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1

Particle therapy  

SciTech Connect

Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

Raju, M.R.

1993-09-01

2

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

C. Amsler; M. Doser; M. Antonelli; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; H. Baer; H. R. Band; R. M. Barnett; E. Bergren; J. Beringer; G. Bernardi; W. Bertl; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; S. Blusk; R. N. Cahn; M. Carena; C. Caso; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; M.-C. Chen; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; T. Damour; A. de Gouvêa; T. DeGrand; B. Dobrescu; M. Drees; D. A. Edwards; S. Eidelman; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; J. L. Feng; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; T. Gherghetta; G. F. Giudice; M. Goodman; C. Grab; A. V. Gritsan; J.-F. Grivaz; D. E. Groom; M. Grünewald; A. Gurtu; T. Gutsche; H. E. Haber; K. Hagiwara; C. Hagmann; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; J. Huston; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; T. Junk; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; I. G. Knowles; C. Kolda; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Krusche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; Y. Kwon; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; C.-J. Lin; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; H. Mahlke; M. L. Mangano; T. Mannel; A. V. Manohar; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; A. Masoni; D. Milstead; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; M. Narain; P. Nason; S. Navas; P. Nevski; Y. Nir; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; J. A. Peacock; G. Punzi; A. Quadt; S. Raby; G. Raffelt; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; A. Romaniouk; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; F. Sauli; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; J. G. Smith; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; S. L. Stone; T. Sumiyoshi; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; M. Titov; N. P. Tkachenko; N. A. Törnqvist; D. Tovey; G. H. Trilling; T. G. Trippe; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; P. Vogel; D. R. Ward; T. Watari; B. R. Webber; G. Weiglein; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; A. Wheeler; C. G. Wohl; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; R. L. Workman; A. Yamamoto; W.-M. Yao; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu; P. A. Zyla; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner

2008-01-01

3

Review of Particle Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

K. Hagiwara; K. Hikasa; K. Nakamura; M. Tanabashi; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Amsler; R. M. Barnett; P. R. Burchat; C. D. Carone; C. Caso; G. Conforto; O. Dahl; M. Doser; S. Eidelman; J. L. Feng; L. Gibbons; M. Goodman; C. Grab; D. E. Groom; A. Gurtu; K. G. Hayes; K. Honscheid; C. Kolda; M. L. Mangano; D. M. Manley; A. V. Manohar; J. March-Russell; A. Masoni; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; S. Navas; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; A. Piepke; M. Roos; J. Terning; N. A. Törnqvist; T. G. Trippe; P. Vogel; C. G. Wohl; R. L. Workman; W.-M. Yao; B. Armstrong; P. S. Gee; K. S. Lugovsky; S. B. Lugovsky; V. S. Lugovsky; M. Artuso; D. Asner; K. S. Babu; E. Barberio; M. Battaglia; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; R. N. Cahn; A. Cattai; R. S. Chivukula; R. D. Cousins; G. Cowan; T. Damour; K. Desler; R. J. Donahue; D. A. Edwards; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; D. Froidevaux; M. Fukugita; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; F. J. Gilman; H. E. Haber; C. Hagmann; J. Hewett; I. Hinchliffe; C. J. Hogan; G. Höhler; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; S. R. Klein; K. Kleinknecht; I. G. Knowles; P. Kreitz; Yu. V. Kuyanov; R. Landua; P. Langacker; L. Littenberg; A. D. Martin; T. Nakada; M. Narain; P. Nason; J. A. Peacock; H. R. Quinn; S. Raby; G. Raffelt; E. A. Razuvaev; B. Renk; L. Rolandi; M. T. Ronan; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; A. I. Sanda; S. Sarkar; M. Schmitt; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; G. F. Smoot; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; N. J. C. Spooner; M. Srednicki; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; M. Suzuki; N. P. Tkachenko; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; D. R. Ward; B. R. Webber; M. Whalley; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; O. V. Zenin

2002-01-01

4

Review of particle properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2300 new measurements from 700 papers, we list evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are

L. Montanet; K. Gieselmann; R. M. Barnett; D. E. Groom; T. G. Trippe; C. G. Wohl; B. Armstrong; G. S. Wagman; H. Murayama; J. Stone; J. J. Hernandez; F. C. Porter; R. J. Morrison; A. Manohar; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Caso; P. Lantero; R. L. Crawford; M. Roos; N. A. Törnqvist; K. G. Hayes; G. Höhler; S. Kawabata; D. M. Manley; K. Olive; R. E. Shrock; S. Eidelman; R. H. Schindler; A. Gurtu; K. Hikasa; G. Conforto; R. L. Workman; C. Grab

1994-01-01

5

Review of Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Vcb & Vub, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter.A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov/.The 2012 edition of Review of Particle Physics is published for the Particle Data Group as article 010001 in volume 86 of Physical Review D.This edition should be cited as: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), Phys. Rev. D 86, 010001 (2012).

Beringer, J.; Arguin, J.-F.; Barnett, R. M.; Copic, K.; Dahl, O.; Groom, D. E.; Lin, C.-J.; Lys, J.; Murayama, H.; Wohl, C. G.; Yao, W.-M.; Zyla, P. A.; Amsler, C.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baer, H.; Band, H. R.; Basaglia, T.; Bauer, C. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Belousov, V. I.; Bergren, E.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bethke, S.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Buchmueller, O.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M.-C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; de Florian, D.; de Gouvêa, A.; DeGrand, T.; de Jong, P.; Dissertori, G.; Dobrescu, B.; Doser, M.; Drees, M.; Edwards, D. A.; Eidelman, S.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gerbier, G.; Gherghetta, T.; Golwala, S.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grünewald, M.; Gurtu, A.; Gutsche, T.; Haber, H. E.; Hagiwara, K.; Hagmann, C.; Hanhart, C.; Hashimoto, S.; Hayes, K. G.; Heffner, M.; Heltsley, B.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hikasa, K.; Höcker, A.; Holder, J.; Holtkamp, A.; Huston, J.; Jackson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Junk, T.; Karlen, D.; Kirkby, D.; Klein, S. R.; Klempt, E.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Krauss, F.; Kreps, M.; Krusche, B.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Kwon, Y.; Lahav, O.; Laiho, J.; Langacker, P.; Liddle, A.; Ligeti, Z.; Liss, T. M.; Littenberg, L.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, S. B.; Mannel, T.; Manohar, A. V.; Marciano, W. J.; Martin, A. D.; Masoni, A.; Matthews, J.; Milstead, D.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Moortgat, F.; Nakamura, K.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Navas, S.; Neubert, M.; Nevski, P.; Nir, Y.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Parsons, J.; Patrignani, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Petcov, S. T.; Piepke, A.; Pomarol, A.; Punzi, G.; Quadt, A.; Raby, S.; Raffelt, G.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Richardson, P.; Roesler, S.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Rosner, J. L.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sakai, Y.; Salam, G. P.; Sarkar, S.; Sauli, F.; Schneider, O.; Scholberg, K.; Scott, D.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharpe, S. R.; Silari, M.; Sjöstrand, T.; Skands, P.; Smith, J. G.; Smoot, G. F.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Stone, S. L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Syphers, M. J.; Takahashi, F.; Tanabashi, M.; Terning, J.; Titov, M.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Tovey, D.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Venanzoni, G.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, P.; Vogt, A.; Walkowiak, W.; Walter, C. W.; Ward, D. R.; Watari, T.; Weiglein, G.; Weinberg, E. J.; Wiencke, L. R.; Wolfenstein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Workman, R. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Zeller, G. P.; Zenin, O. V.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Harper, G.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Schaffner, P.

2012-07-01

6

Indoor Particles: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies of particle concentrations and sources in homes and buildings. Three major studies of indoor and outdoor concentrations in U.S. homes are summarized in detail and compared. A number of smaller studies in homes are also briefly summarized. One study of 38 buildings and several smaller studies of buildings are also reviewed.All major studies found that an

Lance Wallace

1996-01-01

7

[Particle therapy: carbon ions].  

PubMed

Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiation therapy. It has been first proposed in the forties by Robert Wilson, however the first dedicated centres for human care have been build up only recently in Japan and Germany. The interest of carbon ion is twofold: 1) the very sharp targeting of the tumour with the so called spread out Bragg peak that delivers most of the beam energy in the tumour and nothing beyond it, sparing very efficiently the healthy tissues; 2) the higher relative biological efficiency compared to X rays or protons, able to kill radioresistant tumour cells. Both properties make carbon ions the elective therapy for non resectable radioresistant tumours loco-regionally threatening. The technical and clinical experience accumulated during the recent decades is summarized in this paper along with a detailed presentation of the elective indications. A short comparison between conventional radiotherapy and hadrontherapy is proposed for the indications which are considered as priority for carbon ions. PMID:20659870

Pommier, Pascal; Hu, Yi; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Chapet, Olivier; Balosso, Jacques

2010-07-01

8

Comparison of particle-radiation-therapy modalities  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of dose distribution, beam alignment, and radiobiological advantages accorded to high LET radiation were reviewed and compared for various particle beam radiotherapeutic modalities (neutron, Auger electrons, p, ..pi../sup -/, He, C, Ne, and Ar ions). Merit factors were evaluated on the basis of effective dose to tumor relative to normal tissue, linear energy transfer (LET), and dose localization, at depths of 1, 4, and 10 cm. In general, it was found that neutron capture therapy using an epithermal neutron beam provided the best merit factors available for depths up to 8 cm. The position of fast neutron therapy on the Merit Factor Tables was consistently lower than that of other particle modalities, and above only /sup 60/Co. The largest body of clinical data exists for fast neutron therapy; results are considered by some to be encouraging. It then follows that if benefits with fast neutron therapy are real, additional gains are within reach with other modalities.

Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

1981-01-01

9

Charged Particle Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Historically, the use of external beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been limited by toxicity to the uninvolved liver and surrounding structures. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformality to the tumor and facilitated dose escalation, a key contributor to improved HCC radiation treatment outcomes. However, despite these advances in photon radiotherapy, significant volumes of liver still receive low doses of radiation that can preclude dose escalation, particularly in patients with limited functional liver reserves. By capitalizing on the lack of exit dose along the beam path beyond the tumor and higher biological effectiveness, charged particle therapy offers the promise of maximizing tumor control via dose escalation without excessive liver toxicity. In this review we discuss the distinctive biophysical attributes of both proton and carbon ion radiotherapy, particularly as they pertain to treatment of HCC. We also review the available literature regarding clinical outcomes and toxicity of using charged particles for the treatment of HCC.

Skinner, Heath D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Krishnan, Sunil

2011-01-01

10

Play Therapy: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

2009-01-01

11

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review is given of the current status of cosmological nucleosynthesis. In the framework of the standard model with 3 types of relativistic neutrinos, the baryon-to-photon ratio, \\\\eta, corresponding to the inferred primordial abundances of helium-4 and lithium-7 is presently ~2 \\\\sigma below the value implied by the abundance of deuterium. The latter value is also coincident with the

S. Eidelman; K. G. Hayes; K. A. Olive; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Amsler; D. Asner; K. S. Babu; R. M. Barnett; J. Beringer; P. R. Burchat; C. D. Carone; S. Caso; G. Conforto; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; M. Doser; J. L. Feng; T. Gherghetta; L. Gibbons; M. Goodman; C. Grab; D. E. Groom; A. Gurtu; K. Hagiwara; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; K. Honscheid; H. Jawahery; C. Kolda; Y. Kwon; M. L. Mangano; A. V. Manohar; J. March-Russell; A. Masoni; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; S. Navas; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; A. Piepke; G. Raffelt; M. Roos; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; N. A. Törnqvist; T. G. Trippe; P. Vogel; C. G. Wohl; R. L. Workman; W.-M. Yao; P. A. Zyla; B. Armstrong; P. S. Gee; G. Harper; K. S. Lugovsky; V. S. Lugovsky; A. Rom; M. Artuso; E. Barberio; M. Battaglia; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; R. N. Cahn; D. Casper; A. Cattai; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; T. Damour; K. Desler; M. A. Dobbs; M. Drees; A. Edwards; D. A. Edwards; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; D. Froidevaux; M. Fukugita; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; F. J. Gilman; H. E. Haber; C. Hagmann; J. Hewett; I. Hinchliffe; C. J. Hogan; G. Höhler; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; K. Kleinknecht; I. G. Knowles; P. Kreitz; Yu. V. Kuyanov; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; L. Littenberg; D. M. Manley; A. D. Martin; M. Narain; P. Nason; Y. Nir; J. A. Peacock; H. R. Quinn; S. Raby; B. N. Ratcliff; E. A. Razuvaev; B. Renk; G. Rolandi; M. T. Ronan; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; A. I. Sanda; S. Sarkar; M. Schmitt; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; G. F. Smoot; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; N. J. C. Spooner; M. Srednicki; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; M. Suzuki; N. P. Tkachenko; G. H. Trilling; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; D. R. Ward; B. R. Webber; M. Whalley; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; O. V. Zenin; R.-Y. Zhu

2004-01-01

12

Status of particle therapy for lung cancer.  

PubMed

The current standard treatment for lung cancer, the most common type of cancer worldwide, depends on disease stage. Surgery is the treatment of choice for early-stage tumors, but radiotherapy is a good option for those with early-stage tumors who cannot undergo surgery, and radiotherapy in conjunction with chemotherapy is the standard of care for locally advanced tumors. Although advances in photon (x-ray)-based radiotherapy involving three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy allow radiation doses to be escalated beyond the traditional limit of 60 Gy, this dose is not considered to be sufficient for tumor eradication. Moreover, the improvements in local control and survival conferred by concurrent chemotherapy come at the cost of considerable toxicity owing to inadvertent irradiation of surrounding normal tissues, and this toxicity often limits the radiation dose that can be delivered. Unfortunately for patients with locally advanced lung cancer, local control and survival remain poor. Attempts to improve clinical outcomes for patients with lung cancer have led to the use of charged particle therapy in an effort to exploit the physical properties of such particles to escalate the dose to the tumor while simultaneously limiting the dose to nearby structures, thereby enhancing the therapeutic ratio and potentially improving cancer cure rates. This review summarizes the rationale for and challenges associated with the use of charged particles for lung cancer therapy and reviews the clinical experience to date with using protons and carbon ions for early-stage and locally advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:21767170

Liao, Zhongxing; Lin, Steven H; Cox, James D

2011-08-01

13

Gantry for medical particle therapy facility  

DOEpatents

A particle therapy gantry for delivering a particle beam to a patient includes a beam tube having a curvature defining a particle beam path and a plurality of superconducting, variable field magnets sequentially arranged along the beam tube for guiding the particle beam along the particle path. In a method for delivering a particle beam to a patient through a gantry, a particle beam is guided by a plurality of variable field magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube of the gantry and the beam is alternately focused and defocused with alternately arranged focusing and defocusing variable field magnets.

Trbojevic, Dejan

2013-04-23

14

Gantry for medical particle therapy facility  

SciTech Connect

A particle therapy gantry for delivering a particle beam to a patient includes a beam tube having a curvature defining a particle beam path and a plurality of fixed field magnets sequentially arranged along the beam tube for guiding the particle beam along the particle path. In a method for delivering a particle beam to a patient through a gantry, a particle beam is guided by a plurality of fixed field magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube of the gantry and the beam is alternately focused and defocused with alternately arranged focusing and defocusing fixed field magnets.

Trbojevic, Dejan (Wading River, NY)

2012-05-08

15

Motion in radiotherapy: particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged particle beam radiotherapy requires dedicated measures to compensate for the dosimetric influence of inter- and intra-fractional target motion. Independent of the delivery technique, these measures have to incorporate the strong influence of the radiological depth on the delivered dose. For scanned beam delivery, interference effects of target motion and scanned beam can further cause under-dosage of the clinical target volume despite using margins. Within the scope of this review, published data with respect to motion management in scattered as well as scanned beam treatment delivery will be summarized. Based on a section covering the dosimetric impact of organ motion, motion management during treatment planning, patient positioning, treatment delivery and treatment validation will be summarized. For scattered beam delivery, the concepts and data are often based on clinical usage since treatment of moving tumors has been performed for several years. In the field of scanned beam delivery, the report focuses on the results of research on countermeasures of the interference effect. Clinical application of these techniques can be expected in the near future.

Bert, C.; Durante, M.

2011-08-01

16

Particle Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Treatment-related toxicity is common in the radiotherapeutic management of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. These toxicities can diminish treatment efficacy by necessitating treatment breaks, limiting the radiation dose that can be delivered, and hindering concomitant use of chemotherapy and targeted drug agents. Many efforts have focused on widening the gap between the likelihood of tumor control and the likelihood of toxicities associated with radiation. Use of particles that exhibit a Bragg peak phenomenon in their interactions with tissue, such as protons, heavier ions like carbon ions, and pions, is one means of concentrating radiation dose in tumors and away from normal tissues. Neutron beams have also been used in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers in an effort to take advantage of their potent biologic effects. This report reviews basic particle radiation physics and biology, as well as the clinical experience with protons, heavier ions, pions, and neutrons in the treatment of various gastrointestinal malignancies. Potential future directions in clinical research with particle therapy are discussed.

Meyer, Jeffrey J.; Willett, Christopher G.

2007-01-01

17

Regenerative photonic therapy: Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman

2012-09-01

18

REVIEW: Review of electron beam therapy physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines,

Kenneth R. Hogstrom; Peter R. Almond

2006-01-01

19

Applications of laser-accelerated particle beams for radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton beams are more advantageous than high-energy photons and electrons for radiation therapy because of their finite penetrating range and the Bragg peak near the end of their range, which have been utilized to achieve better dose conformity to the treatment target allowing for dose escalation and/or hypofractionation to increase local tumor control, reduce normal tissue complications and/or treatment time/cost. Proton therapy employing conventional particle acceleration techniques is expensive because of the large accelerators and treatment gantries that require excessive space and shielding. Compact proton acceleration systems are being sought to improve the cost-effectiveness for proton therapy. This paper reviews the physics principles of laser-proton acceleration and the development of prototype laserproton therapy systems as a solution for widespread applications of advanced proton therapy. The system design, the major components and the special delivery techniques for energy and intensity modulation are discussed in detail for laser-accelerated proton therapy.

Ma, C.-M.; Fourkal, E.; Li, J. S.; Veltchev, I.; Luo, W.; Fan, J. J.; Lin, T.; Tafo, A.

2011-05-01

20

Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

Haber, David

2006-01-01

21

Future Particle Accelerator Developments for Radiation Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade particle beam cancer therapy has seen a rapid increase in interest, and several new centers have been built, are currently under construction, or are in an advanced stage of planning. Typical treatment centers today consist of an accelerator capable of producing proton or ion beams in an energy range of interest for medical treatment, i.e. providing a penetration depth in water of about 30 cm, a beam delivery system to transport the produced beam to the patient treatment rooms, and several patient stations, allowing for an optimal usage of the continuously produced beam. This makes these centers rather large and consequently expensive. Only major hospital centers situated in an area where they can draw on a population of several million can afford such an installation. In order to spread the use of particle beam cancer therapy to a broader population base it will be necessary to scale down the facility size and cost. This can in principle be done by reducing the number of treatment rooms to one, eliminating the need of an elaborate beam delivery system, and thereby reducing the building size and cost. Such a change should be going in parallel with a reduction of the accelerator itself, and a number of approaches to this are currently being pursued. If successful, such developments could eventually lead to a compact system where all components would fit into a single shielded room, not much different in size from a typical radiation vault for radiotherapy with X-rays.

Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels

22

Cancer immunogene therapy: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although immunotherapy has long held out promise as a specific, potent approach to cancer therapy, clinical applications have been unrewarding to date. However, advances in gene transfer technology and basic immunology have opened new avenues to stimulate antitumor immune responses including immunogene therapy. Many different approaches to immunogene therapy have been identified. These include transferring genes encoding proinflammatory proteins to

Ian F. Parney; Lung-Ji Chang

2003-01-01

23

Cancer Immunogene Therapy: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although immunotherapy has long held out promise as a specific, potent approach to cancer therapy, clinical applications have been unrewarding to date. However, advances in gene transfer technology and basic immunology have opened new avenues to stimulate antitumor immune responses including immunogene therapy. Many different approaches to immunogene therapy have been identified. These include transferring genes encoding proinflammatory proteins to

Ian F. Parney; Lung-Ji Chang

2003-01-01

24

Respiratory motion management in particle therapy  

SciTech Connect

Clinical outcomes of charged particle therapy are very promising. Currently, several dedicated centers that use scanning beam technology are either close to clinical use or under construction. Since scanned beam treatments of targets that move with respiration most likely result in marked local over- and underdosage due to interplay of target motion and dynamic beam application, dedicated motion mitigation techniques have to be employed. To date, the motion mitigation techniques, rescanning, beam gating, and beam tracking, have been proposed and tested in experimental studies. Rescanning relies on repeated irradiations of the target with the number of particles reduced accordingly per scan to statistically average local misdosage. Specific developments to prohibit temporal correlation between beam scanning and target motion will be required to guarantee adequate averaging. For beam gating, residual target motion within gating windows has to be mitigated in order to avoid local misdosage. Possibly the most promising strategy is to increase the overlap of adjacent particle pencil beams laterally as well as longitudinally to effectively reduce the sensitivity against small residual target motion. The most conformal and potentially most precise motion mitigation technique is beam tracking. Individual particle pencil beams have to be adapted laterally as well as longitudinally according to the target motion. Within the next several years, it can be anticipated that rescanning as well as beam gating will be ready for clinical use. For rescanning, treatment planning margins that incorporate the full extent of target motion as well as motion induced density variations in the beam paths will result in reduced target conformity of the applied dose distributions. Due to the limited precision of motion monitoring devices, it seems likely that beam gating will be used initially to mitigate interplay effects only but not to considerably decrease treatment planning margins. Then, in the next step, beam gating, based on more accurate motion monitoring systems, provides the possibility to restore target conformity as well as steep dose gradients due to reduced treatment planning margins. Accurate motion monitoring systems will be required for beam tracking. Even though beam tracking has already been successfully tested experimentally, full clinical implementation requires direct feedback of the actual target position in quasireal time to the treatment control system and can be anticipated to be several more years ahead.

Rietzel, Eike; Bert, Christoph [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) and Siemens Healthcare Sector, Workflow and Solutions, Particle Therapy, Hofmannstrasse 26, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-02-15

25

Review: Gene Therapy for Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy is a new form of therapeutic intervention with applications in many areas of medical treatment. There are still many technical difficulties to be overcome, but recent advances in the molecular and cellular biology of gene transfer have made it likely that gene therapy will soon start to play an increasing role in clinical practice and particularly in the

Gregory Kouraklis

2000-01-01

26

Patients' perspectives on electroconvulsive therapy: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To ascertain patients' views on the benefits of and possible memory loss from electroconvulsive therapy. Design Descriptive systematic review. Data sources Psychinfo, Medline, Web of Science, and Social Science Citation Index databases, and bibliographies. Study selection Articles with patients' views after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy. Data extraction 26 studies carried out by clinicians and nine reports of work undertaken

Diana Rose; Til Wykes; Morven Leese; Jonathan Bindman; Pete Fleischmann

2003-01-01

27

Hemophilia clinical gene therapy: brief review.  

PubMed

Genetic correction of hemophilia A and B was long considered amenable to the available gene transfer technologies. This assumption has come to fruition with the recent results of a phase I/II trial for hemophilia B. Here we review the clinical application of gene therapy for the hemophilia's as a paradigm of the evolution of gene transfer science and technology. This review is not intended as comprehensive but rather to highlight current clinical developments of gene therapy for the hemophilias. PMID:23352600

Walsh, Christopher E; Batt, Katherine M

2013-01-23

28

Acne therapy: A methodologic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acne is a very common problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. The evidence basis for its treatment had not been systematically reviewed. Therefore, we performed an evidence review to provide researchers a basis for further studies, and to provide clinicians the background needed to interpret current and future clinical studies. Objective: We summarize the methodologic state of the

Harold P. Lehmann; Karen A. Robinson; John S. Andrews; Victoria Holloway; Steven N. Goodman

2002-01-01

29

Particle Beam Therapy for Cancer of the Skull Base, Nasal Cavity, and Paranasal Sinus  

PubMed Central

Particle beam therapy has been rapidly developed in these several decades. Proton and carbon ion beams are most frequently used in particle beam therapy. Proton and carbon ion beam radiotherapy have physical and biological advantage to the conventional photon radiotherapy. Cancers of the skull base, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus are rare; however these diseases can receive the benefits of particle beam radiotherapy. This paper describes the clinical review of the cancer of the skull base, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus treated with proton and carbon ion beams, adding some information of feature and future direction of proton and carbon ion beam radiotherapy.

Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi

2012-01-01

30

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. 892.5050 ...5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A medical charged-particle radiation therapy system is a device...

2013-04-01

31

REVIEW: Motion effects in (intensity modulated) radiation therapy: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a course of fractionated radiation therapy and between the fractions the tissues of the human body may move relative to some reference location in which the radiation therapy was planned. This has been known for over a century and simple 'coping mechanisms' (margins) have been used to approximately compensate. Since the introduction of highly accurate conformal radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) attention has focused strongly in the last few years on understanding and compensating more appropriately for these motions. Thus, unlike most of the reviews in this special 50th anniversary issue which look back over decades of development, this one looks back at most within just the past decade and reviews the current situation. There is still much more work to be done and many of the techniques reviewed are themselves not yet implemented widely in the clinic.

Webb, S.

2006-07-01

32

Review of electron beam therapy physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines,

Kenneth R Hogstrom; Peter R Almond

2006-01-01

33

Republished review: Gene therapy for ocular diseases  

PubMed Central

The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

2011-01-01

34

Review of electron beam therapy physics.  

PubMed

For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines, dose specification and calibration, dose measurement, electron transport calculations, treatment and treatment-planning tools, and clinical utilization, including special procedures. Also, future changes in the practice of electron therapy resulting from challenges to its utilization and from potential future technology are discussed. PMID:16790918

Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Almond, Peter R

2006-06-20

35

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system...Identification. A medical charged-particle radiation therapy system...acceleration high energy charged particles (e.g., electrons and protons)...

2009-04-01

36

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system...Identification. A medical charged-particle radiation therapy system...acceleration high energy charged particles (e.g., electrons and protons)...

2010-04-01

37

What’s new in particle therapy accelerator technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, particle therapy has entered a new age. The number of facilities opening and under construction is at an all time high. We are now at an interesting time in the cycle of product development and ‘consumer’ interest, where; on the one hand, the interest in the technique has encouraged some groups who are working on new ideas; but on the other hand, existing product production, to reduce costs and improve procurement, installation and commissioning time tends to reduce the degree of change that can be considered in a system. This paper summarizes some of the current requirements and directions in particle therapy accelerator technology.

Flanz, Jacob B.

2007-08-01

38

MIRD Pamphlet No. 22 (Unabridged): Radiobiology and Dosimetry of alpha-Particle Emitters for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

SciTech Connect

The potential of alpha-particle emitters to treat cancer has been recognized since the early 1900s. Advances in the targeted delivery of radionuclides, in radionuclide conjugation chemistry, and in the increased availability of alpha-emitters appropriate for clinical use have recently led to patient trials of alpha-particle-emitter labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Although alpha-emitters have been studied for many decades, their current use in humans for targeted therapy is an important milestone. The objective of this work is to review those aspects of the field that are pertinent to targeted alpha-particle-emitter therapy and to provide guidance and recommendations for human alpha-particle-emitter dosimetry.

Sgouros, George; Roeske, John C.; McDevitt, Michael S.; Palm, Stig; Allen, Barry J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Brill, Bertrand A.; Song, Hong; Howell, R. W.; Akabani, Gamal

2010-02-28

39

Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted alpha-particle therapy applications  

PubMed Central

Alpha particle-emitting isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of alpha particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each alpha track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225Ac) is an alpha particle-emitting radionuclide that generates 4 net alpha particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209Bi, and as such can be described as an alpha particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer.

Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

2013-01-01

40

Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted alpha particle therapy applications.  

PubMed

Alpha particle-emitting isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of alpha particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each alpha track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225 Ac) is an alpha particle-emitting radionuclide that generates 4 net alpha particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209 Bi, and as such can be described as an alpha particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225 Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer. PMID:18514364

Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

2008-04-23

41

Review of discrete particle modeling of fluidized beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the use of discrete particle models (DPMs) for the study of the flow phenomena prevailing in fluidized beds. DPMs describe the gas-phase as a continuum, whereas each of the individual particles is treated as a discrete entity. The DPMs accounts for the gas-particle and particle-particle interactions. This model is part of a multi-level modeling approach and has

N. G. Deen; Sint Annaland van M; M. A. Van der Hoef; J. A. M. Kuipers

2007-01-01

42

Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Emotional stress can either precipitate or exacerbate both acute and chronic asthma. There is a large body of literature available on the use of relaxation techniques for the treatment of asthma symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if there is any evidence for or against the clinical efficacy of such interventions. Methods: Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data from trials that statistically compared the treatment group with that of the control were extracted in a standardised predefined manner and assessed critically by two independent reviewers. Results: Fifteen trials were identified, of which nine compared the treatment group with the control group appropriately. Five RCTs tested progressive muscle relaxation or mental and muscular relaxation, two of which showed significant effects of therapy. One RCT investigating hypnotherapy, one of autogenic training, and two of biofeedback techniques revealed no therapeutic effects. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor. Conclusions: There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of relaxation therapies in the management of asthma. This deficiency is due to the poor methodology of the studies as well as the inherent problems of conducting such trials. There is some evidence that muscular relaxation improves lung function of patients with asthma but no evidence for any other relaxation technique.

Huntley, A; White, A; Ernst, E

2002-01-01

43

Meta-Analytic Review of Marital Therapy Outcome Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analytic review examines the findings of 15 methodologically rigorous marital therapy outcome studies reported in 19 journal articles. These findings were used to assess the efficacy of three treatment approaches in fostering change in spouses' relationship- related behavior, cognitions, affect, and general assessment of their relationship. Behavioral marital therapy (BMT), cognitive—behavioral marital therapy (CBMT), and insight- oriented marital therapy

Ryan L. Dunn; Andrew I. Schwebel

2000-01-01

44

FTY720 for cancer therapy (Review).  

PubMed

2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride (FTY720) is a potent immunosuppressant which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a new treatment for multiple sclerosis. As an immunosuppressant, it displays its anti-multiple sclerosis, immunosuppressive effects by activating sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs). In addition to the immunosuppressive effects, FTY720 also shows preclinical antitumor efficacy in several cancer models. In most cases, phosphorylation of FTY720 is not required for its cytotoxic effect, indicating the involvement of S1PR-independent mechanisms which are starkly different from the immunosuppressive property of FTY720. In the present study, we reviewed the rapidly advancing field of FTY720 in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of the unphosphorylated form of FTY720. PMID:24100923

Zhang, Li; Wang, Han-Dong; Ji, Xiang-Jun; Cong, Zi-Xiang; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Zhou, Yuan

2013-10-01

45

A review of anabolic therapies for osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis results from a loss of bone mass and bone structure such that the bone becomes weak and fractures with very little trauma. Until recently, the approved osteoporosis therapies prevented more bone loss by altering osteoclast activity and lifespan. Recently, attention has turned away from osteoclast inhibition to agents that can stimulate the osteoblast to form new bone, or anabolic agents. This article reviews both approved and experimental anabolic agents that improve bone mass by improving osteoblast activity, or increasing osteoblast number. The use of the anabolic agents to improve bone mass and strength followed by agents that prevent the new bone mass from being lost may offer the ability to cure osteoporosis and reduce bone fracture healing time.

Lane, Nancy E; Kelman, Ariella

2003-01-01

46

Pseudoprogression after glioma therapy: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, pseudoprogression as a clinically significant entity affecting both glioma patient management and the conduct of clinical trials has been recognized as a significant issue. The authors have summarized the literature relative to the incidence, chronological sequence, therapy-relatedness, impact of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation status and clinical features of pseudoprogression. Evidence regarding numerous neuroradiologic techniques to differentiate pseudoprogression from tumor recurrence is summarized. The implications of pseudoprogression on prognosis and clinical trial design are substantial, and are reviewed. Relative to this, the overlapping terms pseudoprogression and radiation necrosis are clarified to produce an appropriate basis for future consideration and research regarding this important biological phenomenon. PMID:23545054

Kruser, Tim J; Mehta, Minesh P; Robins, H Ian

2013-04-01

47

BOOK REVIEW: The Dynamics of Fluidized Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a bed of rigid particles, supported below by a porous plate, is subjected to an increasing upward flow of air, at first nothing happens. Then as the flow increases, the bed can expand slightly and particles can move in relative motion. At higher velocities, large voids (bubbles) can appear which rise like bubbles to the top of the bed,

Roy Jackson

2001-01-01

48

Latex Particle Morphology, Fundamental Aspects: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of particle morphology is an essential part of producing high quality latex products for applications in coatings, adhesives, impact modifiers, and medical diagnostics, among others. A great variety of formulation and process variables are available to manipulate the particle structure and many different morphologies have been created. Techniques to characterize these morphologies are varied, but electron microscopy of

Donald C. Sundberg; Yvon G. Durant

2003-01-01

49

Metallic Wear Particles: A Short Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A classification of various metal surface wear particles according to shape as well as type of wear formation is presented. The different wear mechanisms involved, such as rubbing wear, cutting wear, surface fatigue wear, and corrosion wear, are discussed...

J. Rendon

1978-01-01

50

A Review of Qigong Therapy for Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies of Qigong therapy for cancer for the past 20 years in China were reviewed from three different categories: clinical study on human cancer patients, in-vitro study of cancer cells, and in-vivo study of cancer with Qigong therapy, in an attempt to understand the role Qigong therapy plays in cancer treatment. There is a lot of evidence suggesting that

Kevin CHEN; Raphael YEUNG

51

Review of particle properties. 25th anniversary edition  

SciTech Connect

This review is a reprint of Physics Letters, Vol. IIIB, April 22, 1982, and is an updating through December 1981 of our previous review of particle properties (Particle Data Group (1980)). As in previous editions we have attempted to make the text as complete and self-contained as possible. The results of our compilation are presented in two sections, the Tables of Particle Properties and the Data Card Listings. The Tables summarize the properties of only those particles whose existence is in our judgment experimentally well founded and which have a high probability of standing the test of time. The Data Card Listings give up-to-date information, with references, on all reported particles, whether considered well established or not. The Listings also contain mini-reviews on questions of interest. As in previous editions, we include a section of miscellaneous tables, figures, and formulae. These are aimed at the practicing high energy physics experimentalist. (WHK)

Not Available

1982-04-01

52

Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a plethora of complementary therapies are on offer claiming effectiveness for reducing body weight. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of complementary therapies for reducing body weight. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed,

M H Pittler; E Ernst

2005-01-01

53

Development of 2D Ionization Chamber for Particle Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently rapid growth in particle therapy has imposed new detector developments for quality assurance (QA) purposes. Relatively high dose deposition from proton or carbon ion beam requires stringent performance from detectors. Cyclotron, synchrotron, or future laser driven accelerators represent DC and pulse sources which need different timing designs in electronics. Dose and position measurements of particle beams can serve clinical, beam diagnosis and QA purposes. We categorize the parameters of detectors - electronics, DAQ, and simulation--to serve for later optimizations. Gaseous detector is preferred because of its radiation hardness, and operation at ionization mode provides stable condition. We present our progresses in 2D ionization chamber development. Basic studies are carried out on 1D ionization chamber, which consists of 16 6-mm-wide strips. Results of measuring electron and proton beams are compared with MC simulations. 2D array ionization chamber design is optimized and based on 1D prototype measurements.

Ho, Chi-Li

2010-11-01

54

A systematic review of occupational therapy interventions with homeless people.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A systematic review of the occupational therapy literature 1990-2008 was undertaken with the aim to assess the quality of evidence that supports the role of occupational therapy with homeless people. Forty articles were initially identified and critically appraised, including 16 research studies. Seven quantitative articles were included in this review and demonstrated the effectiveness of occupational therapy in providing interventions that increase employment and education prospects, money management, coping skills, and leisure activities. The literature suggests that occupational therapy has an appropriate role with people experiencing homelessness. PMID:23898982

Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, Marion; McGinty, Sue

2010-11-08

55

Cosmology and particle physics - a general review  

SciTech Connect

The various stages in the evolution of the universe from approximately 0.0001 sec to approximately more than 100,000 years are discussed. The use of quantum gravity, the Kaluza (1921) and Klein (1926) theories, and supersymmetry to study the gravitational interactions during the Planck epoch is examined. Examples of the effect of exponential expansion due to a supercooled phase transition (inflation) are presented. The big bang baryosynthesis and nucleosynthesis hypotheses are reviewed. 86 references.

Olive, K.A.

1986-01-01

56

a Review of Particle Astrophysics with Icecube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IceCube is a neutrino detector sensitive to energies above 10 GeV. IceCube operates by sensing the Cherenkov light from secondary particles produced in neutrino-matter interactions. One gigaton of highly transparent Antarctic ice is instrumented to achieve this goal. Designed to be modular, IceCube has been collecting data since construction began in 2005. Construction was completed in December 2010. The primary goal of IceCube is to observe astrophysical sources of neutrinos. We present here a summary of IceCube's recent results in atmospheric neutrinos, point sources, diffuse fluxes of neutrinos, cosmogenic neutrinos, a lack of correlation between neutrinos and Gamma Ray Bursts and the search for dark matter.

Taboada, Ignacio

2012-12-01

57

A review of nonvalidated and complementary therapies for cluster headache.  

PubMed

Cluster headache is arguably the most disabling form of primary headache. There is a great deal of information available about alternative therapy for migraine, but very little regarding alternative therapy for cluster headaches. This article reviews the popular and scientific print and electronic sources of information about alternative and complementary treatments for cluster headache dietary supplements, herbal modalities, folk remedies, physical and manual therapies, and unlabeled use of prescription drugs such as botulinum toxin, baclofen, and methylphenidate. PMID:14980151

Bilchik, Tanya R

2004-04-01

58

Review - numerical models for dilute gas-particle flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant nondimensional parameters relating to dilute gas-particle flows are defined, and a review of the essential features of gas-particle flows from the point of view of model development is presented. Also, the various models that have appeared for one-dimensional and two-dimensional flows are examined, and the advantages and disadvantages of the trajectory and two-fluid models are considered. It is

C. T. Crowe

1982-01-01

59

Manual therapy treatment of cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dizziness is a common and often disabling disorder. In some people the cause of their dizziness is pathology or dysfunction of upper cervical vertebral segments that can be treated with manual therapy. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the manual therapy treatment of patients with cervicogenic dizziness, by identifying and evaluating both randomized

Susan A. Reid; Darren A. Rivett

2005-01-01

60

Manual therapies in myofascial trigger point treatment: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is thought by some authors the main cause of headache and neck pain. MPS is characterized by Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs). However, there are not many controlled studies that have analyzed the effects of the manual therapies in their treatment. The aim of this systematic review is to establish whether manual therapies have

César Fernández de las Peñas; Mónica Sohrbeck Campo; Josué Fernández Carnero; Juan Carlos Miangolarra Page

2005-01-01

61

An Updated Review of the Efficacy of Cupping Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. Method Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. Results 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy), cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. Conclusions Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.

Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping

2012-01-01

62

Modeling gradual solar energetic particle events: historical review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energetic particles pose one of the most serious hazards to space probes, satellites and astronauts. The most intense and largest Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are closely associated with fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) able to drive interplanetary shock waves as they propagate through interplanetary space. The simulation of these particle events requires a knowledge of how particles and shocks propagate through the interplanetary medium, and how shocks accelerate and inject particles into interplanetary space. Several models have appeared in the literature that attempt to reproduce these SEP events. Each model presents its own simplifying assumptions in order to tackle the series of complex phenomena occurring during the development of such events. The accuracy of these models depends upon the approximations used to describe the physical processes involved in these events. We will review the current models used to describe gradual SEP events, their advances and shortcomings, and their possible applications to space weather forecasting.

Lario, D.

63

Manual therapy for mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. Randomized trials were reviewed using a Cochrane format, to determine if manual therapy improves pain, function and patient satisfaction in adults suffering from neck disorders with and without radicular findings or headache. Sequenced computerized searches ended in December 1997. Two independent reviewers extracted data while three assessed trial quality. Standard mean difference

A. R Gross; T Kay; M Hondras; C Goldsmith; T Haines; P Peloso; C Kennedy; J Hoving

2002-01-01

64

Review Article Gene Therapy in Cardiac Arrhythmias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy has progressed from a dream to a bedside reality in quite a few human diseases. From its first application in adenosine deaminase deficiency, through the years, its application has evolved to vascular angiogenesis and cardiac arrhythmias. Gene based biological pacemakers using viral vectors or mesenchymal cells tested in animal models hold much promise. Induction of pacemaker activity within

Johnson Francis

65

Photodynamic therapy in neurosurgery: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been investigated extensively, both experimentally and clinically, as an adjunctive treatment in the neuro-oncological field. It is based on the more selective accumulation of a photosensitizer in malignant than normal tissue with low systemic toxicity. Subsequent light activation induces photo-oxidation, followed by selective tumour destruction via vascular and direct cellular mechanisms. Malignant brain tumours carry a

Herwig Kostron; Alois Obwegeser; Rosanna Jakober

1996-01-01

66

Rituximab Therapy for Myopathy Associated with Anti-Signal Recognition Particle Antibodies: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Objective The myopathy associated with anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) is a severe necrotizing immune-mediated disease characterized by rapidly progressive proximal muscle weakness, markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and poor responsiveness to traditional immunosuppressive therapies. Reports on the efficacy of B cell depletion therapy for anti-SRP associated myopathy are mixed. We describe eight patients with anti-SRP associated myopathy and their response to treatment with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. Methods We identified eight patients with myopathy who tested positive for anti-SRP antibodies by immunoprecipitation and were treated with rituximab as part of clinical care. We reviewed their medical records to assess clinical, serologic, and histologic characteristics and response to therapy. In five patients, serum was collected before and after rituximab therapy. Autoantibodies were detected by immunoprecipitation and quantitated by densitometry, and the percent decreases in anti-SRP autoantibody levels were calculated. Results Six of eight patients who had been refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated improved manual muscle strength and/or decline in CK levels as early as two months after rituximab treatment. Three patients sustained the response for twelve to eighteen months after initial dosing. All patients were continued on adjunctive corticosteroids, but dosages were substantially reduced after rituximab. Quantitative levels of serum anti-SRP antibodies also decreased after rituximab treatment. Conclusions B cell depletion therapy with rituximab is effective for patients with myopathy associated with anti-SRP. The substantial decrease in anti-SRP antibody levels after rituximab treatment also suggests that B cells and anti-SRP antibodies may play a role in the pathogenesis of this myopathy.

