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1

Particle therapy  

SciTech Connect

Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

Raju, M.R.

1993-09-01

2

Particle Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Tumors: Where Do We Stand? A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

This review article provides a systematic overview of the currently available evidence on the clinical effectiveness of particle therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and summarizes findings of in silico comparative planning studies. Furthermore, technical issues and dosimetric uncertainties with respect to thoracic particle therapy are discussed. PMID:25401087

Wink, Krista C. J.; Roelofs, Erik; Solberg, Timothy; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.; Jakobi, Annika; Richter, Christian; Lambin, Philippe; Troost, Esther G. C.

2014-01-01

3

Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence.

Wang, Zhen, E-mail: Wang.Zhen@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Nabhan, Mohammed [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

2013-05-01

4

Particle Radiation Therapy: Requiem or Reveille  

PubMed Central

The 1960s and 1970s witnessed a surge of many institutions devoted to electron therapy. Currently, many facilities are adding or have added particle types of radiation to their armamentarium against cancer. The authors review the concepts, problems, and potentials of this form of therapy. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:423289

Alexander, Leslie L.; Goldson, Alfred L.; Alexander, George A.

1979-01-01

5

Particle therapy for noncancer diseases  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-04-15

6

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

C. Amsler; M. Doser; M. Antonelli; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; H. Baer; H. R. Band; R. M. Barnett; E. Bergren; J. Beringer; G. Bernardi; W. Bertl; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; S. Blusk; R. N. Cahn; M. Carena; C. Caso; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; M.-C. Chen; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; T. Damour; A. de Gouvêa; T. DeGrand; B. Dobrescu; M. Drees; D. A. Edwards; S. Eidelman; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; J. L. Feng; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; T. Gherghetta; G. F. Giudice; M. Goodman; C. Grab; A. V. Gritsan; J.-F. Grivaz; D. E. Groom; M. Grünewald; A. Gurtu; T. Gutsche; H. E. Haber; K. Hagiwara; C. Hagmann; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; J. Huston; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; T. Junk; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; I. G. Knowles; C. Kolda; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Krusche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; Y. Kwon; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; C.-J. Lin; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; H. Mahlke; M. L. Mangano; T. Mannel; A. V. Manohar; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; A. Masoni; D. Milstead; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; M. Narain; P. Nason; S. Navas; P. Nevski; Y. Nir; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; J. A. Peacock; G. Punzi; A. Quadt; S. Raby; G. Raffelt; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; A. Romaniouk; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; F. Sauli; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; J. G. Smith; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; S. L. Stone; T. Sumiyoshi; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; M. Titov; N. P. Tkachenko; N. A. Törnqvist; D. Tovey; G. H. Trilling; T. G. Trippe; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; P. Vogel; D. R. Ward; T. Watari; B. R. Webber; G. Weiglein; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; A. Wheeler; C. G. Wohl; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; R. L. Workman; A. Yamamoto; W.-M. Yao; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu; P. A. Zyla; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner

2008-01-01

7

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 1900 new measurements from 700 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

R. M. Barnett; C. D. Carone; D. E. Groom; T. G. Trippe; C. G. Wohl; B. Armstrong; P. S. Gee; G. S. Wagman; F. James; M. Mangano; K. Mönig; L. Montanet; J. L. Feng; H. Murayama; J. J. Hernández; A. Manohar; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Caso; R. L. Crawford; M. Roos; N. A. Törnqvist; K. G. Hayes; K. Hagiwara; K. Nakamura; M. Tanabashi; K. Olive; K. Honscheid; P. R. Burchat; R. E. Shrock; S. Eidelman; R. H. Schindler; A. Gurtu; K. Hikasa; G. Conforto; R. L. Workman; C. Grab; C. Amsler

1996-01-01

8

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2633 new measurements from 689 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

2006-01-01

9

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2158 new measurements from 551 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

K. Nakamura

2010-01-01

10

Behavior therapy: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The questionable effectiveness of traditional psychodynamic psychotherapies and the development of brief new treatment techniques derived from modern learning theory have stimulated interest in applications of conditioning procedures to behavior disorders. A review of this literature revealed that behavior therapies have been applied to many neurotic and psychotic disorders, and have been most successful with disorders involving specific maladaptive behaviors.

John M. Grossberg

1964-01-01

11

Basics of particle therapy I: physics  

PubMed Central

With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest. PMID:22984664

Park, Seo Hyun

2011-01-01

12

Play Therapy: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

2009-01-01

13

Charged Particle Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Historically, the use of external beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been limited by toxicity to the uninvolved liver and surrounding structures. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformality to the tumor and facilitated dose escalation, a key contributor to improved HCC radiation treatment outcomes. However, despite these advances in photon radiotherapy, significant volumes of liver still receive low doses of radiation that can preclude dose escalation, particularly in patients with limited functional liver reserves. By capitalizing on the lack of exit dose along the beam path beyond the tumor and higher biological effectiveness, charged particle therapy offers the promise of maximizing tumor control via dose escalation without excessive liver toxicity. In this review we discuss the distinctive biophysical attributes of both proton and carbon ion radiotherapy, particularly as they pertain to treatment of HCC. We also review the available literature regarding clinical outcomes and toxicity of using charged particles for the treatment of HCC. PMID:21939857

Skinner, Heath D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Krishnan, Sunil

2011-01-01

14

Tumour Therapy with Particle Beams  

E-print Network

Photons are exponentially attenuated in matter producing high doses close to the surface. Therefore they are not well suited for the treatment of deep seated tumours. Charged particles, in contrast, exhibit a sharp increase of ionisation density close to the end of their range, the so-called Bragg-peak. The depth of the Bragg-peak can be adjusted by varying the particle's energy. In parallel with the large energy deposit the increase in biological effectiveness for cell killing at the end of the range provides an ideal scalpel for the surgeon effectively without touching the surface tissue. Consequently proton therapy has gained a lot of ground for treating well localized tumours. Even superior still are heavy ions, where the ionisation pattern is increased by the square of their charge.

Grupen, Claus

2000-01-01

15

The Review of Particle Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Particle Physics Group (PDG) is an "international collaboration that reviews particle physics and related areas of Astrophysics, and compiles/analyzes data on particle properties." The Web site features the 2002 publication, The Review of Particle Physics, which is described as "the most cited publication in particle physics during the last decade." Visitors have access to summary tables and conservation laws; reviews, tables, and plots; and particle listings, which list, average, evaluate, and reference various data used. Other features include a link to particle physics information and databases, archives of past reports, and other helpful resources.

1995-01-01

16

Massage therapy research review.  

PubMed

Moderate pressure massage has contributed to many positive effects including increased weight gain in preterm infants, reduced pain in different syndromes including fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, enhanced attentiveness, reduced depression and enhanced immune function (increased natural killer cells and natural killer cell activity).Surprisingly, these recent studies have not been reviewed, highlighting the need for the current review. When moderate and light pressure massage have been compared in laboratory studies, moderate pressure massage reduced depression, anxiety and heart rate, and it altered EEG patterns, as in a relaxation response. Moderate pressure massage has also led to increased vagal activity and decreased cortisol levels. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that moderate pressure massage was represented in several brain regions including the amygdala, the hypothalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, all areas involved in stress and emotion regulation. Further research is needed to identify underlying neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms associated with moderate pressure massage. PMID:25172313

Field, Tiffany

2014-11-01

17

Promise and pitfalls of heavy-particle therapy.  

PubMed

Proton beam therapy, the most common form of heavy-particle radiation therapy, is not a new invention, but it has gained considerable public attention because of the high cost of installing and operating the rapidly increasing number of treatment centers. This article reviews the physical properties of proton beam therapy and focuses on the up-to-date clinical evidence comparing proton beam therapy with the more standard and widely available radiation therapy treatment alternatives. In a cost-conscious era of health care, the hypothetical benefits of proton beam therapy will have to be supported by demonstrable clinical gains. Proton beam therapy represents, through its scale and its cost, a battleground for the policy debate around managing expensive technology in modern medicine. PMID:25113772

Mitin, Timur; Zietman, Anthony L

2014-09-10

18

Hyperpigmentation Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

With an increasing number of multicultural patients and those of different backgrounds presenting in dermatology clinics, issues facing patients with higher Fitzpatrick skin classifications, often referred to as skin of color patients, are on the rise. Knowledge of the diagnostic dilemmas, cutting edge treatment options, and latest clinical research in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous anomalies in skin of color patients is of paramount importance. Of the most common complaints in patients with skin of color is hyperpigmentation. Despite the availability of multiple treatments for the condition, hyperpigmentation continues to present clinical management challenges for dermatologists. Difficulty may be traced to physician or patient reluctance to use certain agents or interventions, failure to identify and avoid contributing factors, and insufficient attention paid to the psychosocial aspects of the disease. This review addresses a variety of issues including the diagnosis and management of hyperpigmentation. PMID:25161755

Desai, Seemal R.

2014-01-01

19

Gantry for medical particle therapy facility  

DOEpatents

A particle therapy gantry for delivering a particle beam to a patient includes a beam tube having a curvature defining a particle beam path and a plurality of superconducting, variable field magnets sequentially arranged along the beam tube for guiding the particle beam along the particle path. In a method for delivering a particle beam to a patient through a gantry, a particle beam is guided by a plurality of variable field magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube of the gantry and the beam is alternately focused and defocused with alternately arranged focusing and defocusing variable field magnets.

Trbojevic, Dejan

2013-04-23

20

Gantry for medical particle therapy facility  

DOEpatents

A particle therapy gantry for delivering a particle beam to a patient includes a beam tube having a curvature defining a particle beam path and a plurality of fixed field magnets sequentially arranged along the beam tube for guiding the particle beam along the particle path. In a method for delivering a particle beam to a patient through a gantry, a particle beam is guided by a plurality of fixed field magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube of the gantry and the beam is alternately focused and defocused with alternately arranged focusing and defocusing fixed field magnets.

Trbojevic, Dejan (Wading River, NY)

2012-05-08

21

Particle Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Treatment-related toxicity is common in the radiotherapeutic management of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. These toxicities can diminish treatment efficacy by necessitating treatment breaks, limiting the radiation dose that can be delivered, and hindering concomitant use of chemotherapy and targeted drug agents. Many efforts have focused on widening the gap between the likelihood of tumor control and the likelihood of toxicities associated with radiation. Use of particles that exhibit a Bragg peak phenomenon in their interactions with tissue, such as protons, heavier ions like carbon ions, and pions, is one means of concentrating radiation dose in tumors and away from normal tissues. Neutron beams have also been used in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers in an effort to take advantage of their potent biologic effects. This report reviews basic particle radiation physics and biology, as well as the clinical experience with protons, heavier ions, pions, and neutrons in the treatment of various gastrointestinal malignancies. Potential future directions in clinical research with particle therapy are discussed. PMID:19360149

Meyer, Jeffrey J.; Willett, Christopher G.

2007-01-01

22

Motion in radiotherapy: particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged particle beam radiotherapy requires dedicated measures to compensate for the dosimetric influence of inter- and intra-fractional target motion. Independent of the delivery technique, these measures have to incorporate the strong influence of the radiological depth on the delivered dose. For scanned beam delivery, interference effects of target motion and scanned beam can further cause under-dosage of the clinical target volume despite using margins. Within the scope of this review, published data with respect to motion management in scattered as well as scanned beam treatment delivery will be summarized. Based on a section covering the dosimetric impact of organ motion, motion management during treatment planning, patient positioning, treatment delivery and treatment validation will be summarized. For scattered beam delivery, the concepts and data are often based on clinical usage since treatment of moving tumors has been performed for several years. In the field of scanned beam delivery, the report focuses on the results of research on countermeasures of the interference effect. Clinical application of these techniques can be expected in the near future.

Bert, C.; Durante, M.

2011-08-01

23

Applications of laser-accelerated particle beams for radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton beams are more advantageous than high-energy photons and electrons for radiation therapy because of their finite penetrating range and the Bragg peak near the end of their range, which have been utilized to achieve better dose conformity to the treatment target allowing for dose escalation and/or hypofractionation to increase local tumor control, reduce normal tissue complications and/or treatment time/cost. Proton therapy employing conventional particle acceleration techniques is expensive because of the large accelerators and treatment gantries that require excessive space and shielding. Compact proton acceleration systems are being sought to improve the cost-effectiveness for proton therapy. This paper reviews the physics principles of laser-proton acceleration and the development of prototype laserproton therapy systems as a solution for widespread applications of advanced proton therapy. The system design, the major components and the special delivery techniques for energy and intensity modulation are discussed in detail for laser-accelerated proton therapy.

Ma, C.-M.; Fourkal, E.; Li, J. S.; Veltchev, I.; Luo, W.; Fan, J. J.; Lin, T.; Tafo, A.

2011-05-01

24

Tumor therapy with heavy charged particles  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear science has contributed significantly to the development of tumor therapy with heavy charged particles. Interest evolved for neutron therapies in the forties because of the increased radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photon irradiation. The development of more powerful proton and heavy ion accelerators with higher energies or higher intensities, made new particles for radiation therapy available. Pions, protons, light ions, from helium up to silicon were studied in view of precision dose delivery and increased RBE. Without the parallel development of new diagnostic techniques such as computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) the rapid development would not have been possible. Heavy-charged particle therapy has now come into a consolidation phase. Hospital-based facilities are built by industry, and research institutes focus on refinements in dose delivery and treatment planning, as well as systems for monitoring dose delivery and for dose distribution verification.

Blattmann, Hans [Division of Radiation Medicine, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

1999-11-16

25

Tumor Therapy with Heavy Charged Particles  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear science has contributed significantly to the development of tumor therapy with heavy charged particles. Interest evolved for neutron therapies in the forties because of the increased radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photon irradiation. The development of more powerful proton and heavy ion accelerators with higher energies or higher intensities, made new particles for radiation therapy available. Pions, protons, light ions, from helium up to silicon were studied in view of precision dose delivery and increased RBE. Without the parallel development of new diagnostic techniques such as computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) the rapid development would not have been possible. Heavy-charged particle therapy has now come into a consolidation phase. Hospital-based facilities are built by industry, and research institutes focus on refinements in dose delivery and treatment planning, as well as systems for monitoring dose delivery and for dose distribution verification.

Blattmann, Hans

1999-12-31

26

Tumor Therapy with Heavy Charged Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse depth dose profile i.e. the increase of the dose with penetration depth make heavy charged particles like protons and heavy ion an ideal tool for the radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors. For carbon ions this good dose profile is potentiated by an additional increase in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) towards the end of the particle range. The physical and biological basis of the action of ion beams incells and tissues is briefly reviewed and the variation of radiobiological effectiveness as function of the radiation quality will be explained. The different technical solutions for the shaping of the radiation area according to the planned target volume are presented. The possibility to monitor in situ the area affected by the beam in the patient by means of positron emission tomography PET is illustrated. Different layouts of therapy units are compared for protons and carbon ions. Finally, the long way from the first proposal for a medical application of ion beams to the current situation is summarized. Because of the clinical success of ion beam treatment all planned further centers are planned all over the world.

Kraft, G.

27

Tumor therapy with heavy charged particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse depth dose profile i.e. the increase of the dose with penetration depth make heavy charged particles like protons and heavy ions an ideal tool for the radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors. For carbon ions this good dose profile is potentiated by an additional increase in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) towards the end of the particle range. The physical and biological basis of the action of ion beams in cells and tissues is briefly reviewed and the variation of radiobiological effectiveness as function of the radiation quality will be explained. The different technical solutions for the shaping of the radiation area according to the planned target volume are presented. The possibility to monitor in situ the area affected by the beam in the patient by means of positron emission tomography PET is illustrated. Different layouts of therapy units are compared for protons and carbon ions. Finally, the long way from the first proposal for a medical application of ion beams to the current situation is summarized. Because of the clinical success of ion beam treatment all planned further centers are planned all over the world.

Kraft, G.

28

Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

Haber, David

2006-01-01

29

NCI support for particle therapy: past, present, future.  

PubMed

In light of the rising worldwide interest in particle therapy, and proton therapy specifically in the United States, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is being asked more often about funding for such research and facilities. Many of the questions imply that NCI is naive to the exciting possibilities inherent in particle therapies, and thus they wish to encourage NCI to initiate and underwrite such programs. In fact, NCI has a long track record of support for the translation of hadrons from the physics laboratory to the therapy clinic by way of technology development and scientific investigations of physical and biological processes as well as clinical outcomes. Early work has included continuous funding since 1961 of proton treatments for more than 15,000 patients and facility construction at the Harvard/Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) site; treatment of 227 patients with the pi-meson facility at Los Alamos between 1974 and 1981; funding of more than $69M for seven neutron therapy centers between 1971 and 1989; many funded projects in boron neutron capture radiation therapy through the present time; and numerous radiobiology projects over the past 50 y. NCI continues to play an active role in the incorporation of protons into randomized clinical trials through the Children's Oncology Group, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and the Program Project Grant (P01), which is co-directed by the MGH and MD Anderson Cancer Center. This has required funding development and implementation of guidelines that enable intercomparison of dosimetry and treatment between facilities. NCI has also funded recent efforts to develop new physical processes for the production of particles such as protons. With regard to the future, while it is true that there are no specific funding opportunity announcements directed to particle therapy research, it is also true that NCI remains open to reviewing any research that is compatible with an established mechanism. However, given the very substantial resources that these facilities currently require along with the highly competitive economic environment that now exists, it is clear that scientific review of such grant applications will look to leverage the scientific pursuits that are the NCI mandate with the reality of the clinical practices, just as is the case for photon radiation research. Such leveraging should be enhanced by the growing opportunities and need for international collaborations. On the other hand, these collaborations are complicated by the fact that these particle therapies are now fully reimbursable modalities, which makes it difficult to separate research (the NCI mission) from clinical practice development. This paper seeks to illuminate these new realities in order to encourage the pursuit and funding of the scientific underpinnings of physical methods, radiobiology, and clinical practice with particle therapy. PMID:23032896

Deye, James A

2012-11-01

30

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review is given of the current status of cosmological nucleosynthesis. In the framework of the standard model with 3 types of relativistic neutrinos, the baryon-to-photon ratio, \\\\eta, corresponding to the inferred primordial abundances of helium-4 and lithium-7 is presently ~2 \\\\sigma below the value implied by the abundance of deuterium. The latter value is also coincident with the

S. Eidelman; K. G. Hayes; K. A. Olive; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Amsler; D. Asner; K. S. Babu; R. M. Barnett; J. Beringer; P. R. Burchat; C. D. Carone; S. Caso; G. Conforto; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; M. Doser; J. L. Feng; T. Gherghetta; L. Gibbons; M. Goodman; C. Grab; D. E. Groom; A. Gurtu; K. Hagiwara; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; K. Honscheid; H. Jawahery; C. Kolda; Y. Kwon; M. L. Mangano; A. V. Manohar; J. March-Russell; A. Masoni; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; S. Navas; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; A. Piepke; G. Raffelt; M. Roos; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; N. A. Törnqvist; T. G. Trippe; P. Vogel; C. G. Wohl; R. L. Workman; W.-M. Yao; P. A. Zyla; B. Armstrong; P. S. Gee; G. Harper; K. S. Lugovsky; V. S. Lugovsky; A. Rom; M. Artuso; E. Barberio; M. Battaglia; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; R. N. Cahn; D. Casper; A. Cattai; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; T. Damour; K. Desler; M. A. Dobbs; M. Drees; A. Edwards; D. A. Edwards; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; D. Froidevaux; M. Fukugita; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; F. J. Gilman; H. E. Haber; C. Hagmann; J. Hewett; I. Hinchliffe; C. J. Hogan; G. Höhler; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; K. Kleinknecht; I. G. Knowles; P. Kreitz; Yu. V. Kuyanov; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; L. Littenberg; D. M. Manley; A. D. Martin; M. Narain; P. Nason; Y. Nir; J. A. Peacock; H. R. Quinn; S. Raby; B. N. Ratcliff; E. A. Razuvaev; B. Renk; G. Rolandi; M. T. Ronan; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; A. I. Sanda; S. Sarkar; M. Schmitt; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; G. F. Smoot; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; N. J. C. Spooner; M. Srednicki; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; M. Suzuki; N. P. Tkachenko; G. H. Trilling; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; D. R. Ward; B. R. Webber; M. Whalley; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; O. V. Zenin; R.-Y. Zhu

2004-01-01

31

Cancer therapy with particle accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review paper is devoted to conventional radiotherapy and to hadrontherapy. In this therapeutical modality, proposed by R. R. Wilson in 1946, the physical selectivity of proton and light ion beams is used to irradiate tissues very close to organs at risk, which cannot be irradiated (the brain and the spinal cord for instance). Also fast neutrons are employed, but they are not suitable for a truly conformal irradiation. Carbon ions have the added advantage, with respect to protons, of the high density of ionization at the end of the range in matter. This property is very valuable for the control of tumours which are radioresistant to both X-rays and protons. After clarifying the general principles, a review is presented of the world hadrontherapy centres which are running or are in the design and construction stage.

Amaldi, Ugo

1999-07-01

32

[Negative pressure wound therapy - review].  

PubMed

Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a new therapeutic option in wound healing and was first described in its present form in 1997. A vacuum source is used to create sub-atmospheric pressure in the local wound environment to promote healing. This is achieved by connecting a vacuum pump to a tube that is threaded into a wound gauze or foam filler dressing covered with a drape. This concept in wound treatment has been shown to be useful in treating different wound infections, including diabetic wounds as well as complex infections of the abdomen and thorax. NPWT has been used in Iceland for over a decade and its use is steadily increasing. This review describes the indications and outcome of NPWT and is aimed at a broad group of doctors and nurses where recent Icelandic studies on the subject are covered. PMID:24713539

Gudmundsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Valsdottir, Elsa; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

2014-04-01

33

Anticoagulation Drug Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

Historically, most patients who required parenteral anticoagulation received heparin, whereas those patients requiring oral anticoagulation received warfarin. Due to the narrow therapeutic index and need for frequent laboratory monitoring associated with warfarin, there has been a desire to develop newer, more effective anticoagulants. Consequently, in recent years many novel anticoagulants have been developed. The emergency physician may institute anticoagulation therapy in the short term (e.g. heparin) for a patient being admitted, or may start a novel anticoagulation for a patient being discharged. Similarly, a patient on a novel anticoagulant may present to the emergency department due to a hemorrhagic complication. Consequently, the emergency physician should be familiar with the newer and older anticoagulants. This review emphasizes the indication, mechanism of action, adverse effects, and potential reversal strategies for various anticoagulants that the emergency physician will likely encounter.

Harter, Katherine; Levine, Michael; Henderson, Sean O.

2015-01-01

34

Patients' perspectives on electroconvulsive therapy: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To ascertain patients' views on the benefits of and possible memory loss from electroconvulsive therapy. Design Descriptive systematic review. Data sources Psychinfo, Medline, Web of Science, and Social Science Citation Index databases, and bibliographies. Study selection Articles with patients' views after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy. Data extraction 26 studies carried out by clinicians and nine reports of work undertaken

Diana Rose; Til Wykes; Morven Leese; Jonathan Bindman; Pete Fleischmann

2003-01-01

35

REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS* ParticleDataGroup  

E-print Network

, Office of Science, Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, the Division of High Energy Physics; and by the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). #12;2 Particle Data Group K. Nakamura,1,2 K1 REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS* ParticleDataGroup Abstract This biennial Review summarizes much

36

Novel technologies in charged particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged Particle Therapy (the use of protons and other light ions such as carbon to treat certain forms of cancer) is experiencing a rapid expansion in many parts of the world, and there are now more than 30 such centres operating in hospitals. The current technologies available use cyclotrons and synchrotrons to deliver the dose to the cancer. While each of these technologies is mature, and capable of treating cancer successfully, there is always room for improvement in technique, to reduce costs, increase throughput and availability and improve outcomes. This talk will discuss some recent development, using both traditional and laser-based accelerator techniques.

Peach, K. J.

2011-05-01

37

Future Particle Accelerator Developments for Radiation Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade particle beam cancer therapy has seen a rapid increase in interest, and several new centers have been built, are currently under construction, or are in an advanced stage of planning. Typical treatment centers today consist of an accelerator capable of producing proton or ion beams in an energy range of interest for medical treatment, i.e. providing a penetration depth in water of about 30 cm, a beam delivery system to transport the produced beam to the patient treatment rooms, and several patient stations, allowing for an optimal usage of the continuously produced beam. This makes these centers rather large and consequently expensive. Only major hospital centers situated in an area where they can draw on a population of several million can afford such an installation. In order to spread the use of particle beam cancer therapy to a broader population base it will be necessary to scale down the facility size and cost. This can in principle be done by reducing the number of treatment rooms to one, eliminating the need of an elaborate beam delivery system, and thereby reducing the building size and cost. Such a change should be going in parallel with a reduction of the accelerator itself, and a number of approaches to this are currently being pursued. If successful, such developments could eventually lead to a compact system where all components would fit into a single shielded room, not much different in size from a typical radiation vault for radiotherapy with X-rays.

Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels

38

Aspect of Thrombolytic Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

Thrombolytic therapy, also known as clot busting drug, is a breakthrough treatment which has saved untold lives. It has been used in the clinical area to treat venous and arterial thromboembolic complaints which are a foremost cause of death. In 1761, Morgagni lead the way of thrombolytic therapy. Now day's different types of thrombolytic drugs are currently available in market: alteplase, anistreplase, urokinase, streptokinase, tenecteplase, and so forth. Thrombolytic therapy should be given with maintaining proper care in order to minimize the risk of clinically important bleeding as well as enhance the chances of successfully thrombolysis of clot. These cares include preinfusion care, during the infusion care, and postinfusion care. Besides proper knowledge of contraindication, evolutionary factor, and combination of drug is essential for successful thrombolytic therapy. In these review we discussed about these aspect of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:25574487

Ali, Md. Ramjan; Salim Hossain, Mohammad; Saiful Islam Arman, Md.; Sarwar Raju, Golam; Dasgupta, Prianka; Noshin, Tasnim Fariha

2014-01-01

39

Aspect of thrombolytic therapy: a review.  

PubMed

Thrombolytic therapy, also known as clot busting drug, is a breakthrough treatment which has saved untold lives. It has been used in the clinical area to treat venous and arterial thromboembolic complaints which are a foremost cause of death. In 1761, Morgagni lead the way of thrombolytic therapy. Now day's different types of thrombolytic drugs are currently available in market: alteplase, anistreplase, urokinase, streptokinase, tenecteplase, and so forth. Thrombolytic therapy should be given with maintaining proper care in order to minimize the risk of clinically important bleeding as well as enhance the chances of successfully thrombolysis of clot. These cares include preinfusion care, during the infusion care, and postinfusion care. Besides proper knowledge of contraindication, evolutionary factor, and combination of drug is essential for successful thrombolytic therapy. In these review we discussed about these aspect of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:25574487

Ali, Md Ramjan; Salim Hossain, Mohammad; Islam, Md Ariful; Saiful Islam Arman, Md; Sarwar Raju, Golam; Dasgupta, Prianka; Noshin, Tasnim Fariha

2014-01-01

40

Targeted ?-Particle Therapy of Bone Metastases in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Medical oncology is moving toward personalized and precision treatments. This evolution is spearheaded by ongoing discoveries on the fundamental machinery that controls tumor and hosts microenvironment biological behavior. ?-Particles with their high energy and short range had long been recognized as potentially useful in the treatment of cancer. More than a century after the discovery of radium by the Curies, 223Ra dichloride is now available in the expanding armamentarium of therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. This advance occurs in the context of several other novel therapeutics in advanced prostate cancer that include more effective androgen receptor pathway inhibition, better chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. We present a concise review on the therapeutic use of 223Ra dichloride in this clinically important setting including excerpts on the radium history, physical properties, the alpharadin in symptomatic prostate cancer clinical trial, and practical information on its use in the clinic. It is anticipated that, with the current emergence of 223Ra as a viable form of therapy, interest in and use of ?-particle therapy in the management of cancer will grow. PMID:24212441

Jadvar, Hossein; Quinn, David I.

2013-01-01

41

Targeted ?-particle therapy of bone metastases in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Medical oncology is moving toward personalized and precision treatments. This evolution is spearheaded by ongoing discoveries on the fundamental machinery that controls tumor and hosts microenvironment biological behavior. ?-Particles with their high energy and short range had long been recognized as potentially useful in the treatment of cancer. More than a century after the discovery of radium by the Curies, 223Ra dichloride is now available in the expanding armamentarium of therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. This advance occurs in the context of several other novel therapeutics in advanced prostate cancer that include more effective androgen receptor pathway inhibition, better chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. We present a concise review on the therapeutic use of 223Ra dichloride in this clinically important setting including excerpts on the radium history, physical properties, the alpharadin in symptomatic prostate cancer clinical trial, and practical information on its use in the clinic. It is anticipated that, with the current emergence of 223Ra as a viable form of therapy, interest in and use of ?-particle therapy in the management of cancer will grow. PMID:24212441

Jadvar, Hossein; Quinn, David I

2013-12-01

42

A Comprehensive Review of Retinal Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Blindness, although not life threatening, is a debilitating disorder for which few, if any treatments exist. Ocular gene therapies have the potential to profoundly improve the quality of life in patients with inherited retinal disease. As such, tremendous focus has been given to develop such therapies. Several factors make the eye an ideal organ for gene-replacement therapy including its accessibility, immune privilege, small size, compartmentalization, and the existence of a contralateral control. This review will provide a comprehensive summary of (i) existing gene therapy clinical trials for several genetic forms of blindness and (ii) preclinical efficacy and safety studies in a variety of animal models of retinal disease which demonstrate strong potential for clinical application. To be as comprehensive as possible, we include additional proof of concept studies using gene replacement, neurotrophic/neuroprotective, optogenetic, antiangiogenic, or antioxidative stress strategies as well as a description of the current challenges and future directions in the ocular gene therapy field to this review as a supplement. PMID:23358189

Boye, Shannon E; Boye, Sanford L; Lewin, Alfred S; Hauswirth, William W

2013-01-01

43

Reminiscence therapy in dementia: a review.  

PubMed

Dementia is a progressive disorder that impacts several cognitive functions. However, some aspects of cognitive function are preserved until late in the disease and can therefore be the targets of specific interventions. The rehabilitation of cognitive function disorders represents an expanding area of neurological rehabilitation, and it has recently attracted growing political, social and ethical attention. Here, we review the efficacy of reminiscence therapy to improve cognitive functions and/or mood. Available studies suggest that reminiscence therapy can improve mood and some cognitive abilities. Further studies, based on larger patient samples including placebo and control conditions, should be conducted to identify the optimal conditions for such treatment protocols. PMID:22607813

Cotelli, Maria; Manenti, Rosa; Zanetti, Orazio

2012-07-01

44

A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Studies of Art Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review article examines current knowledge about the efficacy of art therapy based on the findings of 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted with adult populations from 2008-2013 that met a high standard of rigor. Of these studies, all but one reported beneficial effects of art therapy. Review findings suggest that art therapy may…

Maujean, Annick; Pepping, Christopher A.; Kendall, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

45

Exercise Therapy and Other Types of Physical Therapy for Patients With Neuromuscular Diseases: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cup EH, Pieterse AJ, ten Broek-Pastoor JM, Munneke M, van Engelen BG, Hendricks HT, van der Wilt GJ, Oostendorp RA. Exercise therapy and other types of physical therapy for patients with neuromuscular diseases: a systematic review.

Edith H. Cup; Allan J. Pieterse; Jessica M. ten Broek-Pastoor; Marten Munneke; Baziel G. van Engelen; Henk T. Hendricks; Gert J. van der Wilt; Rob A. Oostendorp

2007-01-01

46

Detection object of life review therapy for automatic record generating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have researched a support system of the reminiscence and life review activity. In this life review therapy, it is important to review the sessions after the activity for an effective therapy. Therefore therapists must keep a record of sessions for inspection of methods and ways of valuation on reminiscence and life review therapy, but it is trouble for the therapists to record. To overcome this problem, we have developed an automatic generating system of reports about life review activities. In this paper, we describe the support system which can automatically write down a session report about the activity.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Otsuka, Tomonori

2009-10-01

47

Preterm Infant Massage Therapy Research: A Review  

PubMed Central

In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood. The increases noted in vagal activity, gastric motility, insulin and IGF-1 levels following moderate pressure massage are potential underlying mechanisms. However, those variables combined do not explain all of the variance in weight gain, highlighting the need for additional mechanism studies. PMID:20137814

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

2010-01-01

48

A review of novel therapies for melanoma.  

PubMed

This review summarizes results from major recent trials regarding novel therapeutic agents in melanoma. The topics discussed include targeted therapy with BRAF (V-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib), MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) inhibitors (trametinib), bcr-abl/c-kit/PDGF-R inhibitors (imatinib), and angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab and aflibercept), as well as immunotherapy with anti-CTLA-4 (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4) antibodies (ipilimumab), anti-PD (anti-programmed death receptor) antibodies (nivolumab and lambrolizumab), and anti-PD-L (anti-programmed death ligand) antibodies. Various combinations of these agents, as well as adjunctive GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec) oncolytic viruses, and novel chemotherapeutic agents, are also described. Despite the tremendous advances that these novel treatments have created, optimal therapeutic agent selection remains a highly individualized decision. Melanoma therapy has vastly progressed since the days when dacarbazine was the sole option for advanced melanoma patients. The molecular understanding of melanoma pathogenesis has yielded a brighter future for advanced melanoma patients. PMID:24928310

Karimkhani, Chante; Gonzalez, Rene; Dellavalle, Robert P

2014-08-01

49

Particle beam therapy (hadrontherapy): basis for interest and clinical experience.  

PubMed

The particle or hadron beams deployed in radiotherapy (protons, neutrons and helium, carbon, oxygen and neon ions) have physical and radiobiological characteristics which differ from those of conventional radiotherapy beams (photons) and which offer a number of theoretical advantages over conventional radiotherapy. After briefly describing the properties of hadron beams in comparison to photons, this review discusses the indications for hadrontherapy and analyses accumulated experience on the use of this modality to treat mainly neoplastic lesions, as published by the relatively few hadrontherapy centres operating around the world. The analysis indicates that for selected patients and tumours (particularly uveal melanomas and base of skull/spinal chordomas and chondrosarcomas), hadrontherapy produces greater disease-free survival. The advantages of hadrontherapy are most promisingly realised when used in conjunction with modern patient positioning, radiation delivery and focusing techniques (e.g. on-line imaging, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy) developed to improve the efficacy of photon therapy. Although the construction and running costs of hadrontherapy units are considerably greater than those of conventional facilities, a comprehensive analysis that considers all the costs, particularly those resulting from the failure of less effective conventional radiotherapy, might indicate that hadrontherapy could be cost effective. In conclusion, the growing interest in this form of treatment seems to be fully justified by the results obtained to date, although more efficacy and dosing studies are required. PMID:9713294

Orecchia, R; Zurlo, A; Loasses, A; Krengli, M; Tosi, G; Zurrida, S; Zucali, P; Veronesi, U

1998-03-01

50

MINI REVIEW MODIFIED ADENOVIRUSES FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY  

E-print Network

MINI REVIEW MODIFIED ADENOVIRUSES FOR CANCER GENE THERAPY Anna KANERVA 1­3 and Akseli HEMMINKI 1,2 * 1 Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Rational Drug Design, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Adenoviral gene therapy

Hemminki, Akseli

51

A Review of Qigong Therapy for Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies of Qigong therapy for cancer for the past 20 years in China were reviewed from three different categories: clinical study on human cancer patients, in-vitro study of cancer cells, and in-vivo study of cancer with Qigong therapy, in an attempt to understand the role Qigong therapy plays in cancer treatment. There is a lot of evidence suggesting that

Kevin CHEN; Raphael YEUNG

52

Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a plethora of complementary therapies are on offer claiming effectiveness for reducing body weight. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of complementary therapies for reducing body weight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed,

M H Pittler; E Ernst

2005-01-01

53

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

PubMed Central

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

54

Glycolic acid peel therapy - a current review.  

PubMed

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

55

Spouting of biomass particles: a review.  

PubMed

Recent research on biomass multiphase flow in spouted beds is reviewed, beginning with fundamental work on hydrodynamic parameters, such as minimum spouting velocity, pressure drop and fountain height. We then consider experimental studies on biomass multiphase flow in such processes as pulp drying, liquid spouting of pulp fibres, drying and coating of agricultural biomass, and bioreactors. Finally, we summarize modelling efforts with respect to spouting of biomass particles. PMID:17570657

Cui, Heping; Grace, John R

2008-07-01

56

Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted alpha-particle therapy applications  

PubMed Central

Alpha particle-emitting isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of alpha particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each alpha track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225Ac) is an alpha particle-emitting radionuclide that generates 4 net alpha particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209Bi, and as such can be described as an alpha particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer. PMID:18514364

Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

2013-01-01

57

Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted alpha particle therapy applications.  

PubMed

Alpha particle-emitting isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of alpha particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each alpha track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225 Ac) is an alpha particle-emitting radionuclide that generates 4 net alpha particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209 Bi, and as such can be described as an alpha particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225 Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer. PMID:18514364

Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

2008-09-01

58

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...charged-particle radiation therapy system is a device that produces by acceleration high energy charged particles (e.g., electrons and protons) intended for use in radiation therapy. This generic type of device may include signal analysis and display...

2010-04-01

59

An Updated Review of the Efficacy of Cupping Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. Method Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. Results 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy), cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. Conclusions Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted. PMID:22389674

Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping

2012-01-01

60

Accelerators for charged particle therapy: PAMELA and related issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer is a dreadful disease that will affect one in three people at some point in their life; radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cancer treatment, and contributes about 40% to the successful treatment of cancer. Charged Particle Therapy uses protons and other light ions to deliver the lethal dose to the tumor while being relatively sparing of healthy tissue and, because of the finite range of the particles, is able to avoid giving any dose to vital organs. While there are adequate technologies currently available to deliver the required energies and fluxes, the two main technologies (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) have limitations. PAMELA (the Particle Accelerator for MEdicaL Applications) uses the newly-developed non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerator concepts to deliver therapeutically relevant beams. The status of the development of the PAMELA conceptual design is discussed.

Peach, Ken

2014-05-01

61

Particle beam therapy (hadrontherapy): basis for interest and clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle or hadron beams deployed in radiotherapy (protons, neutrons and helium, carbon, oxygen and neon ions) have physical and radiobiological characteristics which differ from those of conventional radiotherapy beams (photons) and which offer a number of theoretical advantages over conventional radiotherapy. After briefly describing the properties of hadron beams in comparison to photons, this review discusses the indications for

R. Orecchia; A. Zurlo; A. Loasses; M. Krengli; G. Tosi; S. Zurrida; P. Zucali; U. Veronesi

1998-01-01

62

Potential therapies for food allergy: a review.  

PubMed

Food allergy is a widespread problem that has been increasing in prevalence in recent years. Avoidance of food allergens is difficult. Food allergic reactions are common and can be severe. Unfortunately, there is little in the way of therapies for food allergy, and strict allergen avoidance remains the standard of care. Several therapeutic approaches are currently being investigated, including subcutaneous, oral, and sublingual immunotherapy, anti-immunoglobulin E therapy, and traditional Chinese medicine. Although results thus far show promise for several of these strategies, further studies are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes before any food allergy therapies currently under investigation are ready for widespread use in clinical practice. PMID:23718239

Kattan, Jacob D; Wang, Julie

2013-06-01

63

Maggot debridement therapy: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Maggot debridement therapy is used extensively in the UK in both community and hospital situations, but remains a potentially under-used modality in many wound care markets. It promotes wound healing by performing three key processes: debridement, disinfection and growth-promoting activity. It can be used for the debridement of non-healing necrotic skin and soft tissue wounds, including pressure ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, neuropathic foot ulcers and non-healing traumatic of post-surgical wounds. With the increase in chronic diabetic foot wounds, maggot debridement therapy is a promising tool for health professionals dealing with difficult wounds. This article presents an overview of the research evidence surrounding maggot debridement therapy that serves as a guide to health professionals who may be users of this form of treatment now and in the future. PMID:25478859

Shi, Eric; Shofler, David

2014-12-01

64

Novel therapies focused on the high-density lipoprotein particle.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major burden for morbidity and mortality in the general population, despite current efficacious low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol-lowering therapies. Consequently, novel therapies are required to reduce this residual risk. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease risk, and this initiated the quest for HDL-C-increasing therapies. Consequently, several different targets in HDL metabolism have been identified. Initial studies addressing the effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition on cardiovascular disease outcome have been discontinued for reasons of futility or increased mortality. As of yet, 2 cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors are still in phase III studies. Other HDL-based interventions, such as apolipoprotein A1-based compounds, ABC-transporter upregulators, selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulators and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-based therapy, hold great promise for the future. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of HDL-targeted pharmaceutical strategies in humans, both in early development as well as in late stage clinical trials. PMID:24385512

van Capelleveen, Julian C; Brewer, H Bryan; Kastelein, John J P; Hovingh, G Kees

2014-01-01

65

Ozone therapy in dentistry: A strategic review.  

PubMed

THE ORAL CAVITY APPEARS AS AN OPEN ECOSYSTEM, WITH A DYNAMIC BALANCE BETWEEN THE ENTRANCE OF MICROORGANISMS, COLONIZATION MODALITIES, AND HOST DEFENSES AIMED TO THEIR REMOVAL: To avoid elimination, bacteria need to adhere to either hard dental surfaces or epithelial surfaces. The oral biofilm formation and development, and the inside selection of specific microorganisms have been correlated with the most common oral pathologies, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and peri-implantitis. The mechanical removal of the biofilm and adjunctive use of antibiotic disinfectants or various antibiotics have been the conventional methods for periodontal therapy. Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms, and its application in medicine and dentistry has been indicated for the treatment of 260 different pathologies. The ozone therapy has been more beneficial than present conventional therapeutic modalities that follow a minimally invasive and conservative application to dental treatment. The exposition of molecular mechanisms of ozone further benefits practical function in dentistry. PMID:22346227

Saini, Rajiv

2011-07-01

66

Ozone therapy in dentistry: A strategic review  

PubMed Central

The oral cavity appears as an open ecosystem, with a dynamic balance between the entrance of microorganisms, colonization modalities, and host defenses aimed to their removal: To avoid elimination, bacteria need to adhere to either hard dental surfaces or epithelial surfaces. The oral biofilm formation and development, and the inside selection of specific microorganisms have been correlated with the most common oral pathologies, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and peri-implantitis. The mechanical removal of the biofilm and adjunctive use of antibiotic disinfectants or various antibiotics have been the conventional methods for periodontal therapy. Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms, and its application in medicine and dentistry has been indicated for the treatment of 260 different pathologies. The ozone therapy has been more beneficial than present conventional therapeutic modalities that follow a minimally invasive and conservative application to dental treatment. The exposition of molecular mechanisms of ozone further benefits practical function in dentistry. PMID:22346227

Saini, Rajiv

2011-01-01

67

hTERT-based therapy: a universal anticancer approach (Review).  

