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1

Particle therapy in prostate cancer: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

While dose escalation is proving important to achieve satisfactory long-term outcomes in prostate cancer, the optimal radiation modality to deliver the treatment is still a topic of debate. Charged particle beams can offer improved dose distributions to the target volume as compared to conventional 3D-conformal radiotherapy, with better sparing of surrounding healthy tissues. Exquisite dose distributions, with the fulfillment of

C Greco

2007-01-01

2

Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence.

Wang, Zhen, E-mail: Wang.Zhen@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Nabhan, Mohammed [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

2013-05-01

3

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2633 new measurements from 689 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

W.-M. Yao; C. Amsler; D. Asner; R. M. Barnett; J. Beringer; P. R. Burchat; C. D. Carone; C. Caso; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; A. De Gouvea; M. Doser; S. Eidelman; J. L. Feng; T. Gherghetta; M. Goodman; C. Grab; D. E. Groom; A. Gurtu; K. Hagiwara; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; H. Jawahery; C. Kolda; Y. Kwon; M. L. Mangano; A. V. Manohar; A. Masoni; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; S. Navas; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; A. Piepke; G. Punzi; G. Raffelt; J. G. Smith; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; N. A. Törnqvist; T. G. sTrippe; P. Vogel; T. Watari; C. G. Wohl; R. L. Workman; P. A. Zyla; B. Armstrong; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner; M. Artuso; K. S. Babu; H. R. Band; E. Barberio; M. Battaglia; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; R. N. Cahn; D. Casper; A. Cattai; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; T. Damour; T. DeGrand; K. Desler; M. A. Dobbs; M. Drees; A. Edwards; D. A. Edwards; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; D. Froidevaux; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; L. Gibbons; F. J. Gilman; G. F. Giudice; A. V. Gritsan; M. Grünewald; H. E. Haber; C. Hagmann; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. JAckson; K. F. Johnson; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; K. Kleinknecht; I. G. Knowles; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Kursche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; s. B. Lugovsky; T. Mannel; D. M. Manley; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; D. Milstead; M. Narain; P. Nason; Y. Nir; J. A. Peacock; S. A. Prell; A. Quadt; S. Raby; B. N. Ratcliff; E. A. Razuvaev; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; G. Rolandi; M. T. Ronan; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; M. Schmitt; O. Schneider; D. Scott; T. Sjöstrand; G. F. Smoot; P. Sokolsky; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; R. E. Streitmatter; T. Sumiyoshi; N. P. Tkachenko; G. H. Trilling; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; D. R. Ward; B. R. Webber; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; L. Wolfenstsein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; A. Yamamoto; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu

2006-01-01

4

Review of Particle Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

K. Hagiwara; K. Hikasa; K. Nakamura; M. Tanabashi; M. Aguilar-Benitez; C. Amsler; R. M. Barnett; P. R. Burchat; C. D. Carone; C. Caso; G. Conforto; O. Dahl; M. Doser; S. Eidelman; J. L. Feng; L. Gibbons; M. Goodman; C. Grab; D. E. Groom; A. Gurtu; K. G. Hayes; K. Honscheid; C. Kolda; M. L. Mangano; D. M. Manley; A. V. Manohar; J. March-Russell; A. Masoni; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; S. Navas; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; A. Piepke; M. Roos; J. Terning; N. A. Törnqvist; T. G. Trippe; P. Vogel; C. G. Wohl; R. L. Workman; W.-M. Yao; B. Armstrong; P. S. Gee; K. S. Lugovsky; S. B. Lugovsky; V. S. Lugovsky; M. Artuso; D. Asner; K. S. Babu; E. Barberio; M. Battaglia; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; R. N. Cahn; A. Cattai; R. S. Chivukula; R. D. Cousins; G. Cowan; T. Damour; K. Desler; R. J. Donahue; D. A. Edwards; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; D. Froidevaux; M. Fukugita; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; F. J. Gilman; H. E. Haber; C. Hagmann; J. Hewett; I. Hinchliffe; C. J. Hogan; G. Höhler; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; S. R. Klein; K. Kleinknecht; I. G. Knowles; P. Kreitz; Yu. V. Kuyanov; R. Landua; P. Langacker; L. Littenberg; A. D. Martin; T. Nakada; M. Narain; P. Nason; J. A. Peacock; H. R. Quinn; S. Raby; G. Raffelt; E. A. Razuvaev; B. Renk; L. Rolandi; M. T. Ronan; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; A. I. Sanda; S. Sarkar; M. Schmitt; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; G. F. Smoot; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; N. J. C. Spooner; M. Srednicki; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; M. Suzuki; N. P. Tkachenko; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; D. R. Ward; B. R. Webber; M. Whalley; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; O. V. Zenin