Valiyil, Ritu; Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Hong, Grace; Mammen, Andrew; Christopher-Stine, Lisa

2011-01-01

67

Clinical review: Timing of renal replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute kidney injury is common in intensive care patients and continuous renal replacement therapy is the preferred treatment\\u000a for this in most centres. Although these techniques have been adopted internationally, there remains significant variation\\u000a with regard to their clinical application. This is particularly pertinent when one considers that the fundamental questions\\u000a regarding any treatment, such as initiation, dose and length

Michael Joannidis; Lui G Forni

2011-01-01

68

Newer agents in antiplatelet therapy: a review.  

PubMed

Antiplatelet therapy remains the mainstay in preventing aberrant platelet activation in pathophysiological conditions such as myocardial infarction, ischemia, and stroke. Although there has been significant advancement in antiplatelet therapeutic approaches, aspirin still remains the gold standard treatment in the clinical setting. Limitations in safety, efficacy, and tolerability have precluded many of the antiplatelet inhibitors from use in patients. Unforeseen incidences of increased bleeding risk and recurrent arterial thrombosis observed in patients have hampered the development of superior next generation antiplatelet therapies. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles have also limited the effectiveness of a number of antiplatelet inhibitors currently in use due to variability in metabolism, time to onset, and reversibility. A focused effort in the development of newer antiplatelet therapies to address some of these shortcomings has resulted in a significant number of potential antiplatelet drugs which target enzymes (phosphodiesterase, cyclooxygenase), receptors (purinergic, prostaglandins, protease-activated receptors, thromboxane), and glycoproteins (?IIb?3, GPVI, vWF, GPIb) in the platelet. The validation and search for newer antiplatelet therapeutic approaches proven to be superior to aspirin is still ongoing and should yield a better pharmacodynamic profile with fewer untoward side-effects to what is currently in use today. PMID:22792011

Yeung, Jennifer; Holinstat, Michael

2012-06-25

69

Acne vulgaris: a review of antibiotic therapy.  

PubMed

Antibiotic therapy has been integral to the management of inflammatory acne vulgaris for many years. Systemic antibiotics work via antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory modes of action, and have been found to be useful in managing moderate-to-severe acne. Commonly prescribed antibiotics include tetracyclines, erythromycin and trimethoprim, with or without sulfamethoxazole. In selecting the appropriate antibiotic for patients needing to receive topical or systemic antibiotic therapy, the clinician should take into account the severity of the acne, cost-effectiveness, the safety profile of the drug and the potential for development of resistance. The widespread and long-term use of antibiotics over the years has unfortunately led to the emergence of resistant bacteria. The global increase in the antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes may be a significant contributing factor in treatment failures. It is therefore essential that clinicians prescribing antibiotics for the treatment of acne adopt strategies to minimise further development of bacterial resistance. This includes addressing compliance issues, using combination therapies, avoiding prolonged antibiotic treatment, and avoiding concomitant topical and oral antibiotics with chemically dissimilar antibiotics. PMID:15794732

Tan, Audrey W; Tan, Hiok-Hee

2005-03-01

70

Review of fast monte carlo codes for dose calculation in radiation therapy treatment planning.  

PubMed

An important requirement in radiation therapy is a fast and accurate treatment planning system. This system, using computed tomography (CT) data, direction, and characteristics of the beam, calculates the dose at all points of the patient's volume. The two main factors in treatment planning system are accuracy and speed. According to these factors, various generations of treatment planning systems are developed. This article is a review of the Fast Monte Carlo treatment planning algorithms, which are accurate and fast at the same time. The Monte Carlo techniques are based on the transport of each individual particle (e.g., photon or electron) in the tissue. The transport of the particle is done using the physics of the interaction of the particles with matter. Other techniques transport the particles as a group. For a typical dose calculation in radiation therapy the code has to transport several millions particles, which take a few hours, therefore, the Monte Carlo techniques are accurate, but slow for clinical use. In recent years, with the development of the 'fast' Monte Carlo systems, one is able to perform dose calculation in a reasonable time for clinical use. The acceptable time for dose calculation is in the range of one minute. There is currently a growing interest in the fast Monte Carlo treatment planning systems and there are many commercial treatment planning systems that perform dose calculation in radiation therapy based on the Monte Carlo technique. PMID:22606661

Jabbari, Keyvan

2011-01-01

71

Agonist replacement therapy for cocaine dependence: a translational review  

PubMed Central

Cocaine use disorders are prevalent throughout the world. Agonist replacement therapy is among the most effective strategies for managing substance use disorders including nicotine and opioid dependence. This paper reviews the translational literature, including preclinical experiments, human laboratory studies and clinical trials, to determine whether agonist-replacement therapy is a viable strategy for managing cocaine dependence. Discussion is limited to transporter blockers (i.e., methylphenidate) and releasers (i.e., amphetamine analogs) that are available for use in humans in the hope of impacting clinical research and practice more quickly. The translational review suggests that agonist-replacement therapy, especially monoamine releasers, may be effective for managing cocaine dependence. Future directions for medications development are also discussed because the viability of agonist-replacement therapy for cocaine dependence may hinge on identifying novel compounds or formulations that have less abuse and diversion potential.

Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

2012-01-01

72

Group reminiscence therapy for adults with dementia: a review.  

PubMed

Dementia is an increasingly prevalent and costly condition in the UK. This review aims to explore the potential effectiveness of reminiscence group therapy as a non-pharmacological tool for reducing depressive symptoms commonly associated with dementia. The aim of this review is to explore existing literature regarding adults diagnosed with dementia, who are experiencing depressive symptoms, and the effect of reminiscence group therapy on their experience. A limited systematic search of four databases and hand search of titles, abstracts and reference lists revealed scarce evidence. A total of four original research articles, which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were accepted for critical appraisal. The overall quality of the studies was poor and use of multiple data collection tools made comparison difficult. All studies obtained some significant findings in favour of the effect of reminiscence group therapy. The primary recommendation of this review is for further high-quality research. PMID:23752322

Blake, Marianne

2013-05-01

73

Occupational therapy interventions for shoulder conditions: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The objectives of this systematic review were (1) to identify, evaluate, and synthesize the research literature of relevance to occupational therapy regarding interventions for work-related shoulder conditions and (2) to interpret and apply the research literature to occupational therapy. Twenty-two studies were reviewed for this study-16 of Level I evidence, 2 of Level II evidence, and 4 of Level III evidence. In this systematic review, limited evidence from Level I studies was found to support exercise for shoulder pain; manual therapy and laser for adhesive capsulitis; conservative management of shoulder instability; early intervention without immobilization for specific, nondisplaced proximal humerus fractures; and exercise, joint mobilizations, and laser for patients with shoulder impingement. Further prospective studies are necessary for the delineation of specific surgical and therapeutic variables that facilitate positive outcomes in the treatment of patients with shoulder conditions. PMID:21309367

von der Heyde, Rebecca L

74

Is EMDR an exposure therapy? A review of trauma protocols.  

PubMed

This article presents the well established theoretical base and clinical practice of exposure therapy for trauma. Necessary requirements for positive treatment results and contraindicated procedures are reviewed. EMDR is contrasted with these requirements and procedures. By the definitions and clinical practice of exposure therapy, the classification of EMDR poses some problems. As seen from the exposure therapy paradigm, its lack of physiological habituation and use of spontaneous association should result in negligible or negative effects rather than the well researched positive outcomes. Possible reasons for the effectiveness of EMDR are discussed, ranging from the fundamental nature of trauma reactions to the nonexposure mechanisms utilized in information processing models. PMID:11748596

Rogers, Susan; Silver, Steven M

2002-01-01

75

[Review of our home nutrition therapy cases].  

PubMed

The provision of home care service, 20 years since it was established, is becoming more important. The aging population is now at its highest ever level, and the number of patients in need of nutrition therapy is increasing. We have provided a home care service since 1996, mainly for the provision of home palliative care. Home care service has been provided to 168 patients, about 90% of which suffered from malignant disease, and about 80% of the malignant disease patients were in the terminal stage. The patients included 151 on home parenteral nutrition(HPN)and 7 on home enteral nutrition(HEN)using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy(PEG). Six patients with gastrostomy underwent drainage of malignant digestive obstruction. For HPN of malignant terminal stage patients, we considered whether the HPN menu was available for malignant cachexia. We primarily considered the intent of the patients with malignant cachexia and their families. PMID:23268910

Midorikawa, Yasuhiko; Iizuka, Masashi

2012-12-01

76

Stereotactic body radiation therapy: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a novel technique that takes advantage of the technologic advancements in image guidance and radiation dose delivery to direct ablative doses to tumors with acceptable toxicity that was not previously achievable with conventional techniques. SBRT requires a high degree of confidence in tumor location provided by high quality diagnostic and near real-time imaging studies for accurate treatment delivery and precise assessment of physiologic tumor motion. In addition, stringent dosimetric parameters must be applied, paying close attention to the spatial arrangement of functional subunits in the adjacent normal tissues, to optimize clinical outcomes. Phase I/II trials for tumors of the lung, liver, spine, pancreas, kidney, and prostate provide evidence that the potent doses delivered with SBRT may provide results that rival surgery while avoiding the typical morbidities associated with that invasive approach. Further clinical study in the form of multi-institutional Phase II trials is currently underway, and ultimately collaborative efforts on a national level to support Phase III trials will be necessary, to firmly establish SBRT as a comparable noninvasive alternative to surgery. PMID:18091059

Chang, Brian K; Timmerman, Robert D

2007-12-01

77

Current limitations of antiepileptic drug therapy: a conference review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current limitations of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy were the topic of a discussion group meeting at the 5th European Congress on Epileptology, Madrid, 6–10 October 2002. This review contains four short papers covering the topics discussed by the speakers at this meeting and an account of the ensuing discussion with all participants. The meeting focused on four issues. (i)

C. l. p. Deckers; P. Genton; G. j. Sills; D. Schmidt

2003-01-01

78

Analgesic Therapy in Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Quantitative Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPostherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review

Kathleen Hempenstall; Turo J. Nurmikko; Robert W. Johnson; Roger P AHern; Andrew S. C. Rice

2005-01-01

79

Radiation Therapy Services: Health Systems Plan and Appropriateness Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulk of this document consists of standards for use in appropriateness review of megavoltage radiation therapy services. The six standards specify: (1) a service population of 150,000 per machine; (2) annual caseload of 200 patients per machine, to be...

1981-01-01

80

Online Video Game Therapy for Mental Health Concerns: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There has been research on the use of offline video games for therapeutic purposes but online video game therapy is still fairly under-researched. Online therapeutic interventions have only recently included a gaming component. Hence, this review represents a timely first step toward taking advantage of these recent technological and cultural innovations, particularly for the treatment of special-needs groups such

Nathan Wilkinson; Rebecca P. Ang; Dion H. Goh

2008-01-01

81

A Literature Review and Analysis of Mode Deactivation Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a review of articles, chapters and current research examining Mode Deactivation Therapy. Current applications of MDT suggest that mindfulness is a core component of MDT, as well as acceptance, defusion and validation, clarification and redirection of the functional alternative beliefs. These components are the core of MDT and a…

Apsche, Jack A.

2010-01-01

82

A Comprehensive Literature Review of Mode Deactivation Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article literature published on Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) was reviewed in depth. Several studies were identified that used a common outcome measure of reduction of physical and sexual aggression, other risk related behaviors. Comparisons of MDT and, other standardized approaches typically used in treating aggression in juveniles,…

Houston, Marsha Ann; Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.

2007-01-01

83

Rational-emotive therapy and religiousness: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational-emotive therapy has often been scrutinized and rejected by religious clinicians. Incompatibilities are frequently cited between rational-emotive psychology and theistic religious philisophies. Religious authors have been most notably oppossed to Ellis' ethical humanism, situational ethics and personal atheism. A review of these criticisms offers no evidence for a fundamental incompatibility between RET and religious faith. Several arguments exist for the

W. Brad Johnson

1992-01-01

84

Spiritually Modified Cognitive Therapy: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A paucity of research exists on the effectiveness of spiritual interventions, despite their wide use by practitioners and the acknowledged importance of evidence-based practice. To assist practitioners in their selection of spiritual interventions, the author reviewed research on the effectiveness of spiritually modified cognitive therapy. The…

Hodge, David R.

2006-01-01

85

A systematic data review of the cost of rehydration therapy.  

PubMed

Dehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis is a commonly encountered condition among patients presenting to physicians' offices and hospital EDs. Treatment options consist of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), intravenous rehydration therapy (IVRT) and subcutaneous rehydration therapy (SCRT). Although most patients with dehydration can be effectively treated in an outpatient setting, hospitalization is frequently warranted, with estimated annual inpatient costs for dehydration therapy exceeding $US1 billion in the US in 1999 for elderly patients alone. Although most treatment guidelines recommend ORT as first-line treatment for mild to moderate dehydration, IVRT remains the predominant route of administration for rehydration fluids in the acute care setting in the US. To evaluate the current state of the literature examining costs associated with dehydration therapy, a systematic review of articles published on MEDLINE from 2000 to 2009 was conducted. A total of 20 reports containing pharmacoeconomic data on rehydration therapy were evaluated. Findings suggest that ORT and SCRT may be less costly than IVRT in the treatment of mild to moderate dehydration; however, variability in cost parameters examined or data collection methods described in the literature precluded a comprehensive comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment options. Future pharmacoeconomic analyses of rehydration therapy should incorporate time-motion analyses comprising a consistent set of variables to determine the most cost-effective treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate dehydration. PMID:20205481

Pershad, Jay

2010-01-01

86

Complementary Spiritist Therapy: Systematic Review of Scientific Evidence  

PubMed Central

Spiritism is the third most common religion in Brazil, and its therapies have been used by millions worldwide. These therapies are based on therapeutic resources including prayer, laying on of hands, fluidotherapy (magnetized water), charity/volunteering, spirit education/moral values, and disobsession (spirit release therapy). This paper presents a systematic review of the current literature on the relationship among health outcomes and 6 predictors: prayer, laying on of hands, magnetized/fluidic water, charity/volunteering, spirit education (virtuous life and positive affect), and spirit release therapy. All articles were analyzed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria, Newcastle-Ottawa and Jadad score. At present, there is moderate to strong evidence that volunteering and positive affect are linked to better health outcomes. Furthermore, laying on of hands, virtuous life, and praying for oneself also seem to be associated to positive findings. Nevertheless, there is a lack of studies on magnetized water and spirit release therapy. In summary, science is indirectly demonstrating that some of these therapies can be associated to better health outcomes and that other therapies have been overlooked or poorly investigated. Further studies in this field could contribute to the disciplines of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by investigating the relationship between body, mind, and soul/spirit.

Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Lucchetti, Alessandra L. Granero; Bassi, Rodrigo M.; Nobre, Marlene Rossi Severino

2011-01-01

87

Particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) - Integrated research-driven university-hospital-based radiation oncology service in Heidelberg, Germany.  

PubMed

The Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) offers treatment of particle therapy with variety of ion species for over 1300 patients yearly. In November 2009, patient treatment has begun. The aim of the center is to provide high-end radiotherapy, and to define the role of particle therapy through clinical trials. PMID:20227124

Combs, Stephanie E; Jäkel, Oliver; Haberer, Thomas; Debus, Jürgen

2010-03-11

88

Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review  

SciTech Connect

The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

89

Applications of the Monte Carlo Code Geant to Particle Beam Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the use of the Monte Carlo simulation code GEANT for two different applications in the field of particle beam therapy. The first application relates to the planning of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatments. An important issue is thereby the accurate prediction of the dose while irradiating complex inhomogeneous patient geometries. We developed an improved method to account

H. Szymanowski; T. Fuchs; S. Nill; J. J. Wilkens; D. Pflugfelder; U. Oelfke; Y. Glinec; J. Faure; V. Malka

2006-01-01

90

Concise review: limbal epithelial stem cell therapy: controversies and challenges.  

PubMed

Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are a population of stem cells responsible for maintenance and repair of the corneal surface. Injury and disease can result in a deficiency of these stem cells, the vision affecting condition called limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) in which the cornea becomes opaque, vascularized, and inflamed. Cultured LESC therapy was first described in 1997;29:19231932-19231932.and LESCs cultured from either patients or donors have been used to successfully treat LSCD. In this review, some of the challenges and controversies associated with cultured LESC therapy will be discussed including alternative stem cell sources. PMID:21997829

O'Callaghan, Anna R; Daniels, Julie T

2011-12-01

91

Manual therapies for cervicogenic headache: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This paper systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCT) assessing the efficacy of manual therapies for cervicogenic headache (CEH). A total of seven RCTs were identified, i.e. one study applied physiotherapy ± temporomadibular mobilization techniques and six studies applied cervical spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). The RCTs suggest that physiotherapy and SMT might be an effective treatment in the management of CEH, but the results are difficult to evaluate, since only one study included a control group that did not receive treatment. Furthermore, the RCTs mostly included participant with infrequent CEH. Future challenges regarding CEH are substantial both from a diagnostic and management point of view. PMID:22460941

Chaibi, Aleksander; Russell, Michael Bjørn

2012-03-30

92

Manual therapies in myofascial trigger point treatment: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background,and,purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome,(MPS) is thought,by some,authors,the main,cause of headache,and,neck,pain. MPS is characterized,by Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs). However, there are not many controlled studies that have,analyzed,the effects of the manual,therapies,in their treatment.,The aim of this systematic,review,is to establish whether,manual,therapies,have,specific efficacy in the management of MPS, based on published studies. Methods: Data sources: PubMed (from 1975), Ovid MEDLINE (from 1975),

Juan Carlos Miangolarra Page; Avenida de Atenas

93

Dose to normal tissues outside the radiation therapy patient's treated volume: a review of different radiation therapy techniques.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery capabilities have changed dramatically since the introduction of three-dimensional treatment planning and are continuing to change relatively rapidly in response to the implementation of new advanced technologies. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) is now firmly in place as the standard of practice in clinics around the world. Medical accelerator manufacturers have employed advanced computer technology to produce treatment planning/delivery systems capable of precise shaping of dose distributions via computer-controlled multileaf collimator (MLC) systems, by which the beam fluence is varied optimally to achieve the desired dose distribution. This mode of conformal therapy is referred to as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and is capable of generating dose distributions (including concave isodose volumes) that closely conform the prescription dose to the target volume and/or avoid specific sensitive normal structures. The increasing use of IMRT has focused attention on the need to better account for the intra- and inter-fraction spatial uncertainties in the dose delivery process. This has helped spur the development of treatment machines with integrated planar and volumetric advanced imaging capabilities, providing a new treatment modality referred to as image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT), or simply image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In addition, there is a growing interest in replacing x rays with protons because of the physical characteristics of the depth dose curve, which peaks at the end of particle range, and eventually with even heavier charged particles to take advantage of the greater density of energy deposition close to the Bragg peak and hence larger relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Three-dimensional CRT, IMRT and proton beam therapy all provide improved target coverage and lower doses to surrounding normal tissues as compared to the previously used two-dimensional radiation therapy techniques. However, this is achieved at the expense of a greater volume of normal tissue in the irradiated volume receiving some dose and a higher whole body dose (or peripheral dose) to distant normal tissues. The higher whole body dose is a result of the increased x-ray leakage radiation to the patient due to the longer beam-on times associated with IMRT, and also from neutron leakage radiation associated with high energy x-ray beams (>10 MV) and proton beams. Dose distributions for the various CRT techniques and the current status of available data for normal tissues, and whole body dose are reviewed. PMID:18849701

Purdy, James A

2008-11-01

94

ROLE OF PARTICLE HYGROSCOPICITY IN AEROSOL THERAPY AND INHALATION TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The extrathoracic compartment of the human respiratory tract (i.e., the naso- and oropharyngeal regions) effectively conditions inhaled air by warming and humidifying processes even in extreme ambient environments. When airborne particles are inhaled, the effectiveness of interac...

95

Efficacy of light therapy for perinatal depression: a review  

PubMed Central

Perinatal depression is an important public health problem affecting 10% to 20% of childbearing women. Perinatal depression is associated with significant morbidity, and has enormous consequences for the wellbeing of the mother and child. During the perinatal period, treatment of depression, which could affect the mother and child during pregnancy and lactation, poses a complex problem for both mother and clinician. Bright light therapy may be an attractive treatment for perinatal depression because it is low cost, home-based, and has a much lower side effect profile than pharmacotherapy. The antidepressant effects of bright light are well established, and there are several rationales for expecting that bright light might also be efficacious for perinatal depression. This review describes these rationales, summarizes the available evidence on the efficacy of bright light therapy for perinatal depression, and discusses future directions for investigation of bright light therapy as a treatment for perinatal depression.

2012-01-01

96

Gene therapy of skin adhesion disorders (mini review).  

PubMed

Gene therapy is a potential treatment for severe inherited disorders for which there is little hope of finding a conventional cure. These include lethal diseases like immunodeficiencies and metabolic disorders, and non lethal conditions associated to poor quality of life and life-long symptomatic treatments, like muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis or thalassemia. Skin adhesion defects belong to both groups. For the non-lethal forms, gene therapy, or transplantation of cultured skin derived from genetically corrected epidermal stem cells, represents a very attractive therapeutic option, and potentially a definitive treatment. Recent advances in gene transfer and stem cell culture technology are making this option closer than ever. This paper critically reviews the progress and prospects of gene therapy for skin adhesion defects, and the factors currently limiting its development. PMID:22250710

Cavazza, Alessia; Mavilio, Fulvio

2012-08-01

97

A Review of Progress in Clinical Photodynamic Therapy  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received increased attention since the regulatory approvals have been granted to several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators world-wide. Much progress has been seen in basic sciences and clinical photodynamics in recent years. This review will focus on new developments of clinical investigation and discuss the usefulness of various forms of PDT techniques for curative or palliative treatment of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

Huang, Zheng

2005-01-01

98

Network-based approaches for anticancer therapy (Review).  

PubMed

Cancer is a complex disease resulting from alterations of multiple signaling networks. Cancer networks have been identified as scale-free networks and may contain a functionally important key player called a hub that is linked to a large number of interactors. Since a hub can serve as a biological marker in a given network, targeting the hub could be an effective strategy for enhancing the efficacy of cancer treatment. Chemotherapies and radiotherapies are generally used to treat tumors not amenable to resection, and target single or multiple molecules associated with hubs. However, these therapies may unexpectedly induce the resistance of cancer cells to drugs and radiation. Cancer cells can overcome therapy-induced damage via the activation of back-up signaling pathways and flexible modulation of affected networks. These activities are considered to be the main reasons for chemoresistance and radioresistance, and subsequent failure of cancer therapies. Much effort is required to identify the key molecules that control the modulation of signaling networks in response to drugs and radiation. Network-based therapy that affects network flexibility, including rewired network structures and hub molecules in these networks, could minimize the occurrence of side-effects and be a promising strategy for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatments. This review is intended to offer an overview of current research efforts including ones focused on cancer-associated complex networks, their modulation in response to cancer therapy, and further strategies targeting networks that may improve cancer treatment efficacy. PMID:24085339

Seo, Hyunjeong; Kim, Wanyeon; Lee, Jihyung; Youn, Buhyun

2013-09-30

99

Heavy Charged Particle Radiobiology: Using Enhanced Biological Effectiveness and Improved Beam Focusing to Advance Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and ?-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation.

Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B.; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A.

2011-01-01

100

Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and ?-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

2011-03-03

101

A systematic review of economic evaluations of therapy in asthma  

PubMed Central

Background: Asthma’s cost-effectiveness is a major consideration in the evaluation of its treatment options. Our objective was to perform a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of asthma medications. Methods: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, OHE-HEED, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessments Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and Web of Science and reviewed references from key articles between 1990 and Jan 2008. Results: A total of 49 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Maintenance therapy with inhaled corticosteroids was found to be very cost-effective and in uncontrolled asthmatics patients currently being treated with ICS, the combination of an ICS/LABA represents a safe, cost-effective treatment. The simplified strategy using budesonide and formoterol for maintenance and reliever therapy was also found to be as cost-effective as salmeterol/fluticasone plus salbutamol. Omalizumab was found to be cost-effective. An important caveat with regard to the published literature is the relatively high proportion of economic evaluations which are funded by the manufacturers of specific drug treatments. Conclusion: Future studies should be completed independent of industry support and ensure that the comparator arms within studies should include dosages of drugs that are equivalent.

Bahadori, Katayoun; Quon, Bradley S; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Marra, Carlo; FitzGerald, J Mark

2010-01-01

102

TOPICAL REVIEW: The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components—light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT.

Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.

2008-05-01

103

Family therapy and dialectical behavior therapy with adolescents: Part II: A theoretical review.  

PubMed

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is based on a transactional model of the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). It assumes that the associated emotional dysregulation is not simply biological or family induced but the result of a dynamic interaction between the biology and characteristics of an individual with the individual's social environment. This paper discusses the theoretical issues and empirical research relating to a synthesis of family therapy and DBT with adolescents. A review of the literature identifies support for a greater understanding and inclusion of families in treatment, attention to relational aspects of affect, and a dialectical framework for synthesizing individual-oriented and systemic-oriented theories and practice. Some implications for the development of a DBT family therapy model are discussed. PMID:12520893

Woodberry, Kristen A; Miller, Alec L; Glinski, Juliet; Indik, Jay; Mitchell, Aimee G

2002-01-01

104

Immunosuppressive therapy in acute myocarditis: an 18 year systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Immunosuppressive therapy is reportedly ineffective in adults with acute myocarditis. Aims: To systematically review the impact of immunosuppressive therapy on the outcome of acute myocarditis in children. Methods: A literature search for articles published from 1984 to 2003 was conducted with the following keywords: myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and immunosuppression. The relevant studies were systematically reviewed and comparison of treatment effect was made by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) using the exact method based on the exact discrete reference distribution. Results: Of the 1470 articles found, only nine studies were eligible. The odds for improvement with immunosuppression was between 4.33 (95% CI 0.52 to 52.23) and 2.7 (95% CI 0.59 to 14.21). Addition of a second immunosuppressive agent to prednisolone only proved effective in one randomised controlled trial (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.52). Heterogeneity of these studies precluded pooled odds ratio. Conclusion: Current data suggest that immunosuppressive therapy does not significantly improve outcomes in children with acute myocarditis and there is insufficient evidence for its routine use. However, statistical power to detect a significant difference in the treatment effect may be limited because of the small number of subjects. This, together with problems of diagnosis, varying treatment practices, and a relative lack of evidence based guidelines would support efforts for a large multicentre, randomised controlled trial to better define the role of immunosuppression in acute myocarditis.

Hia, C; Yip, W; Tai, B; Quek, S

2004-01-01

105

Connection of European particle therapy centers and generation of a common particle database system within the European ULICE-framework  

PubMed Central

Background To establish a common database on particle therapy for the evaluation of clinical studies integrating a large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in the field of radiation oncology. Methods We developed a web-based documentation system for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. 560 patients have been treated from November 2009 to September 2011. Protons, carbon ions or a combination of both, as well as a combination with photons were applied. To date, 12 studies have been initiated and more are in preparation. Results It is possible to immediately access all patient information and exchange, store, process, and visualize text data, any DICOM images and multimedia data. Accessing the system and submitting clinical data is possible for internal and external users. Integrated into the hospital environment, data is imported both manually and automatically. Security and privacy protection as well as data validation and verification are ensured. Studies can be designed to fit individual needs. Conclusions The described database provides a basis for documentation of large patient groups with specific and specialized questions to be answered. Having recently begun electronic documentation, it has become apparent that the benefits lie in the user-friendly and timely workflow for documentation. The ultimate goal is a simplification of research work, better study analyses quality and eventually, the improvement of treatment concepts by evaluating the effectiveness of particle therapy.

2012-01-01

106

Accelerators for heavy-charged-particle radiation therapy.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on current and future designs of medical hadron accelerators for treating cancers and other diseases. Presently, five vendors and several national laboratories have produced heavy-particle medical accelerators for accelerating nuclei from hydrogen (protons) up through carbon and oxygen. Particle energies are varied to control the beam penetration depth in the patient. As of the end of 2006, four hospitals and one clinic in the United States offer proton treatments; there are five more such facilities in Japan. In most cases, these facilities use accelerators designed explicitly for cancer treatments. The accelerator types are a combination of synchrotrons, cyclotrons, and linear accelerators; some carry advanced features such as respiration gating, intensity modulation, and rapid energy changes, which contribute to better dose conformity on the tumor when using heavy charged particles. Recent interest in carbon nuclei for cancer treatment has led some vendors to offer carbon-ion and proton capability in their accelerator systems, so that either ion can be used. These features are now being incorporated for medical accelerators in new facilities. PMID:17668952

Coutrakon, George B

2007-08-01

107

Review and Uses of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Oligometastases  

PubMed Central

In patients with proven distant metastases from solid tumors, it has been a notion that the condition is incurable, warranting palliative care only. The term “oligometastases” was coined to refer to isolated sites of metastasis, whereby the entire burden of disease can be recognized as a finite number of discrete lesions that can be potentially cured with local therapies. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a novel treatment modality in radiation oncology that delivers a very high dose of radiation to the tumor target with high precision using single or a small number of fractions. SBRT is the result of technological advances in patient and tumor immobilization, image guidance, and treatment planning and delivery. A number of studies, both retrospective and prospective, showed promising results in terms of local tumor control and, in a limited subset of patients, of survival. This article reviews the radiobiologic, technical, and clinical aspects of SBRT for various anatomical sites.

Alongi, Filippo; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Scorsetti, Marta

2012-01-01

108

An umbrella review: Corticosteroid therapy for adults with acute asthma  

PubMed Central

The objective of this ‘umbrella’ review is to synthesize the evidence and provide clinicians a single report which summarizes the state of knowledge regarding the use of corticosteroids in adults with acute asthma. Systematic reviews in the Cochrane Library and additional clinical trials published in English from 1966 to 2007 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL and references from bibliographies of pertinent articles were reviewed. Results indicate that the evidence base is frequently limited to small, single-center studies. Findings suggest that therapy with systemic corticosteroids accelerates resolution of acute asthma and reduces the risk of relapse. There is no evidence that corticosteroid doses higher than standard doses (prednisone 50–100 mg equivalent) are beneficial. Oral and intravenous corticosteroids, as well as intramuscular and oral corticosteroid regimens appear to be similarly effective. A non-tapered 5–10 day course of corticosteroid therapy appears to be sufficient for most discharged patients. Combinations of oral and inhaled corticosteroids on emergency department/hospital discharge may minimize the risk of relapse.

Krishnan, Jerry A.; Davis, Steven Q.; Naureckas, Edward T.; Gibson, Peter; Rowe, Brian H.

2009-01-01

109

Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) has significant effects on linear bone growth, bone mass and bone metabolism. The primary role of GH supplementation in children with GH deficiency, those born small for gestational age or with other types of disorders in somatic development is to increase linear growth. However, GH therapy seems to elicit varying responses in the craniofacial region. Whereas the effects of GH administration on somatic development are well documented, comparatively little is known of its effects on the craniofacial region. The purpose of this review was to search the literature and compile results from both animal and human studies related to the impact of GH on craniofacial growth. PMID:23279133

Litsas, G

2012-12-21

110

Evidence-based review of therapies at the menopause.  

PubMed

Background and Objective? The highest level of scientific evidence available for each therapy for menopausal symptoms was sought, for example, systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Results? There is reasonable evidence that some symptoms are modified by lifestyle, for example, cessation of smoking, exercise, reduction of alcohol, diet and alleviation of psychosocial stress. No complementary medicine, for example, phytoestrogens, black cohosh, herbal or homeopathic medicines or complementary therapies, for example, acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic manipulation, reflexology or magnetic devices have a greater effect than the usual placebo effect seen in quality blinded RCTs. Some have potential side-effects. So-called 'bioidentical hormones' have no evidence-base and potential for harm. None of the above therapies have evidence of efficacy and long-term safety. Selective serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors ameliorate vasomotor symptoms and sometimes menopausal depression better than placebo. The most effective therapy for menopausal (oestrogen) deficiency symptoms is oestrogen which is the main component of hormone replacement therapies (HRT). Compared with placebo HRT is highly effective in relieving hot flushes, night sweats, dry vagina and dyspareunia. It also improved joint pains, sexuality and sleeplessness and reduced subsequent fractures in RCTs. The increased risk of oral HRT for thromboembolism is small around menopause, for those without thrombotic risk factors, and is not elevated with non-oral routes. Cardiovascular disease may be reduced when HRT is initiated near menopause. Breast cancer risk increases after several years with the use of oral HRT containing progestogens at an annual rate of 8/10?000 (<0.1%). No increase in breast cancer risk was seen with oestrogen-only HRT. PMID:21631851

Maclennan, Alastair H

2009-06-01

111

Physiological Adjustments to Stress Measures Following Massage Therapy: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of massage therapy by the general public has increased substantially in recent years. In light of the popularity of massage therapy for stress reduction, a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature is important to summarize the effectiveness of this modality on stress- reactive physiological measures. On-line databases were searched for articles relevant to both massage therapy and stress. Articles

Albert Moraska; Robin A. Pollini; Karen Boulanger; Marissa Z. Brooks; Lesley Teitlebaum

2010-01-01

112

Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Radiographic vasospasm usually develops between 5 and 15 days after the initial hemorrhage, and is associated with clinically apparent delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DID) in one-third of patients. The pathophysiology of this reversible vasculopathy is not fully understood but appears to involve structural changes and biochemical alterations at the levels of the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Blood in the subarachnoid space is believed to trigger these changes. In addition, cerebral perfusion may be concurrently impaired by hypovolemia and impaired cerebral autoregulatory function. The combined effects of these processes can lead to reduction in cerebral blood flow so severe as to cause ischemia leading to infarction. Diagnosis is made by some combination of clinical, cerebral angiographic, and transcranial doppler ultrasonographic factors. Nimodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, is so far the only available therapy with proven benefit for reducing the impact of DID. Aggressive therapy combining hemodynamic augmentation, transluminal balloon angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusion of vasodilator drugs is, to varying degrees, usually implemented. A panoply of drugs, with different mechanisms of action, has been studied in SAH related vasospasm. Currently, the most promising are magnesium sulfate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors and endothelin-1 antagonists. This paper reviews established and emerging therapies for vasospasm.

Keyrouz, Salah G; Diringer, Michael N

2007-01-01

113

Occupational therapy and return to work: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background The primary aim of this review study was to gather evidence on the effectiveness in terms of return to work (RTW) of occupational therapy interventions (OTIs) in rehabilitation patients with non-congenital disorders. A secondary aim was to be able to select the most efficient OTI. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed papers was conducted using electronic databases (Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Ebsco, Medline (Pubmed), and PsycInfo). The search focussed on randomised controlled trials and cohort studies published in English from 1980 until September 2010. Scientific validity of the studies was assessed. Results Starting from 1532 papers with pertinent titles, six studies met the quality criteria. Results show systematic reviewing of OTIs on RTW was challenging due to varying populations, different outcome measures, and poor descriptions of methodology. There is evidence that OTIs as part of rehabilitation programs, increase RTW rates, although the methodological evidence of most studies is weak. Conclusions Analysis of the selected papers indicated that OTIs positively influence RTW; two studies described precisely what the content of their OTI was. In order to identify the added value of OTIs on RTW, studies with well-defined OT intervention protocols are necessary.

2011-01-01

114

Spinal manual therapy interventions for pediatric patients: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective: Although much has been written about the efficacy of manual therapy interventions for adults with headaches or spinal pain, little research has focused on the use of these interventions in pediatric patients. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for spinal manual therapy (SMT) interventions in patients 4–17 years old with headaches and/or mechanical spinal pain. Methods: A search for relevant studies published in the past 15 years was conducted on MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Randomized Control Trials, PEDro, PubMed, and Sports Discus. Only English language articles were reviewed. Studies had to include at least one outcome measure for pain, function, or quality of life. Studies evaluating post-operative interventions, or those in which the interventions were directed at influencing excessive spinal curvatures, were excluded. Case reports and studies that did not limit analysis of the results to the pediatric population were also excluded. Results: Two randomized control trials and two studies offering lower levels of evidence were identified in the literature search. The latter studies were prospective cohort studies. The four studies were evaluated using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. Discussion: There are very little data in the literature to support or refute the use of SMT interventions in pediatric patients. Further research is required to establish a strong evidence-based foundation for use of these interventions in children.

Vaughn, Daniel W; Kenyon, Lisa K; Sobeck, Corey M; Smith, Robyn E

2012-01-01

115

Vitamin Therapy and Children with Down's Syndrome: A Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following a brief outline of vitamin therapy's effects on schizophrenia and learning disabilities, research is reviewed on vitamin therapy for children with Down's Syndrome, concluding with a discussion of critical responses to research endorsing vitamin therapy. It is concluded that vitamin therapy contributes nothing to the development of…

Pruess, James B.; And Others

1989-01-01

116

Effects of visual feedback therapy on postural control in bilateral standing after stroke: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To establish whether bilateral standing with visual feedback therapy after stroke improves postural control compared with conventional therapy and to evaluate the generalization of the effects of visual feedback therapy on gait and gait-related activities. DESIGN: A systematic review. METHODS: A computer-aided literature search was performed. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials, comparing visual feedback therapy with conventional

Roland Van Peppen; Michiel Kortsmit; Eline Lindeman; Gert Kwakkel

2006-01-01

117

Estrogen Therapy and Cognition: A Review of the Cholinergic Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The pros and cons of estrogen therapy for use in postmenopausal women continue to be a major topic of debate in women’s health. Much of this debate focuses on the potential benefits vs. harm of estrogen therapy on the brain and the risks for cognitive impairment associated with aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Many animal and human studies suggest that estrogens can have significant beneficial effects on brain aging and cognition and reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s-related dementia; however, others disagree. Important discoveries have been made, and hypotheses have emerged that may explain some of the inconsistencies. This review focuses on the cholinergic hypothesis, specifically on evidence that beneficial effects of estrogens on brain aging and cognition are related to interactions with cholinergic projections emanating from the basal forebrain. These cholinergic projections play an important role in learning and attentional processes, and their function is known to decline with advanced age and in association with Alzheimer’s disease. Evidence suggests that many of the effects of estrogens on neuronal plasticity and function and cognitive performance are related to or rely upon interactions with these cholinergic projections; however, studies also suggest that the effectiveness of estrogen therapy decreases with age and time after loss of ovarian function. We propose a model in which deficits in basal forebrain cholinergic function contribute to age-related changes in the response to estrogen therapy. Based on this model, we propose that cholinergic-enhancing drugs, used in combination with an appropriate estrogen-containing drug regimen, may be a viable therapeutic strategy for use in older postmenopausal women with early evidence of mild cognitive decline.

Gibbs, Robert B.

2010-01-01

118

Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters  

PubMed Central

Static magnetic field (SMF) therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to:(i) summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii) critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii) propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61%) of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.

Wahbeh, Helane; Harling, Noelle; Connelly, Erin; Schiffke, Heather C.; Forsten, Cora; Gregory, William L.; Markov, Marko S.; Souder, James J.; Elmer, Patricia; King, Valerie

2009-01-01

119

Annual review of nuclear and particle science. Vol. 52  

SciTech Connect

The 2002 volume of the ''Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science'' ranges from the applied to the speculative, from the accomplished to the inchoate, bearing witness to the vitality and diversity of subatomic physics. Milla Baldo Ceolin's prefatory chapter , ''The Discreet Charm of the Nuclear Emulsion Era,'' takes us back to the rebirth of particle physics in Europe after World War II through international emulsion collaborations that revealed wonders unimagined. Gaisser & Honda detail progress toward understanding the flux of atmospheric neutrinos, which is crucial for interpreting evidence for neutrino oscillations and searching for extraterrestrial neutrino sources. Elliott & Vogel's status report on double beta decay explores the sensitivity frontier and the prospects for testing the notion that the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Kado & Tully take stock of searches for electroweak theory's Higgs boson at CERN's Large Electron-Positron collider. Lee & Redwine draw lessons from three decades' exploration of pion-nucleus interactions at meson factories. Bedaque & van Kolck review recent progress in effective field theories that permit systematic treatment of few-nucleon systems. El-Khadra & Luke describe the ways in which Quantum Chromodynamics makes possible a precise determination of the b-quark mass. Harrison, Peggs, & Roser report on Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, which explores new realms of collisions among heavy nuclei. Gomez-Cadenas & Harris introduce the scientific motivations and technical challenges of neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. The study of biological function through positron-emission tomography is a burgeoning application of antimatter. PET's history, practice, and promise are presented by Phelps. Michael Faraday's words, ''Nothing is too wonderful to be true,'' and ''Experiment is the best test,'' are especially apt for the delicious possibility that spacetime extends beyond the familiar 3 + 1 dimensions. Hewett & Spiropulu survey the new wave of ideas and experiments to test them. We thank Volume 52's authors for contributing to a spirited conversation among all the friends and practitioners of nuclear and particle science.