PubMed

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been identi?ed as a major protein involved in aberrant cell proliferation, immortalization, metastasis and stemness maintenance in a majority of tumors, yet it has little or no expression in normal somatic cells. During the past few years, the development of hTERT-based therapies such as immunotherapy, suicide gene therapy and small-molecule interfering therapy have become critical and specific for eradicating all types of cancer. Here, current knowledge regarding hTERT and its involvement in various cancers and its role as a target of cancer therapies are reviewed. Additionally, hurdles to new cancer therapy development and new therapeutic opportunities are described, along with areas that require further investigation. PMID:22992764

Lü, Mu-Han; Liao, Zhong-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Ya-Han; Lin, Xian-Long; Fang, Dian-Chun; Guo, Hong; Yang, Shi-Ming

2012-12-01

68

Group reminiscence therapy for adults with dementia: a review.  

PubMed

Dementia is an increasingly prevalent and costly condition in the UK. This review aims to explore the potential effectiveness of reminiscence group therapy as a non-pharmacological tool for reducing depressive symptoms commonly associated with dementia. The aim of this review is to explore existing literature regarding adults diagnosed with dementia, who are experiencing depressive symptoms, and the effect of reminiscence group therapy on their experience. A limited systematic search of four databases and hand search of titles, abstracts and reference lists revealed scarce evidence. A total of four original research articles, which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were accepted for critical appraisal. The overall quality of the studies was poor and use of multiple data collection tools made comparison difficult. All studies obtained some significant findings in favour of the effect of reminiscence group therapy. The primary recommendation of this review is for further high-quality research. PMID:23752322

Blake, Marianne

2013-05-01

69

Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for the prevention and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer. Until recently, clinically\\u000a approved indications have been restricted to actinic keratoses, nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma, and, since 2006,\\u000a Bowen disease. However, the range of indications has been expanding continuously. PDT is also used for the treatment of non-malignant\\u000a conditions such as acne vulgaris and

Sonal Choudhary; Keyvan Nouri; Mohamed L. Elsaie

2009-01-01

70

Radiation therapy with fast neutrons: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their biological effects fast neutrons are most effective in treating large, slow-growing tumours which are resistant to conventional X-radiation. Patients are treated typically 3-4 times per week for 4-5 weeks (sometimes in combination with X-radiation) for a variety of conditions such as carcinomas of the head and neck, salivary gland, paranasal sinus and breast; soft tissue, bone and uterine sarcomas and malignant melanomas. It is estimated that about 27,000 patients have undergone fast neutron therapy to date.

Jones, D. T. L.; Wambersie, A.

2007-09-01

71

Therapy gloves for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a review.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes pain, joint stiffness and swelling leading to impaired hand function and difficulty with daily activities. Wearing therapy gloves has been recommended by occupational therapists as one of the alternative treatment methods for rheumatoid arthritis. This study aims to review the available literature on the effects of wearing therapy gloves on patients' hand function and symptoms as well as to discuss the attributes of gloves that might influence the glove performance. An electronic databases search of MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial was performed. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria, and covered seven clinical trials and one case study. Seven outcome measures were identified from the included studies and were then classified into two categories: hand function and hand symptoms. The hand symptoms such as pain, stiffness and swelling improve substantially when the therapy gloves are used. However, marginal or no improvement in hand function (with the exception of grip strength) linked to the use of therapy gloves is being reported. Further research is needed to quantify the effectiveness of therapy gloves, especially in improvement of hand function and in patients' interest in wearing therapy gloves. Furthermore, future studies should include parameters which might influence therapy gloves' performance, such as duration of trials, interface pressure generated by the gloves on the underlying skin and tissue, glove fit and construction, as well as thermophysiological comfort. PMID:25435925

Nasir, Siti Hana; Troynikov, Olga; Massy-Westropp, Nicola

2014-12-01

72

Laser Therapy For Arteriosclerosis: Current Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shortly after the ruby laser was introduced, in 1959, a study for the use of this ruby laser for the in-vitro dissolution of arteriosclerotic plaque was performed.' With subsequent advances in laser technology and with refined delivery techniques, laser applications to the treatment of arteriosclerosis in the coronary arteries and peripheral vascular system is a reality. This report reviews the disease process, arteriosclerosis, and the ef-forts towards laser treatment of this disease. We conclude with a review of the technical barriers to the routine application of laser energy in arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and the progress being made to overcome these obstacles.

Dries, David J.; Pollock, Marc E.; Eugene, John

1987-03-01

73

Brake wear particle emissions: a review.  

PubMed

Traffic-related sources have been recognized as a significant contributor of particulate matter particularly within major cities. Exhaust and non-exhaust traffic-related sources are estimated to contribute almost equally to traffic-related PM10 emissions. Non-exhaust particles can be generated either from non-exhaust sources such as brake, tyre, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the form of deposited material at the roadside and become resuspended due to traffic-induced turbulence. Among non-exhaust sources, brake wear can be a significant particulate matter (PM) contributor, particularly within areas with high traffic density and braking frequency. Studies mention that in urban environments, brake wear can contribute up to 55 % by mass to total non-exhaust traffic-related PM10 emissions and up to 21 % by mass to total traffic-related PM10 emissions, while in freeways, this contribution is lower due to lower braking frequency. As exhaust emissions control become stricter, relative contributions of non-exhaust sources-and therefore brake wear-to traffic-related emissions will become more significant and will raise discussions on possible regulatory needs. The aim of the present literature review study is to present the state-of-the-art of the different aspects regarding PM resulting from brake wear and provide all the necessary information in terms of importance, physicochemical characteristics, emission factors and possible health effects. PMID:25318420

Grigoratos, Theodoros; Martini, Giorgio

2015-02-01

74

Review of Fast Monte Carlo Codes for Dose Calculation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning  

PubMed Central

An important requirement in radiation therapy is a fast and accurate treatment planning system. This system, using computed tomography (CT) data, direction, and characteristics of the beam, calculates the dose at all points of the patient's volume. The two main factors in treatment planning system are accuracy and speed. According to these factors, various generations of treatment planning systems are developed. This article is a review of the Fast Monte Carlo treatment planning algorithms, which are accurate and fast at the same time. The Monte Carlo techniques are based on the transport of each individual particle (e.g., photon or electron) in the tissue. The transport of the particle is done using the physics of the interaction of the particles with matter. Other techniques transport the particles as a group. For a typical dose calculation in radiation therapy the code has to transport several millions particles, which take a few hours, therefore, the Monte Carlo techniques are accurate, but slow for clinical use. In recent years, with the development of the ‘fast’ Monte Carlo systems, one is able to perform dose calculation in a reasonable time for clinical use. The acceptable time for dose calculation is in the range of one minute. There is currently a growing interest in the fast Monte Carlo treatment planning systems and there are many commercial treatment planning systems that perform dose calculation in radiation therapy based on the Monte Carlo technique. PMID:22606661

Jabbari, Keyvan

2011-01-01

75

Reviewing the Past in the Here and Now: Using Gestalt Therapy Techniques with Life Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a Gestalt therapy perspective on the life review process and the use of Gestalt therapy techniques in helping the older client achieve resolution of past conflicts. Notes that, with such resolution, the developmental task of ego integration in the final years of life may be realized. (Author/NB)

Crose, Royda

1990-01-01

76

Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a review.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for the prevention and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer. Until recently, clinically approved indications have been restricted to actinic keratoses, nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma, and, since 2006, Bowen disease. However, the range of indications has been expanding continuously. PDT is also used for the treatment of non-malignant conditions such as acne vulgaris and leishmaniasis, as well as for treating premature skin aging due to sun exposure. The production of reactive oxygen intermediates like singlet oxygen depends on the light dose applied as well as the concentration and localization of the photosensitizer in the diseased tissue. Either cytotoxic effects resulting in tumor destruction or immunomodulatory effects improving inflammatory skin conditions are induced. Treating superficial non-melanoma skin cancer, PDT has been shown to be highly efficient, despite the low level of invasiveness. The excellent cosmetic results after treatment are beneficial, too. PMID:19653060

Choudhary, Sonal; Nouri, Keyvan; Elsaie, Mohamed L

2009-11-01

77

Spiritually Modified Cognitive Therapy: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paucity of research exists on the effectiveness of spiritual interventions, despite their wide use by practitioners and the acknowledged importance of evidence-based practice. To assist practitioners in their selection of spiritual interventions, the author reviewed research on the effectiveness of spiritually modified cognitive therapy. The…

Hodge, David R.

2006-01-01

78

Online Video Game Therapy for Mental Health Concerns: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been research on the use of offline video games for therapeutic purposes but online video game therapy is still fairly under-researched. Online therapeutic interventions have only recently included a gaming component. Hence, this review represents a timely first step toward taking advantage of these recent technological and cultural innovations, particularly for the treatment of special-needs groups such

Nathan Wilkinson; Rebecca P. Ang; Dion H. Goh

2008-01-01

79

Systematic review of antidepressant therapies in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is the most common psychiatric disturbance in Parkinson's disease. We conducted a Cochrane systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of antidepressant therapies in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Relevant trials were identified from electronic databases, reference lists and queries to antidepressant manufacturers.Three randomised controlled trials examined oral antidepressants in 106 patients with Parkinson's disease. No eligible trials of electroconvulsive

T. H. Chung; K. H. O. Deane; S. Ghazi-Noori; H. Rickards; C. E. Clarke

2003-01-01

80

Dynamic exercise therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of dynamic exercixe therapy in improving joint mobility, muscle strength, aerobic capacity and daily functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, possible unwanted effects such as an increase in pain, disease activity and radiological progression were studied. A computer-aided search of the MEDLINE , Embase and SCISEARCH

C. H. M. van den Ende; T. P. M. Vliet Vlieland; M. Munneke; J. M. W. Hazes

1998-01-01

81

A Comprehensive Literature Review of Mode Deactivation Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article literature published on Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) was reviewed in depth. Several studies were identified that used a common outcome measure of reduction of physical and sexual aggression, other risk related behaviors. Comparisons of MDT and, other standardized approaches typically used in treating aggression in juveniles,…

Houston, Marsha Ann; Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.

2007-01-01

82

Analgesic Therapy in Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Quantitative Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPostherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review

Kathleen Hempenstall; Turo J. Nurmikko; Robert W. Johnson; Roger P AHern; Andrew S. C. Rice

2005-01-01

83

Rituximab Therapy for Myopathy Associated with Anti-Signal Recognition Particle Antibodies: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Objective The myopathy associated with anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) is a severe necrotizing immune-mediated disease characterized by rapidly progressive proximal muscle weakness, markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and poor responsiveness to traditional immunosuppressive therapies. Reports on the efficacy of B cell depletion therapy for anti-SRP associated myopathy are mixed. We describe eight patients with anti-SRP associated myopathy and their response to treatment with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. Methods We identified eight patients with myopathy who tested positive for anti-SRP antibodies by immunoprecipitation and were treated with rituximab as part of clinical care. We reviewed their medical records to assess clinical, serologic, and histologic characteristics and response to therapy. In five patients, serum was collected before and after rituximab therapy. Autoantibodies were detected by immunoprecipitation and quantitated by densitometry, and the percent decreases in anti-SRP autoantibody levels were calculated. Results Six of eight patients who had been refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated improved manual muscle strength and/or decline in CK levels as early as two months after rituximab treatment. Three patients sustained the response for twelve to eighteen months after initial dosing. All patients were continued on adjunctive corticosteroids, but dosages were substantially reduced after rituximab. Quantitative levels of serum anti-SRP antibodies also decreased after rituximab treatment. Conclusions B cell depletion therapy with rituximab is effective for patients with myopathy associated with anti-SRP. The substantial decrease in anti-SRP antibody levels after rituximab treatment also suggests that B cells and anti-SRP antibodies may play a role in the pathogenesis of this myopathy. PMID:20506493

Valiyil, Ritu; Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Hong, Grace; Mammen, Andrew; Christopher-Stine, Lisa

2011-01-01

84

Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review.  

PubMed

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S

2014-01-01

85

Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review  

PubMed Central

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

2014-01-01

86

Concise Review: Stem Cell Therapies for Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is heterogeneous in nature and has different causes. Different from and more burdensome than nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain more severely affects people's quality of life. Understanding the various mechanisms of the onset and progression of neuropathic pain is important in the development of an effective treatment. Research is being done to replace current pharmacological treatments with cellular therapies that will have longer lasting effects. Stem cells present an exciting potential therapy for neuropathic pain. In this review, we describe the neuroprotective effects of stem cells along with special emphasis on the current translational research using stem cells to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:23572051

Fortino, Veronica R.; Pelaez, Daniel

2013-01-01

87

Botanical and phytochemical therapy of acne: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Acne is prevalent among adolescents and adults with significant psychological effects. Standard oral and topical therapies can have significant side effects including skin irritation, gastrointestinal upset, and the development of drug-resistant bacteria. The use of botanicals and phytochemicals in dermatological products is increasingly popular, and many patients are turning to these alternative therapies for treatment of acne. This study aimed to systematically review clinical studies that have investigated the use of botanical agents in the treatment of acne. PubMed and Embase databases were searched in March 2013 for trials assessing botanical therapies in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Data from these trials are presented, and methodology of each study is assessed. Twenty-three trials met inclusion criteria. Interventions included plant extracts, herbal formulations, and phytochemicals. All studies reported favorable results, and several showed equal or superior treatment to standard therapies. No serious adverse events were reported. Few studies were methodologically rigorous. Each botanical was studied in only one or two trials. Botanicals are promising therapies for acne vulgaris although further research is warranted, especially with regard to severe acne and acne resistant to conventional therapy. There is a need for standardized methods for grading acne and assessing therapeutic effects. PMID:25098271

Fisk, Whitney A; Lev-Tov, Hadar A; Sivamani, Raja K

2014-08-01

88

Latex Particle Morphology, Fundamental Aspects: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of particle morphology is an essential part of producing high quality latex products for applications in coatings, adhesives, impact modifiers, and medical diagnostics, among others. A great variety of formulation and process variables are available to manipulate the particle structure and many different morphologies have been created. Techniques to characterize these morphologies are varied, but electron microscopy of

Donald C. Sundberg; Yvon G. Durant

2003-01-01

89

EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

90

Proton beam therapy for locally advanced lung cancer: A review  

PubMed Central

Protons interact with human tissue differently than do photons and these differences can be exploited in an attempt to improve the care of lung cancer patients. This review examines proton beam therapy (PBT) as a component of a combined modality program for locally advanced lung cancers. It was specifically written for the non-radiation oncologist who desires greater understanding of this newer treatment modality. This review describes and compares photon (X-ray) radiotherapy (XRT) to PBT. The physical differences of these beams are described and the clinical literature is reviewed. Protons can be used to create treatment plans delivering significantly lower doses of radiation to the adjacent organs at risk (lungs, esophagus, and bone marrow) than photons. Clinically, PBT combined with chemotherapy has resulted in low rates of toxicity compared to XRT. Early results suggest a possible improvement in survival. The clinical results of proton therapy in lung cancer patients reveal relatively low rates of toxicity and possible survival benefits. One randomized study is being performed and another is planned to clarify the clinical differences in patient outcome for PBT compared to XRT. Along with the development of better systemic therapy, newer forms of radiotherapy such as PBT should positively impact the care of lung cancer patients. This review provides the reader with the current status of this new technology in treating locally advanced lung cancer. PMID:25302161

Schild, Steven E; Rule, William G; Ashman, Jonathan B; Vora, Sujay A; Keole, Sameer; Anand, Aman; Liu, Wei; Bues, Martin

2014-01-01

91

Proton beam therapy for locally advanced lung cancer: A review.  

PubMed

Protons interact with human tissue differently than do photons and these differences can be exploited in an attempt to improve the care of lung cancer patients. This review examines proton beam therapy (PBT) as a component of a combined modality program for locally advanced lung cancers. It was specifically written for the non-radiation oncologist who desires greater understanding of this newer treatment modality. This review describes and compares photon (X-ray) radiotherapy (XRT) to PBT. The physical differences of these beams are described and the clinical literature is reviewed. Protons can be used to create treatment plans delivering significantly lower doses of radiation to the adjacent organs at risk (lungs, esophagus, and bone marrow) than photons. Clinically, PBT combined with chemotherapy has resulted in low rates of toxicity compared to XRT. Early results suggest a possible improvement in survival. The clinical results of proton therapy in lung cancer patients reveal relatively low rates of toxicity and possible survival benefits. One randomized study is being performed and another is planned to clarify the clinical differences in patient outcome for PBT compared to XRT. Along with the development of better systemic therapy, newer forms of radiotherapy such as PBT should positively impact the care of lung cancer patients. This review provides the reader with the current status of this new technology in treating locally advanced lung cancer. PMID:25302161

Schild, Steven E; Rule, William G; Ashman, Jonathan B; Vora, Sujay A; Keole, Sameer; Anand, Aman; Liu, Wei; Bues, Martin

2014-10-10

92

Construction and characterization of virus-like particles: a review.  

PubMed

Over the last three decades, virus-like particles (VLPs) have evolved to become a widely accepted technology, especially in the field of vaccinology. In fact, some VLP-based vaccines are currently used as commercial medical products, and other VLP-based products are at different stages of clinical study. Several remarkable advantages have been achieved in the development of VLPs as gene therapy tools and new nanomaterials. The analysis of published data reveals that at least 110 VLPs have been constructed from viruses belonging to 35 different families. This review therefore discusses the main principles in the cloning of viral structural genes, the relevant host systems and the purification procedures that have been developed. In addition, the methods that are used to characterize the structural integrity, stability, and components, including the encapsidated nucleic acids, of newly synthesized VLPs are analyzed. Moreover, some of the modifications that are required to construct VLP-based carriers of viral origin with defined properties are discussed, and examples are provided. PMID:23001867

Zeltins, Andris

2013-01-01

93

Review of particle properties. 25th anniversary edition  

SciTech Connect

This review is a reprint of Physics Letters, Vol. IIIB, April 22, 1982, and is an updating through December 1981 of our previous review of particle properties (Particle Data Group (1980)). As in previous editions we have attempted to make the text as complete and self-contained as possible. The results of our compilation are presented in two sections, the Tables of Particle Properties and the Data Card Listings. The Tables summarize the properties of only those particles whose existence is in our judgment experimentally well founded and which have a high probability of standing the test of time. The Data Card Listings give up-to-date information, with references, on all reported particles, whether considered well established or not. The Listings also contain mini-reviews on questions of interest. As in previous editions, we include a section of miscellaneous tables, figures, and formulae. These are aimed at the practicing high energy physics experimentalist. (WHK)

Not Available

1982-04-01

94

Pelvic inflammatory disease: a review with emphasis on antimicrobial therapy.  

PubMed

Pelvic inflammatory disease accounts for 5%-20% of hospital admissions for gynecologic problems and is associated with health care costs of more than 1 billion dollars annually. This article reviews the epidemiology, polymicrobial etiology, and diagnosis of this disease state. Special consideration is given to in vivo and in vitro studies of antimicrobial therapy, including both established regimens and expanded-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. The adjunctive modalities reviewed include treatment of sexual contacts, removal of intrauterine devices, use of alternative contraceptive methods associated with a reduced risk of disease, and surgery. Although understanding of pelvic inflammatory disease has increased markedly, investigation of its various aspects is both necessary and ongoing. In particular, well-designed, controlled, comparative clinical trials of new treatment regimens must be performed to verify a true advantage of these therapies. PMID:2937130

Burnakis, T G; Hildebrandt, N B

1986-01-01

95

A Review of Progress in Clinical Photodynamic Therapy  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received increased attention since the regulatory approvals have been granted to several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators world-wide. Much progress has been seen in basic sciences and clinical photodynamics in recent years. This review will focus on new developments of clinical investigation and discuss the usefulness of various forms of PDT techniques for curative or palliative treatment of malignant and non-malignant diseases. PMID:15896084

Huang, Zheng

2005-01-01

96

review The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Molecular Therapy vol. 19 no. 8, 14071415 aug. 2011 1407  

E-print Network

review© The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Molecular Therapy vol. 19 no. 8, 1407­1415 aug. 2011 1407 IntroductIon Gene therapy has shown increasing promise in clinical trials for disorders in the development of gene delivery systems must continue to build upon the recent successes in the field and further

Schaffer, David V.

97

Peyronie's disease: evaluation and review of nonsurgical therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to outline the evaluation of the Peyronie's disease (PD) patient and review the available nonsurgical treatments. A review of the literature on oral, intralesional, external energy, iontophoresis, and mechanical therapies for PD was performed. PubMed was utilized to find all published articles, and several meeting abstracts were reviewed for data ahead of publication. Our medical evaluation of the PD patient is described. The published results of available treatment options are reviewed, with recommendation by the authors for appropriate nonsurgical management of PD. There are no available validated questionnaires for PD, but a thorough history and focused physical examination, including measurement of erect penile deformity, will help the clinician make the diagnosis and guide treatment options. Although there are many published reports that show efficacy of nonsurgical therapies for PD, there is a lack of large-scale, multicenter, controlled clinical trials, which makes treatment recommendations difficult. Careful review of the literature does suggest that there are treatment options that make scientific sense and appear to stabilize the disease process, reduce deformity, and improve function. Offering no treatment at all will encourage our patients to pursue alternative treatments that may do harm, and misses the opportunity to do some good. Clearly, further work is necessary to develop safe and effective nonsurgical treatments for PD. PMID:19649505

Abern, Michael R; Levine, Laurence A

2009-01-01

98

Precise on-line position measurement for particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An on-line beam position monitoring and regular beam stability tests are of utmost importance for the Quality Assurance (QA) of the patient treatment at any particle therapy facility. The Gantry 2 at the Paul Scherrer Institute uses a strip ionization chamber for the on-line beam position verification. The design of the strip chamber placed in the beam in front of the patient allows for a small beam penumbra in order to achieve a high-quality lateral beam delivery. The position error of 1 mm in a lateral plane (plane perpendicular to the beam direction) can result in a dose inhomogeneity of more than 5%. Therefore the goal of Gantry 2 commissioning was to reach a sub-millimeter level of the reconstruction accuracy in order to bring a dose uncertainty to a level of 1%. In fact, we observed that for beams offered by Gantry 2 signal profiles in a lateral plane can be reconstructed with a precision of 0.1 mm. This is a necessary criterion to perform a reliable patient treatment. The front end electronics and the whole data processing sequence have been optimized for minimizing the dead time in between two consecutive spots to about 2 ms: the charge collection is performed in about 1 ms, read-out takes place in about 100?s while data verification and logging are completed in less than 1 ms.

Actis, O.; Meer, D.; König, S.

2014-12-01

99

Electroconvulsive therapy use in adolescents: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Considered as a moment of psychological vulnerability, adolescence is remarkably a risky period for the development of psychopathologies, when the choice of the correct therapeutic approach is crucial for achieving remission. One of the researched therapies in this case is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The present study reviews the recent and classical aspects regarding ECT use in adolescents. Methods Systematic review, performed in November 2012, conformed to the PRISMA statement. Results From the 212 retrieved articles, only 39 were included in the final sample. The reviewed studies bring indications of ECT use in adolescents, evaluate the efficiency of this therapy regarding remission, and explore the potential risks and complications of the procedure. Conclusions ECT use in adolescents is considered a highly efficient option for treating several psychiatric disorders, achieving high remission rates, and presenting few and relatively benign adverse effects. Risks can be mitigated by the correct use of the technique and are considered minimal when compared to the efficiency of ECT in treating psychopathologies. PMID:23718899

2013-01-01

100

Clinical Prediction Rules for Physical Therapy Interventions: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) involving physical therapy interventions have been published recently. The quality of the studies used to develop the CPRs was not previously considered, a fact that has potential implications for clinical applications and future research. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the quality of published CPRs developed for physical therapy interventions. Methods: Relevant databases were searched up to June 2008. Studies were included in this review if the explicit purpose was to develop a CPR for conditions commonly treated by physical therapists. Validated CPRs were excluded from this review. Study quality was independently determined by 3 reviewers using standard 18-item criteria for assessing the methodological quality of prognostic studies. Percentage of agreement was calculated for each criterion, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined for overall quality scores. Results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Percentage of agreement for individual criteria ranged from 90% to 100%, and the ICC for the overall quality score was .73 (95% confidence interval=.27–.92). Criteria commonly not met were adequate description of inclusion or exclusion criteria, inclusion of an inception cohort, adequate follow-up, masked assessments, sufficient sample sizes, and assessments of potential psychosocial factors. Quality scores for individual studies ranged from 48.2% to 74.0%. Discussion and Conclusion: Validation studies are rarely reported in the literature; therefore, CPRs derived from high-quality studies may have the best potential for use in clinical settings. Investigators planning future studies of physical therapy CPRs should consider including inception cohorts, using longer follow-up times, performing masked assessments, recruiting larger sample sizes, and incorporating psychological and psychosocial assessments. PMID:19095806

Beneciuk, Jason M; Bishop, Mark D; George, Steven Z

2009-01-01

101

BOOK REVIEW: Particle Astrophysics (Second Edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle astrophysics, the interface of elementary particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology, is a rapidly evolving field. Perkins' book provides a nice introduction to this field, at a level appropriate for senior undergraduate students. Perkins develops the foundations underlying both the particle and astrophysics areas, and also covers some of the most recent developments in this field. The latter is an appealing feature, as students rarely encounter topics of current research in their undergraduate textbooks. Part 1 of the text introduces the elementary particle content, and interactions, of the standard model of particle physics. Relativity is addressed at the level of special relativistic kinematics, the equivalence principle and the Robertson-Walker metric. Part 2 covers cosmology, starting with the expansion of the Universe and basic thermodynamics. It then moves on to primordial nucleosynthesis, baryogenesis, dark matter, dark energy, structure formation and the cosmic microwave background. Part 3 covers cosmic rays, stellar evolution, and related topics. Cutting edge topics include the use of the cosmological large scale structure power spectrum to constrain neutrino mass, the creation of the baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis, and the equation of state for dark energy. While the treatment of many topics is quite brief, the level of depth is about right for undergraduates who are being exposed to these topics for the first time. The breadth of topics spanned is excellent. Perkins does a good job connecting theory with the experimental underpinnings, and of simplifying the theoretical presentation of complex subjects to a level that senior undergraduate students should find accessible. Each chapter includes a number of exercises. Brief solutions are provided for all the exercises, while fully worked solutions are provided for a smaller subset.

Bell, Nicole

2009-07-01

102

Ridge filter design for a particle therapy line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beam irradiation system for particle therapy can use a passive or an active beam irradiation method. In the case of an active beam irradiation, using a ridge filter would be appropriate to generate a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) through a large scanning area. For this study, a ridge filter was designed as an energy modulation device for a prototype active scanning system at MC-50 in Korea Institute of Radiological And Medical Science (KIRAMS). The ridge filter was designed to create a 10 mm of SOBP for a 45-MeV proton beam. To reduce the distal penumbra and the initial dose, [DM] determined the weighting factor for Bragg Peak by applying an in-house iteration code and the Minuit Fit package of Root. A single ridge bar shape and its corresponding thickness were obtained through 21 weighting factors. Also, a ridge filter was fabricated to cover a large scanning area (300 × 300 mm2) by Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA). The fabricated ridge filter was tested at the prototype active beamline of MC-50. The SOBP and the incident beam distribution were obtained by using HD-810 GaF chromatic film placed at a right triangle to the PMMA block. The depth dose profile for the SOBP can be obtained precisely by using the flat field correction and measuring the 2-dimensional distribution of the incoming beam. After the flat field correction is used, the experimental results show that the SOBP region matches with design requirement well, with 0.62% uniformity.

Kim, Chang Hyeuk; Han, Garam; Lee, Hwa-Ryun; Kim, Hyunyong; Jang, Hong Suk; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Dong Wook; Jang, Sea Duk; Hwang, Won Taek; Kim, Geun-Beom; Yang, Tae-Keun

2014-05-01

103

TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cells engineering for cell-based therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stem cells carry the promise to cure a broad range of diseases and injuries, from diabetes, heart and muscular diseases, to neurological diseases, disorders and injuries. Significant progresses have been made in stem cell research over the past decade; the derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from human tissues, the development of cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain and that neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), including that of humans. Despite these advances, there may be decades before stem cell research will translate into therapy. Stem cell research is also subject to ethical and political debates, controversies and legislation, which slow its progress. Cell engineering has proven successful in bringing genetic research to therapy. In this review, I will review, in two examples, how investigators are applying cell engineering to stem cell biology to circumvent stem cells' ethical and political constraints and bolster stem cell research and therapy.

Taupin, Philippe

2007-09-01

104

Review of progress in magnetic particle inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) has been widely utilized for decades, and sees considerable use in the aerospace industry with a majority of the steel parts being inspected with MPI at some point in the lifecycle. Typical aircraft locations inspected are landing gear, engine components, attachment hardware, and doors. In spite of its numerous applications the method remains poorly understood, and there are many aspects of that method which would benefit from in-depth study. This shortcoming is due to the fact that MPI combines the complicated nature of electromagnetics, metallurgical material effects, fluid-particle motion dynamics, and physiological human factors into a single inspection. To promote understanding of the intricate method issues that affect sensitivity, or to assist with the revision of industry specifications and standards, research studies will be prioritized through the guidance of a panel of industry experts, using an approach which has worked successfully in the past to guide fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) research efforts.

Eisenmann, David J.; Enyart, Darrel; Lo, Chester; Brasche, Lisa

2014-02-01

105

[Psychodynamic therapy in chronic pain patients: a systematic review].  

PubMed

Psychoanalysis has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of somatoform pain disorder; however, psychodynamic therapy procedures have not been accorded their due recognition in the treatment of chronic pain. This is due to the inadequate differential indication for the employment of psychodynamic treatment methods, on the one hand, and to the refusal of most of the psychoanalysts to modify the standard psychoanalytic procedures in accordance with the requirements of pain treatment. This article reviews evidence of the modification of psychodynamic therapy procedures and their outcome in chronic pain patients in the context of past research. We conducted a systematic computer-based literature research employing MEDLINE, EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE, and PSYNDEX data-bases between 1980 and 2000. Psychodynamic therapy procedures are indicated in the first instance for patients with psychic co-morbidity and those with somatoform pain disorder. A modification of the psychotherapeutic technique, involving an approach that is more structured and is also rather supportive at least at the beginning, is necessary. While employing psychodynamic methods in the treatment of pain patients, greater importance should be attached to the physical level and to the 'holding function' of the therapist than is usually the case with the conventional psychoanalytic therapy procedures. PMID:11593457

Söllner, W; Schüssler, G

2001-01-01

106

Physiological Adjustments to Stress Measures Following Massage Therapy: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of massage therapy by the general public has increased substantially in recent years. In light of the popularity of massage therapy for stress reduction, a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature is important to summarize the effectiveness of this modality on stress- reactive physiological measures. On-line databases were searched for articles relevant to both massage therapy and stress. Articles

Albert Moraska; Robin A. Pollini; Karen Boulanger; Marissa Z. Brooks; Lesley Teitlebaum

2010-01-01

107

Human stem cell therapy in ischaemic stroke: a review.  

PubMed

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Globally, 15 million people suffer a stroke each year, of whom more than 5 million die, and a further 5 million are left permanently disabled. Current treatment options offer modest benefits, and there is a pressing need for new and effective treatments. Stem cell therapy is a well-established treatment modality for various haematological diseases, with its use now being explored in different disease processes, including various neurological diseases, as well as vascular conditions such as ischaemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. Promising results have been seen in animal models of stroke, with evidence of significant functional benefits. Translation to the bedside, however, is in its early stages. This review will discuss the scientific background to stem cell therapy in ischaemic stroke, including evidence from current clinical trials. PMID:21071454

Banerjee, Soma; Williamson, Deborah; Habib, Nagy; Gordon, Myrtle; Chataway, Jeremy

2011-01-01

108

Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines) and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. PMID:25548523

Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

2014-01-01

109

Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges.  

PubMed

Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines) and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. PMID:25548523

Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

2014-01-01

110

Current and emerging therapies in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling chronic autoimmune neurological disease that mainly affects young adults. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of MS has significantly advanced in the past quarter of a century. This has led to the development of many disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) that prevent exacerbations and new lesions in patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS). So far there is no drug available that can completely halt the neurodegenerative changes associated with the disease. It is the purpose of this review to provide concise information regarding mechanism of action, indications, side effects and safety of Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency approved agents for MS, emerging therapies, and drugs that can be considered for off-label use in MS. PMID:22783370

Graves, Donna; Frohman, Teresa C.; Flores, Angela Bates; Hardeman, Paula; Logan, Diana; Orchard, Megan; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.

2012-01-01

111

Using antimicrobial adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment: a review  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical and pre-clinical data demonstrate that adjuvant antimicrobial therapy is beneficial in cancer treatment. There could be several reasons for this effect, which include treating cancer associated bacteria and viruses, prophylaxis of post-chemotherapy infections due to immunosuppression, and antiproliferative effect of certain antimicrobials. Targeting cancer associated viruses and bacteria with antimicrobial agents is currently used for gastric, cervical, hematopoietic, liver and brain cancer. However this treatment is effective only in combination with conventional therapies. Antimicrobials can also have a direct antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect, and can cause apoptosis. Moreover, some antimicrobials are known to be helpful in overcoming side effects of drugs commonly used in cancer treatment. Chemotherapy related bacteremia and neutropenia can be overcome by the appropriately timed use of antimicrobials. This review summarizes the data on the effects of antivirals and antibiotics on cancer treatment and describes their mechanisms. PMID:23164412

2012-01-01

112

Music Therapy with Children: A Review of Clinical Utility and Application to Special Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…

Yeaw, John David Andrew

113

Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed through the music therapy treatment process are provided.

Michael J. Silverman

2008-01-01

114

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. (a)...

2014-04-01

115

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. (a)...

2012-04-01

116

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. (a)...

2011-04-01

117

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. (a)...

2013-04-01

118

A review of warfarin dosing with concurrent acetaminophen therapy.  

PubMed

Warfarin is frequently used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism, yet it is associated with numerous drug interactions. Regarding over-the-counter pain medications, the preferred analgesic for those patients who are taking warfarin is acetaminophen. There are, however, reports of elevation in the international normalized ratio (INR) in those patients taking concurrent warfarin and acetaminophen. For those practitioners who manage warfarin therapy, there is little guidance regarding management of the drug-drug interaction between warfarin and acetaminophen. This review seeks to evaluate the drug interaction between warfarin and acetaminophen and provides recommendations for concurrent use of these drugs. PMID:23736105

Pinson, G Michelle; Beall, Jennifer W; Kyle, Jeffrey A

2013-10-01

119

Light-based therapy on wound healing?:?a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wound healing is a complex matrix and overlapping process. In order to accelerate the healing process and minimize bacterial infection, light-based therapy was applied to stimulate bio-reaction to improve healing. The aim of this paper is to review the effects induced by light source (laser and incoherent light like LED) on different biological targets. The light-based therapy techniques were categorized according to the wavelength, energy density, type of irradiance and activity of tissues in the healing process. Out of 80 cases, 77% were animal studies, 5% were human studies and 18% were cell studies. Around 75% of light-based therapy has an advantage on tissue interaction and 25% has no effect or inhibition on the healing process. The appropriate dose appears to be between 1 and 5?J cm?2. At shorter wavelength, photobiostimulation would be effective with a high frequently administrated low-energy dose. On the other hand, for longer wavelength it is the reverse, i.e., more effective with a low frequent treated schedule and a high-energy dose.

Pik Suan, Lau; Bidin, Noriah; Cherng, Chong Jia; Hamid, Asmah

2014-08-01

120

Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Radiographic vasospasm usually develops between 5 and 15 days after the initial hemorrhage, and is associated with clinically apparent delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DID) in one-third of patients. The pathophysiology of this reversible vasculopathy is not fully understood but appears to involve structural changes and biochemical alterations at the levels of the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Blood in the subarachnoid space is believed to trigger these changes. In addition, cerebral perfusion may be concurrently impaired by hypovolemia and impaired cerebral autoregulatory function. The combined effects of these processes can lead to reduction in cerebral blood flow so severe as to cause ischemia leading to infarction. Diagnosis is made by some combination of clinical, cerebral angiographic, and transcranial doppler ultrasonographic factors. Nimodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, is so far the only available therapy with proven benefit for reducing the impact of DID. Aggressive therapy combining hemodynamic augmentation, transluminal balloon angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusion of vasodilator drugs is, to varying degrees, usually implemented. A panoply of drugs, with different mechanisms of action, has been studied in SAH related vasospasm. Currently, the most promising are magnesium sulfate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors and endothelin-1 antagonists. This paper reviews established and emerging therapies for vasospasm. PMID:17705883

Keyrouz, Salah G; Diringer, Michael N

2007-01-01

121

Occupational therapy and return to work: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background The primary aim of this review study was to gather evidence on the effectiveness in terms of return to work (RTW) of occupational therapy interventions (OTIs) in rehabilitation patients with non-congenital disorders. A secondary aim was to be able to select the most efficient OTI. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed papers was conducted using electronic databases (Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Ebsco, Medline (Pubmed), and PsycInfo). The search focussed on randomised controlled trials and cohort studies published in English from 1980 until September 2010. Scientific validity of the studies was assessed. Results Starting from 1532 papers with pertinent titles, six studies met the quality criteria. Results show systematic reviewing of OTIs on RTW was challenging due to varying populations, different outcome measures, and poor descriptions of methodology. There is evidence that OTIs as part of rehabilitation programs, increase RTW rates, although the methodological evidence of most studies is weak. Conclusions Analysis of the selected papers indicated that OTIs positively influence RTW; two studies described precisely what the content of their OTI was. In order to identify the added value of OTIs on RTW, studies with well-defined OT intervention protocols are necessary. PMID:21810228

2011-01-01

122

Disagreement in primary study selection between systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) regarding their agreement in primary study selection. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was conducted within the framework of a systematic review (a full review and a subsequent rapid

Frank Peinemann; Natalie McGauran; Stefan Sauerland; Stefan Lange

2008-01-01

123

Laser therapy and photosensitive medication: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

In the 2009 guidelines from the BMLA, the use of non-essential aesthetic lasers was contraindicated in patients receiving medication that causes whole-body photosensitisation as well as those causing local light sensitisation. Following this and anecdotal advice, many laser centres refuse to treat patients who are on known photosensitive medication. Therefore, specific patient cohorts that would benefit from laser therapy are being denied because of medications, such as long-term antibiotics for chronic facial acne. This article reviews the published literature on lasers and photosensitive medications, the mechanisms of photosensitivity and the role of laser in its production. The aim is to analyse the available evidence regarding adverse reactions to laser treatment related to photosensitive medication. A PubMed review of published article titles and abstracts was performed using the search term Laser with each of the following terms individually: photosensitive, photosensitiser, photosensitizer, phototoxicity, photoallergy, complications, case-report, tetracycline, minocycline, amiodarone, nitrofurantoin and medication. Four publications were identified, none of which reported any complication in the use of laser in patients taking photosensitising medication. As there are no published accounts of adverse effects of laser in patients with photosensitive medication, we performed a review of the mechanism of photosensitivity by compiling a list of photosensitive medication and the peak wavelength of radiation required to activate the drug. We recommend a national database of drugs and the wavelengths causing photosensitive reactions of each which a laser department can access prior to treatment. PMID:24590242

Kerstein, Ryan L; Lister, Tom; Cole, Richard

2014-07-01

124

Adherence to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role of adherence. This review describes a comprehensive literature search of adherence to CBTI. The search revealed 15 studies that evaluated adherence to CBTI in adults using valid and reliable measures of sleep, and measure of adherence other than study withdrawals. The primary purposes of this review were to (1) synthesize current study characteristics, methodology, adherence rates, contributing factors, and impact on outcomes, (2) discuss measurement issues, and (3) identify future practice and research directions that may lead to improved outcomes. Strong patterns and inconsistencies were identified among the studies, which complicate an evaluation of the role of adherence as a factor and outcome of CBTI success. The importance of standardized adherence and outcome measures is discussed. In light of the importance of adherence to behavior change, this systematic review may better inform future intervention efforts. PMID:23602124

Matthews, Ellyn E.; Arnedt, J. Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S.; Cuddihy, Leisha J.; Aloia, Mark S.

2013-01-01

125

Implications of technology in music therapy practice and research for music therapy education: a review of literature.  

PubMed

This article reviews the use of technology in music therapy practice and research for the purpose of providing music therapy educators and clinicians with specific and accurate accounts of the types and benefits of technology being used in various settings. Additionally, this knowledge will help universities comply with National Association of Schools of Music requirements and help to standardize the education and training of music therapists in this rapidly changing area. Information was gathered through a literature review of music therapy and related professional journals and a wide variety of books and personal communications. More data were gathered in a survey requesting information on current use of technology in education and practice. This solicitation was sent to all American Music Therapy Association approved universities and clinical training directors. Technology applications in music therapy are organized according to the following categories: (a) adapted musical instruments, (b) recording technology, (c) electric/electronic musical instruments, (d) computer applications, (e) medical technology, (f) assistive technology for the disabled, and (g) technology-based music/sound healing practices. The literature reviewed covers 177 books and articles from a span of almost 40 years. Recommendations are made for incorporating technology into music therapy course work and for review and revision of AMTA competencies. The need for an all-encompassing clinical survey of the use of technology in current music therapy practice is also identified. PMID:15762835

Crowe, Barbara J; Rio, Robin

2004-01-01

126

ROLE OF PARTICLE HYGROSCOPICITY IN AEROSOL THERAPY AND INHALATION TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The extrathoracic compartment of the human respiratory tract (i.e., the naso- and oropharyngeal regions) effectively conditions inhaled air by warming and humidifying processes even in extreme ambient environments. When airborne particles are inhaled, the effectiveness of interac...

127

A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth  

PubMed Central

Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

2015-01-01

128

The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review  

PubMed Central

Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT. PMID:19707253

Bassil, Nazem; Alkaade, Saad; Morley, John E

2009-01-01

129

Heavy Charged Particle Radiobiology: Using Enhanced Biological Effectiveness and Improved Beam Focusing to Advance Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and ?-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B.; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A.

2011-01-01

130

Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and ?-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

2011-06-01

131

Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

Silverman, Michael J.