2002-01-01

5

Review of Particle Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed

C. Amsler; M. Doser; M. Antonelli; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; H. Baer; H. R. Band; R. M. Barnett; E. Bergren; J. Beringer; G. Bernardi; W. Bertl; H. Bichsel; O. Biebel; P. Bloch; E. Blucher; S. Blusk; R. N. Cahn; M. Carena; C. Caso; A. Ceccucci; D. Chakraborty; M.-C. Chen; R. S. Chivukula; G. Cowan; O. Dahl; G. D'Ambrosio; T. Damour; A. de Gouvêa; T. DeGrand; B. Dobrescu; M. Drees; D. A. Edwards; S. Eidelman; V. D. Elvira; J. Erler; V. V. Ezhela; J. L. Feng; W. Fetscher; B. D. Fields; B. Foster; T. K. Gaisser; L. Garren; H.-J. Gerber; G. Gerbier; T. Gherghetta; G. F. Giudice; M. Goodman; C. Grab; A. V. Gritsan; J.-F. Grivaz; D. E. Groom; M. Grünewald; A. Gurtu; T. Gutsche; H. E. Haber; K. Hagiwara; C. Hagmann; K. G. Hayes; J. J. Hernández-Rey; K. Hikasa; I. Hinchliffe; A. Höcker; J. Huston; P. Igo-Kemenes; J. D. Jackson; K. F. Johnson; T. Junk; D. Karlen; B. Kayser; D. Kirkby; S. R. Klein; I. G. Knowles; C. Kolda; R. V. Kowalewski; P. Kreitz; B. Krusche; Yu. V. Kuyanov; Y. Kwon; O. Lahav; P. Langacker; A. Liddle; Z. Ligeti; C.-J. Lin; T. M. Liss; L. Littenberg; J. C. Liu; K. S. Lugovsky; H. Mahlke; M. L. Mangano; T. Mannel; A. V. Manohar; W. J. Marciano; A. D. Martin; A. Masoni; D. Milstead; R. Miquel; K. Mönig; H. Murayama; K. Nakamura; M. Narain; P. Nason; S. Navas; P. Nevski; Y. Nir; K. A. Olive; L. Pape; C. Patrignani; J. A. Peacock; G. Punzi; A. Quadt; S. Raby; G. Raffelt; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Renk; P. Richardson; S. Roesler; A. Romaniouk; L. J. Rosenberg; C. T. Sachrajda; Y. Sakai; S. Sarkar; F. Sauli; O. Schneider; D. Scott; W. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; T. Sjöstrand; J. G. Smith; S. Spanier; H. Spieler; A. Stahl; T. Stanev; S. L. Stone; T. Sumiyoshi; M. Tanabashi; J. Terning; M. Titov; N. P. Tkachenko; N. A. Törnqvist; D. Tovey; G. H. Trilling; T. G. Trippe; G. Valencia; K. van Bibber; M. G. Vincter; P. Vogel; D. R. Ward; T. Watari; B. R. Webber; G. Weiglein; J. D. Wells; M. Whalley; A. Wheeler; C. G. Wohl; L. Wolfenstein; J. Womersley; C. L. Woody; R. L. Workman; A. Yamamoto; W.-M. Yao; O. V. Zenin; J. Zhang; R.-Y. Zhu; P. A. Zyla; G. Harper; V. S. Lugovsky; P. Schaffner

2008-01-01

6

Review of Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 1900 new measurements from 700 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. ©1996 The American Physical Society.