Quigg, C., [ed.

2002-01-01

120

Analgesic Therapy in Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Quantitative Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for both efficacy and adverse events of analgesic therapy for PHN. Methods and Findings We systematically searched databases (MEDLINE 1966–2004, EMBASE 1988–2004, CINAHL 1982–2002, and PubMed [29 October 2004]) for trials of PHN. We also searched references of retrieved studies and review articles for further trials. We included trials that examined adult patients with PHN of greater duration than 3 mo, that were blinded, randomised, and had at least one measure of pain outcome. Dichotomous pain outcome data were extracted for 50% decrease in baseline pain using a hierarchy of pain/pain-relief measurement tools. Where available, dichotomous data were also collected for adverse events. Calculated estimates of efficacy included relative benefit and number needed to treat. Of 62 studies identified, 35 were randomised controlled trials. Of these, 31 were placebo controlled and suitable for meta-analysis, from which it was possible to extract dichotomous efficacy outcome data from 25. This meta-analysis revealed that there is evidence to support the use of the following orally administered therapies: tricyclic antidepressants, “strong” opioids, gabapentin, tramadol, and pregabalin. Topical therapies associated with efficacy were lidocaine 5% patch and capsaicin. Finally, a single study of spinal intrathecal administration of lidocaine and methyl prednisolone demonstrated efficacy, although this has yet to be replicated. Data suggest that the following therapies are not associated with efficacy in PHN: certain NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., oral memantine, oral dextromethorphan, intravenous ketamine), codeine, ibuprofen, lorazepam, certain 5HT1 receptor agonists, and acyclovir. Topical administration of benzydamine, diclofenac/diethyl ether, and vincristine (iontophoresis) are similarly not associated with efficacy, nor are intrathecal administration of lidocaine alone or epidural administration of lidocaine and methylprednisolone, intravenous therapy with lidocaine, subcutaneous injection of Cronassial, or acupuncture. However, many of the trials that demonstrated a lack of efficacy represented comparatively low numbers of patient episodes or were single-dose studies, so it may be appropriate to regard such interventions as “not yet adequately tested” rather than demonstrating “no evidence of efficacy.” Topical aspirin/diethyl ether has not been adequately tested. Conclusion The evidence base supports the oral use of tricyclic antidepressants, certain opioids, and gabapentinoids in PHN. Topical therapy with lidocaine patches and capsaicin is similarly supported. Intrathecal administration of methylprednisolone appears to be associated with high efficacy, but its safety requires further evaluation.

2005-01-01

121

Dosimetric effects of energy spectrum uncertainties in radiation therapy with laser-driven particle beams.  

PubMed

Laser-driven particle acceleration is a potentially cost-efficient and compact new technology that might replace synchrotrons or cyclotrons for future proton or heavy-ion radiation therapy. Since the energy spectrum of laser-accelerated particles is rather wide, compared to the monoenergetic beams of conventional machines, studies have proposed the usage of broader spectra for the treatment of at least certain parts of the target volume to make the process more efficient. The thereby introduced additional uncertainty in the applied energy spectrum is analysed in this note. It is shown that the uncertainty can be categorized into a change of the total number of particles, and a change in the energy distribution of the particles. The former one can be monitored by a simple fluence detector and cancels for a high number of statistically fluctuating shots. The latter one, the redistribution of a fixed number of particles to different energy bins in the window of transmitted energies of the energy selection system, only introduces smaller changes to the resulting depth dose curve. Therefore, it might not be necessary to monitor this uncertainty for all applied shots. These findings might enable an easier uncertainty management for particle therapy with broad energy spectra. PMID:22330752

Schell, S; Wilkens, J J

2012-02-14

122

Review of Manual Therapy Techniques in Equine Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realm of manual therapy includes diverse techniques such as chiropractic, osteopathy, physical therapy, massage therapy, and touch therapies, which have been developed for use in human beings and the techniques transferred to horses. All forms of manual therapy have reported levels of effectiveness for treating musculoskeletal issues in human beings, but mostly only anecdotally evidence exists in horses. The

Kevin K. Haussler

2009-01-01

123

Corneal Neovascularization: An Anti-VEGF Therapy Review  

PubMed Central

Corneal neovascularization is a serious condition that can lead to a profound decline in vision. The abnormal vessels block light, cause corneal scarring, compromise visual acuity, and may lead to inflammation and edema. Corneal neovascularization occurs when the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors is tipped toward angiogenic molecules. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most important mediators of angiogenesis, is upregulated during neovascularization. In fact, anti-VEGF agents have efficacy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, neovascular glaucoma, and other neovascular diseases. These same agents have great potential for the treatment of corneal neovascularization. We review some of the most promising anti-VEGF therapies, including bevacizumab, VEGF trap, siRNA, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Chang, Jin-Hong; Garg, Nitin K.; Lunde, Elisa; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Jain, Sandeep; Azar, Dimitri T.

2013-01-01

124

Cognitive behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: an empirical review.  

PubMed

Early case studies and noncontrolled trial studies focusing on the treatment of delusions and hallucinations have laid the foundation for more recent developments in comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions for schizophrenia. Seven randomized, controlled trial studies testing the efficacy of CBT for schizophrenia were identified by electronic search (MEDLINE and PsychInfo) and by personal correspondence. After a review of these studies, effect size (ES) estimates were computed to determine the statistical magnitude of clinical change in CBT and control treatment conditions. CBT has been shown to produce large clinical effects on measures of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Patients receiving routine care and adjunctive CBT have experienced additional benefits above and beyond the gains achieved with routine care and adjunctive supportive therapy. These results reveal promise for the role of CBT in the treatment of schizophrenia although additional research is required to test its efficacy, long-term durability, and impact on relapse rates and quality of life. Clinical refinements are needed also to help those who show only minimal benefit with the intervention. PMID:23034571

Rector, Neil A; Beck, Aaron T

2012-10-01

125

The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review  

PubMed Central

Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.

Bassil, Nazem; Alkaade, Saad; Morley, John E

2009-01-01

126

Pain and trauma in negative pressure wound therapy: a review.  

PubMed

Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is considered an effective wound treatment, but there are a number of issues that need to be addressed for improvements to be made. This review aimed to explore the literature relating to the pain and skin trauma that may be experienced during NPWT. A literature search was carried out using the following databases: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and PsyARTICLES. A total of 30 articles were reviewed. Studies reported varying levels of pain in patients undergoing NPWT, with certain treatment factors affecting the level of pain, such as the NPWT system and the dressing/filler used. Similarly, although there is much less research exploring NPWT-related trauma, findings suggest that dressing and filler type may impact on whether trauma occurs. However, further research needs to consider the different stages of NPWT and how pain and trauma can be minimised during the whole procedure. As both pain and skin trauma impact on the patient's well-being and on wound healing, it is essential that research further explores the factors that may affect the experience of pain and trauma, so as to inform developments in wound care. PMID:23489350

Upton, Dominic; Andrews, Abbye

2013-03-12

127

Do Video Reviews of Therapy Sessions Help People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities Describe Their Perceptions of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the potential of a retrospective video reviewing process [Burford Reviewing Process (BRP)] for enabling people with intellectual disabilities to describe their experiences of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). It is the first time that the BRP, described in this paper, has been used with people with intellectual…

Burford, B.; Jahoda, A.

2012-01-01

128

Do Video Reviews of Therapy Sessions Help People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities Describe Their Perceptions of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study examined the potential of a retrospective video reviewing process [Burford Reviewing Process (BRP)] for enabling people with intellectual disabilities to describe their experiences of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). It is the first time that the BRP, described in this paper, has been used with people with intellectual…

Burford, B.; Jahoda, A.

2012-01-01

129

Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

Silverman, Michael J.

2008-01-01

130

Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it. This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. METHODS: We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched

Huijuan Cao; Mei Han; Xun Li; Shangjuan Dong; Yongmei Shang; Qian Wang; Shu Xu; Jianping Liu

2010-01-01

131

Updating a systematic review – what difference did it make? Case study of nicotine replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To examine the effect of updating a systematic review of nicotine replacement therapy on its contents and conclusions. METHODS: We examined the effects of regular updating of a systematic review of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. We considered two outcomes. First, we assessed the effect of adding new data to meta-analyses, comparing results in 2000 with the results

Lindsay F Stead; Tim Lancaster; Chris A Silagy

2001-01-01

132

Do cognitive behaviour therapies validate cognitive models of mood disorders? a review of the empirical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) in the treatment of depression is now established. However, explanations for the efficacy of CBT are mixed. The evidence needed to support the explanation advanced by cognitive theory is lacking. This paper critically reviews the available empirical evidence. Forty-four outcome or process studies of therapy with depression are reviewed and 21 of these

Tian P. S. Oei; Michael L. Free

1995-01-01

133

TOPICAL REVIEW: Plasma based charged-particle accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of charged-particle acceleration processes remain one of the most important areas of research in laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper, we present the underlying physics and the present status of high gradient and high energy plasma accelerators. We will focus on the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic energies by plasma waves that are created by intense laser and particle beams. The generation of relativistic plasma waves by intense lasers or electron beams in plasmas is important in the quest for producing ultra-high acceleration gradients for accelerators. With the development of compact short pulse high brightness lasers and electron positron beams, new areas of studies for laser/particle beam-matter interactions is opening up. A number of methods are being pursued vigorously to achieve ultra-high acceleration gradients. These include the plasma beat wave accelerator mechanism, which uses conventional long pulse (~100 ps) modest intensity lasers (I ~ 1014-1016 W cm-2), the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), which uses the new breed of compact high brightness lasers (<1 ps) and intensities >1018 W cm-2, the self-modulated LWFA concept, which combines elements of stimulated Raman forward scattering, and electron acceleration by nonlinear plasma waves excited by relativistic electron and positron bunches. In the ultra-high intensity regime, laser/particle beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear and relativistic, leading to new phenomena such as the plasma wakefield excitation for particle acceleration, relativistic self-focusing and guiding of laser beams, high-harmonic generation, acceleration of electrons, positrons, protons and photons. Fields greater than 1 GV cm-1 have been generated with particles being accelerated to 200 MeV over a distance of millimetre. Plasma wakefields driven by positron beams at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center facility have accelerated the tail of the positron beam. In the near future, laser plasma accelerators will be producing GeV particles.

Bingham, R.; Mendonça, J. T.; Shukla, P. K.

2004-01-01

134

The real risks of steroid injection for plantar fasciitis, with a review of conservative therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review of conservative therapies for plantar fasciitis pain reduction with a discussion of steroid\\u000a therapy risks. The therapies reviewed include orthoses, stretching, extracorporeal shockwave, BTX-A, and corticosteroid injection\\/iontophoresis.\\u000a These modes were included based on the availability of double blinded randomized controlled trials. We noted the following\\u000a findings. Orthoses, regardless of type, can improve pain levels. Plantar

Yusuf Ziya Tatli; Sameer Kapasi

2009-01-01

135

A review of ultrabrief pulse width electroconvulsive therapy.  

PubMed

The effect of shortening the pulse width of the electrical stimulus when administering electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has recently been systematically studied with promising results. This review examines reported outcomes from three randomized controlled trials which compared ultrabrief (?0.3 ms) with brief (0.5-1.5 ms) pulse width ECT, and other recent clinical trials of ultrabrief pulse width ECT. The emerging evidence for ultrabrief pulse right unilateral (RUL) ECT suggests clinically meaningful efficacy and substantially reduced neuropsychological side effects compared with standard (brief) pulse ECT; this may represent a generational advance in the ECT technique. However, it is unclear if patients receiving ultrabrief pulse RUL ECT may have a slower speed of response and require additional treatments compared with brief pulse ECT. Therefore, until further data are available, clinicians may be well advised to use brief pulse ECT in situations requiring an urgent clinical response. The evidence base for ultrabrief bilateral ECT is limited, with findings that efficacy may be reduced compared with brief pulse width ECT. Thus ultrabrief bilateral ECT should not be used outside the research setting. PMID:23251770

Loo, Colleen K; Katalinic, Natalie; Martin, Donel; Schweitzer, Isaac

2012-03-01

136

The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine  

SciTech Connect

As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population - thus becoming the 'heavy charged particle of choice' for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results will require: (1) sophisticated target delineation that integrates CT, MRI and PET imaging; (2) reliable RBE modeling algorithms; (3) efficient beam-scanning technology that compensates for organ movements; (4) online beam control proximal to and within the patient; and (5) better understanding of dose-fractionation parameters. The current status and the anticipated future directions of the role of particle therapy in medicine is a complex subject that involves a very intimate interplay of radiobiology, accelerator physics and radiation oncology. The intention of this relatively brief manuscript is to describe the underlying principles, present the historical developments, highlight the clinical results, focus on the technical advances, and suggest likely future directions. We have also attempted to present a balanced, consensus view of the past achievements and current strategies in particle therapy, in a manner of interest both to long-term experts and to educated newcomers to this field.

Levy, Richard P. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Blakely, Eleanor A. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chu, William T. [Acceleraror and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Coutrakon, George B. [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hug, Eugen B. [Center for Proton Radiation Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Kraft, Gerhard [Biophysics Research Group, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tsujii, Hirohiko [Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

2009-03-10

137

The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population-thus becoming the ``heavy charged particle of choice'' for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results will require: (1) sophisticated target delineation that integrates CT, MRI and PET imaging; (2) reliable RBE modeling algorithms; (3) efficient beam-scanning technology that compensates for organ movements; (4) online beam control proximal to and within the patient; and (5) better understanding of dose-fractionation parameters. The current status and the anticipated future directions of the role of particle therapy in medicine is a complex subject that involves a very intimate interplay of radiobiology, accelerator physics and radiation oncology. The intention of this relatively brief manuscript is to describe the underlying principles, present the historical developments, highlight the clinical results, focus on the technical advances, and suggest likely future directions. We have also attempted to present a balanced, consensus view of the past achievements and current strategies in particle therapy, in a manner of interest both to long-term experts and to educated newcomers to this field.

Levy, Richard P.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chu, William T.; Coutrakon, George B.; Hug, Eugen B.; Kraft, Gerhard; Tsujii, Hirohiko

2009-03-01

138

Numerical Simulation of Single Aluminum Particle Combustion (Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional, unsteady-state, kinetic-diffusion-vaporization-controlled numerical model for aluminum particle combustion\\u000a is presented. The model solves the conservation equations, while accounting for species generation and destruction with a\\u000a 15-reaction kinetic mechanism. Two of the major phenomena that differentiate aluminum combustion from hydrocarbon-droplet\\u000a combustion, namely, condensation of the aluminum-oxide product and subsequent deposition of part of the condensed oxide onto\\u000a the particle,

M. W. Beckstead; Y. Liang; K. V. Pudduppakkam

2005-01-01

139

Internal radiotherapy techniques using radiolanthanide praseodymium-142: a review of production routes, brachytherapy, unsealed source therapy.  

PubMed

Radionuclides of rare earth elements are gaining importance as emerging therapeutic agents in nuclear medicine. ?(-)-particle emitter 142Pr [T (1/2) = 19.12 h, E(-)? = 2.162 MeV (96.3%), E? = 1575 keV (3.7%)] is one of the praseodymium-141 (100% abundant) radioisotopes. Production routes and therapy aspects of 142Pr will be reviewed in this paper. However, 142Pr produces via 141Pr(n, ?) 142Pr reaction by irradiation in a low-fluence reactor; 142Pr cyclotron produced, could be achievable. 142Pr due to its high ?(-)-emission and low specific gamma ?-emission could not only be a therapeutic radionuclide, but also a suitable radionuclide in order for biodistribution studies. Internal radiotherapy using 142Pr can be classified into two sub-categories: (1) unsealed source therapy (UST), (2) brachytherapy. UST via 142Pr-HA and 142Pr-DTPA in order for radiosynovectomy have been proposed. In addition, 142Pr Glass seeds and 142Pr microspheres have been utilized for interstitial brachytherapy of prostate cancer and intraarterial brachytherapy of arteriovenous malformation, respectively. PMID:21720780

Bakht, Mohamadreza K; Sadeghi, Mahdi

2011-07-01

140

REVIEW ARTICLE: Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss a state-of-the-art optical technique which combines Raman microspectroscopy and optical trapping. This technique permits one to study Raman spectra of aerosol particles, gas bubbles and cells that normally live in suspension and it opens the way to acquire information that otherwise would be inaccessible for this class of microparticles.

Petrov, D. V.

2007-08-01

141

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF UTAH VALLEY PARTICLES: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Utah Valley provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) in humans. The area has had intermittently high particle levels with the principal point source being a steel mill. Due to a labor dispute, the mill was shut down. The closu...

142

Treating Addiction with Tunes: A Systematic Review of Music Therapy for the Treatment of Patients with Addictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music therapy is the use of musical interventions in a therapeutic setting to accomplish health-related goals. Descriptions of music therapy exist in the peer-reviewed literature and indicate potential use of music therapy in treatment of patients with addiction disorders. This systematic review describes and compares the types of music therapy demonstrated in the literature and evaluates the evidence that music

Kara L. Mays; David L. Clark; Adam J. Gordon

2008-01-01

143

A review of the associated particle imaging technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Associated particle imaging (API) is a fast-neutron reaction imaging system. An object is illuminated with 14-MeV neutrons and these neutron interaction sites are imaged. The T(d,n)(sup 4)He reaction is used to produce a neutron and an alpha particle which move apart in opposite directions. By detecting the alpha particle, the direction of travel of the neutron is known. When the neutron strikes any material (except hydrogen and helium) it causes the material to emit gamma radiation. If one of the gamma-rays is detected it is then known that a reaction has taken place. By measuring the time between alpha detection and gamma detection, it is known how long the neutron traveled before reacting. By constructing a tally (or histogram) of these reaction sites an image is constructed. By examining the gamma-ray spectra corresponding to each region of space, elemental analysis of that region can be performed. This technique and it's applications are discussed.

Hurley, J. P.; Beyerle, A.; Durkee, R.; Headley, G.; Tunnell, L.

144

A literature review on mechanisms and models for the coalescence process of fluid particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a literature review on the mechanisms and models of coalescence of fluid particles. For the mechanisms, five categories are summarized, namely, turbulence fluctuation, viscous shear stress, capture in turbulent eddies, buoyancy and wake interaction. The models for collision frequency and coalescence efficiency as well as contact and drainage times available in literature are reviewed thoroughly. The development

Yixiang Liao; Dirk Lucas

2010-01-01

145

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has a proven role as an adjunct to antipsychotic medica- tion and remediative approaches such as social skills training in the management of residual symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. Positive symptoms, depression, and overall symptoms appear to be viable treatment targets for CBT with a less pronounced effect on negative symptoms. The effect size at end of therapy

DOUGLAS TURKINGTON; ROBERT DUDLEY; DEBBIE M. WARMAN; AARON T. BECK

2004-01-01

146

[Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review].  

PubMed

Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. PMID:22147456

Satoh, Masayuki

2011-12-01

147

Virtual reality exposure therapy of anxiety disorders: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an altered form of behavioral therapy and may be a possible alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse patients in a computer-generated virtual environment. Research on this type of treatment for anxiety disorders is discussed in this

M. Krijn; P. M. G. Emmelkamp; R. P. Olafsson; R. Biemond

2004-01-01

148

Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, Volume 36  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reviews various subjects in the field of nuclear physics. Topics considered include classical solutions in field theory; heavy-ion coulomb excitation and nuclear structure; plutonium and weapons proliferation; nuclear reactions in stars; electron scattering on nuclei below 1 GeV; supersymmetry and supergravity; origins and acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays; the standard electroweak model; pion absorption in the nucleus; physics

J. D. Jackson; H. E. Gove; R. F. Schwitters

1986-01-01

149

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for Pediatric HIV Infection: Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review described and compared empirical investigations of adherence to pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) and predictors\\/correlates of adherence with regard to methodology and outcome. Thirteen empirical studies of children's adherence to ART, conducted between the years 1981 and 2002 were identified. Investigations varied by age of participant, drug therapy regimen, method of adherence assessment, and by the reporting of predictors\\/correlates

Ric G. Steele; Dennis Grauer

2003-01-01

150

Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness- based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a meditation program based on an integration of Cognitive behavioural therapy and Mindfulness-based stress reduction. The aim of the present work is to review and conduct a meta-analysis of the current findings about the efficacy of MBCT for psychiatric patients. A literature search was undertaken using five electronic databases and references of retrieved articles.

Alberto Chiesa; Alessandro Serretti

2011-01-01

151

Family Therapy for Drug Abuse: Review and Updates 2003-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just 15 years ago, Liddle and Dakof ("Journal of Marital and Family Therapy," 1995; 21, 511) concluded, based on the available evidence, that family therapy represented a "promising, but not definitive" approach for the treatment of drug problems among adolescents and adults. Seven years later, Rowe and Liddle (2003) review described considerable…

Rowe, Cynthia L.

2012-01-01

152

Serious adverse effects of unconventional therapies for children and adolescents: a systematic review of recent evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional therapies have become popular in paediatric and adolescent populations. It is therefore important to define their risks. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the recent evidence. Computerised literature searches were carried out in five databases to identify all recent reports of adverse events associated with unconventional therapies in children. The reports were summarised in narrative and

Edzard Ernst

2003-01-01

153

A systematic review of common conservative therapies for arm lymphoedema secondary to breast cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary arm lymphoedema is a chronic and distressing condition which affects a significant number of women who undergo breast cancer treatment. A number of health professional and patient instigated conservative therapies have been developed to help with this condition, but their comparative benefits are not clearly known. This systematic review undertook a broad investigation of commonly instigated conservative therapies for

A. L. Moseley; C. J. Carati; N. B. Piller

2006-01-01

154

Family Therapy for Drug Abuse: Review and Updates 2003-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Just 15 years ago, Liddle and Dakof ("Journal of Marital and Family Therapy," 1995; 21, 511) concluded, based on the available evidence, that family therapy represented a "promising, but not definitive" approach for the treatment of drug problems among adolescents and adults. Seven years later, Rowe and Liddle (2003) review described considerable…

Rowe, Cynthia L.

2012-01-01

155

Systematic review of efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapies in childhood and adolescent depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent depressive disorder. Design: Systematic review of six randomised trials comparing the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy with inactive interventions in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder. Main outcome measure: Remission from depressive disorder. Results: The rate of remission from depressive disorder was

Richard Harrington; Jane Whittaker; Philip Shoebridge; Fiona Campbell

1998-01-01

156

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological and Physiological Illnesses: A Systematic Review for Social Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…

Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia

2011-01-01

157

A systematic review of Internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional therapies for addictions are underutilized and characterized by high attrition rates suggesting they may not meet the needs of a proportion of individuals with addiction-related problems including problem drinking, smoking, substance use and problem gambling. Internet-based therapy has emerged as a new treatment modality for psychological disorders and health issues and this review is the first attempt to summarize

Sally M Gainsbury; Alex Blaszczynski

2011-01-01

158

The impact of endocrine therapy on patients with breast cancer: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies which have examined the impact of endocrine therapy on the quality of life (QOL) of patients with breast cancer. In patients with primary disease, published studies suggest that endocrine therapies, such as tamoxifen, significantly increase both gynaecological and vasomotor symptoms. However, few studies have been able to demonstrate the impact which these symptoms have on patients'

S. Coster; L. J. Fallowfield

2002-01-01

159

Understanding the physical therapy evaluation in home healthcare: practical pointers for the nurse clinical record reviewer.  

PubMed

Nurses are often called upon to audit therapy documentation but may struggle to interpret the "language" of other disciplines and apply Medicare's coverage guidelines for appropriate, reasonable, and necessary services. This article seeks to provide the nurse reviewer with insight into the most critical aspect of establishing medical necessity for physical therapy services, the initial patient evaluation. PMID:21881433

Smarr, Rebecca B

2011-09-01

160

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological and Physiological Illnesses: A Systematic Review for Social Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…

Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia

2011-01-01

161

Effect of laxatives and pharmacological therapies in chronic idiopathic constipation: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere has been no definitive systematic review and meta-analysis to date examining the effect of laxatives and pharmacological therapies in chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC).ObjectiveTo assess efficacy of these therapies systematically in CIC.DesignSystematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).Data sourcesMEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials were searched (up to September 2010).Eligibility criteria for selecting studiesPlacebo-controlled

Alexander C Ford; Nicole C Suares

2011-01-01

162

Speech and language therapy for dysarthria due to nonprogressive brain damage: a systematic Cochrane review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dysarthria is a common sequel of nonprogressive brain damage (typically stroke and traumatic brain damage). Impairment-based therapy and a wide variety of compensatory management strategies are undertaken by speech and language therapists with this patient population.Objective: To determine the efficacy of speech and language therapy interventions for adults with dysarthria following nonprogressive brain damage.Design: Systematic review.Search strategy: This review

Cameron Sellars; Thomas Hughes; Peter Langhorne

2002-01-01

163

Review of ion beam therapy: Present and Future  

SciTech Connect

First therapy efforts at the Bevalac using neon ions took place in the 70's and 80's. Promising results led to construction of HIMAC in Chiba Japan, and more recently to therapy trials at GSI. Both these facilities are now treating patients with carbon beams. Advances in both accelerator technology and beam delivery have taken place at these two centers. Plans are well along for new facilities in Europe and Japan.

Alonso, Jose R.

2000-06-01

164

Hormone therapy in hypospadias surgery: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Surgical correction of hypospadias is proposed to improve the aesthetic and functional quality of the penis. Hormone therapy preceding surgical correction is indicated to obtain better surgical conditions. However, there is divergence in the literature regarding the hormone therapy of choice, time of its use before surgery, appropriate dose, and route of application. To try to elucidate this matter, an electronic survey of the databases PubMed and Cochrane Central Library was conducted, limited to articles in English published since 1980. Search strategy identified 14 clinical trials that matched the inclusion criteria. Analysis was made in terms of study design, classification of hypospadias, association with chordee and cryptorchidism, type of hormone, route of application, dose and duration of treatment, penile length before and after hormone therapy, glans circumference before and after hormone therapy, adverse effects, and surgical complications. From the trials evaluated it was not possible to determine the ideal neoadjuvant treatment. A preference for use of testosterone was observed. Intramuscular administration seems to have fewer adverse effects than topical treatment. Side effects were seldom described, and treated patients were not followed on a long-term basis. The scarcity of randomized and controlled clinical trials regarding the topic impairs the establishment of a protocol. In conclusion, although preoperative hormone therapy is currently used before hypospadias surgery, its real benefit in terms of improvement of the penis and surgical results has not been defined. PMID:23602841

Netto, Jose Murillo B; P F Ferrarez, Carlos Eduardo; Schindler Leal, Anucha Andrade; Tucci, Silvio; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Barroso, Ubirajara

2013-04-18

165

Post myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock: a review of current therapies.  

PubMed

Cardiogenic shock is often a devastating consequence of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and portends to significant mortality and morbidity. Despite improvements in expediting the time to treatment and enhancements in available medical therapy and reperfusion techniques, cardiogenic shock remains the most common cause of mortality following MI. Post-MI cardiogenic shock most commonly occurs as a consequence of severe left ventricular dysfunction. Right ventricular (RV) MI must also be considered. Mechanical complications including acute mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal rupture, and ventricular free-wall rupture can also lead to cardiogenic shock. Rapid diagnosis of cardiogenic shock and its underlying cause is pivotal to delivering definitive therapy. Intravenous vasoactive agents and mechanical support devices may temporize the patient's hemodynamic status until definitive therapy by percutaneous or surgical intervention can be performed. Despite prompt management, post-MI cardiogenic shock mortality remains high. PMID:21747126

Ng, Ramford; Yeghiazarians, Yerem

2011-07-11

166

Refractive-index and density matching in concentrated particle suspensions: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) are now routinely used in experimental fluid mechanics to investigate pure fluids or dilute suspensions. For highly concentrated particle suspensions, material turbidity has long been a substantial impediment to these techniques, which explains why they have been scarcely used so far. A renewed interest has emerged with the development of specific methods combining the use of iso-index suspensions and imaging techniques. This review paper gives a broad overview of recent advances in visualization techniques suited to concentrated particle suspensions. In particular, we show how classic methods such as PIV, LDV, particle tracking velocimetry, and laser induced fluorescence can be adapted to deal with concentrated particle suspensions.

Wiederseiner, Sébastien; Andreini, Nicolas; Epely-Chauvin, Gaël; Ancey, Christophe

2011-05-01

167

Polar cap particle precipitation and aurora: Review and commentary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar rain has a beautiful set of symmetry properties, individually established, but not previously discussed collectively, which can be organized by a single unifying principle. The key polar rain properties are favored hemisphere (controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field Bx), dawn/dusk gradient (IMF By), merging rate (IMF Bz or more generally d[Phi]MP/dt), nightside/dayside gradient, and seasonal effect. We argue that all five properties involve variants on a single theme: the further downstream a field line exits the magnetosphere (or less directly points toward the solar wind electron heat flux), the weaker the polar rain. This effect is the result of the requirements of charge quasi-neutrality, and because the ion thermal velocity declines and the tailward ion bulk flow velocity rises moving down tail from the frontside magnetopause. Polar cap arcs (or more properly, high-latitude sun-aligned arcs) are largely complementary to the polar rain, occurring most frequently when the dayside merging rate is low, and thus when polar rain is weak. Sun-aligned arcs are often considered as originating either in the polar rain or the expansion of the plasma sheet into the polar cap. In fact three quite distinct types of sun-aligned high-latitude arcs exist, two common, and one rare. One type of arc occurs as intensifications of the polar rain, and is common, but weak, typically <0.1 ergs/cm2 s, and lacks associated ion precipitation. A second category of Sun-aligned arcs with energy flux >0.1 ergs/cm2 s usually occurs adjacent to the auroral oval, and includes ion precipitation. The plasma regime of these common, and at times intense, arcs is often distinct from the oval which they abut. Convection alone does not specify the open/closed nature of these arcs, because multiple narrow convection reversals are common around such arcs, and the arcs themselves can be embedded within flows that are either sunward or anti-sunward. These observational facts do not neatly fit into either a plasma sheet origin or a polar rain origin (e.g., the necessity to abut the auroral oval, and the presence of ions does not fit the properties of polar rain, which can in any event be nearly absent for northward interplanetary magnetic field). One theory is that such arcs are associated with merging tailward of the cusp. Both of these common types of sun-aligned arcs fade within about 30 min of a southward IMF turning. The third, and rarest, category of sun-aligned arcs are intense, well detached from the auroral oval, contain plasma sheet origin ion precipitation as well as electrons, and persist for hours after a southward turning. These intense detached sun-aligned arcs can rapidly cross the polar cap, sometimes multiple times. Most events discussed in the literature as "theta-aurora" do not fit into this category (for example, although they may appear detached in images, they abut the oval in particle data, and do not have the persistence of detached events under southward IMF turnings). It is possible that no single theory can account for all three types of sun-aligned arcs. Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are at times used to demarcate polar cap open/closed boundaries. Although this works at times, examples exist where this method fails (e.g., very quiet conditions for which SEP reaches below L=4), and the method should be used with caution. Finally, it is shown that, although it is rare, the polar cap can at times completely close.

Newell, Patrick T.; Liou, Kan; Wilson, Gordon R.

2009-02-01

168

Alternative medicine in periodontal therapy--a review.  

PubMed

Periodontal diseases continue to be most commonly occurring oral diseases in modern times. Many therapeutic modalities have been tried and tested to relieve these problems. The conventional therapy--scaling and root planing (SRP)--stands out to be the most used mode of treatment, and other treatments remain applicable as adjuncts to SRP, including acupuncture, acupressure, and aromatherapy. The present article discusses the applications of the abovementioned therapeutic modes and their relevance in current scenarios. Alternative medicine may be preferred as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy to relieve pain, bad breath, gingival inflammation, mouth ulcers, and mouth sores. PMID:22483182

Mangal, Brijesh; Sugandhi, Ayushi; Kumathalli, Kanteshwari I; Sridhar, Raja

2012-02-04

169

A Brief Review of the Search for Isolatable Fractional Charge Elementary Particles  

SciTech Connect

Since the initial measurements of the electron charge a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question as to whether elementary particles exist that have charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. In the standard model of particle physics the quarks are such particles, but it is assumed that quarks cannot be individually isolated, the quarks always being confined inside hadrons. This paper is a brief review of the present status of searches for isolatable fractional charge particles such as a lepton-like particle with fractional charge or an unconfined quark. There have been a very large number of searches but there is no confirmed evidence for existence of isolatable fractional charge particles. It may be that they do not exist, but it is also possible that they are very massive or that their production mechanisms are very small so that they have been missed by existing searches. Therefore the aim of this review is to urge (a) the invention of ways to substantially increase the range of known search methods and (b) to urge the invention of new search methods for isolatable fractional charge particles.

Perl, M.

2005-01-31

170

Effectiveness of exercise therapy: a best-evidence summary of systematic reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to summarise the available evidence on the effectiveness of exercise therapy for patients with disorders of the musculoskeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Systematic reviews were identified by means of a comprehensive search strategy in 11 bibliographic databases (08\\/2002), in combination with reference tracking. Reviews that included (i) at least one randomised controlled trial

N. Smidt; H. C. W. de Vet; L. M. Bouter; J. Dekker; J. H. Arendzen; R. A. de Bie; S. M. Bierma-Zeinstra; P. J. M. Helders; S. H. Keus; G. Kwakkel; T. Lenssen; R. A. B. Oostendorp; R. W. J. G. Ostelo; M. Reijman; C. B. Terwee; C. Theunissen; S. Thomas; M. E. van Baar; A. van't Hul; R. P. van Peppen; A. Verhagen; D. A. W. M. van der Windt

2005-01-01

171

Problem-Solving Therapy for Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on problem-solving therapy (PST) for depressive disorders in noninstitutionalized adults. Method: Intervention studies using randomized controlled designs are included and methodological quality is assessed using a standard set of criteria from the Cochrane Collaborative Review

Gellis, Zvi D.; Kenaley, Bonnie

2008-01-01

172

Problem-Solving Therapy for Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on problem-solving therapy (PST) for depressive disorders in noninstitutionalized adults. Method: Intervention studies using randomized controlled designs are included and methodological quality is assessed using a standard set of criteria from the Cochrane Collaborative Review

Gellis, Zvi D.; Kenaley, Bonnie

2008-01-01

173

Review and Evaluation of Current Drug Therapies in Alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the cunent status of psychotropic drugs in the treatment of alcoholism and discusses the difficulties in assessing any treatment in light of the poor understanding of the condition. Phenothiazine tranquilizers, antidepressants, anorexiants, sedatives, antidipsotropics, and hallucinogens, are discussed through a review of the literature and in reporting present clinical and experimental studies. The phenothiazine tranquilizers, effective in

KEITH S. DITMAN

174

Treatment of pediatric patients and young adults with particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): establishment of workflow and initial clinical data  

PubMed Central

Background To report on establishment of workflow and clinical results of particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Materials and methods We treated 36 pediatric patients (aged 21 or younger) with particle therapy at HIT. Median age was 12 years (range 2-21 years), five patients (14%) were younger than 5 years of age. Indications included pilocytic astrocytoma, parameningeal and orbital rhabdomyosarcoma, skull base and cervical chordoma, osteosarcoma and adenoid-cystic carcinoma (ACC), as well as one patient with an angiofibroma of the nasopharynx. For the treatment of small children, an anesthesia unit at HIT was established in cooperation with the Department of Anesthesiology. Results Treatment concepts depended on tumor type, staging, age of the patient, as well as availability of specific study protocols. In all patients, particle radiotherapy was well tolerated and no interruptions due to toxicity had to be undertaken. During follow-up, only mild toxicites were observed. Only one patient died of tumor progression: Carbon ion radiotherapy was performed as an individual treatment approach in a child with a skull base recurrence of the previously irradiated rhabdomyosarcoma. Besides this patient, tumor recurrence was observed in two additional patients. Conclusion Clinical protocols have been generated to evaluate the real potential of particle therapy, also with respect to carbon ions in distinct pediatric patient populations. The strong cooperation between the pediatric department and the department of radiation oncology enable an interdisciplinary treatment and stream-lined workflow and acceptance of the treatment for the patients and their parents.

2012-01-01

175

Adequate margin definition for scanned particle therapy in the incidence of intrafractional motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced 4D dose calculations (4DDCs) for scanned particle therapy show that in the incidence of motion, it is insufficient to use target contours defined on one reference CT phase. ICRU Report 62 (ICRU 1999 ICRU Report 62 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)) advises that variations in size, shape and position of CTVs relative to anatomic reference points have to be considered for internal target volumes (ITVs). In addition to geometrical margin adaption, changes of water equivalent path length have to be considered for particle therapy. Different ITV concepts have been applied to six representative patients (liver and lung indications) based on 4DCT. Geometrical ITVs (gITV) were calculated by combining deformed CTVs over all motion phases. To take into account path length changes, range adapted ITVs (raITV) were established as the union of range adapted CTVs in all phases. For gated delivery, gat_gITVs and gat_raITVs were calculated. Extensive 4DDCs have been performed for two exemplary patients to illustrate that neither re-scanning nor gating can sufficiently compensate for motion effects if no appropriate margins are employed and to evaluate the effectiveness of gITVs and raITVs. CTVs significantly differ from gITVs and raITVs in size (up to a factor 2 in volume). But also raITVs and gITVs differ significantly in size and are spatially displaced, particularly for lung patients. raITVs show a strong field dependence in shape. All volumes are reduced in size when gating is applied and considered during margin adaption. 4D dose distributions show big improvements when gITV or raITV are used compared to CTVs. However, the use of either gITVs or raITVs do not result in significant differences. If raITVs are used, slightly better target coverage is gained at the cost of more healthy tissue exposure. Our results emphasize that adapted target volumes have to be used for scanned particle therapy in the presence of motion. However, even though gITVs and raITVs differ significantly in shape and size, this difference does not necessarily translate into significant differences in the resultant 4D dose distributions.

Knopf, Antje-Christin; Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Antony; Mori, Shininchiro

2013-09-01

176

Review of Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy for Spastic and Rigidity Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intrathecal baclofen therapy, a treatment for cerebral palsy and other spastic and rigidity disorders, is showing promise as an effective intervention. This article synthesizes both the medical and rehabilitation conceptual literature to update educators and related service providers as to the efficacy of this intervention. Implications for…

Obringer, S. John; Coffey, Kenneth M.

2002-01-01

177

Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

2012-01-01

178

Critical review of complementary therapies for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its prominence as the most frequently diagnosed solid tumor among men in the United States, relatively little is known about the etiology of prostate cancer. Furthermore, research into treatment strategies for prostate cancer continues to lag behind research for the other most common cancers. At the same time, however, the popularity of complementary therapies among prostate cancer patients continues

Gurkamal Chatta

2003-01-01

179

Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical evidence supports cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), with exposure therapy typically being the most frequently utilized. While the success of exposure treatments is well established there are factors which may hinder their use in "real-world" settings (e.g., poor treatment…

Mulick, Patrick S.; Landers, Sara J.; Kanter, Jonathan W.

2005-01-01

180

A systematic review of directly applied biologic therapies for acute spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

An increasing number of therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI) are emerging from the laboratory and seeking translation into human clinical trials. Many of these are administered as soon as possible after injury with the hope of attenuating secondary damage and maximizing the extent of spared neurologic tissue. In this article, we systematically reviewed the available preclinical research on such neuroprotective therapies that are administered in a non-invasive manner for acute SCI. Specifically, we reviewed treatments that have a relatively high potential for translation due to the fact that they are already used in human clinical applications or are available in a form that could be administered to humans. These included: erythropoietin, NSAIDs, anti-CD11d antibodies, minocycline, progesterone, estrogen, magnesium, riluzole, polyethylene glycol, atorvastatin, inosine, and pioglitazone. The literature was systematically reviewed to examine studies in which an in vivo animal model was utilized to assess the efficacy of the therapy in a traumatic spinal cord injury paradigm. Using these criteria, 122 studies were identified and reviewed in detail. Wide variations exist in the animal species, injury models, and experimental designs reported in the preclinical literature on the therapies reviewed. The review highlights the extent of investigation that has occurred in these specific therapies, and points out gaps in our knowledge that would be potentially valuable prior to human translation. PMID:20082560

Kwon, Brian K; Okon, Elena B; Plunet, Ward; Baptiste, Darryl; Fouad, Karim; Hillyer, Jessica; Weaver, Lynne C; Fehlings, Michael G; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2010-06-16

181

Preclinical investigations towards the first spacer gel application in prostate cancer treatment during particle therapy at HIT  

PubMed Central

Background The application of spacer gel represents a promising approach to reliably spare the rectal frontal wall during particle therapy (IJROBP 76:1251-1258, 2010). In order to qualify the spacer gel for the clinical use in particle therapy, a variety of measurements were performed in order to ensure the biological compatibility of the gel, its physical stability during and after the irradiation, and a proper definition of the gel in terms of the Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for the treatment planning system. The potential for the use of the spacer gel for particle therapy monitoring with off-line Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was also investigated. Results The spacer gel implanted to the prostate patient in direct neighbourhood to the clinical target volume does not interfere with the particle therapy treatment planning procedure applied at Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre (HIT). The performed measurements show that Bragg-peak position of the particles can be properly predicted on the basis of computed tomography imaging with the treatment planning system used at HIT (measured water equivalent path length of 1.011 ±0.011 (2?), measured Hounsfield Unit of 28.9 ±6.1 (2?)). The spacer gel samples remain physically unchanged after irradiation with a dose exceeding the therapeutic dose level. The independently measured Bragg-Peak position does not change within the time interval of 10 weeks. Conclusions As a result of the presented experiments, the first clinical application of spacer gel implant during prostate cancer treatment with carbon ions and protons was possible at HIT in 2012. The reported pre-clinical investigations demonstrate that use of spacer gel is safe in particle therapy in presence of therapy target motion and patient positioning induced particle range variations. The spacer gel injected between prostate and rectum enlarge the distance between both organs, which is expected to clinically significantly decrease the undesirable exposure of the most critical organ at risk, i.e. rectal frontal wall. Further research on the composition of spacer gel material might lead to additional clinical benefits by validation of particle therapy of prostate via post-therapeutic PET-imaging or by patient positioning based on the gel as a radio-opaque marker.