2008-01-01

132

Secondary particle dose in proton beam therapy computed using the LAHET code system  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to use the LAHET Code System (LCS), which has recently been used in shielding calculations for proton therapy, to model the neutron and photon dose equivalent distributions created in tissue during proton beam cancer therapy. Proton beams used for therapy have shown distinct advantages over other therapeutic radiation treatments due to the rapid distal dose fall-off in the region of the Bragg Peak. Nuclear reactions caused by the primary proton beam in beam modifying devices and patient tissues create secondary particles that contribute to the dose received by the patient inside and outside the targeted region. The spatial distribution of the dose created by these secondary particles is an important consideration in the choice of beam modification methods and treatment volume planning because a goal of radiation therapy is to minimize dose to normal tissue while maximizing dose to the tumor.

Laky, P.G.; Tsoulfanidis, N. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1997-12-01

133

Barriers to accessing radiation therapy in Canada: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radiation therapy (RT) is effective treatment for curing and palliating cancer, yet concern exists that not all Canadians for whom RT is indicated receive it. Many factors may contribute to suboptimal use of RT. A review of recent Canadian literature was undertaken to identify such barriers. Methods MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBase databases were used to search keywords relating to barriers to accessing or utilizing RT in Canada. Collected abstracts were reviewed independently. Barriers identified in relevant articles were categorized as relating to the health systems, patient socio-demographic, patient factors, or provider factors contexts and thematic analysis performed for each context. Results 535 unique abstracts were collected. 75 met inclusion criteria. 46 (61.3%) addressed multiple themes. The most cited barriers to accessing RT when indicated were patient age (n?=?26, 34.7%), distance to treatment centre (n?=?23, 30.7%), wait times (n?=?22, 29.3%), and lack of physician understanding about the use of RT (n?=?16, 21.6%). Conclusions Barriers to RT are reported in many areas. The role of provider factors and the lack of attention to patient fears and mistrust as potential barriers were unexpected findings demanding further attention. Solutions should be sought to overcome identified barriers facilitating more effective cancer care for Canadians. PMID:23062109

2012-01-01

134

Neurobiology of Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment is an important aspect of schizophrenia, where cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment for improving cognitive functioning. While neurobiological dysfunction in schizophrenia has been the target of much research, the neural substrate of cognitive remediation and recovery has not been thoroughly examined. The aim of the present article is to systematically review the evidence for neural changes after CRT for schizophrenia. The reviewed studies indicate that CRT affects several brain regions and circuits, including prefrontal, parietal, and limbic areas, both in terms of activity and structure. Changes in prefrontal areas are the most reported finding, fitting to previous evidence of dysfunction in this region. Two limitations of the current research are the few studies and the lack of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying neural and cognitive changes after treatment. Despite these limitations, the current evidence suggests that CRT is associated with both neurobiological and cognitive improvement. The evidence from these findings may shed light on both the neural substrate of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, and how better treatment can be developed and applied. PMID:25177300

Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Johansson, Kyrre; Løberg, Else-Marie

2014-01-01

135

Pain and trauma in negative pressure wound therapy: a review.  

PubMed

Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is considered an effective wound treatment, but there are a number of issues that need to be addressed for improvements to be made. This review aimed to explore the literature relating to the pain and skin trauma that may be experienced during NPWT. A literature search was carried out using the following databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and PsyARTICLES. A total of 30 articles were reviewed. Studies reported varying levels of pain in patients undergoing NPWT, with certain treatment factors affecting the level of pain, such as the NPWT system and the dressing/filler used. Similarly, although there is much less research exploring NPWT-related trauma, findings suggest that dressing and filler type may impact on whether trauma occurs. However, further research needs to consider the different stages of NPWT and how pain and trauma can be minimised during the whole procedure. As both pain and skin trauma impact on the patient's well-being and on wound healing, it is essential that research further explores the factors that may affect the experience of pain and trauma, so as to inform developments in wound care. PMID:23489350

Upton, Dominic; Andrews, Abbye

2015-02-01

136

The Effectiveness of Art Therapy in the Treatment of Traumatized Adults: A Systematic Review on Art Therapy and Trauma.  

PubMed

Art therapy has often been applied in the treatment of traumatized adults, and good results in clinical practice have been reported. However, although art therapy experts underline these benefits, the effectiveness of art therapy in trauma treatment has not been established by systematic review. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and evaluate empirical evidence of the effectiveness of art therapy for trauma treatment. As a result of the systematic review, six controlled, comparative studies on art therapy for trauma in adult patients were found. In half of the included studies, a significant decrease in psychological trauma symptoms was found in the treatment groups, and one study reported a significant decrease in depression. Although there are limitations in the number of included studies, the number of participants, the heterogeneity of included studies, and their methodological quality, the results contribute to insight into the effectiveness of art therapy in trauma treatment and form an evidence base for the urgent need for further research on art therapy and trauma treatment. PMID:25403446

Schouten, Karin Alice; Niet, Gerrit J de; Knipscheer, Jeroen W; Kleber, Rolf J; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M

2014-11-16

137

Deterministic lateral displacement for particle separation: a review.  

PubMed

Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD), a hydrodynamic, microfluidic technology, was first reported by Huang et al. in 2004 to separate particles on the basis of size in continuous flow with a resolution of down to 10 nm. For 10 years, DLD has been extensively studied, employed and modified by researchers in terms of theory, design, microfabrication and application to develop newer, faster and more efficient tools for separation of millimetre, micrometre and even sub-micrometre sized particles. To extend the range of potential applications, the specific arrangement of geometric features in DLD has also been adapted and/or coupled with external forces (e.g. acoustic, electric, gravitational) to separate particles on the basis of other properties than size such as the shape, deformability and dielectric properties of particles. Furthermore, investigations into DLD performance where inertial and non-Newtonian effects are present have been conducted. However, the evolvement and application of DLD has not yet been reviewed. In this paper, we collate many interesting publications to provide a comprehensive review of the development and diversity of this technology but also provide scope for future direction and detail the fundamentals for those wishing to design such devices for the first time. PMID:25212386

McGrath, J; Jimenez, M; Bridle, H

2014-11-01

138

Particle release in extracorporeal low-density lipoprotein lowering therapies.  

PubMed

Release of microparticles into the blood during extracorporeal circulation must be kept low because of possibly serious acute and chronic adverse effects. Concentration and size distribution of microparticles were measured during simulated treatments (n = 7) on original equipment for 2 standard low-density lipoprotein (LDL) elimination procedures (DALI 750, Fresenius AG, St. Wendel, Germany and Liposorber, Kaneka Corporation, Osaka, Japan) and compared to hemofiltration solutions. For both systems as well as in hemofiltration solutions, the mean particle concentrations in 500 ml portions gathered from the efferent blood line stayed below 10% of pharmacopoeia standards for infusion solutions (United States Pharmacopoeia, European Pharmacopoeia) in all measured size classes. Although particle concentrations were comparable in all systems, the mean total number of particles > or =2 microm released per session was lowest in the DALI (167,000) compared to the Liposorber (465,000) and hemofiltration solutions (2,240,000). This was mainly due to different total processed blood volumes necessary to achieve the required LDL reduction. PMID:10916063

Martins, K; Ahrenholz, P; Matic, G B; Hofmann, D; Tiess, M; Winkler, R E; Ramlow, W

2000-07-01

139

Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

2013-07-01

140

Connection of European particle therapy centers and generation of a common particle database system within the European ULICE-framework  

PubMed Central

Background To establish a common database on particle therapy for the evaluation of clinical studies integrating a large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in the field of radiation oncology. Methods We developed a web-based documentation system for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. 560 patients have been treated from November 2009 to September 2011. Protons, carbon ions or a combination of both, as well as a combination with photons were applied. To date, 12 studies have been initiated and more are in preparation. Results It is possible to immediately access all patient information and exchange, store, process, and visualize text data, any DICOM images and multimedia data. Accessing the system and submitting clinical data is possible for internal and external users. Integrated into the hospital environment, data is imported both manually and automatically. Security and privacy protection as well as data validation and verification are ensured. Studies can be designed to fit individual needs. Conclusions The described database provides a basis for documentation of large patient groups with specific and specialized questions to be answered. Having recently begun electronic documentation, it has become apparent that the benefits lie in the user-friendly and timely workflow for documentation. The ultimate goal is a simplification of research work, better study analyses quality and eventually, the improvement of treatment concepts by evaluating the effectiveness of particle therapy. PMID:22828013

2012-01-01

141

Comparison of the Light Charged Particles on Scatter Radiation Dose in Thyroid Hadron Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: Hadron therapy is a novel technique of cancer radiation therapy which employs charged particles beams, 1H and light ions in particular. Due to their physical and radiobiological properties, they allow one to obtain a more conformal treatment, sparing better the healthy tissues located in proximity of the tumor and allowing a higher control of the disease. Objective: As it is well known, these light particles can interact with nuclei in the tissue, and produce the different secondary particles such as neutron and photon. These particles can damage specially the critical organs behind of thyroid gland. Methods: In this research, we simulated neck geometry by MCNPX code and calculated the light particles dose at distance of 2.14 cm in thyroid gland, for different particles beam: 1H, 2H, 3He, and 4He. Thyroid treatment is important because the spine and vertebrae is situated right behind to the thyroid gland on the posterior side. Results: The results show that 2H has the most total flux for photon and neutron, 1.944E-3 and 1.7666E-2, respectively. Whereas 1H and 3He have best conditions, 8.88609E-4 and 1.35431E-3 for photon, 4.90506E-4 and 4.34057E-3 for neutron, respectively. The same calculation has obtained for energy depositions for these particles. Conclusion: In this research, we investigated that which of these light particles can deliver the maximum dose to the normal tissues and the minimum dose to the tumor. By comparing these results for the mentioned light particles, we find out 1H and 3He is the best therapy choices for thyroid glands whereas 2H is the worst. PMID:25505774

Azizi, M; Mowlavi, AA

2014-01-01

142

Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: Review of Indications, Mechanisms, and Key Exercises  

PubMed Central

Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an exercise-based treatment program designed to promote vestibular adaptation and substitution. The goals of VRT are 1) to enhance gaze stability, 2) to enhance postural stability, 3) to improve vertigo, and 4) to improve activities of daily living. VRT facilitates vestibular recovery mechanisms: vestibular adaptation, substitution by the other eye-movement systems, substitution by vision, somatosensory cues, other postural strategies, and habituation. The key exercises for VRT are head-eye movements with various body postures and activities, and maintaining balance with a reduced support base with various orientations of the head and trunk, while performing various upper-extremity tasks, repeating the movements provoking vertigo, and exposing patients gradually to various sensory and motor environments. VRT is indicated for any stable but poorly compensated vestibular lesion, regardless of the patient's age, the cause, and symptom duration and intensity. Vestibular suppressants, visual and somatosensory deprivation, immobilization, old age, concurrent central lesions, and long recovery from symptoms, but there is no difference in the final outcome. As long as exercises are performed several times every day, even brief periods of exercise are sufficient to facilitate vestibular recovery. Here the authors review the mechanisms and the key exercises for each of the VRT goals. PMID:22259614

Song, Hyun Seok; Kim, Ji Soo

2011-01-01

143

Nanotechnology in Corneal Neovascularization Therapy—A Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1–100?nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels.1 The term “nanotechnology” was first coined in 1974.2 Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods.3 The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play. PMID:23425431

Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J.; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo

2013-01-01

144

Biofield therapies and cancer-related symptoms: a review.  

PubMed

Patients with cancer can experience several treatment-related symptoms, and conventional care focuses primarily on cure and survival without a holistic approach to disease. Subsequently, an increasing number of patients are accustomed to complementary modalities to improve well-being. Biofield therapies (BTs) are complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities based on the philosophy that humans have an energetic dimension. Physical and psychological symptoms may cause imbalance, and BTs are believed to balance disturbance in the energy field. This article provides a study review of the main BTs (i.e., therapeutic touch, healing touch, and Reiki) in the treatment of cancer-related symptoms. Although BTs are among the most ancient healing practices, data on their effectiveness are poor and additional multicenter research with larger samples are necessary. BTs may eventually become an autonomous field of nursing activity and allow professionals to build a relationship with the patient, thereby improving motivation. The idea that this method can be self-managed and may effectively reduce pain for patients with cancer can improve satisfaction challenges experienced by the current healthcare system. PMID:25253110

Gonella, Silvia; Garrino, Lorenza; Dimonte, Valerio

2014-10-01

145

Review of lattice results concerning low energy particle physics  

E-print Network

We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K -> pi transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio fK/fpi of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements Vus and Vud. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)LxSU(2)R and SU(3)LxSU(3)R Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, for this review, we focus on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_s.

Sinya Aoki; Yasumichi Aoki; Claude Bernard; Tom Blum; Gilberto Colangelo; Michele Della Morte; Stephan Dürr; Aida X. El Khadra; Hidenori Fukaya; Roger Horsley; Andreas Jüttner; Takeshi Kaneko; Jack Laiho; Laurent Lellouch; Heinrich Leutwyler; Vittorio Lubicz; Enrico Lunghi; Silvia Necco; Tetsuya Onogi; Carlos Pena; Christopher T. Sachrajda; Stephen R. Sharpe; Silvano Simula; Rainer Sommer; Ruth S. Van de Water; Anastassios Vladikas; Urs Wenger; Hartmut Wittig

2013-10-31

146

COST-ENLIGHT strategic workshop on hadron (particle) therapy, CERN, Geneva, 3-4 May 2007.  

PubMed

This meeting was convened by COST (Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) and ENLIGHT (European Network for Research in Light-Ion Hadron Therapy) to review the current status of hadron therapy in Europe. The aims were to increase awareness of hadron therapy within the scientific community, to produce a document outlining the present and future prospects for this treatment modality and to bring together hadron therapy scientists and clinicians. Proton therapy offers the potential for therapeutic gain from dose distribution advantages when compared with photon therapy. Carbon ion therapy, by nature of its higher linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE), may further improve local control. A further potential benefit of carbon ion therapy is the ability to deliver hypofractionated radiotherapy. A further aim of this meeting was to commence preparation of a programme of work packages with a view to submitting an application for European Union funding within the FP7 programme. This comprises a series of seven work packages, which will be a focus for European collaboration. PMID:18208851

Taylor, R E

2008-03-01

147

Microscopic Gold Particle-Based Fiducial Markers for Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We examined the feasibility of using fiducial markers composed of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers as a means to overcome current problems with conventional macroscopic gold fiducial markers, such as dose reduction and artifact generation, in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We examined two types of gold particle fiducial marker interactions: that with diagnostic X-rays and with a therapeutic proton beam. That is, we qualitatively and quantitatively compared the radiographic visibility of conventional gold and gold particle fiducial markers and the CT artifacts and dose reduction associated with their use. Results: The gold particle fiducials could be easily distinguished from high-density structures, such as the pelvic bone, in diagnostic X-rays but were nearly transparent to a proton beam. The proton dose distribution was distorted <5% by the gold particle fiducials with a 4.9% normalized gold density; this was the case even in the worst configuration (i.e., parallel alignment with a single-direction proton beam). In addition, CT artifacts were dramatically reduced for the gold particle mixture. Conclusion: Mixtures of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers have excellent potential as fiducial markers for proton therapy for prostate cancer. These include good radiographic visibility, low distortion of the depth-dose distribution, and few CT artifacts.

Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soah [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Sung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Shin, Jungwook [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr; Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryeol; Kim, Dae Yong M.D.; Cho, Kwan Ho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-01

148

Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review  

SciTech Connect

The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

149

REVIEW Current and emerging therapy for the management of vitiligo  

E-print Network

Abstract: Vitiligo is an acquired cutaneous disorder of pigmentation, with an incidence of 0.5% to 2 % worldwide. There are three major hypotheses for the pathogenesis of vitiligo that are not exclusive of each other: biochemical/cytotoxic, neural and autoimmune. Recent data provide strong evidence supporting an autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo. As vitiligo can have a major effect on quality of life, treatment can be considered and should preferably begin early when the disease is active. Current treatment modalities are directed towards stopping progression of the disease and achieving repigmentation. Therapies include corticosteroids, topical immunomodulators, photo(chemo)therapy, surgery, combination therapies and depigmentation of normally pigmented skin. Topical class 3 corticosteroids can be used for localized vitiligo. The use of topical immunomodulators (TIMs) in vitiligo seems to be equally effective as topical steroids, especially when used in the face and neck region. In photo(chemo)therapy, narrowband ultraviolet-B therapy (NB-UVB) seems to be superior to psoralen ultraviolet-A therapy (PUVA) and broadband UVB. In surgical techniques, split-thickness grafting and epidermal blister grafting were shown to be effective methods, although the non-cultured epidermal suspension technique has many advantages and seems to be a promising development. Depigmentation therapy can be considered if vitiligo affects more than 60 % to 80 % of the body. Complementary therapies such as Polypodium leucotomos show promising results in combination with UVB therapy. No causative treatment for vitiligo is currently available. More randomized controlled trials on the treatment of vitiligo are necessary.

Alicia Cecile Borderé; Jo Lambert; Nanny Van Geel

150

Review: Phage therapy: A modern tool to control bacterial infections.  

PubMed

The evolution of antibiotic-resistant in bacteria has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy to conventional drugs. One of the emerging drugs that can be used alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage therapy. The use of living phages in the cure of lethal infectious life threatening diseases caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria has been reported. Another development in the field of bacteriophage therapy is the use of genetically modified and non replicating phages in the treatment of bacterial infection. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can be used as adjuvant along with antibiotic therapy. Phages encoded with lysosomal enzymes are also effectual in the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:25553704

Qadir, Muhammad Imran

2015-01-01

151

Electron beam ion sources for use in second generation synchrotrons for medical particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclotrons and first generation synchrotrons are the commonly applied accelerators in medical particle therapy nowadays. Next generation accelerators such as Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotrons (RCMS), direct drive accelerators, or dielectric wall accelerators have the potential to improve the existing accelerator techniques in this field. Innovative accelerator concepts for medical particle therapy can benefit from ion sources which meet their special requirements. In the present paper we report on measurements with a superconducting Electron Beam Ion Source, the Dresden EBIS-SC, under the aspect of application in combination with RCMS as a well proven technology. The measurements indicate that this ion source can offer significant advantages for medical particle therapy. We show that a superconducting EBIS can deliver ion pulses of medically relevant ions such as protons, C4 + and C6 + ions with intensities and frequencies required for RCMS [S. Peggs and T. Satogata, "A survey of Hadron therapy accelerator technology," in Proceedings of PAC07, BNL-79826- 2008-CP, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 2007; A. Garonna, U. Amaldi et al., "Cyclinac medical accelerators using pulsed C6 +/H+_2 ion sources," in Proceedings of EBIST 2010, Stockholm, Sweden, July 2010]. Ion extraction spectra as well as individual ion pulses have been measured. For example, we report on the generation of proton pulses with up to 3 × 109 protons per pulse and with frequencies of up to 1000 Hz at electron beam currents of 600 mA.

Zschornack, G.; Ritter, E.; Schmidt, M.; Schwan, A.

2014-02-01

152

Electroconvulsive therapy during pregnancy: a systematic review of case studies.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore practice, use, and risk of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in pregnancy. A systematic search was undertaken in the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, SveMed and CINAHL (EBSCO). Only primary data-based studies reporting ECT undertaken during pregnancy were included. Two reviewers independently checked study titles and abstracts according to inclusion criteria and extracted detailed use, practice, and adverse effects data from full text retrieved articles. Studies and extracted data were sorted according to before and after year 1970, due to changes in ECT administration over time. A total of 67 case reports were included and studies from all continents represented. Altogether, 169 pregnant women were identified, treated during pregnancy with a mean number of 9.4 ECTs, at mean age of 29 years. Most women received ECT during the 2nd trimester and many were Para I. Main diagnostic indication in years 1970 to 2013 was Depression/Bipolar disorder (including psychotic depression). Missing data on fetus/child was 12 %. ECT parameter report was often sparse. Both bilateral and unilateral electrode placement was used and thiopental was the main anesthetic agent. Adverse events such as fetal heart rate reduction, uterine contractions, and premature labor (born between 29 and 37 gestation weeks) were reported for nearly one third (29 %). The overall child mortality rate was 7.1 %. Lethal outcomes for the fetus and/or baby had diverse associations. ECT during pregnancy is advised considered only as last resort treatment under very stringent diagnostic and clinical indications. Updated international guidelines are urgently needed. PMID:24271084

Leiknes, Kari Ann; Cooke, Mary Jennifer; Jarosch-von Schweder, Lindy; Harboe, Ingrid; Høie, Bjørg

2015-02-01

153

Dosimetric effects of energy spectrum uncertainties in radiation therapy with laser-driven particle beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-driven particle acceleration is a potentially cost-efficient and compact new technology that might replace synchrotrons or cyclotrons for future proton or heavy-ion radiation therapy. Since the energy spectrum of laser-accelerated particles is rather wide, compared to the monoenergetic beams of conventional machines, studies have proposed the usage of broader spectra for the treatment of at least certain parts of the target volume to make the process more efficient. The thereby introduced additional uncertainty in the applied energy spectrum is analysed in this note. It is shown that the uncertainty can be categorized into a change of the total number of particles, and a change in the energy distribution of the particles. The former one can be monitored by a simple fluence detector and cancels for a high number of statistically fluctuating shots. The latter one, the redistribution of a fixed number of particles to different energy bins in the window of transmitted energies of the energy selection system, only introduces smaller changes to the resulting depth dose curve. Therefore, it might not be necessary to monitor this uncertainty for all applied shots. These findings might enable an easier uncertainty management for particle therapy with broad energy spectra.

Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

2012-03-01

154

Range assessment in particle therapy based on prompt ?-ray timing measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton and ion beams open up new vistas for the curative treatment of tumors, but adequate technologies for monitoring the compliance of dose delivery with treatment plans in real time are still missing. Range assessment, meaning the monitoring of therapy-particle ranges in tissue during dose delivery (treatment), is a continuous challenge considered a key for tapping the full potential of particle therapies. In this context the paper introduces an unconventional concept of range assessment by prompt-gamma timing (PGT), which is based on an elementary physical effect not considered so far: therapy particles penetrating tissue move very fast, but still need a finite transit time—about 1-2 ns in case of protons with a 5-20 cm range—from entering the patient’s body until stopping in the target volume. The transit time increases with the particle range. This causes measurable effects in PGT spectra, usable for range verification. The concept was verified by proton irradiation experiments at the AGOR cyclotron, KVI-CART, University of Groningen. Based on the presented kinematical relations, we describe model calculations that very precisely reproduce the experimental results. As the clinical treatment conditions entail measurement constraints (e.g. limited treatment time), we propose a setup, based on clinical irradiation conditions, capable of determining proton range deviations within a few seconds of irradiation, thus allowing for a fast safety survey. Range variations of 2 mm are expected to be clearly detectable.

Golnik, Christian; Hueso-González, Fernando; Müller, Andreas; Dendooven, Peter; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine; Kormoll, Thomas; Roemer, Katja; Petzoldt, Johannes; Wagner, Andreas; Pausch, Guntram

2014-09-01

155

Range assessment in particle therapy based on prompt ?-ray timing measurements.  

PubMed

Proton and ion beams open up new vistas for the curative treatment of tumors, but adequate technologies for monitoring the compliance of dose delivery with treatment plans in real time are still missing. Range assessment, meaning the monitoring of therapy-particle ranges in tissue during dose delivery (treatment), is a continuous challenge considered a key for tapping the full potential of particle therapies. In this context the paper introduces an unconventional concept of range assessment by prompt-gamma timing (PGT), which is based on an elementary physical effect not considered so far: therapy particles penetrating tissue move very fast, but still need a finite transit time--about 1-2 ns in case of protons with a 5-20 cm range--from entering the patient's body until stopping in the target volume. The transit time increases with the particle range. This causes measurable effects in PGT spectra, usable for range verification. The concept was verified by proton irradiation experiments at the AGOR cyclotron, KVI-CART, University of Groningen. Based on the presented kinematical relations, we describe model calculations that very precisely reproduce the experimental results. As the clinical treatment conditions entail measurement constraints (e.g. limited treatment time), we propose a setup, based on clinical irradiation conditions, capable of determining proton range deviations within a few seconds of irradiation, thus allowing for a fast safety survey. Range variations of 2 mm are expected to be clearly detectable. PMID:25157685

Golnik, Christian; Hueso-González, Fernando; Müller, Andreas; Dendooven, Peter; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine; Kormoll, Thomas; Roemer, Katja; Petzoldt, Johannes; Wagner, Andreas; Pausch, Guntram

2014-09-21

156

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for Pediatric HIV Infection: Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review described and compared empirical investigations of adherence to pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) and predictors\\/correlates of adherence with regard to methodology and outcome. Thirteen empirical studies of children's adherence to ART, conducted between the years 1981 and 2002 were identified. Investigations varied by age of participant, drug therapy regimen, method of adherence assessment, and by the reporting of predictors\\/correlates

Ric G. Steele; Dennis Grauer

2003-01-01

157

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological and Physiological Illnesses: A Systematic Review for Social Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…

Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia

2011-01-01

158

Family Therapy for Drug Abuse: Review and Updates 2003-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just 15 years ago, Liddle and Dakof ("Journal of Marital and Family Therapy," 1995; 21, 511) concluded, based on the available evidence, that family therapy represented a "promising, but not definitive" approach for the treatment of drug problems among adolescents and adults. Seven years later, Rowe and Liddle (2003) review described considerable…

Rowe, Cynthia L.

2012-01-01

159

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for calcific and noncalcific tendonitis of the rotator cuff: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for the treatment of calcific and noncalcific tendonitis of the rotator cuff. Conservative treatment for rotator cuff tendonitis includes physiotherapy, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. If symptoms persist with conservative treatment, surgery is often considered. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been suggested as

Dorcas Beaton

2004-01-01

160

Maintaining clarity: Review of maintenance therapy in non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to review the role of maintenance therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A brief overview about induction chemotherapy and its primary function in NSCLC is provided to address the basis of maintenance therapies foundation. The development of how maintenance therapy is utilized in this population is discussed and current guidelines for maintenance therapy are reviewed. Benefits and potential pitfalls of maintenance therapy are addressed, allowing a comprehensive review of the achieved clinical benefit that maintenance therapy may or may not have on NSCLC patient population. A review of current literature was conducted and a table is provided comparing the results of various maintenance therapy clinical trials. The table includes geographical location of each study, the number of patients enrolled, progression free survival and overall survival statistics, post-treatment regimens and if molecular testing was conducted. The role of molecular testing in relation to therapeutic treatment options for advanced NSCLC patients is discussed. A treatment algorithm clearly depicts first line and second line treatment for management of NSCLC and includes molecular testing, maintenance therapy and the role clinical trials have in treatment of NSCLC. This treatment algorithm has been specifically tailored and developed to assist clinicians in the management of advanced NSCLC. PMID:24829857

Dearing, Kristen R; Sangal, Ashish; Weiss, Glen J

2014-01-01

161

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are now a substantial number of controlled trials investigating the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). This meta-analysis combined multiple well-controlled studies to help clarify the overall impact of ACT relative to waiting lists, psychological placebos, treatment as usual, and established therapies. Method: A comprehensive literature search produced 18 randomized controlled trials (n = 917) that were

Mark B. Powers; Maarten B. Zum Vörde Sive Vörding; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

2009-01-01

162

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has a proven role as an adjunct to antipsychotic medica- tion and remediative approaches such as social skills training in the management of residual symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. Positive symptoms, depression, and overall symptoms appear to be viable treatment targets for CBT with a less pronounced effect on negative symptoms. The effect size at end of therapy

DOUGLAS TURKINGTON; ROBERT DUDLEY; DEBBIE M. WARMAN; AARON T. BECK

2004-01-01

163

Nonbehavioral Marital Therapy: A Review of Outcome Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonbehavioral approaches to marital therapy have only recently become subject to empirical validation in contrast to extensively researched behavioral approaches. Behavioral marital therapy outcome research was examined as a reference point for evaluating the outcome studies of four nonbehavioral marital approaches: insight-oriented, cognitive,…

Bryant, Roger Allen

164

Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams  

PubMed Central

Abstract Laser-accelerated particles are a promising option for radiation therapy of cancer by potentially combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages of charged particle beams. To design such a treatment unit we consider different dose delivery schemes and analyze the necessary devices in the required particle beam line for each case. Furthermore, we point out that laser-driven treatment units may be ideal tools for motion adaptation during radiotherapy. Reasons for this are the potential of a flexible gantry and the time structure of the beam with high particle numbers in ultrashort bunches. One challenge that needs to be addressed is the secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements. (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) PMID:22930653

Hofmann, Kerstin M; Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J

2012-01-01

165

Ablation therapies for pancreatic cancer: an updated review.  

PubMed

While impressive strides have been made in the detection and management of numerous somatic malignancies over the past two decades, safe and effective treatments for pancreatic cancer have remained elusive. However, a number of emerging new therapies hold the promise of improving survival and quality of life for those stricken with the disease. Ablative therapies in particular, including those utilizing radiofrequency waves, microwaves, thermal energy, photodynamic energy and focused ultrasound waves provide an opportunity to target neoplasms while sparing healthy surrounding tissue. Paired with endoscopic ultrasound, these therapies offer a safe, effective and minimally invasive means to care of patients with otherwise inoperable tumors. PMID:25215460

Salgado, S; Sharaiha, R; Gaidhane, M; Kahaleh, M

2014-12-01

166

PEREGRINE: An all-particle Monte Carlo code for radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor while minimizing the dose to normal tissues. To carry out this task, it is critical to calculate correctly the distribution of dose delivered. Monte Carlo transport methods have the potential to provide more accurate prediction of dose distributions than currently-used methods. PEREGRINE is a new Monte Carlo transport code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the specific purpose of modeling the effects of radiation therapy. PEREGRINE transports neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles, including protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, and alpha particles. This paper describes the PEREGRINE transport code and some preliminary results for clinically relevant materials and radiation sources.

Hartmann Siantar, C.L.; Chandler, W.P.; Rathkopf, J.A.; Svatos, M.M.; White, R.M.

1994-09-01

167

Review of ion beam therapy: Present and Future  

SciTech Connect

First therapy efforts at the Bevalac using neon ions took place in the 70's and 80's. Promising results led to construction of HIMAC in Chiba Japan, and more recently to therapy trials at GSI. Both these facilities are now treating patients with carbon beams. Advances in both accelerator technology and beam delivery have taken place at these two centers. Plans are well along for new facilities in Europe and Japan.

Alonso, Jose R.

2000-06-01

168

Section1: A Review of Adherence to Oral Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer Section 2: Jenny Milata 1  

E-print Network

Section1: A Review of Adherence to Oral Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer Section 2: Jenny Milata: Endocrine therapy is a critical part of adjuvant therapy in women with hormone receptor- positive breast cancer. Endocrine therapies include Tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors, such as Anastrozole

Zhou, Yaoqi

169

Problem-Solving Therapy for Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on problem-solving therapy (PST) for depressive disorders in noninstitutionalized adults. Method: Intervention studies using randomized controlled designs are included and methodological quality is assessed using a standard set of criteria from the Cochrane Collaborative Review

Gellis, Zvi D.; Kenaley, Bonnie

2008-01-01

170

Behavioral Marital Therapy (BMT) for Alcoholics and Wives: Review of Literature and a Proposed Research Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After describing a social learning formulation of the male alcoholic's marriage, this paper reviews the few studies of behavioral marital therapy (BMT) for alcoholics and their wives. Although none of these studies are as rigorous as one might wish and many of them are merely case studies, a review of the literature shows that behavioral marital…

O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Cutter, Henry S. G.

171

Physiological, psychological and performance effects of massage therapy in sport: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Massage is widely used by the athletic population for a variety of purposes such as injury prevention, recovery from fatigue, relaxation, and to increase performance. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the use and effects of massage therapy in sport. Specifically, the review addresses physiological, psychological and performance effects. Method: A literature search was conducted using Medline, Psychlit

Brian J. Hemmings

2001-01-01

172

Review: engineering particles using the aerosol-through-plasma method  

SciTech Connect

For decades, plasma processing of materials on the nanoscale has been an underlying enabling technology for many 'planar' technologies, particularly virtually every aspect of modern electronics from integrated-circuit fabrication with nanoscale elements to the newest generation of photovoltaics. However, it is only recent developments that suggest that plasma processing can be used to make 'particulate' structures of value in fields, including catalysis, drug delivery, imaging, higher energy density batteries, and other forms of energy storage. In this paper, the development of the science and technology of one class of plasma production of particulates, namely, aerosol-through-plasma (A-T-P), is reviewed. Various plasma systems, particularly RF and microwave, have been used to create nanoparticles of metals and ceramics, as well as supported metal catalysts. Gradually, the complexity of the nanoparticles, and concomitantly their potential value, has increased. First, unique two-layer particles were generated. These were postprocessed to create unique three-layer nanoscale particles. Also, the technique has been successfully employed to make other high-value materials, including carbon nanotubes, unsupported graphene, and spherical boron nitride. Some interesting plasma science has also emerged from efforts to characterize and map aerosol-containing plasmas. For example, it is clear that even a very low concentration of particles dramatically changes plasma characteristics. Some have also argued that the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium approach is inappropriate to these systems. Instead, it has been suggested that charged- and neutral-species models must be independently developed and allowed to 'interact' only in generation terms.

Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luhrs, Claudia C [UNM; Richard, Monique [TEMA

2009-01-01

173

Conceptual design of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator for protons and carbon ions for charged particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design for a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator suitable for charged particle therapy (the use of protons and other light ions to treat some forms of cancer) is described.

Peach, K. J.; Aslaninejad, M.; Barlow, R. J.; Beard, C. D.; Bliss, N.; Cobb, J. H.; Easton, M. J.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fenning, R.; Gardner, I. S. K.; Hill, M. A.; Owen, H. L.; Johnstone, C. J.; Jones, B.; Jones, T.; Kelliher, D. J.; Khan, A.; Machida, S.; McIntosh, P. A.; Pattalwar, S.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Prior, C. R.; Rochford, J.; Rogers, C. T.; Seviour, R.; Sheehy, S. L.; Smith, S. L.; Strachan, J.; Tygier, S.; Vojnovic, B.; Wilson, P.; Witte, H.; Yokoi, T.

2013-03-01

174

Review article: complementary and alternative therapies for inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional western medicine. Despite a lack of scientific data in the form of controlled trials for either efficacy or safety of complementary and alternative medicine, use by patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly of herbal therapies, is widespread and increasing. There is limited controlled evidence indicating efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata and bovine colostrum enemas in ulcerative colitis. Encouraging results have also been reported in small studies of acupuncture for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Contrary to popular belief, natural therapies are not necessarily safe: fatal hepatic and irreversible renal failure have occurred with some preparations and interactions with conventional drugs are potentially dangerous. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of complementary and alternative approaches in inflammatory bowel disease, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:16422993

Langmead, L; Rampton, D S

2006-02-01

175

Ozone therapy in dentistry. A brief review for physicians.  

PubMed

The 21(st) century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

Domb, William C

2014-10-31

176

Family therapy in the Forbidden City: a review of Chinese journals from 1978 to 2006.  

PubMed

This article provides a glimpse into the development of family therapy in China, by reviewing family therapy articles written in Chinese and published in journals in China that are not, therefore, readily accessible to the international community. A content analysis of journals published between 1978 and 2006 revealed 199 family therapy articles in 109 Chinese journals. Most of the studies were conducted by psychiatry or medical professionals, and were based on general systems theory or a systemic family therapy model. The articles focused on the promotion of family therapy theories and interventions in China, but did not specify the application of theory to specific clientele or symptoms. After the year 2000, a threefold increase in the number of family therapy publications was noted. These papers included the introduction of additional theories, but did not include critical assessment of the applicability of Western family therapy models to Chinese families. The researchers noted an absence of articles that identified Chinese approaches to family therapy, and a paucity of papers on gender, professional reflection, and the therapy process. The article concludes that there is room for improvement in the quality of family therapy publications in China, and that gains may be made by interdisciplinary collaboration among academics and practitioners. PMID:19930439

Sim, Timothy; Hu, Chiyi

2009-12-01

177

Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence supports cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), with exposure therapy typically being the most frequently utilized. While the success of exposure treatments is well established there are factors which may hinder their use in "real-world" settings (e.g., poor treatment…

Mulick, Patrick S.; Landers, Sara J.; Kanter, Jonathan W.

2005-01-01

178

Endoscopic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Western societies has accelerated the need for new modalities of treatment. Currently, medical and surgical therapies are widely accepted among patients and physicians. The minimally invasive treatment revolution, however, has stimulated several new endoscopic techniques for GERD. Up to now, the data is limited and further studies are necessary to compare

Spiros N. Sgouros; Christina Bergele

2006-01-01

179

Endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary More than 45,000 women will die of metastatic breast cancer in the United States in 1991. Endocrine therapy remains a major option for treatment of such patients, and results in complete plus partial response rates of 30% with a median duration of approximately one year. Postmenopausal status, increased age, a prolonged disease-free interval, bone and soft tissue metastases, and

Hyman B. Muss

1992-01-01

180

Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

2012-01-01

181

The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population—thus becoming the "heavy charged particle of choice" for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results will require: (1) sophisticated target delineation that integrates CT, MRI and PET imaging; (2) reliable RBE modeling algorithms; (3) efficient beam-scanning technology that compensates for organ movements; (4) online beam control proximal to and within the patient; and (5) better understanding of dose-fractionation parameters. The current status and the anticipated future directions of the role of particle therapy in medicine is a complex subject that involves a very intimate interplay of radiobiology, accelerator physics and radiation oncology. The intention of this relatively brief manuscript is to describe the underlying principles, present the historical developments, highlight the clinical results, focus on the technical advances, and suggest likely future directions. We have also attempted to present a balanced, consensus view of the past achievements and current strategies in particle therapy, in a manner of interest both to long-term experts and to educated newcomers to this field.

Levy, Richard P.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chu, William T.; Coutrakon, George B.; Hug, Eugen B.; Kraft, Gerhard; Tsujii, Hirohiko

2009-03-01

182

An improved Monte Carlo (MC) dose simulation for charged particle cancer therapy  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy are more popular nowadays because of the nature characteristics of charged particle and almost no side effect to patients. An effective treatment is achieved with high precision of dose calculation, in this research work, Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation method has been used to calculate the radiation transport and dose distribution. The simulation have the same setting with the treatment room in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator, HIMAC. The carbon ion beam at the isocentric gantry nozzle for the therapeutic energy of 290 MeV/u was simulated, experimental work was carried out in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Chiba, Japan by using the HIMAC to confirm the accuracy and qualities dose distribution by MC methods. The Geant4 based simulated dose distribution were verified with measurements for Bragg peak and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) respectively. The verification of results shows that the Bragg peak depth-dose and SOBP distributions in simulation has good agreement with measurements. In overall, the study showed that Geant4 based can be fully applied in the heavy-ion therapy field for simulation, further works need to be carry on to refine and improve the Geant4 MC simulations.

Ying, C. K. [Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, AMDI, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia and School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu (Malaysia); Kamil, W. A. [Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, AMDI, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia and Radiology Department, Hospital USM, Kota Bharu (Malaysia); Shuaib, I. L. [Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, AMDI, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia); Matsufuji, Naruhiro [Research Centre of Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Chiba (Japan)

2014-02-12

183

An improved Monte Carlo (MC) dose simulation for charged particle cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy are more popular nowadays because of the nature characteristics of charged particle and almost no side effect to patients. An effective treatment is achieved with high precision of dose calculation, in this research work, Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation method has been used to calculate the radiation transport and dose distribution. The simulation have the same setting with the treatment room in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator, HIMAC. The carbon ion beam at the isocentric gantry nozzle for the therapeutic energy of 290 MeV/u was simulated, experimental work was carried out in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Chiba, Japan by using the HIMAC to confirm the accuracy and qualities dose distribution by MC methods. The Geant4 based simulated dose distribution were verified with measurements for Bragg peak and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) respectively. The verification of results shows that the Bragg peak depth-dose and SOBP distributions in simulation has good agreement with measurements. In overall, the study showed that Geant4 based can be fully applied in the heavy-ion therapy field for simulation, further works need to be carry on to refine and improve the Geant4 MC simulations.

Ying, C. K.; Kamil, W. A.; Shuaib, I. L.; Matsufuji, Naruhiro

2014-02-01

184

Analytical expressions for stopping-power ratios relevant for accurate dosimetry in particle therapy  

E-print Network

In particle therapy, knowledge of the stopping-power ratios (STPRs) of the ion beam for air and water is necessary for accurate ionization chamber dosimetry. Earlier work has investigated the STPRs for pristine carbon ion beams, but here we expand the calculations to a range of ions (1 <= z <= 18) as well as spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) and provide a theoretical in-depth study with a special focus on the parameter regime relevant for particle therapy. The Monte Carlo transport code SHIELD-HIT is used to calculate complete particle-fluence spectra which are required for determining STPRs according to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). We confirm that the STPR depends primarily on the current energy of the ions rather than on their charge z or absolute position in the medium. However, STPRs for different sets of stopping-power data for water and air recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements (ICRU) are compared, including also the...

Lühr, Armin; Jäkel, Oliver; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Bassler, Niels

2010-01-01

185

A systematic review of orofacial pain in patients receiving cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We present the findings of a structured systematic review of the literature assessing orofacial pain induced by malignant\\u000a disease and\\/or its therapy (excluding mucositis). This evaluation of the literature published after the 1989 NIH Development\\u000a Consensus conference on the oral complications of cancer therapies is an effort to assess the prevalence of pain, quality\\u000a of life and economic impact, and

Joel B. Epstein; Catherine Hong; Richard M. Logan; Andrei Barasch; Sharon M. Gordon; Lorree Oberlee-Edwards; Deborah McGuire; Joel J. Napenas; Linda S. Elting; Fred K. L. Spijkervet; Michael T. Brennan

2010-01-01

186

Hydroxyurea therapy contributes to infertility in adult men with sickle cell disease: a review.  

