediction in both the surface and root zone layers, and the larger the initial training data ensemble, the more effective the operator derived; (2) data assimilation technique does improve the performance of SVM modeling; (3) EnPF outweighs the performance of other two filters as well as the SVM model; Moreover, the ability of EnPF and PF is not positively related to the resampling ensemble size, when the resampling size exceeds a certain amount, the performance of EnPF and PF would be degraded. Because the EnPF still performs well than EnKF, it can be used as a powerful data assimilation tool in the soil moisture prediction.

  3. Boundary layer flow past a stretching sheet with fluid-particle suspension and convective boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, G. K.; Gireesha, B. J.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2015-08-01

    The steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a viscous dusty fluid over a stretching sheet with the bottom surface of the sheet heated by convection from a hot fluid is considered. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method (RKF45 Method) with the help of MAPLE. The effects of convective Biot number, fluid particle interaction parameter, and Prandtl number on the heat transfer characteristics are discussed. It is found that the temperature of both fluid and dust phase increases with increasing Biot number. A comparative study between the previous published and present results in a limiting sense is found in an excellent agreement.

  4. Strength and Young's modulus of silicon carbide layers of HTGR fuel particles at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kousaku

    1991-06-01

    Strength and Young's modulus of chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide layers of coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) were measured from room temperature up to 1480°C (1753 K) in helium atmosphere. The diametrical compression test was applied to micro-specimens of ring shaped SiC. Young's modulus decreased slightly from room temperature up to around 1200 °C (1473 K) and decreased rapidly above this temperature. The strength remained almost unchanged from room temperature up to around 1300°C (1573 K) and decreased rapidly above this temperature. The fracture surfaces indicated that fracture mechanisms changed from transgranular to intergranular, which corresponded with the rapid decrease in strength.

  5. The formation of multiple layers of ice particles in the polar summer mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional theoretical model to study the formation process of multiple layers of small ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere as measured by rockets and associated with polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The proposed mechanism primarily takes into account the transport processes induced by gravity waves through collision coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ice particles. Numerical solutions of the model indicate that the dynamic influence of wind variation induced by gravity waves can make a significant contribution to the vertical and horizontal transport of ice particles and ultimately transform them into thin multiple layers. Additionally, the pattern of the multiple layers at least partially depends on the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave, the ice particle size and the wind velocity. The results presented in this paper will be helpful to better understand the occurrence of multiple layers of PMSE as well as its variation process.

  6. Detection of charged particles in thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers

    SciTech Connect

    Fujieda, I.; Cho, G.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Qureshi, S.; Ward, W.; Street, R.A.

    1988-03-01

    We show our results in detecting particles of various linear energy transfer, including minimum ionizing electrons from a Sr-90 source with 5 to 12 micron thick n-i-p and p-i-n diodes. We measured W ( average energy to produce one electron-hole pair) using 17keV filtered xray pulses with a result W = 6.0 /+-/ 0.2eV. This is consistent with the expected value for a semiconductor with band gap of 1.7 to 1.9eV. With heavily ionizing particles such as 6 MeV alphas and 1 to 2 MeV protons, there was some loss of signal due to recombination in the particle track. The minimum ionizing electrons showed no sign of recombination. Applications to pixel and strip detectors for physics experiments and medical imaging will be discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Asta, Mark D; Xin, Huolin L; Doeff, Marca M

    2014-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the long-standing challenges associated with high-voltage operation of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Using correlated ensemble-averaged high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially resolved electron microscopy and spectroscopy, here we report structural reconstruction (formation of a surface reduced layer, to transition) and chemical evolution (formation of a surface reaction layer) at the surface of LiNi(x)Mn(x)Co(1-2x)O2 particles. These are primarily responsible for the prevailing capacity fading and impedance buildup under high-voltage cycling conditions, as well as the first-cycle coulombic inefficiency. It was found that the surface reconstruction exhibits a strong anisotropic characteristic, which predominantly occurs along lithium diffusion channels. Furthermore, the surface reaction layer is composed of lithium fluoride embedded in a complex organic matrix. This work sets a refined example for the study of surface reconstruction and chemical evolution in battery materials using combined diagnostic tools at complementary length scales. PMID:24670975

  8. Surface morphological evolution of epitaxial CrN(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Gall, D.

    2005-09-01

    CrN layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at T{sub s}=600-800 deg. C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges from an oblique deposition angle {alpha}=80 deg. . Layers grown at 600 deg. C nucleate as single crystals with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. However, rough surfaces with cauliflower-type morphologies cause the nucleation of misoriented CrN grains that develop into cone-shaped grains that protrude out of the epitaxial matrix to form triangular faceted surface mounds. The surface morphology of epitaxial CrN(001) grown at 700 deg. C is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along the orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped super mounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are attributed to a Bales-Zangwill instability while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing which leads to the formation of epitaxial inverted pyramids that are separated from the surrounding layer by tilted nanovoids. Growth at 800 deg. C yields complete single crystals with smooth surfaces. The root-mean-square surface roughness for 230-nm-thick layers decreases from 18.8 to 9.3 to 1.1 nm as T{sub s} is raised from 600 to 700 to 800 deg. C. This steep decrease is due to a transition in the roughening mechanism from atomic shadowing to kinetic roughening. Atomic shadowing is dominant at 600 and 700 deg. C, where misoriented grains and supermounds, respectively, capture a larger fraction of the oblique deposition flux in comparison to the surrounding epitaxial matrix, resulting in a high roughening rate that is described by a power law with an exponent {beta}>0.5. In contrast, kinetic roughening controls the surface morphology for T{sub s}=800 deg. C, as well as the epitaxial fraction of the layers grown at 600 and 700 deg. C, yielding relatively smooth surfaces and {beta}{<=}0.27.

  9. Free and guided convection in evaporating layers of aqueous solutions of sucrose. Transport and sedimentation of solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Blaise; Pomeau, Yves

    1991-03-01

    In a thin layer of an aqueous solution of sucrose, convection due to evaporation takes place, after a chaotic regime, as a unique toroidal roll occupying the whole container. When a mask drilled with holes is placed just above the upper surface of the fluid layer, there is cellular convection imposed by the distribution of holes. Immersed solid particles preferentially settle at the bottom of the cell walls, where the fluid is rising. This is explained by the combined effects of diffusion and convection, when the latter is dominant (large Péclet number).

  10. Adsorption-desorption kinetics of soft particles onto surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberg, Brendan; Gerland, Ulrich

    A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological systems feature processes in which particles randomly adsorb on a substrate. Theoretical models usually assume ``hard'' (mutually impenetrable) particles, but in soft matter physics the adsorbing particles can be effectively compressible, implying ``soft'' interaction potentials. We recently studied the kinetics of such soft particles adsorbing onto one-dimensional substrates, identifying three novel phenomena: (i) a gradual density increase, or ''cramming'', replaces the usual jamming behavior of hard particles, (ii) a density overshoot, can occur (only for soft particles) on a time scale set by the desorption rate, and (iii) relaxation rates of soft particles increase with particle size (on a lattice), while hard particles show the opposite trend. The latter occurs since unjamming requires desorption and many-bodied reorganization to equilibrate -a process that is generally very slow. Here we extend this analysis to a two-dimensional substrate, focusing on the question of whether the adsorption-desorption kinetics of particles in two dimensions is similarly enriched by the introduction of soft interactions. Application to experiments, for example the adsorption of fibrinogen on two-dimensional surfaces, will be discussed.