2013-01-01

182

Prevention of and Therapies for Nipple Pain: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the literature on nipple pain and to delineate effective strategies for the pre- vention and treatment of nipple pain in breastfeeding mothers. Data Sources: Computerized searches on MED- LINE, Pre-MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library.

Kristine Morland-Schultz; Pamela D. Hill

183

Silicone-Based Scar Therapy: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertrophic and keloid scars still are among the banes of plastic surgery. In the treatment arsenal at the disposal of the\\u000a plastic surgeon, topical silicone therapy usually is considered the first line of treatment or as an adjuvant to other treatment\\u000a methods. Yet, knowledge concerning its mechanisms of action, clinical efficacy, and possible adverse effects is rather obscure\\u000a and sometimes

Demetris StavrouOren; Oren Weissman; Eyal Winkler; Lior Yankelson; Eran Millet; Oren Paul Mushin; Alon Liran; Joseph Haik

2010-01-01

184

Self-Management of Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy has over the last years gained increasing attention and widespread use. The method implies self-testing using a coagulometer (point-of-care device) and self-dosaging of coumarin. The method entails advantages for selected patients, who do not need to go to the hospital or family doctor for blood specimen and drug dosage adjustment. In contrast to patients

Thomas D. Christensen

2004-01-01

185

Literature Review on LINACs and FFAGs for Hadron Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The document summarizes the recent papers, presentations and other public information on Radio-Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerators (linacs) and Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for hadron therapy. The main focus is on technical aspects of these accelerators. This report intends to provide a general overview of the state-of-the-art in those accelerators which could be used in short and middle-term for treating cancer.

Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Amaldi, Ugo; Faus-Golfe, Ángeles

186

Family therapy in the Forbidden City: a review of Chinese journals from 1978 to 2006.  

PubMed

This article provides a glimpse into the development of family therapy in China, by reviewing family therapy articles written in Chinese and published in journals in China that are not, therefore, readily accessible to the international community. A content analysis of journals published between 1978 and 2006 revealed 199 family therapy articles in 109 Chinese journals. Most of the studies were conducted by psychiatry or medical professionals, and were based on general systems theory or a systemic family therapy model. The articles focused on the promotion of family therapy theories and interventions in China, but did not specify the application of theory to specific clientele or symptoms. After the year 2000, a threefold increase in the number of family therapy publications was noted. These papers included the introduction of additional theories, but did not include critical assessment of the applicability of Western family therapy models to Chinese families. The researchers noted an absence of articles that identified Chinese approaches to family therapy, and a paucity of papers on gender, professional reflection, and the therapy process. The article concludes that there is room for improvement in the quality of family therapy publications in China, and that gains may be made by interdisciplinary collaboration among academics and practitioners. PMID:19930439

Sim, Timothy; Hu, Chiyi

2009-12-01

187

Review of airborne particle sampling with special reference to long-lived radioactive dust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews some basic aspects related to the sampling of airborne particles with special reference to Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The report covers a number of areas of practical interest such as the production of aerosols, the dynamics o...

J. Bigu

1990-01-01

188

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE ON PARTICLE COLLECTION MECHANISMS: THEORETICAL REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a critical review and evaluation of the mechanics of aerosols at high temperatures and pressures. It discusses equations and models used to predict particle behavior at normal conditions, with regard to their applicability at high temperatures and pressures. It disc...

189

Critical review of a quantitative study of a specialty in high energy particle physics  

SciTech Connect

A review is made of the authors' series of quantitative, historical, and social studies of the weak interactions of elementary particles. A short intellectual history, the quantitative methodology, and a summary of the papers analyzing specific episodes in this field are presented. The social organization of the field is described, and an overall policy for resource management is discussed. 6 figures, 3 tables.

White, D H; Sullivan, D

1980-01-01

190

TOPICAL REVIEW: Microfluidics for flow cytometric analysis of cells and particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes recent developments in microfabricated flow cytometers and related microfluidic devices that can detect, analyze, and sort cells or particles. The high-speed analytical capabilities of flow cytometry depend on the cooperative use of microfluidics, optics and electronics. Along with the improvement of other components, replacement of conventional glass capillary-based fluidics with microfluidic sample handling systems operating in microfabricated

Dongeun Huh; Wei Gu; Yoko Kamotani; James B. Grotberg; Shuichi Takayama

2005-01-01

191

Nanotoxicology of metal wear particles in total joint arthroplasty: a review of current concepts.  

PubMed

Metal-on-metal (M-M) joint replacement has raised concerns about the long-term effects of metal wear debris and corrosion products. This review summarizes the current concepts in biological reactivity to metal wear particles, ions, and corrosion products. Attention is focused on Co-Cr-Mo alloy since it is the most diffused and discussed material in arthroplasty. PMID:20740415

Billi, Fabrizio; Campbell, Pat

192

Design of beam-modulating devices for charged-particle therapy  

SciTech Connect

The computer modeling program used to design beam-modulating devices for charged-particle therapy at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been improved to allow a more realistic description of the beam. The original program used a single calculated Bragg peak to design the spread Bragg peak. The range of this curve was shifted so that Bragg curves of varying ranges could be superimposed. The new version of the program allows several measured Bragg curves with different ranges to be used as input, and interpolates between them to obtain the required data for the superposition calculation. The experimental configuration for measuring these input curves simulated therapy conditions. Seven beam-modulating propellers with spread Bragg-peak widths ranging from 2.2 to 14.4 cm were designed and constructed for a 215-MeV/u helium beam using this new design program. Depth-dose distributions produced by these new propellers were in good agreement with predicted distributions, and these propellers are currently being used clinically.

Petti, P.L.; Lyman, J.T.; Renner, T.R.; Castro, J.R.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.K.; Ludewigt, B.A. (Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division, University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (USA))

1991-05-01

193

Functional proteome of macrophage carried nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy demonstrates enhanced particle carrying capacity.  

PubMed

Our laboratory developed long-acting nanoformulations of antiretroviral therapy (nanoART) to improve drug compliance, reduce toxicities, and facilitate access of drug to viral reservoirs. These all function to inevitably improve treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Formulations are designed to harness the carrying capacities of mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes and macrophages) and to use these cells as Trojan horses for drug delivery. Such a drug distribution system limits ART metabolism and excretion while facilitating access to viral reservoirs. Our prior works demonstrated a high degree of nanoART sequestration in macrophage recycling endosomes with broad and sustained drug tissue biodistribution and depots with limited untoward systemic toxicities. Despite such benefits, the effects of particle carriage on the cells' functional capacities remained poorly understood. Thus, we employed pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture to elucidate the macrophage proteome and assess any alterations in cellular functions that would affect cell-drug carriage and release kinetics. NanoART-MP interactions resulted in the induction of a broad range of activation-related proteins that can enhance phagocytosis, secretory functions, and cell migration. Notably, we now demonstrate that particle-cell interactions serve to enhance drug loading while facilitating drug tissue depots and transportation. PMID:23544708

Martinez-Skinner, Andrea L; Veerubhotla, Ram S; Liu, Han; Xiong, Huangui; Yu, Fang; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Gendelman, Howard E

2013-04-17

194

Production of [(211)At]-astatinated radiopharmaceuticals and applications in targeted ?-particle therapy.  

PubMed

(211)At is a promising radionuclide for ?-particle therapy of cancers. Its physical characteristics make this radionuclide particularly interesting to consider when bound to cancer-targeting biomolecules for the treatment of microscopic tumors. (211)At is produced by cyclotron irradiation of (209)Bi with ?-particles accelerated at ~28 MeV and can be obtained in high radionuclidic purity after isolation from the target. Its chemistry resembles iodine, but there is also a tendency to behave as a metalloid. However, the chemical behavior of astatine has not yet been clearly established, primarily due to the lack of any stable isotopes of this element, which precludes the use of conventional analytical techniques for its characterization. There are also only a limited number of research centers that have been able to produce this element in sufficient amounts to carry out extensive investigations. Despite these difficulties, chemical reactions typically used with iodine can be performed, and a number of biomolecules of interest have been labeled with (211)At. However, most of these compounds exhibit unacceptable instability in vivo due to the weakness of the astatine-biomolecule bond. Nonetheless, several compounds have shown high potential for the treatment of cancers in vitro and in several animal models, thus providing a promising basis that has allowed initiation of the first two clinical studies. PMID:23075373

Guérard, François; Gestin, Jean-François; Brechbiel, Martin W

2012-10-17

195

A systematic review of dysgeusia induced by cancer therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose was to review relevant scientific papers written since 1989 which focused on the prevalence and management of\\u000a dysgeusia as an oral side effect of cancer treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Our literature search was limited to English language papers published between 1990 and 2008. A total of 30 papers were reviewed;\\u000a the results of 26 of these papers were included in the

Allan J. Hovan; P. Michele Williams; Peter Stevenson-Moore; Yula B. Wahlin; Kirsten E. O. Ohrn; Linda S. Elting; Fred K. L. Spijkervet; Michael T. Brennan

2010-01-01

196

A review of over-the-counter drug therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review the extent of the use of nonprescription drugs as well as possible variables influencing such consumption. Various studies indicate that age, sex, personality characteristics, perceptions of health status, socioeconomic factors, parental example, and pharmacists all play parts in determining over-the-counter (OTC) drug utilization. Several sources express concern about the inaccessibility of accurate OTC drug information to the

Julie B. Esmay; Albert I. Wertheimer

1979-01-01

197

Status of electroconvulsive therapy: Review of the outcome literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 60 studies that compared the therapeutic efficacy of ECT with that of control procedures or alternative treatment modes and 30 studies that examined patient and treatment variables related to improvement. A methodological evaluation was conducted, focusing on 4 components of experimental design: patients, treatment, testing periods, and outcome measures. ECT appears to be an effective treatment for endogenous depression,

Albert W. Scovern; Peter R. Kilmann

1980-01-01

198

Orthodontic therapy and gingival recession: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

To perform a systematic review on the effect of changes in incisor inclination owing to orthodontic treatment and the occurrence of gingival recession. PubMed, EMBASE Excerpta Medica and CENTRAL of the Cochrane Library were searched and a hand search was performed. From 1925 articles identified, 17 articles were finally included: six experimental animal studies and 11 retrospective clinical studies in

I. Joss-Vassalli; C. Grebenstein; N. Topouzelis; A. Sculean; C. Katsaros

2010-01-01

199

Usage of complementary therapies in rheumatology: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary medicine (CM) is more popular than ever before. Rheumatology patients seem particularly keen to try CM. In this paper, surveys on rheumatology patients' use of CM are reviewed. The issues of perceived effectiveness, safety and costs are also addressed. In addition surveys of doctors' attitudes towards CM in rheumatology are summarised. Fourteen surveys on patients' use of CM and

E. Ernst

1998-01-01

200

Adverse effects of unconventional therapies in the elderly: A systematic review of the recent literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional therapies are increasingly popular, not least in populations of elderly individuals. This review summarizes\\u000a the evidence regarding the risk unconventional therapies may entail for the elderly. Computerized literature searches were\\u000a performed to locate all reports with original data on this topic. Most of the evidence found was anecdotal by nature and thus\\u000a has obvious limitations. The results show that

E. Ernst

2002-01-01

201

A systematic review of orofacial pain in patients receiving cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We present the findings of a structured systematic review of the literature assessing orofacial pain induced by malignant\\u000a disease and\\/or its therapy (excluding mucositis). This evaluation of the literature published after the 1989 NIH Development\\u000a Consensus conference on the oral complications of cancer therapies is an effort to assess the prevalence of pain, quality\\u000a of life and economic impact, and

Joel B. Epstein; Catherine Hong; Richard M. Logan; Andrei Barasch; Sharon M. Gordon; Lorree Oberlee-Edwards; Deborah McGuire; Joel J. Napenas; Linda S. Elting; Fred K. L. Spijkervet; Michael T. Brennan

2010-01-01

202

Apoptotic induction by photodynamic therapy using hexaminolevulinate with a literature review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first report by Agarwal et al in 1991 on apoptotic induction by photodynamic therapy (PDT) with chloroaluminium phthalocyanine a large number of papers have come out to show that PDT can induce cell death through apoptosis. This finding may provide potential clinical impact on, for example, those tumor cells resistant to any cancer therapy. The present paper briefly reviews apoptosis with emphasis on PDT-induced apoptosis with hexaminolevulinate.

Furre, Ingegerd E.; Nesland, Jahn M.; Peng, Qian

2009-06-01

203

Developing particle-mediated gene-transfer technology for research into gene therapy of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy aims to (1) introduce specific genes into a host to replace defective ones (replacement therapy); (2) suppress expression of certain undesirable genes (antisense therapy); or (3) provide additional biological activities (supplement therapy). Naked DNA and viral or non-viral vectors containing candidate genes for human gene therapy are being actively pursued by researchers in molecular medicine. New gene transfer

Dennis McCabe; W SUN

1996-01-01

204

Pacing device therapy in infants and children: a review.  

PubMed

The number of pediatric pacemakers implanted is still relatively small. Children requiring pacing therapy have characteristics that are distinct from those of adults, including physical size, somatic growth, and cardiac anomalies. Considering these features, long-term follow-up of pediatric pacemaker implantation is necessary. Selection of appropriate generators, pacing modes, pacing sites, and leads is important. Generally, epicardial leads are commonly used in small infants. On the other hand, the use of endocardial leads in children is increasing worldwide because of their benefits over epicardial leads, such as minimal invasiveness, lower pacing threshold, and longer generator longevity. Endocardial leads are not suitable for patients with intracardiac shunts because of the high risk of systemic thrombosis. Venous occlusion is another significant problem with endocardial leads. With the increase in the number of pacing device implantations, the incidence of infection from such devices is also increasing. Complete device removal is sometimes recommended to treat device infection, but experience in the removal of endocardial leads in children is still scarce. This article gives an overview of pacing therapy in the pediatric population, including discussions on new pacing systems, such as remote monitoring systems, magnetic imaging compliant pacemaker systems, and leadless pacing devices. PMID:23104398

Takeuchi, Daiji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

2012-10-27

205

Hormone replacement therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the risk of venous thromboembolism in women using hormone replacement therapy by study design, characteristics of the therapy and venous thromboembolism, and clinical background.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.Data sources Medline.Studies reviewed Eight observational studies and nine randomised controlled trials.Inclusion criteria Studies on hormone replacement therapy that reported venous thromboembolism.Review measures Homogeneity between studies was analysed using ?2

Marianne Canonico; Geneviève Plu-Bureau; Gordon D O Lowe; Pierre-Yves Scarabin

2008-01-01

206

A systematic review of common conservative therapies for arm lymphoedema secondary to breast cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Secondary arm lymphoedema is a chronic and distressing condition which affects a significant number of women who undergo breast cancer treatment. A number of health professional and patient instigated conservative therapies have been developed to help with this condition, but their comparative benefits are not clearly known. This systematic review undertook a broad investigation of commonly instigated conservative therapies for secondary arm lymphoedema including; complex physical therapy, manual lymphatic drainage, pneumatic pumps, oral pharmaceuticals, low level laser therapy, compression bandaging and garments, limb exercises and limb elevation. It was found that the more intensive and health professional based therapies, such as complex physical therapy, manual lymphatic drainage, pneumatic pump and laser therapy generally yielded the greater volume reductions, whilst self instigated therapies such as compression garment wear, exercises and limb elevation yielded smaller reductions. All conservative therapies produced improvements in subjective arm symptoms and quality of life issues, where these were measured. Despite the identified benefits, there is still the need for large scale, high level clinical trials in this area. PMID:17018707

Moseley, A L; Carati, C J; Piller, N B

2006-10-03

207

The effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Introduction The last decade has seen a growth in the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine therapies, and one of the most popular and sought-after complementary and alternative medicine therapies for nonspecific low back pain is massage. Massage may often be perceived as a safe therapeutic modality without any significant risks or side effects. However, despite its popularity, there continues to be ongoing debate on the effectiveness of massage in treating nonspecific low back pain. With a rapidly evolving research evidence base and access to innovative means of synthesizing evidence, it is time to reinvestigate this issue. Methods A systematic, step-by-step approach, underpinned by best practice in reviewing the literature, was utilized as part of the methodology of this umbrella review. A systematic search was conducted in the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, AMED, ICONDA, Academic Search Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, CINAHL, HealthSource, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, investigating systematic reviews and meta-analyses from January 2000 to December 2012, and restricted to English-language documents. Methodological quality of included reviews was undertaken using the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine critical appraisal tool. Results Nine systematic reviews were found. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews varied (from poor to excellent) although, overall, the primary research informing these systematic reviews was generally considered to be weak quality. The findings indicate that massage may be an effective treatment option when compared to placebo and some active treatment options (such as relaxation), especially in the short term. There is conflicting and contradictory findings for the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain when compared against other manual therapies (such as mobilization), standard medical care, and acupuncture. Conclusion There is an emerging body of evidence, albeit small, that supports the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of non-specific low back pain in the short term. Due to common methodological flaws in the primary research, which informed the systematic reviews, recommendations arising from this evidence base should be interpreted with caution.

Kumar, Saravana; Beaton, Kate; Hughes, Tricia

2013-01-01

208

Lasers and photodynamic therapy in the treatment of onychomycosis: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a widespread problem. Oral antifungal medications are currently the gold standard of care, but treatment failure is common and oral therapy is contraindicated in many cases. There is a need for effective treatment without the systemic complications posed by oral therapy. Laser and photodynamic therapy may have the potential to treat onychomycosis locally without adverse systemic effects; some small studies have even reported achieving clinical and mycologic cure. However, there is reason for restraint; these therapies are expensive and time-consuming. Furthermore, they may not be covered by insurance and have not been proven effective with randomized, controlled clinical trials. This paper will review current literature regarding the use of laser and photodynamic therapy as potential treatments for onychomycosis. PMID:24050286

Becker, Caitlin; Bershow, Andrea

2013-09-14

209

Injection therapy and denervation procedures for chronic low-back pain: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Injection therapy and denervation procedures are commonly used in the management of chronic low-back pain (LBP) despite uncertainty regarding their effectiveness and safety. To provide an evaluation of the current evidence associated with the use of these procedures, a systematic review was performed. Existing systematic reviews were screened, and the Cochrane Back Review Group trial register was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they recruited adults with chronic LBP, evaluated the use of injection therapy or denervation procedures and measured at least one clinically relevant outcome (such as pain or functional status). Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility and risk of bias (RoB). A meta-analysis was performed with clinically homogeneous studies, and the GRADE approach was used to determine the quality of evidence. In total, 27 RCTs were included, 14 on injection therapy and 13 on denervation procedures. 18 (66%) of the studies were determined to have a low RoB. Because of clinical heterogeneity, only two comparisons could be pooled. Overall, there is only low to very low quality evidence to support the use of injection therapy and denervation procedures over placebo or other treatments for patients with chronic LBP. However, it cannot be ruled out that in carefully selected patients, some injection therapy or denervation procedures may be of benefit.

Kuijpers, Ton; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Ostelo, Raymond; Verhagen, Arianne; Koes, Bart W.; van Tulder, Maurits W.

2010-01-01

210

Frontline therapy for multiple myeloma: a concise review of the evidence based on randomized clinical trials.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen significant progress in the development of new and effective therapies for multiple myeloma. Stem cell transplantation and the introduction of novel agents, such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib, have significantly improved outcomes of myeloma patients. In the current review, we analyzed the available data provided by published randomized clinical trials for the frontline therapy of myeloma patients. We attempted to assess the relative contribution and impact of these new therapies in the setting of both, transplant eligible and transplant ineligible patients. PMID:24083815

Yaqub, Sobia; Ballester, Gabriela; Ballester, Oscar

2013-10-01

211

An analytical review of the Chinese literature on Qigong therapy for diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes rates have doubled in China over the past decade. However, as conventional medicine offers neither a sound explanation nor an effective cure, patients with diabetes increasingly seek complementary and alternative therapies. It was reported that the traditional Chinese medical approach, Qigong, might produce therapeutic benefits with minimal side-effects in this condition. The Qigong Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the library databases of Chinese institutions from 1978 to middle of 2008 on open trials, laboratory studies, and controlled clinical studies were reviewed. Over 35 studies were identified and reviewed. Qigong therapy for diabetic patients included self-practice, group qi-field therapy, external qi therapy, and Qigong in combination with other therapies. Only 2 randomized controlled trials were found; both evaluate Qigong as an adjuvant to conventional therapy. All studies reported some therapeutic effect or improvement. Some reported significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose. Others reported complete cures, which were unlikely to be the result of placebo effect as objective outcome measures were used. Qigong therapy may be an important complement to conventional medicine in treating diabetes, but the quality of studies needs to be improved. These preliminary data are promising and support the need for further randomized controlled trials. PMID:19606506

Chen, Kevin W; Liu, Tianjun; Zhang, Haibo; Lin, Zhongpeng

2009-01-01

212

A systematic review of Internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions.  

PubMed

Traditional therapies for addictions are underutilized and characterized by high attrition rates suggesting they may not meet the needs of a proportion of individuals with addiction-related problems including problem drinking, smoking, substance use and problem gambling. Internet-based therapy has emerged as a new treatment modality for psychological disorders and health issues and this review is the first attempt to summarize and evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of Internet therapy for addictions. Extensive literature searches were conducted to identify studies meeting the criteria of delivering structured Internet-based treatment programs for addictions that incorporated a component of trained therapist interaction. Only nine studies met criteria for inclusion with seven representing a randomized controlled trial. These included seven papers reporting on tobacco-cessation programs, one Internet-based therapy for pathological gambling, and one treatment program for substance abuse. A range of therapeutic models, treatment components and outcome measures was included across these studies. Positive treatment effects were reported following completion of therapy and at longer-term follow-up. The review concluded that Internet-based therapies for addictions are effective in achieving positive behavioral changes but that more research is required to determine the comparative effectiveness of various Internet-based therapies and their components. PMID:21146272

Gainsbury, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex

2010-11-24

213

A systematic review of dental disease in patients undergoing cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  This purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature and update our current understanding of the impact of\\u000a present cancer therapies on the dental apparatus (teeth and periodontium) since the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference\\u000a on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Review method  A systematic literature search was conducted with assistance from a research librarian in the databases

Catherine H. L. Hong; Joel J. Napeñas; Brian D. Hodgson; Monique A. Stokman; Vickie Mathers-Stauffer; Linda S. Elting; Fred K. L. Spijkervet; Michael T. Brennan

2010-01-01

214

Review of the economic evaluations of hormonal therapy for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used as first-line therapy for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer aiming to reduce testosterone to castrate levels. The authors present an overview of the existing cost-effectiveness studies of ADT in prostate cancer. Cost-effectiveness of ADT was reviewed using a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature, as well as research abstracts presented at various scientific and industry meetings. Most cost-effectiveness analyses of ADT reported results within the accepted societal threshold of US$50,000 cost/quality-adjusted life year needed to adopt new technology. PMID:23570436

Hatoum, Hind T; Crawford, E David; Nielsen, Sandy Kildegaard; Lin, Swu-Jane; Marshall, Dennis C

2013-04-01

215

Personalized therapy for urothelial cancer: review of the clinical evidence  

PubMed Central

Despite a detailed understanding of the molecular aberrations driving the development of urothelial cancers, this knowledge has not translated into advances for the treatment of this disease. Urothelial cancers are chemosensitive, and platinum-based combination chemotherapy remains the standard of care for advanced disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for locally advanced disease. However, nearly half of patients who undergo resection of locally advanced urothelial cancer will relapse and eventually develop platinum-resistant disease. Clinical trials of targeted agents against angiogenesis and growth factors, as well as novel chemotheraputics, have generally been unsuccessful in urothelial cancers. Improvements in the theraputic arsenal for urothelial cancer depend upon identification of new targets and strategies to overcome platinum resistance.

Guancial, Elizabeth A.; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.

2012-01-01

216

Systematic review of therapy for neurogenic detrusor overactivity  

PubMed Central

While many neurologic diseases predispose patients to neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), the only populations that have been systematically studied are adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and children and young adults with myelodysplasia. First-line pharmacotherapy for NDO is an anti-muscarinic drug. However, the evidence base for these agents in this indication is poor. There is some high-quality evidence for the efficacy of detrusor injections of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of NDO, with significant reduction in urgency incontinence episodes, improved urodynamic parameters, and improved quality of life. While few adverse events have been reported with this therapy, there is a need for intermittent self-catheterization in these groups.

Fowler, Clare J.

2011-01-01

217

Cardiovascular antioxidant therapy: a review of supplements, pharmacotherapies, and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Oxidant stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the late 1980s, biological studies demonstrated that oxygen-free radicals oxidize low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, resulting in the creation of foam cells and inciting the cascade of biological events that ultimately result in the formation of atherosclerosis. In vitro studies showed the ability of antioxidant vitamins to scavenge free radicals and block the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. This data was supported in vivo by early observational studies suggesting the benefit of antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, in the prevention of coronary artery disease. On the basis of these studies, the use of antioxidant supplements by the general population increased substantially and became a multibillion dollar industry. Despite strong biological evidence and promising observational data, more rigorous scientific evaluation did not support a causational relationship between vitamin supplements and lowering coronary artery disease risk. Several prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials showed no benefit and possibly harmful effects. Therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins, which are known to have benefit in preventing and treating atherosclerosis by reducing blood pressure and cholesterol, also have a "pleiotropic" effect in reducing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Advances in molecular biology and the study of ROS led to a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern their production and role in atherogenesis. This progress identified unforeseen pathways by which these drugs favorably alter the balance in ROS production, and have raised possibilities for future targeted therapies in the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:22293859

Tinkel, Jodi; Hassanain, Hamdy; Khouri, Samer J

218

Glatiramer acetate therapy for multiple sclerosis: a review.  

PubMed

The past decade has witnessed a revolution in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common demyelinating disorder of the human CNS. After being considered as an untreatable disease for more than a century, six disease-modifying treatments have been approved between 1993 and 2006. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a worldwide drug approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS in 1996. The drug is a synthetic copolymer of four amino acids based on the composition of myelin basic protein, one of several putative autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MS. Three separate double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have established its efficacy in relapsing-remitting MS. Observations from an ongoing study, the longest prospective study in MS therapeutics so far, suggest that the effect of GA in reducing the relapse rate and neurological disability is maintained over a 10-year period. Independent investigators have identified several putative immunological mechanisms of action of GA, with the unique observation of the generation of GA-reactive T-helper 2 (anti-inflammatory) polarised lymphocytes within days to weeks of initiating therapy and sustaining an anti-inflammatory milieu for years in the peripheral immune system and, presumably, in the CNS. Emerging data from immunological and imaging studies quantifying axonal injury in the brain point towards neuroprotective abilities of GA. Combined with its remarkable safety and tolerability, long-term efficacy and neuroprotective effect, GA presents it self as a first-line choice in relapsing-remitting MS, and holds immense promise in developing its potential as a combination therapy in MS, as well as extending its indications to other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17125414

Perumal, Jai; Filippi, Massimo; Ford, Corey; Johnson, Kenneth; Lisak, Robert; Metz, Luanne; Tselis, Alexandros; Tullman, Mark; Khan, Omar

2006-12-01

219

TOPICAL REVIEW: Recent developments of diamond detectors for particles and UV radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond's many extreme properties, such as its radiation and corrosion resistance, large bandgap, high electron and hole mobility, make it an attractive semiconductor for UV and particle detectors. This paper reviews the properties that are exploited by the latest generation of detectors, such as the radiation hardness and detection mechanisms, and those which are less well understood, such as grain boundaries and priming effects. The UV and particle detectors and dosimeters that have been reported in the last few years are described and briefly assessed.

Mainwood, Alison

2000-09-01

220

Disagreement in primary study selection between systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) regarding their agreement in primary study selection. Methods This retrospective analysis was conducted within the framework of a systematic review (a full review and a subsequent rapid report) on NPWT prepared by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). For the IQWiG review and rapid report, 4 bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL) were searched to identify systematic reviews and primary studies on NPWT versus conventional wound therapy in patients with acute or chronic wounds. All databases were searched from inception to December 2006. For the present analysis, reviews on NPWT were classified as eligible systematic reviews if multiple sources were systematically searched and the search strategy was documented. To ensure comparability between reviews, only reviews published in or after December 2004 and only studies published before June 2004 were considered. Eligible reviews were compared in respect of the methodology applied and the selection of primary studies. Results A total of 5 systematic reviews (including the IQWiG review) and 16 primary studies were analysed. The reviews included between 4 and 13 primary studies published before June 2004. Two reviews considered only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Three reviews considered both RCTs and non-RCTs. The overall agreement in study selection between reviews was 96% for RCTs (24 of 25 options) and 57% for non-RCTs (12 of 21 options). Due to considerable disagreement in the citation and selection of non-RCTs, we contacted the review authors for clarification (this was not initially planned); all authors or institutions responded. According to published information and the additional information provided, most differences between reviews arose from variations in inclusion criteria or inter-author study classification, as well as from different reporting styles (citation or non-citation) for excluded studies. Conclusion The citation and selection of primary studies differ between systematic reviews on NPWT, particularly with regard to non-RCTs. Uniform methodological and reporting standards need to be applied to ensure comparability between reviews as well as the validity of their conclusions.

Peinemann, Frank; McGauran, Natalie; Sauerland, Stefan; Lange, Stefan

2008-01-01

221

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies - an annotated bibliography. Part 1: Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with acupuncture. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of acupuncture; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pretested form and summarized descriptively. Results From a total of 48 potentially relevant reviews preselected in a screeening process 39 met the inclusion criteria. 22 were on various pain syndromes or rheumatic diseases. Other topics addressed by more than one review were addiction, nausea, asthma and tinnitus. Almost unanimously the reviews state that acupuncture trials include too few patients. Often included trials are heterogeneous regarding patients, interventions and outcome measures, are considered to have insufficient quality and contradictory results. Convincing evidence is available only for postoperative nausea, for which acupuncture appears to be of benefit, and smoking cessation, where acupuncture is no more effective than sham acupuncture. Conclusions A large number of systematic reviews on acupuncture exists. What is most obvious from these reviews is the need for (the funding of) well-designed, larger clinical trials.

Linde, Klaus; Vickers, Andrew; Hondras, Maria; ter Riet, Gerben; Thormahlen, Johannes; Berman, Brian; Melchart, Dieter

2001-01-01

222

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies - an annotated bibliography. Part 2: Herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of herbal medicines; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pre-tested form and summarized descriptively. Results From a total of 79 potentially relevant reviews pre-selected in the screening process 58 met the inclusion criteria. Thirty of the reports reviewed ginkgo (for dementia, intermittent claudication, tinnitus, and macular degeneration), hypericum (for depression) or garlic preparations (for cardiovascular risk factors and lower limb atherosclerosis). The quality of primary studies was criticized in the majority of the reviews. Most reviews judged the available evidence as promising but definitive conclusions were rarely possible. Conclusions Systematic reviews are available on a broad range of herbal preparations prescribed for defined conditions. There is very little evidence on the effectiveness of herbalism as practised by specialist herbalists who combine herbs and use unconventional diagnosis.

Linde, Klaus; ter Riet, Gerben; Hondras, Maria; Vickers, Andrew; Saller, Reinhard; Melchart, Dieter

2001-01-01

223

Method for the systematic reviews on occupational therapy and early intervention and early childhood services.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews of literature relevant to early intervention and early childhood services are important to the practice of occupational therapy. We describe the five questions that served as the focus for the systematic reviews of the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions in early intervention and early childhood services. We include the background for the reviews; the process followed for each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. The final number of articles included in each systematic review; a summary of the themes of the results; the strengths and limitations of the findings; and implications for practice, education, and research are presented. PMID:23791313

Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah; Berlanstein, Debra R

224

Physiological Adjustments to Stress Measures Following Massage Therapy: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Use of massage therapy by the general public has increased substantially in recent years. In light of the popularity of massage therapy for stress reduction, a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature is important to summarize the effectiveness of this modality on stress-reactive physiological measures. On-line databases were searched for articles relevant to both massage therapy and stress. Articles were included in this review if (i) the massage therapy account consisted of manipulation of soft tissues and was conducted by a trained therapist, and (ii) a dependent measure to evaluate physiological stress was reported. Hormonal and physical parameters are reviewed. A total of 25 studies met all inclusion criteria. A majority of studies employed a 20–30 min massage administered twice-weekly over 5 weeks with evaluations conducted pre-post an individual session (single treatment) or following a series of sessions (multiple treatments). Single treatment reductions in salivary cortisol and heart rate were consistently noted. A sustained reduction for these measures was not supported in the literature, although the single-treatment effect was repeatable within a study. To date, the research data is insufficient to make definitive statements regarding the multiple treatment effect of massage therapy on urinary cortisol or catecholamines, but some evidence for a positive effect on diastolic blood pressure has been documented. While significant improvement has been demonstrated following massage therapy, the general research body on this topic lacks the necessary scientific rigor to provide a definitive understanding of the effect massage therapy has on many physiological variables associated with stress.

Pollini, Robin A.; Boulanger, Karen; Brooks, Marissa Z.; Teitlebaum, Lesley

2010-01-01

225

Dynamically important wave-particle interactions in solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As plasma waves grow or damp they extract or deposit energy, respectively, and alter the phase-space gradients of particle distributions, perhaps leading to instability or damping of other waves. In addition, wave electric and magnetic fields can scatter particles in both position and velocity, altering their motion and sometimes energizing them or causing them to escape or enter physical regions of interest. Plasma waves can also be used to diagnose plasma properties (e.g., the density and magnetic field strength) and the presence of nonthermal particles. Nevertheless, even though plasma waves can heat, cool, energize, scatter, reflect, and characterize plasma particles the question remains: Are plasma waves actually dynamically important in space plasmas? Here this question is addressed in the context of solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling by considering multiple regions where plasma waves might be dynamically important. These include: the slowing of the solar wind upstream of the bow shock associated with Fermi acceleration; heating and thermalization at the bow shock; limitation of the electron and ion temperature anisotropies and electron heat flux in the solar wind and magnetosheath; heating, flows, and particle acceleration in magnetic reconnection regions in Earth's magnetotail and magnetopause; precipitation of radiation belt particles into the loss cone and thence the ionosphere; and the development of auroral plasma cavities. In each case existing observations and theory are reviewed and compared, focusing on the importance to the plasma dynamics of plasma waves versus ``static'' macroscopic fields and other effects.

Cairns, Iver

2012-07-01

226

The Therapeutic Relationship in E-Therapy for Mental Health: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background E-therapy is defined as a licensed mental health care professional providing mental health services via e-mail, video conferencing, virtual reality technology, chat technology, or any combination of these. The use of e-therapy has been rapidly expanding in the last two decades, with growing evidence suggesting that the provision of mental health services over the Internet is both clinically efficacious and cost effective. Yet there are still unanswered concerns about e-therapy, including whether it is possible to develop a successful therapeutic relationship over the Internet in the absence of nonverbal cues. Objective Our objective in this study was to systematically review the therapeutic relationship in e-therapy. Methods We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL through August 2011. Information on study methods and results was abstracted independently by the authors using a standardized form. Results From the 840 reviewed studies, only 11 (1.3%) investigated the therapeutic relationship. The majority of the reviewed studies were focused on the therapeutic alliance—a central element of the therapeutic relationship. Although the results do not allow firm conclusions, they indicate that e-therapy seems to be at least equivalent to face-to-face therapy in terms of therapeutic alliance, and that there is a relationship between the therapeutic alliance and e-therapy outcome. Conclusions Overall, the current literature on the role of therapeutic relationship in e-therapy is scant, and much more research is needed to understand the therapeutic relationship in online environments.

Schnur, Julie B; Constantino, Michael J; Miller, Sarah J; Brackman, Emily H; Montgomery, Guy H

2012-01-01

227

Management and therapy of vasovagal syncope: A review  

PubMed Central

Vasovagal syncope is a common cause of recurrent syncope. Clinically, these episodes may present as an isolated event with an identifiable trigger, or manifest as a cluster of recurrent episodes warranting intensive evaluation. The mechanism of vasovagal syncope is incompletely understood. Diagnostic tools such as implantable loop recorders may facilitate the identification of patients with arrhythmia mimicking benign vasovagal syncope. This review focuses on the management of vasovagal syncope and discusses the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options, especially the use of midodrine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The role of cardiac pacing may be meaningful for a subgroup of patients who manifest severe bradycardia or asystole but this still remains controversial.

Aydin, Muhammet Ali; Salukhe, Tushar V; Wilke, Iris; Willems, Stephan

2010-01-01

228

A review and update on melanocyte stimulating hormone therapy: afamelanotide.  

PubMed

Afamelanotide ([Nle4-D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH) is an analog of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone given as a subcutaneous injection. Afamelanotide is currently undergoing phase II and III trials in Europe and the US for skin diseases including vitiligo, erythropoietic protoporphyria, polymorphic light eruption and prevention of actinic keratoses in organ transplant recipients. Unregulated analogs and chemicals are being sold online ahead of formal approval. A number of counterfeit chemicals, 'Melanotans' are being sold for tanning purposes. Currently, afamelanotide is already on the market in Italy and Switzerland for patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. This paper will review the current literature on this promising compound. PMID:23884489

Fabrikant, Jordan; Touloei, Khasha; Brown, Stuart M

2013-07-01

229

A systematic review of vinpocetine therapy in acute ischaemic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether vinpocetine decreases short- and long-term case fatality and proportion of dependent survivors if administered\\u000a within 2?weeks of stroke onset.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: All published and unpublished trials were attempted to be identified using the standard search strategy of the Cochrane\\u000a Collaboration Stroke Review Group, using MEDLINE searches performed with all known manufacturer code names and trade names\\u000a of

D. Bereczki; I. Fekete

1999-01-01

230

Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy: A comparative study of heating for different particle types  

PubMed Central

Introduction Near infrared absorbing plasmonic nanoparticles enhance photothermal therapy of tumors. In this procedure, systemically delivered gold nanoparticles preferentially accumulate at the tumor site and when irradiated using laser light, produce localized heat sufficient to damage tumor cells. Gold nanoshells and nanorods have been widely studied for this purpose, and while both exhibit strong NIR absorption, their overall absorption and scattering properties differ widely due to their geometry. In this paper, we compared the photothermal response of both nanoparticle types including the heat generation and photothermal efficiency. Methods Tissue simulating phantoms, with varying concentrations of gold nanoparticles, were irradiated with a near-infrared diode laser while concurrently monitoring the surface temperature with an infrared camera. We calculated nanoshell and nanorod optical properties using the Mie solution and the discrete dipole approximation, respectively. In addition, we measured the heat generation of nanoshells and nanorods at the same optical density to determine the photothermal transduction efficiency for both nanoparticle types. Results We found that the gold nanoshells produced more heat than gold nanorods at equivalent number densities (# of nanoparticles/mL), whereas the nanorods generated more heat than nanoshells at equivalent extinction values at the irradiance wavelength. To reach an equivalent heat generation, we found that it was necessary to have ~36x more nanorods than nanoshells. However, the gold nanorods were found to have two times the photothermal transduction efficiency than the gold nanoshells. Conclusion For the NPs tested, the nanoshells generated more heat, per nanoparticle, than nanorods, primarily due to their overall larger geometric cross section. Conversely, we found that the gold nanorods had a higher photothermal efficiency than the gold nanoshells. In conclusion, the ideal choice of plasmonic nanoparticle requires not only per particle efficiency, but also the in vivo particle targeting ability under study.

Pattani, Varun P.

2012-01-01

231

Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Wound Healing in Human Subjects: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This systematic review summarises the efficacy of infrared low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in human subjects.\\u000a In order to retrieve randomised clinical trials, we performed computer-aided searches of databases and bibliographic indexes.\\u000a Furthermore, congress reports, reviews and handbooks were checked for relevant citations. Subsequently, all retrieved and\\u000a masked studies were scored on methodological quality. We found four

C. Lucas; R. W. Stanborough; C. L. Freeman; R. J. De Haan

2000-01-01

232

Robot therapy: a new approach for mental healthcare of the elderly - a mini-review.  