PubMed

Hydroxyurea therapy, a chemotherapeutic agent, is the only US FDA approved therapy for the prevention of vaso-occlusive pain in sickle cell disease (SCD). The National Institutes of Health has sponsored two Phase III randomized, placebo-controlled trials, initially in adults, and subsequently in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Despite the overwhelming evidence that hydroxyurea therapy is beneficial to children and adults with SCA, individuals with SCA and their families express reservations about its use, in part because of the concerns about fertility, particularly in men. As adolescent boys with SCD are now expected to reach their reproductive years, a new concern is emerging about the role of hydroxyurea therapy as a barrier to their progeny. This review will systemically evaluate compromised fertility in men with SCD, and the evidence that hydroxyurea therapy is associated with further decreasing fertility in men with SCD. PMID:25242414

DeBaun, Michael R

2014-12-01

187

Spontaneous hemarthrosis following fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Background Despite the widespread use of fibrinolytic therapy and the numerous reports on its bleeding complications, spontaneous hemarthrosis following fibrinolytic therapy is quite rare. Case Report We describe in this report a patient with no previous history of articular disease who developed a spontaneous right knee bloody effusion following fibrinolytic therapy using rt-PA for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Furthermore, we provide a review of all cases of spontaneous hemarthrosis documented so far in the literature. Conclusions Several pre-existing joint diseases may predispose to hemarthrosis following fibrinolytic therapy, even in patients who deny previous or current articular disorders. Therefore, hemorrhage should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mono-arthritis following fibrinolytic therapy for STEMI. PMID:25417208

Ramadan, Mahmoud M; Khan, Iqbal S; Mahdi, Ousama

2014-01-01

188

Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B: a review.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is becoming a more prevalent clinical problem, especially in HBV-endemic areas. It is estimated that 1.25 million people in the United States and more than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV. Despite the introduction of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in over 100 countries, persistent HBV infection is still a serious problem worldwide, causing an estimated annual death rate of one million. It may take several decades until the effect of vaccination will be translated into reduced transmission and morbidity. Meanwhile, patients with persistent HBV infection require better antiviral therapeutic modalities than are currently available. It is well accepted that antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B is effective to improve prognosis of patients with HBV by preventing development of hepatitis state and HCC. The therapeutic endpoints for hepatitis B treatment are: 1) sustained suppression of HBV replication, as indicated by HBsAg and HBeAg loss, 2) decrease of serum HBV DNA of an undetectable level by a non-PCR method, 3) remission of disease, as shown by normalization of ALT, 4) improvement in liver histology, and 5) reduction of the acute exacerbation, cirrhosis, and HCC. In the present, the antiviral treatment of hepatitis B consists of either interferon alpha or oral lamivudine alone or in combination with existing therapy. Each major antiviral drug of interferon alpha and lamivudine has pros and cons, and effect of combination therapy of both drugs is also still limited. More powerful and safe new antiviral therapies are required to achieve final goal of these therapeutic endpoints. Management of chronic hepatitis B requires significant knowledge of approved pharmacotherapeutic agents and their limitations. Therapeutic options for managing hepatitis infection after liver transplantation (LT) are also evolving. PMID:15032642

Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

2004-03-01

189

Ocular Surface Alterations and Topical Antiglaucomatous Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

Ocular Surface Disease (OSD) is prevalent among medically treated patients with glaucoma. This is basically related to three key-points: OSD and glaucoma are both prevalent in elderly and are common comorbidities in the same patient; the role of the active ingredient of the medical antiglaucomatous therapy; the role of the preservative agent of this medical therapy. Considering the actual state of literature we can state that the active glaucoma agent have a role in OSD, but the main cause seems to be the preservative agent, in particular referring to benzalkonium chloride, BAK. In the clinical evaluation of dry eye patients there is no actually established gold standard. Since the ocular surface injury not only causes dry eye, red eye, eye itching, photophobia and other discomforts, but also increases the risk of failure of glaucoma surgery in patients, it becomes fundamental a complete and good clinical evaluation of OSD (considering Schirmer’s test, tear breakup time, corneal and conjunctival staining) together with a good evaluation of patients’ quality of life (with validated questionnaires). Development of complex preparations, preservative-free and/or novel preservative preparations for glaucoma therapy could provide a promising approach in the prevention of ocular surface injuries. PMID:25317218

Actis, Alessandro G; Rolle, Teresa

2014-01-01

190

A review on photoneutrons characteristics in radiation therapy with high-energy photon beams  

PubMed Central

In radiation therapy with high-energy photon beams (E > 10 MeV) neutrons are generated mainly in linacs head thorough (?,n) interactions of photons with nuclei of high atomic number materials that constitute the linac head and the beam collimation system. These neutrons affect the shielding requirements in radiation therapy rooms and also increase the out-of-field radiation dose of patients undergoing radiation therapy with high-energy photon beams. In the current review, the authors describe the factors influencing the neutron production for different medical linacs based on the performed measurements and Monte Carlo studies in the literature. PMID:24376940

Naseri, Alireza; Mesbahi, Asghar

2010-01-01

191

Injection therapy and denervation procedures for chronic low-back pain: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Injection therapy and denervation procedures are commonly used in the management of chronic low-back pain (LBP) despite uncertainty regarding their effectiveness and safety. To provide an evaluation of the current evidence associated with the use of these procedures, a systematic review was performed. Existing systematic reviews were screened, and the Cochrane Back Review Group trial register was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they recruited adults with chronic LBP, evaluated the use of injection therapy or denervation procedures and measured at least one clinically relevant outcome (such as pain or functional status). Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility and risk of bias (RoB). A meta-analysis was performed with clinically homogeneous studies, and the GRADE approach was used to determine the quality of evidence. In total, 27 RCTs were included, 14 on injection therapy and 13 on denervation procedures. 18 (66%) of the studies were determined to have a low RoB. Because of clinical heterogeneity, only two comparisons could be pooled. Overall, there is only low to very low quality evidence to support the use of injection therapy and denervation procedures over placebo or other treatments for patients with chronic LBP. However, it cannot be ruled out that in carefully selected patients, some injection therapy or denervation procedures may be of benefit. PMID:20424870

Kuijpers, Ton; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Ostelo, Raymond; Verhagen, Arianne; Koes, Bart W.; van Tulder, Maurits W.

2010-01-01

192

Nanoparticles: a review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure.  

PubMed

It is expected that the rapid expansion of nanotechnology will bring many potential benefits. However, initial investigations have demonstrated that nanomaterials may adversely affect human health and the environment. By increasing the application of nanoparticles, protection of the human respiratory system from exposure to airborne nanoparticles and ultrafine particulates has become an emerging health concern. Available research has demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient airborne particulates and ultrafine particles and various adverse heath effects including increased morbidity and mortality. Nanomaterial structures are more likely to be toxic than the same materials of conventional sized samples and can be inhaled more deeply into the lungs. While the respiratory tract is considered as the primary target organ for inhaled nanoparticles, recent research has demonstrated that extrapulmonary organs are also affected. The very small size distribution and large surface area of nanoparticles available to undergo reactions may play a significant role in nanotoxicity, yet very little is known about their interactions with biological systems. This review explores the possible underlying toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles following inhalational exposure. Nanoparticles differ from the same conventional material at a larger scale in physical, chemical and biological characteristics; therefore it is critical to recognize the potential risk of nanoparticle exposure using appropriate toxicity test methods. Current advances and limitations of toxicity assessment methods of nanoparticles are discussed highlighting the recent improvements of in vitro screening tools for the safety evaluation of the rapidly expanding area of nanotechnology. PMID:22260506

Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda; Dechsakulthorn, Finance

2012-01-01

193

Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review.  

PubMed

This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed. PMID:25027188

Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie

2014-01-01

194

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 026608 (2012) Dipole interaction of the Quincke rotating particles  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 026608 (2012) Dipole interaction of the Quincke rotating particles Yu are the importance of fluid-particle suspensions subjected to an external electric field in various fields of physics 25 November 2011; published 27 February 2012) We study the behavior of particles having a finite

Elperin, Tov

195

Acupuncture therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials.  

PubMed

Context • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and is projected to be the third leading cause of death by 2030. Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese therapy, has been used for more than 2000 years to treat respiratory conditions and may treat COPD effectively. In previous literature reviews, researchers have noted significant heterogeneity among the included studies, and none of the reviewers found convincing evidence to recommend routine use of acupuncture therapies for COPD. Objective • This literature review examined the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapies for patients with COPD in improving lung function, increasing exercise capacity, creating positive subjective changes in symptoms, and enhancing health-related quality of life (QoL). Design • The research team searched the following electronic databases from inception to April 2013: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Embase (Elsevier), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP Information Company (CQVIP), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and Wanfang Data. The review included randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the benefits of acupuncture or other related therapies for treatment of COPD. Data were extracted into a predefined form; risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool; and statistical analyses were made. Results • In total, 16 studies were included in the review. The research team found that the acupuncture therapies used in these studies improved health-related QoL. The team's conclusions, comparing results from the interventions with placebo, were based on data from 3 questionnaires that the studies used: (1) the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), with a mean difference (MD) of -8.33 units (95% CI, -13.13 to -3.53); (2) dyspnea on the Medical Research Council's (MRC's) dyspnea scale, with an MD of -0.34 units (95% CI, -0.38 to -0.30); and (3) the Dyspnea Visual Analogue Scale (DVAS), with an MD of -8.85 mm (95% CI, -11.81 to -5.89). Compared with placebo, acupuncture therapies also increased the distance walked in 6 min (6MWT), with an MD of -28.14 (95% CI, 23.92 to 32.36) compared with placebo. No benefit was seen on measures of lung function when acupuncture therapies were compared with either placebo or drug therapy. Conclusion • Acupuncture therapies may result in clinically important improvements in QoL and dyspnea. Future high-quality RCTs should be undertaken to provide conclusive evidence concerning the benefits of acupuncture therapies in the treatment of COPD. PMID:25478799

Coyle, Meaghan Elizabeth; Shergis, Johannah Linda; Huang, Esther Tzu-Ya; Guo, Xinfeng; Di, Yuan Ming; Zhang, Anthony; Xue, Charlie Changli

2014-11-01

196

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Regenerative therapy is one of the most challenging and intriguing branches of modern medicine. Basic research has demonstrated the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWT) in stimulating biological activities that involve intra-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These interactions are at the basis of the current clinical applications, and open the horizons to new applications in tissue regeneration. It is also feasible that shock waves could be used to treat various orthopaedic pathologies, removing the need for surgery. However, suitable translational studies need to be performed before ESWT can become a valid alternative to surgery. PMID:24217134

Romeo, Pietro; Lavanga, Vito; Pagani, Davide; Sansone, Valerio

2014-01-01

197

Novel and emerging therapies safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals: a review.  

PubMed

Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals. PMID:24171271

Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Mahima; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Verma, Amit Kumar; Deb, Rajib; Tiwari, Ruchi; Kapoor, Sanjay

2013-02-01

198

Phototherapy, Photodynamic therapy and Photophoresis in the Treatment of Connective-Tissue Diseases: A Review.  

PubMed

Connective-tissue disorders, which include lupus erythematosus, morphea/scleroderma, and dermatomyositis, are characterized by cutaneous manifestations that are sometimes resistant to conventional therapy. Light treatments, which include phototherapy, photodynamic therapy, and photopheresis, are routinely utilized in the treatment of dermatologic conditions and may provide unique mechanisms of action in the treatment of these connective-tissue disorders. The objective of this study is to conduct a review of the literature that describes the use of phototherapy, photodynamic therapy and photopheresis in the treatment of lupus erythematosus, morphea/scleroderma, and dermatomyositis. A MEDLINE search was conducted to find articles that discussed treatment of connective-tissue diseases with light therapies and greater than 30 publications that discussed light therapy for these diseases were identified. These ranged in design from case reports to randomized, prospective trials. Study outcomes and details were summarized and presented within each connective-tissue disease by light therapy modality, which include phototherapy, photodynamic therapy and photopheresis. Although there is a known association between photosensitivity and connective-tissue diseases, light therapies, when used appropriately, may be legitimate therapeutic options for recalcitrant cutaneous manifestations in lupus erythematosus, morphea/scleroderma, and dermatomyositis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25400115

Gordon Spratt, E A; Gorcey, L V; Soter, N A; Brauer, J A

2014-11-15

199

A Systematic Review of Music Therapy Practice and Outcomes with Acute Adult Psychiatric In-Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. Review Methods A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. Results 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. Conclusions No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to develop specific music therapy models for this patient group that can be tested in experimental studies. PMID:23936399

Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan

2013-01-01

200

Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review.  

PubMed

Radiobiological studies using heavy charged particles followed closely the development of accelerators to produce beams of ever-increasing energy, driven primarily by the aspirations of physicists and chemists interested in the structure of matter. An impressive share of this development took place at Berkeley, beginning with the invention of the cyclotron by Ernest Lawrence in 1930. There followed a series of cyclotrons, synchrotrons and linear accelerators, culminating in the BEVALAC, which provided the first source of very heavy ions (helium to argon) to be used clinically, beginning in 1975. Other early entrants (1950's-1960's) in the clinical use of heavy ion beams (protons only) included Uppsala, Harvard/MGH and several facilities in the USSR. During the 1970's negative pi-meson (pion) beams for clinical use were developed in the US (LAMPF), Switzerland (SIN/PSI) and Canada (TRIUMF). Although the first accelerator built primarily for medical use, the Crocker Medical Cyclotron, was completed at Berkeley in 1939 (it was used primarily to produce neutron beams) it was not until 1990 that the next clearly dedicated medical heavy ion facility went into operation: the 3-gantry proton synchrotron at Loma Linda. There are several reasons for this long hiatus: the long time required to complete clinical trials; the need to develop more economic and flexible accelerators and beam handling systems; the early discouraging clinical results obtained with neutron beams at Berkeley in the 1940's, before the dose response differences for early and late effects were fully understood. During the last decade or so there has been a rapid increase in the number of proton beam facilities; heavier ion beams are so far available only at HIMAC in Japan and GSI in Germany. Earlier studies with radioactive alpha-particle sources and plant cells had already shown, by the early 1930's that high LET radiations were biologically more effective than X-rays in producing damage in eukaryotes. The increased penetration of high energy particles from accelerators made it possible to carry out in vivo radiobiological studies in animals, and the publication by Puck of the first radiation survival response for cultured mammalian cells in 1956, provided another valuable tool for radiobiological studies. One of the earliest systematic studies of the dependence of RBE (relative biological effectiveness) and OER (oxygen enhancement ratio) on LET (linear energy transfer) was that by Barendsen in the early 1960's; he irradiated cultured human kidney cells with deuterium and alpha-particles, and showed that RBE reached a maximum at an LET of 100-200 keV/micrometer, the same LET at which the OER decreased to approximately 1.0. More recent studies (Belli, Folkard, etc.) show that the RBE 'peaks' at a LET which is particle-dependent (for protons, RBE maximum is at approximately 30 keV/micrometer), indicating that LET alone does not adequately define the microscopic energy deposition and its influence on biological effect. One of the complications with heavy ion and pion beams is the increase in RBE with depth in the stopping region. Cultured cell techniques were developed to accurately map these RBE changes, which were investigated at each of the heavy ion and pion facilities, allowing physical dose profiles to be shaped to compensate for the change in biological effectiveness. With the heavier ions, RBE is also dependent on dose and on the dose fractionation scheme used. In vivo systems are the most suitable for such measurements and a variety of normal tissue and tumour end-points has been employed for such studies. A review of the published RBE values for proton beams, 1975-1997, shows very good consistency between the various centres, with average in vivo and average in vitro values falling in the range 1.11-1.18. In this article we have, due to space limitations, only been able to review a representative fraction of the extensive literature on heavy ion radiobiology. We have arbitrarily limited our discussion to mammalian systems, except for a few very early e

Skarsgard, L D

1998-07-01

201

Method for the evidence-based reviews on occupational therapy and stroke.  

PubMed

Evidence-based reviews of the literature relevant to adults with stroke are important to the practice of occupational therapy. We describe the four questions that served as the focus for the evidence-based reviews of the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for adults with stroke. The questions include occupation- and activity-based interventions to improve occupational performance and social participation after stroke, as well as interventions for motor, cognitive, and psychological and emotional impairments after stroke. We include the background for the reviews; the process followed for addressing each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. The final number of articles included in each evidence-based review; a summary of the themes of the results; the strengths and limitations of the findings; and implications for practice, education, and research are presented. PMID:25553741

Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah; Berlanstein, Debra R

2015-01-01

202

Adverse events of auricular therapy: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the literature on adverse events associated with auricular therapy (AT). Case reports, case series, surveys, and all types of clinical trials reporting adverse events of AT were included. Relevant articles were mainly retrieved from 13 electronic databases and seven Chinese journals on complementary medicine. AT-related adverse events were reported in 32 randomized controlled trials, five uncontrolled clinical trials, four case reports, and two controlled clinical trials. For auricular acupuncture, the most frequently reported adverse events were tenderness or pain at insertion, dizziness, local discomfort, minor bleeding and nausea, and so forth. For auricular acupressure, local skin irritation and discomfort, mild tenderness or pain, and dizziness were commonly reported. Skin irritation, local discomfort, and pain were detected in auricular electroacupuncture, and minor infection was identified in auricular bloodletting therapy. Most of these events were transient, mild, and tolerable, and no serious adverse events were identified. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that AT is a relatively safe approach. Considering the patient's safety, prospective or retrospective surveys are needed in future research to gather practitioner-reported and patient-reported adverse events on AT, and the quality of adverse events reporting in future AT trials should be improved. PMID:25435890

Tan, Jing-Yu; Molassiotis, Alexander; Wang, Tao; Suen, Lorna K P

2014-01-01

203

Adverse Events of Auricular Therapy: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the literature on adverse events associated with auricular therapy (AT). Case reports, case series, surveys, and all types of clinical trials reporting adverse events of AT were included. Relevant articles were mainly retrieved from 13 electronic databases and seven Chinese journals on complementary medicine. AT-related adverse events were reported in 32 randomized controlled trials, five uncontrolled clinical trials, four case reports, and two controlled clinical trials. For auricular acupuncture, the most frequently reported adverse events were tenderness or pain at insertion, dizziness, local discomfort, minor bleeding and nausea, and so forth. For auricular acupressure, local skin irritation and discomfort, mild tenderness or pain, and dizziness were commonly reported. Skin irritation, local discomfort, and pain were detected in auricular electroacupuncture, and minor infection was identified in auricular bloodletting therapy. Most of these events were transient, mild, and tolerable, and no serious adverse events were identified. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that AT is a relatively safe approach. Considering the patient's safety, prospective or retrospective surveys are needed in future research to gather practitioner-reported and patient-reported adverse events on AT, and the quality of adverse events reporting in future AT trials should be improved. PMID:25435890

Molassiotis, Alexander; Wang, Tao; Suen, Lorna K. P.

2014-01-01

204

Manual therapy with and without vestibular rehabilitation for cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Manual therapy is an intervention commonly advocated in the management of dizziness of a suspected cervical origin. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises have been shown to be effective in the treatment of unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders, and have also been suggested in the literature as an adjunct in the treatment of cervicogenic dizziness. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for manual therapy, in conjunction with or without vestibular rehabilitation, in the management of cervicogenic dizziness. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in the databases Scopus, Mantis, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library for terms related to manual therapy, vestibular rehabilitation and cervicogenic dizziness. Included studies were assessed using the Maastricht-Amsterdam criteria. Results A total of fifteen articles reporting findings from thirteen unique investigations, including five randomised controlled trials and eight prospective, non-controlled cohort studies were included in this review. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally poor to moderate. All but one study reported improvement in dizziness following either unimodal or multimodal manual therapy interventions. Some studies reported improvements in postural stability, joint positioning, range of motion, muscle tenderness, neck pain and vertebrobasilar artery blood flow velocity. Discussion Although it has been argued that manual therapy combined with vestibular rehabilitation may be superior in the treatment of cervicogenic dizziness, there are currently no observational and experimental studies demonstrating such effects. A rationale for combining manual therapy and vestibular rehabilitation in the management of cervicogenic dizziness is presented. Conclusion There is moderate evidence to support the use of manual therapy, in particular spinal mobilisation and manipulation, for cervicogenic dizziness. The evidence for combining manual therapy and vestibular rehabilitation in the management of cervicogenic dizziness is lacking. Further research to elucidate potential synergistic effects of manual therapy and vestibular rehabilitation is strongly recommended. PMID:21923933

2011-01-01

205

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies – an annotated bibliography. Part 2: Herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of herbal medicines; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pre-tested form and summarized descriptively. Results From a total of 79 potentially relevant reviews pre-selected in the screening process 58 met the inclusion criteria. Thirty of the reports reviewed ginkgo (for dementia, intermittent claudication, tinnitus, and macular degeneration), hypericum (for depression) or garlic preparations (for cardiovascular risk factors and lower limb atherosclerosis). The quality of primary studies was criticized in the majority of the reviews. Most reviews judged the available evidence as promising but definitive conclusions were rarely possible. Conclusions Systematic reviews are available on a broad range of herbal preparations prescribed for defined conditions. There is very little evidence on the effectiveness of herbalism as practised by specialist herbalists who combine herbs and use unconventional diagnosis. PMID:11518548

Linde, Klaus; ter Riet, Gerben; Hondras, Maria; Vickers, Andrew; Saller, Reinhard; Melchart, Dieter

2001-01-01

206

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies - an annotated bibliography. Part 1: Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with acupuncture. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of acupuncture; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pretested form and summarized descriptively. Results From a total of 48 potentially relevant reviews preselected in a screeening process 39 met the inclusion criteria. 22 were on various pain syndromes or rheumatic diseases. Other topics addressed by more than one review were addiction, nausea, asthma and tinnitus. Almost unanimously the reviews state that acupuncture trials include too few patients. Often included trials are heterogeneous regarding patients, interventions and outcome measures, are considered to have insufficient quality and contradictory results. Convincing evidence is available only for postoperative nausea, for which acupuncture appears to be of benefit, and smoking cessation, where acupuncture is no more effective than sham acupuncture. Conclusions A large number of systematic reviews on acupuncture exists. What is most obvious from these reviews is the need for (the funding of) well-designed, larger clinical trials. PMID:11513758

Linde, Klaus; Vickers, Andrew; Hondras, Maria; ter Riet, Gerben; Thormählen, Johannes; Berman, Brian; Melchart, Dieter

2001-01-01

207

Usage of complementary therapies in rheumatology: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary medicine (CM) is more popular than ever before. Rheumatology patients seem particularly keen to try CM. In this paper, surveys on rheumatology patients' use of CM are reviewed. The issues of perceived effectiveness, safety and costs are also addressed. In addition surveys of doctors' attitudes towards CM in rheumatology are summarised. Fourteen surveys on patients' use of CM and

E. Ernst

1998-01-01

208

Milieu Therapy as a Communication Intervention: A Review of the Literature Related to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several researchers have employed milieu therapy to address the communication needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Thus, the purpose of this review is to examine milieu therapy, particularly, the environments and individuals involved in the training and the effectiveness of milieu therapy with children who have a diagnosis of ASD…

Mancil, G. Richmond

2009-01-01

209

Triple antiplatelet therapy for preventing vascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Dual antiplatelet therapy is usually superior to mono therapy in preventing recurrent vascular events (VEs). This systematic review assesses the safety and efficacy of triple antiplatelet therapy in comparison with dual therapy in reducing recurrent vascular events. Methods Completed randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of triple versus dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease were identified using electronic bibliographic searches. Data were extracted on composite VEs, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, death and bleeding and analysed with Cochrane Review Manager software. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random effects models. Results Twenty-five completed randomized trials (17,383 patients with IHD) were included which involving the use of intravenous (iv) GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban), aspirin, clopidogrel and/or cilostazol. In comparison with aspirin-based therapy, triple therapy using an intravenous GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor significantly reduced composite VEs and MI in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) (VE: OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86; MI: OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (VE: OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.30-0.51; MI: OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.17-0.38). A significant reduction in death was also noted in STEMI patients treated with GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.99). Increased minor bleeding was noted in STEMI and elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients treated with GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy. Stroke events were too infrequent for us to be able to identify meaningful trends and no data were available for patients recruited into trials on the basis of stroke or peripheral vascular disease. Conclusions Triple antiplatelet therapy based on iv GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors was more effective than aspirin-based dual therapy in reducing VEs in patients with acute coronary syndromes (STEMI and NSTEMI). Minor bleeding was increased among STEMI and elective PCI patients treated with a GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy. In patients undergoing elective PCI, triple therapy had no beneficial effect and was associated with an 80% increase in transfusions and an eightfold increase in thrombocytopenia. Insufficient data exist for patients with prior ischaemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease and further research is needed in these groups of patients. PMID:20553581

2010-01-01

210

Adjunctive Therapies to Cerclage for the Prevention of Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough summary of published studies that have assessed the efficacy of adjunctive therapies used in addition to cervical cerclage as a preventive measure for preterm birth. We limited our paper to patients treated with cerclage plus an additional prophylactic therapy compared to a reference group of women with cerclage alone. The specific adjunctive therapies included in this systematic review are progesterone, reinforcing or second cerclage placement, tocolytics, antibiotics, bedrest, and pessary. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases without date criteria with restriction to English language and human studies and performed additional bibliographic review of selected articles and identified 305 total studies for review. Of those, only 12 studies compared the use of an adjunctive therapy with cerclage to a reference group of cerclage alone. None of the 12 were prospective randomized clinical trials. No comparative studies were identified addressing the issues of antibiotics, bedrest, or pessary as adjunctive treatments to cerclage. None of the 12 studies included in this paper demonstrated a clear benefit of any adjunctive therapy used in addition to cerclage over and above cerclage used alone; however, few studies with small numbers limited the strength of the conclusions. PMID:23606847

DeFranco, Emily A.; Valent, Amy Miyoshi; Newman, Tondra; Regan, Jodi; Smith, Jessica; Muglia, Louis J.

2013-01-01

211

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarize the evidence for curative and health enhancement effects through forest therapy and to assess the quality of studies based on a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Study design A systematic review based on RCTs. Methods Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which forest therapy was applied. The following databases – from 1990 to November 9, 2010 – were searched: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Ichushi- Web. All Cochrane databases and Campbell Systematic Reviews were also searched up to November 9, 2010. Results Two trials met all inclusion criteria. No specific diseases were evaluated, and both studies reported significant effectiveness in one or more outcomes for health enhancement. However, the results of evaluations with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 2010 and CLEAR NPT (A Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial) checklists generally showed a remarkable lack of description in the studies. Furthermore, there was a problem of heterogeneity, thus a meta-analysis was unable to be performed. Conclusion Because there was insufficient evidence on forest therapy due to poor methodological and reporting quality and heterogeneity of RCTs, it was not possible to offer any conclusions about the effects of this intervention. However, it was possible to identify problems with current RCTs of forest therapy, and to propose a strategy for strengthening study quality and stressing the importance of study feasibility and original check items based on characteristics of forest therapy as a future research agenda. PMID:22888281

Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Mutoh, Yoshiteru; Honda, Takuya; Shiozawa, Nobuyoshi; Okada, Shinpei; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Kamada, Masamitsu; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Handa, Shuichi

2012-01-01

212

Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

During the last two decades a number of therapies, under the name of the third wave of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been developed: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), and integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). The purposes of this review article of third wave treatment RCTs were: (1) to describe and review them methodologically, (2) to meta-analytically assess their efficacy, and (3) to evaluate if they currently fulfil the criteria for empirically supported treatments. There are 13 RCTs both in ACT and DBT, 1 in CBASP, 2 in IBCT, and none in FAP. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the third wave treatment RCTs used a research methodology that was significantly less stringent than CBT studies; that the mean effect size was moderate for both ACT and DBT, and that none of the third wave therapies fulfilled the criteria for empirically supported treatments. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve future RCTs to increase the possibility of them becoming empirically supported treatments. PMID:18258216

Ost, Lars-Göran

2008-03-01

213

Treatment of pediatric patients and young adults with particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): establishment of workflow and initial clinical data  

PubMed Central

Background To report on establishment of workflow and clinical results of particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Materials and methods We treated 36 pediatric patients (aged 21 or younger) with particle therapy at HIT. Median age was 12 years (range 2-21 years), five patients (14%) were younger than 5 years of age. Indications included pilocytic astrocytoma, parameningeal and orbital rhabdomyosarcoma, skull base and cervical chordoma, osteosarcoma and adenoid-cystic carcinoma (ACC), as well as one patient with an angiofibroma of the nasopharynx. For the treatment of small children, an anesthesia unit at HIT was established in cooperation with the Department of Anesthesiology. Results Treatment concepts depended on tumor type, staging, age of the patient, as well as availability of specific study protocols. In all patients, particle radiotherapy was well tolerated and no interruptions due to toxicity had to be undertaken. During follow-up, only mild toxicites were observed. Only one patient died of tumor progression: Carbon ion radiotherapy was performed as an individual treatment approach in a child with a skull base recurrence of the previously irradiated rhabdomyosarcoma. Besides this patient, tumor recurrence was observed in two additional patients. Conclusion Clinical protocols have been generated to evaluate the real potential of particle therapy, also with respect to carbon ions in distinct pediatric patient populations. The strong cooperation between the pediatric department and the department of radiation oncology enable an interdisciplinary treatment and stream-lined workflow and acceptance of the treatment for the patients and their parents. PMID:23072718

2012-01-01

214

Tutorial for writing systematic reviews for the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy (BJPT).  

PubMed

Systematic reviews aim to summarize all evidence using very rigorous methods in order to address a specific research question with less bias as possible. Systematic reviews are widely used in the field of physical therapy, however not all reviews have good quality. This tutorial aims to guide authors of the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy on how systematic reviews should be conducted and reported in order to be accepted for publication. It is expected that this tutorial will help authors of systematic reviews as well as journal editors and reviewers on how to conduct, report, critically appraise and interpret this type of study design.Revisões sistemáticas têm como objetivo sumarizar toda a evidência disponível, através de métodos rigorosos, para responder a uma pergunta de pesquisa específica com o mínimo de viés possível. Revisões sistemáticas são amplamente utilizadas na fisioterapia, porém nem todas as revisões possuem boa qualidade. Esse tutorial tem como objetivo guiar os autores do Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy sobre como revisões sistemáticas deveriam ser conduzidas e descritas para que sejam aceitas para publicação. Espera-se que esse tutorial irá auxiliar autores de revisões sistemáticas, assim como editores e revisores de periódicos em como conduzir, descrever, fazer análise crítica e interpretar esse tipo de delineamento de pesquisa. PMID:25590440

Mancini, Marisa C; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Sampaio, Rosana F; Costa, Lucíola C M; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Leonardo O P

2014-12-01

215

Leech therapy for epidermoid cysts and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Hirudo medicinalis sucks blood directly through the external mammalian skin. We recently observed a healthy 64-year-old Iranian man, who presented with numerous asymptomatic multilobular oval-to-round well-defined 0.5 to 1.5 cm cystic lesions with central umbilication (central black eschar) over the upper portion of his chest. We made the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, giant comedone and leech bite on the basis of the constellation of clinical features. The patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin at a dose of 2 g daily, and 2% topical erythromycin solution. Despite improvement, the evidence of cystic lesions persisted. There was no history of similar lesions in any other family member. There was no history of trauma. The patient was not using any topical or systemic medication. Two weeks before his visit, he had a history of leech therapy under the supervision of a general practitioner. His medical history was significant for leech therapy of the lesions, five days previously. He was followed up for another two weeks and after disappearance of the inflammation, with the patient under local anesthesia, the well-circumscribed mass was completely evacuated with a sharp curette and comedone extractor. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Considering the efficacy of leeches, it would be favorable to breed a germ-free leech. In Iran, the use of the leeches in surgery, in recent years, has been infrequent. It appears that the positive effects of this ancient remedy may now be explained through scientific methods, promising potentially even more uses of this admirable creature in medicine. PMID:24804186

Rasi, Abbas; Faghihi, Alireza; Jalali, Mirhadi Aziz; Zamanian, Abbas; Ghaffarpour, Gholamhossein

2014-01-01

216

Impact of quality scales on levels of evidence inferred from a systematic review of exercise therapy and low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colle F, Rannou F, Revel M, Fermanian J, Poiraudeau S. Impact of quality scales on levels of evidence inferred from a systematic review of exercise therapy and low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1745-52. Objective: To assess whether the scale used affects levels of evidence inferred from a systematic review of studies on exercise therapy and chronic low back

Florence Colle; Michel Revel; Jacques Fermanian; Serge Poiraudeau

2002-01-01

217

Possible adverse events in children treated by manual therapy: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Pediatric manual therapy is controversial within the medical community particularly with respect to adverse events. Pediatric manual therapy (Ped MT) is commonly used by a number of professions such as chiropractors, osteopaths and naturopaths for a variety of treatments in children. Ped MT interventions range from advice, light touch, massage, through to mobilisation and high velocity spinal manipulation. However, current evidence related to adverse events associated with Ped MT is not well understood. Objective To update the clinical research literature from the 2007 report by Vohra, Johnston, Cramer and Humphreys on possible adverse events in children treated by spinal manipulation. Methods A review of the clinical research literature from June 2004 until January 2010 as reported in MEDLINE, PubMed and PubMed Central for adverse events specifically related to the treatment of pediatric cases by manual therapy. Results Only three new clinical studies, one systematic review with meta-analysis and one evidence report were identified. Two clinical studies reported on chiropractic care and one on osteopathic spinal manipulation in children. The systematic review investigated all studies of adverse events and manual therapy and was not specific for pediatric patients. The evidence review focused on effectiveness of spinal manipulation in a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. No serious or catastrophic adverse events were reported in the clinical studies or systematic review. However for adults, it has been estimated that between 0.003% and 0.13% of manual therapy treatments may result in a serious adverse event. Although mild to moderate adverse events are common in adults, an accurate estimate from high quality pediatric studies is currently not available. Conclusions There is currently insufficient research evidence related to adverse events and manual therapy. However, clinical studies and systematic reviews from adult patients undergoing manual therapy, particularly spinal manipulation report that mild to moderate adverse events are common and self limiting. However serious adverse events are rare and much less than for medication commonly prescribed for these problems. More high quality research specifically addressing adverse events and pediatric manual therapy is needed. PMID:20525194

2010-01-01

218

Systemic Therapy for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review and Update  

PubMed Central

An in-depth understanding of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is important so that practitioners can make informed evidenced-based decisions with patients to optimize not only quantity of life but quality of life as well. Therefore, this review focuses on the biology of mRCC as it relates to targets for therapy, as well as on the small molecules rationally designed with these targets in mind. In addition, anticipated emerging therapies are highlighted, including the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors axitinib and tivozanib, as well as new immune-based therapies such as dendritic cell-based vaccines and antibodies. We also briefly review recent reports from the emerging field of predicting drug response based on molecular markers. And finally, management of metastatic non-clear cell RCC histologies are discussed focusing on available evidence to direct decision making when assessing therapeutic options. PMID:23526579

Logan, Joshua E; Rampersaud, Edward N; Sonn, Geoffrey A; Chamie, Karim; Belldegrun, Arie S; Pantuck, Allan J; Slamon, Dennis J; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F

2012-01-01

219

Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We review all available controlled outcome studies of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) to evaluate evidence of its effectiveness. Method: Forty-three studies were located and key data abstracted on problem, setting, SFBT intervention, design characteristics, and outcomes. Results: Thirty-two (74%) of the studies reported…

Gingerich, Wallace J.; Peterson, Lance T.

2013-01-01

220

Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

2013-01-01

221

Cost-Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in the United Kingdom—A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and assess all prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies carried out in the UK. Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Amed (Alternative and Allied Medicine Database, British Library Medical Information Centre), The Cochrane Library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (via Cochrane) and Health Technology Assessments up to

Peter H. Canter; Joanna Thompson Coon; Edzard Ernst; Exeter Devon

2006-01-01

222

Therapies for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Review of the Research  

MedlinePLUS

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223

The effects of antipsychotic therapy on serum lipids: a comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature since 1970 documenting the effects of antipsychotic agents on serum lipids, including a discussion of possible mechanisms for the observed phenomena, the clinical significance and recommendations for monitoring hyperlipidemia during antipsychotic therapy. Results: High-potency conventional antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol) and the atypical antipsychotics, ziprasidone, risperidone and aripiprazole, appear to be

Jonathan M Meyer; Carol E Koro

2004-01-01

224

Assessment in Marriage and Family Therapy: A Review of Clinical Updates for Family Therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents information from an integrative literature review that examined assessment processes presented to marriage and family therapists in Clinical Updates for Family Therapists, Volumes 1 (2005), 2 (2006), and 3 (2007). The study was based on the concern that marriage and family therapy is losing its systemic relational focus as practitioners must comply with diagnosis models using the

Deborah C. Bailey

2012-01-01

225

Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Chronic, NonMalignant Pain: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior

Jennie C. I. Tsao

2007-01-01

226

Pharmacological therapy used in the elimination of Helicobacter pylori infection: A review  

PubMed Central

The optimal therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection should combine a high cure rate and a short treatment duration with a favorable side-effect profile and should maintain a low cost. Several strategies have been proposed to increase the H. pylori eradication rate, including the extension of the treatment duration to 14 d, the use of a four-drug regimen (quadruple, sequential, and concomitant treatments), and the use of novel antibiotics, such as levofloxacin. However, triple therapy remains the most widely accepted first-line treatment regimen in Brazil and the United States and throughout Europe. Because this therapy is limited by resistance to clarithromycin, other therapeutic regimens have been investigated worldwide. This review describes the current literature involving studies directly comparing these different therapies and their efficacies. PMID:25574087

dos Santos, Ariolana A; Carvalho, Adriana A

2015-01-01

227

Laser therapy for Hailey-Hailey disease: review of the literature and a case report  

PubMed Central

Medical therapy for Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) generally only provides temporary suppression. Surgical intervention has been shown to prolong remission, but may lead to significant morbidity. Laser therapy is becoming the preferred method of treatment because of its successful results and lower risk of complications compared to surgical modalities. We report a case of fractional ablative carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment for HHD and review the relevant literature. Fractional CO2 laser therapy was performed in our patient with a 14-year history of HHD. No recurrence was observed 5 months after laser therapy in right inframammary and axillary regions. Symptomatic recurrence was noted after treatment of inguinal areas. In conclusion, traditional laser ablation remains the treatment of choice for prolonged remission of recalcitrant plaques in HHD. PMID:25386280

Ortiz, Arisa E.; Zachary, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

228

A Monte Carlo tool for raster-scanning particle therapy dose computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of this work was to implement Monte Carlo (MC) dose computation in realistic patient geometries with raster-scanning, the most advanced ion beam delivery technique, combining magnetic beam deflection with energy variation. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo package well-established in particle therapy applications, was extended to simulate raster-scanning delivery with clinical data, unavailable as built-in feature. A new complex beam source, compatible with FLUKA public programming interface, was implemented in Fortran to model the specific properties of raster-scanning, i.e. delivery by means of multiple spot sources with variable spatial distributions, energies and numbers of particles. The source was plugged into the MC engine through the user hook system provided by FLUKA. Additionally, routines were provided to populate the beam source with treatment plan data, stored as DICOM RTPlan or TRiP98's RST format, enabling MC recomputation of clinical plans. Finally, facilities were integrated to read computerised tomography (CT) data into FLUKA. The tool was used to recompute two representative carbon ion treatment plans, a skull base and a prostate case, prepared with analytical dose calculation (TRiP98). Selected, clinically relevant issues influencing the dose distributions were investigated: (1) presence of positioning errors, (2) influence of fiducial markers and (3) variations in pencil beam width. Notable differences in modelling of these challenging situations were observed between the analytical and Monte Carlo results. In conclusion, a tool was developed, to support particle therapy research and treatment, when high precision MC calculations are required, e.g. in presence of severe density heterogeneities or in quality assurance procedures.

Jelen, U.; Radon, M.; Santiago, A.; Wittig, A.; Ammazzalorso, F.

2014-03-01

229

Life review therapy for older adults with moderate depressive symptomatology: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Although there is substantial evidence for the efficacy of life review therapy as an early treatment of depression in later life, its effectiveness in natural settings has not been studied. The present study evaluates an intervention based on life review and narrative therapy in a large multi-site, pragmatic randomized controlled trial(RCT). METHOD. Life review therapy was compared with care as usual. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms;secondary outcomes were anxiety symptoms, positive mental health, quality of life, and current major depressive episode (MDE). To identify groups for whom the intervention was particularly effective, moderator analyses were carried out (on sociodemographic variables, personality traits, reminiscence functions, clinically relevant depressive and anxiety symptoms, and past MDEs). RESULTS. Compared with care as usual (n=102), life review therapy (n=100) was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, at post-treatment (d=0.60, B= -5.3, p<0.001), at 3-month follow-up (d=0.50, B= -5.0, p<0.001) and for the intervention also at 9-month follow-up (t=5.7, p<0.001). The likelihood of a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms was significantly higher [odds ratio (OR) 3.77, p<0.001 at post-treatment ; OR 3.76, p<0.001 at the 3-month follow-up]. Small significant effects were found for symptoms of anxiety and positive mental health.Moderator analyses showed only two significant moderators, the personality trait of extraversion and the reminiscence function of boredom reduction. CONCLUSIONS. This study shows the effectiveness of life review therapy as an early intervention for depression in an ecologically valid context, supporting its applicability to a broad target group. The intervention is also effective in reducing anxiety symptoms and strengthening positive mental health. PMID:21995889

Korte, J; Bohlmeijer, E T; Cappeliez, P; Smit, F; Westerhof, G J

2012-06-01

230

Review article: Nutritional therapy in alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol consumption may lead to primary and secondary malnutrition. In particular, protein energy malnutrition not only aggravates alcoholic liver disease but also correlates with impaired liver function and increased mortality. Therefore, in these patients, adequate nutritional support should be implemented in order to improve their prognosis. Clinical trials addressing this issue have shown that nutritional therapy either enterally or parenterally improves various aspects of malnutrition, and there is increasing evidence that it may also improve survival. Therefore, malnourished alcoholics should be administered a diet rich in carbohydrate- and protein-derived calories preferentially via the oral or enteral route. Micronutrient deficiencies typically encountered in alcoholics, such as for thiamine and folate, require specific supplementation. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may be treated with branched-chain amino acids in order to achieve a positive nitrogen balance. Fatty liver represents the early stage of alcoholic liver disease, which is usually reversible with abstinence. Metadoxine appears to improve fatty liver but confirmatory studies are necessary. S-adenosyl-L-methionine may be helpful for patients with severe alcoholic liver damage, since various mechanisms of alcohol-related hepatotoxicity are counteracted with this essential methyl group donor, while a recent large trial showed that the use of polyenylphosphatidylcholine is of limited efficacy. PMID:12940921

Stickel, F; Hoehn, B; Schuppan, D; Seitz, H K

2003-08-15

231

Review article: use of induction therapy in liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Induction therapy is used relatively infrequently in liver transplantation, but developments in induction regimens and strategies for their use are prompting a re-examination of its benefits. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induces protracted, dose-dependent lymphocytopenia with preferential reconstitution of regulatory T-lymphocytes. Non-depleting interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2RA) act selectively on activated T-lymphocytes with a shorter duration of effect. IL-2RA induction with delayed and reduced calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) exposure appears to preserve efficacy, while more aggressive CNI minimisation has been attempted successfully using rATG. Steroid-free tacrolimus monotherapy with rATG or IL-2RA induction is effective if adequate tacrolimus exposure is maintained. Early concerns that addition of induction to a conventional maintenance regimen could lead to accelerated progression of hepatitis C disease, or to an increased risk of hepatocellular cancer recurrence, now appear unfounded using modern regimens. Similarly, with routine use of systemic prophylaxis, recent prospective and retrospective data have not shown a higher rate of infections overall, or cytomegalovirus infection specifically, using rATG or IL-2RA induction. Historical evidence that lymphocyte-depleting agents increased the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma has not been confirmed for rATG. Wider use of induction in liver transplantation is now merited, using individualized strategies to support reduced CNI exposure or steroid-free immunosuppression. PMID:22863028

Rostaing, Lionel; Saliba, Faouzi; Calmus, Yvon; Dharancy, Sébastien; Boillot, Olivier

2012-10-01

232

Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a prevailing health problem that seriously impacts quality of life. Current treatment options are less effective for patients having cavernous nerve (CN) injury or diabetes mellitus-related ED. These 2 types of ED are thus the main focus of past and current stem cell (SC) therapy studies. In a total of 16 studies so far, rats were exclusively used as disease models and SCs were mostly derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle. For tracking, SCs were labeled with LacZ, green fluorescent protein, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DiI, bromodeoxyuridine, or 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine, some of which might have led to data misinterpretation. SC transplantation was done exclusively by intracavernous (IC) injection, which has been recently shown to have systemic effects. Functional assessment was done exclusively by measuring increases of IC pressure during electrostimulation of CN. Histological assessment usually focused on endothelial, smooth muscle, and CN contents in the penis. In general, favorable outcomes have been obtained in all trials so far, although whether SCs had differentiated into specific cell lineages remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that intracavernously injected SCs rapidly escaped the penis and homed into bone marrow. This could perhaps explain why intracavernously injected SCs had systemic antidiabetic effects and prolonged anti-ED effects. These hypotheses and the differentiation-versus-paracrine debate require further investigation. PMID:21793654

Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Wang, Zhong; Deng, Chunhua; Huang, Yun-Ching; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.