PubMed

Mental healthcare of elderly people is a common problem in advanced countries. Recently, high technology has developed robots for use not only in factories but also for our living environment. In particular, human-interactive robots for psychological enrichment, which provide services by interacting with humans while stimulating their minds, are rapidly spreading. Such robots not only simply entertain but also render assistance, guide, provide therapy, educate, enable communication, and so on. Robot therapy, which uses robots as a substitution for animals in animal-assisted therapy and activity, is a new application of robots and is attracting the attention of many researchers and psychologists. The seal robot named Paro was developed especially for robot therapy and was used at hospitals and facilities for elderly people in several countries. Recent research has revealed that robot therapy has the same effects on people as animal therapy. In addition, it is being recognized as a new method of mental healthcare for elderly people. In this mini review, we introduce the merits and demerits of animal therapy. Then we explain the human-interactive robot for psychological enrichment, the required functions for therapeutic robots, and the seal robot. Finally, we provide examples of robot therapy for elderly people, including dementia patients. PMID:20639620

Shibata, Takanori; Wada, Kazuyoshi

2010-07-15

233

Anticoagulant therapy for ischemic stroke: A review of literature  

PubMed Central

For many years, anticoagulants have been used in the emergent treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Anticoagulants are prescribed in an effort to prevent first or recurrent stroke, especially among patients with cardioembolism due to arterial fibrillation and large-artery atherosclerotic disease. Despite the widespread use, efficacy and safety of anticoagulants are controversial. Experts have given a broad spectrum of opinions. Surveys of practitioners have also demonstrated a lack of consensus on the use of anticoagulants for ischemic stroke. The uncertainty is due, in large part, to the lack of definitive clinical data. A review by the panel of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association found no strong evidence for effectiveness of anticoagulants in treating acute ischemic stroke. Several clinical trials have suggested that utility of emergent anticoagulation has no significant effect in improving clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the present review, we have attempted to provide a framework for the emergent use of anticoagulants in acute ischemic stroke patients.

Shahpouri, Mohammad Mehdi; Mousavi, Seyed; Khorvash, Faribourz; Mousavi, Seyed Morteza; Hoseini, Tahereh

2012-01-01

234

Anticoagulant therapy for ischemic stroke: A review of literature.  

PubMed

For many years, anticoagulants have been used in the emergent treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Anticoagulants are prescribed in an effort to prevent first or recurrent stroke, especially among patients with cardioembolism due to arterial fibrillation and large-artery atherosclerotic disease. Despite the widespread use, efficacy and safety of anticoagulants are controversial. Experts have given a broad spectrum of opinions. Surveys of practitioners have also demonstrated a lack of consensus on the use of anticoagulants for ischemic stroke. The uncertainty is due, in large part, to the lack of definitive clinical data. A review by the panel of the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association found no strong evidence for effectiveness of anticoagulants in treating acute ischemic stroke. Several clinical trials have suggested that utility of emergent anticoagulation has no significant effect in improving clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the present review, we have attempted to provide a framework for the emergent use of anticoagulants in acute ischemic stroke patients. PMID:23267405

Shahpouri, Mohammad Mehdi; Mousavi, Seyed; Khorvash, Faribourz; Mousavi, Seyed Morteza; Hoseini, Tahereh

2012-04-01

235

[Androgenetic alopecia : Diagnosis and therapy- a current review].  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is among the most frequent diagnoses in a hair clinic. Multiple studies prove that life quality is significantly impaired in affected individuals, independent of severity, age or gender. A thorough and standardized diagnostic approach to AGA in women, men and children is an essential step in developing a successful therapeutic concept. Treatment options range from topical and systemic medications to cosmetic products, nutricosmetics, hair transplantation and other aesthetic-corrective approaches. The physician and patient must decide together on the best suited individualized therapy, considering the expected results, practicality and compliance. Further interdisciplinary evaluation must be decided individually, as must the development of coping strategies and the decision to employ psychological support. A professional atmosphere and sensitive approach to an emotionally difficult situation help develop a trusting relationship between patient and physician, which in turn leads to greater satisfaction and compliance. The S1 guidelines for diagnosis and the S3 guidelines for treatment of AGA offer the treating physician important tools for the successful evidence-based management of patients. PMID:24177664

Blume-Peytavi, U; Vogt, A

2013-11-01

236

Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a prevailing health problem that seriously impacts quality of life. Current treatment options are less effective for patients having cavernous nerve (CN) injury or diabetes mellitus-related ED. These 2 types of ED are thus the main focus of past and current stem cell (SC) therapy studies. In a total of 16 studies so far, rats were exclusively used as disease models and SCs were mostly derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle. For tracking, SCs were labeled with LacZ, green fluorescent protein, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DiI, bromodeoxyuridine, or 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine, some of which might have led to data misinterpretation. SC transplantation was done exclusively by intracavernous (IC) injection, which has been recently shown to have systemic effects. Functional assessment was done exclusively by measuring increases of IC pressure during electrostimulation of CN. Histological assessment usually focused on endothelial, smooth muscle, and CN contents in the penis. In general, favorable outcomes have been obtained in all trials so far, although whether SCs had differentiated into specific cell lineages remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that intracavernously injected SCs rapidly escaped the penis and homed into bone marrow. This could perhaps explain why intracavernously injected SCs had systemic antidiabetic effects and prolonged anti-ED effects. These hypotheses and the differentiation-versus-paracrine debate require further investigation.

Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Wang, Zhong; Deng, Chunhua; Huang, Yun-Ching; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.

2012-01-01

237

Manual therapy with and without vestibular rehabilitation for cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Manual therapy is an intervention commonly advocated in the management of dizziness of a suspected cervical origin. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises have been shown to be effective in the treatment of unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders, and have also been suggested in the literature as an adjunct in the treatment of cervicogenic dizziness. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for manual therapy, in conjunction with or without vestibular rehabilitation, in the management of cervicogenic dizziness. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in the databases Scopus, Mantis, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library for terms related to manual therapy, vestibular rehabilitation and cervicogenic dizziness. Included studies were assessed using the Maastricht-Amsterdam criteria. Results A total of fifteen articles reporting findings from thirteen unique investigations, including five randomised controlled trials and eight prospective, non-controlled cohort studies were included in this review. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally poor to moderate. All but one study reported improvement in dizziness following either unimodal or multimodal manual therapy interventions. Some studies reported improvements in postural stability, joint positioning, range of motion, muscle tenderness, neck pain and vertebrobasilar artery blood flow velocity. Discussion Although it has been argued that manual therapy combined with vestibular rehabilitation may be superior in the treatment of cervicogenic dizziness, there are currently no observational and experimental studies demonstrating such effects. A rationale for combining manual therapy and vestibular rehabilitation in the management of cervicogenic dizziness is presented. Conclusion There is moderate evidence to support the use of manual therapy, in particular spinal mobilisation and manipulation, for cervicogenic dizziness. The evidence for combining manual therapy and vestibular rehabilitation in the management of cervicogenic dizziness is lacking. Further research to elucidate potential synergistic effects of manual therapy and vestibular rehabilitation is strongly recommended.

2011-01-01

238

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarize the evidence for curative and health enhancement effects through forest therapy and to assess the quality of studies based on a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Study design A systematic review based on RCTs. Methods Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which forest therapy was applied. The following databases – from 1990 to November 9, 2010 – were searched: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Ichushi- Web. All Cochrane databases and Campbell Systematic Reviews were also searched up to November 9, 2010. Results Two trials met all inclusion criteria. No specific diseases were evaluated, and both studies reported significant effectiveness in one or more outcomes for health enhancement. However, the results of evaluations with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 2010 and CLEAR NPT (A Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial) checklists generally showed a remarkable lack of description in the studies. Furthermore, there was a problem of heterogeneity, thus a meta-analysis was unable to be performed. Conclusion Because there was insufficient evidence on forest therapy due to poor methodological and reporting quality and heterogeneity of RCTs, it was not possible to offer any conclusions about the effects of this intervention. However, it was possible to identify problems with current RCTs of forest therapy, and to propose a strategy for strengthening study quality and stressing the importance of study feasibility and original check items based on characteristics of forest therapy as a future research agenda.

Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Mutoh, Yoshiteru; Honda, Takuya; Shiozawa, Nobuyoshi; Okada, Shinpei; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Kamada, Masamitsu; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Handa, Shuichi

2012-01-01

239

Management and therapy of vasovagal syncope: A review.  

PubMed

Vasovagal syncope is a common cause of recurrent syncope. Clinically, these episodes may present as an isolated event with an identifiable trigger, or manifest as a cluster of recurrent episodes warranting intensive evaluation. The mechanism of vasovagal syncope is incompletely understood. Diagnostic tools such as implantable loop recorders may facilitate the identification of patients with arrhythmia mimicking benign vasovagal syncope. This review focuses on the management of vasovagal syncope and discusses the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options, especially the use of midodrine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The role of cardiac pacing may be meaningful for a subgroup of patients who manifest severe bradycardia or asystole but this still remains controversial. PMID:21160608

Aydin, Muhammet Ali; Salukhe, Tushar V; Wilke, Iris; Willems, Stephan

2010-10-26

240

Melanoma: molecular pathogenesis and emerging target therapies (Review).  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor of the skin with a poor prognosis for patients with advanced disease. It is resistant to current therapeutic approaches. In melanoma, both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and the PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways are constitutively activated through multiple mechanisms. Mutations of BRAF have been proposed to contribute to melanoma development. Increased activity of the MAPK pathway prevents apoptosis and induces cell cycle progression. PTEN deletion results in Akt activation. Akt activation can result in the phosphorylation and inactivation of Raf. This decrease in downstream MEK and ERK activation may lead to loss of differentiation or senescence. This review summarizes the most relevant studies focused on the signalling pathways involved in melanomagenesis. New therapeutic strategies are also reported. PMID:19424565

Russo, Alessia E; Torrisi, Elena; Bevelacqua, Ylenia; Perrotta, Rosario; Libra, Massimo; McCubrey, James A; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Stivala, Franca; Malaponte, Grazia

2009-06-01

241

Targeted therapies in small cell lung cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive form of lung cancer that is characterized by a rapid doubling time, early onset of dissemination and high sensitivity to chemotherapy. Despite the potential for cure in patients with limited disease with concurrent chemoradiation and an initial good response to chemotherapy in extensive disease, there is a high chance of disease relapse with an overall poor median survival for both stages. With increasing translational research and a better understanding of the molecular basis of cancer, a number of molecular targets have been identified in various preclinical studies. This review summarizes potentially viable targets and new agents that have been developed and employed in recent, ongoing and future clinical trials to attempt to improve clinical outcomes in this disease. PMID:21789124

Abidin, Aidalena Z; Garassino, Marina C; Califano, Raffaele; Harle, Amelie; Blackhall, Fiona

2010-01-01

242

Targeted therapies in small cell lung cancer: a review  

PubMed Central

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive form of lung cancer that is characterized by a rapid doubling time, early onset of dissemination and high sensitivity to chemotherapy. Despite the potential for cure in patients with limited disease with concurrent chemoradiation and an initial good response to chemotherapy in extensive disease, there is a high chance of disease relapse with an overall poor median survival for both stages. With increasing translational research and a better understanding of the molecular basis of cancer, a number of molecular targets have been identified in various preclinical studies. This review summarizes potentially viable targets and new agents that have been developed and employed in recent, ongoing and future clinical trials to attempt to improve clinical outcomes in this disease.

Abidin, Aidalena Z.; Garassino, Marina C.; Califano, Raffaele; Harle, Amelie; Blackhall, Fiona

2010-01-01

243

Adherence to nutritional therapy in obese adolescents; a review.  

PubMed

Considering the controversies existent on the subject, the aim of this review is to discuss adherence to diet in obese adolescents. The selection of articles was made in the SCOPUS, COCHRANE, APA Psyc Net, SciELO, LILACS, CAPES Journals, PUBMED/MEDLINE and GOOGLE ACADEMIC databases. Studies published between 2002 and 2012 were selected. There was lack of evidence of conceptual discussion about adherence to diet in obesity in the child-youth context, in addition to scarcity of data on adherence to diet itself in obese adolescents and the methods of evaluating this. Lastly, multiple interdependent factors were found which both facilitated and made the process of adherence to diet difficult for obese youngsters. The majority of these (factors) belong to the socioeconomic and cultural dimension, in addition to pointing out cognitive and psychological factors and those associated with health services and professionals. PMID:23889613

França, Silvana Lima Guimarães; Sahade, Viviane; Nunes, Mônica; Adan, Luis F

244

Chromatic energy filter and characterization of laser-accelerated proton beams for particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of laser accelerated protons or ions for particle therapy has to cope with relatively large energy and angular spreads as well as possibly significant random fluctuations. We suggest a method for combined focusing and energy selection, which is an effective alternative to the commonly considered dispersive energy selection by magnetic dipoles. Our method is based on the chromatic effect of a magnetic solenoid (or any other energy dependent focusing device) in combination with an aperture to select a certain energy width defined by the aperture radius. It is applied to an initial 6D phase space distribution of protons following the simulation output from a Radiation Pressure Acceleration model. Analytical formula for the selection aperture and chromatic emittance are confirmed by simulation results using the TRACEWIN code. The energy selection is supported by properly placed scattering targets to remove the imprint of the chromatic effect on the beam and to enable well-controlled and shot-to-shot reproducible energy and transverse density profiles.

Hofmann, Ingo; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jürgen; Yan, Xueqing; Al-Omari, Husam

2012-07-01

245

Measurement of Automotive Non-Volatile Particle Number Emissions within the European Legislative Framework: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2011 the European Commission introduced a limit for non-volatile particle number (PN) emissions >23 nm from light-duty vehicles and the stated intent is to implement similar legislation for on-road heavy-duty engines at the next legislative stage. This paper reviews the recent literature regarding the operation-dependent emission of PN from light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty engines, and the measurement procedure used

BAROUCH GIECHASKIEL; ATHANASIOS MAMAKOS; JON ANDERSSON; PANAGIOTA DILARA; GIORGIO MARTINI; WOLFGANG SCHINDLER; ALEXANDER BERGMANN

2012-01-01

246

Possible adverse events in children treated by manual therapy: a review  

PubMed Central

Background Pediatric manual therapy is controversial within the medical community particularly with respect to adverse events. Pediatric manual therapy (Ped MT) is commonly used by a number of professions such as chiropractors, osteopaths and naturopaths for a variety of treatments in children. Ped MT interventions range from advice, light touch, massage, through to mobilisation and high velocity spinal manipulation. However, current evidence related to adverse events associated with Ped MT is not well understood. Objective To update the clinical research literature from the 2007 report by Vohra, Johnston, Cramer and Humphreys on possible adverse events in children treated by spinal manipulation. Methods A review of the clinical research literature from June 2004 until January 2010 as reported in MEDLINE, PubMed and PubMed Central for adverse events specifically related to the treatment of pediatric cases by manual therapy. Results Only three new clinical studies, one systematic review with meta-analysis and one evidence report were identified. Two clinical studies reported on chiropractic care and one on osteopathic spinal manipulation in children. The systematic review investigated all studies of adverse events and manual therapy and was not specific for pediatric patients. The evidence review focused on effectiveness of spinal manipulation in a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. No serious or catastrophic adverse events were reported in the clinical studies or systematic review. However for adults, it has been estimated that between 0.003% and 0.13% of manual therapy treatments may result in a serious adverse event. Although mild to moderate adverse events are common in adults, an accurate estimate from high quality pediatric studies is currently not available. Conclusions There is currently insufficient research evidence related to adverse events and manual therapy. However, clinical studies and systematic reviews from adult patients undergoing manual therapy, particularly spinal manipulation report that mild to moderate adverse events are common and self limiting. However serious adverse events are rare and much less than for medication commonly prescribed for these problems. More high quality research specifically addressing adverse events and pediatric manual therapy is needed.

2010-01-01

247

Conference Report Current limitations of antiepileptic drug therapy: a conference review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current limitations of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy were the topic of a discussion group meeting at the 5th European Congress on Epileptology, Madrid, 6-10 October 2002. This review contains four short papers covering the topics discussed by the speakers at this meeting and an account of the ensuing discussion with all participants. The meeting focused on four issues. (i)

C. L. P. Deckers; P. Genton; G. J. Sills; D. Schmidt

248

Photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer—a review of current status and future promise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debate is ongoing about the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer, particularly in men who have low-risk disease detected by PSA screening. A balance is needed between the harms and benefits of treatment. New techniques are being developed that aim to offer similar treatment effects to current radical therapies, while reducing the associated harmful effects of these treatments. In this Review,

Doug Pendse; Mark Emberton; Caroline M Moore

2009-01-01

249

Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

2013-01-01

250

Complementary and alternative therapies for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system without a known cure. Thus the role of complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) for the management of symptoms lies in palliative care and this is borne out by the popularity of these treatments amongst MS sufferers.This review is aimed at determining whether this use is supported by evidence

A. Huntley; E. Ernst

2000-01-01

251

Effectiveness of smoking cessation therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of premature deaths. Several pharmacological interventions now exist to aid smokers in cessation. These include Nicotine Replacement Therapy [NRT], bupropion, and varenicline. We aimed to assess their relative efficacy in smoking cessation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched 10 electronic medical databases (inception to Sept. 2006) and bibliographies of

Ping Wu; Kumanan Wilson; Popey Dimoulas; Edward J Mills

2006-01-01

252

Hypoalgesia post-manipulative therapy: a review of a potential neurophysiological mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. This article provides a review of the available scientific evidence related to the structure and function of descending pain inhibitory systems projecting from the periaqueductal gray region to the spinal cord. The importance of these systems in the phenomenon of endogenous analgesia is discussed. The theory that the initial pain-relieving effect of manual therapy procedures may involve activation of

A. Wright

1995-01-01

253

Cost-Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in the United Kingdom—A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and assess all prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies carried out in the UK. Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Amed (Alternative and Allied Medicine Database, British Library Medical Information Centre), The Cochrane Library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (via Cochrane) and Health Technology Assessments up to

Peter H. Canter; Joanna Thompson Coon; Edzard Ernst; Exeter Devon

2006-01-01

254

Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Review and Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common can- cer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Accumulating evidence indicates that postmenopausal hormone therapy may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in women. METHODS: Through MEDLINE computer searches (January 1966 to September 1998) and a review of references, we identi- fied English-language articles with quantitative

Francine Grodstein; Polly A. Newcomb; Meir J. Stampfer

255

Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a systematic review of process-and-outcome studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become an interesting alternative for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Research has focused on the efficacy of VRET in treating anxiety disorders: phobias, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this systematic review, strict methodological criteria are used to give an overview of the controlled trials regarding the efficacy of VRET

Katharina Meyerbröker; Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

2010-01-01

256

Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions on functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: A search was made in Medline, Cinahl, PEDro and the Cochrane library for the period 1990 to February 2007. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PT interventions in children with diagnosed CP were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality

Heidi Anttila; Ilona Autti-Rämö; Jutta Suoranta; Marjukka Mäkelä; Antti Malmivaara

2008-01-01

257

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Somatization and Symptom Syndromes: A Critical Review of Controlled Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few treatments for somatization have been proven effective. In the past decade, however, clinical trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) have been promising. Our aim was to critically review and synthesize the evidence from these trials. Methods: A search of the Medline database from 1966 through July 1999 was conducted to identify controlled trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of

Kurt Kroenke; Ralph Swindle

2000-01-01

258

Constraint-induced movement therapy following stroke: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review investigated the effects on function, quality of life, health care costs, and patient\\/carer satisfaction of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for upper limb hemiparesis following stroke. A comprehensive search of the complete holdings of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PEDro and OTseeker to March 2005 was conducted. Fourteen eligible randomised controlled trials were identified and relevant data extracted

Sharon Hakkennes; Jennifer L Keating

2005-01-01

259

Medical Therapy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the existing evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of medical therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) indicative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess randomised controlled trials investigating the six ?–adrenergic receptor antagonists (?–blockers), prazosin, alfuzosin, indoramin, terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin, that benefit patients by relaxing prostatic smooth muscle, and the anti–androgen, finasteride, that mediates its

G. M. Clifford; R. D. T. Farmer

2000-01-01

260

Republished review: Cardiac stem cell therapy: progress from the bench to bedside.  

PubMed

In the rush to assess the role of stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease the details of translation are easily overlooked. This review summarises the progress to date in translating the exciting preclinical results of cardiac repair into man and considers the questions that this area of research has stimulated about the challenges of moving from bench to bedside. PMID:21788234

Lovell, Matthew J; Mathur, Anthony

2011-08-01

261

A Systematic Review of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for the Treatment of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been proposed as an effective treatment for eating disorders (EDs). We conducted a systematic literature review to locate refereed journal articles testing DBT for the treatment of EDs. We identified 13 studies empirically evaluating treatment efficacy across various settings. Findings, based on mostly uncontrolled trials, indicate that DBT treatments appear effective in addressing ED behaviors

Sarah M. Bankoff; Madeleine G. Karpel; Hope E. Forbes; David W. Pantalone

2012-01-01

262

Neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for resectable esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. The large and growing number of patients affected, the high mortality rates, the worldwide geographic variation in practice, and the large body of good quality research warrants a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Richard A Malthaner; Rebecca KS Wong; R Bryan Rumble; Lisa Zuraw

2004-01-01

263

Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

2013-01-01

264

Hormone replacement therapy and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women—a review by cognitive domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, animal and neuroimaging evidences suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be beneficial to human cognition. This systematic review includes 26 studies on the association between HRT and cognition and 17 studies on HRT and risk of dementia. It was hypothesised that HRT would have a positive association with cognitive speed and verbal memory and possibly visual memory but

Lee-Fay Low; Kaarin J. Anstey

2006-01-01

265

Probiotic therapy for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The recent increase in the number and severity of cases of nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has prompted interest in the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of this disease. We performed a sys- tematic review of randomized controlled trials to assess the ef- fectiveness of probiotic therapy. Methods: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, INAHTA, HEN and

Nandini Dendukuri; Vania Costa; Maurice McGregor; James M. Brophy

2005-01-01

266

Palliative Sedation Therapy in the Last Weeks of Life: A Literature Review and Recommendations for Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Palliative sedation therapy (PST) is a controversial issue. There is a need for inter- nationally accepted definitions and standards. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed by an international panel of 29 palliative care experts. Draft papers were written on various topics concerning PST. This paper is a summary of the individual papers, written after two meetings

Alexander De Graeff; Mervyn Dean

2007-01-01

267

A review of optical imaging and therapy using nanosized graphene and graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Nanosized graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are photoluminescent due to the presence of bandgaps and edges/defects. The excellent photostability of these nanomaterials makes them superior to molecular dyes for biological imaging. They can also produce intensive heat under laser irradiation, enabling them to serve as photothermal agents for cancer treatment. In this work, recent studies on the photoluminescence of these materials, their applications for biological imaging and photothermal cancer therapy are reviewed. Properties of laser, particularly the temporal property (continuous wave or pulsed), affect its interaction with materials. Therefore, the photoluminescence and photothermal effects, as well as their applications under both single (one)-photon (continuous wave laser) and two-photon (pulsed laser) excitation were summarized and analyzed. Synergistic therapy which combines chemotherapy and photothermal therapy using these materials is also reviewed. Finally, critical issues and challenges for further research and in medical applications of these materials are analyzed. PMID:24034502

Li, Jing-Liang; Tang, Bin; Yuan, Bing; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xun-Gai

2013-09-10

268

Evaluation of different fiducial markers for image-guided radiotherapy and particle therapy  

PubMed Central

Modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques are widely used in the irradiation of moving organs. A crucial step in ensuring the correct position of a target structure directly before or during treatment is daily image guidance by computed tomography (CT) or X-ray radiography (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT). Therefore, combinations of modern irradiation devices and imaging, such as on-board imaging (OBI) with X-rays, or in-room CT such as the tomotherapy system, have been developed. Moreover, combinations of linear accelerators and in-room CT-scanners have been designed. IGRT is of special interest in hypofractionated and radiosurgical treatments where high single doses are applied in the proximity of critical organs at risk. Radiographically visible markers in or in close proximity to the target structure may help to reproduce the position during RT and could therefore be used as external surrogates for motion monitoring. Criteria sought for fiducial markers are (i) visibility in the radiologic modalities involved in radiotherapeutic treatment planning and image guidance, such as CT and kilovoltage (kV) OBI), (ii) low production of imaging artifacts, and (iii) low perturbation of the therapeutic dose to the target volume. Photon interaction with interstitial markers has been shown to be not as important as in particle therapy, where interaction of the particle beam, especially with metal markers, can have a significant impact on treatment. This applies especially with a scanned ion beam. Recently we commenced patient recruitment at our institution within the PROMETHEUS trial, which evaluates a hypofractionation regime, starting with 4 x 10 Gy (RBE), for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work is, therefore, to evaluate potential implantable fiducial markers for enabling precise patient and thus organ positioning in scanned ion beams. To transfer existing knowledge of marker application from photon to particle therapy, we used a range of commercially available markers of different forms and sizes, consisting of carbon and gold materials, and evaluated them for their potential use in the clinical setup with scanned ion beams at our institution. All markers were implanted in a standardized Alderson phantom and were examined using CT scans and orthogonal kV OBI in our clinical routine protocol. Impact on beam perturbation downstream of the markers in the plateau region of a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) was estimated by using radiographic films for clinical proton and carbon ion beams of high and low energies. All tested markers achieved good visibility in CT and kV OBI. Disturbances due to artifacts and dose perturbation were highest in the arbitrarily folded gold and the thickest gold marker, but especially low in the carbon marker. Dose perturbation was highest in the arbitrarily folded gold marker. In summary, the analyzed markers offer promising potential for identifying target structures in our treatment setup at HIT and will soon be used in clinical routine. However, a careful choice of marker, depending on the tumor localization and irradiation strategy, will need to be made.

Habermehl, Daniel; Henkner, Katrin; Ecker, Swantje; Jakel, Oliver; Debus, Jurgen; Combs, Stephanie E.

2013-01-01

269

Different Effects of Oral Conjugated Equine Estrogen and Transdermal Estrogen Replacement Therapy on Size and Oxidative Susceptibility of Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) has an antioxidant effect that opposes the oxidation of LDL particles. Oral ERT-induced increases in plasma triglyceride, however, decrease LDL particle size, which may counteract this antioxidant effect. Because transdermal ERT decreases plasma triglyceride, it may not decrease LDL particle size and may preserve estrogen's antioxidant effect. The present study investigates whether transdermal ERT can

Akihiko Wakatsuki; Yuji Okatani; Nobuo Ikenoue; Takao Fukaya

270

Massage as therapy for persons with intellectual disabilities: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Persons with intellectual disabilities record a higher incidence of challenging behaviours than the general population. Massage therapy has frequently been applied to such persons to induce relaxation. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of massage therapy on relaxation and reduction of challenging behaviours. A literature search was conducted through various electronic databases; a total of 64 articles was generated but only seven met all inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of (a) number of participants, (b) study setting, (c) methodology, (d) intervention pattern, (e) outcome measure of the intervention, and (f) major results. Evidence-based literature demonstrating the effectiveness of massage therapy in supporting clinical practice is extremely limited. Case study designs, large amounts of qualitative data and small sample sizes meant that the therapeutic effect of massage therapy could not be substantiated. Hence, future studies with randomized clinical trials or of experimental design are recommended. PMID:21576215

Chan, Jenny Sau-Lai; Tse, Sonny Hing-Min

2011-03-01

271

A review of over-the-counter drug therapy.  

PubMed

The authors review the extent of the use of nonprescription drugs as well as possible variables influencing such consumption. Various studies indicate that age, sex, personality characteristics, perceptions of health status, socioeconomic factors, parental example, and pharmacists all play parts in determining over-the-counter (OTC) drug utilization. Several sources express concern about the inaccessibility of accurate OTC drug information to the consumer. Indeed, even the FDA has occasional difficulty obtaining reliable facts on both the numbers and formulae of such products. Several studies indicate that consumers acquire information about their home remedies through advertising, friends and relatives, physicians, pharmacists, and product labels. By far the most influential of these is advertising, and much concern has been voiced over consumers' unquestioning faith in drug ads. Examples are cited of deceptive, inaccurate, and unfair advertising practices used by some OTC drug manufacturers. The pros and cons of the "drug-oriented society" theory are discussed, including an analysis of its underlying origins. Testing of the safety and efficacy of nonrescription remedies has proved to be controversial, especially when considering the ramifications of the placebo effect. Different surveys report widespread misuse of OTC's by consumers through overuse, taking several drugs concurrently, and using home remedies to treat potentially serious diseases. PMID:500849

Esmay, J B; Wertheimer, A I

1979-01-01

272

Molecularly targeted therapies in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. Most patients present with an advanced stage of disease that has a dismal outcome, with a median survival of approximately 6 months. Evidently, there is a clear need for the development of new agents with novel mechanisms of action in this disease. A number of biological agents modulating different signal transduction pathways are currently in clinical development, inhibiting angiogenesis and targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, cell cycle, matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2, mammalian target of rapamycin, or proteasome. This is the first systematic review of the literature to synthesize all available data coming from trials and evaluate the efficacy and safety of molecular targeted drugs in unresectable and metastatic pancreatic cancer. However, it should be stressed that although multiple agents have been tested, only 9 phase 3 trials have been conducted and one agent (erlotinib) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in clinical practice. As knowledge accumulates on the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis in the pancreas, the anticipated development and assessment of molecularly targeted agents may offer a promising perspective for a disease which, to date, remains incurable. PMID:23774698

Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Zografos, Constantine G; Papadimitriou, Christos A; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios; Filipits, Martin; Bartsch, Rupert

2013-07-01

273

Review: bioanalytical applications of biomolecule-functionalized nanometer-sized doped silica particles.  

PubMed

Recent research has looked to develop innovative and powerful novel biofunctionalized nanometer-sized silica particles, controlling and tailoring their properties in a very predictable manner to meet the needs of specific applications. The silica shells of these particles facilitate a wide variety of surface reactions and allow conjugation with biomolecules like proteins and DNA. There exist a multitude of possible applications of fabricated nanoparticles in biotechnology and medicine. In particular, they have proved to be highly useful for biosensing, assay labelling, bioimaging, and in research on a variety of molecular tags in cellular and molecular biology. Techniques commonly rely on the use of silica-coated semiconductor quantum dots, organic dyes, magnetic particles, and Raman active particles. Inorganic-biological hybrid particles combine the properties of both materials, i.e., the spectroscopic characteristics of the entrapped nanocrystal, and the biomolecular function of the conjugated entity. Rather than being exhaustive, this review focuses on selected examples to illustrate novel concepts and promising applications. Approaches described include the encoding of silica nanoparticles with different groups, and conjugation with various biological entities. Further, promising applications in bioanalysis are considered and discussed. PMID:19576381

Knopp, Dietmar; Tang, Dianping; Niessner, Reinhard

2009-06-06

274

Physical therapies for Achilles tendinopathy: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common condition, causing considerable morbidity in athletes and non-athletes alike. Conservative or physical therapies are accepted as first-line management of AT; however, despite a growing volume of research, there remains a lack of high quality studies evaluating their efficacy. Previous systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence for non-surgical interventions for AT, but lack key quality components as outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Statement. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis (where possible) of the evidence for physical therapies for AT management. Methods A comprehensive strategy was used to search 11 electronic databases from inception to September 2011. Search terms included Achilles, tendinopathy, pain, physical therapies, electrotherapy and exercise (English language full-text publications, human studies). Reference lists of eligible papers were hand-searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they evaluated at least one non-pharmacological, non-surgical intervention for AT using at least one outcome of pain and/or function. Two independent reviewers screened 2852 search results, identifying 23 suitable studies, and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using a modified PEDro scale. Effect size calculation and meta-analyses were based on fixed and random effects models respectively. Results Methodological quality ranged from 2 to 12 (/14). Four studies were excluded due to high risk of bias, leaving 19 studies, the majority of which evaluated midportion AT. Effect sizes from individual RCTs support the use of eccentric exercise. Meta-analyses identified significant effects favouring the addition of laser therapy to eccentric exercise at 12?weeks (pain VAS: standardised mean difference ?0.59, 95% confidence interval ?1.11 to ?0.07), as well as no differences in effect between eccentric exercise and shock wave therapy at 16?weeks (VISA-A:–0.55,–2.21 to 1.11). Pooled data did not support the addition of night splints to eccentric exercise at 12?weeks (VISA-A:–0.35,–1.44 to 0.74). Limited evidence from an individual RCT suggests microcurrent therapy to be an effective intervention. Conclusions Practitioners can consider eccentric exercise as an initial intervention for AT, with the addition of laser therapy as appropriate. Shock wave therapy may represent an effective alternative. High-quality RCTs following CONSORT guidelines are required to further evaluate the efficacy of physical therapies and determine optimal clinical pathways for AT.

2012-01-01

275

Application of stem cells in targeted therapy of breast cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Background: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether stem cells could be effectively applied in targeted therapy of breast cancer. Material and Method: A systematic literature search was performed for original articles published from January 2007 until May 2012. Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria for phase I or II clinical trials, of which three used stem cells as vehicles, two trials used autologous hematopoetic stem cells and in four trials cancer stem cells were targeted. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were applied as cellular vehicles to transfer therapeutic agents. Cell therapy with MSC can successfully target resistant cancers. Cancer stem cells were selectively targeted via a proteasome-dependent suicide gene leading to tumor regression. Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway has been also evidenced to be an attractive CSC-target. Conclusions: This systematic review focused on two different concepts of stem cells and breast cancer marking a turning point in the trials that applied stem cells as cellular vehicles for targeted delivery therapy as well as CSC-targeted therapies. Applying stem cells as targeted therapy could be an effective therapeutic approach for treatment of breast cancer in the clinic and in therapeutic marketing; however this needs to be confirmed with further clinical investigations. PMID:23803033

Madjd, Zahra; Gheytanchi, Elmira; Erfani, Elham; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen

2013-01-01

276

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for treatment of children with autism: a systematic review of randomized trials  

PubMed Central

There is a controversy about the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for the treatment of autism. This study systematically reviews the current evidences for treating of autism with HBO therapy. According to PRISMA guidelines for a systematic review, the databases of MEDLINE/Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Randomised Controlled Trials in Hyperbaric Medicine were electronically searched. In addition, medical subject heading terms and text words for hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autism were used. The main inclusion criteria were published studies which reported the original data from the trials conducted on the patients with autism and assessed outcomes with a valid and reliable instrument. A quality assessment was also conducted. The electronically search resulted in 18 title of publications. Two studies were randomized, double-blind, controlled-clinical trials. While some uncontrolled and controlled studies suggested that HBO therapy is effective for the treatment of autism, these promising effects are not replicated. Therefore, sham-controlled studies with rigorous methodology are required to be conducted in order to provide scientific evidence-based HBO therapy for autism treatment.

2012-01-01

277

May-Thurner syndrome: case report and review of the literature involving modern endovascular therapy.  

PubMed

May-Thurner syndrome is a rare clinical entity involving venous obstruction of the left lower extremity. Obstruction occurs secondary to compression of the left common iliac vein between the right common iliac artery and the underlying vertebral body. Current management largely involves endovascular therapy. A review was conducted of six studies containing at least five patients with May-Thurner syndrome treated by endovascular therapy. We compiled data on 113 patients, analyzing patient demographics, treatment details, and outcome. An 18-year-old female presented 1 week after the onset of left lower extremity pain and swelling. Duplex ultrasonography revealed extensive left-sided deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Thrombolysis followed by iliac vein stent placement restored patency to the venous system, with subsequent resolution of symptoms. Review of 113 patients revealed that the majority were females (72%) presenting with DVT (77%), most of which was acute in onset (73%). Therapy consisted of catheter-directed thrombolysis and subsequent stent placement in the majority of patients, resulting in a mean technical success of 95% and a mean 1-year patency of 96%. Endovascular therapy is the current mainstay of treatment for May-Thurner syndrome. Review of the current literature supports treatment via catheter-directed thrombolysis followed by stent placement with good early results. PMID:19909680

Moudgill, Neil; Hager, Eric; Gonsalves, Carin; Larson, Robert; Lombardi, Joseph; DiMuzio, Paul

278

Tinted lenses and related therapies for learning disabilities--a review.  

PubMed

Research relating to the use of Irlen tinted lenses and coloured overlays for underachievers is reviewed. Many of the studies were not published in refereed journals and were methodologically poor. The weaknesses of the Irlen argument are discussed, including the absence of evidence to support the claims that these tints need to be uniquely prescribed and manufactured. Syntonics is another form of visual colour therapy that has been applied to those with a learning disability. Research on this is reviewed, and is also shown to have procedural irregularities which preclude firm conclusions. Owing to the poor quality of much of this research the claims of the protagonists of these therapies cannot be proved or disproved. A proposed new therapy is normally preceded by a valid theoretical hypothesis; this has been lacking in the present topic. Recently, a feasible explanation has been proposed in terms of 'pattern glare' resulting from mild hypersensitivity to epileptogenic patterns. This, together with potential alternative theories, is discussed. In the conclusion of this review, advice is given for eye-care practitioners who may be consulted on these therapies. PMID:1766684

Evans, B J; Drasdo, N

1991-07-01

279

New therapies for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a review of current clinical trials.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common problem in clinical practice and one of the most common complications in diabetic patients, often leading to amputation and hospitalization. Although there are a number of options for coadjuvant therapy for diabetic foot ulcers, a considerable number of patients remain unhealed after 12 weeks of treatment and, in general, rates of healing remain low. For these reasons, as well as the rising costs of associated complications of nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers, there is an impetus for the research community to develop more sophisticated ways to manage this condition. We reviewed ongoing clinical trials (clinicaltrials.gov) testing new therapies for foot ulcers and searched the basic science literature for preclinical background of these products. We focused our review on new therapies that include topicals, skin substitutes, bioengineered skin, cellular therapy growth factors, devices, and herbal medications. All of these options are analyzed and presented in this review as promising new options for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:21082552

Vivas, Alejandra; Escandon, Julia; Lebrun, Elizabeth; Choudhary, Sonal; Tang, Jennifer; Kirsner, Robert S

2010-10-01

280

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Medical Leech Therapy for Osteoarthritis of the Knee.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common chronic disease among older adults. Therapeutic approaches mainly consist of physiotherapy or pharmacological therapy, but these approaches are limited over time by their cost and/or side effects. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of medical leech therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee. METHODS:: The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus, and CAMBASE databases were screened in August 2012 to identify randomized (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing leech therapy to control conditions. Main outcome measures were pain, functional impairment, and joint stiffness. For each outcome, standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS:: Three RCTs and 1 CCT were found, in which a total of 237 patients with osteoarthritis were included. Three trials had a low risk of bias. There was strong overall evidence for immediate (SMD=-1.05; P<0.01) and short-term pain reduction (SMD=-1.00; P<0.01), immediate improvement in patients' physical function (SMD=-0.72; P<0.01), and both immediate (SMD=-0.88; P=0.04) and long-term improvement in their joint stiffness (SMD=-0.62; P<0.01). Moderate evidence was found for leech therapy's short-term effects on physical function (SMD=-0.46; P<0.01) and long-term effects on pain (SMD=-0.45; P<0.01). Leech therapy was not associated with any serious adverse events. DISCUSSION:: This systematic review found moderate to strong evidence for the reduction of pain, functional impairment, and joint stiffness after medical leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Given the low number of reported adverse events, leech therapy may be a useful approach in treating this condition. Further high-quality RCTs are required for the conclusive judgment of its effectiveness and safety. PMID:23446069

Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

2013-02-26

281

A systematic review of trismus induced by cancer therapies in head and neck cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This systematic review represents a thorough evaluation of the literature to clarify the impact of cancer therapies on the\\u000a prevalence, quality of life and economic impact, and management strategies for cancer-therapy-induced trismus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic literature search was conducted with assistance from a research librarian in the databases MEDLINE\\/PubMed and\\u000a EMBASE for articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31,

Rene-Jean Bensadoun; Dorothea Riesenbeck; Peter B. Lockhart; Linda S. Elting; Fred K. L. Spijkervet; Mike T. Brennan

2010-01-01

282

Adjuvant therapy for locally advanced renal cell cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many adjuvant trials have been undertaken in an attempt to reduce the risk of recurrence among patients who undergo surgical\\u000a resection for locally advanced renal cancer. However, no clear benefit has been identified to date. This systematic review\\u000a was conducted to examine the exact role of adjuvant therapy in renal cancer setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Randomized controlled trials were searched comparing adjuvant therapy

Adolfo JO Scherr; Joao Paulo SN Lima; Emma C Sasse; Carmen SP Lima; André D Sasse

2011-01-01

283

Vertebral compression fractures: a review of current management and multimodal therapy  

PubMed Central

Vertebral compression fractures are a prevalent disease affecting osteoporotic patients. When symptomatic, they cause significant pain and loss of function and have a high public health impact. In this paper we outline the diagnosis and management of these patients, with evidence-based review of treatment outcomes for the various therapeutic options. Diagnosis involves a clinical history focusing on the nature of the patient’s pain as well as various imaging studies. Management is multimodal in nature and starts with conservative therapy consisting of analgesic medication, medication for osteoporosis, physical therapy, and bracing. Patients who are refractory to conservative management may be candidates for vertebral augmentation through either vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty.

Wong, Cyrus C; McGirt, Matthew J

2013-01-01

284

Web-based documentation system with exchange of DICOM RT for multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conducting clinical studies is rather difficult because of the large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in radiation oncology. In this paper, we describe our development of a web-based documentation system with first approaches of automatic statistical analyses for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. It is possible to have immediate access to all patient information and exchange, store, process, and visualize text data, all types of DICOM images, especially DICOM RT, and any other multimedia data. Accessing the documentation system and submitting clinical data is possible for internal and external users (e.g. referring physicians from abroad, who are seeking the new technique of particle therapy for their patients). Thereby, security and privacy protection is ensured with the encrypted https protocol, client certificates, and an application gateway. Furthermore, all data can be pseudonymized. Integrated into the existing hospital environment, patient data is imported via various interfaces over HL7-messages and DICOM. Several further features replace manual input wherever possible and ensure data quality and entirety. With a form generator, studies can be individually designed to fit specific needs. By including all treated patients (also non-study patients), we gain the possibility for overall large-scale, retrospective analyses. Having recently begun documentation of our first six clinical studies, it has become apparent that the benefits lie in the simplification of research work, better study analyses quality and ultimately, the improvement of treatment concepts by evaluating the effectiveness of particle therapy.

Kessel, Kerstin A.; Bougatf, Nina; Bohn, Christian; Engelmann, Uwe; Oetzel, Dieter; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E.

2012-02-01

285

A Review of Potential Adverse Effects of Long-Term Opioid Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide  

PubMed Central

Objective:Review, synthesize, and summarize recent evidence on adverse effects of long-term opioid treatment for noncancer pain and present an organ system–based guide for primary care physicians in initiating and monitoring patients receiving chronic opioid therapy. Data Sources:A search for studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2005 to 2011 was conducted using MEDLINE, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Related citations and expert recommendations were included. Data Extraction:Studies were selected if the search terms opioid and the organ system of interest were in the article’s title, abstract, or text. Systems considered were gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal, endocrine, and immune. Of 1,974 initially reviewed articles, 74 were selected for evidence regarding effects of chronic opioid use on that organ system. Of these articles, 43 were included on the basis of direct relevance to opioid prescriptions in the primary care setting. Data Synthesis:A qualitative review was performed because the number of articles pertaining to specific adverse effects of opioids was typically small, and the diversity of adverse effects across systems precluded a quantitative analysis. Results:Through a variety of mechanisms, opioids cause adverse events in several organ systems. Evidence shows that chronic opioid therapy is associated with constipation, sleep-disordered breathing, fractures, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation, and overdose. However, significant gaps remain regarding the spectrum of potentially opioid-related adverse effects. Opioid-related adverse effects can cause significant declines in health-related quality of life and increased health care costs. Conclusions:The diverse adverse effects potentially caused by chronic opioid therapy support recommendations for judicious and selective opioid prescribing for chronic noncancer pain by primary care physicians. Additional research clarifying the risks and management of potential adverse effects of chronic opioid therapy is needed to guide clinical practice.

Von Korff, Michael

2012-01-01

286

A Review of Potential Adverse Effects of Long-Term Opioid Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide.  

PubMed

Objective:Review, synthesize, and summarize recent evidence on adverse effects of long-term opioid treatment for noncancer pain and present an organ system-based guide for primary care physicians in initiating and monitoring patients receiving chronic opioid therapy.Data Sources:A search for studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2005 to 2011 was conducted using MEDLINE, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Related citations and expert recommendations were included.Data Extraction:Studies were selected if the search terms opioid and the organ system of interest were in the article's title, abstract, or text. Systems considered were gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal, endocrine, and immune. Of 1,974 initially reviewed articles, 74 were selected for evidence regarding effects of chronic opioid use on that organ system. Of these articles, 43 were included on the basis of direct relevance to opioid prescriptions in the primary care setting.Data Synthesis:A qualitative review was performed because the number of articles pertaining to specific adverse effects of opioids was typically small, and the diversity of adverse effects across systems precluded a quantitative analysis.Results:Through a variety of mechanisms, opioids cause adverse events in several organ systems. Evidence shows that chronic opioid therapy is associated with constipation, sleep-disordered breathing, fractures, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation, and overdose. However, significant gaps remain regarding the spectrum of potentially opioid-related adverse effects. Opioid-related adverse effects can cause significant declines in health-related quality of life and increased health care costs.Conclusions:The diverse adverse effects potentially caused by chronic opioid therapy support recommendations for judicious and selective opioid prescribing for chronic noncancer pain by primary care physicians. Additional research clarifying the risks and management of potential adverse effects of chronic opioid therapy is needed to guide clinical practice. PMID:23106029

Baldini, Angee; Von Korff, Michael; Lin, Elizabeth H B

2012-06-14

287

Clinical review: use of renal replacement therapies in special groups of ICU patients.  

PubMed

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in ICU patients is typically associated with other severe conditions that require special attention when renal replacement therapy (RRT) is performed. RRT includes a wide range of techniques, each with specific characteristics and implications for use in ICU patients. In the present review we discuss a wide range of conditions that can occur in ICU patients who have AKI, and the implications this has for RRT. Patients at increased risk for bleeding should be treated without anticoagulation or with regional citrate anticoagulation. In patients who are haemodynamically unstable, continuous therapies are most often employed. These therapies allow slow removal of volume and guarantee a stable blood pH. In patients with cerebral oedema, continuous therapy is recommended in order to prevent decreased cerebral blood flow, which will lead to cerebral ischemia. Continuous therapy will also prevent sudden change in serum osmolality with aggravation of cerebral oedema. Patients with hyponatraemia, as in liver failure or decompensated heart failure, require extra attention because a rapid increase of serum sodium concentration can lead to irreversible brain damage through osmotic myelinolysis. Finally, in patients with severe lactic acidosis, RRT can be used as a bridging therapy, awaiting correction of the underlying cause. Especially in ICU patients who have severe AKI, treatment with RRT requires balancing the pros and cons of different options and modalities. Exact and specific guidelines for RRT in these patients are not available for most clinical situations. In the present article we provide an update on the existing evidence. PMID:22264279

Hoste, Eric A J; Dhondt, Annemieke

2012-01-19

288

A review of measurement and modelling results of particle atmosphere-surface exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmosphere-surface exchange represents one mechanism by which atmospheric particle mass and number size distributions are modified. Deposition velocities (vd) exhibit a pronounced dependence on surface type, due in part to turbulence structure (as manifest in friction velocity), with minima of approximately 0.01 and 0.2 cm s-1 over grasslands and 0.1-1 cm s-1 over forests. However, as noted over 20 yr ago, observations over forests generally do not support the pronounced minimum of deposition velocity (vd) for particle diameters of 0.1-2 ?m as manifest in theoretical predictions. Closer agreement between models and observations is found over less-rough surfaces though those data also imply substantially higher surface collection efficiencies than were originally proposed and are manifest in current models. We review theorized dependencies for particle fluxes, describe and critique model approaches and innovations in experimental approaches, and synthesize common conclusions of experimental and modelling studies. We end by proposing a number of research avenues that should be pursued in to facilitate further insights and development of improved numerical models of atmospheric particles.

Pryor, S. C.; Gallagher, M.; Sievering, H.; Larsen, S. E.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Birsan, F.; Nemitz, E.; Rinne, J.; Kulmala, M.; Grönholm, T.; Taipale, R.; Vesala, T.

2008-02-01

289

Detection of Soluble Amyloid-? Oligomers and Insoluble High-Molecular-Weight Particles in CSF: Development of Methods with Potential for Diagnosis and Therapy Monitoring of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be established premortem based on clinical criteria like neuropsychological tests. Post mortem, specific neuropathological changes like amyloid plaques define AD. However, the standard criteria based on medical history and mental status examinations do not take into account the long preclinical features of the disease, and a biomarker for improved diagnosis of AD is urgently needed. In a large number of studies, amyloid-? (A?) monomer concentrations in CSF of AD patients are consistently and significantly reduced when compared to healthy controls. Therefore, monomeric A? in CSF was suggested to be a helpful biomarker for the diagnosis of preclinical AD. However, not the monomeric form, but A? oligomers have been shown to be the toxic species in AD pathology, and their quantification and characterization could facilitate AD diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Here, we review the current status of assay development to reliably and routinely detect A? oligomers and high-molecular-weight particles in CSF.

Funke, Susanne Aileen

2011-01-01

290

Characterization of Iron-Oxide Loaded Adult Stem Cells for Magnetic Particle Imaging in Targeted Cancer Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been presented as a new method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). MPI is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of nanoparticles that are subjected to a sinusoidal magnetic field. Spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio of MPI depend on the particle quality. This is particularly important when stem cells shall be tracked with MPI. Stem cell-based treatment is an upcoming technology in targeted cancer-therapy. In this study, we analyzed the particle quality of newly developed dextran-coated SPIONs-with respect to their response in the imaging experiment-using magnetic particle spectrometry. The uptake of dextran-coated SPIONs into rat and human adult stem cells was monitored via transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, adult stem cells were incubated with FITC-dextran-coated SPIONs and stained for confocal laser scanning microscopy. The dextran- and FITC-dextran coated SPIONs were localized in the cytoplasm of rat and human adult stem cells. MPI promises real-time imaging with high spatial resolution at high sensitivity. Our data support iron oxide loaded adult stem cells as a powerful tool for targeted cancer therapy.

Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Rapoport, Daniel Hans; Schneider, Dagmar

2010-12-01

291

Analytical expressions for water-to-air stopping-power ratios relevant for accurate dosimetry in particle therapy.  

PubMed

In particle therapy, knowledge of the stopping-power ratio (STPR) of the ion beam for water and air is necessary for accurate ionization chamber dosimetry. Earlier work has investigated the STPR for pristine carbon ion beams, but here we expand the calculations to a range of ions (1 ? z ? 18) as well as spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) and provide a theoretical in-depth study with a special focus on the parameter regime relevant for particle therapy. The Monte Carlo transport code SHIELD-HIT is used to calculate complete particle-fluence spectra which are required for determining the STPR according to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The STPR at a depth d depends primarily on the average energy of the primary ions at d rather than on their charge z or absolute position in the medium. However, STPRs for different sets of stopping-power data for water and air recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements are compared, including also the recently revised data for water, yielding deviations up to 2% in the plateau region. In comparison, the influence of the secondary particle spectra on the STPR is about two orders of magnitude smaller in the whole region up till the practical range. The gained insights enable us to propose simple analytical expressions for the STPR for both pristine and SOBPs as a function of penetration depth depending parametrically on the practical range. PMID:21441652

Lühr, Armin; Hansen, David C; Jäkel, Oliver; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Bassler, Niels

2011-03-25

292

Simulating charged-particle tracks in radiation detectors by means of x-ray and laser beams (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with methods of simulating charged-particle tracks in track and coordinate-sensitive detectors by the use of collimated electromagnetic radiation in the x-ray and near-UV ranges. Existing results are surveyed together with the prospects for the method. Specific areas reviewed include: the track of a fast charged particle in a gas-filled detector; track simulation with x-rays in a drift

E. M. Gushchin; A. N. Lebedev; S. V. Somov

1985-01-01

293

Review of embedded particle tagging methods for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials and structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acceptance of advanced composites in both retrofit applications and new construction necessitates quality control (QC)/quality assurance (QA) and in-service monitoring techniques to ensure the performance and serviceability of the composites. A technology that enhances the inspectability of the advanced composites is the particle tagging method. The concept of particle tagging involves embedding micron-sized particles into materials, such as composites, or adhesive layers to make them an integral part of the host material. When interrogated by suitable instrumentation, the embedded particle sensors interact with their host material and generate certain types of measurable signatures. The signatures can be correlated with the material and structural conditions, such as internal stress states, voids, inclusions, state-of- cure, and delaminations. This paper presents a technology assessment of the current and emerging state-of-the-art tagging methods. The objective of this review is to provide a framework for further understanding the physics and mechanisms involved in using the tagging method for in-field nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials. Information concerning the development of this technique has been obtained from patents, publications, databases within Newman Library at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), and previous work and in-progress research at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (CIMSS) at Virginia Tech. This paper includes a historic review of tagging techniques, a description of the tagging systems used for in-situ NDE of composites, and experimental results to date. The current and potential applications of this technique are also addressed. The analysis presented in this paper will assist in further efforts to develop the tagging approach that may be used as a new NDE technique for quality assurance of advanced composites.

Zhou, Su-Wei; Chaudhry, Zaffir A.; Rogers, Craig A.; Quattrone, Robert

1995-04-01

294

[Primary CNS lymphoma in azathioprine therapy for autoimmune diseases: review of the literature and case report].  

PubMed

We present a 31-year-old female patient with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the CNS after immunosuppressive therapy. Colitis ulcerosa had been diagnosed 2 years previously. Prophylactic therapy with azathioprine over 9 months was stopped after the development of listeria meningitis which was treated successfully with antibiotics. At this time native CCT was normal. Three months later the patient developed an epileptic seizure and multiple cerebral lesions were detected in CCT and MRI. Although antibiotic therapy was started, the cerebral lesions showed no regression. Stereotactic biopsy revealed immunochemical and histologic high-grade malignant B cell lymphoma. The risk of primary CNS lymphoma under azathioprine treatment for an autoimmune disease with a possible congenital immunodeficiency is presented and the literature is reviewed. PMID:17375274

Kästner, F; Paulus, W; Deckert, M; Schlegel, P; Evers, S; Husstedt, I W

2007-04-01

295

Quality of life issues in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: a review  

PubMed Central

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been an essential treatment option for treating prostate cancer (PCa). The role for hormonal treatment initially was restricted to men with metastatic and inoperable, locally advanced disease. Now it has been extended to neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for surgery and radiotherapy, for biochemical relapse after surgery or radiation, and even as primary therapy for non-metastatic disease. Fifty percent of PCa patients treated will receive ADT at some point. There is growing concern about the adverse effects and costs associated with more widespread ADT use. The adverse effects on quality of life (QoL), including physical, social and psychological well-being when men are androgen-deprived, may be considerable. This review examines the QoL issues in the following areas: body feminisation, sexual changes, relationship changes, cognitive and affective symptoms, fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression and physical effects. Further suggestions for therapeutic approaches to reduce these alterations are suggested.

Casey, Rowan G; Corcoran, Niall M; Larry Goldenberg, S

2012-01-01

296

Review of Occupational Therapy Research in the Practice Area of Children and Youth  

PubMed Central

A systematic review was conducted focusing on articles in the Occupational Therapy (OT) practice category of Childhood and Youth (C&Y) published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) over the two-year period of 2009–2010. The frameworks of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and Positive Youth Development (PYD) were used to explore OT research progress toward the goals of the Centennial Vision (CV). Forty-six research articles were organized by research type and were classified within these two frameworks. The majority of reviewed published research investigated variables representing constructs falling within the ICF domains of Body Functioning and Activity. The effect of OT interventions on PYD resided primarily in building competence. In order to meet the tenets of the CV, OTs must document changes in children’s engagement in everyday life situations and build the evidence of OT’s efficacy in facilitating participation.

Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Kreider, Consuelo M.

2011-01-01

297

Niacin extended-release/simvastatin combination therapy produces larger favorable changes in high-density lipoprotein particles than atorvastatin monotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of niacin extended-release in combination with simvastatin (NER/S) versus atorvastatin monotherapy on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle number and size in patients with hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia from the SUPREME study. Methods This was a post hoc analysis of patients (n = 137) who completed the SUPREME study and who had lipid particle number and size measurements at both baseline and at week 12 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Following ?4 weeks without lipid-modifying therapy (washout period), the patients received NER/S 1000/40 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by NER/S 2000/40 mg/day for 8 weeks, or atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 12 weeks. Median percent changes in HDL particle number and size from baseline to week 12 were compared between the NER/S and atorvastatin treatment groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Distribution of HDL particle subclasses at week 12 was compared between the treatment groups using the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test. Results Treatment with NER/S resulted in a significantly greater percent reduction in small HDL particle number at week 12 compared with atorvastatin monotherapy (?1.8% versus 4.2%, P = 0.014), and a numerically greater percent increase in large HDL particle number (102.4% versus 39.2%, P = 0.078) compared with atorvastatin monotherapy. A significantly greater percent increase in HDL particle size from baseline at week 12 was observed with NER/S compared with atorvastatin (6.0% versus 1.3%, P < 0.001). NER/S treatment also resulted in a significant shift in HDL particle size from small and medium at baseline to large at week 12 (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Treatment with NER/S resulted in larger favorable changes in number and size of HDL particle subclasses compared with atorvastatin monotherapy, including a numerically greater increase in number of large HDL particles, and a significantly greater decrease in number of small HDL particles compared with atorvastatin monotherapy. In addition, NER/S treatment resulted in a significant change in HDL particle size distribution from small and medium to large.

Toth, Peter P; Thakker, Kamlesh M; Jiang, Ping; Padley, Robert J

2012-01-01

298

Rating the Quality of Trials in Systematic Reviews of Physical Therapy Interventions  

PubMed Central

Physical therapists seeking to use evidence to guide their practice may have limited time to read research reports. One way to reduce the time required to identify and read about the research that is relevant to a particular clinical question is to read a systematic review that summarizes multiple studies. This paper explains the process that is used to conduct systematic reviews, which includes the establishment of a protocol, comprehensive searching, appraisal of the quality of the included studies, data extraction and metaanalysis, and consideration of the clinical and research implications of the findings. We also consider how the reader of a systematic review can determine whether the review is likely to provide an unbiased (believable) estimate of the treatment effect. A systematic review of randomized trials of a cardiopulmonary physical therapy intervention is used as an example. The issue of appraisal of quality is then discussed further, with a demonstration of how one validated tool for quality appraisal–the PEDro scale–can be used to evaluate a randomized trial in cardiopulmonary physical therapy.

Elkins, Mark R.; Herbert, Robert D.; Moseley, Anne M.; Sherrington, Catherine; Maher, Chris

2010-01-01

299

A systematic review on physical therapy interventions for patients with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Since a distorted body experience and a sedentary lifestyle are central in the course of binge eating disorder (BED), physical therapy might be an interesting add-on treatment. The aim of this study was to systematically review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating physical therapy on binge eating and physical and mental health in BED patients. Method: EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Physiotherapy Evidence Database and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception until 15 August 2012 for relevant RCTs comparing physical therapy with a placebo condition, control intervention or standard care. Results: Three RCTs involving 211 female community patients (age range: 25-63 years) met all selection criteria. Review data demonstrate that aerobic and yoga exercises reduce the number of binges and the body mass index (BMI) of BED patients. Aerobic exercise also reduces depressive symptoms. Only combining cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with aerobic exercise and not CBT alone reduces BMI. Combining aerobic exercise with CBT is more effective in reducing depressive symptoms than CBT alone. Conclusions: The limited number of available studies and the heterogeneity of the interventions limit overall conclusions and highlight the need for further research. Implications for Rehabilitation Because of severe co-morbid psychiatric and physical conditions, binge eating disorder is one of the most difficult psychiatric conditions to treat. Both yoga and aerobic exercise have shown promise in reducing binge eating pathology and weight. Combining aerobic exercise with cognitive behavioural therapy seems more effective in reducing depressive symptoms than cognitive behavioural therapy alone. PMID:23594056

Vancampfort, Davy; Vanderlinden, Johan; De Hert, Marc; Adámkova, Milena; Skjaerven, Liv Helvik; Catalán-Matamoros, Daniel; Lundvik-Gyllensten, Amanda; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Ijntema, Rutger; Probst, Michel

2013-04-17

300

Cognitive behavior therapy for depression in people with epilepsy: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a recommended treatment for depression in people with epilepsy (PWE); however, a recent Cochrane review found that there was insufficient evidence that any psychological therapy is effective. This conclusion provides little help to clinicians who provide interventions for depressed PWE. The aim of this review was to systematically and qualitatively review the literature on the efficacy of CBT for depression in PWE based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and case series. We aim to determine patterns in the literature to inform the type of CBT, if any, that should be offered to PWE who are depressed. Databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane EBM Reviews were searched via OVID. Selection criteria included the following: (1) participants with epilepsy; (2) use of CBT; (3) valid depression outcome measure; and (4) published in peer-reviewed journal in English. Inclusions of studies were assessed by two independent researchers. We identified 14 outcome papers for 13 CBT trials including 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 case series. Positive effects of CBT on depression were reported in three of six RCTs. A review of their content revealed that all effective RCTs specifically tailored CBT to improve depression. Conversely, two of three RCTs that failed to find depression-related effects focused on improving seizure-control. This pattern was also observed in the case series. Although limited in number and having methodologic limitations, the treatment studies included in our review suggest that interventions tailored toward improving depression are possibly efficacious, whereas those that focus on improving seizure control do not appear to be. However, this review highlights that there is need for further RCTs in this area in order to confirm the possible efficacy of CBT for depression in PWE. PMID:24032437

Gandy, Milena; Sharpe, Louise; Perry, Kathryn Nicholson

2013-09-03

301

Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review  

PubMed Central

The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications.

Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Sile Nic

2013-01-01

302

REPETITIVE TASK PRACTICE: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF CONSTRAINT-INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY IN STROKE  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Constraint-induced (CI) movement therapy (also called forced use by some investigators and clinicians) has gained increasing popularity as a treatment mode for restoring function in the upper extremities of patients with stroke. The purpose of this article is to review the concept of constraint-induced movement therapy and provide a critical analysis of the existing data. REVIEW SUMMARY The evidence to date offers encouragement for the application of this procedure for patients who have some movement recovery out of synergy. Success may be contingent on patient cooperation and intense repetitive use with applications of retraining through practice and shaping. The extent to which each of the latter elements influences the magnitude of recovery is still unclear. However, task novelty and challenge seem important to recovery of function. There are several methods used to map cortical changes after stroke. At this time, transcranial magnetic stimulation is the primary vehicle used to assess motor cortical reorganization after CI therapy in humans. CONCLUSIONS Accumulating data indicate that the size of a cortical area representative of a muscle does expand and its center of gravity does change with CI therapy.

Wolf, Steven L.; Blanton, Sarah; Baer, Heather; Breshears, Jenifer; Butler, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

303

A review of "music and movement" therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development.  

PubMed

The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962

Srinivasan, Sudha M; Bhat, Anjana N

2013-04-09

304

Antioxidant therapy in the management of acute, chronic and post-ERCP pancreatitis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

We systematically reviewed the clinical trials which recruited antioxidants in the therapy of pancreatitis and evaluated whether antioxidants improve the outcome of patients with pancreatitis. Electronic bibliographic databases were searched for any studies which investigated the use of antioxidants in the management of acute pancreatitis (AP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP) and in the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (post-ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) up to February 2009. Twenty-two randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials met our criteria and were included in the review. Except for a cocktail of antioxidants which showed improvement in outcomes in three different clinical trials, the results of the administration of other antioxidants in both AP and CP clinical trials were incongruent and heterogeneous. Furthermore, antioxidant therapy including allopurinol and N-acetylcysteine failed to prevent the onset of PEP in almost all trials. In conclusion, the present data do not support a benefit of antioxidant therapy alone or in combination with conventional therapy in the management of AP, CP or PEP. Further double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials with large sample size need to be conducted. PMID:19777606

Mohseni Salehi Monfared, Seyed Sajad; Vahidi, Hamed; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2009-09-28

305

Antioxidant therapy in the management of acute, chronic and post-ERCP pancreatitis: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

We systematically reviewed the clinical trials which recruited antioxidants in the therapy of pancreatitis and evaluated whether antioxidants improve the outcome of patients with pancreatitis. Electronic bibliographic databases were searched for any studies which investigated the use of antioxidants in the management of acute pancreatitis (AP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP) and in the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (post-ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) up to February 2009. Twenty-two randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials met our criteria and were included in the review. Except for a cocktail of antioxidants which showed improvement in outcomes in three different clinical trials, the results of the administration of other antioxidants in both AP and CP clinical trials were incongruent and heterogeneous. Furthermore, antioxidant therapy including allopurinol and N-acetylcysteine failed to prevent the onset of PEP in almost all trials. In conclusion, the present data do not support a benefit of antioxidant therapy alone or in combination with conventional therapy in the management of AP, CP or PEP. Further double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials with large sample size need to be conducted.

Monfared, Seyed Sajad Mohseni Salehi; Vahidi, Hamed; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2009-01-01

306

Research progress on the standardization of Chinese Tuina therapy: a short review.  

PubMed

The standardization of Chinese Tuina therapy is one of the most popular research topics in Chinese medicine. By reviewing the literatures contributed by Chinese investigators between 1982 and 2010, the authors summarized the progress on Chinese Tuina manipulation techniques, in particular, focusing on the data on several key parameters (i.e., frequency, duration, and force). This summarization will benefit the standardization of Chinese Tuina. PMID:21717158

Fang, Lei; Fang, Min

2011-06-29

307

Over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy: a methodological review of the evidence supporting its effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite optimistic predictions when nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was switched to over-the-counter (OTC) availability, population surveys have failed to demonstrate a positive impact on long-term smoking cessation. This review examined the strength of the evidence from randomised trials and comparison group studies supporting the effectiveness of OTCNRT. Twelve eligible studies were identified: OTCNRT was compared with placebo in four studies

RAOUL A. WALSH

308

Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Articular cartilage injury remains one of the major concerns in orthopaedic surgery. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation\\u000a has been introduced to avoid some of the side effects and complications of current techniques. The purpose of this paper is\\u000a to review the literature on MSC-based cell therapy for articular cartilage repair to determine if it can be an alternative\\u000a treatment for

Hideyuki Koga; Lars Engebretsen; Jan E. Brinchmann; Takeshi Muneta; Ichiro Sekiya

2009-01-01

309

Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of auditory integration training (AIT) or other methods of sound therapy in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).Study design: A systematic review was carried out of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults or children with ASD. Meta-analysis was attempted.Results: Six RCTs of AIT, including one crossover trial, were identified, with a total of 171 participants

Y Sinha; N Silove; D Wheeler; K Williams

2006-01-01

310

Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cummings TM, White AR. Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:986-92. Objective: To establish whether there is evidence for or against the efficacy of needling as a treatment approach for myofascial trigger point pain. Data Sources: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, AMED, and CISCOM databases, searched

T. Michael Cummings; Adrian R. White

2001-01-01

311

Combination therapy for scalp angiosarcoma using bevacizumab and chemotherapy: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Bevacizumab, an angiogenesis inhibitor, is a recombined humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor and a promising therapeutic option for angiosarcoma management. This is a case report and review of the literature using bevacizumab and combination chemotherapy for angiosarcoma. The understanding of the effectiveness of combined therapy of bevacizumab and chemotherapy agents is still limited. The benefits of bevacizumab treatment for angiosarcoma will need to be weighed against the risks of venous thromboembolism in this population. PMID:23825914

Yang, Ping; Zhu, Qi; Jiang, Fuqiang

2013-06-01

312

Combination therapy for scalp angiosarcoma using bevacizumab and chemotherapy: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Bevacizumab, an angiogenesis inhibitor, is a recombined humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor and a promising therapeutic option for angiosarcoma management. This is a case report and review of the literature using bevacizumab and combination chemotherapy for angiosarcoma. The understanding of the effectiveness of combined therapy of bevacizumab and chemotherapy agents is still limited. The benefits of bevacizumab treatment for angiosarcoma will need to be weighed against the risks of venous thromboembolism in this population.

Zhu, Qi; Jiang, Fuqiang

2013-01-01

313

Occupational therapy interventions for work-related injuries and conditions of the forearm, wrist, and hand: a systematic review.  

PubMed

A systematic review of the literature related to effective occupational therapy interventions in rehabilitation of individuals with work-related forearm, wrist, and hand injuries and illnesses was conducted as part of the Evidence-Based Literature Review Project of the American Occupational Therapy Association. This review provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of 36 studies that addressed many of the interventions commonly used in hand rehabilitation. Findings reveal that the use of occupation-based activities has reasonable yet limited evidence to support its effectiveness. This review supports the premise that many client factors can be positively affected through the use of several commonly used occupational therapy-related modalities and methods. The implications for occupational therapy practice, research, and education and limitations of reviewed studies are also discussed. PMID:21309369

Amini, Debbie

314

Can combination metronomic therapy overcome chemoresistance in cholangiocarcinoma? A literature review.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCa) is relatively resistant to chemotherapy as well as radiation therapy, and complete resection is the main curative therapy for these patients. The prognosis for patients with unresectable intrahepatic CCa (iCCa) is extremely poor. A 55-year-old woman presented at our hospital with abdominal pain. After evaluation, she was diagnosed to have multifocal iCCa. She did not opt for standard chemotherapy and therefore received oral metronomic therapy with a combination of celecoxib, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide for a total of 30 months. Presently, she is 57 months post diagnosis and 27 months post cessation of all treatment and continues to be in complete radiological remission. In the present report, we review the literature and discuss whether metronomic scheduling of biologic agents and anticancer drugs will be able to overcome chemoresistance and improve the outcome in cholangiocarcinoma. References for the review were identified through searches of Pubmed for the last 10 years as well as searches of the files of the authors themselves. The final list was generated on the basis of originality and relevance to this review. PMID:23979207

Banavali, S D; Patil, N R; Nirabhawane, V S; Bhosale, B B; Desai, S B

315

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.

Prazeres, Angelica M; Nascimento, Antonio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2013-01-01

316

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23467711

Prazeres, Angélica M; Nascimento, Antônio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2013-02-28

317

Review of combination therapy with mTOR inhibitors and tacrolimus minimization after transplantation.  

PubMed

We evaluated the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive regimens containing a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor with tacrolimus (TAC) minimization therapy in solid organ transplant recipients. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms (mTOR OR sirolimus OR everolimus) AND tacrolimus AND renal AND (low OR reduced OR reduction OR minimization) AND transplant*; limited to title/abstract and English-language articles published from January 1, 2003, through January 28, 2013. Twenty-one relevant studies of TAC minimization therapy were identified and evaluated in the context of known concerns associated with immunosuppressive therapy. Review of these studies suggests that immunosuppressive regimens including an mTOR inhibitor and TAC minimization therapy better preserve renal function versus standard-dose TAC, without significant changes in patient survival or graft rejection rates. Among patients treated with an mTOR inhibitor plus TAC minimization therapy in 12 randomized controlled trials (n=856 kidney, n=190 heart, n=108 lung, n=719 liver patients), reported rates of infection (BK, cytomegalovirus, or Epstein-Barr virus) and malignancy were low (0% to 7%). Other adverse events were more commonly reported including dyslipidemia/hyperlipidemia in up to two thirds of patients, new-onset diabetes mellitus in up to 38%, wound complications in up to 22%, and hypertension in up to 17%. PMID:23932018

Peddi, V Ram; Wiseman, Alexander; Chavin, Kenneth; Slakey, Douglas

2013-08-08

318

Gene therapy for dyslipidemia: a review of gene replacement and gene inhibition strategies  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous technological and pharmacological advances and more detailed knowledge of molecular etiologies, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide claiming over 17 million lives a year. Abnormalities in the synthesis, processing and catabolism of lipoprotein particles can result in severe hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia or low HDL-C. Although a plethora of antidyslipidemic pharmacological agents are available, these drugs are relatively ineffective in many patients with Mendelian lipid disorders, indicating the need for new and more effective interventions. In vivo somatic gene therapy is one such intervention. This article summarizes current strategies being pursued for the development of clinical gene therapy for dyslipidemias that cannot effectively be treated with existing drugs.

Kassim, Sadik H; Wilson, James M; Rader, Daniel J

2012-01-01

319

A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn

2010-01-01

320

Intensive insulin therapy reduces small dense low-density lipoprotein particles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: relationship to triglyceride-rich lipoprotein subspecies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It remains unclear whether insulin improves dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) particles are recognized as a powerful risk factor for coronary heart disease and are often elevated in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of intensive insulin therapy on sd-LDL particles and triglyceride (TG)–rich lipoprotein subspecies. Intensive insulin therapy (insulin

Toshiyuki Hayashi; Tsutomu Hirano; Takeshi Yamamoto; Yasuki Ito; Mitsuru Adachi

2006-01-01

321

Meditative Therapies for Reducing Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders; meditative therapies are frequently sought by patients with anxiety as a complementary therapy. Although multiple reviews exist on the general health benefits of meditation, no review has been focused on the efficacy of meditation for anxiety specifically. METHODS Major medical databases were searched thoroughly with keywords related to various types of meditation AND anxiety. Over 1000 abstracts were screened, and 200+ full articles were reviewed. Only RCTs were included. The Boutron (2005) checklist to evaluate a report of a non-pharmaceutical trial (CLEAR-NPT) was used to assess study quality; 90% authors were contacted for additional information. Review Manager 5 was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS A total of 36 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis (2,466 observations). Most RCTs were conducted among patients with anxiety as a secondary concern. The study quality ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 on the 0.0–1.0 scale (mean = 0.72). Standardized mean difference (SMD) was ?0.52 in comparison with waiting-list control (p < .001; 25 RCTs), ?0.59 in comparison with attention control (p < .001; 7 RCTs), and ?0.27 in comparison with alternative treatments (p < 0.01; 10 RCTs). 25 studies reported statistically superior outcomes in the meditation group compared to control. No adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS This review demonstrates some efficacy of meditative therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, which has important clinical implications for applying meditative techniques in treating anxiety. However, most studies measured only improvement in anxiety symptoms, but not anxiety disorders as clinically diagnosed.

Chen, Kevin W; Berger, Christine C.; Manheimer, Eric; Forde, Darlene; Magidson, Jessica; Dachman, Laya; Lejuez, C. W.

2013-01-01

322

Imaging surveillance and multidisciplinary review improves curative therapy access and survival in HCC patients.  

PubMed

Introduction. Imaging surveillance and multidisciplinary conference (MDC) review can potentially improve survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by increasing access to liver transplantation. Geographic disparities in donor organ availability may reduce this benefit. This study evaluated the impact of HCC surveillance on use of curative therapies and survival in a region with long transplant waiting times. Material and methods. 167 HCC patients were retrospectively studied. Subjects had an established HCC diagnosis or were diagnosed during hepatology follow-up. Collected data included patient demographics, HCC surveillance and MDC review status, portal hypertension complications, laboratory and radiologic parameters, tumor size, therapeutic interventions, tumor progression, and mortality. The primary outcome measures were use of curative treatments and survival. A Cox-regression model was constructed utilizing factors associated with survival in univariate analysis. Results. 58% of subjects underwent surveillance and MDC review of HCC. These patients were more likely to have received treatment with ablation or resection (16 vs. 3%, P = 0.006) and transplantation (23 vs. 4%, P = 0.001), and were less likely to develop tumor progression (45 vs. 68%, P = 0.005) or metastases (0 vs. 19%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, surveillance and MDC review (P = 0.034, HR 0.520, 95% CI 0.284-0.952), tumor meeting Milan criteria (P < 0.001, HR 0.329, 95% CI 0.178-0.607), curative therapy application (P = 0.048, HR 0.130, 95% CI 0.017-0.979), and transplantation (P = 0.004, HR 0.236, 95% CI 0.088-0.632) were associated with survival. Conclusion. In conclusion, imaging surveillance and MDC review is associated with detection of early stage HCC, increased access to curative therapies and transplantation, and prolonged survival. PMID:24018494

Gaba, Ron C; Kallwitz, Eric R; Parvinian, Ahmad; Bui, James T; Von Roenn, Natasha M; Berkes, Jamie L; Cotler, Scott J

323

[3] Stabilized plasmid-lipid particles: A systemic gene therapy vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a systemically administered gene therapy vector to exhibit extended circulation lifetimes, accumulate at a distal tumor site, and enable transgene expression is unique to SPLP. The flexibility and low toxicity of SPLP as a platform technology for systemic gene therapy allows for further optimization of tumor transfection properties following systemic administration. For example, the PEG coating of

David B. Fenske; Ian MacLachlan; Pieter R. Cullis

2002-01-01

324

Prospects For and Progress Towards Laser-Driven Particle Therapy Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in laser-ion acceleration have motivated research towards laser-driven compact accelerators for medical therapy. Realizing laser-ion acceleration for medical therapy will require adapting the medical requirements to the foreseeable laser constraints, as well as advances in laser-acceleration physics, beam manipulation and delivery, real-time dosimetry, treatment planning and translational research into a clinical setting.

Cowan, T. E.; Schramm, U.; Burris-Mog, T.; Fiedler, F.; Kraft, S. D.; Zeil, K.; Baumann, M.; Bussmann, M.; Enghardt, W.; Flippo, K.; Gaillard, S.; Harres, K.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Kluge, T.; Nürnberg, F.; Pawelke, J.; Roth, M.; Schmidt, B.; Sobiella, M.; Sauerbrey, R.

2010-11-01

325

Counselling and self-management therapies for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of counselling and other self-management-based therapies on muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain relief and increasing the functional abilities of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic literature review was conducted by three independent reviewers and included articles published up to 2012. PubMed and Cochrane Library electronic databases were used in addition to hand-searching to assess clinical outcomes for counselling and self-management approaches for TMD treatment. The review yielded 581 records that were narrowed down to 7. All included studies were classified as blind-randomized controlled clinical trials. The selected articles analysed revealed that counselling was able to improve tenderness upon masticatory muscle palpation and maximum mouth opening with and without pain in patients with TMD, with similar results to those of interocclusal appliances approaches. Thus, counselling- and self-management-based therapies could be considered a conservative low-cost and beneficial treatment alternative for treating TMD to potentially improve psychological domains and remove harmful behaviours for the control of the signs and symptoms of TMD. PMID:24102692

de Freitas, R F C P; Ferreira, M Â F; Barbosa, G A S; Calderon, P S

2013-09-18

326

[Particle load in intensive therapy. Possible solutions using a multi-lumen catheter and Intrapur filter].  

PubMed

Patients at intensive care units need very many drugs applicated via a central venous katheter. Particles caused by incompatibility reactions or coming from disposible materials possibly can provoke severe complications such as embolism, anaphylactoid reactions or ARDS. The combined use of multilumen katheters and Intrapur filters brings a significant reduction of these particles, as shown by an infusion regime. PMID:2391172

Schröder, F

1990-06-01

327

A Systematic Review of the Combined Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychotherapy for Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, after acute phase treatment and initial remission, relapse rates are significant. Strategies to prolong remission include continuation phase ECT, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or their combinations. This systematic review synthesizes extant data regarding the combined use of psychotherapy with ECT for the treatment of patients with severe MDD and offers the hypothesis that augmenting ECT with depression-specific psychotherapy represents a promising strategy for future investigation. Methods The authors performed two independent searches in PsychInfo (1806 – 2009) and MEDLINE (1948 – 2009) using combinations of the following search terms: Electroconvulsive Therapy (including ECT, ECT therapy, electroshock therapy, EST, shock therapy) and Psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, group, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, individual, eclectic, and supportive). We included in this review a total of six articles (English language) that mentioned ECT and psychotherapy in the abstract, and provided a case report, series, or clinical trial. We examined the articles for data related to ECT and psychotherapy treatment characteristics, cohort characteristics, and therapeutic outcome. Results Although research over the past seven decades documenting the combined use of ECT and psychotherapy is limited, the available evidence suggests that testing this combination has promise and may confer additional, positive functional outcomes. Conclusions Significant methodological variability in ECT and psychotherapy procedures, heterogeneous patient cohorts, and inconsistent outcome measures prevent strong conclusions; however, existing research supports the need for future investigations of combined ECT and psychotherapy in well-designed, controlled clinical studies. Depression-specific psychotherapy approaches may need special adaptations in view of the cognitive effects following ECT.

McClintock, Shawn M.; Brandon, Anna R.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

2011-01-01

328

Manual therapy and therapeutic exercise in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review aimed at investigating the role of therapeutic exercise and/or manual therapy in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Two independent reviewers (AR, CV) searched PubMed, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Scopus databases and a third one (SP) was consulted in case of disagreement. The research criteria were publication period (from May 2007 to April 2012) and publication language (English or Italian). Ten randomized controlled trials matched inclusion criteria, eight of which concerning therapeutic exercise and two manual therapy. Few good quality studies were found. At mid- and long-term follow-up land-based exercises showed insufficient evidence of effectiveness with respect to pain and quality of life, but positive results were found for physical function. Water exercises significantly reduced fall risk when combined with functional exercises. Programs containing progressive and gradual exposure of difficult activities, education and exercises promoted better outcomes, higher adherence to home program and increased amount of physical activity, especially walking. Manual therapy seemed to reduce pain and decrease disability at short-term. Less use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was statistically significant at long-term follow-up in patients treated with manual therapy. The relationship between clinical results and radiological grade of OA was not investigated. Encouraging results were found in recent literature for manual therapy and functional training. Further research is needed to elucidate this issue through high-quality trials, especially addressing the aspects that have not been thoroughly explored yet, for instance type, amount and scheduling of conservative treatment. PMID:23877410

Romeo, A; Parazza, S; Boschi, M; Nava, T; Vanti, C

2013-05-27

329

Combination therapy with GLP-1 receptor agonists and basal insulin: a systematic review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Treatment algorithms for type 2 diabetes call for intensification of therapy over time as the disease progresses and glycaemic control worsens. If diet, exercise and oral antihyperglycaemic medications (OAMs) fail to maintain glycaemic control then basal insulin is added and ultimately prandial insulin may be required. However, such an intensification strategy carries risk of increased hypoglycaemia and weight gain, both of which are associated with worse long-term outcomes. An alternative strategy is to intensify therapy by the addition of a short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) rather than prandial insulin. Short-acting GLP-1 RAs such as exenatide twice daily are particularly effective at reducing postprandial glucose while basal insulin has a greater effect on fasting glucose, providing a physiological rationale for this complementary approach. This review analyzes the latest randomized controlled clinical trials of insulin/GLP-1 RA combination therapy and examines results from ‘real-world’ use of the combinations as reported through observational and clinical practice studies. The most common finding across all types of studies was that combination therapy improved glycaemic control without weight gain or an increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Many studies reported weight loss and a reduction in insulin use when a GLP-1 RA was added to existing insulin therapy. Overall, the relative degree of benefit to glycaemic control and weight was influenced by the insulin titration employed in conjunction with the GLP-1 RA. The greatest glycaemic benefits were observed in studies with structured titration of insulin to glycaemic targets while the greatest weight benefits were observed in studies with a protocol-specified focus on insulin sparing. The adverse event profile of GLP-1 RAs in the reviewed trials was similar to that reported with GLP-1 RAs as monotherapy or in combination with OAMs with gastrointestinal events being the most commonly reported.