2012-01-01

233

The effect of orthodontic therapy on periodontal health: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Objectives. This review aims to evaluate the effect of orthodontic therapy on periodontal health. Data. Original articles that reported on the effect of orthodontic therapy on periodontal health were included. The reference lists of potentially relevant review articles were also sought. Sources. A literature search was conducted using the databases, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words in different combinations: "periodontal disease," "orthodontics" and "root resorption." This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Articles published only in English language were included. Letters to the Editor, historical reviews and unpublished articles were not sought. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the present literature review, it was observed that there is a very close inter-relationship between the periodontal health and the outcome of orthodontic therapy. PMID:24991214

Alfuriji, Samah; Alhazmi, Nora; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Alruwaithi, Moatazbellah; Alkatheeri, Nasser; Geevarghese, Amrita

2014-01-01

234

The Effect of Orthodontic Therapy on Periodontal Health: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This review aims to evaluate the effect of orthodontic therapy on periodontal health. Data. Original articles that reported on the effect of orthodontic therapy on periodontal health were included. The reference lists of potentially relevant review articles were also sought. Sources. A literature search was conducted using the databases, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “orthodontics” and “root resorption.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Articles published only in English language were included. Letters to the Editor, historical reviews and unpublished articles were not sought. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the present literature review, it was observed that there is a very close inter-relationship between the periodontal health and the outcome of orthodontic therapy. PMID:24991214

Alfuriji, Samah; Alhazmi, Nora; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Alruwaithi, Moatazbellah; Alkatheeri, Nasser; Geevarghese, Amrita

2014-01-01

235

Adequate margin definition for scanned particle therapy in the incidence of intrafractional motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced 4D dose calculations (4DDCs) for scanned particle therapy show that in the incidence of motion, it is insufficient to use target contours defined on one reference CT phase. ICRU Report 62 (ICRU 1999 ICRU Report 62 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)) advises that variations in size, shape and position of CTVs relative to anatomic reference points have to be considered for internal target volumes (ITVs). In addition to geometrical margin adaption, changes of water equivalent path length have to be considered for particle therapy. Different ITV concepts have been applied to six representative patients (liver and lung indications) based on 4DCT. Geometrical ITVs (gITV) were calculated by combining deformed CTVs over all motion phases. To take into account path length changes, range adapted ITVs (raITV) were established as the union of range adapted CTVs in all phases. For gated delivery, gat_gITVs and gat_raITVs were calculated. Extensive 4DDCs have been performed for two exemplary patients to illustrate that neither re-scanning nor gating can sufficiently compensate for motion effects if no appropriate margins are employed and to evaluate the effectiveness of gITVs and raITVs. CTVs significantly differ from gITVs and raITVs in size (up to a factor 2 in volume). But also raITVs and gITVs differ significantly in size and are spatially displaced, particularly for lung patients. raITVs show a strong field dependence in shape. All volumes are reduced in size when gating is applied and considered during margin adaption. 4D dose distributions show big improvements when gITV or raITV are used compared to CTVs. However, the use of either gITVs or raITVs do not result in significant differences. If raITVs are used, slightly better target coverage is gained at the cost of more healthy tissue exposure. Our results emphasize that adapted target volumes have to be used for scanned particle therapy in the presence of motion. However, even though gITVs and raITVs differ significantly in shape and size, this difference does not necessarily translate into significant differences in the resultant 4D dose distributions.

Knopf, Antje-Christin; Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Antony; Mori, Shininchiro

2013-09-01

236

Adequate margin definition for scanned particle therapy in the incidence of intrafractional motion.  

PubMed

Advanced 4D dose calculations (4DDCs) for scanned particle therapy show that in the incidence of motion, it is insufficient to use target contours defined on one reference CT phase. ICRU Report 62 (ICRU 1999 ICRU Report 62 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)) advises that variations in size, shape and position of CTVs relative to anatomic reference points have to be considered for internal target volumes (ITVs). In addition to geometrical margin adaption, changes of water equivalent path length have to be considered for particle therapy. Different ITV concepts have been applied to six representative patients (liver and lung indications) based on 4DCT. Geometrical ITVs (gITV) were calculated by combining deformed CTVs over all motion phases. To take into account path length changes, range adapted ITVs (raITV) were established as the union of range adapted CTVs in all phases. For gated delivery, gat_gITVs and gat_raITVs were calculated. Extensive 4DDCs have been performed for two exemplary patients to illustrate that neither re-scanning nor gating can sufficiently compensate for motion effects if no appropriate margins are employed and to evaluate the effectiveness of gITVs and raITVs. CTVs significantly differ from gITVs and raITVs in size (up to a factor 2 in volume). But also raITVs and gITVs differ significantly in size and are spatially displaced, particularly for lung patients. raITVs show a strong field dependence in shape. All volumes are reduced in size when gating is applied and considered during margin adaption. 4D dose distributions show big improvements when gITV or raITV are used compared to CTVs. However, the use of either gITVs or raITVs do not result in significant differences. If raITVs are used, slightly better target coverage is gained at the cost of more healthy tissue exposure. Our results emphasize that adapted target volumes have to be used for scanned particle therapy in the presence of motion. However, even though gITVs and raITVs differ significantly in shape and size, this difference does not necessarily translate into significant differences in the resultant 4D dose distributions. PMID:23939146

Knopf, Antje-Christin; Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Antony; Mori, Shininchiro

2013-09-01

237

Massage therapy for essential hypertension: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Massage, an ancient Chinese healing art, is widely practiced for symptom relief in hypertensive patients with anxiety, depression, headache, vertigo, chronic pain in neck, shoulder and back. A large number of case series and clinical trials have been published. However, it is still unclear whether massage can be recommended as an effective therapy for essential hypertension (EH). We estimated the current clinical evidence of massage for EH. Articles published before 10 December 2013 were searched using Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang data and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials comparing massage with any type of control intervention were included. Trials testing massage combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were included as well. Meta-analysis was performed on the effects on blood pressure (BP). Twenty-four articles involving 1962 patients with EH were selected. Methodological quality of most trials was evaluated as generally low. Meta-analyses demonstrated that massage combined with antihypertensive drugs may be more effective than antihypertensive drugs alone in lowering both systolic BP (SBP; mean difference (MD): -6.92 (-10.05, -3.80); P<0.0001) and diastolic BP (MD: -3.63 (-6.18, -1.09); P=0.005); massage appears beneficial for reducing SBP (MD: -3.47 (-5.39, -1.56); P=0.0004) for hypertensive patients as compared with antihypertensive drugs. Safety of massage is still unclear. There is some encouraging evidence of massage for EH. However, because of poor methodological quality, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to validate the use of massage in future.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 3 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2014.52. PMID:24990417

Xiong, X J; Li, S J; Zhang, Y Q

2014-07-01

238

Management and therapy of vasovagal syncope: A review  

PubMed Central

Vasovagal syncope is a common cause of recurrent syncope. Clinically, these episodes may present as an isolated event with an identifiable trigger, or manifest as a cluster of recurrent episodes warranting intensive evaluation. The mechanism of vasovagal syncope is incompletely understood. Diagnostic tools such as implantable loop recorders may facilitate the identification of patients with arrhythmia mimicking benign vasovagal syncope. This review focuses on the management of vasovagal syncope and discusses the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options, especially the use of midodrine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The role of cardiac pacing may be meaningful for a subgroup of patients who manifest severe bradycardia or asystole but this still remains controversial. PMID:21160608

Aydin, Muhammet Ali; Salukhe, Tushar V; Wilke, Iris; Willems, Stephan

2010-01-01

239

Inflammatory muscle diseases: a critical review on pathogenesis and therapies.  

PubMed

Based on unique clinicopathological criteria, the most common immune inflammatory muscle disorders include Dermatomyositis (DM), Polymyositis (PM), Necrotizing Myositis (NM), and sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis (sIBM). DM is an undeniably a complement-mediated microangiopathy with destruction of capillaries, hypoperfusion, and inflammatory cell stress on the perifascicular regions. Necrotizing Myopathy is a poorly studied subacute myopathy triggered by toxic, viral, or autoimmune factors with macrophages as the final effector cells. In PM and IBM cytotoxic CD8-positive T-cells clonally expand in situ and invade MHC-I-expressing muscle fibers. In sIBM, in addition to autoimmune inflammation, there are degenerative features characterized by vacuolization and accumulation of stressor and amyloid-related molecules. Advances in the immunobiology of these disorders are discussed including the interaction between pro-inflammatory and beta-amyloid or stressor proteins. A critical review regarding tissue biomarkers and strategies for more effective treatments are presented. PMID:20409756

Dalakas, Marinos C

2010-06-01

240

Life-review therapy with computer supplements for depression in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Life-review therapy has been recognized as an effective therapeutic approach for depression in older adults. Additionally, the use of new media is becoming increasingly common in psychological interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate a life-review therapy in a face-to-face setting with additional computer use. This study explored whether a six-week life-review therapy with computer supplements from the e-mental health Butler system constitutes an effective approach to treat depression in older adults aged 65 and over. A total of 36 participants with elevated levels of depressive symptoms were randomized to a treatment group or a waiting-list control group and completed the post-assessment. Fourteen individuals in the intervention group completed the follow-up assessment. Analyses revealed significant changes from pre- to post-treatment or follow-up for depression, well-being, self-esteem, and obsessive reminiscence, but not for integrative reminiscence and life satisfaction. Depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time until the three-month follow-up in the intervention group compared to the control group (pre to post: d?=?1.13; pre to follow-up: d?=?1.27; and group?×?time effect pre to post: d?=?0.72). Furthermore, the therapy led to an increase in well-being and a decrease in obsessive reminiscence among the participants in the intervention group from pre-treatment to follow-up (well-being: d?=?0.70; obsessive reminiscence: d?=?0.93). Analyses further revealed a significant but small group?×?time effect regarding self-esteem (d?=?0.19). By and large, the results indicate that the life-review therapy in this combined setting could be recommended for depressive older adults. PMID:22788983

Preschl, Barbara; Maercker, Andreas; Wagner, Birgit; Forstmeier, Simon; Baños, Rosa M; Alcañiz, Mariano; Castilla, Diana; Botella, Cristina

2012-01-01

241

Improvement of extraction efficiency from a compact synchrotron for proton beam therapy by applying particle tracking analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various types of synchrotrons are used for particle beam therapy. In particle beam therapy, especially in proton beam therapy, downsizing of the accelerator system is a major concern. A compact synchrotron dedicated for proton beam therapy is presented. The synchrotron is horizontally weakly focusing and consists of 4 H-type zerogradient dipole magnets and 4 quadrupole magnets. The circumference of the ring is a little shorter than 18 m, and the energies are up to 230MeV. Beam extraction from the synchrotron is performed by RF-driven slow extraction technology. Two sextupole magnets set in adjacent straight sections form a horizontal separatrix which is fixed during the beam extraction. Horizontal RF voltage excites betatron oscillation of the circulating beam, and protons exceeding the separatrix are extracted by an electrostatic deflector and a horizontal septum dipole magnet. To achieve adequately high extraction efficiency, the relationship between the extraction efficiency and the horizontal chromaticity of the ring is analyzed by particle tracking simulation. The horizontal chromaticity with maximum extraction efficiency is half of the theoretical value because of the distortion of the horizontal separatrix for the extraction. With this chromaticity, the spiral-step of the extracted particle is independent of the momentum deviation of the particle, and the separatrix across the electrostatic septum electrodes is superpositioned.

Ebina, Futaro; Umezawa, Masumi; Hiramoto, Kazuo [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd. 2-1, Omika-cho 7-chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1221 (Japan)

2013-04-19

242

Improvement of extraction efficiency from a compact synchrotron for proton beam therapy by applying particle tracking analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various types of synchrotrons are used for particle beam therapy. In particle beam therapy, especially in proton beam therapy, downsizing of the accelerator system is a major concern. A compact synchrotron dedicated for proton beam therapy is presented. The synchrotron is horizontally weakly focusing and consists of 4 H-type zerogradient dipole magnets and 4 quadrupole magnets. The circumference of the ring is a little shorter than 18 m, and the energies are up to 230MeV. Beam extraction from the synchrotron is performed by RF-driven slow extraction technology. Two sextupole magnets set in adjacent straight sections form a horizontal separatrix which is fixed during the beam extraction. Horizontal RF voltage excites betatron oscillation of the circulating beam, and protons exceeding the separatrix are extracted by an electrostatic deflector and a horizontal septum dipole magnet. To achieve adequately high extraction efficiency, the relationship between the extraction efficiency and the horizontal chromaticity of the ring is analyzed by particle tracking simulation. The horizontal chromaticity with maximum extraction efficiency is half of the theoretical value because of the distortion of the horizontal separatrix for the extraction. With this chromaticity, the spiral-step of the extracted particle is independent of the momentum deviation of the particle, and the separatrix across the electrostatic septum electrodes is superpositioned.

Ebina, Futaro; Umezawa, Masumi; Hiramoto, Kazuo

2013-04-01

243

Adjuvant therapy for locally advanced renal cell cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many adjuvant trials have been undertaken in an attempt to reduce the risk of recurrence among patients who undergo surgical\\u000a resection for locally advanced renal cancer. However, no clear benefit has been identified to date. This systematic review\\u000a was conducted to examine the exact role of adjuvant therapy in renal cancer setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Randomized controlled trials were searched comparing adjuvant therapy

Adolfo JO Scherr; Joao Paulo SN Lima; Emma C Sasse; Carmen SP Lima; André D Sasse

2011-01-01

244

Negative pressure wound therapy - a review of its uses in orthopaedic trauma.  

PubMed

The use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) for complex and large wounds has increased in popularity over the past decade. Modern NPWT systems consisting of an open pore foam sponge, adhesive dressing and a vacuum pump producing negative pressure have been used as an adjunct to surgical debridement to treat tissue defects around open fractures and chronic, contaminated wounds. Other uses include supporting skin grafts and protecting wounds at risk of breaking down. This review outlines the current and emerging indications for negative pressure wound therapy in Orthopaedic trauma and the existing preclinical and clinical evidence base for its use. PMID:25067967

Putnis, Sven; Khan, Wasim S; Wong, James M-L

2014-01-01

245

Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient's thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient's anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7?mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3?mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9?mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation. PMID:25615399

Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Ivaldi, Giovanni Battista; de Fatis, Paola Tabarelli; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido

2015-02-21

246

Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient’s thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient’s anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7?mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3?mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9?mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation.

Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Battista Ivaldi, Giovanni; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido

2015-02-01

247

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy: A systematic review of its use in fracture management  

PubMed Central

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy is increasingly used as an adjuvant therapy in the management of nonunions, delayed unions and more recently fresh fractures. This is in an effort to increase union rates or obtain unions when fractures have proven recalcitrant to healing. In this report we have systematically reviewed the English language literature to attempt to determine the potential clinical efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in fracture management. Of 32 potentially eligible studies identified, 10 were included that assessed the extracorporeal shockwave therapy use for healing nonunions or delayed unions, and one trial was included that assessed its use for acute high-energy fractures. From the included, studies' overall union rates were in favor of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (72% union rate overall for nonunions or delayed unions, and a 46% relative risk reduction in nonunions when it is used for acute high-energy fractures). However, the methodologic quality of included studies was weak and any clinical inferences made from these data should be interpreted with caution. Further research in this area in the form of a large-scale randomized trial is necessary to better answer the question of the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy on union rates for both nonunions and acute fractures. PMID:19838365

Petrisor, BA; Lisson, Selene; Sprague, Sheila

2009-01-01

248

A Review of Pharmacological Interactions Between HIV or HCV Medications and Opioid Agonist Therapy: Implications and Management for Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Global access to opioid agonist therapy and HIV/HCV treatment is expanding but when used concurrently, problematic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions may occur. Review of articles from 1966 into 2012 in Medline using the following keywords: HIV, AIDS, HIV therapy, HCV, HCV therapy, antiretroviral therapy, HAART, drug interactions, methadone, and buprenorphine. Additionally, abstracts from national and international meetings and a review of conference proceedings were conducted; selected reports were reviewed as well. The metabolism of both opioid and antiretroviral therapies, description of their known interactions, and clinical implications and management of these interactions are reviewed. Important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions affecting either methadone or HIV medications have been demonstrated within each class of antiretroviral agents. Drug interactions between methadone, buprenorphine and HIV medications are known and may have important clinical consequences. Clinicians must be alert to these interactions and have a basic knowledge regarding their management. PMID:23656339

Bruce, R. Douglas; Moody, David E.; Altice, Frederick L.; Gourevitch, Marc N.; Friedland, Gerald H.

2014-01-01

249

Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

2014-04-01

250

Breast cancer pain management - A review of current & novel therapies  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients’ lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO's three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management, their limitations, and novel targets and non-pharmacological measures under investigation which have the potential to produce a radical change in pain management measures for the breast cancer patients. PMID:24718395

Satija, Aanchal; Ahmed, Syed Mehmood; Gupta, Rahul; Ahmed, Arif; Rana, Shiv Pratap Singh; Singh, Suraj Pal; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

2014-01-01

251

Breast cancer pain management - a review of current & novel therapies.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients' lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO's three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management, their limitations, and novel targets and non-pharmacological measures under investigation which have the potential to produce a radical change in pain management measures for the breast cancer patients. PMID:24718395

Satija, Aanchal; Ahmed, Syed Mehmood; Gupta, Rahul; Ahmed, Arif; Rana, Shiv Pratap Singh; Singh, Suraj Pal; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

2014-02-01

252

Stem cell therapy – Hype or hope? A review  

PubMed Central

While the regeneration of a lost tissue is known to mankind for several years, it is only in the recent past that research on regenerative medicine/dentistry has gained momentum and eluded the dramatic yet scientific advancements in the field of molecular biology. The growing understanding of biological concepts in the regeneration of oral/dental tissues coupled with experiments on stem cells is likely to result in a paradigm shift in the therapeutic armamentarium of dental and oral diseases culminating in an intense search for “biological solutions to biological problems.” Stem cells have been successfully isolated from variety of human tissues including orofacial tissues. Initial evidence from pioneering studies has documented the likely breakthrough that stem cells offer for various life-threatening diseases that have so far defeated modern medical care. The evidence gathered so far has propelled many elegant studies exploring the role of stem cells and their manifold dental applications. This review takes you on a sojourn of the origin of stem cells, their properties, characteristics, current research, and their potential applications. It also focuses on the various challenges and barriers that we have to surmount before translating laboratory results to successful clinical applications heralding the dawn of regenerative dentistry. PMID:20543921

Nadig, Roopa R

2009-01-01

253

Adipose stem cell therapy in cancer reconstruction: a critical review.  

PubMed

Found in most mesenchymally derived organs, mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of developing into many cell types. Adipose stem cells are a type of mesenchymal stem cell easily extracted from lipoaspirate, often readily available, and are conformable to the tissue defect. Their ability for self-renewal, unlimited proliferation and proangiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties have made them attractive adjuncts in plastic surgery. Since the discovery of pluripotent cells in adipose tissue, plastic surgeons have applied the technology toward improving wound healing, soft tissue augmentation, and tissue engineering. More recently, some surgeons have used adipose stem cells in cancer reconstruction. By mixing lipoaspirate with concentrated fractions of adipose stem cells through a technique termed cell-assisted lipotransfer, plastic surgeons have claimed improved aesthetic results. Promising early results have been tempered by in vitro and animal studies demonstrating increased tumor proliferation and metastasis rates with the use of adipose and other mesenchymal stem cells. This review provides a succinct yet comprehensive overview of the current literature evaluating the oncologic risks associated with adipose stem cell use in cancer. PMID:25003407

Alperovich, Michael; Lee, Z-Hye; Friedlander, Paul L; Rowan, Brian G; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Chiu, Ernest S

2014-09-01

254

Image guided particle therapy in CNAO room 2: Implementation and clinical validation.  

PubMed

In this contribution we describe the implementation of a novel solution for image guided particle therapy, designed to ensure the maximal accuracy in patient setup. The presented system is installed in the central treatment room at Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO, Italy), featuring two fixed beam lines (horizontal and vertical) for proton and carbon ion therapy. Treatment geometry verification is based on robotic in-room imaging acquisitions, allowing for 2D/3D registration from double planar kV-images or 3D/3D alignment from cone beam image reconstruction. The calculated six degrees-of-freedom correction vector is transferred to the robotic patient positioning system, thus yielding automated setup error compensation. Sub-millimetre scale residual errors were measured in absolute positioning of rigid phantoms, in agreement with optical- and laser-based assessment. Sub-millimetre and sub-degree positioning accuracy was achieved when simulating setup errors with anthropomorphic head, thorax and pelvis phantoms. The in-house design and development allowed a high level of system customization, capable of replicating the clinical performance of commercially available products, as reported with preliminary clinical results in 10 patients. PMID:25455440

Fattori, G; Riboldi, M; Pella, A; Peroni, M; Cerveri, P; Desplanques, M; Fontana, G; Tagaste, B; Valvo, F; Orecchia, R; Baroni, G

2014-10-30

255

Black holes as particle accelerators: a brief review  

E-print Network

Rapidly rotating Kerr black holes can accelerate particles to arbitrarily high energy if the angular momentum of the particle is fine-tuned to some critical value. This phenomenon is robust as it is founded on the basic properties of geodesic orbits around a near-extremal Kerr black hole. On the other hand, the maximum energy of the acceleration is subjected to several physical effects. There is convincing evidence that the particle acceleration to arbitrarily high energy is one of the universal properties of general near-extremal black holes. We also discuss gravitational particle acceleration in more general context. This article is intended to provide a pedagogical introduction to and a brief overview of this topic for non-specialists.

Tomohiro Harada; Masashi Kimura

2014-11-18

256

Black holes as particle accelerators: a brief review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly rotating Kerr black holes can accelerate particles to arbitrarily high energy if the angular momentum of the particle is fine-tuned to some critical value. This phenomenon is robust as it is founded on the basic properties of geodesic orbits around a near-extremal Kerr black hole. On the other hand, the maximum energy of the acceleration is subjected to several physical effects. There is convincing evidence that the particle acceleration to arbitrarily high energy is one of the universal properties of general near-extremal black holes. We also discuss gravitational particle acceleration in a more general context. This article is intended to provide a pedagogical introduction to and a brief overview of this topic for non-specialists.

Harada, Tomohiro; Kimura, Masashi

2014-12-01

257

Nasolacrimal duct obstruction following radioactive iodine 131 therapy in differentiated thyroid cancers: review of 19 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Radioactive iodine 131 (131I) therapy has long been used in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). While salivary and lacrimal glandular complications secondary to 131I therapy are well documented, there is little in the literature addressing nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). We aimed to evaluate the frequency of 131I therapy-acquired NLDO, its correlation to 131I therapy doses, and the surgical treatment outcome of this rare side effect. Methods From 2000–2012, a retrospective review of 864 among 1,192 patients with confirmed DTC who were treated with 131I therapy was performed to examine the frequency of NLDO, its causative factors, as well as imaging, surgical intervention, and outcomes. Results Nineteen (2.2%) patients were identified with NLDO. The mean age was 51.9±10.5 years (range: 39–72 years). Fifteen (78.9%) were female and four were male (21.1%). The mean individual 131I doses were 311.1±169.3 millicurie (mCi) (range: 150–600 mCi). The mean duration between the date of 131I therapy and the occurrence of NLDO was 11.6±4.1 months (range: 6.5–20). Fourteen (73.7%) patients had bilateral epiphora. Computed tomography dacryography allowed for the detection of all NLDO. Eighteen (94.7%) patients underwent dacryocystorhinostomy. Complete recovery was obtained in 14 (73.7%) patients. Age >45 years and 131I therapy doses >150 mCi were significantly correlated with NLDO (P=0.02 and P=0.03, respectively). Conclusion NLDO is an underestimated complication of 131I therapy in DTC patients. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication for prompt intervention. PMID:25525325

Al-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Al Asiri, Mushabbab; Tunio, Mutahir A; Aljohani, Naji J; Bayoumi, Yasser; Munir, Iqbal; AlAyoubi, Ayman

2014-01-01

258

A review of electron bombardment thruster systems/spacecraft field and particle interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the field and particle interfaces of electron bombardment ion thruster systems was summarized. Major areas discussed were the nonpropellant particles, neutral propellant, ion beam, low energy plasma, and fields. Spacecraft functions and subsystems reviewed were solar arrays, thermal control systems, optical sensors, communications, science, structures and materials, and potential control.

Byers, D. C.

1978-01-01

259

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 024102 (2014) Tracing the past of a quantum particle  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 024102 (2014) Tracing the past of a quantum particle L. Vaidman Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel (Received 29 December 2013; published 13 February 2014) The question "Where was a quantum particle between pre

Vaidman, Lev

260

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 052104 (2013) Past of a quantum particle  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 052104 (2013) Past of a quantum particle L. Vaidman Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel (Received 25 November there is no consensus regarding the "reality" of the past of a quantum particle, in situations where there is only one

Vaidman, Lev

261

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF FINE PARTICLE CHARGING BY UNIPOLAR IONS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study relating experimental data to many theories that have been offered in attempts to describe accurately the rate of charge accumulation of fine particles in a unipolar field. The data are reviewed and compiled, and additional particle charging exp...

262

Quality of life issues in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: a review  

PubMed Central

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been an essential treatment option for treating prostate cancer (PCa). The role for hormonal treatment initially was restricted to men with metastatic and inoperable, locally advanced disease. Now it has been extended to neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for surgery and radiotherapy, for biochemical relapse after surgery or radiation, and even as primary therapy for non-metastatic disease. Fifty percent of PCa patients treated will receive ADT at some point. There is growing concern about the adverse effects and costs associated with more widespread ADT use. The adverse effects on quality of life (QoL), including physical, social and psychological well-being when men are androgen-deprived, may be considerable. This review examines the QoL issues in the following areas: body feminisation, sexual changes, relationship changes, cognitive and affective symptoms, fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression and physical effects. Further suggestions for therapeutic approaches to reduce these alterations are suggested. PMID:22231296

Casey, Rowan G; Corcoran, Niall M; Larry Goldenberg, S

2012-01-01

263

Role of complementary therapies in the understanding of primary healthcare professionals: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Objective To identify the understanding of the healthcare professionals in relation to the role of complementary therapies in primary health care. Method Systematic review by way of the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, PeriEnf, AMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, Psicoinfo and Psicodoc, using the keyword Primary Health Care alone, and associated with the following keywords: Medicinal Plants, Herbal Medicine, Homeopathy, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture, Anthroposophical Medicine. Results Twenty-two studies from 1986 to 2011 were included. We identified three styles of practice: conventional medicine, complementary therapies and integrative medicine. Positioning professional practices within these three styles may facilitate discussion of concepts of health care, enhancing the health care provided as a result. Conclusion The work process in primary care presents difficulties for conducting integrative and holistic health care, but this practice has been introduced over time by professionals who integrate conventional medicine and complementary therapies, concerned with the care and well-being of patients. PMID:25517853

Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone

2014-08-01

264

Tumor-targeting bacterial therapy: A potential treatment for oral cancer (Review).  

PubMed

Certain obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria, which exhibit an inherent ability to colonize solid tumors in vivo, may be used in tumor targeting. As genetically manipulated bacteria may actively and specifically penetrate into the tumor tissue, bacterial therapy is becoming a promising approach in the treatment of tumors. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports have been published thus far regarding the bacterial treatment of oral cancer, one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. In this review, the progress in the understanding of bacterial strategies used in tumor-targeted therapy is discussed and particular bacterial strains that may have great therapeutic potential in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tumor-targeted therapy are predicted as determined by previous studies. PMID:25364397

Liu, Sai; Xu, Xiaoping; Zeng, Xin; Li, Longjiang; Chen, Qianming; Li, Jing

2014-12-01

265

[Influence of inhaler and fine particle on efficacy of inhalation therapy in COPD].  

PubMed

Orally inhaled products delivered via inhalation exert their effect directly to the target organ. This allows to administer a very low dose of a drug compared with an oral route with similar clinical effect and significantly reduced toxicity. However inhalation therapy is also limited by several factors. Delivery of the desired dose of the drug to the airways depends on a type of the inhaler - pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) or dry powder inhaler (DPI), inhaler characteristics (low or high internal resistance, diameter of particles and distribution of the generated aerosol fine particles), thermal conditions of air, and ability of patient to generate sufficient inspiratory flow (for DPI) or to coordinate actuation with inhalation (for pMDI). Unlike pMDIs, DPIs are breath- -actuated, hence avoiding the need for the patient to coordinate actuation with inspiration. Furthermore, DPIs are propellant-free and do not produce the cold sensation on inhalation. Currently available DPIs vary widely in design, operating characteristics and performance. And poor inhalation technique may compromise treatment efficacy. Hence, there is a clear need for a careful selection of DPIs for different patient groups, including children, elderly patients and those with severe airway obstruction. PMID:24793155

Sliwi?ski, Pawe?; Chazan, Ryszarda; D?browiecki, Piotr; Jahnz-Ró?yk, Karina; Mróz, Robert; Piro?y?ski, Micha?

2014-01-01

266

Production of [211At]-Astatinated Radiopharmaceuticals and Applications in Targeted ?-Particle Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract 211At is a promising radionuclide for ?-particle therapy of cancers. Its physical characteristics make this radionuclide particularly interesting to consider when bound to cancer-targeting biomolecules for the treatment of microscopic tumors. 211At is produced by cyclotron irradiation of 209Bi with ?-particles accelerated at ?28?MeV and can be obtained in high radionuclidic purity after isolation from the target. Its chemistry resembles iodine, but there is also a tendency to behave as a metalloid. However, the chemical behavior of astatine has not yet been clearly established, primarily due to the lack of any stable isotopes of this element, which precludes the use of conventional analytical techniques for its characterization. There are also only a limited number of research centers that have been able to produce this element in sufficient amounts to carry out extensive investigations. Despite these difficulties, chemical reactions typically used with iodine can be performed, and a number of biomolecules of interest have been labeled with 211At. However, most of these compounds exhibit unacceptable instability in vivo due to the weakness of the astatine–biomolecule bond. Nonetheless, several compounds have shown high potential for the treatment of cancers in vitro and in several animal models, thus providing a promising basis that has allowed initiation of the first two clinical studies. PMID:23075373

Guérard, François; Gestin, Jean-François

2013-01-01

267

Production of [(211)At]-astatinated radiopharmaceuticals and applications in targeted ?-particle therapy.  

PubMed

(211)At is a promising radionuclide for ?-particle therapy of cancers. Its physical characteristics make this radionuclide particularly interesting to consider when bound to cancer-targeting biomolecules for the treatment of microscopic tumors. (211)At is produced by cyclotron irradiation of (209)Bi with ?-particles accelerated at ~28 MeV and can be obtained in high radionuclidic purity after isolation from the target. Its chemistry resembles iodine, but there is also a tendency to behave as a metalloid. However, the chemical behavior of astatine has not yet been clearly established, primarily due to the lack of any stable isotopes of this element, which precludes the use of conventional analytical techniques for its characterization. There are also only a limited number of research centers that have been able to produce this element in sufficient amounts to carry out extensive investigations. Despite these difficulties, chemical reactions typically used with iodine can be performed, and a number of biomolecules of interest have been labeled with (211)At. However, most of these compounds exhibit unacceptable instability in vivo due to the weakness of the astatine-biomolecule bond. Nonetheless, several compounds have shown high potential for the treatment of cancers in vitro and in several animal models, thus providing a promising basis that has allowed initiation of the first two clinical studies. PMID:23075373

Guérard, François; Gestin, Jean-François; Brechbiel, Martin W

2013-02-01

268

Moving from Virtual Reality Exposure-Based Therapy to Augmented Reality Exposure-Based Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed “safely” to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia. PMID:24624073

Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane

2014-01-01

269

Massage Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Although some studies evaluated the effectiveness of massage therapy for fibromyalgia (FM), the role of massage therapy in the management of FM remained controversial. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence of massage therapy for patients with FM. Methods Electronic databases (up to June 2013) were searched to identify relevant studies. The main outcome measures were pain, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and appraised risk of bias. The risk of bias of eligible studies was assessed based on Cochrane tools. Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by more conservative random-effects model. And heterogeneity was assessed based on the I2 statistic. Results Nine randomized controlled trials involving 404 patients met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses showed that massage therapy with duration ?5 weeks significantly improved pain (SMD, 0.62; 95% CI 0.05 to 1.20; p?=?0.03), anxiety (SMD, 0.44; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.78; p?=?0.01), and depression (SMD, 0.49; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.84; p?=?0.005) in patients with FM, but not on sleep disturbance (SMD, 0.19; 95% CI ?0.38 to 0.75; p?=?0.52). Conclusion Massage therapy with duration ?5 weeks had beneficial immediate effects on improving pain, anxiety, and depression in patients with FM. Massage therapy should be one of the viable complementary and alternative treatments for FM. However, given fewer eligible studies in subgroup meta-analyses and no evidence on follow-up effects, large-scale randomized controlled trials with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current findings. PMID:24586677

Li, Yan-hui; Wang, Feng-yun; Feng, Chun-qing; Yang, Xia-feng; Sun, Yi-hua

2014-01-01

270

Occupational therapy interventions to improve driving performance in older adults: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review synthesizes the research on interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to address cognitive and visual function, motor function, driving skills, self-regulation and self-awareness, and the role of passengers and family involvement in the driving ability, performance, and safety of older adults. After a comprehensive search of the research literature, 29 studies were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) educational interventions including family education, (2) cognitive-perceptual training, (3) interventions addressing physical fitness, (4) simulator training, and (5) behind-the-wheel training. Outcome measures used in the studies included changes in knowledge through speed of processing, physical and cognitive skills predicted to reduce crash risk, simulated driving, and real-world driving. The studies demonstrated low to moderate positive effects for interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to improve older driver performance. PMID:25397761

Golisz, Kathleen

2014-01-01

271

A review of “music and movement” therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development  

PubMed Central

The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962

Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Bhat, Anjana N.

2013-01-01

272

Music therapy for service users with dementia: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

Dementia is an organic mental health problem that has been estimated to affect over 23 million people worldwide. With increasing life expectancy in most countries, it has been estimated that the prevalence of dementia will continue to significantly increase in the next two decades. Dementia leads to cognitive impairments most notably short-term memory loss and impairments in functioning and quality of life (QOL). National policy in the UK advocates the importance of early diagnosis, treatment and social inclusion in maintaining a good QOL. First-line treatment options often involve drug therapies aimed at slowing down the progression of the illness and antipsychotic medication to address challenging behaviours. To date, research into non-pharmacological interventions has been limited. In this manuscript, we review the literature that has reported evaluations of the effects of music therapy, a non-pharmacological intervention. The results of six studies reviewed suggest that music therapy may have potential benefits in reducing anxiety, depression and agitated behaviour displayed by elderly people with dementia as well as improving cognitive functioning and QOL. Furthermore, music therapy is a safe and low-cost intervention that could potentially be offered by mental health nurses and other carers working in residential settings. PMID:25303405

Blackburn, R; Bradshaw, T

2014-12-01

273

REPETITIVE TASK PRACTICE: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF CONSTRAINT-INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY IN STROKE  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Constraint-induced (CI) movement therapy (also called forced use by some investigators and clinicians) has gained increasing popularity as a treatment mode for restoring function in the upper extremities of patients with stroke. The purpose of this article is to review the concept of constraint-induced movement therapy and provide a critical analysis of the existing data. REVIEW SUMMARY The evidence to date offers encouragement for the application of this procedure for patients who have some movement recovery out of synergy. Success may be contingent on patient cooperation and intense repetitive use with applications of retraining through practice and shaping. The extent to which each of the latter elements influences the magnitude of recovery is still unclear. However, task novelty and challenge seem important to recovery of function. There are several methods used to map cortical changes after stroke. At this time, transcranial magnetic stimulation is the primary vehicle used to assess motor cortical reorganization after CI therapy in humans. CONCLUSIONS Accumulating data indicate that the size of a cortical area representative of a muscle does expand and its center of gravity does change with CI therapy. PMID:12801434

Wolf, Steven L.; Blanton, Sarah; Baer, Heather; Breshears, Jenifer; Butler, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

274

A review of "music and movement" therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development.  

PubMed

The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962

Srinivasan, Sudha M; Bhat, Anjana N

2013-01-01

275

A systematic review into the effectiveness of hand exercise therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Hand exercises are often part of the treatment of hand rheumatoid arthritis; however, it is still unclear whether and what type of exercises is effective in the treatment of this condition. Therefore, a systematic review into the effectiveness of hand exercises in the treatment of hand rheumatoid arthritis has been performed. Studies were identified in the literature databases by predefined search criteria. The eight included studies are peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and 2014. Hand exercises differed between studies, but always included resistance and/or active range of motion exercises. Grip strength in various grip types (power grip, key pinch, precision pinch and tripod pinch) was found to improve by hand exercise therapy without having adverse effects on pain or disease activity. Adaptations in the range of motion in response to hand exercise therapy were less pronounced. There appears to be some transfer from the improvements on the body functioning level to the level of daily functioning, with the largest improvements found on grip ability. With regard to the intervention content, there was some evidence in favour of a longer therapy duration and a higher therapy intensity. No conclusions could be drawn on the effectiveness of the different types of exercises. Collectively, the studies indicate that hand exercises may have positive effects on strength and some aspects of daily functioning without aggravating disease activity or pain, although caution should be taken for subjects in the exacerbation period. PMID:24952308

Bergstra, S A; Murgia, A; Te Velde, A F; Caljouw, S R

2014-11-01

276

The impact of individual reminiscence therapy for people with dementia: systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review aims to review the potential psychosocial benefits of individual reminiscence therapy for people with dementia. Five randomized controlled trials were identified. All were carried out in nursing or care homes, and several different approaches were represented. The studies reported some immediate and longer-term psychosocial benefits to people with dementia of individual reminiscence work, where this involved a life review process or personalized, specific reminiscence work. These benefits included mood, well-being and aspects of cognitive function. There was no evidence that the use of general reminiscence materials was associated with psychosocial benefits. The use of life story books and multimedia alternatives, with or without an associated life review process, does appear to be worth pursuing from both clinical and research perspectives. PMID:22550983

Subramaniam, Ponnusamy; Woods, Bob

2012-05-01

277

The use of particle acceleration machines in radiotherapy: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the dosage and the oxygen enhancement ratio when using particle accelerators in radiotherapy are discussed. The advantages derived from the Bragg peak effect and pion mass to energy conversion are commented on. Machines to produce electrons, X rays, protons, neutrons, heavy ions and negative pions are described. The good results observed in the case of negative pions can be attributed either to the favorable dose distribution or to the specific biological properties of the particles produced in the process of pion capture. The cost factors of the generating machines are also discussed.

Bosio, C.; Pelliccioni, M.