Balena, R; Hensley, I E; Miller, S; Barnett, A H

2013-01-01

330

The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)|

Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

2003-01-01

331

The New Radiation Therapy Clinical Practice: The Emerging Role of Clinical Peer Review for Radiation Therapists and Medical Dosimetrists  

SciTech Connect

The concept of peer review for radiation therapists and medical dosimetrists has been studied very little in radiation oncology practice. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze the concept of peer review in the clinical setting for both radiation therapists and medical dosimetrists. The literature reviewed both the percentages and causes of radiation therapy deviations. The results indicate that peer review can be both implemented and evaluated into both the radiation therapist and medical dosimetrist clinical practice patterns.

Adams, Robert D.; Marks, Lawrence B. [UNC Department of Radiation Oncology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Pawlicki, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Hayman, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Church, Jessica, E-mail: jachurch@email.unc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-01-01

332

Dexamethasone versus prednisone for induction therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the efficacy and toxicity of dexamethasone (DEX) versus prednisone (PRED) for induction therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We searched biomedical literature databases and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials comparing DEX and PRED during induction therapy for childhood ALL. A total of eight studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. DEX,

O Teuffel; S P Kuster; S P Hunger; V Conter; J Hitzler; M-C Ethier; P S Shah; J Beyene; L Sung

2011-01-01

333

Pelvic floor muscle training and adjunctive therapies for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a prevalent and costly condition which may be treated surgically or by physical therapy. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) performed alone and together with adjunctive therapies (eg biofeedback, electrical stimulation, vaginal

Patricia B Neumann; Karen A Grimmer; Yamini Deenadayalan

2006-01-01

334

Adolescents Exposed to Violence and Abuse: A Review of the Group Therapy Literature with an Emphasis on Preventing Trauma Reenactment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment interventions specifically targeting reenactment and risk-taking behaviors, a serious effect of trauma, are a much-neglected area of work with traumatized adolescents. This paper begins by reviewing group therapies for adolescents in general and then reviews specialized group therapies for adolescents who have been potentially traumatized by experiencing or witnessing family or community violence (e.g., sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological

AnnMarie Glodich; Jon G. Allen

1998-01-01

335

Concise review: guidance in developing commercializable autologous/patient-specific cell therapy manufacturing.  

PubMed

Cell therapy is poised to play an enormous role in regenerative medicine. However, little guidance is being made available to academic and industrial entities in the start-up phase. In this technical review, members of the International Society for Cell Therapy provide guidance in developing commercializable autologous and patient-specific manufacturing strategies from the perspective of process development. Special emphasis is placed on providing guidance to small academic or biotech researchers as to what simple questions can be addressed or answered at the bench in order to make their cell therapy products more feasible for commercial-scale production. We discuss the processes that are required for scale-out at the manufacturing level, and how many questions can be addressed at the bench level. The goal of this review is to provide guidance in the form of topics that can be addressed early in the process of development to better the chances of the product being successful for future commercialization. PMID:24101671

Eaker, Shannon; Armant, Myriam; Brandwein, Harvey; Burger, Scott; Campbell, Andrew; Carpenito, Carmine; Clarke, Dominic; Fong, Timothy; Karnieli, Ohad; Niss, Knut; Van't Hof, Wouter; Wagey, Ravenska

2013-10-07

336

Infection control in IV therapy: a review of the chain of infection.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to review the principles of infection control relating to intravenous (IV) therapy. IV therapy and peripheral IV cannulation are common procedures. Zingg and Pittet (2009) noted that as many as 80% of hospitalized patients will have a cannula in situ, and Hart (2008) suggested that patients who require IV therapy are often seriously ill and immunocompromised, thus are more susceptible to infection. The Department of Health (DH) (2007a) estimated that 6000 patients acquire a catheter-related bloodstream infection every year in the UK. Robust standards of practice are therefore paramount to ensure safe and competent practice, both in peripheral IV cannulation and IV care. Using the chain of infection as a framework to review practice will enable practitioners to ensure thorough standards of practice, and the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) (2005) stated that only trained and competent staff using strict aseptic techniques should be involved in IV or cannulae care. Furthermore, the Code (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), (2008) stipulates all practitioners must deliver care based on the best available evidence and/or best practice, and that knowledge and skills for safe and effective practice must be kept up-to-date throughout each health professional's working life. PMID:21042241

Lavery, Irene

337

Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Chronic, Non-malignant Pain: A Review  

PubMed Central

Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain.

2007-01-01

338

The peer review system (PRS) for quality assurance and treatment improvement in radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer reviews are needed across all disciplines of medicine to address complex medical challenges in disease care, medical safety, insurance coverage handling, and public safety. Radiation therapy utilizes technologically advanced imaging for treatment planning, often with excellent efficacy. Since planning data requirements are substantial, patients are at risk for repeat diagnostic procedures or suboptimal therapeutic intervention due to a lack of knowledge regarding previous treatments. The Peer Review System (PRS) will make this critical radiation therapy information readily available on demand via Web technology. The PRS system has been developed with current Web technology, .NET framework, and in-house DICOM library. With the advantages of Web server-client architecture, including IIS web server, SOAP Web Services and Silverlight for the client side, the patient data can be visualized through web browser and distributed across multiple locations by the local area network and Internet. This PRS will significantly improve the quality, safety, and accessibility, of treatment plans in cancer therapy. Furthermore, the secure Web-based PRS with DICOM-RT compliance will provide flexible utilities for organization, sorting, and retrieval of imaging studies and treatment plans to optimize the patient treatment and ultimately improve patient safety and treatment quality.

Le, Anh H. T.; Kapoor, Rishabh; Palta, Jatinder R.

2012-02-01

339

AEROSOL THERAPY IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICLE DEPOSITION PATTERNS IN SIMULATED HUMAN AIRWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The efficacy of inhalation therapy may be improved by the selective deposition of aerosolized medicines, by explicitly targeting and delivering drugs to prescribed lung sites. ere, the deposition patterns of test aerosols, mapped in surrogate respiratory tracts consisting of repl...

340

The induction of the apoptosis of cancer cell by sonodynamic therapy: a review  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound can be used not only in the examination, but also in the therapy, especially in the therapy of cancer, which has got effect in the treatment. Sonodynamic therapy is an experimental cancer therapy which uses ultrasound to enhance the cytotoxic effects of drugs known as sonosensitizers. It has been tested in vitro and in vivo. The ultrasound could penetrate the tissue and cell under some of conditions which directly changes the cell membranes permeability, thereby allowing the delivery of exogenous molecules into the cells in some degree. Ultrasound could inhibit the proliferation or induce the apoptosis of the cancer cell in vitro or in vivo. Recent research indicated low frequency and low intensity ultrasound could induce cells apoptosis, and which could be strengthened by sonodynamic sensitivities, microbubbles, chemotherapeutic drugs and so on. Most kinds of ultrasound suppressed the proliferation of cancer cell through inducing the apoptosis of cancer cell. The mechanism of apoptosis is not clear. In this review, we will focus on and discuss the mechanisms of the induction of the apoptosis of cancer cell by ultrasound.

Bai, Wen-Kun; Shen, E

2012-01-01

341

Concise review: Adult salivary gland stem cells and a potential therapy for xerostomia.  

PubMed

The ability to speak, swallow, masticate, taste food, and maintain a healthy oral cavity is heavily reliant on the presence of saliva, the hugely important effect of which on our everyday lives is often unappreciated. Hyposalivation, frequently experienced by people receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, results in a plethora of symptoms whose combined effect can drastically reduce quality of life. Although artificial lubricants and drugs stimulating residual function are available to ameliorate the consequences of hyposalivation, their effects are at best transient. Such management techniques do not address the source of the problem: a lack of functional saliva-producing acinar cells, resulting from radiation-induced stem cell sterilization. Post-radiotherapy stimulation of cell proliferation only results in improved saliva secretion when part of the tissue has been spared or when the dose to the salivary gland (SG) remains below a certain level. Therefore, stem cell replacement therapy may be a good option to treat radiation-induced hyposalivation. Substantial progress has been made lately in the understanding of cell turnover in the SG, and the recent identification of stem and progenitor cell populations in the SG provides a basis for studies toward development of a stem cell-based therapy for xerostomia. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of SG stem cells and their potential for use in a cell-based therapy that may provide a more durable cure for hyposalivation. PMID:23335219

Pringle, Sarah; Van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P

2013-04-01

342

New gene therapy strategies for cancer treatment: a review of recent patents.  

PubMed

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the Western world. The limited successes of available treatments for cancer mean that new strategies need to be developed. The possibility of modifying the cancer cell with the introduction of genetic material opens the way to a new approach based on gene therapy. There are still many technical difficulties to be overcome, but recent advances in the molecular and cellular biology of gene transfer have made it likely that gene therapy will soon start to play an increasing role in clinical practice, particularly in the treatment of cancer. Gene therapy will probably be the therapeutic option in cases in which conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have failed. The development of modified vectors, and an improved understanding of interactions between the vector and the human host, are generating inventions that are being protected by patents due to the considerable interest of industry for their possible commercialization. We review the latest strategies, patented and/or under clinical trial, in cancer gene therapy. These include patents that cover the use of modified vectors to increase the security and specificity, recombining adenovirus that leads to loss or gain of gene function, activation of the patient's own immune cells to eliminate cancer cells by expression of molecules that enhance immune responses, silencing genes related to the development of drug resistance in patients, inhibition of angiogenesis of solid tumors by targeting the tumor vasculature, and the development of enzymes that destroy viral or cancerous genetic material. PMID:22339358

Ortiz, Raúl; Melguizo, Consolación; Prados, José; Álvarez, Pablo J; Caba, Octavio; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando; Hita, Fidel; Aránega, Antonia

2012-09-01

343

Insulin Pump Therapy in the Perioperative Period: A Review of Care after Implementation of Institutional Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background An institutional policy was previously established for patients with diabetes on insulin pump therapy undergoing elective surgical procedures. Method Electronic medical records were reviewed to assess documentation of insulin pump status and glucose monitoring during preoperative, intraoperative, and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) phases of care. Results Twenty patients with insulin pumps underwent 23 procedures from March 1 to December 31, 2011. Mean (standard deviation) age was 58 (13) years, mean diabetes duration was 28 (17) years, and mean duration of insulin pump therapy was 7 (6) years. Nearly all cases (86%) during the preoperative phase had the presence of the device documented—an improvement over the 64% noted in data collected before the policy. Intraoperatively, 13 cases (61%) had the presence of the pump documented, which was higher than the 28% before implementation of the policy. However, documentation of pump status was found in only 38% in the PACU and was actually less than the 60% documented previously. Over 90% of cases had glucose checked in the preoperative area and the PACU, and only 60% had it checked intraoperatively, which was nearly identical to the percentages seen before policy implementation. No adverse events occurred when insulin pump therapy was continued. Conclusions Although some processes still require improvement, preliminary data suggest that the policy for perioperative management of insulin pumps has provided useful structure for care of these cases. The data thus far indicate that insulin pump therapy can be continued safely during the perioperative period.

Boyle, Mary E.; Seifert, Karen M.; Beer, Karen A.; Mackey, Patricia; Schlinkert, Richard T.; Stearns, Joshua D.; Cook, Curtiss B.

2012-01-01

344

Concise review: genetically engineered stem cell therapy targeting angiogenesis and tumor stroma in gastrointestinal malignancy.  

PubMed

Cell-based gene therapy holds considerable promise for the treatment of human malignancy. Genetically engineered cells if delivered to sites of disease could alleviate symptoms or even cure cancer through expression of therapeutic or suicide transgene products. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), nonhematopoietic multipotent cells found primarily in bone marrow, have garnered particular interest as potential tumor-targeting vehicles due to their innate tumortropic homing properties. However, recent strategies go further than simply using MSCs as vehicles and use the stem cell-specific genetic make-up to restrict transgene expression to tumorigenic environments using tumor-tissue specific promoters. This addresses one of the concerns with this novel therapy that nonselective stem cell-based therapy could induce cancer rather than treat it. Even minimal off-target effects can be deleterious, motivating recent strategies to not only enhance MSC homing but also engineer them to make their antitumor effect selective to sites of malignancy. This review will summarize the advances made in the past decade toward developing novel cell-based cancer therapies using genetically engineered MSCs with a focus on strategies to achieve and enhance tumor specificity and their application to targeting gastrointestinal malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:23132810

Keung, Emily Z; Nelson, Peter J; Conrad, Claudius

2013-02-01

345

Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy: Review of the Native Cardiac Progenitor Cells and Future Direction.  

PubMed

Various stem cell types have been tested for regenerating damaged myocardium after myocardial infarction. However, the results of clinical trials have not been consistent, with only some of the trials reporting small improvements in cardiac function. It appears that engraftment and survival of injected cells is limited, and transplanted stem cells either do not differentiate into cardiac cells or differentiate into only limited number of cardiac cells. The exact mechanism(s) of cardiac functional improvement by cell therapy are unclear, but paracrine effect may play a central role. The resident cardiac progenitor cells identified within the adult myocardium have distinct advantages over other stem cell types for cardiac cell therapy, as they are likely pre-committed to the cardiovascular fate. However, isolating and expanding these cells from cardiac biopsies is a challenge. More recently, direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes has given new hope for myocardial regeneration. Here we will review different stem cells used in cardiac cell therapy with a focus on the native cardiac progenitor cells and briefly outline future directions of cardiac cell therapy. PMID:23674056

Ye, Jianqin; Yeghiazarians, Yerem

2013-05-13

346

Nanofabricated particles for engineered drug therapies: a preliminary biodistribution study of PRINT nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A novel method for the fabrication of polymeric particles on the order of tens of nanometers to several microns is described. This imprint lithographic technique called PRINT (Particle Replication In Non-wetting Templates), takes advantage of the unique properties of elastomeric molds comprised of a low surface energy perfluoropolyether network, allowing the production of monodisperse, shape-specific nanoparticles from an extensive array of organic precursors. This engineered nature of particle production has a number of advantages over the construction of traditional nanoparticles such as liposomes, dendrimers, and colloidal precipitates. The gentle "top down" approach of PRINT enables the simultaneous and independent control over particle size and shape, composition, and surface functionality, and permits the loading of delicate cargos such as small organic therapeutics and biological macromolecules. Thus, this single tool serves as a comprehensive platform for the rational design and investigation of new nanocarriers in medicine, having applications ranging from therapeutics to advanced diagnostics. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted, demonstrating the future utility of PRINT particles as delivery vectors in nanomedicine. Monodisperse 200 nm poly(ethylene glycol)-based (PEG) particles were fabricated using PRINT methodology and characterized via scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Incubation with HeLa cells showed very little cytotoxicity, even at high concentrations. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of [(125)I]-labeled particles were studied in healthy mice following bolus tail vein administration. The particles were distributed mainly to the liver and the spleen with an apparent distribution t(1/2) of approximately 17 min followed by slow redistribution with a t(1/2) of 3.3 h. The volume of distribution for the central and peripheral compartments was found to be approximately 3 mL and 5 mL, respectively. PMID:17643544

Gratton, Stephanie E A; Pohlhaus, Patrick D; Lee, Jin; Guo, Ji; Cho, Moo J; Desimone, Joseph M

2007-06-02

347

The use of electroconvulsive therapy in atypical psychotic presentations: a case review.  

PubMed

Convulsive therapy and its progeny, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), were originally used for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia, and there is little doubt that ECT remains an effective intervention for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, current practice tends to favor the use of ECT in severe or treatment refractory affective disorders, and its use in schizophrenia and other nonaffective (atypical) psychotic disorders has become controversial.CASE REPORTS HAVE SUGGESTED A ROLE FOR ECT IN TWO SPECIFIC ATYPICAL PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. In this article, we review the atypical psychotic disorders and report a series of five case examples that signify the role of ECT in atypical psychotic presentations, particularly when the symptoms resemble those found in Cotard's syndrome and cycloid psychosis. PMID:20428309

Montgomery, John H; Vasu, Devi

2007-10-01

348

Focused clinical review: periprocedural management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents.  

PubMed

Coronary stent implantation, particularly drug eluting stents, is now the major method of coronary revascularisation. Following drug-eluting stent implantation dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and thienopyridine is recommended for at least 12 months. Premature discontinuation, often at the time of noncardiac surgery, has been associated with stent thrombosis which has a significant risk of death and myocardial infarction. Late (>30 days) and very late (>365 days) stent thrombosis appears to more common with DES and poses the questions of when is it safe to stop antiplatelet therapy post coronary stenting and how to manage patients who need non-cardiac surgery. This article reviews the evidence for stent thrombosis and the peri-operative management of patients with coronary stents and provides an algorithm for patient management based on multidisciplinary assessment of bleeding risk, perioperative cardiac event and stent thrombosis risk. PMID:21493140

Bell, Brendan; Layland, Jamie; Poon, Karl; Spaulding, Christian; Walters, Darren

2011-04-14

349

Imaging-based treatment selection for intravenous and intra-arterial stroke therapies: a comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Reperfusion therapy is the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The current approach to patient selection is primarily based on the time from stroke symptom onset. However, this algorithm sharply restricts the eligible patient population, and neglects large variations in collateral circulation that ultimately determine the therapeutic time window in individual patients. Time alone is unlikely to remain the dominant parameter. Alternative approaches to patient selection involve advanced neuroimaging methods including MRI diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance and computed tomography perfusion imaging and noninvasive angiography that provide potentially valuable information regarding the state of the brain parenchyma and the neurovasculature. These techniques have now been used extensively, and there is emerging evidence on how specific imaging data may result in improved clinical outcomes. This article will review the major studies that have investigated the role of imaging in patient selection for both intravenous and intra-arterial therapies.

Yoo, Albert J; Pulli, Benjamin; Gonzalez, R Gilberto

2011-01-01

350

Forgiveness and therapy: a critical review of conceptualizations, practices, and values found in the literature.  

PubMed

This article is a critical review of how forgiveness is conceptualized in the family therapy, counseling, and clinical psychology literature. A systematic analysis of themes in a fairly comprehensive set of texts was carried out. Three main dimensions emerged along which therapist authors' viewpoints can be located: essentiality, intentionality, and benevolence. Therapy practices and values that correspond with positions along these dimensions are presented. The analysis reveals that greater exploration is needed regarding how forgiveness is related to diversity (e.g., gender, culture, religion, etc.), marginalization, and relations of power. Our objective is to provide a conceptual map for clinicians so that they might locate their own thinking about forgiveness and be better equipped to work sensitively with the forgiveness views and values of their clients. PMID:17437459

Legaree, Terri-Ann; Turner, Jean; Lollis, Susan

2007-04-01

351

Vital pulp therapy using calcium-enriched mixture: An evidence-based review  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, casecontrol studies have revealed that the treatment outcomes of root canal therapy (RCT) are generally favorable; however, the overall epidemiological success rate of RCT in the general population is relatively low. On the other hand, vitality of dental pulp is a key factor in the long-term prognosis of permanent teeth; in recent years, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has received significant consideration as it has been revealed that the inflamed pulp has the potential to heal. In this review article, the current best evidence with regard to VPT using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement in human permanent/primary teeth is discussed. A strategy based on a search using keywords for CEM cement as well as VPT was applied.

Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam

2013-01-01

352

Non-Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Complicating Electroconvulsive Therapy: Short Review of the Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Approach  

PubMed Central

Acute pulmonary edema complicating electroconvulsive therapy is an extremely uncommon event that has rarely been described in the literature. Different theories, including one suggesting a cardiogenic component, have been proposed to explain its genesis. The present report describes a classic presentation of this condition with review of its potential mechanisms and diagnostic approach. After successful completion of a session of electroconvulsive therapy, a 42-year-old woman with major depressive disorder developed acute systemic high blood pressure, shortness of breath, and hemoptysis. A chest radiograph demonstrated diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Initially cardiogenic pulmonary edema was presumed, but an extensive diagnostic work-up demonstrated normal systolic and diastolic left ventricular function, and with only supportive measures, a complete clinical and radiographic recovery was achieved within 48 hours. The present case does not support any cardiogenic mechanism in the genesis of this condition.

Manne, Janaki R.; Kasirye, Yusuf; Epperla, Narendranath; Garcia-Montilla, Romel J.

2012-01-01

353

Review of technology development and clinical trials of transcranial laser therapy for acute ischemic stroke treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stroke is the one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, claiming 600,000 lives each year. Evidence suggests that near infrared (NIR) illumination has a beneficial effect on a variety of cells when these cells are exposed to adverse conditions. Among these conditions is the hypoxic state produced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). To demonstrate the impact NIR Transcranial Laser Therapy (TLT) has on AIS in humans, a series of double blind, placebo controlled clinical trials were designed using the NeuroThera(R) System (NTS). The NTS was designed and developed to treat subjects non-invasively using 808 nm NIR illumination. TLT, as it applies to stroke therapy, and the NTS will be described. The results of the two clinical trials: NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 1 (NEST-1) and NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 2 (NEST-2) will be reviewed and discussed.

Catanzaro, Brian E.; Streeter, Jackson; de Taboada, Luis

2010-02-01

354

Does yoga therapy reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension?: an integrative review.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was to present a evidence-based integrative research review that validates yoga therapy as an effective complementary treatment in the management of high blood pressure (BP). The article also uses the theoretical framework of Dr Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome. Yoga researchers demonstrate that yoga works because it modulates the physiological system of the body, specifically its effect on the heart rate. This review is significant because yoga presents an effective method of treating hypertension that is nonpharmacologic and therefore there are no adverse effects and there are other valuable health benefits. Research suggests that stress is a contributing factor to high BP; hence, the use of the general adaptation syndrome and the most important attribute of yoga, that is, it is a physical and mental exercise program, that is in sync with the philosophy of holistic nursing care where one treats the whole individual and not just the disease. The review was conducted with a search of computerized databases such as OVID, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic edition, PsychINFO, as well as reliable Web sites such as the cdc.gov, among others. An integrative review search was conducted, and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. They include a combination of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and pilot studies. Yoga therapy is a multifunctional exercise modality with numerous benefits. Not only does yoga reduce high BP but it has also been demonstrated to effectively reduce blood glucose level, cholesterol level, and body weight, major problems affecting the American society. The completed integrative review provides guidelines for nursing implementation as a complementary treatment of high BP. PMID:22517349

Okonta, Nkechi Rose

355

The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093

Hofmann, Stefan G; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J J; Sawyer, Alice T; Fang, Angela

2012-07-31

356

The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples.

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

2012-01-01

357

TOPICAL REVIEW: Low-dimensional surface oxides in the oxidation of Rh particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation of rhodium particles leads to the formation of low-dimensional nanostructures, namely ultrathin oxide films and stripes adsorbed on the metallic surface. These structures display unique electronic and structural properties, which have been studied in detail experimentally and theoretically in recent years. In this review, the state of research on low-dimensional surface oxides formed on Rh surfaces will be discussed with a special focus on the contributions derived from computational approaches. Several points elucidating the novel properties of the surface oxides will be addressed: (i) the structural relation between the surface oxides and their bulk counterparts, (ii) the electronic properties of the low-dimensional oxide films and (iii) potential catalytic and electronic applications of the surface oxides.

Mittendorfer, Florian

2010-10-01

358

Nanocrystalline materials for the dosimetry of heavy charged particles: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermally stimulated luminescence or better known as thermoluminescence (TL) is a powerful technique extensively used for dosimetry of ionizing radiations. TL dosimeter (TLD) materials presently in use are inorganic crystalline materials. They are in the form of chips, single crystals or microcrystalline size powder. The most popular are LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, CaSO4:Dy, CaF2:Dy and Al2O3:C. However, these TLD materials are not capable of precisely detecting heavy charged particles (HCP) irradiations in their present forms. The saturation effect is the major problem, which occurs at relatively low fluences (doses). Moreover, there is a significant variation in the TL glow curves structure with increase in doses, which is undesirable for the use in dosimetry. However, with the use of very tiny particles such as nanoscale TLD materials, this problem is overcome to a major extent. The TL results of the recently reported nanomaterials have revealed very imperative characteristics such as high sensitivity and saturation at very high doses. Recent studies on different luminescent nanomaterials showed that they have a potential application in dosimetry of heavy charged particles using TL technique, where the conventional microcrystalline phosphors saturate. This paper is a review on the prepared TLD nanomaterials, studied for their TL response to HCP. These are CaSO4:Dy, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, K2Ca2(SO4)3:Eu and Ba0.97Ca0.03SO4:Eu nanomaterials. The important results obtained in these nanomaterials and the possibility of using them as HCP dosimeters are discussed.

Salah, Numan

2011-01-01

359

Proton synchrotrons for cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotrons have long been recognized for their superior capabilities in proton and heavy ion therapy. Their compactness and ease of beam energy control make them ideally suited to this application. The range of available intensities insures safety against high dose accidents such as have occurred with conventional electron accelerators. For heavy ion and heavy ion therapy, synchrotrons have been the exclusive choice among particle accelerators. In this paper, four synchrotrons designed for dedicated therapy facilities are reviewed and performance data are discussed. .

Coutrakon, George B.

2001-07-01

360

TOPICAL REVIEW: Multifunctional nanoassemblies of block copolymers for future cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoassemblies from amphiphilic block copolymers are promising nanomedicine platforms for cancer diagnosis and therapy due to their relatively small size, high loading capacity of drugs, controlled drug release, in vivo stability and prolonged blood circulation. Recent clinical trials with self-assembled polymeric micelles incorporating anticancer drugs have shown improved antitumor activity and decreased side effects encouraging the further development of nanoassemblies for drug delivery. This review summarizes recent approaches considering stimuli-responsive, multifunctionality and more advanced architectures, such as vesicles or worm-like micelles, for tumor-specific drug and gene delivery.

Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

2010-02-01

361

Penile traction therapy and Peyronie's disease: a state of art review of the current literature  

PubMed Central

In recent years, penile traction therapy (PTT) has gained considerable interest as a novel nonsurgical treatment option for men with Peyronie’s disease (PD) and short penises. The current published literature suggests that selected cases of PD may benefit from a conservative approach with PTT, resulting in increased penile length and reduction of penile deformity. It appears to be safe and well tolerated but requires a great deal of patient compliance and determination. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the use of PTT in men with PD, short penises and in the setting of pre- and postprosthesis corporal fibrosis.

Brock, Gerald

2013-01-01

362

Electroconvulsive therapy for a patient with persistent tardive dyskinesia: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that presents with abnormal, involuntary, and irregular choreoathetoid movements involving mouth, tongue, face, trunk, or extremities after prolonged use of dopamine receptor-blocking agents. Currently, there is still a lack of effective treatment for it. Here, we report a female patient with paranoid schizophrenia, who has had persistent TD for 8 years. After electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was performed, both of her psychotic symptoms and dyskinetic movements were improved. The efficacy and potential clinical variables of ECT in the treatment of TD were reviewed. PMID:23965612

Peng, Li-Yun; Lee, Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen

2013-09-01

363

A systematic review of dialectical behavior therapy for the treatment of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been proposed as an effective treatment for eating disorders (EDs). We conducted a systematic literature review to locate refereed journal articles testing DBT for the treatment of EDs. We identified 13 studies empirically evaluating treatment efficacy across various settings. Findings, based on mostly uncontrolled trials, indicate that DBT treatments appear effective in addressing ED behaviors and other forms of psychopathology in ED samples. The expectation that improvements in emotion regulation capabilities drive reductions in ED pathology was not fully supported. Further research is necessary to confirm the efficacy of modified DBT treatments for EDs. PMID:22519897

Bankoff, Sarah M; Karpel, Madeleine G; Forbes, Hope E; Pantalone, David W

2012-01-01

364

Eating disorders in adolescents: review of treatment studies that include psychodynamically informed therapy.  

PubMed

In clinical practice, psychodynamic approaches represent an important component of the treatment for young people with eating disorders (EDs), even though the research literature remains modest regarding the most effective treatment for children, adolescents, or adults with an ED. Although there are very few clinical research studies of individual or family psychodynamic treatments of EDs, there is some evidence for efficacy from clinical trials. This article reviews studies of psychodynamically informed therapies for the treatment of EDs and discusses how the findings, although limited, suggest that further research into psychodynamic treatments of EDs in youth is warranted. PMID:23164130

Dancyger, Ida; Krakower, Scott; Fornari, Victor

2013-01-01

365

Race and Ethnicity in Trials of Antihypertensive Therapy to Prevent Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We wanted to systematically review (1) the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials of antihypertensive drug therapy and (2) racial differences in the efficacy of these therapies for the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, African Index Medicus, and the Cochrane Library were searched from their inception to December 2005 for randomized controlled trials testing the efficacy of antihypertensive drug therapy in preventing myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, or cardiovascular death. MEDLINE was also searched from 2005 through 2006. The 2 authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and quality. RESULTS Twenty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. Eight trials reported results by racial subgroup. Trials with black and Hispanic participants (ALLHAT, INVEST, VALUE) found similar primary outcomes, but ALLHAT found a greater magnitude of benefit for blacks on diuretic therapy compared with nonblacks. One trial (PROGRESS) compared Asians with non-Asians, reporting that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (vs placebo) were equally effective for preventing stroke in both groups. In the LIFE trial, post hoc analyses showed different outcomes for blacks and nonblacks, raising questions about the usefulness of angiotensin-receptor blockers as first-line antihypertensive agents in blacks. In 3 studies conducted exclusively in Asians (JMIC-B, FEVER, NICS-EH), calcium channel blockers were effective in preventing cardiovascular outcomes. No trials described cardiovascular outcomes in Native Americans. CONCLUSIONS Five trials made interethnic group comparisons; 4 had similar primary outcomes for ethnic minorities and whites. Increased minority participation in future studies is needed to determine optimal prevention therapies, especially in outcome-driven trials comparing multidrug antihypertensive treatment regimens.

Park, Ina U.; Taylor, Anne L.

2007-01-01

366

Efficacy of exposure versus cognitive therapy in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for a wide range of psychological disorders. There is a continued controversy about whether challenging maladaptive thoughts rather than use of behavioural interventions alone is associated with the greatest efficacy. However little is known about the relative efficacy of various components of CBT. This review aims to compare the relative efficacy of Cognitive Therapy (CT) versus Exposure (E) for a range of anxiety disorders using the most clinically relevant outcome measures and estimating the summary relative efficacy by combining the studies in a meta-analysis. Methods Psych INFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the first available year to May 2010. All randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of exposure with cognitive therapy were included. Odds ratios (OR) or standardised means' differences (Hedges' g) for the most clinically relevant primary outcomes were calculated. Outcomes of the studies were grouped according to specific disorders and were combined in meta-analyses exploring short-term and long-term outcomes. Results 20 Randomised Controlled Trials with (n = 1,308) directly comparing the efficacy of CT and E in anxiety disorders were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference in the relative efficacy of CT and E was revealed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and in Panic Disorder (PD). There was a statistically significant difference favouring CT versus E in Social Phobia both in the short-term (Z = 3.72, p = 0.0002) and the long-term (Z = 3.28, p = 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions On the basis of extant literature, there appears to be no evidence of differential efficacy between cognitive therapy and exposure in PD, PTSD and OCD and strong evidence of superior efficacy of cognitive therapy in social phobia

2011-01-01

367

A review of dispersion modelling and its application to the dispersion of particles: An overview of different dispersion models available  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the first review of the application of atmospheric models for particle dispersion. The different types of dispersion models available, from simple box type models to complex fluid dynamics models are outlined and the suitability of the different approaches to dispersion modelling within different environments, in regards to scale, complexity of the environment and concentration parameters is assessed. Finally, several major commercial and non-commercial particle dispersion packages are reviewed, detailing which processes are included and advantages and limitations of their use to modelling particle dispersion. The models reviewed included: Box models (AURORA, CPB and PBM), Gaussian models (CALINE4, HIWAY2, CAR-FMI, OSPM, CALPUFF, AEROPOL, AERMOD, UK-ADMS and SCREEN3), Lagrangian/Eulerian Models (GRAL, TAPM, ARIA Regional), CFD models (ARIA Local, MISKAM, MICRO-CALGRID) and models which include aerosol dynamics (GATOR, MONO32, UHMA, CIT, AERO, RPM, AEROFOR2, URM-1ATM, MADRID, CALGRID and UNI-AERO).

Holmes, N. S.; Morawska, L.

368

Magnetic particle hyperthermia: nanoparticle magnetism and materials development for cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss processes in magnetic nanoparticles are discussed with respect to optimization of the specific loss power (SLP) for application in tumour hyperthermia. Several types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles representative for different preparation methods (wet chemical precipitation, grinding, bacterial synthesis, magnetic size fractionation) are the subject of a comparative study of structural and magnetic properties. Since the specific loss power useful for hyperthermia is restricted by serious limitations of the alternating field amplitude and frequency, the effects of the latter are investigated experimentally in detail. The dependence of the SLP on the mean particle size is studied over a broad size range from superparamagnetic up to multidomain particles, and guidelines for achieving large SLP under the constraints valid for the field parameters are derived. Particles with the mean size of 18 nm having a narrow size distribution proved particularly useful. In particular, very high heating power may be delivered by bacterial magnetosomes, the best sample of which showed nearly 1 kW g-1 at 410 kHz and 10 kA m-1. This value may even be exceeded by metallic magnetic particles, as indicated by measurements on cobalt particles.

Hergt, Rudolf; Dutz, Silvio; Müller, Robert; Zeisberger, Matthias

2006-09-01

369

Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2002-06-01

370

Treatment with heavy charged particles: Systematic review of clinical data and current clinical (comparative) trials.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. To analyze relevant data on carbon ion radiotherapy for different tumor indications and to review current clinical trials. Material and methods. All published data on carbon ion radiotherapy were searched for with specific criteria in PUBMED. The terms for search were 'carbon ion and (radiotherapy OR radiation therapy) and (nirs OR chiba OR japan OR itep OR st. petersburg OR PSI OR dubna OR uppsala OR clatterbridge OR loma linda OR nice OR orsay OR itemba OR mpri OR himac OR triumf OR GSI OR HMI OR NCC OR ibmc OR pmrc OR MGH OR infn-lns OR shizuoka OR werc OR zibo OR md anderson OR fpti OR ncc ilsan OR boston OR heidelberg OR tsukuba) NOT in vitro NOT cell culture NOT review[Publication Type] Filters: Humans, English'. The search delivered 273 hits, of which only articles in English including 20 or more patients were included. Case reports were not considered. We subdivided into disease- and site-specific groups. Results and conclusion. To date, several studies have been performed, however, no randomized trials have been conducted. Therefore, carbon ion radiotherapy must be considered an experimental treatment, and randomized trials comparing modern photon as well as proton treatments are necessary. PMID:23964656

Combs, Stephanie E; Debus, Jürgen

2013-08-22

371

Cognitive Therapy for Depression in Patients with Heart Failure: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Depression is a significant problem in patients with heart failure (HF). The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the use of cognitive therapy (CT) in treating depression and depressive symptoms in patients with HF and cardiovascular-related illnesses. In 8 of the 14 studied reviewed, researchers found that CT reduced depressive symptoms; however, the limitations of the studies prevent wide generalization of the results. Evidence to support the use of CT for the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with cardiovascular illness is insufficient at this time. Large randomized, controlled trials that demonstrate the efficacy of CT are needed before clinicians routinely refer patients with HF to CT for the purpose of improving depression or depressive symptoms.

Dekker, Rebecca L.

2010-01-01

372

Role of Ozone Therapy in Minimal Intervention Dentistry and Endodontics - A Review  

PubMed Central

Ozone has been successfully used in medical field since many years owing to its oxidizing property making it an excellent antimicrobial agent. Moreover its potent anti-inflammatory property along with favorable cellular and humoral immune response made ozone an effective therapeutic agent. Also its ability to arrest and reverse carious lesions in a predictable way opened up a new chapter in minimal intervention dentistry. Furthermore its efficacy in curbing resistant poly microbial root canal flora appears very promising. This article is based on information through valid textbooks, peer reviews, journals and medline/pubmed search. How to cite this article: Reddy S A, Reddy N, Dinapadu S, Reddy M, Pasari S. Role of Ozone Therapy in Minimal Intervention Dentistry and Endodontics - A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):102-108.

A, Shilpa Reddy; Reddy, Narender; Dinapadu, Sainath; Reddy, Manoranjan; Pasari, Srikanth

2013-01-01

373

Reiki--review of a biofield therapy history, theory, practice, and research.  

PubMed

Reiki is a vibrational, or subtle energy, therapy most commonly facilitated by light touch, which is believed to balance the biofield and strengthen the body's ability to heal itself. Although systematic study of efficacy is scant thus far, Reiki is increasingly used as an adjunct to conventional medical care, both in and out of hospital settings. This article will describe the practice and review the history and theory of Reiki, giving readers a context for the growing popularity of this healing modality. Programs that incorporate Reiki into the clinical setting will be discussed, as well as important considerations in setting up such a program. Finally, the research literature to date on Reiki will be reviewed and evaluated, and directions for future Reiki research will be suggested. PMID:12652885

Miles, Pamela; True, Gala

374

Occupational therapy interventions for employment and education for adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review.  

PubMed

In this systematic review, we investigated research literature evaluating the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions focusing on participation and performance in occupations related to paid and unpaid employment and education for people with serious mental illness. The review included occupation- and activity-based interventions and interventions addressing performance skills, aspects of the environment, activity demands, and client factors. The results indicate that strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of supported employment using individual placement and support to result in competitive employment. These outcomes are stronger when combined with cognitive or social skills training. Supported education programs emphasizing goal setting, skill development, and cognitive training result in increased participation in educational pursuits. The evidence for instrumental activities of daily living interventions that targeted specific homemaking occupations and supported parenting was limited but positive. Environmental cognitive supports, such as signs, and other compensatory strategies are useful in managing maladaptive behavior. PMID:21675329

Arbesman, Marian; Logsdon, Dana W

375

REVIEW: The IMRT information process—mastering the degrees of freedom in external beam therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The techniques and procedures for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are reviewed in the context of the information process central to treatment planning and delivery of IMRT. A presentation is given of the evolution of the information based radiotherapy workflow and dose delivery techniques, as well as the volume and planning concepts for relating the dose information to image based patient representations. The formulation of the dose shaping process as an optimization problem is described. The different steps in the calculation flow for determination of machine parameters for dose delivery are described starting from the formulation of optimization objectives over dose calculation to optimization procedures. Finally, the main elements of the quality assurance procedure necessary for implementing IMRT clinically are reviewed.

Ahnesjö, Anders; Hårdemark, Björn; Isacsson, Ulf; Montelius, Anders

2006-07-01

376

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and radiation enhancement using 1.9 nm gold particles: potential application for cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High atomic number (Z) materials such as gold preferentially absorb kilovoltage x-rays compared to soft tissue and may be used to achieve local dose enhancement in tumours during treatment with ionizing radiation. Gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated as radiation dose enhancing agents in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we used multiple endpoints to characterize the cellular cytotoxic response of a range of cell lines to 1.9 nm gold particles and measured dose modifying effects following transient exposure at low concentrations. Gold nanoparticles caused significant levels of cell type specific cytotoxicity, apoptosis and increased oxidative stress. When used as dose modifying agents, dose enhancement factors varied between the cell lines investigated with the highest enhancement being 1.9 in AGO-1522B cells at a nanoparticle concentration of 100 µg ml - 1. This study shows exposure to 1.9 nm gold particles to induce a range of cell line specific responses including decreased clonogenic survival, increased apoptosis and induction of DNA damage which may be mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first study involving 1.9 nm nanometre sized particles to report multiple cellular responses which impact on the radiation dose modifying effect. The findings highlight the need for extensive characterization of responses to gold nanoparticles when assessing dose enhancing potential in cancer therapy.

Butterworth, K. T.; Coulter, J. A.; Jain, S.; Forker, J.; McMahon, S. J.; Schettino, G.; Prise, K. M.; Currell, F. J.; Hirst, D. G.

2010-07-01

377

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and radiation enhancement using 1.9 nm gold particles: potential application for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

High atomic number (Z) materials such as gold preferentially absorb kilovoltage x-rays compared to soft tissue and may be used to achieve local dose enhancement in tumours during treatment with ionizing radiation. Gold nanoparticles have been demonstrated as radiation dose enhancing agents in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we used multiple endpoints to characterize the cellular cytotoxic response of a range of cell lines to 1.9 nm gold particles and measured dose modifying effects following transient exposure at low concentrations. Gold nanoparticles caused significant levels of cell type specific cytotoxicity, apoptosis and increased oxidative stress. When used as dose modifying agents, dose enhancement factors varied between the cell lines investigated with the highest enhancement being 1.9 in AGO-1522B cells at a nanoparticle concentration of 100 ?g ml?1. This study shows exposure to 1.9 nm gold particles to induce a range of cell line specific responses including decreased clonogenic survival, increased apoptosis and induction of DNA damage which may be mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first study involving 1.9 nm nanometre sized particles to report multiple cellular responses which impact on the radiation dose modifying effect. The findings highlight the need for extensive characterization of responses to gold nanoparticles when assessing dose enhancing potential in cancer therapy.