1982-10-01

278

Numerical Simulation of Single Aluminum Particle Combustion (Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional, unsteady-state, kinetic-diffusion-vaporization-controlled numerical model for aluminum particle combustion\\u000a is presented. The model solves the conservation equations, while accounting for species generation and destruction with a\\u000a 15-reaction kinetic mechanism. Two of the major phenomena that differentiate aluminum combustion from hydrocarbon-droplet\\u000a combustion, namely, condensation of the aluminum-oxide product and subsequent deposition of part of the condensed oxide onto\\u000a the particle,

M. W. Beckstead; Y. Liang; K. V. Pudduppakkam

2005-01-01

279

Effectiveness of simulated presence therapy for individuals with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To formally assess the strength of evidence for the efficacy of simulated presence therapy for challenging behaviours in dementia (playing an audio or videotape to an individual, personalized by a carer and containing positive experiences from the client's life and shared memories involving family and friends) using meta-analytic techniques.Method: Systematic review and meta-analysis of k = 4 studies of

Jessica Zetteler

2008-01-01

280

Continuation and Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy for Mood Disorders: Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for mood disorders. Continuation ECT (C-ECT) and maintenance ECT (M-ECT) are required for many patients suffering from severe and recurrent forms of mood disorders. This is a review of the literature regarding C- and M-ECT. Methods: We conducted a computerized search using the words continuation ECT, maintenance ECT, depression, mania, bipolar

Georgios Petrides; Kristen G. Tobias; Charles H. Kellner; Matthew V. Rudorfer

2011-01-01

281

Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it. This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. Methods We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched six electronic databases, all searches ended in December 2008. We extracted data on the type of cupping and type of diseases treated. Results 550 clinical studies were identified published between 1959 and 2008, including 73 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 22 clinical controlled trials, 373 case series, and 82 case reports. Number of RCTs obviously increased during past decades, but the quality of the RCTs was generally poor according to the risk of bias of the Cochrane standard for important outcome within each trials. The diseases in which cupping was commonly employed included pain conditions, herpes zoster, cough or asthma, etc. Wet cupping was used in majority studies, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, medicinal cupping, etc. 38 studies used combination of two types of cupping therapies. No serious adverse effects were reported in the studies. Conclusions According to the above results, quality and quantity of RCTs on cupping therapy appears to be improved during the past 50 years in China, and majority of studies show potential benefit on pain conditions, herpes zoster and other diseases. However, further rigorous designed trials in relevant conditions are warranted to support their use in practice. PMID:21078197

2010-01-01

282

Cancer therapy-associated CNS neuropathology: an update and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Standard therapeutic options for brain tumors include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Unfortunately, these same therapies pose risks of neurotoxicity, the most common long-term complications being radiation necrosis, chemotherapy-associated leukoencephalopathy, and secondary neoplasms. These side effects remain difficult to predict, but are associated with risk factors that include patient age, therapeutic modality and dosage, genetic background, and idiosyncratic predispositions. Experimental treatments designed to enhance efficacy and to minimize neurotoxicity include molecularly targeted, genetic, stem cell, and immune therapies. Newer modifications in radiation and drug delivery include stereotactic radiosurgery, interstitial therapy such as intracavitary brachytherapy and gliadel wafer placement, 3D conformal radiation, boron neutron capture therapy, radiosensitizers, blood-brain barrier disrupting agents, and convection enhanced delivery. Toxicities associated with these newer modalities have yet to be fully investigated and documented. Additionally, a number of recently implemented radiographic techniques such as PET and SPECT imaging have enhanced the ability to distinguish recurrent tumor from radiation necrosis. Nevertheless, post-therapeutic brain biopsies and autopsies remain the gold standard for assessing neurotoxicity, therapeutic efficacy, tumor progression, and the development of secondary neoplasms. At the same time, treatment-associated changes such as tumor necrosis, vasculopathy, inflammation, and cytologic atypia can pose significant diagnostic pitfalls, particularly if the pathologist is not provided a detailed therapeutic history. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the full spectrum of cancer therapy-associated neuropathology, the topic of the current review. PMID:16463065

Perry, Arie; Schmidt, Robert E

2006-03-01

283

Spontaneous Hemarthrosis Following Fibrinolytic Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 48 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous hemarthrosis of right knee Symptoms: A rapidly growing knee swelling was “witnessed” associated with severe tenderness, hotness and profound agony but without color change Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Suprapatellar arthrocentesis of the right knee joint Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Despite the widespread use of fibrinolytic therapy and the numerous reports on its bleeding complications, spontaneous hemarthrosis following fibrinolytic therapy is quite rare. Case Report: We describe in this report a patient with no previous history of articular disease who developed a spontaneous right knee bloody effusion following fibrinolytic therapy using rt-PA for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Furthermore, we provide a review of all cases of spontaneous hemarthrosis documented so far in the literature. Conclusions: Several pre-existing joint diseases may predispose to hemarthrosis following fibrinolytic therapy, even in patients who deny previous or current articular disorders. Therefore, hemorrhage should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mono-arthritis following fibrinolytic therapy for STEMI. PMID:25417208

Ramadan, Mahmoud M.; Khan, Iqbal S.; Mahdi, Ousama

2014-01-01

284

Therapies for Onychomycosis: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Mycological Cure.  

PubMed

Abstract BACKGROUND:New therapies for onychomycosis continue to be developed, yet treatments are seldom directly compared in randomized controlled trials. The objective of the current study was to compare the rates of mycological cure for oral and topical onychomycosis treatments using network meta-analysis. METHODS:A systematic review of the literature on onychomycosis treatments published before March 25th 2013 was performed and data was analyzed using network meta-analysis. RESULTS:Terbinafine 250mg was significantly superior to all treatments except itraconazole 400mg pulse therapy, itraconazole 200mg was significantly superior to fluconazole and the topical treatments, while fluconazole, efinaconazole, ciclopirox, terbinafine nail solution and amorolfine were significantly superior only to placebo. CONCLUSIONS:Results support the superiority of 12-week continuous terbinafine 250mg therapy and itraconazole 400mg pulse therapy (one week per month for three months) while suggesting the equivalence of topical therapies. These results reflect findings from the literature as well as treatment efficacy observed in clinical practice. PMID:25032982

Gupta, Aditya K; Daigle, Deanne; Paquet, Maryse

2014-07-17

285

A focused review of hematopoietic neoplasms occurring in the therapy-related setting  

PubMed Central

Hematological neoplasms developed in patients with a history of cytotoxic therapies comprise a group of diseases with a poor clinical outcome, and collectively categorized as “therapy-related myeloid neoplasms” (t-MN) in the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification. In recent years, numerous publications have emerged, and these studies have greatly expanded the scope of our understanding in this field. We here focused our review on several selected areas including secondary malignancies occurring in patients with autoimmune diseases; radiation therapy alone as a causative agent; the similarity and differences between therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML); clinical behavior and treatment outcome of t-AML patients with favorable cytogenetics; the incidence and clinical features of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, as well as acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasms in patients with prior cytotoxic exposure. These recent studies have shown that therapy-related hematopoietic neoplasms are heterogeneous, and may manifest in various forms, more complex than we have recognized previously. Cytogenetic abnormalities and underlying mutations are likely to be the major factors dictating prognosis. PMID:25120730

Zhang, Liping; Wang, Sa A

2014-01-01

286

Selecting deep brain stimulation or infusion therapies in advanced Parkinson's disease: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD) result from the short half-life and irregular plasma fluctuations of oral levodopa. When strategies of providing more continuous dopaminergic stimulation by adjusting oral medication fail, patients may be candidates for one of three device-aided therapies: deep brain stimulation (DBS), continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion, or continuous duodenal/jejunal levodopa/carbidopa pump infusion (DLI). These therapies differ in their invasiveness, side-effect profile, and the need for nursing care. So far, very few comparative studies have evaluated the efficacy of the three device-aided therapies for specific motor problems in advanced PD. As a result, neurologists currently lack guidance as to which therapy could be most appropriate for a particular PD patient. A group of experts knowledgeable in all three therapies reviewed the currently available literature for each treatment and identified variables of clinical relevance for choosing one of the three options such as type of motor problems, age, and cognitive and psychiatric status. For each scenario, pragmatic and (if available) evidence-based recommendations are provided as to which patients could be candidates for either DBS, DLI, or subcutaneous apomorphine. PMID:23287972

Volkmann, Jens; Albanese, Alberto; Antonini, Angelo; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Clarke, Carl E; de Bie, Rob M A; Deuschl, Günther; Eggert, Karla; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Nyholm, Dag; Odin, Per; Østergaard, Karen; Poewe, Werner; Pollak, Pierre; Rabey, Jose Martin; Rascol, Olivier; Ruzicka, Evzen; Samuel, Michael; Speelman, Hans; Sydow, Olof; Valldeoriola, Francesc; van der Linden, Chris; Oertel, Wolfgang

2013-11-01

287

Treatment of oral fungal infections using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a systematic review of currently available evidence.  

PubMed

The aim was to review the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of oral fungal infections. To address the focused question "Should PDT be considered a possible treatment regimen for oral fungal infections?" PubMed/Medline and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1997 up to March 2014 using various combinations of the following key words: "Candida albicans"; "Candidiasis"; "Candidosis"; "denture stomatitis"; "oral" and "photodynamic therapy". Original studies, experimental studies and articles published solely in English language were sought. Letters to the editor, historic reviews and unpublished data were excluded. Pattern of the present literature review was customized to mainly summarize the pertinent information. Fifteen studies (3 clinical and 12 experimental) were included. All studies reported antimicrobial PDT to be an effective antifungal treatment strategy. One study reported PDT and azole therapy to be equally effective in the treatment of oral fungal infections. Methylene blue, toluidine blue and porphyrin derivative were the most commonly used photosensitizers. The laser wavelengths and power output ranged between ?455 nm-660 nm and 30 mW-400 mW. The energy fluence ranged between 26-245 J cm(-2) and the duration or irradiation ranged between 10 seconds and 26 minutes. Clinical effectiveness of antimicrobial PDT as a potent therapeutic strategy for oral fungal infections requires further investigations. PMID:24686309

Javed, Fawad; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Romanos, Georgios E

2014-05-01

288

A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:20830696

Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn

2010-01-01

289

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF UTAH VALLEY PARTICLES: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Utah Valley provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) in humans. The area has had intermittently high particle levels with the principal point source being a steel mill. Due to a labor dispute, the mill was shut down. The closu...

290

The Role of Focal Therapy in the Management of Localised Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Context The incidence of localised prostate cancer is increasing worldwide. In light of recent evidence, current, radical, whole-gland treatments for organ-confined disease have being questioned with respect to their side effects, cancer control, and cost. Focal therapy may be an effective alternative strategy. Objective To systematically review the existing literature on baseline characteristics of the target population; preoperative evaluation to localise disease; and perioperative, functional, and disease control outcomes following focal therapy. Evidence acquisition Medline (through PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Review databases were searched from inception to 31 October 2012. In addition, registered but not yet published trials were retrieved. Studies evaluating tissue-preserving therapies in men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer in the primary or salvage setting were included. Evidence synthesis A total of 2350 cases were treated to date across 30 studies. Most studies were retrospective with variable standards of reporting, although there was an increasing number of prospective registered trials. Focal therapy was mainly delivered to men with low and intermediate disease, although some high-risk cases were treated that had known, unilateral, significant cancer. In most of the cases, biopsy findings were correlated to specific preoperative imaging, such as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging or Doppler ultrasound to determine eligibility. Follow-up varied between 0 and 11.1 yr. In treatment-naïve prostates, pad-free continence ranged from 95% to 100%, erectile function ranged from 54% to 100%, and absence of clinically significant cancer ranged from 83% to 100%. In focal salvage cases for radiotherapy failure, the same outcomes were achieved in 87.2–100%, 29–40%, and 92% of cases, respectively. Biochemical disease-free survival was reported using a number of definitions that were not validated in the focal-therapy setting. Conclusions Our systematic review highlights that, when focal therapy is delivered with intention to treat, the perioperative, functional, and disease control outcomes are encouraging within a short- to medium-term follow-up. Focal therapy is a strategy by which the overtreatment burden of the current prostate cancer pathway could be reduced, but robust comparative effectiveness studies are now required. PMID:23769825

Valerio, Massimo; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Emberton, Mark; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Lazzeri, Massimo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Nguyen, Paul L.; Trachtenberg, John; Polascik, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

291

Cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal adjuvant therapy for breast cancer: a case of localised urticarial vasculitis following anastrozole therapy and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Hormonal therapy with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors is commonly used to treat women with breast cancer in both the adjuvant and recurrent disease setting. Cutaneous adverse reactions to these drugs have been rarely reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of urticarial vasculitis following the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole that localised to the unilateral trunk and mastectomy scar, and review the literature on the cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal therapy for breast cancer. PMID:24575835

Bock, Vanessa L; Friedlander, Michael; Waring, Dale; Kossard, Steven; Wood, Glenda K

2014-11-01

292

The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

2003-01-01

293

Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, Volume 36  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reviews various subjects in the field of nuclear physics. Topics considered include classical solutions in field theory; heavy-ion coulomb excitation and nuclear structure; plutonium and weapons proliferation; nuclear reactions in stars; electron scattering on nuclei below 1 GeV; supersymmetry and supergravity; origins and acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays; the standard electroweak model; pion absorption in the nucleus; physics

J. D. Jackson; H. E. Gove; R. F. Schwitters

1986-01-01

294

Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy.  

PubMed

We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced ?(+)-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to 'red flag' problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a 2D map in beam-eye-view. In comparison to previously proposed approaches, the new most-likely-shift method shows more robust results for assessing in-vivo the range from strongly varying PET distributions caused by differing patient geometry, ion beam species, beam delivery techniques, PET imaging concepts and counting statistics. The additional visualization of the uncertainties and the dedicated weighting strategy contribute to the understanding of the reliability of observed range differences and the complexity in the prediction of activity distributions. The proposed method promises to offer a feasible technique for clinical routine of PET-based range verification. PMID:25211629

Frey, K; Unholtz, D; Bauer, J; Debus, J; Min, C H; Bortfeld, T; Paganetti, H; Parodi, K

2014-10-01

295

Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced ?+-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to ‘red flag’ problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a 2D map in beam-eye-view. In comparison to previously proposed approaches, the new most-likely-shift method shows more robust results for assessing in-vivo the range from strongly varying PET distributions caused by differing patient geometry, ion beam species, beam delivery techniques, PET imaging concepts and counting statistics. The additional visualization of the uncertainties and the dedicated weighting strategy contribute to the understanding of the reliability of observed range differences and the complexity in the prediction of activity distributions. The proposed method promises to offer a feasible technique for clinical routine of PET-based range verification.

Frey, K.; Unholtz, D.; Bauer, J.; Debus, J.; Min, C. H.; Bortfeld, T.; Paganetti, H.; Parodi, K.

2014-10-01

296

Adolescents Exposed to Violence and Abuse: A Review of the Group Therapy Literature with an Emphasis on Preventing Trauma Reenactment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment interventions specifically targeting reenactment and risk-taking behaviors, a serious effect of trauma, are a much-neglected area of work with traumatized adolescents. This paper begins by reviewing group therapies for adolescents in general and then reviews specialized group therapies for adolescents who have been potentially traumatized by experiencing or witnessing family or community violence (e.g., sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological

AnnMarie Glodich; Jon G. Allen

1998-01-01

297

Proton synchrotrons for cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotrons have long been recognized for their superior capabilities in proton and heavy ion therapy. Their compactness and ease of beam energy control make them ideally suited to this application. The range of available intensities insures safety against high dose accidents such as have occurred with conventional electron accelerators. For heavy ion and heavy ion therapy, synchrotrons have been the exclusive choice among particle accelerators. In this paper, four synchrotrons designed for dedicated therapy facilities are reviewed and performance data are discussed.

Coutrakon, George B.

2001-07-01

298

Endosomal Trafficking of Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Therapy Facilitates Drug Particle Carriage and HIV Clearance  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Limitations of antiretroviral therapy (ART) include poor patient adherence, drug toxicities, viral resistance, and failure to penetrate viral reservoirs. Recent developments in nanoformulated ART (nanoART) could overcome such limitations. To this end, we now report a novel effect of nanoART that facilitates drug depots within intracellular compartments at or adjacent to the sites of the viral replication cycle. Poloxamer 407-coated nanocrystals containing the protease inhibitor atazanavir (ATV) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. These drug particles readily accumulated in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). NanoATV concentrations were ?1,000 times higher in cells than those that could be achieved by the native drug. ATV particles in late and recycling endosome compartments were seen following pulldown by immunoaffinity chromatography with Rab-specific antibodies conjugated to magnetic beads. Confocal microscopy provided cross validation by immunofluorescent staining of the compartments. Mathematical modeling validated drug-endosomal interactions. Measures of reverse transcriptase activity and HIV-1 p24 levels in culture media and cells showed that such endosomal drug concentrations enhanced antiviral responses up to 1,000-fold. We conclude that late and recycling endosomes can serve as depots for nanoATV. The colocalization of nanoATV at endosomal sites of viral assembly and its slow release sped antiretroviral activities. Long-acting nanoART can serve as a drug carrier in both cells and subcellular compartments and, as such, can facilitate viral clearance. IMPORTANCE The need for long-acting ART is significant and highlighted by limitations in drug access, toxicity, adherence, and reservoir penetrance. We propose that targeting nanoformulated drugs to infected tissues, cells, and subcellular sites of viral replication may improve clinical outcomes. Endosomes are sites for human immunodeficiency virus assembly, and increasing ART concentrations in such sites enhances viral clearance. The current work uncovers a new mechanism by which nanoART can enhance viral clearance over native drug formulations. PMID:24920821

Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Gang; Wysocki, Tadeusz A.; Wysocki, Beata J.; Gelbard, Harris A.; Liu, Xin-Ming; McMillan, JoEllyn M.

2014-01-01

299

Review of doped silica glass optical fibre: their TL properties and potential applications in radiation therapy dosimetry.  

PubMed

Review is made of dosimetric studies of Ge-doped SiO(2) telecommunication fibre as a 1-D thermoluminescence (TL) system for therapeutic applications. To-date, the response of these fibres has been investigated for UV sources, superficial X-ray beam therapy facilities, a synchrotron microbeam facility, electron linear accelerators, protons, neutrons and alpha particles, covering the energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Dosimetric characteristics include, reproducibility, fading, dose response, reciprocity between TL yield and dose-rate and energy dependence. The fibres produce a flat response to fixed photon and electron doses to within better than 3% of the mean TL distribution. Irradiated Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres show limited signal fading, with an average loss of TL signal of ~0.4% per day. In terms of dose response, Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres have been shown to provide linearity to x and electron doses, from a fraction of 1 Gy up to 2 kGy. The dosimeters have also been used in measuring photoelectron generation from iodinated contrast media; TL yields being some 60% greater in the presence of iodine than in its absence. The review is accompanied by previously unpublished data. PMID:22381700

Bradley, D A; Hugtenburg, R P; Nisbet, A; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek; Issa, Fatma; Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Alalawi, Amani

2012-12-01

300

Concise Review: Guidance in Developing Commercializable Autologous/Patient-Specific Cell Therapy Manufacturing  

PubMed Central

Cell therapy is poised to play an enormous role in regenerative medicine. However, little guidance is being made available to academic and industrial entities in the start-up phase. In this technical review, members of the International Society for Cell Therapy provide guidance in developing commercializable autologous and patient-specific manufacturing strategies from the perspective of process development. Special emphasis is placed on providing guidance to small academic or biotech researchers as to what simple questions can be addressed or answered at the bench in order to make their cell therapy products more feasible for commercial-scale production. We discuss the processes that are required for scale-out at the manufacturing level, and how many questions can be addressed at the bench level. The goal of this review is to provide guidance in the form of topics that can be addressed early in the process of development to better the chances of the product being successful for future commercialization. PMID:24101671

Armant, Myriam; Brandwein, Harvey; Burger, Scott; Campbell, Andrew; Carpenito, Carmine; Clarke, Dominic; Fong, Timothy; Karnieli, Ohad; Niss, Knut; Van't Hof, Wouter; Wagey, Ravenska

2013-01-01

301

The Metabolic Syndrome and Mind-Body Therapies: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The metabolic syndrome, affecting a substantial and increasing percentage of the worldwide population, is comprised of a cluster of symptoms associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic conditions. Mind-body modalities based on Eastern philosophy, such as yoga, tai chi, qigong, and meditation, have become increasingly popular worldwide. These complementary therapies have many reported benefits for improving symptoms and physiological measures associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of these practices on the syndrome as a whole have not been evaluated using a systematic and synthesizing approach. A systematic review was conducted to critically evaluate the data from clinical trials examining the efficacy of mind-body therapies as supportive care modalities for management of the metabolic syndrome. Three clinical trials addressing the use of mind-body therapies for management of the metabolic syndrome were identified. Findings from the studies reviewed support the potential clinical effectiveness of mind-body practices in improving indices of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21773016

Anderson, Joel G.; Taylor, Ann Gill

2011-01-01

302

Dosimetric consequences of pencil beam width variations in scanned beam particle therapy.  

PubMed

Scanned ion beam delivery enables the highest degree of target dose conformation attainable in external beam radiotherapy. Nominal pencil beam widths (spot sizes) are recorded during treatment planning system commissioning. Due to changes in the beam-line optics, the actual spot sizes may differ from these commissioning values, leading to differences between planned and delivered dose. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dosimetric consequences of spot size variations in particle therapy treatment plans. For 12 patients with skull base tumours and 12 patients with prostate carcinoma, scanned-beam carbon ion and proton treatment plans were prepared and recomputed simulating spot size changes of (1) ±10% to simulate the typical magnitude of fluctuations, (2) ±25% representing the worst-case scenario and (3) ±50% as a part of a risk analysis in case of fault conditions. The primary effect of the spot size variation was a dose deterioration affecting the target edge: loss of target coverage and broadening of the lateral penumbra (increased spot size) or overdosage and contraction of the lateral penumbra (reduced spot size). For changes ?25%, the resulting planning target volume mean 95%-isodose line coverage (CI-95%) deterioration was ranging from negligible to moderate. In some cases changes in the dose to adjoining critical structures were observed. PMID:23685746

Chanrion, M A; Ammazzalorso, F; Wittig, A; Engenhart-Cabillic, R; Jelen, U

2013-06-21

303

Dosimetric consequences of pencil beam width variations in scanned beam particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanned ion beam delivery enables the highest degree of target dose conformation attainable in external beam radiotherapy. Nominal pencil beam widths (spot sizes) are recorded during treatment planning system commissioning. Due to changes in the beam-line optics, the actual spot sizes may differ from these commissioning values, leading to differences between planned and delivered dose. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dosimetric consequences of spot size variations in particle therapy treatment plans. For 12 patients with skull base tumours and 12 patients with prostate carcinoma, scanned-beam carbon ion and proton treatment plans were prepared and recomputed simulating spot size changes of (1) ±10% to simulate the typical magnitude of fluctuations, (2) ±25% representing the worst-case scenario and (3) ±50% as a part of a risk analysis in case of fault conditions. The primary effect of the spot size variation was a dose deterioration affecting the target edge: loss of target coverage and broadening of the lateral penumbra (increased spot size) or overdosage and contraction of the lateral penumbra (reduced spot size). For changes ?25%, the resulting planning target volume mean 95%-isodose line coverage (CI-95%) deterioration was ranging from negligible to moderate. In some cases changes in the dose to adjoining critical structures were observed.

Chanrion, M. A.; Ammazzalorso, F.; Wittig, A.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Jelen, U.

2013-06-01

304

Position statement on ethics, equipoise and research on charged particle radiation therapy.  

PubMed

The use of charged-particle radiation therapy (CPRT) is an increasingly important development in the treatment of cancer. One of the most pressing controversies about the use of this technology is whether randomised controlled trials are required before this form of treatment can be considered to be the treatment of choice for a wide range of indications. Equipoise is the key ethical concept in determining which research studies are justified. However, there is a good deal of disagreement about how this concept is best understood and applied in the specific case of CPRT. This report is a position statement on these controversies that arises out of a workshop held at Wolfson College, Oxford in August 2011. The workshop brought together international leaders in the relevant fields (radiation oncology, medical physics, radiobiology, research ethics and methodology), including proponents on both sides of the debate, in order to make significant progress on the ethical issues associated with CPRT research. This position statement provides an ethical platform for future research and should enable further work to be done in developing international coordinated programmes of research. PMID:24045770

Sheehan, Mark; Timlin, Claire; Peach, Ken; Binik, Ariella; Puthenparampil, Wilson; Lodge, Mark; Kehoe, Sean; Brada, Michael; Burnet, Neil; Clarke, Steve; Crellin, Adrian; Dunn, Michael; Fossati, Piero; Harris, Steve; Hocken, Michael; Hope, Tony; Ives, Jonathan; Kamada, Tadashi; London, Alex John; Miller, Robert; Parker, Michael; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Savulescu, Julian; Short, Susan; Skene, Loane; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tuan, Jeffrey; Weijer, Charles

2014-08-01

305

Effectiveness of targeted therapy as monotherapy or combined therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Objectives The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of targeted agents used as monotherapy or combined therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Methods The systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library till 27 May 2013. Results Four randomized controlled trials were included. The meta-analysis showed that combined therapy significantly improved progression-free survival compared with monotherapy (P < 0.05). However, there was not a significant difference between monotherapy and combined therapy in overall survival (P > 0.05). The combined therapy also significantly increased the risk of serious adverse events and grade 3/4 AEs compared to monotherapy (P < 0.05). Overall, the results of comparisons between monotherapy and combined therapy in individual trials were differentiated, and some combinations were not more effective than monotherapy (bortezomib plub bevacizumab vs. bortezomib and thalidomide plus INF? vs. thalidomide) which emphasizes the role of individualized therapy in relapsed/refractory MM especially in the elderly or patients with significant comorbidities. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis showed that combined therapy is superior to monotherapy only in some end points and it is less tolerated in patients with relapsed/refractory MM. Thus, the overall superiority of complex therapy to monotherapy depends on the combination of the targeted agents. PMID:24580409

?opuch, Sylwia; Kawalec, Pawe?; Wi?niewska, Natalia

2015-01-01

306

The Effect of Low-level Laser Therapy on Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

The effect of low intensity laser radiation in the treatment of acute and chronic pain is now established in many studies. Tri-geminal neuralgia is a pain passes through nerve's branches and its trigger is located in skin or mucosa that could lead to pain with a trigger stimulus. The pain involved branches of trigeminal nerve that sometimes has patients to seek the treatment for several years. Nowadays different treatments are used for relief of pain that most of them cause tolerance and various side effects. This paper reviews and summarizes scientific papers available in English literature publishedin PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Inter science, and Iran Medex from 1986 until July 2011 about the effect of these types of lasers on trigeminal neuralgia which is one of the most painful afflictions known. In different studies, the effect of laser therapy has been compared with placebo irradiation or medicinal and surgical treatment modalities. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a treatment strategy which uses a single wavelength light source. Laser radiation and monochromatic light may alter cell and tissue function. However, in most studies laser therapy was associated with significant reduction in the intensity and frequency of pain compared with other treatment strategies, a few studies revealed that between laser and placebo group there was not any significant difference according to the analgesic effect. Low-level laser therapy could be considered in treatment of trigeminal neuralgia without any side effects. PMID:25024832

Falaki, Farnaz; Nejat, Amir Hossein; Dalirsani, Zohreh

2014-01-01

307

Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Comorbid anxiety is common in bipolar spectrum disorders [BPSD], and is associated with poor outcomes. Its clinical relevance is highlighted by the "anxious distress specifier" in the revised criteria for Bipolar Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition [DSM-5]. This article reviews evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapy for anxiety in adults with BPSD (bipolar I, II, not otherwise specified, cyclothymia, and rapid cycling disorders). A systematic search yielded 22 treatment studies that included an anxiety-related outcome measure. Cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] for BPSD incorporating an anxiety component reduces anxiety symptoms in cyclothymia, "refractory" and rapid cycling BPSD, whereas standard bipolar treatments have only a modest effect on anxiety. Preliminary evidence is promising for CBT for post-traumatic stress disorder and generalised anxiety disorder in BPSD. Psychoeducation alone does not appear to reduce anxiety, and data for mindfulness-based cognitive therapy [MBCT] appear equivocal. CBT during euthymic phases has the greatest weight of evidence. Where reported, psychological therapy appears acceptable and safe, but more systematic collection and reporting of safety and acceptability information is needed. Development of psychological models and treatment protocols for anxiety in BPSD may help improve outcomes. PMID:25462111

Stratford, Hannah J; Cooper, Myra J; Di Simplicio, Martina; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A

2014-11-01

308

Concise review: genetically engineered stem cell therapy targeting angiogenesis and tumor stroma in gastrointestinal malignancy.  

PubMed

Cell-based gene therapy holds considerable promise for the treatment of human malignancy. Genetically engineered cells if delivered to sites of disease could alleviate symptoms or even cure cancer through expression of therapeutic or suicide transgene products. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), nonhematopoietic multipotent cells found primarily in bone marrow, have garnered particular interest as potential tumor-targeting vehicles due to their innate tumortropic homing properties. However, recent strategies go further than simply using MSCs as vehicles and use the stem cell-specific genetic make-up to restrict transgene expression to tumorigenic environments using tumor-tissue specific promoters. This addresses one of the concerns with this novel therapy that nonselective stem cell-based therapy could induce cancer rather than treat it. Even minimal off-target effects can be deleterious, motivating recent strategies to not only enhance MSC homing but also engineer them to make their antitumor effect selective to sites of malignancy. This review will summarize the advances made in the past decade toward developing novel cell-based cancer therapies using genetically engineered MSCs with a focus on strategies to achieve and enhance tumor specificity and their application to targeting gastrointestinal malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:23132810

Keung, Emily Z; Nelson, Peter J; Conrad, Claudius

2013-02-01

309

New gene therapy strategies for cancer treatment: a review of recent patents.  

PubMed

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the Western world. The limited successes of available treatments for cancer mean that new strategies need to be developed. The possibility of modifying the cancer cell with the introduction of genetic material opens the way to a new approach based on gene therapy. There are still many technical difficulties to be overcome, but recent advances in the molecular and cellular biology of gene transfer have made it likely that gene therapy will soon start to play an increasing role in clinical practice, particularly in the treatment of cancer. Gene therapy will probably be the therapeutic option in cases in which conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have failed. The development of modified vectors, and an improved understanding of interactions between the vector and the human host, are generating inventions that are being protected by patents due to the considerable interest of industry for their possible commercialization. We review the latest strategies, patented and/or under clinical trial, in cancer gene therapy. These include patents that cover the use of modified vectors to increase the security and specificity, recombining adenovirus that leads to loss or gain of gene function, activation of the patient's own immune cells to eliminate cancer cells by expression of molecules that enhance immune responses, silencing genes related to the development of drug resistance in patients, inhibition of angiogenesis of solid tumors by targeting the tumor vasculature, and the development of enzymes that destroy viral or cancerous genetic material. PMID:22339358

Ortiz, Raúl; Melguizo, Consolación; Prados, José; Álvarez, Pablo J; Caba, Octavio; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando; Hita, Fidel; Aránega, Antonia

2012-09-01

310

Efficacy and safety of loop diuretic therapy in acute decompensated heart failure: a clinical review.  

PubMed

Intravenous loop diuretics are widely used to treat the symptoms and signs of fluid overload in acute heart failure (AHF). Although diuretic therapy is widely used and strongly recommended by most recent clinical guidelines, prospective studies and randomized clinical trials are lacking and so reliable evidence is missing about the best therapy in terms of doses and methods of administration. In addition, clinical efficacy and safety outcomes are often affected by the presence of contrasting evidence. The efficacy of loop diuretics is impaired by diuretic resistance characterized by a decreased diuretic and natriuretic effect. This review focuses on the current management of AHF with diuretic therapy. Continuous diuretic infusion seems to be a good choice, from a pharmacokinetic point of view, when fluid overload is refractory to conventional therapy. Some available evidence comparing bolus injection to continuous infusion of loop diuretics proved the latter to be an effective and safe method of administration. Continuous infusion seems to produce a constant plasmatic concentration of drug with a more uniform daily diuretic and natriuretic effect and a greater safety profile (fewer adverse events such as worsening renal failure, electrolyte imbalances, ototoxicity). The analyses of the published studies did not provide conclusive data about the effects on clinical outcomes (mortality, rate of hospital readmissions, length of hospital stay and adverse events). Furthermore, recent studies focus their attention on alternative strategies of fluid removal, such as vasopressin antagonists, adenosine antagonists and ultrafiltration but available data are often inconclusive. PMID:23135208

Leto, Laura; Aspromonte, Nadia; Feola, Mauro

2014-03-01

311

First Exit Times of Harmonically Trapped Particles: A Didactic Review  

E-print Network

We revise the classical problem of characterizing first exit times of a harmonically trapped particle whose motion is described by one- or multi-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We start by recalling the main derivation steps of a propagator using Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. The mean exit time, the moment-generating function, and the survival probability are then expressed through confluent hypergeometric functions and thoroughly analyzed. We also present a rapidly converging series representation of confluent hypergeometric functions that is particularly well suited for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the governing Fokker-Planck operator. We discuss several applications of first exit times such as detection of time intervals during which motor proteins exert a constant force onto a tracer in optical tweezers single-particle tracking experiments; adhesion bond dissociation under mechanical stress; characterization of active periods of trend following and mean-reverting strategies in algorithmic trading on stock markets; relation to the distribution of first crossing times of a moving boundary by Brownian motion. Some extensions are described, including diffusion under quadratic double-well potential and anomalous diffusion.

D. S. Grebenkov

2014-11-13

312

First exit times of harmonically trapped particles: a didactic review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revise the classical problem of characterizing first exit times of a harmonically trapped particle whose motion is described by a one- or multidimensional Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. We start by recalling the main derivation steps of a propagator using Langevin and Fokker–Planck equations. The mean exit time, the moment-generating function and the survival probability are then expressed through confluent hypergeometric functions and thoroughly analyzed. We also present a rapidly converging series representation of confluent hypergeometric functions that is particularly well suited for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the governing Fokker–Planck operator. We discuss several applications of first exit times, such as the detection of time intervals during which motor proteins exert a constant force onto a tracer in optical tweezers single-particle tracking experiments; adhesion bond dissociation under mechanical stress; characterization of active periods of trend-following and mean-reverting strategies in algorithmic trading on stock markets; relation to the distribution of first crossing times of a moving boundary by Brownian motion. Some extensions are described, including diffusion under quadratic double-well potential and anomalous diffusion.

Grebenkov, Denis S.

2015-01-01

313

Lipodystrophy among patients with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lipodystrophy is a frequent and disfiguring adverse effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients with HIV. It affects the quality of life of the patient and adherence to treatment, and generates new needs for comprehensive healthcare services. The aim of this study will be to conduct a systematic review of the literature from observational studies and describe lipodystrophy among patients with HIV infection during current or previous use of ART. Methods and analysis A systematic review of observational studies published in MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, EMBASE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts will be carried out. Citations of included studies will be checked to identify additional studies not identified in the electronic searches. It will include any observational study that considered lipodystrophy as the primary or secondary outcome and that had enrolled adolescent and adult patients with HIV infection who were on current or previous ART for at least 6 months. Data extraction and analysis will be performed independently by two reviewers. The extracted data will be discussed, decisions documented and, where necessary, the authors of the studies will be contacted for clarification. Measures of frequency, prevalence and incidence of lipodystrophy will be stratified according to definition, method of diagnosis and risk factors of the outcome. Ethics and dissemination Ethics is not required given this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings of this study will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Updates of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice. Protocol registration PROSPERO—42013005450. PMID:24625638

Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Perini, Edson; Menezes de Pádua, Cristiane

2014-01-01

314

Secondary particle dose in proton beam therapy computed using the LAHET code system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to use the LAHET Code System (LCS), which has recently been used in shielding calculations for proton therapy, to model the neutron and photon dose equivalent distributions created in tissue during proton beam cancer therapy. Proton beams used for therapy have shown distinct advantages over other therapeutic radiation treatments due to the rapid distal

P. G. Laky; N. Tsoulfanidis

1997-01-01

315

Evaluation of different fiducial markers for image-guided radiotherapy and particle therapy  

PubMed Central

Modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques are widely used in the irradiation of moving organs. A crucial step in ensuring the correct position of a target structure directly before or during treatment is daily image guidance by computed tomography (CT) or X-ray radiography (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT). Therefore, combinations of modern irradiation devices and imaging, such as on-board imaging (OBI) with X-rays, or in-room CT such as the tomotherapy system, have been developed. Moreover, combinations of linear accelerators and in-room CT-scanners have been designed. IGRT is of special interest in hypofractionated and radiosurgical treatments where high single doses are applied in the proximity of critical organs at risk. Radiographically visible markers in or in close proximity to the target structure may help to reproduce the position during RT and could therefore be used as external surrogates for motion monitoring. Criteria sought for fiducial markers are (i) visibility in the radiologic modalities involved in radiotherapeutic treatment planning and image guidance, such as CT and kilovoltage (kV) OBI), (ii) low production of imaging artifacts, and (iii) low perturbation of the therapeutic dose to the target volume. Photon interaction with interstitial markers has been shown to be not as important as in particle therapy, where interaction of the particle beam, especially with metal markers, can have a significant impact on treatment. This applies especially with a scanned ion beam. Recently we commenced patient recruitment at our institution within the PROMETHEUS trial, which evaluates a hypofractionation regime, starting with 4 x 10 Gy (RBE), for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work is, therefore, to evaluate potential implantable fiducial markers for enabling precise patient and thus organ positioning in scanned ion beams. To transfer existing knowledge of marker application from photon to particle therapy, we used a range of commercially available markers of different forms and sizes, consisting of carbon and gold materials, and evaluated them for their potential use in the clinical setup with scanned ion beams at our institution. All markers were implanted in a standardized Alderson phantom and were examined using CT scans and orthogonal kV OBI in our clinical routine protocol. Impact on beam perturbation downstream of the markers in the plateau region of a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) was estimated by using radiographic films for clinical proton and carbon ion beams of high and low energies. All tested markers achieved good visibility in CT and kV OBI. Disturbances due to artifacts and dose perturbation were highest in the arbitrarily folded gold and the thickest gold marker, but especially low in the carbon marker. Dose perturbation was highest in the arbitrarily folded gold marker. In summary, the analyzed markers offer promising potential for identifying target structures in our treatment setup at HIT and will soon be used in clinical routine. However, a careful choice of marker, depending on the tumor localization and irradiation strategy, will need to be made. PMID:23824129

Habermehl, Daniel; Henkner, Katrin; Ecker, Swantje; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E.

2013-01-01

316

Vertebral compression fractures: a review of current management and multimodal therapy  

PubMed Central

Vertebral compression fractures are a prevalent disease affecting osteoporotic patients. When symptomatic, they cause significant pain and loss of function and have a high public health impact. In this paper we outline the diagnosis and management of these patients, with evidence-based review of treatment outcomes for the various therapeutic options. Diagnosis involves a clinical history focusing on the nature of the patient’s pain as well as various imaging studies. Management is multimodal in nature and starts with conservative therapy consisting of analgesic medication, medication for osteoporosis, physical therapy, and bracing. Patients who are refractory to conservative management may be candidates for vertebral augmentation through either vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. PMID:23818797

Wong, Cyrus C; McGirt, Matthew J

2013-01-01

317

Acceptance and commitment therapy for anxiety and OCD spectrum disorders: an empirical review.  

PubMed

A fair amount of research exists on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a model and a treatment for anxiety disorders and OCD spectrum disorders; this paper offers a quantitative account of this research. A meta-analysis is presented examining the relationship between psychological flexibility, measured by versions of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ and AAQ-II) and measures of anxiety. Meta-analytic results showed positive and significant relationships between the AAQ and general measures of anxiety as well as disorder specific measures. Additionally, all outcome data to date on ACT for anxiety and OCD spectrum disorders are reviewed, as are data on mediation and moderation within ACT. Preliminary meta-analytic results show that ACT is equally effective as manualized treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Future directions and limitations of the research are discussed. PMID:25041735

Bluett, Ellen J; Homan, Kendra J; Morrison, Kate L; Levin, Michael E; Twohig, Michael P

2014-08-01

318

A review on the use of cell therapy in the treatment of tendon disease and injuries  

PubMed Central

Tendon disease and injuries carry significant morbidity worldwide in both athletic and non-athletic populations. It is estimated that tendon injuries account for 30%?50% of all musculoskeletal injuries globally. Current treatments have been inadequate in providing an accelerated process of repair resulting in high relapse rates. Modern concepts in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have led to increasing interest in the application of cell therapy for the treatment of tendon disease. This review will explore the use of cell therapy, by bringing together up-to-date evidence from in vivo human and animal studies, and discuss the issues surrounding the safety and efficacy of its use in the treatment of tendon disease. PMID:25383170

Sawadkar, Prasad; Mudera, Vivek

2014-01-01

319

Complications associated with molding helmet therapy for positional plagiocephaly: a review.  

PubMed

Molding helmet therapy is a widely accepted treatment for positional plagiocephaly that is generally considered to be low risk. Multiple large outcome studies have shown good results, but adverse events are rarely reported. The literature on helmet therapy was reviewed to clarify the clinical experience with associated complications. Although significant complications were extremely rare, there was a large degree of variability in detection of lesser problems such as minor skin irritation. Patients with a primarily brachycephalic morphology may be at higher risk for poorly fitting orthoses. Most reported complications are minor and self-limited. Maintenance of good helmet hygiene appears to be the most effective strategy for reducing or eliminating complications. PMID:24079782

Gump, William C; Mutchnick, Ian S; Moriarty, Thomas M

2013-10-01

320

Salvage therapy of intraprostatic failure after radical external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Radical external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is a standard treatment for prostate cancer (PC) patients. Despite this, the rate of intraprostatic relapses after primary EBRT is still not negligible. There is no consensus on the most appropriate management of these patients after EBRT failure. Treatment strategies after PC relapse are strongly influenced by the effective site of the tumor recurrence, and thus the instrumental evaluation with different imaging techniques becomes crucial. In cases of demonstrated intraprostatic failure, several systemic (androgen deprivation therapy) or local (salvage prostatectomy, cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, brachytherapy, stereotactic EBRT) treatment options could be proposed and are currently delivered by clinicians with a variety of results. In this review we analyze the correct definition of intraprostatic relapse after radiotherapy, focusing on the recent developments in imaging to detect intraprostatic recurrence. Furthermore, all available salvage treatment options after a radiation therapy local failure are presented and thoroughly discussed. PMID:23953795

Alongi, Filippo; De Bari, Berardino; Campostrini, Franco; Arcangeli, Stefano; Matei, Deliu Victor; Lopci, Egesta; Petralia, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Massimo; Chiti, Arturo; Magrini, Stefano Maria; Scorsetti, Marta; Orecchia, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja

2013-12-01

321

Bridging therapy in antiphospholipid syndrome and antiphospholipid antibodies carriers: case series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Peri-operative management of patients on warfarin involves assessing and balancing individual risks for thromboembolism and bleeding. The timing of warfarin withdrawal and a tailored pre/postoperative management (including the substitution of heparin in place of warfarin, the so-called bridging therapy) is critical in patients with prothrombotic conditions. The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the most common cause of acquired thrombophilia. In this particular subset of patients, as the risk of thrombosis is higher than in general population, bridging therapy can represent a real challenge for treating physicians. Only few studies have been designed to address this topic. We aim to report our experience and to review the available literature in the peri-procedural management of APS and antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients, reporting adverse events and attempting to identify potential risk factor associated with thrombosis or bleeding complications. PMID:25242343

Raso, Samuele; Sciascia, Savino; Kuzenko, Anna; Castagno, Irene; Marozio, Luca; Bertero, Maria Tiziana

2015-01-01

322

Dog-assisted therapy for older people with dementia: a review.  

PubMed

This review summarises and critiques the published literature regarding dog therapy for older people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities. Nine studies were identified for inclusion and although the methodological variability of studies makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions, research suggests that dog therapy is beneficial for people with dementia. The most frequently reported findings were an increase in social behaviour and a decrease in agitated behaviour during dog contact. Improvement in social behaviour was found to be unrelated to the severity of dementia. Various improvements on measures of global function were also reported. No study adopted a randomised controlled trial design and a number of potentially important factors were not controlled for, including halo effects of animals on caregivers that may bias caregivers' responses when acting as proxies for their relatives or residents. The premorbid relationship with dogs may be an important variable influencing outcomes. PMID:19032618

Perkins, Jacqueline; Bartlett, Helen; Travers, Catherine; Rand, Jacquie

2008-12-01

323

Game-based digital interventions for depression therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on game-based digital interventions for depression systematically and examine their effectiveness through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Database searching was conducted using specific search terms and inclusion criteria. A standard meta-analysis was also conducted of available RCT studies with a random effects model. The standard mean difference (Cohen's d) was used to calculate the effect size of each study. Nineteen studies were included in the review, and 10 RCTs (eight studies) were included in the meta-analysis. Four types of game interventions-psycho-education and training, virtual reality exposure therapy, exercising, and entertainment-were identified, with various types of support delivered and populations targeted. The meta-analysis revealed a moderate effect size of the game interventions for depression therapy at posttreatment (d=-0.47 [95% CI -0.69 to -0.24]). A subgroup analysis showed that interventions based on psycho-education and training had a smaller effect than those based on the other forms, and that self-help interventions yielded better outcomes than supported interventions. A higher effect was achieved when a waiting list was used as the control. The review and meta-analysis support the effectiveness of game-based digital interventions for depression. More large-scale, high-quality RCT studies with sufficient long-term data for treatment evaluation are needed. PMID:24810933

Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

2014-08-01

324

Manual therapy as a conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is contingent upon many variables. Simple observation is enough for less serious curvatures, but for very serious cases surgical intervention could be proposed. Between these there is a wide range of different treatments. Manual therapy is commonly used: the aim of this paper is to verify the data existing in the literature on the efficacy of this approach. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature published internationally has been performed. We have included in the term manual therapy all the manipulative and generally passive techniques performed by an external operator. In a more specific meaning, osteopathic, chiropractic and massage techniques have been considered as manipulative therapeutic methods. We performed our systematic research in Medline, Embase, Cinhal, Cochrane Library, Pedro with the following terms: idiopathic scoliosis combined with chiropractic; manipulation; mobilization; manual therapy; massage; osteopathy; and therapeutic manipulation. The criteria for inclusion were as follows: Any kind of research; diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; patients treated exclusively by one of the procedures established as a standard for this review (chiropractic manipulation, osteopathic techniques, massage); and outcome in Cobb degrees. Results We founded 145 texts, but only three papers were relevant to our study. However, no one of the three satisfied all the required inclusion criteria because they were characterized by a combination of manual techniques and other therapeutic approaches. Conclusion The lack of any kind of serious scientific data does not allow us to draw any conclusion on the efficacy of manual therapy as an efficacious technique for the treatment of Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:18211702

Romano, Michele; Negrini, Stefano

2008-01-01

325

Clinical- and cost-effectiveness of LDL particle-guided statin therapy: a simulation study.  

PubMed

We used the Archimedes Model, a mathematical simulation model (Model) to estimate the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of using LDL particle concentration (LDL-P) as an adjunct or alternative to LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to guide statin therapy. LDL-P by NMR has been shown to be a better measure of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than LDL-C, and may therefore be a better gauge of the need for and response to statin treatment. Using the Model, we conducted a virtual clinical trial comparing the use of LDL-C alone, LDL-P alone, and LDL-C and LDL-P together to guide treatment in the general adult population, and in high-risk, dyslipidemic subpopulations. In the general population, the 5-year major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) relative risk reduction (RRR) of LDL-P alone compared to the control arm (LDL-C alone) was 5.0% (95% CI, 4.7-5.3; p < .0001); using both LDL-C and LDL-P (dual markers) led to 3.0% RRR compared to the control arm (95% CI, 2.8-3.3; p < .0001). For individuals with diabetes, the RRR was 7.3% (95% CI, 6.4-8.2; p < .0001) for LDL-P alone and 6.9% for dual markers (95% CI, 6.1-7.8; both, p < .0001). In the general population, the costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) associated with the use of LDL-P alone were $76,052 at 5 years and $8913 at 20 years and $142,825 at 5 years and $25,505 at 20 years with the use of both markers. In high-risk subpopulations, the use of LDL-P alone was cost-saving at 5 years; whereas the cost per QALY for the use of both markers was $14,250 at 5 years and $859 at 20 years for high-risk dyslipidemics, $19,192 at 5 years and $649 at 20 years for diabetics, and $9030 at 5 years and $7268 at 20 years for patients with prior CHD. In conclusion, the model estimates that using LDL-P to guide statin therapy may reduce the risk of CVD events to a greater extent than does the use of LDL-C alone and maybe cost-effective or cost-saving for high-risk patients. PMID:25050538

Folse, Henry J; Goswami, Devesh; Rengarajan, Badri; Budoff, Matthew; Kahn, Richard

2014-09-01

326

A critical review of constraint-induced movement therapy and forced use in children with hemiplegia.  

PubMed

Hemiplegia is a physical impairment that can occur in childhood following head trauma, cerebral vascular accident or transient ischemic attack (stroke), brain tumor, or congenital or perinatal injury. One of the most disabling symptoms of hemiplegia is unilaterally impaired hand and arm function. Sensory and motor impairments in children with hemiplegia compromise movement efficiency. Such children often tend not to use the affected extremity, which may further exacerbate the impairments, resulting in a developmentally learned non-use of the involved upper extremity, termed 'developmental disuse'. Recent studies suggest that children with hemiplegia benefit from intensive practice. Forced use and Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CI therapy) are recent therapeutic interventions involving the restraint of the non-involved upper extremity and intensive practice with the involved upper extremity. These approaches were designed for adults with hemiplegia, and increasing evidence suggests that they are efficacious in this population. Recently, forced use and constraint-induced therapy have been applied to children with hemiplegia. In this review, we provide a brief description of forced use and CI therapy and their historical basis, provide a summary of studies of these interventions in children, and discuss a number of important theoretical considerations, as well as implications for postural control. We will show that whereas the studies to date suggest that both forced use and CI therapy appear to be promising for improving hand function in children with hemiplegia, the data are limited. Substantially more work must be performed before this approach can be advocated for general clinical use. PMID:16097492

Charles, Jeanne; Gordon, Andrew M

2005-01-01

327

Efficacy of AZM therapy in patients with gingival overgrowth induced by Cyclosporine A: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background In daily clinical practice of a dental department it's common to find gingival overgrowth (GO) in periodontal patients under treatment with Cyclosporine A (CsA). The pathogenesis of GO and the mechanism of action of Azithromycin (AZM) are unclear. A systematic review was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of Azithromycin in patients with gingival overgrowth induced by assumption of Cyclosporine A. Methods A bibliographic search was performed using the online databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central of Register Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the time period between 1966 and September 2008. Results The literature search retrieved 24 articles; only 5 were Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs), published in English, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A great heterogeneity between proposed treatments and outcomes was found, and this did not allow to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis. The systematic review revealed that a 5-day course of Azithromycin with Scaling and Root Planing reduces the degree of gingival overgrowth, while a 7-day course of metronidazole is only effective on concomitant bacterial over-infection. Conclusion Few RCTs on the efficacy of systemic antibiotic therapy in case of GO were found in the literature review. A systemic antibiotic therapy without plaque and calculus removal is not able to reduce gingival overgrowth. The great heterogeneity of diagnostic data and outcomes is due to the lack of precise diagnostic methods and protocols about GO. Future studies need to improve both diagnostic methods and tools and adequate classification aimed to determine a correct prognosis and an appropriate therapy for gingival overgrowth. PMID:19087331

Clementini, Marco; Vittorini, Gianluca; Crea, Alessandro; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Macrì, Ludovica Antonella; Deli, Giorgio; La Torre, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

328

A Current Review of Multisystemic Therapy: A Social-Ecological Approach to the Treatment of Conduct Problems among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current empirical review of the treatment efficacy of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for adolescent conduct problems (CP) was conducted. Conclusions based on this review suggest that MST can be a very powerful alternative to the usual legal and social service approaches (e.g. justice system, day treatment programs) used in the treatment of…

Harpell, Jody V.; Andrews, Jac

2006-01-01

329

The Role of Cytotoxic Therapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Therapy of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children: An Evidence-Based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence supporting the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the treatment recommendations. Treatment recommendations based on

Theresa Hahn; Donna Wall; Bruce Camitta; Stella Davies; Hildy Dillon; Paul Gaynon; Richard A. Larson; Susan Parsons; Jerome Seidenfeld; Daniel Weisdorf; Philip L. McCarthy

2005-01-01

330

The Role of Cytotoxic Therapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Children: An Evidence-Based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical research examining the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in children is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the treatment recommendations. Treatment recommendations based

Denise M. Oliansky; J. Douglas Rizzo; Peter D. Aplan; Robert J. Arceci; Louis Leone; Yaddanapudi Ravindranath; Jean E. Sanders; Franklin O. Smith; Fiona Wilmot; Philip L. McCarthy; Theresa Hahn

2007-01-01

331

The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

2012-01-01

332

Penile traction therapy and Peyronie's disease: a state of art review of the current literature.  

PubMed

In recent years, penile traction therapy (PTT) has gained considerable interest as a novel nonsurgical treatment option for men with Peyronie's disease (PD) and short penises. The current published literature suggests that selected cases of PD may benefit from a conservative approach with PTT, resulting in increased penile length and reduction of penile deformity. It appears to be safe and well tolerated but requires a great deal of patient compliance and determination. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the use of PTT in men with PD, short penises and in the setting of pre- and postprosthesis corporal fibrosis. PMID:23372611

Chung, Eric; Brock, Gerald

2013-02-01

333

Drug therapies for peripheral joint disease in psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

In 2009, GRAPPA published their first evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Since then, new information has been published and drugs developed. We summarize evidence for the efficacy of available treatments for peripheral joint involvement in PsA. We performed a systematic review of current literature on the efficacy of different therapies, management, and therapeutic strategies for peripheral arthritis involvement in PsA, in order to provide information for the development of the new GRAPPA treatment recommendations. PMID:25362711

Acosta Felquer, Maria Laura; Coates, Laura C; Soriano, Enrique R; Ranza, Roberto; Espinoza, Luis R; Helliwell, Philip S; FitzGerald, Oliver; McHugh, Neil; Roussou, Euthalia; Mease, Philip J

2014-11-01

334

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after highly active antiretroviral therapy: a review.  

PubMed

The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) restores immune responses against pathogens and has greatly decreased mortality. However, in about 25% to 35% of patients receiving HAART, the reconstituted immune system leads to a pathological inflammatory response, commonly known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), which causes substantial short-term morbidity or even mortality. Although we have gleaned some knowledge on IRIS in the past few years, a number of unanswered questions remain. In this review, we discuss the definition, diagnostic criteria, pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical spectrum including oral manifestations, and management of IRIS. PMID:19758406

Tsang, C S P; Samaranayake, L P

2010-04-01

335

Particle therapy for clinically diagnosed stage I lung cancer: Comparison with pathologically proven non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Background. The purpose of the present study was to present the treatment outcomes of particle therapy for indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs) diagnosed as stage I non-small cell lung cancer, including a comparative analysis involving pathologically proven lung cancer (PPLC). Material and methods. A total of 54 patients (57 lesions) who underwent particle therapy for IPNs were enrolled in this study. Median patient age was 76 (range 52-87) years. T-classification was: T1a, 30; T1b, 16; and T2a, 11. Particle therapy using protons or carbon ions was delivered at total doses of 52.8-80 Gy equivalent in 4-26 fractions. The PPLC cohort included 111 patients. Results. The median follow-up time was 41 (range 7-90) months. For all IPN patients, the three-year overall survival, progression-free survival, local control and distant progression-free survival rates were 90%, 72%, 94% and 79%, respectively. Grade 2 toxicities were radiation pneumonitis (19%), dermatitis (9%), rib fracture (2%), chest wall pain (2%) and neuropathy (2%). No ? grade 3 toxicities were observed. In univariate analysis, the IPN group showed significantly better survival relative to the PPLC group. However, after adjustment for baseline imbalances between these two groups in multivariate analysis, pathological confirmation did not correlate with survival. Conclusions. Particle therapy for IPNs provided favorable outcomes with minimal toxicities, which may be comparable to those for PPLC patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the optimal management of IPN patients. PMID:25383445

Fujii, Osamu; Demizu, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takagi, Masaru; Terashima, Kazuki; Mima, Masayuki; Jin, Dongcun; Nagano, Fumiko; Katsui, Kuniaki; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Niwa, Yasue; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Akagi, Takashi; Daimon, Takashi; Sasaki, Ryohei; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Murakami, Masao; Fuwa, Nobukazu

2014-11-10

336

Virtual Reality Therapy for Adults Post-Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Exploring Virtual Environments and Commercial Games in Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this analysis was to systematically review the evidence for virtual reality (VR) therapy in an adult post-stroke population in both custom built virtual environments (VE) and commercially available gaming systems (CG). Methods MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PSYCInfo, DARE, PEDro, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched from the earliest available date until April 4, 2013. Controlled trials that compared VR to conventional therapy were included. Population criteria included adults (>18) post-stroke, excluding children, cerebral palsy, and other neurological disorders. Included studies were reported in English. Quality of studies was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale (PEDro). Results Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. For body function outcomes, there was a significant benefit of VR therapy compared to conventional therapy controls, G?=?0.48, 95% CI?=?[0.27, 0.70], and no significant difference between VE and CG interventions (P?=?0.38). For activity outcomes, there was a significant benefit of VR therapy, G?=?0.58, 95% CI?=?[0.32, 0.85], and no significant difference between VE and CG interventions (P?=?0.66). For participation outcomes, the overall effect size was G?=?0.56, 95% CI?=?[0.02, 1.10]. All participation outcomes came from VE studies. Discussion VR rehabilitation moderately improves outcomes compared to conventional therapy in adults post-stroke. Current CG interventions have been too few and too small to assess potential benefits of CG. Future research in this area should aim to clearly define conventional therapy, report on participation measures, consider motivational components of therapy, and investigate commercially available systems in larger RCTs. Trial Registration Prospero CRD42013004338 PMID:24681826

Lohse, Keith R.; Hilderman, Courtney G. E.; Cheung, Katharine L.; Tatla, Sandy; Van der Loos, H. F. Machiel

2014-01-01

337

Web-based documentation system with exchange of DICOM RT for multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conducting clinical studies is rather difficult because of the large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in radiation oncology. In this paper, we describe our development of a web-based documentation system with first approaches of automatic statistical analyses for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. It is possible to have immediate access to all patient information and exchange, store, process, and visualize text data, all types of DICOM images, especially DICOM RT, and any other multimedia data. Accessing the documentation system and submitting clinical data is possible for internal and external users (e.g. referring physicians from abroad, who are seeking the new technique of particle therapy for their patients). Thereby, security and privacy protection is ensured with the encrypted https protocol, client certificates, and an application gateway. Furthermore, all data can be pseudonymized. Integrated into the existing hospital environment, patient data is imported via various interfaces over HL7-messages and DICOM. Several further features replace manual input wherever possible and ensure data quality and entirety. With a form generator, studies can be individually designed to fit specific needs. By including all treated patients (also non-study patients), we gain the possibility for overall large-scale, retrospective analyses. Having recently begun documentation of our first six clinical studies, it has become apparent that the benefits lie in the simplification of research work, better study analyses quality and ultimately, the improvement of treatment concepts by evaluating the effectiveness of particle therapy.

Kessel, Kerstin A.; Bougatf, Nina; Bohn, Christian; Engelmann, Uwe; Oetzel, Dieter; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E.

2012-02-01

338

Fast neutron relative biological effects and implications for charged particle therapy  

PubMed Central

In two fast neutron data sets, comprising in vitro and in vivo experiments, an inverse relationship is found between the low-linear energy transfer (LET) ?/? ratio and the maximum value of relative biological effect (RBEmax), while the minimum relative biological effect (RBEmin) is linearly related to the square root of the low-LET ?/? ratio. RBEmax is the RBE at near zero dose and can be represented by the ratio of the ? parameters at high- and low-LET radiation exposures. RBEmin is the RBE at very high dose and can be represented by the ratio of the square roots of the ? parameters at high- and low-LET radiation exposures. In principle, it may be possible to use the low-LET ?/? ratio to predict RBEmax and RBEmin, providing that other LET-related parameters, which reflect intercept and slopes of these relationships, are used. These two limits of RBE determine the intermediate values of RBE at any dose per fraction; therefore, it is possible to find the RBE at any dose per fraction. Although these results are obtained from fast neutron experiments, there are implications for charged particle therapy using protons (when RBE is scaled downwards) and for heavier ion beams (where the magnitude of RBE is similar to that for fast neutrons). In the case of fast neutrons, late reacting normal tissue systems and very slow growing tumours, which have the smallest values of the low-LET ?/? ratio, are predicted to have the highest RBE values at low fractional doses, but the lowest values of RBE at higher doses when they are compared with early reacting tissues and fast growing tumour systems that have the largest low-LET ?/? ratios. PMID:22374547

Jones, B; Underwood, T S A; Carabe-Fernandez, A; Timlin, C; Dale, R G

2011-01-01

339

Fast neutron relative biological effects and implications for charged particle therapy.  

PubMed

In two fast neutron data sets, comprising in vitro and in vivo experiments, an inverse relationship is found between the low-linear energy transfer (LET) ?/? ratio and the maximum value of relative biological effect (RBE(max)), while the minimum relative biological effect (RBE(min)) is linearly related to the square root of the low-LET ?/? ratio. RBE(max) is the RBE at near zero dose and can be represented by the ratio of the ? parameters at high- and low-LET radiation exposures. RBE(min) is the RBE at very high dose and can be represented by the ratio of the square roots of the ? parameters at high- and low-LET radiation exposures. In principle, it may be possible to use the low-LET ?/? ratio to predict RBE(max) and RBE(min, )providing that other LET-related parameters, which reflect intercept and slopes of these relationships, are used. These two limits of RBE determine the intermediate values of RBE at any dose per fraction; therefore, it is possible to find the RBE at any dose per fraction. Although these results are obtained from fast neutron experiments, there are implications for charged particle therapy using protons (when RBE is scaled downwards) and for heavier ion beams (where the magnitude of RBE is similar to that for fast neutrons). In the case of fast neutrons, late reacting normal tissue systems and very slow growing tumours, which have the smallest values of the low-LET ?/? ratio, are predicted to have the highest RBE values at low fractional doses, but the lowest values of RBE at higher doses when they are compared with early reacting tissues and fast growing tumour systems that have the largest low-LET ?/? ratios. PMID:22374547

Jones, B; Underwood, T S A; Carabe-Fernandez, A; Timlin, C; Dale, R G

2011-12-01

340

Review: Molecular pathology in adult high-grade gliomas: from molecular diagnostics to target therapies  

PubMed Central

The classification of malignant gliomas is moving from a morphology-based guide to a system built on molecular criteria. The development of a genomic landscape for gliomas and a better understanding of its functional consequences have led to the development of internally consistent molecular classifiers. However, development of a biologically insightful classification to guide therapy is still a work in progress. Response to targeted treatments is based not only on the presence of drugable targets, but rather on the molecular circuitry of the cells. Further, tumours are heterogeneous and change and adapt in response to drugs. Therefore, the challenge of developing molecular classifiers that provide meaningful ways to stratify patients for therapy remains a major challenge for the field. In this review, we examine the potential role of MGMT methylation, IDH1/2 mutations, 1p/19q deletions, aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor and PI3K pathways, abnormal p53/Rb pathways, cancer stem-cell markers and microRNAs as prognostic and predictive molecular markers in the setting of adult high-grade gliomas and we outline the clinically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma with genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic integrated analyses. Furthermore, we describe how these advances, especially in epidermal growth factor receptor/PI3K/mTOR signalling pathway, affect our approaches towards targeted therapy, raising new challenges and identifying new leads. PMID:22098029

Masui, K.; Cloughesy, T. F.; Mischel, P. S.

2014-01-01

341

Adrenal insufficiency: review of clinical outcomes with current glucocorticoid replacement therapy.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI), whether primary (Addison's disease) or secondary (due to hypopituitarism), has been established for some 50 years. The current standard treatment regimen involves twice- or thrice-daily dosing with a glucocorticoid, most commonly oral hydrocortisone. Based on previous small-scale studies and clinical perception, life expectancy with conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy has been considered normal, with a low incidence of adverse events. Data from the past 10-15 years, however, have shown that morbidity remains high and life expectancy is reduced. The increased morbidity and decreased life expectancy appear to be due to both increased exposure to cortisol and insufficient cortisol coverage during infections and other stress-related events. This is thought to reflect a failure of treatment to replicate the natural circadian rhythm of cortisol release, together with a failure to identify and deliver individualized cortisol exposure and to manage patients adequately when increased doses are required. The resulting over- or under-treatment may result in Cushing-like symptoms or adrenal crisis, respectively. This review summarizes the morbidity and mortality seen in patients receiving the current standard of care for AI and suggests areas for improvement in glucocorticoid replacement therapy. PMID:25187037

Johannsson, Gudmundur; Falorni, Alberto; Skrtic, Stanko; Lennernäs, Hans; Quinkler, Marcus; Monson, John P; Stewart, Paul M

2015-01-01

342

Manual therapies for primary chronic headaches: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

This is to our knowledge the first systematic review regarding the efficacy of manual therapy randomized clinical trials (RCT) for primary chronic headaches. A comprehensive English literature search on CINHAL, Cochrane, Medline, Ovid and PubMed identified 6 RCTs all investigating chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). One study applied massage therapy and five studies applied physiotherapy. Four studies were considered to be of good methodological quality by the PEDro scale. All studies were pragmatic or used no treatment as a control group, and only two studies avoided co-intervention, which may lead to possible bias and makes interpretation of the results more difficult. The RCTs suggest that massage and physiotherapy are effective treatment options in the management of CTTH. One of the RCTs showed that physiotherapy reduced headache frequency and intensity statistical significant better than usual care by the general practitioner. The efficacy of physiotherapy at post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up equals the efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants. Effect size of physiotherapy was up to 0.62. Future manual therapy RCTs are requested addressing the efficacy in chronic migraine with and without medication overuse. Future RCTs on headache should adhere to the International Headache Society’s guidelines for clinical trials, i.e. frequency as primary end-point, while duration and intensity should be secondary end-point, avoid co-intervention, includes sufficient sample size and follow-up period for at least 6 months. PMID:25278005

2014-01-01

343

Manual therapies for primary chronic headaches: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

This is to our knowledge the first systematic review regarding the efficacy of manual therapy randomized clinical trials (RCT) for primary chronic headaches. A comprehensive English literature search on CINHAL, Cochrane, Medline, Ovid and PubMed identified 6 RCTs all investigating chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). One study applied massage therapy and five studies applied physiotherapy. Four studies were considered to be of good methodological quality by the PEDro scale. All studies were pragmatic or used no treatment as a control group, and only two studies avoided co-intervention, which may lead to possible bias and makes interpretation of the results more difficult. The RCTs suggest that massage and physiotherapy are effective treatment options in the management of CTTH. One of the RCTs showed that physiotherapy reduced headache frequency and intensity statistical significant better than usual care by the general practitioner. The efficacy of physiotherapy at post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up equals the efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants. Effect size of physiotherapy was up to 0.62. Future manual therapy RCTs are requested addressing the efficacy in chronic migraine with and without medication overuse. Future RCTs on headache should adhere to the International Headache Society's guidelines for clinical trials, i.e., frequency as primary end-point, while duration and intensity should be secondary end-point, avoid co-intervention, includes sufficient sample size and follow-up period for at least 6 months. PMID:25278005

Chaibi, Aleksander; Russell, Michael Bjørn

2014-01-01

344

Macrolide therapy in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a pulmonary disorder associated with nonspecific clinical presentations. The macrolide class of antimicrobial agents is widely used to treat infectious and inflammatory respiratory diseases in humans. The present study reports a case of COP that was effectively treated with azithromycin in combination with glucocorticoid. A literature review of similar cases is also presented. It was found that all COP patients in the literature received macrolide treatment, including six cases with unknown clinical outcomes. For the remaining 29 patients, 20 patients initially received the macrolide as a single therapy and 4/5 of them (16 cases) were cured with a treatment time of 3–14 months, while 1/5 (4 cases) showed no improvement after treatment for 1 month and were switched to a glucocorticoid or combination treatment with a glucocorticoid, after which the disease was finally well-controlled. Side-effects of macrolide were rare. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that macrolides can be used as a first-line therapy in patients with mild COP. For patients with recurrent COP, it is suggested that macrolides should be used as an adjunctive therapy with other treatments, such as a glucocorticoid.

DING, QUN-LI; LV, DAN; WANG, BI-JIONG; ZHANG, QIAO-LI; YU, YI-MING; SUN, SHI-FANG; CHEN, ZHONG-BO; MA, HONG-YING; DENG, ZAI-CHUN

2015-01-01

345

TOPICAL REVIEW: Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes recent developments in microfabricated flow cytometers and related microfluidic devices that can detect, analyze, and sort cells or particles. The high-speed analytical capabilities of flow cytometry depend on the cooperative use of microfluidics, optics and electronics. Along with the improvement of other components, replacement of conventional glass capillary-based fluidics with microfluidic sample handling systems operating in microfabricated

Dongeun Huh; Wei Gu; Yoko Kamotani; James B. Grotberg; Shuichi Takayama

2005-01-01

346

Critical review of a quantitative study of a specialty in high energy particle physics  

SciTech Connect

A review is made of the authors' series of quantitative, historical, and social studies of the weak interactions of elementary particles. A short intellectual history, the quantitative methodology, and a summary of the papers analyzing specific episodes in this field are presented. The social organization of the field is described, and an overall policy for resource management is discussed. 6 figures, 3 tables.

White, D H; Sullivan, D

1980-01-01

347

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Electron cooling and new possibilities in elementary particle physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is devoted to a new method in experimental physics---electron cooling, which opens the possibility of storing intense and highly monochromatic beams of heavy particles and carrying out a wide range of experiments with high luminosity and resolution. The method is based on the cooling of beams by an accompanying electron flux as the result of Coulomb collisions of

G. I. Budker; Aleksandr N. Skrinskii

1978-01-01

348

Tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitor therapy and fetal risk: A systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors (anti-TNFs) are effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) recalcitrant to conventional medical therapy. As the peak incidence of IBD overlaps with the prime reproductive years, it is crucial to establish pharmacologic regimens for women of childbearing age that achieve effective disease control without posing significant fetal harm. A systematic literature review was performed to identify all human studies with birth outcomes data after maternal exposure to infliximab, adalimumab, or certolizumab pegol within 3 mo of conception or during any trimester of pregnancy. Live births, spontaneous abortions or stillbirths, preterm or premature births, low birth weight or small for gestational age infants, and congenital abnormalities were recorded. Fifty selected references identified 472 pregnancy exposures. The subsequent review includes general information regarding anti-TNF therapy in pregnancy followed by a summary of our findings. The benefits of biologic modalities in optimizing disease control during pregnancy must be weighed against the potential toxicity of drug exposure on the developing fetus. Although promising overall, there is insufficient evidence to prove absolute safety for use of anti-TNFs during pregnancy given the limitations of available data and lack of controlled trials. PMID:23674866

Marchioni, Renée M; Lichtenstein, Gary R

2013-01-01

349

Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of anxiety: a systematic review.  

PubMed

With a lifetime prevalence of approximately 17% among community-dwelling adults, anxiety disorders are among the most pervasive of contemporary psychiatric afflictions. Traditional Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is currently the first line evidence-based psychosocial intervention for the treatment of anxiety. Previous research, however, has found that a significant proportion of patients do not respond to traditional CBT or exhibit residual symptomatology at treatment cessation. Additionally, there is a paucity of evidence among child populations and for the comparative effectiveness of alternative interventions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has a growing empirical base demonstrating its efficacy for an array of problems. A systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for ACT in the treatment of anxiety. PsycInfo, PsycArticles, PsycExtra, Medline and Proquest databases were searched, reference lists examined and citation searches conducted. Two independent reviewers analysed results, determined study eligibility and assessed methodological quality. Thirty-eight studies met inclusion criteria (total n=323). The spectrum of DSM-IV anxiety disorders as well as test and public speaking anxiety were examined. Studies were predominantly between-group design and case studies, with few employing control comparisons. Several methodological issues limit conclusions; however results provide preliminary support for ACT. Larger scale, methodologically rigorous trials are needed to consolidate these findings. PMID:23999201

Swain, Jessica; Hancock, Karen; Hainsworth, Cassandra; Bowman, Jenny

2013-12-01

350

Characterization of Iron-Oxide Loaded Adult Stem Cells for Magnetic Particle Imaging in Targeted Cancer Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been presented as a new method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). MPI is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of nanoparticles that are subjected to a sinusoidal magnetic field. Spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio of MPI depend on the particle quality. This is particularly important when stem cells shall be tracked with MPI. Stem cell-based treatment is an upcoming technology in targeted cancer-therapy. In this study, we analyzed the particle quality of newly developed dextran-coated SPIONs—with respect to their response in the imaging experiment—using magnetic particle spectrometry. The uptake of dextran-coated SPIONs into rat and human adult stem cells was monitored via transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, adult stem cells were incubated with FITC-dextran-coated SPIONs and stained for confocal laser scanning microscopy. The dextran- and FITC-dextran coated SPIONs were localized in the cytoplasm of rat and human adult stem cells. MPI promises real-time imaging with high spatial resolution at high sensitivity. Our data support iron oxide loaded adult stem cells as a powerful tool for targeted cancer therapy.

Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Rapoport, Daniel Hans; Schneider, Dagmar

2010-12-01

351

Analytical expressions for water-to-air stopping-power ratios relevant for accurate dosimetry in particle therapy.  

PubMed

In particle therapy, knowledge of the stopping-power ratio (STPR) of the ion beam for water and air is necessary for accurate ionization chamber dosimetry. Earlier work has investigated the STPR for pristine carbon ion beams, but here we expand the calculations to a range of ions (1 ? z ? 18) as well as spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) and provide a theoretical in-depth study with a special focus on the parameter regime relevant for particle therapy. The Monte Carlo transport code SHIELD-HIT is used to calculate complete particle-fluence spectra which are required for determining the STPR according to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The STPR at a depth d depends primarily on the average energy of the primary ions at d rather than on their charge z or absolute position in the medium. However, STPRs for different sets of stopping-power data for water and air recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements are compared, including also the recently revised data for water, yielding deviations up to 2% in the plateau region. In comparison, the influence of the secondary particle spectra on the STPR is about two orders of magnitude smaller in the whole region up till the practical range. The gained insights enable us to propose simple analytical expressions for the STPR for both pristine and SOBPs as a function of penetration depth depending parametrically on the practical range. PMID:21441652

Lühr, Armin; Hansen, David C; Jäkel, Oliver; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Bassler, Niels

2011-04-21

352

The Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Lower Limb Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND:There is accumulating evidence for the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) when treating lower limb tendinopathies including greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), patellar tendinopathy (PT), and Achilles tendinopathy (AT). PURPOSE:To evaluate the effectiveness of ESWT for lower limb tendinopathies. STUDY DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS:PubMed (Medline), Embase, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and CINAHL were searched from inception to February 2013 for studies of any design investigating the effectiveness of ESWT in GTPS, PT, and AT. Citation tracking was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Animal and non-English language studies were excluded. A quality assessment was performed by 2 independent reviewers, and effect size calculations were computed when sufficient data were provided. RESULTS:A total of 20 studies were identified, with 13 providing sufficient data to compute effect size calculations. The energy level, number of impulses, number of sessions, and use of a local anesthetic varied between studies. Additionally, current evidence is limited by low participant numbers and a number of methodological weaknesses including inadequate randomization. Moderate evidence indicates that ESWT is more effective than home training and corticosteroid injection in the short (<12 months) and long (>12 months) term for GTPS. Limited evidence indicates that ESWT is more effective than alternative nonoperative treatments including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and an exercise program and equal to patellar tenotomy surgery in the long term for PT. Moderate evidence indicates that ESWT is more effective than eccentric loading for insertional AT and equal to eccentric loading for midportion AT in the short term. Additionally, there is moderate evidence that combining ESWT and eccentric loading in midportion AT may produce superior outcomes to eccentric loading alone. CONCLUSION:Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an effective intervention and should be considered for GTPS, PT, and AT particularly when other nonoperative treatments have failed. PMID:24817008

Mani-Babu, Sethu; Morrissey, Dylan; Waugh, Charlotte; Screen, Hazel; Barton, Christian

2014-05-01

353

Cancer Pain: A Critical Review of Mechanism-based Classification and Physical Therapy Management in Palliative Care  

PubMed Central

Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of pain is essential to effectively manage painful symptoms in patients attending palliative care. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed review of mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of patients with cancer pain. Cancer pain can be classified based upon pain symptoms, pain mechanisms and pain syndromes. Classification based upon mechanisms not only addresses the underlying pathophysiology but also provides us with an understanding behind patient's symptoms and treatment responses. Existing evidence suggests that the five mechanisms – central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, sympathetically maintained pain, nociceptive and cognitive-affective – operate in patients with cancer pain. Summary of studies showing evidence for physical therapy treatment methods for cancer pain follows with suggested therapeutic implications. Effective palliative physical therapy care using a mechanism-based classification model should be tailored to suit each patient's findings, using a biopsychosocial model of pain. PMID:21976851

Kumar, Senthil P

2011-01-01

354

The prevention and management of acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy: a systematic review and practice guideline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of work  To develop a practice guideline report on the questions: What are the optimal methods to prevent acute skin reactions (occurring within the first 6 months of irradiation) related to radiation therapy? What are the optimal methods to manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy?\\u000a Materials and methods  Cancer Care Ontario’s Supportive Care Guidelines Group (SCGG) conducted a systematic review

Amanda Bolderston; Nancy S. Lloyd; Rebecca K. S. Wong; Lori Holden; Linda Robb-Blenderman

2006-01-01

355

Adjuncts and alternatives to oxime therapy in organophosphate poisoning--is there evidence of benefit in human poisoning? A review.  

PubMed

Organophosphate poisoning is common in developing countries. The morbidity and mortality with organophosphate poisoning is relatively high despite the use of atropine as specific antidotal therapy and oximes to reactivate acetylcholinesterase. Several adjunct and alternative therapies have been explored in animal and human studies. We reviewed the literature to ascertain if there was evidence of benefit of such therapies. Adjunct and alternative therapies included treatments to reduce poison absorption by topical application of creams, enhance toxin elimination by haemoperfusion or bioremediation and neutralise the poison by scavenging free organophosphate with cholinesterase-rich human plasma. In addition, magnesium, clonidine, diazepam, N-acetyl cysteine and adenosine receptor agonists have also been used to counteract poison effects. Detailed assessment was limited by the paucity of trials on adjunct/alternative therapies. The limited evidence from the review process suggested potential benefit from the use of human plasma infusion, early initiation of haemoperfusion and intravenous magnesium, in addition to standard therapy with atropine and pralidoxime. There appeared to be no additional benefit with alkalinisation or use of glycopyrrolate instead of atropine in human trials. Diazepam administration has been advocated by military authorities if symptoms developed following exposure to organophosphate. Bioremediation, clonidine, N-acetyl cysteine and adenosine receptor agonists have been evaluated only in animal models. The impact of adjunct and alternate therapies on outcomes in human poisoning needs to be further explored before implementation as standard treatment. PMID:18564794

Peter, J V; Moran, J L; Pichamuthu, K; Chacko, B

2008-05-01

356

Medical Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review by the Medical Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Task Force of the Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of patients with obstructive sleep apnea neither tolerate positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy nor achieve suc- cessful outcomes from either upper airway surgeries or use of an oral appliance. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to systematically evaluate available peer-reviewed data on the effectiveness of adjunctive medical therapies and summarize findings from these studies. A review

Sigrid C. Veasey; Christian Guilleminault; Kingman P. Strohl; Mark H. Sanders; Robert D. Ballard; Ulysses J. Magalang

2006-01-01

357

Mineral derivatives in alleviating oral mucositis during cancer therapy: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Oral mucositis (mouth ulcers) is a cancer therapy side effect. Costly treatment interventions are often neglected in favor of cost-effective agents. This review assessed the general efficacy of mineral derivatives (a cost-effective agent) in alleviating oral mucositis (OM) during cancer therapy compared to the standard care, or placebo—including a decision tree to aide healthcare workers. Data Sources. Electronic searches of MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CANCERLIT via PubMed, and CINAHL via EBSCO (year 2000 to 11 September 2014) were undertaken for randomised controlled trials. A meta-search strategy extracted content from aggregate online databases. Review Methods. Randomized controlled trials were assessed (participants, intervention, outcome, results, and risk of bias) for inclusion. The author abstracted binary and continuous data synthesised to Hedges’ g in a random effects model. The primary outcome measures were severity (incidence of peak oral mucositis, duration of oral mucositis, and time to onset); secondary outcome measures were the incidence of pain, and analgesic use. Serum mineral levels, total parenteral nutrition, and adverse events were discussed. The decision tree was mapped using sensitivity, specificity, pre-test and post-test Bayesian probability. Results. 1027 citations were identified and 16 studies were included (n = 1120; mean age 49 years). Cancer therapies consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Outcome mineral derivatives were zinc (n = 549), calcium phosphate (n = 227), povidone-iodine (n = 228), or selenium (n = 116). Severity was measured across variable OM grading systems: In 13 studies, individuals in treatment groups (n = 958) experienced peak OM less than controls (g = ?0.47, 95% CI ?0.7 to ?0.2, p = 0.0006); time to OM onset was significantly delayed in treatment than controls (g = ?0.51, 95% CI?0.8 to ?0.2, p = 0.0002; five studies); OM mean duration, pain incidences, or analgesics use was not significant. The decision analysis favored selenium. Conclusion. The general positive effect trend suggests individuals taking mineral derivatives during cancer therapies are less likely to experience peak OM than those without. However, significant bias and heterogeneity indicates the need for developing further methods in account of diverse protocols and include novel recordings (serum mineral levels and cell signals) in estimating a uniform true effect.

2015-01-01

358

Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building

Mark R. Sippola; William W. Nazaroff

2002-01-01

359

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 023109 (2013) Optical signatures of the charge of a dielectric particle in a plasma  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 023109 (2013) Optical signatures of the charge of a dielectric particle. From the plasma physics point of view, the most important property of a dust particle is the charge particles immersed into an ionized gas, we study the effect of a negative charge on the scattering of light

Fehske, Holger

360

Redefining relative biological effectiveness in the context of the EQDX formalism: implications for alpha-particle emitter therapy.  

PubMed

Alpha-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy (?RPT) is currently enjoying increasing attention as a viable alternative to chemotherapy for targeting of disseminated micrometastatic disease. In theory, ?RPT can be personalized through pre-therapeutic imaging and dosimetry. However, in practice, given the particularities of ?-particle emissions, a dosimetric methodology that accurately predicts the thresholds for organ toxicity has not been reported. This is in part due to the fact that the biological effects caused by ?-particle radiation differ markedly from the effects caused by traditional external beam (photon or electron) radiation or ?-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used to quantify the ratio of absorbed doses required to achieve a given biological response with alpha particles versus a reference radiation (typically a beta emitter or external beam radiation). However, as conventionally defined, the RBE varies as a function of absorbed dose and therefore a single RBE value is limited in its utility because it cannot be used to predict response over a wide range of absorbed doses. Therefore, efforts are underway to standardize bioeffect modeling for different fractionation schemes and dose rates for both nuclear medicine and external beam radiotherapy. Given the preponderant use of external beams of radiation compared to nuclear medicine in cancer therapy, the more clinically relevant quantity, the 2 Gy equieffective dose, EQD2(?/?), has recently been proposed by the ICRU. In concert with EQD2(?/?), we introduce a new, redefined RBE quantity, named RBE2(?/?), as the ratio of the two linear coefficients that characterize the ? particle absorbed dose-response curve and the low-LET megavoltage photon 2 Gy fraction equieffective dose-response curve. The theoretical framework for the proposed new formalism is presented along with its application to experimental data obtained from irradiation of a breast cancer cell line. Radiobiological parameters are obtained using the linear quadratic model to fit cell survival data for MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that were irradiated with either ? particles or a single fraction of low-LET (137)Cs ? rays. From these, the linear coefficient for both the biologically effective dose (BED) and the EQD2(?/?) response lines were derived for fractionated irradiation. The standard RBE calculation, using the traditional single fraction reference radiation, gave RBE values that ranged from 2.4 for a surviving fraction of 0.82-6.0 for a surviving fraction of 0.02, while the dose-independent RBE2(4.6) value was 4.5 for all surviving fraction values. Furthermore, bioeffect modeling with RBE2(?/?) and EQD2(?/?) demonstrated the capacity to predict the surviving fraction of cells irradiated with acute and fractionated low-LET radiation, ? particles and chronic exponentially decreasing dose rates of low-LET radiation. RBE2(?/?) is independent of absorbed dose for ?-particle emitters and it provides a more logical framework for data reporting and conversion to equieffective dose than the conventional dose-dependent definition of RBE. Moreover, it provides a much needed foundation for the ongoing development of an ?-particle dosimetry paradigm and will facilitate the use of tolerance dose data available from external beam radiation therapy, thereby helping to develop ?RPT as a single modality as well as for combination therapies. PMID:24502376

Hobbs, Robert F; Howell, Roger W; Song, Hong; Baechler, Sébastien; Sgouros, George

2014-01-01

361

Redefining Relative Biological Effectiveness in the Context of the EQDX Formalism: Implications for Alpha-Particle Emitter Therapy.  