Butterworth, K T; Coulter, J A; Jain, S; Forker, J; McMahon, S J; Schettino, G; Prise, K M; Currell, F J; Hirst, D G

2010-01-01

378

A systematic review with meta-analysis of the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study is to review the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the prevention and treatment of cancer\\u000a therapy-induced oral mucositis (OM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials of LLLT performed during chemotherapy or radiation\\u000a therapy in head and neck cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We found 11 randomised placebo-controlled trials with a total of 415

Jan Magnus Bjordal; Rene-Jean Bensadoun; Jan Tunèr; Lucio Frigo; Kjersti Gjerde; Rodrigo AB Lopes-Martins

379

Bench-to-bedside review: Immunoglobulin therapy for sepsis - biological plausibility from a critical care perspective.  

PubMed

Sepsis represents a dysregulated host response to infection, the extent of which determines the severity of organ dysfunction and subsequent outcome. All trialled immunomodulatory strategies to date have resulted in either outright failure or inconsistent degrees of success. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy falls into the latter category with opinion still divided as to its utility. This article provides a narrative review of the biological rationale for using IVIg in sepsis. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database (1966 to February 2011). The strategy included the following text terms and combinations of these: IVIg, intravenous immune globulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, immunoglobulin, immunoglobulin therapy, pentaglobin, sepsis, inflammation, immune modulation, apoptosis. Preclinical and extrapolated clinical data of IVIg therapy in sepsis suggests improved bacterial clearance, inhibitory effects upon upstream mediators of the host response (for example, the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcription factor), scavenging of downstream inflammatory mediators (for example, cytokines), direct anti-inflammatory effects mediated via Fc? receptors, and a potential ability to attenuate lymphocyte apoptosis and thus sepsis-related immunosuppression. Characterizing the trajectory of change in immunoglobulin levels during sepsis, understanding mechanisms contributing to these changes, and undertaking IVIg dose-finding studies should be performed prior to further large-scale interventional trials to enhance the likelihood of a successful outcome. PMID:22424150

Shankar-Hari, Manu; Spencer, Jo; Sewell, William A; Rowan, Kathryn M; Singer, Mervyn

2012-12-12

380

Bench-to-bedside review: Immunoglobulin therapy for sepsis - biological plausibility from a critical care perspective  

PubMed Central

Sepsis represents a dysregulated host response to infection, the extent of which determines the severity of organ dysfunction and subsequent outcome. All trialled immunomodulatory strategies to date have resulted in either outright failure or inconsistent degrees of success. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy falls into the latter category with opinion still divided as to its utility. This article provides a narrative review of the biological rationale for using IVIg in sepsis. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database (1966 to February 2011). The strategy included the following text terms and combinations of these: IVIg, intravenous immune globulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, immunoglobulin, immunoglobulin therapy, pentaglobin, sepsis, inflammation, immune modulation, apoptosis. Preclinical and extrapolated clinical data of IVIg therapy in sepsis suggests improved bacterial clearance, inhibitory effects upon upstream mediators of the host response (for example, the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcription factor), scavenging of downstream inflammatory mediators (for example, cytokines), direct anti-inflammatory effects mediated via Fc? receptors, and a potential ability to attenuate lymphocyte apoptosis and thus sepsis-related immunosuppression. Characterizing the trajectory of change in immunoglobulin levels during sepsis, understanding mechanisms contributing to these changes, and undertaking IVIg dose-finding studies should be performed prior to further large-scale interventional trials to enhance the likelihood of a successful outcome.

2012-01-01

381

Fission reactor neutron sources for neutron capture therapy--a critical review.  

PubMed

The status of fission reactor-based neutron beams for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is reviewed critically. Epithermal neutron beams, which are favored for treatment of deep-seated tumors, have been constructed or are under construction at a number of reactors worldwide. Some of the most recently constructed epithermal neutron beams approach the theoretical optimum for beam purity. Of these higher quality beams, at least one is suitable for use in high through-put routine therapy. It is concluded that reactor-based epithermal neutron beams with near optimum characteristics are currently available and more can be constructed at existing reactors. Suitable reactors include relatively low power reactors using the core directly as a source of neutrons or a fission converter if core neutrons are difficult to access. Thermal neutron beams for NCT studies with small animals or for shallow tumor treatments, with near optimum properties have been available at reactors for many years. Additional high quality thermal beams can also be constructed at existing reactors or at new, small reactors. Furthermore, it should be possible to design and construct new low power reactors specifically for NCT, which meet all requirements for routine therapy and which are based on proven and highly safe reactor technology. PMID:12749699

Harling, Otto K; Riley, Kent J

382

Biomarker-guided antibiotic therapy in adult critically ill patients: a critical review.  

PubMed

Biomarkers of infection, namely C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (PCT), are potentially useful in the diagnosis of infection as well as in the assessment of its response to antibiotic therapy. C-reactive protein variations overtime appears to have a good performance for the diagnosis of infection. Procalcitonin shows a better correlation with clinical severity. In addition, to overcome the worldwide problem of antibiotic overuse as well as misuse, biomarker guidance of antibiotic stewardship represents a promising new approach. In several randomized, controlled trials, including adult critically ill patients, PCT guidance was repeatedly associated with a decrease in the duration of antibiotic therapy. However, these trials present several limitations, namely high rate of patients' exclusion, high rate of algorithm overruling, long duration of antibiotic therapy in the control group, disregard the effect of renal failure on PCT level, and above all a possible higher mortality and higher late organ failure in the PCT arm. In addition, some infections (e.g., endocarditis) as well as frequent nosocomial bacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are not suitable to be assessed by PCT algorithms. Therefore, the true value of PCT-guided algorithm of antibiotic stewardship in assisting the clinical decision-making process at the bedside remains uncertain. Future studies should take into account the issues identified in the present review. PMID:22824162

Póvoa, Pedro; Salluh, Jorge I F

2012-07-23

383

Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions on functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods A search was made in Medline, Cinahl, PEDro and the Cochrane library for the period 1990 to February 2007. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PT interventions in children with diagnosed CP were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality and extracted the data. The outcomes measured in the trials were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results Twenty-two trials were identified. Eight intervention categories were distinguished. Four trials were of high methodological quality. Moderate evidence of effectiveness was established for two intervention categories: effectiveness of upper extremity treatments on attained goals and active supination, and of prehensile hand treatment and neurodevelopmental therapy (NDT) or NDT twice a week on developmental status, and of constraint-induced therapy on amount and quality of hand use. Moderate evidence of ineffectiveness was found of strength training on walking speed and stride length. Conflicting evidence was found for strength training on gross motor function. For the other intervention categories the evidence was limited due to low methodological quality and the statistically insignificant results of the studies. Conclusion Due to limitations in methodological quality and variations in population, interventions and outcomes, mostly limited evidence on the effectiveness of most PT interventions is available through RCTs. Moderate evidence was found for some effectiveness of upper extremity training. Well-designed trials are needed especially for focused PT interventions.

Anttila, Heidi; Autti-Ramo, Ilona; Suoranta, Jutta; Makela, Marjukka; Malmivaara, Antti

2008-01-01

384

Microbiology of cysts/abscesses of Bartholin's gland: review of empirical antibiotic therapy against microbial culture.  

PubMed

Bartholin's glands are prone to obstruction at their opening into the vestibule, forming cysts which could be infected to become gland abscess. In our unit, treatment of Bartholin's abscess is usually surgical. In addition to surgical treatment, antimicrobial agents are often administered before microbial culture results are known. In this study, we aimed to determine the most common pathogens in Bartholin's glands abscess in our local population so that empiric antimicrobial therapy, if required, could be correctly directed. Among the 78 cases reviewed, there was positive microbial culture in 73.9%. Bartholin's abscess was commonly caused by opportunistic organisms, either as single agents or polymicrobial infections. Aerobic organisms were the commonest with coliforms being the most common bacteria. No cases of N. gonorrhoea or C. trachomatis were encountered. Flucloxacillin as a single agent was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Poly-pharmacy was common practice. It was concluded that whether adjuvant antibiotic therapy is necessary following surgical treatment of Bartholin's abscess is still controversial. Where antibiotics are required, the optimal initial therapy is not known. As poly-microbial infections are common, a broad spectrum agent like co-amoxiclav may be suitable for empirical treatment until culture results are known. PMID:20925614

Bhide, A; Nama, V; Patel, S; Kalu, E

2010-01-01

385

The Rise of Cell Therapy Trials for Stroke: Review of Published and Registered Studies  

PubMed Central

Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide. Approximately 16 million first-ever strokes occur each year, leading to nearly 6 million deaths. Nevertheless, currently, very few therapeutic options are available. Cell therapies have been applied successfully in different hematological diseases, and are currently being investigated for treating ischemic heart disease, with promising results. Recent preclinical studies have indicated that cell therapies may provide structural and functional benefits after stroke. However, the effects of these treatments are not yet fully understood and are the subject of continuing investigation. Meanwhile, different clinical trials for stroke, the majority of them small, nonrandomized, and uncontrolled, have been reported, and their results indicate that cell therapy seems safe and feasible in these conditions. In the last 2 years, the number of published and registered trials has dramatically increased. Here, we review the main findings available in the field, with emphasis on the clinical results. Moreover, we address some of the questions that have been raised to date, to improve future studies.

Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro Moreno; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; de Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia

2013-01-01

386

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a systematic review.  

PubMed

We systematically reviewed empirical studies that investigated the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Our multi-database search identified seven published empirical reports. Three were identified as randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The methods utilized to investigate therapeutic efficacy of CBT in these studies varied widely from case reports to RCTs with pharmacotherapy comparison groups. Initially we provide a brief overview of CBT and justifications for its potential use to treat PMS/PMDD. Next, we provide critical evaluations of the analyses used in each study focusing on the detection of intervention effects assessed by statistically significant time by group interactions. When possible we calculate effect sizes to elucidate the clinical significance of results. Our review revealed a dearth of evidence providing statistically significant CBT intervention effects. Issues such as overall time investment, latency to treatment effects, and complementary and combined therapies are considered. We present a theoretical argument for applying mindfulness- and acceptance-based CBT interventions to PMS/PMDD and suggest future research in this area. In conclusion, to produce the necessary evidence-base support for PMS/PMDD given the limited empirical evidence reported here, researchers are called on to produce methodologically rigorous investigations of psychosocial interventions for PMS/PMDD. PMID:19247573

Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Gerrish, Winslow G; Shaver, Shelley; Keys, Shaunie L

2009-02-27

387

Review of outcome research on marital and family therapy in treatment for alcoholism.  

PubMed

This review of controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment updates the earlier review by O'Farrell and Fals-Stewart (2003). We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, both Al-Anon facilitation and referral and spouse coping skills training (based on new findings) help family members cope better, and CRAFT promotes treatment entry and was successfully transported to a community clinic in a new study. Once the alcoholic enters treatment, MFT, particularly behavioral couples therapy (BCT), is clearly more effective than individual treatment at increasing abstinence and improving relationship functioning. New BCT studies showed efficacy with women alcoholics and with gay and lesbian alcoholics, and BCT was successfully transported to a community clinic, a brief BCT version was tested, and BCT was adapted for family members other than spouses. Future studies should evaluate the following: MFT with couples where both members have a current alcohol problem and with minority patients, mechanisms of change, transportability of evidence-based MFT approaches to clinical practice settings, and replication of MFT outcomes of reduced partner violence and improved child functioning. PMID:22283384

O'Farrell, Timothy J; Clements, Kahni

2011-08-30

388

REVIEW OF OUTCOME RESEARCH ON MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY IN TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLISM  

PubMed Central

This review of controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment updates our earlier review (XXXXXXX). We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, both Al-Anon facilitation and referral and spouse coping skills training (based on new findings) help family members cope better; and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) promotes treatment entry and was successfully transported to a community clinic in a new study. Once the alcoholic enters treatment, MFT, particularly behavioral couples therapy (BCT), is clearly more effective than individual treatment at increasing abstinence and improving relationship functioning. New BCT studies showed efficacy with women alcoholics and with gay and lesbian alcoholics; and BCT was successfully transported to a community clinic, a brief BCT version was tested, and BCT was adapted for family members other than spouses. Future studies should evaluate: MFT with couples where both members have a current alcohol problem and with minority patients, mechanisms of change, transportability of evidence-based MFT approaches to clinical practice settings, and replication of MFT outcomes of reduced partner violence and improved child functioning.

O'Farrell, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

389

Are complementary therapies and integrative care cost-effective? A systematic review of economic evaluations  

PubMed Central

Objective A comprehensive systematic review of economic evaluations of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) to establish the value of these therapies to health reform efforts. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, PsychInfo, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched from inception through 2010. In addition, bibliographies of found articles and reviews were searched, and key researchers were contacted. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies of CIM were identified using criteria based on those of the Cochrane complementary and alternative medicine group. All studies of CIM reporting economic outcomes were included. Study appraisal methods All recent (and likely most cost-relevant) full economic evaluations published 2001–2010 were subjected to several measures of quality. Detailed results of higher-quality studies are reported. Results A total of 338 economic evaluations of CIM were identified, of which 204, covering a wide variety of CIM for different populations, were published 2001–2010. A total of 114 of these were full economic evaluations. And 90% of these articles covered studies of single CIM therapies and only one compared usual care to usual care plus access to multiple licensed CIM practitioners. Of the recent full evaluations, 31 (27%) met five study-quality criteria, and 22 of these also met the minimum criterion for study transferability (‘generalisability’). Of the 56 comparisons made in the higher-quality studies, 16 (29%) show a health improvement with cost savings for the CIM therapy versus usual care. Study quality of the cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of CIM was generally comparable to that seen in CUAs across all medicine according to several measures, and the quality of the cost-saving studies was slightly, but not significantly, lower than those showing cost increases (85% vs 88%, p=0.460). Conclusions This comprehensive review identified many CIM economic evaluations missed by previous reviews and emerging evidence of cost-effectiveness and possible cost savings in at least a few clinical populations. Recommendations are made for future studies.

Herman, Patricia M; Poindexter, Beth L; Witt, Claudia M; Eisenberg, David M

2012-01-01

390

On-line compensation of dose changes introduced by tumor motion during scanned particle therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor irradiations using scanned particle beams provide superior target conformity and dose homogeneity for stationary tumors.\\u000a In case of intrafractional motion interference between beam scanning and tumor motion causes deteriorations of the deposited\\u000a dose distributions necessitating dedicated motion mitigation techniques. Different techniques are currently investigated at\\u000a GSI. The most favorable among them in terms of target conformity and sparing of

R. Lüchtenborg; N. Saito; N. Chaudhri; M. Durante; E. Rietzel; C. Bert

391

A Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field: A Review of Two Formalisms of Coherent States and the Husimi Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, we review two formalisms of coherent states for the case of a particle in a magnetic field. We focus our revision on both pioneering (Feldman and Kahn 1970 "Phys. Rev." B 1 4584) and recent (Kowalski and Rembielinski 2005 "J. Phys. A: Math. Gen." 38 8247) formulations of coherent states for this problem. We introduce a general…

Herrera, D.; Valencia, A. M.; Pennini, F.; Curilef, S.

2008-01-01

392

Selective detection of secondary particles and neutrons produced in ion beam therapy with 3D sensitive voxel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion beam therapy is a rapidly developing method for treatment of certain types of cancer. A main advantage of ions is that they deposit most of the energy at the end of their range according to the Bragg curve. Unfortunately, the ion beam often generates a substantial amount of energetic secondary particles with not negligible range. Thus, a fraction of the dose is deposited by other than the primary ions outside of the planned volume. It is, therefore, important to estimate and experimentally verify the distributions of these secondary particles. It is particularly difficult to identify fast neutrons generated by ions in tissue. Fast neutrons are usually detected via their interaction (scattering) with hydrogen nuclei (proton). The proton recoiled by the scattered neutron is subsequently detected by a suitable sensor. The problem is that certain fraction of secondary particles consists of protons as well. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish protons recoiled by neutrons from protons naturally present in the sample. In this work we present the experimental technique enabling the separation of fast neutrons from protons. The technique uses a 3D sensitive voxel detector composed of several layers of Timepix pixel detectors. These layers are interlaced with a hydrogen rich material (plastic) serving as a convertor of neutrons to recoiled protons. The device records the traces of all interacting radiation providing the time stamp and/or deposited energy for each single particle. A proton passing through the detector creates a trace in all layers, whereas a protons recoiled by neutron originates in the convertor inside of the structure creating a trace in the inner layers only. This way it is possible to distinguish the protons from neutrons with very high selectivity. The technique can be easily extended for detection of slow neutrons. An initial experimental study to register the outcoming neutron radiation was performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany using medical proton and carbon ion beams. This work is carried out in frame of the Medipix Collaboration.

Jakubek, J.; Granja, C.; Hartmann, B.; Jaekel, O.; Martisikova, M.; Opalka, L.; Pospisil, S.

2011-12-01

393

Effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy assisted reduction to stop smoking: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effectiveness and safety of nicotine replacement therapy assisted reduction to stop smoking. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Science Citation Index, registries of ongoing trials, reference lists, the drug company that sponsored most of the trials, and clinical experts. Review methods Eligible studies were published or unpublished randomised controlled trials that enrolled smokers who declared no intention to quit smoking in the short term, and compared nicotine replacement therapy (with or without motivational support) with placebo, no treatment, other pharmacological therapy, or motivational support, and reported quit rates. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria. One reviewer assessed study quality and extracted data and these processes were checked by a second reviewer. The primary outcome, six months sustained abstinence from smoking beginning during treatment, was assessed by individual patient data analysis. Other outcomes were cessation and reduction at end of follow-up, and adverse events. Data synthesis Seven placebo controlled randomised controlled trials were included (four used nicotine replacement therapy gum, two nicotine replacement therapy inhaler, and one free choice of therapy). They were reduction studies that reported smoking cessation as a secondary outcome. The trials enrolled a total of 2767 smokers, gave nicotine replacement therapy for 6-18 months, and lasted 12-26 months. 6.75% of smokers receiving nicotine replacement therapy attained sustained abstinence for six months, twice the rate of those receiving placebo (relative risk (fixed effects) 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.15; (random effects) 1.99, 1.01 to 3.91; five trials). The number needed to treat was 29. All other cessation and reduction outcomes were significantly more likely in smokers given nicotine replacement therapy than those given placebo. There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (death, odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 4.02; serious adverse events, 1.16, 0.79 to 1.50; and discontinuation because of adverse events, 1.25, 0.64 to 2.51) except nausea, which was more common with nicotine replacement therapy (8.7% v 5.3%; odds ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 2.36). Conclusions Available trials indicate that nicotine replacement therapy is an effective intervention in achieving sustained smoking abstinence for smokers who have no intention or are unable to attempt an abrupt quit. Most of the evidence, however, comes from trials with regular behavioural support and monitoring and it is unclear whether using nicotine replacement therapy without regular contact would be as effective.

2009-01-01

394

A systematic review of cellular transplantation therapies for spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Cell transplantation therapies have become a major focus in pre-clinical research as a promising strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). In this article, we systematically review the available pre-clinical literature on the most commonly used cell types in order to assess the body of evidence that may support their translation to human SCI patients. These cell types include Schwann cells, olfactory ensheathing glial cells, embryonic and adult neural stem/progenitor cells, fate-restricted neural/glial precursor cells, and bone-marrow stromal cells. Studies were included for review only if they described the transplantation of the cell substrate into an in-vivo model of traumatic SCI, induced either bluntly or sharply. Using these inclusion criteria, 162 studies were identified and reviewed in detail, emphasizing their behavioral effects (although not limiting the scope of the discussion to behavioral effects alone). Significant differences between cells of the same "type" exist based on the species and age of donor, as well as culture conditions and mode of delivery. Many of these studies used cell transplantations in combination with other strategies. The systematic review makes it very apparent that cells derived from rodent sources have been the most extensively studied, while only 19 studies reported the transplantation of human cells, nine of which utilized bone-marrow stromal cells. Similarly, the vast majority of studies have been conducted in rodent models of injury, and few studies have investigated cell transplantation in larger mammals or primates. With respect to the timing of intervention, nearly all of the studies reviewed were conducted with transplantations occurring subacutely and acutely, while chronic treatments were rare and often failed to yield functional benefits. PMID:20146557

Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Okon, Elena B; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila; Hill, Caitlin E; Sparling, Joseph S; Plemel, Jason R; Plunet, Ward T; Tsai, Eve C; Baptiste, Darryl; Smithson, Laura J; Kawaja, Michael D; Fehlings, Michael G; Kwon, Brian K

2010-04-20

395

Cancer Pain: A Critical Review of Mechanism-based Classification and Physical Therapy Management in Palliative Care.  

PubMed

Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of pain is essential to effectively manage painful symptoms in patients attending palliative care. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed review of mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of patients with cancer pain. Cancer pain can be classified based upon pain symptoms, pain mechanisms and pain syndromes. Classification based upon mechanisms not only addresses the underlying pathophysiology but also provides us with an understanding behind patient's symptoms and treatment responses. Existing evidence suggests that the five mechanisms - central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, sympathetically maintained pain, nociceptive and cognitive-affective - operate in patients with cancer pain. Summary of studies showing evidence for physical therapy treatment methods for cancer pain follows with suggested therapeutic implications. Effective palliative physical therapy care using a mechanism-based classification model should be tailored to suit each patient's findings, using a biopsychosocial model of pain. PMID:21976851

Kumar, Senthil P

2011-05-01

396

Cancer Pain: A Critical Review of Mechanism-based Classification and Physical Therapy Management in Palliative Care  

PubMed Central

Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of pain is essential to effectively manage painful symptoms in patients attending palliative care. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed review of mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of patients with cancer pain. Cancer pain can be classified based upon pain symptoms, pain mechanisms and pain syndromes. Classification based upon mechanisms not only addresses the underlying pathophysiology but also provides us with an understanding behind patient's symptoms and treatment responses. Existing evidence suggests that the five mechanisms – central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, sympathetically maintained pain, nociceptive and cognitive-affective – operate in patients with cancer pain. Summary of studies showing evidence for physical therapy treatment methods for cancer pain follows with suggested therapeutic implications. Effective palliative physical therapy care using a mechanism-based classification model should be tailored to suit each patient's findings, using a biopsychosocial model of pain.

Kumar, Senthil P

2011-01-01

397

Systematic review: endoluminal therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: evidence from clinical trials.  

PubMed

During the last few decades many endoscopic interventions have been developed as an alternative for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). In many countries, these interventions are thus being performed in the general clinical setting. The aim of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the effect of endoscopic therapies for GORD. A systematic search of the literature on this subject in English, indexed in MEDLINE (1966 to May 2007) and in the Cochrane Library, was carried out. For the study selection, retrospective and prospective open-label and randomized, sham-controlled trials were taken into account. The exclusion criteria included the following: case series that included fewer than 10 patients, abstracts, studies involving children or those with a follow-up shorter than 3 months. For data extraction, two reviewers, using standardized forms, independently abstracted data on study design and methods, population, sample size, function studies (e.g. pH-metry), type of endoscopic treatment, follow-up, health-related and quality of life scores, outcomes and complications. Data synthesis involved the following: 43 studies, including four randomized, sham-controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria, out of 4182 citations. The primary end point in most studies was the reduction of the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) by more than 50%. In view of these findings, the majority of studies suggested the efficacy of endoluminal therapies for the control of symptoms in GORD. In the sham-controlled studies, the effect of placebo was, nevertheless, as high as 50%. Most studies were small feasibility studies, with follow-ups of less than 1 year. No study comparing endoscopic techniques with other established treatment options such as PPIs existed. All endoscopic therapies were associated with a small but important percentage of mild to severe complications, which included perforation, abscess and death. In conclusion, the data from most of the short-term follow-up and the few sham-controlled studies demonstrate that subgroups of patients experienced improvement or resolution of typical GORD symptoms and decreased PPI usage. Currently, however, there are not enough scientific and clinical data on safety, efficacy and durability to support the use of endoluminal therapies for GORD in routine clinical practice. PMID:17998840

Fry, Lucía C; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Malfertheiner, Peter

2007-12-01

398

Over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy: a methodological review of the evidence supporting its effectiveness.  

PubMed

Despite optimistic predictions when nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was switched to over-the-counter (OTC) availability, population surveys have failed to demonstrate a positive impact on long-term smoking cessation. This review examined the strength of the evidence from randomised trials and comparison group studies supporting the effectiveness of OTCNRT. Twelve eligible studies were identified: OTCNRT was compared with placebo in four studies and with health professional-delivered NRT in four studies, and four studies involved community-based minimal intervention NRT. These studies were assessed systematically to determine their methodological quality and generalisibility to 'real-world' conditions of NRT use. The review found a number of issues, including provision of free NRT, heavy cigarette intakes (average 25 daily), high levels of personal interactions (7.6 per subject), lack of blindness assessment and failure of most studies to actively follow-up all subjects seriously limit the degree to which studies' results can be applied to non-research OTCNRT users. In addition, several important limitations affecting the meta-analyses of OTCNRT by Hughes et al. were highlighted. The review concluded that the superiority of OTCNRT over unaided smoking cessation has not been demonstrated convincingly. Future directions for research involve more innovative, rigorous controlled trials and prospective cohort studies where nicotine dependence is assessed adequately. PMID:18696300

Walsh, Raoul A

2008-09-01

399

A systematic review of the efficacy and pharmacological profile of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and pharmacological profiles of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy. Four databases were extensively retrieved that include two Chinese electronic databases (VIP Information and CNKI) and two English electronic databases (CA and MEDLINE). Herba Epimedii has been an important traditional herbal medicine for centuries in China and other Asian countries. Recently, quite a few pharmacological effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components have been identified that include improving bone health and cardiovascular function, regulating hormone level, modulating immunological function, and inhibiting tumor growth. The anti-osteoporosis activity of Herba Epimedii and its extracts have attracted world-wide attention. The literature search has revealed that a lot of studies have recently been carried out related to the bone-strengthening activity of Herba Epimedii and some of its active compounds, such as total flavonoids and icariin. Pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies have confirmed the efficacy and safety of Herba Epimedii and its most abundant active component icariin, while only a few authors have reviewed the anti-osteoporosis properties of the plants. So we summarize the work of various investigators on the effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components against osteoporosis. The underlying mechanism of osteoprotective action, derivatives of icariin, animal models and cell lines used in the research were also reviewed in this paper. PMID:24147339

Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Guo, Xin; Pan, Ya-Lei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Li, Chen-Rui; Wu, Xiang-Long; Mel, Qi-Bing

2013-09-01

400

Lipid profile of HIV-infected patients in relation to antiretroviral therapy: a review.  

PubMed

This study reviewed the lipid profile of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients in relation to use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and its different classes of drugs. A total of 190 articles published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved from PubMed and LILACS databases; 88 of them met the selection criteria and were included in the review. Patients with HIV/AIDS without ART presented an increase of triglycerides and decreases of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) levels. Distinct ART regimens appear to promote different alterations in lipid metabolism. Protease inhibitors, particularly indinavir and lopinavir, were commonly associated with hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-c, low HDL-c, and hypertriglyceridemia. The protease inhibitor atazanavir is apparently associated with a more advantageous lipid profile. Some nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (didanosine, stavudine, and zidovudine) induced lipoatrophy and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas abacavir increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases even in the absence of apparent lipid disorders, and tenofovir resulted in lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Although non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors predisposed to hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, nevirapine was particularly associated with high HDL-c levels, a protective factor against cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the infection itself, different classes of drugs, and some drugs from the same class of ART appear to exert distinct alterations in lipid metabolism. PMID:23582562

Souza, Suelen Jorge; Luzia, Liania Alves; Santos, Sigrid Sousa; Rondó, Patrícia Helen Carvalho

401

Production of low-Z ions in the Dresden superconducting electron ion beam source for medical particle therapy  

SciTech Connect

We report on experiments with a new superconducting electron beam ion source (EBIS-SC), the Dresden EBIS-SC, with the objective to meet the main requirements for their application in particle-therapy facilities. Synchrotrons as well as innovative accelerator concepts, such as high-gradient linacs which are driven by a large-current cyclotron (CYCLINACS) and direct drive RF linear accelerators may benefit from the advantages of EBISs in regard to their functional principle. First experimental studies of the production of low-Z ions such as H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, C{sup 4+}, and C{sup 6+} are presented. Particular attention is paid to the ion output, i.e., the number of ions per pulse and per second, respectively. Important beam parameters in this context are, among others, ion pulse shaping, pulse repetition rates, beam emittance, and ion energy spread.

Zschornack, G.; Ritter, E. [Dresden University of Technology, Department of Physics, Helmholtzstrasse 10, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Schwan, A.; Ullmann, F.; Grossmann, F.; Ovsyannikov, V. P. [Dreebit GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)

2012-02-15

402

Occurrence and effects of tire wear particles in the environment--a critical review and an initial risk assessment.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the existing knowledge on the occurrence of tire wear particles in the environment, and their ecotoxicological effects. A meta-analysis on tire components in the environment revealed that tire wear particles are present in all environmental compartments, including air, water, soils/sediments, and biota. The maximum Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) of tire wear particles in surface waters range from 0.03 to 56 mg l(-1) and the maximum PECs in sediments range from 0.3 to 155 g kg(-1) d.w. The results from our previous long-term studies with Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were used to derive Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs). The upper ranges for PEC/PNEC ratios in water and sediment were >1, meaning that tire wear particles present potential risks for aquatic organisms. We suggest that management should be directed towards development and production of more environmentally friendly tires and improved road runoff treatment. PMID:18990476

Wik, Anna; Dave, Göran

2008-11-05

403

Hurricanes and heart failure: A review of the who, what, when, and where of beta-blocker therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ß-Blocker therapy has changed the landscape of treatment for chronic heart failure (HF). First recommended in published guidelines\\u000a in 1999, the use of ß-blockers has become the cornerstone of therapy. ß-Blockers reduce both morbidity and mortality and also\\u000a improve quality of life. This paper reviews and highlights the evidence supporting the current usage of ß-blockers in HF.\\u000a It also shares

Kathy Hebert; Lee Arcement; Ron Horswell

2006-01-01

404

Brain Tissue Oxygen-Based Therapy and Outcome After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational clinical studies demonstrate that brain hypoxia is associated with poor outcome after severe traumatic brain\\u000a injury (TBI). In this study, available medical literature was reviewed to examine whether brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2)-based therapy is associated with improved patient outcome after severe TBI. Clinical studies published between 1993 and\\u000a 2010 that compared PbtO2-based therapy combined with intracranial and cerebral perfusion

Raj Nangunoori; Eileen Maloney-Wilensky; Michael Stiefel; Soojin Park; W. Andrew Kofke; Joshua M. Levine; Wei Yang; Peter D. Le Roux

405

The prevention and management of acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy: a systematic review and practice guideline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of work  To develop a practice guideline report on the questions: What are the optimal methods to prevent acute skin reactions (occurring within the first 6 months of irradiation) related to radiation therapy? What are the optimal methods to manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy?\\u000a Materials and methods  Cancer Care Ontario’s Supportive Care Guidelines Group (SCGG) conducted a systematic review

Amanda Bolderston; Nancy S. Lloyd; Rebecca K. S. Wong; Lori Holden; Linda Robb-Blenderman

2006-01-01

406

Dose–response relationship in music therapy for people with serious mental disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious mental disorders have considerable individual and societal impact, and traditional treatments may show limited effects. Music therapy may be beneficial in psychosis and depression, including treatment-resistant cases. The aim of this review was to examine the benefits of music therapy for people with serious mental disorders. All existing prospective studies were combined using mixed-effects meta-analysis models, allowing to examine

Christian Gold; Hans Petter Solli; Viggo Krüger; Stein Atle Lie

2009-01-01

407

Inflammation Predicts Changes in High-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Apolipoprotein A1 Following Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on usual lipid levels have been reported. The effects of initiating versus deferring ART on high- and low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations (HDL-P and LDL-P) and apolipoprotein (Apo) levels are not well described. Methods In a subgroup of participants not taking ART at study entry who were randomized in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) to immediately initiate ART (‘VS group’) or to defer it (‘DC group’), lipoprotein particle concentrations and ApoA1 and ApoB levels were measured at baseline and at 2 and 6 months following randomization. Results Compared to DC group (n=126), HDL-P and ApoA1 levels increased among VS participants (n=128) after starting ART. At 6 months, VS participants had 13% higher total HDL-P (p < 0.001) and 9% higher ApoA1 (p < 0.001). LDL-P, VLDL-P, and ApoB did not differ significantly between the VS and DC groups. Among VS participants, predictors of HDL-P and ApoA1 increases included baseline levels of hsCRP and IL-6, but not HIV RNA level, CD4 count or traditional CVD risk factors. The effect of starting ART on changes in HDL-P and ApoA1 was greater for those with higher versus lower baseline levels of IL-6 (p=0.001 and 0.08, respectively, for interaction) or hsCRP (p=0.01 and 0.04, respectively, for interaction). Conclusion HDL-P and ApoA1 increase following ART initiation, to a degree that depends on the degree of inflammation present at entry. These findings suggest that activation of inflammatory pathways contribute to HIV-associated changes in HDL.

Baker, Jason V.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Duprez, Daniel; Cooper, David A.; Hoy, Jennifer; Kuller, Lewis; Lampe, Fiona C.; Liappis, Angelike; Friis-Moller, Nina; Otvos, Jim; Paton, Nicholas I.; Tracy, Russell; Neaton, James D.

2012-01-01

408

Monitoring of patients treated with particle therapy using positron-emission-tomography (PET): the MIRANDA study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this clinical study is to investigate the clinical feasibility and effectiveness of offline Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET) quality assurance for promoting the accuracy of proton and carbon ion beam therapy. Methods/Design A total of 240 patients will be recruited, evenly sampled among different analysis groups including tumors of the brain, skull base, head and neck region, upper gastrointestinal tract including the liver, lower gastrointestinal tract, prostate and pelvic region. From the comparison of the measured activity with the planned dose and its corresponding simulated activity distribution, conclusions on the delivered treatment will be inferred and, in case of significant deviations, correction strategies will be elaborated. Discussion The investigated patients are expected to benefit from this study, since in case of detected deviations between planned and actual treatment delivery a proper intervention (e.g., correction) could be performed in a subsequent irradiation fraction. In this way, an overall better treatment could be achieved than without any in-vivo verification. Moreover, site-specific patient-population information on the precision of the ion range at HIT might enable improvement of the CT-range calibration curve as well as safe reduction of the treatment margins to promote enhanced treatment plan conformality and dose escalation for full clinical exploitation of the promises of ion beam therapy. Trial Registration NCT01528670

2012-01-01

409

Cognitive behavior therapy for early psychosis: a comprehensive review of individual vs. group treatment studies.  

PubMed

Several recent studies of individually administered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for early psychosis have reported only modest treatment benefits. The purpose of the current study was to review the literature to determine how outcomes of group CBT differ from outcomes of individually administered CBT among early cases. Our findings suggest that group CBT for early psychosis may be a more effective modality for this group of patients. We speculate that patients' uncertainty about illness in general may impair the effectiveness of individually administered CBT for early cases and that group CBT may be more effective for these young patients by better addressing those factors with the aid of peer-to-peer interactions, identification, and modeling. PMID:19548785

Saksa, John R; Cohen, Shuki J; Srihari, Vinod H; Woods, Scott W

2009-07-01

410

Volumetric modulated arc therapy: a review of current literature and clinical use in practice  

PubMed Central

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel radiation technique, which can achieve highly conformal dose distributions with improved target volume coverage and sparing of normal tissues compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques. VMAT also has the potential to offer additional advantages, such as reduced treatment delivery time compared with conventional static field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The clinical worldwide use of VMAT is increasing significantly. Currently the majority of published data on VMAT are limited to planning and feasibility studies, although there is emerging clinical outcome data in several tumour sites. This article aims to discuss the current use of VMAT techniques in practice and review the available data from planning and clinical outcome studies in various tumour sites including prostate, pelvis (lower gastrointestinal, gynaecological), head and neck, thoracic, central nervous system, breast and other tumour sites.

Teoh, M; Clark, C H; Wood, K; Whitaker, S; Nisbet, A

2011-01-01

411

Nanoparticles and cancer therapy: A concise review with emphasis on dendrimers  

PubMed Central

The emergence of nanotechnology has had a profound effect on many areas of healthcare and scientific research. Having grown exponentially, the focus of nanotechnology has been on engineering diversified novel applications that even go beyond therapeutic activity; nanotechnology also offers the ability to detect diseases, such as cancer, much earlier than ever imaginable. Often, patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colon, prostate, and ovarian cancer have hidden or overt metastatic colonies. With the advent of diagnostic nanotechnology, these numbers are expected to greatly diminish. This review provides a brief description of nanoparticle (liposome, quantum dot, and dendrimer)-mediated cancer therapy in the last decade with an emphasis on the development and use of dendrimers in cancer therapeutics.

Bharali, Dhruba J; Khalil, Marianne; Gurbuz, Mujgan; Simone, Tessa M; Mousa, Shaker A

2009-01-01

412

BRAF mutations in papillary thyroid carcinoma and emerging targeted therapies (review).  

PubMed

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common histotype among the thyroid cancer types. Although PTC is a curable malignancy, many patients relapse after treatment. Thus, there is a need to identify novel factors involved in the pathogenesis of PTC that may be used as targets for new therapies. The MAPK pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PTC. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the role of the BRAF V600E mutation in the development and progression of thyroid cancer. The cinical implication of this molecular abnormality is also discussed. It is evident that the detection of the BRAF V600E mutation is crucial in order to identify novel avenues for thyroid cancer treatment. PMID:22858857

Leonardi, Giulia Costanza; Candido, Saverio; Carbone, Maurizio; Raiti, Fabio; Colaianni, Valeria; Garozzo, Sebastiano; Cinà, Diana; McCubrey, James A; Libra, Massimo

2012-08-02

413

Disparity implications of the Medicare medication therapy management eligibility criteria: a literature review.  

PubMed

The emphasis on eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare has received national attention, with various policy initiatives addressing this problem and proposing solutions. However, in the current economic era requiring tight monetary constraints, emphasis is increasingly being placed on economic efficiency, which often conflicts with the equality doctrine upon which many policies have been framed. The authors' review aims to highlight the disparity implications of one such policy provision - the predominantly utilization-based eligibility criteria for medication therapy management services under Medicare Part D - by identifying studies that have documented racial and ethnic disparities in health status and the use of and spending on prescription medications. Future design and evaluation of various regulations and legislations employing utilization-based eligibility criteria must use caution in order to strike an equity-efficiency balance. PMID:23570431

Munshi, Kiraat D; Shih, Ya-Chen T; Brown, Lawrence M; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Wan, Jim Y; Wang, Junling

2013-04-01

414

Systematic review of trimodality therapy for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive form of cancer arising from the pleural mesothelium. Trimodality therapy (TMT) involving extrapleural pneumonectomy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy is a recognized treatment option with a curative intent. Despite encouraging results from institutional studies, TMT in the treatment of MPM remains controversial. The present systematic review aims to assess the safety and efficacy of TMT in the current literature. Methods A systematic review was performed using five electronic databases from 1 January 1985 to 1 October 2012. Studies were selected independently by two reviewers according to predefined selection criteria. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints included disease-free survival, disease recurrence, perioperative morbidity and length of stay. Results Sixteen studies were included for quantitative assessment, including one randomized controlled trial and five prospective series. Median overall survival ranged from 12.8-46.9 months. Disease-free survival ranged from 10-16.3 months. Perioperative mortality ranged from 0-12.5%. Overall perioperative morbidity ranged from 50-82.6% and the average length of stay was 9-14 days. Conclusions Outcomes of patients who underwent TMT in the current literature appeared to be inconsistent. Four prospective series involving a standardised treatment regimen with neoadjuvant chemotherapy indicated encouraging results based on intention-to-treat analysis. However, a small study assessing the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial for TMT versus conservative treatment reported poor short- and long-term outcomes for patients who underwent pneumonectomy. Overall, results of the present systematic review suggest TMT may offer acceptable perioperative outcomes and long-term survival in selected patients treated in specialized centers.

Tian, David; Manganas, Con; Matthews, Phoebe

2012-01-01

415

Nicotine Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Objective: The objective of this review was to systematically review and evaluate available literature describing the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on mortality and other outcomes in nicotine-dependent critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Data Sources: A systematic search of the following databases was performed: MEDLINE (1948-August 2011), EMBASE (1980-August 2011), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-August 2011), Google, and Google Scholar. Study Selection: Studies that reported outcomes associated with any form of NRT in any intensive care setting were included. Studies were included regardless of design or number of participants reported. Studies published in languages other than English were excluded. Data Extraction: Data from each study were extracted using a standardized data extraction tool. Information included the study design, number of patients, classification of ICU, baseline characteristics, outcomes assessed, and overall results. Data Synthesis: Our search identified 8 studies, of which 7 met the inclusion criteria. These 7 studies were qualitatively reviewed and critically appraised for methodological quality, robustness of results, and internal and external validity. The results of similar studies and populations were compared in order to draw conclusions pertaining to specific intensive care settings. Conclusions: We conclude that NRT should not be routinely prescribed to patients admitted to intensive care settings. With only equivocal evidence of efficacy and signals suggesting increased toxicity, we believe that its use should be limited to selected patients where the potential benefit clearly outweighs the risk. There is a need for adequately powered randomized controlled trials to confirm the benefits and risks of NRT in the ICU overall but also in its unique subpopulations. PMID:22513249

Wilby, Kyle J; Harder, Curtis