PubMed

Alpha-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy (?RPT) is currently enjoying increasing attention as a viable alternative to chemotherapy for targeting of disseminated micrometastatic disease. In theory, ?RPT can be personalized through pre-therapeutic imaging and dosimetry. However, in practice, given the particularities of ?-particle emissions, a dosimetric methodology that accurately predicts the thresholds for organ toxicity has not been reported. This is in part due to the fact that the biological effects caused by ?-particle radiation differ markedly from the effects caused by traditional external beam (photon or electron) radiation or ?-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used to quantify the ratio of absorbed doses required to achieve a given biological response with alpha particles versus a reference radiation (typically a beta emitter or external beam radiation). However, as conventionally defined, the RBE varies as a function of absorbed dose and therefore a single RBE value is limited in its utility because it cannot be used to predict response over a wide range of absorbed doses. Therefore, efforts are underway to standardize bioeffect modeling for different fractionation schemes and dose rates for both nuclear medicine and external beam radiotherapy. Given the preponderant use of external beams of radiation compared to nuclear medicine in cancer therapy, the more clinically relevant quantity, the 2 Gy equieffective dose, EQD2(?/?), has recently been proposed by the ICRU. In concert with EQD2(?/?), we introduce a new, redefined RBE quantity, named RBE2(?/?), as the ratio of the two linear coefficients that characterize the ? particle absorbed dose-response curve and the low-LET megavoltage photon 2 Gy fraction equieffective dose-response curve. The theoretical framework for the proposed new formalism is presented along with its application to experimental data obtained from irradiation of a breast cancer cell line. Radiobiological parameters are obtained using the linear quadratic model to fit cell survival data for MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that were irradiated with either ? particles or a single fraction of low-LET (137)Cs ? rays. From these, the linear coefficient for both the biologically effective dose (BED) and the EQD2(?/?) response lines were derived for fractionated irradiation. The standard RBE calculation, using the traditional single fraction reference radiation, gave RBE values that ranged from 2.4 for a surviving fraction of 0.82-6.0 for a surviving fraction of 0.02, while the dose-independent RBE2(4.6) value was 4.5 for all surviving fraction values. Furthermore, bioeffect modeling with RBE2(?/?) and EQD2(?/?) demonstrated the capacity to predict the surviving fraction of cells irradiated with acute and fractionated low-LET radiation, ? particles and chronic exponentially decreasing dose rates of low-LET radiation. RBE2(?/?) is independent of absorbed dose for ?-particle emitters and it provides a more logical framework for data reporting and conversion to equieffective dose than the conventional dose-dependent definition of RBE. Moreover, it provides a much needed foundation for the ongoing development of an ?-particle dosimetry paradigm and will facilitate the use of tolerance dose data available from external beam radiation therapy, thereby helping to develop ?RPT as a single modality as well as for combination therapies. PMID:24377718

Hobbs, Robert F; Howell, Roger W; Song, Hong; Baechler, Sébastien; Sgouros, George

2013-12-30

362

Redefining Relative Biological Effectiveness in the Context of the EQDX Formalism: Implications for Alpha-Particle Emitter Therapy  

PubMed Central

Alpha-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy (?RPT) is currently enjoying increasing attention as a viable alternative to chemotherapy for targeting of disseminated micrometastatic disease. In theory, ?RPT can be personalized through pre-therapeutic imaging and dosimetry. However, in practice, given the particularities of ?-particle emissions, a dosimetric methodology that accurately predicts the thresholds for organ toxicity has not been reported. This is in part due to the fact that the biological effects caused by ?-particle radiation differ markedly from the effects caused by traditional external beam (photon or electron) radiation or ?-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used to quantify the ratio of absorbed doses required to achieve a given biological response with alpha particles versus a reference radiation (typically a beta emitter or external beam radiation). However, as conventionally defined, the RBE varies as a function of absorbed dose and therefore a single RBE value is limited in its utility because it cannot be used to predict response over a wide range of absorbed doses. Therefore, efforts are underway to standardize bioeffect modeling for different fractionation schemes and dose rates for both nuclear medicine and external beam radiotherapy. Given the preponderant use of external beams of radiation compared to nuclear medicine in cancer therapy, the more clinically relevant quantity, the 2 Gy equieffective dose, EQD2(?/?), has recently been proposed by the ICRU. In concert with EQD2(?/?), we introduce a new, redefined RBE quantity, named RBE2(?/?), as the ratio of the two linear coefficients that characterize the ? particle absorbed dose-response curve and the low-LET megavoltage photon 2 Gy fraction equieffective dose-response curve. The theoretical framework for the proposed new formalism is presented along with its application to experimental data obtained from irradiation of a breast cancer cell line. Radiobiological parameters are obtained using the linear quadratic model to fit cell survival data for MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that were irradiated with either ? particles or a single fraction of low-LET 137Cs ? rays. From these, the linear coefficient for both the biologically effective dose (BED) and the EQD2(?/?) response lines were derived for fractionated irradiation. The standard RBE calculation, using the traditional single fraction reference radiation, gave RBE values that ranged from 2.4 for a surviving fraction of 0.82–6.0 for a surviving fraction of 0.02, while the dose-independent RBE2(4.6) value was 4.5 for all surviving fraction values. Furthermore, bioeffect modeling with RBE2(?/?) and EQD2(?/?) demonstrated the capacity to predict the surviving fraction of cells irradiated with acute and fractionated low-LET radiation, ? particles and chronic exponentially decreasing dose rates of low-LET radiation. RBE2(?/?) is independent of absorbed dose for ?-particle emitters and it provides a more logical framework for data reporting and conversion to equieffective dose than the conventional dose-dependent definition of RBE. Moreover, it provides a much needed foundation for the ongoing development of an ?-particle dosimetry paradigm and will facilitate the use of tolerance dose data available from external beam radiation therapy, thereby helping to develop ?RPT as a single modality as well as for combination therapies. PMID:24502376

Hobbs, Robert F.; Howell, Roger W.; Song, Hong; Baechler, Sébastien; Sgouros, George

2014-01-01

363

Lipid profile of HIV-infected patients in relation to antiretroviral therapy: a review.  

PubMed

This study reviewed the lipid profile of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients in relation to use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and its different classes of drugs. A total of 190 articles published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved from PubMed and LILACS databases; 88 of them met the selection criteria and were included in the review. Patients with HIV/AIDS without ART presented an increase of triglycerides and decreases of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) levels. Distinct ART regimens appear to promote different alterations in lipid metabolism. Protease inhibitors, particularly indinavir and lopinavir, were commonly associated with hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-c, low HDL-c, and hypertriglyceridemia. The protease inhibitor atazanavir is apparently associated with a more advantageous lipid profile. Some nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (didanosine, stavudine, and zidovudine) induced lipoatrophy and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas abacavir increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases even in the absence of apparent lipid disorders, and tenofovir resulted in lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Although non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors predisposed to hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, nevirapine was particularly associated with high HDL-c levels, a protective factor against cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the infection itself, different classes of drugs, and some drugs from the same class of ART appear to exert distinct alterations in lipid metabolism. PMID:23582562

Souza, Suelen Jorge; Luzia, Liania Alves; Santos, Sigrid Sousa; Rondó, Patrícia Helen Carvalho

2013-01-01

364

Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

Fairchild, Alysa, E-mail: alysa.fairchild@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Straube, William [Advanced Technology Consortium, Imaged-Guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Followill, David [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-10-01

365

A systematic review of the efficacy and pharmacological profile of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and pharmacological profiles of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy. Four databases were extensively retrieved that include two Chinese electronic databases (VIP Information and CNKI) and two English electronic databases (CA and MEDLINE). Herba Epimedii has been an important traditional herbal medicine for centuries in China and other Asian countries. Recently, quite a few pharmacological effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components have been identified that include improving bone health and cardiovascular function, regulating hormone level, modulating immunological function, and inhibiting tumor growth. The anti-osteoporosis activity of Herba Epimedii and its extracts have attracted world-wide attention. The literature search has revealed that a lot of studies have recently been carried out related to the bone-strengthening activity of Herba Epimedii and some of its active compounds, such as total flavonoids and icariin. Pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies have confirmed the efficacy and safety of Herba Epimedii and its most abundant active component icariin, while only a few authors have reviewed the anti-osteoporosis properties of the plants. So we summarize the work of various investigators on the effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components against osteoporosis. The underlying mechanism of osteoprotective action, derivatives of icariin, animal models and cell lines used in the research were also reviewed in this paper. PMID:24147339

Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Guo, Xin; Pan, Ya-Lei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Li, Chen-Rui; Wu, Xiang-Long; Mel, Qi-Bing

2013-09-01

366

Effectiveness of orofacial myofunctional therapy in orthodontic patients: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the existence of scientific evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) as an adjuvant to orthodontic treatment in individuals with orofacial disorders. A further aim was to assess the methodological quality of the studies included in the review. Methods An electronic search was performed in eight databases (Medline, BBO, LILACS, Web of Science, EMBASE, BIREME, Cochrane Library and SciELO) for papers published between January 1965 and March 2011, with no language restrictions. Selection of articles and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers. The quality of the selected articles was also assessed. Results Search strategy resulted in the retrieval of 355 publications, only four of which fulfilled the eligibility criteria and qualified for final analysis. All papers selected had a high risk of bias. Conclusions The findings of the present systematic review demonstrate the scarcity of consistent studies and scientific evidence supporting the use of OMT in combination with orthodontic treatment to achieve better results in the correction of dentofacial disorders in individuals with orofacial abnormalities. PMID:25279527

Homem, Márcio Alexandre; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Marques, Leandro Silva

2014-01-01

367

AEROSOL THERAPY IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICLE DEPOSITION PATTERNS IN SIMULATED HUMAN AIRWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The efficacy of inhalation therapy may be improved by the selective deposition of aerosolized medicines, by explicitly targeting and delivering drugs to prescribed lung sites. ere, the deposition patterns of test aerosols, mapped in surrogate respiratory tracts consisting of repl...

368

Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and Associated Non-Pharmacological Therapies  

PubMed Central

Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane’s Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals’ sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population. PMID:25288884

Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R

2014-01-01

369

Standard and pegylated interferon therapy of HDV infection: A systematic review and meta- analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is characterized by rapidly progressive liver disease with adverse prognosis in most patients. Although interferon is the only approved anti-HDV therapy, evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of its various regimens is either old or scattered. Materials and Methods: We searched systematically Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ISI. The studies that evaluated treatment of chronic HDV infection with standard or pegylated interferon for at least 48 weeks were identified. Our inclusion criteria were positive anti-HDV antibody for 6 months and positive HDV-PCR at the start of study. We performed a meta-analysis for proportions using the arcsine transformation in random effects model. Sustained virological response (SVR) rate (negative Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 6 months after cessation of therapy) was the end point of interest. Results: Data were abstracted from 14 studies containing 227 chronic HDV-infected patients who received standard or pegylated interferon alpha-2a or -2b. Twenty-one and 30 patients of 71 and 156 who received standard or peginterferon, respectively, beyond 48 weeks achieved SVR. Pooled SVR rates were 29% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19; 41] and 19% (95% CI 10; 29), respectively. The rates of treatment withdrawal were similar. Conclusion: Our systematic review indicates that the literature lacks sufficient evidence to establish precise recommendations for treatment of HDV infection. Meta-analysis of these studies shows that standard dose of peginterferon is more effective than high dose of standard interferon as anti-HDV therapy. PMID:23825999

Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid; Behnava, Bita; Rizzetto, Mario

2012-01-01

370

Targeted therapy in triple-negative metastatic breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of targeted therapy to conventional chemotherapy (CT) in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods Several databases were searched, including Medline, Embase, LILACS, and CENTRAL. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). We performed a meta-analysis of the published data. The results are expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results The final analysis included twelve trials comprising 2,054 patients with TNBC, which compared conventional CT alone against CT combined with targeted therapy (bevacizumab [Bev], sorafenib [Sor], cetuximab, lapatinib, and iniparib). PFS was superior in previously untreated patients with TNBC who received Bev plus CT compared to CT alone (fixed effect, HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.75; P<0.00001). Also, PFS was higher in one study that tested Bev plus CT combination in previously treated patients (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.33–0.74; P=0.0006). Sor plus CT was also tested as first-line and second-line treatments. The pooled data of PFS favored the combination CT plus Sor (fixed effect, HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49–0.98; P=0.04). Comparisons of iniparib plus CT also had a better PFS than CT alone (fixed effect, HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62–0.90; P=0.002). Conclusion Targeted therapy, when associated with conventional CT, demonstrated gains in the PFS of patients with TNBC. PMID:24476748

Clark, Otávio; Botrel, Tobias Engel Ayer; Paladini, Luciano; Ferreira, Mariana Bhering Andrade

2014-01-01

371

Systematic review of the effectiveness of occupational therapy-related interventions for people with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We describe the results of a systematic review of the literature on occupational therapy-related interventions for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Three broad categories of intervention emerged: (1) exercise or physical activity; (2) environmental cues, stimuli, and objects; and (3) self-management and cognitive-behavioral strategies. Moderate to strong evidence exists for task-specific benefits of targeted physical activity training on motor performance, postural stability, and balance. Low to moderate evidence indicates that more complex, multimodal activity training supports improvement in functional movement activities. The evidence is moderate that the use of external supports during functional mobility or other movement activities has positive effects on motor control. In addition, moderate evidence is available that individualized interventions focused on promoting participant wellness initiatives and personal control by means of cognitive-behavioral strategies can improve targeted areas of quality of life. The implications for practice, education, and research are discussed. PMID:24367954

Foster, Erin R; Bedekar, Mayuri; Tickle-Degnen, Linda

2014-01-01

372

Volumetric modulated arc therapy: a review of current literature and clinical use in practice.  

PubMed

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel radiation technique, which can achieve highly conformal dose distributions with improved target volume coverage and sparing of normal tissues compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques. VMAT also has the potential to offer additional advantages, such as reduced treatment delivery time compared with conventional static field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The clinical worldwide use of VMAT is increasing significantly. Currently the majority of published data on VMAT are limited to planning and feasibility studies, although there is emerging clinical outcome data in several tumour sites. This article aims to discuss the current use of VMAT techniques in practice and review the available data from planning and clinical outcome studies in various tumour sites including prostate, pelvis (lower gastrointestinal, gynaecological), head and neck, thoracic, central nervous system, breast and other tumour sites. PMID:22011829

Teoh, M; Clark, C H; Wood, K; Whitaker, S; Nisbet, A

2011-11-01

373

Cognitive behavior therapy for early psychosis: a comprehensive review of individual vs. group treatment studies.  

PubMed

Several recent studies of individually administered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for early psychosis have reported only modest treatment benefits. The purpose of the current study was to review the literature to determine how outcomes of group CBT differ from outcomes of individually administered CBT among early cases. Our findings suggest that group CBT for early psychosis may be a more effective modality for this group of patients. We speculate that patients' uncertainty about illness in general may impair the effectiveness of individually administered CBT for early cases and that group CBT may be more effective for these young patients by better addressing those factors with the aid of peer-to-peer interactions, identification, and modeling. PMID:19548785

Saksa, John R; Cohen, Shuki J; Srihari, Vinod H; Woods, Scott W

2009-07-01

374

Feasibility of Cell Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review of 83 Studies  

PubMed Central

Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in which T cells experience a second phase of activation, which ultimately leads to axonal demyelination and neurological disability. The recent advances in stem cell therapies may serve as potential treatments for neurological disorders. There are broad types of stem cells such as neural, embryonic, mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells with unprecedented hope in treating many debilitating diseases. In this paper we will review the substantial literature regarding experimental and clinical use of these stem cells and possible mechanisms in the treatment of MS. These results may pave the road for the utilization of stem cells for the treatment of MS. PMID:24505515

Ardeshiry lajimi, Abdolreza; Hagh, Majid Farshdousti; Saki, Najmaldin; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Soleimani, Masoud; Rahim, Fakher

2013-01-01

375

Volumetric modulated arc therapy: a review of current literature and clinical use in practice  

PubMed Central

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel radiation technique, which can achieve highly conformal dose distributions with improved target volume coverage and sparing of normal tissues compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques. VMAT also has the potential to offer additional advantages, such as reduced treatment delivery time compared with conventional static field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The clinical worldwide use of VMAT is increasing significantly. Currently the majority of published data on VMAT are limited to planning and feasibility studies, although there is emerging clinical outcome data in several tumour sites. This article aims to discuss the current use of VMAT techniques in practice and review the available data from planning and clinical outcome studies in various tumour sites including prostate, pelvis (lower gastrointestinal, gynaecological), head and neck, thoracic, central nervous system, breast and other tumour sites. PMID:22011829

Teoh, M; Clark, C H; Wood, K; Whitaker, S; Nisbet, A

2011-01-01

376

Second line systemic therapy options for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma; a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review aims at evaluation of the level of evidence for the use of second-line systemic therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Eligible studies were identified using database search. Eligible studies reported efficacy and/or toxicity data for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving second-line systemic chemotherapy. Twenty five studies were eligible and were included in the final analysis. Median progression-free survival was reported in 20 out of the 25 studies and it ranged from 1.8 to 11 months. Median overall survival was reported in 18 out of 25 studies and it ranged from 6.6 months to 16 months. Reported grade 3/4 toxicities were regimen-specific and it includes hepatotoxicity, hypertension, and hematologic toxicities. However, positive results from the use of some agents need further confirmation in prospective studies. PMID:25363192

Abdel-Rahman, Omar; Fouad, Mona

2014-11-01

377

Mucinous Adenocarcinomas with Intra-Abdominal Dissemination: A Review of Current Therapy  

PubMed Central

Peritoneal carcinomatosis has been considered a terminal disease with a median survival time of 5.2–12.6 months. Systemic chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery (CRS) have long been used to treat macroscopic disease, with limited success. However, a comprehensive treatment approach involving cytroreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has evolved into a novel approach for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Surgery removes the primary cancer and any dissemination within the peritoneal cavity and adjuvant HIPEC eradicates macroscopic or microscopic tumor residue, thus reducing the risk for recurrence. This approach offers a new potential treatment option for patients with metastatic disease confined to the peritoneum. The present review provides an update of the most recent data on the current therapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) and mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma (MCA) with metastatic disease confined to the peritoneum. PMID:20656916

Winder, Thomas

2010-01-01

378

Intraoperative assessment of margins in breast conserving therapy: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Approximately one quarter of patients undergoing breast conserving therapy for breast cancer will require a second operation to achieve adequate clearance of the margins. A number of techniques to assess margins intraoperatively have been reported. This systematic review examines current intraoperative methods for assessing margin status. The final pathology status, statistical measures including accuracy of tumour margin assessment, average time impact on the procedure and second operation rate, were used as criteria for comparison between studies. Although pathological methods, such as frozen section and imprint cytology performed well, they added on average 20-30 min to operation times. An ultrasound probe allows accurate examination of the margins and delivers results in a timely manner, yet it has a limited role with DCIS where calcification is present and in multifocal cancer. Further research is required in other intraoperative margin assessment techniques, such as mammography, radiofrequency spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography. PMID:24468464

Butler-Henderson, Kerryn; Lee, Andy H; Price, Roger I; Waring, Kaylene

2014-04-01

379

RADIATION EXPOSURE TO CAREGIVERS FROM PATIENTS UNDERGOING COMMON RADIONUCLIDE THERAPIES: A REVIEW.  

PubMed

The contribution of radionuclide therapies (RNTs) to effective patient treatment is widely appreciated. The administration of high doses has necessitated investigating the potential radiation hazard to caregivers from patients undergoing RNTs. This work aimed to review the literature regarding measured effective doses to caregivers from such patients. The main selection criterion was the presence of real radiation exposure measurements. The results were categorised according to the treatment protocol and dose parameters. Analysis of the collected data demonstrated that the measured effective dose values were within the dose constraints defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, provided that the radiation protection instructions were followed by both patients and caregivers. In conclusion, the radiation risk for caregivers was almost negligible. In this context, treatments could be administered more often on an outpatient basis, once cost-effectiveness criteria were established and radiation protection training and procedures were appropriately applied. PMID:25431487

Stefanoyiannis, A P; Ioannidou, S P; Round, W H; Carinou, E; Mavros, M N; Liotsou, T; Geronikola-Trapali, X; Armeniakos, I; Chatziioannou, S N

2014-11-27

380

Pain and the Thermally Injured Patient-A Review of Current Therapies.  

PubMed

Thermally injured patients experience tremendous pain from the moment of injury to months or years after their discharge from the hospital. Pain is therefore a critical component of proper management of burns. Although the importance of pain is well recognized, it is often undertreated. Acute uncontrolled pain has been shown to increase the incidence of mental health disorders and increase the incidence of suicide after discharge. Long-term poor pain control leads to an increase in the incidence of persistent pain. Most burn centers have used opioids as the mainstay analgesic, but recently, the significant side effects of opioids have led to the implementation of new and combined therapeutics. Pharmacological agents such as gabapentin, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, and ketamine have all been suggested as adjuncts to opioids in the treatment of burn pain. Nonpharmacological therapies such as hypnosis, virtual reality devices, and behavioral therapy are also essential adjuncts to current medications. This review aims at identifying the currently available pharmacological and nonpharmacological options for optimal pain management in the adult burn population. PMID:24823343

Retrouvey, Helene; Shahrokhi, Shahriar

2014-05-12

381

Molecular-targeted therapy for chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

The prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains poor despite therapeutic advances in recent decades. Several recent positive phase III trials established the efficacy of second-line chemotherapy for metastatic gastric cancer in prolonging overall survival. However, malnutrition and poor performance of AGC in late stages usually preclude such patients from intensive treatment. Many targeted-therapies failed to show a significant survival benefit in AGC, but have regained attention after the positive result of ramucirumab was announced last year. Among all targeted agents, only trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) protein, has been proven as having survival benefit by addition to first-line chemotherapy. Herein we reported a patient who benefited from adding trastuzumab to the same second-line combination chemotherapy (paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin) upon progression of bulky liver metastases. At least five months of progression-free survival were achieved without any additional toxicity. We also reviewed literature of molecularly-targeted therapy for chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer, including several large phase III trials (REGARD, GRANITE-1, EXPAND, and REAL-3) published in 2013-2014. PMID:24982389

Kuo, Hung-Yang; Yeh, Kun-Huei

2014-07-01

382

HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS  

PubMed Central

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

383

Hsp90 inhibitor as a sensitizer of cancer cells to different therapies (Review).  

PubMed

Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various client proteins involved in signaling and many other functions of cancer cells. The natural inhibitors, ansamycins influence the Hsp90 chaperone function by preventing its binding to client proteins and resulting in their proteasomal degradation. N- and C-terminal inhibitors of Hsp90 and their analogues are widely tested as potential anticancer agents in vitro, in vivo as well as in clinical trials. It seems that Hsp90 competitive inhibitors target different tumor types at nanomolar concentrations and might have therapeutic benefit. On the contrary, some Hsp90 inhibitors increased toxicity and resistance of cancer cells induced by heat shock response, and through the interaction of survival signals, that occured as side effects of treatments, could be very effectively limited via combination of therapies. The aim of our review was to collect the data from experimental and clinical trials where Hsp90 inhibitor was combined with other therapies in order to prevent resistance as well as to potentiate the cytotoxic and/or antiproliferative effects. PMID:25501619

Solárová, Zuzana; Mojžiš, Ján; Solár, Peter

2015-03-01

384

Herbal therapy use by cancer patients: a literature review on case reports.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine use is common amongst cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are amongst the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side-effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n=34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n=8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), noni (n=1) and Silymarin (n=1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D

2011-03-01

385

Effectiveness of balneotherapy and spa therapy for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a review on latest evidence.  

PubMed

In most European countries, balneotherapy and spa therapy are widely prescribed by physicians and preferred by European citizens for the treatment of musculoskeletal problems including chronic low back pain (LBP). We aimed to review and evaluate the recent evidence on the effectiveness of balneotherapy and spa therapy for patients with LBP. We comprehensively searched data bases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between July 2005 and December 2013. We identified all trials testing balneotherapy or spa therapy for LBP that reported that the sequence of allocation was randomized. We finally included total of eight RCTs: two on balneotherapy and six on spa therapy. All reviewed trials reported that balneotherapy was superior in long term to tap water therapy in relieving pain and improving function and that spa therapy combining balneotherapy with mud pack therapy and/or exercise therapy, physiotherapy, and/or education was effective in the management of low back pain and superior or equally effective to the control treatments in short and long terms. We used Jadad scale to grade the methodological quality. Only three out of total eight had a score of above 3 indicating the good quality. The data from the RCTs indicates that overall evidence on effectiveness of balneotherapy and spa therapy in LBP is encouraging and reflects the consistency of previous evidence. However, the overall quality of trials is generally low. Better quality RCTs (well designed, conducted, and reported) are needed testing short- and long-term effects for relieving chronic back pain and proving broader beneficial effects. PMID:25535198

Karagülle, Mine; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

2015-02-01

386

Effectiveness of robot-assisted therapy on ankle rehabilitation – a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of studies that investigated the effectiveness of robot-assisted therapy on ankle motor and function recovery from musculoskeletal or neurologic ankle injuries. Methods Thirteen electronic databases of articles published from January, 1980 to June, 2012 were searched using keywords ‘ankle*’, ‘robot*’, ‘rehabilitat*’ or ‘treat*’ and a free search in Google Scholar based on effects of ankle rehabilitation robots was also conducted. References listed in relevant publications were further screened. Eventually, twenty-nine articles were selected for review and they focused on effects of robot-assisted ankle rehabilitation. Results Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and a total of 164 patients and 24 healthy subjects participated in these trials. Ankle performance and gait function were the main outcome measures used to assess the therapeutic effects of robot-assisted ankle rehabilitation. The protocols and therapy treatments were varied, which made comparison among different studies difficult or impossible. Few comparative trials were conducted among different devices or control strategies. Moreover, the majority of study designs met levels of evidence that were no higher than American Academy for Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) level IV. Only one study used a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) approach with the evidence level being II. Conclusion All the selected studies showed improvements in terms of ankle performance or gait function after a period of robot-assisted ankle rehabilitation training. The most effective robot-assisted intervention cannot be determined due to the lack of universal evaluation criteria for various devices and control strategies. Future research into the effects of robot-assisted ankle rehabilitation should be carried out based on universal evaluation criteria, which could determine the most effective method of intervention. It is also essential to conduct trials to analyse the differences among different devices or control strategies. PMID:23517734

2013-01-01

387

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Manipulative Therapy in Treating Lateral Epicondylalgia  

PubMed Central

Lateral epicondylalgia is a commonly encountered musculoskeletal complaint. Currently, there is no agreement regarding the exact underlying pathoanatomical cause or the most effective management strategy. Various forms of joint manipulation have been recommended as treatment. The purpose of this study was to systematically review available literature regarding the effectiveness of manipulation in treating lateral epicondylalgia. A comprehensive search of Medline, CINAHL, Health Source, SPORTDiscus, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database ending in November 2007 was conducted. Thirteen studies, both randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, met inclusion criteria. Articles were assessed for quality by one reviewer using the 10-point PEDro scale. Quality scores ranged from 1–8 with a mean score of 5.15 ± 1.85. This score represented fair quality overall; however, trends indicated the presence of consistent methodological flaws. Specifically, no study achieved successful blinding of the patient or treating therapist, and less than 50% used a blinded outcome assessor. Additionally, studies varied significantly in terms of outcome measures, follow-up, and comparison treatments, thus making comparing results across studies difficult. Results of this review support the use of Mulligan's mobilization with movement in providing immediate, short-, and long-term benefits. In addition, positive results were demonstrated with manipulative therapy directed at the cervical spine, although data regarding long-term effects were limited. Currently, limited evidence exists to support a synthesis of any particular technique whether directed at the elbow or cervical spine. Overall, this review identified the need for further high-quality studies using larger sample sizes, valid functional outcome measures, and longer follow-up periods. PMID:19771195

Herd, Christopher R.; Meserve, Brent B.

2008-01-01

388

Systematic review of trimodality therapy for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive form of cancer arising from the pleural mesothelium. Trimodality therapy (TMT) involving extrapleural pneumonectomy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy is a recognized treatment option with a curative intent. Despite encouraging results from institutional studies, TMT in the treatment of MPM remains controversial. The present systematic review aims to assess the safety and efficacy of TMT in the current literature. Methods A systematic review was performed using five electronic databases from 1 January 1985 to 1 October 2012. Studies were selected independently by two reviewers according to predefined selection criteria. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints included disease-free survival, disease recurrence, perioperative morbidity and length of stay. Results Sixteen studies were included for quantitative assessment, including one randomized controlled trial and five prospective series. Median overall survival ranged from 12.8-46.9 months. Disease-free survival ranged from 10-16.3 months. Perioperative mortality ranged from 0-12.5%. Overall perioperative morbidity ranged from 50-82.6% and the average length of stay was 9-14 days. Conclusions Outcomes of patients who underwent TMT in the current literature appeared to be inconsistent. Four prospective series involving a standardised treatment regimen with neoadjuvant chemotherapy indicated encouraging results based on intention-to-treat analysis. However, a small study assessing the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial for TMT versus conservative treatment reported poor short- and long-term outcomes for patients who underwent pneumonectomy. Overall, results of the present systematic review suggest TMT may offer acceptable perioperative outcomes and long-term survival in selected patients treated in specialized centers. PMID:23977533

Tian, David; Manganas, Con; Matthews, Phoebe

2012-01-01

389

Reviews  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BOOK REVIEWS (164) Salters GCSE Science: Teacher and Technician Resource Pack, Year 10 The NEW World of Mr Tompkins The Heinemann Science Scheme: Book 1 Advanced Physics Readers: Astrophysics Using the Internet in Secondary Schools, 2nd edition CD-ROM REVIEW (168) Particle Physics: A Keyhole to the Birth of Time (version 2) WEB WATCH (169) Hunting for new physics sites CORRECTION (171)

2002-03-01

390

Some recent advances in nanostructure preparation from gold and silver particles: a short topical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in nanostructure self-assembly from gold and silver particles are reviewed. A brief historical background of the field is given, followed by a selection of topics which are of particular current interest. An overview of the preparation of thiol-stabilised gold and silver nanoparticles and their spontaneous self-organisation into well-ordered superlattices is presented. Distance-dependent metal insulator transitions in ensembles of

Mathias Brust; Christopher J Kiely

2002-01-01

391

Progenitor Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Central Nervous System Injury: A Review of the State of Current Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Recent preclinical work investigating the role of progenitor cell therapies for central nervous system (CNS) injuries has shown potential neuroprotection in the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and ischemic stroke. Mechanisms currently under investigation include engraftment and transdifferentiation, modulation of the locoregional inflammatory milieu, and modulation of the systemic immunologic/inflammatory response. While the exact mechanism of action remains controversial, the growing amount of preclinical data demonstrating the potential benefit associated with progenitor cell therapy for neurological injury warrants the development of well-controlled clinical trials to investigate therapeutic safety and efficacy. In this paper, we review the currently active or recently completed clinical trials investigating the safety and potential efficacy of bone marrow-derived progenitor cell therapies for the treatment of TBI, SCI, and ischemic stroke. Our review of the literature shows that while the preliminary clinical trials reviewed in this paper offer novel data supporting the potential efficacy of stem/progenitor cell therapies for CNS injury, a great deal of additional work is needed to ensure the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of progenitor cell therapy prior to widespread clinical trials. PMID:21048846

Walker, Peter A.; Harting, Matthew T.; Shah, Shinil K.; Day, Mary-Clare; El Khoury, Ramy; Savitz, Sean I.; Baumgartner, James; Cox, Charles S.

2010-01-01

392

A review of pharmacological interactions between HIV or hepatitis C virus medications and opioid agonist therapy: implications and management for clinical practice.  

PubMed

Global access to opioid agonist therapy and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is expanding but when used concurrently, problematic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions may occur. Articles published from 1966 to 2012 in Medline were reviewed using the following keywords: HIV, AIDS, HIV therapy, HCV, HCV therapy, antiretroviral therapy, highly active antiretroviral therapy, drug interactions, methadone and buprenorphine. In addition, a review of abstracts from national and international meetings and conference proceedings was conducted; selected reports were reviewed as well. The metabolism of both opioid and antiretroviral therapies, description of their known interactions and clinical implications and management of these interactions were reviewed. Important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions affecting either methadone or HIV medications have been demonstrated within each class of antiretroviral agents. Drug interactions between methadone, buprenorphine and HIV medications are known and may have important clinical consequences. Clinicians must be alert to these interactions and have a basic knowledge regarding their management. PMID:23656339

Bruce, R Douglas; Moody, David E; Altice, Frederick L; Gourevitch, Marc N; Friedland, Gerald H

2013-05-01

393

The International Adventure Therapy Conference, (1st, Perth, Western Australia). A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first (1997) international conference on adventure therapy (Perth, Australia) was attended by over 270 participants from 21 countries. Major themes included defining adventure therapy, therapeutic behavior change versus changing attitudes and values, the ethics of therapy, whether adventure therapy must link to a recognized school of…

Loynes, Chris

1997-01-01

394

Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

Boutin, Daniel L.

2007-01-01

395

Computerised Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in adults, although the outcomes with children and adolescents are unclear. The aim of the study is to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of cCBT for the prevention and treatment of depression…

Richardson, Thomas; Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Sophie

2010-01-01

396

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid bipolar and substance use disorders: a systematic review of controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of negative intrapersonal, physical, and economic effects of comorbid bipolar and substance use disorders. The purpose of the present review is to systematically identify, describe, and summarize controlled trials evaluating the overall outcomes of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for persons with comorbid bipolar and substance use disorder (SUD); so trends regarding efficacy, effectiveness, and gaps in research

Virgil L. Gregory Jr

2011-01-01

397

Measuring Homework Compliance in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression. Review, Preliminary Findings, and Implications for Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance placed on completion of extra-session homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a review of the available literature suggests there is much about the nature of homework compliance that remains to be empirically evaluated. This is especially true among youth receiving CBT. The present study begins to address how best to…

Gaynor, Scott T.; Lawrence, P. Scott; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.

2006-01-01

398

Accentuating Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT): A Review of a Comprehensive Meta-Analysis into the Effectiveness of MDT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent Meta-Analysis conducted by Apsche, Bass & DiMeo (2010) provided astonishing evidence regarding Mode Deactivation Therapy's (MDT) ability to effectuate change in youth with delinquent traits. Following is a brief review of the results presented in the analysis as a way of highlighting the capacities of MDT and promotes the implementation…

Hollman, Jacquelynn

2010-01-01

399

Radiation therapy  

MedlinePLUS

Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. ... most common form. This method carefully aims high-powered x-rays or particles directly at the tumor ...

400

Efficacy of localized phototherapy and photodynamic therapy for psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Localized phototherapy including topical psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) and targeted ultraviolet B (UVB), and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been increasingly used in the treatment of localized psoriasis. Yet, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses that scientifically evaluated the pooled efficacy of these treatments in psoriasis. We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases during the period of January 1980 to June 2012. Our systematic search resulted in 765 studies, 23 of them were included in the review. The primary outcome was 75% reduction in severity score from baseline. A meta-analysis using random effect model found topical PUVA to be more effective than non-laser targeted UVB [odds ratio: 3.48 (95% confidence interval 0.56-21.84), P?=?0.183]. The pooled effect estimate of the efficacy (75% reduction in severity score) of topical PUVA, targeted UVB, and PDT were as follows: 77% (topical PUVA), 61% (targeted UVB), and 22% (PDT). Topical PUVA and targeted UVB phototherapy are very effective in the treatment of localized psoriasis. Topical PUVA seems more effective than non-laser targeted UVB phototherapy. On the other hand, PDT has low efficacy and high percentage of side effects in treating localized psoriasis. PMID:24283358

Almutawa, Fahad; Thalib, Lukman; Hekman, Daniel; Sun, Qing; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

2015-01-01

401

Patient Values and Preferences in Decision Making for Antithrombotic Therapy: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Development of clinical practice guidelines involves making trade-offs between desirable and undesirable consequences of alternative management strategies. Although the relative value of health states to patients should provide the basis for these trade-offs, few guidelines have systematically summarized the relevant evidence. We conducted a systematic review relating to values and preferences of patients considering antithrombotic therapy. Methods: We included studies examining patient preferences for alternative approaches to antithrombotic prophylaxis and studies that examined, in the context of antithrombotic prophylaxis or treatment, how patients value alternative health states and experiences with treatment. We conducted a systematic search and compiled structured summaries of the results. Steps in the process that involved judgment were conducted in duplicate. Results: We identified 48 eligible studies. Sixteen dealt with atrial fibrillation, five with VTE, four with stroke or myocardial infarction prophylaxis, six with thrombolysis in acute stroke or myocardial infarction, and 17 with burden of antithrombotic treatment. Conclusion: Patient values and preferences regarding thromboprophylaxis treatment appear to be highly variable. Participant responses may depend on their prior experience with the treatments or health outcomes considered as well as on the methods used for preference elicitation. It should be standard for clinical practice guidelines to conduct systematic reviews of patient values and preferences in the specific content area. PMID:22315262

Mulla, Sohail; Akl, Elie A.; Jankowski, Milosz; Vandvik, Per Olav; Ebrahim, Shanil; McLeod, Shelley; Bhatnagar, Neera; Guyatt, Gordon H.

2012-01-01

402

Effectiveness of different styles of massage therapy in fibromyalgia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of massage in fibromyalgia. An electronic search was conducted at MEDLINE, SCiELO, EMBASE, ISI, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL and LILACS (Jan 1990-May 2013). Ten randomized and non-randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of massage alone on symptoms and health-related quality of life of adult patients with fibromyalgia were included. Two reviewers independently screened records, examined full-text reports for compliance with the eligibility criteria, and extracted data. Meta-analysis (pooled from 145 participants) shows that myofascial release had large, positive effects on pain and medium effects on anxiety and depression at the end of treatment, in contrast with placebo; effects on pain and depression were maintained in the medium and short term, respectively. Narrative analysis suggests that: myofascial release also improves fatigue, stiffness and quality of life; connective tissue massage improves depression and quality of life; manual lymphatic drainage is superior to connective tissue massage regarding stiffness, depression and quality of life; Shiatsu improves pain, pressure pain threshold, fatigue, sleep and quality of life; and Swedish massage does not improve outcomes. There is moderate evidence that myofascial release is beneficial for fibromyalgia symptoms. Limited evidence supports the application of connective tissue massage and Shiatsu. Manual lymphatic drainage may be superior to connective tissue massage, and Swedish massage may have no effects. Overall, most styles of massage therapy consistently improved the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. PMID:25457196

Yuan, Susan Lee King; Matsutani, Luciana Akemi; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

2014-10-01

403

Arts Therapies for Anxiety, Depression, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. However, only a few trials assess the effects of arts therapies. Material and Methods. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Google Scholar from their start date to January 2012. We handsearched reference lists and contacted experts. All randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized trials, and controlled clinical trials of art interventions in breast cancer patients were included. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed. Meta-analyses were performed using standardized mean differences. Results. Thirteen trials with a total of 606 patients were included. Arts therapies comprised music therapy interventions, various types of art therapy, and dance/movement therapies. The methodological quality ranged from poor to high quality with the majority scoring 3 of 4 points on the Jadad scale. Results suggest that arts therapies seem to positively affect patients' anxiety (standardized mean difference: ?1.10; 95%, confidence interval: ?1.40 to ?0.80) but not depression or quality of life. No conclusion could be drawn regarding the effects of arts therapy on pain, functional assessment, coping, and mood states. Discussion. Our review indicates that arts interventions may have beneficial effects on anxiety in patients with breast cancer. PMID:24817896

2014-01-01

404

Arts therapies for anxiety, depression, and quality of life in breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Background. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. However, only a few trials assess the effects of arts therapies. Material and Methods. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Google Scholar from their start date to January 2012. We handsearched reference lists and contacted experts. All randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized trials, and controlled clinical trials of art interventions in breast cancer patients were included. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed. Meta-analyses were performed using standardized mean differences. Results. Thirteen trials with a total of 606 patients were included. Arts therapies comprised music therapy interventions, various types of art therapy, and dance/movement therapies. The methodological quality ranged from poor to high quality with the majority scoring 3 of 4 points on the Jadad scale. Results suggest that arts therapies seem to positively affect patients' anxiety (standardized mean difference: -1.10; 95%, confidence interval: -1.40 to -0.80) but not depression or quality of life. No conclusion could be drawn regarding the effects of arts therapy on pain, functional assessment, coping, and mood states. Discussion. Our review indicates that arts interventions may have beneficial effects on anxiety in patients with breast cancer. PMID:24817896

Boehm, Katja; Cramer, Holger; Staroszynski, Thomas; Ostermann, Thomas

2014-01-01

405

Laser irradiation of ferrous particles for hyperthermia as cancer therapy, a theoretical study.  

PubMed

Our recent in vivo animal studies showed the feasibility of using micron sized iron particles to induce physical damage to breast cancer tumors and thereby triggering a localized immune response to help fight the cancer. Combining a hyperthermic treatment with this ongoing study may enhance the immune response. As a result, a novel treatment of inducing hyperthermia using iron particles excited by a continuous wave near-infrared laser was analyzed. In this theoretical study, Mie scattering calculations were first conducted to determine the absorption and scattering efficiencies of the suspended drug coated particles. The resulting heat transfer between the particles and the surrounding tumor and the healthy tissue was modeled using Pennes' Bioheat equation. Predicted temperature changes were satisfactory for inducing hyperthermia (42(?)C), thermally triggering drug release, and even thermal ablation (55(?)C). PMID:25082264

Patel, Jigar M; Evrensel, Cahit A; Fuchs, Alan; Sutrisno, Joko

2015-01-01

406

Combination therapy for manic phases Combination therapy for manic phases: a critical review of a common practice  

E-print Network

of antipsychotics after a manic phase is controversial: drug classification, the course of the disease leads us to suggest that combination therapy including an atypical antipsychotic with lithium that the initial treatment for manic episodes should be lithium (Li), valproate (VPA) an atypical antipsychotic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Bisphosphonate therapy in patients under androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to clarify the role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma under androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The Medline, EMBASE, Cancerlit and the American Society of Clinical Oncology abstract databases were searched for published randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the usage of bisphosphonates in patients with prostate cancer (PC) under ADT.

A Serpa Neto; M Tobias-Machado; M A P Esteves; M D Senra; M L Wroclawski; F L A Fonseca; R B dos Reis; A C L Pompeo; A D Giglio

2012-01-01

408

Photothermal cancer therapy using graphitic carbon–coated magnetic particles prepared by one-pot synthesis  

PubMed Central

We describe here a simple synthetic strategy for the fabrication of carbon-coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@C) particles using a single-component precursor, iron (III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the core of the synthesized particles consists of ferromagnetic Fe3O4 material ranging several hundred nanometers, embedded in nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon with a thickness of ~120 nm. Because of their photothermal activity (absorption of near-infrared [NIR] light), the Fe3O4@C particles have been investigated for photothermal therapeutic applications. An example of one such application would be the use of Fe3O4@C particles in human adenocarcinoma A549 cells by means of NIR-triggered cell death. In this system, the Fe3O4@C can rapidly generate heat, causing >98% cell death within 10 minutes under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation (2.3 W cm?2). These Fe3O4@C particles provided a superior photothermal therapeutic effect by intratumoral delivery and NIR irradiation of tumor xenografts. These results demonstrate that one-pot synthesis of carbon-coated magnetic particles could provide promising materials for future clinical applications and encourage further investigation of this simple method. PMID:25565819

Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Sanetuntikul, Jakkid; Choi, Eun-Sook; Lee, Bo Ram; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Eunjoo; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

2015-01-01

409

Photothermal cancer therapy using graphitic carbon-coated magnetic particles prepared by one-pot synthesis.  

PubMed

We describe here a simple synthetic strategy for the fabrication of carbon-coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@C) particles using a single-component precursor, iron (III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the core of the synthesized particles consists of ferromagnetic Fe3O4 material ranging several hundred nanometers, embedded in nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon with a thickness of ~120 nm. Because of their photothermal activity (absorption of near-infrared [NIR] light), the Fe3O4@C particles have been investigated for photothermal therapeutic applications. An example of one such application would be the use of Fe3O4@C particles in human adenocarcinoma A549 cells by means of NIR-triggered cell death. In this system, the Fe3O4@C can rapidly generate heat, causing >98% cell death within 10 minutes under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation (2.3 W cm(-2)). These Fe3O4@C particles provided a superior photothermal therapeutic effect by intratumoral delivery and NIR irradiation of tumor xenografts. These results demonstrate that one-pot synthesis of carbon-coated magnetic