Barnett, R. M.; Carone, C. D.; Groom, D. E.; Trippe, T. G.; Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, B.; Gee, P. S.; Wagman, G. S.; James, F.; Mangano, M.; Mönig, K.; Montanet, L.; Feng, J. L.; Murayama, H.; Hernández, J. J.; Manohar, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Crawford, R. L.; Roos, M.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Hayes, K. G.; Hagiwara, K.; Nakamura, K.; Tanabashi, M.; Olive, K.; Honscheid, K.; Burchat, P. R.; Shrock, R. E.; Eidelman, S.; Schindler, R. H.; Gurtu, A.; Hikasa, K.; Conforto, G.; Workman, R. L.; Grab, C.; Amsler, C.

1996-07-01

7

Review of particle properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2300 new measurements from 700 papers, we list evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, monopoles, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review.

Montanet, L.; Gieselmann, K.; Barnett, R. M.; Groom, D. E.; Trippe, T. G.; Wohl, C. G.; Armstrong, B.; Wagman, G. S.; Murayama, H.; Stone, J.; Hernandez, J. J.; Porter, F. C.; Morrison, R. J.; Manohar, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Caso, C.; Lantero, P.; Crawford, R. L.; Roos, M.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Hayes, K. G.; Höhler, G.; Kawabata, S.; Manley, D. M.; Olive, K.; Shrock, R. E.; Eidelman, S.; Schindler, R. H.; Gurtu, A.; Hikasa, K.; Conforto, G.; Workman, R. L.; Grab, C.

1994-08-01

8

Particle Radiation Therapy: Requiem or Reveille  

PubMed Central

The 1960s and 1970s witnessed a surge of many institutions devoted to electron therapy. Currently, many facilities are adding or have added particle types of radiation to their armamentarium against cancer. The authors review the concepts, problems, and potentials of this form of therapy. ImagesFigure 1

Alexander, Leslie L.; Goldson, Alfred L.; Alexander, George A.

1979-01-01

9

Particle therapy for noncancer diseases  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-04-15

10

Review of Particle Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. This edition features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations. For the first time we cover searches for evidence of extra dimensions (both in the particle listings and in a new review). Another new review is on Grand Unified Theories. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

Hagiwara, K.; Hikasa, K.; Nakamura, K.; Tanabashi, M.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Amsler, C.; Barnett, R. M.; Burchat, P. R.; Carone, C. D.; Caso, C.; Conforto, G.; Dahl, O.; Doser, M.; Eidelman, S.; Feng, J. L.; Gibbons, L.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Groom, D. E.; Gurtu, A.; Hayes, K. G.; Herna`Ndez-Rey, J. J.; Honscheid, K.; Kolda, C.; Mangano, M. L.; Manley, D. M.; Manohar, A. V.; March-Russell, J.; Masoni, A.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Murayama, H.; Navas, S.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Patrignani, C.; Piepke, A.; Roos, M.; Terning, J.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Trippe, T. G.; Vogel, P.; Wohl, C. G.; Workman, R. L.; Yao, W.-M.; Armstrong, B.; Gee, P. S.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, S. B.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Artuso, M.; Asner, D.; Babu, K. S.; Barberio, E.; Battaglia, M.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cattai, A.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cousins, R. D.; Cowan, G.; Damour, T.; Desler, K.; Donahue, R. J.; Edwards, D. A.; Elvira, V. D.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Fasso`, A.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Froidevaux, D.; Fukugita, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gilman, F. J.; Haber, H. E.; Hagmann, C.; Hewett, J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hogan, C. J.; Höhler, G.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Jackson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Karlen, D.; Kayser, B.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knowles, I. G.; Kreitz, P.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Landua, R.; Langacker, P.; Littenberg, L.; Martin, A. D.; Nakada, T.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Quinn, H. R.; Raby, S.; Raffelt, G.; Razuvaev, E. A.; Renk, B.; Rolandi, L.; Ronan, M. T.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sanda, A. I.; Sarkar, S.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Scott, D.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sjöstrand, T.; Smoot, G. F.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Srednicki, M.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Vincter, M. G.; Ward, D. R.; Webber, B. R.; Whalley, M.; Wolfenstein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Zenin, O. V.

2002-07-01

11

Review of Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on CKM quark-mixing matrix, Vud &Vus, Vcb &Vub, top quark, muon anomalous magnetic moment, extra dimensions, particle detectors, cosmic background radiation, dark matter, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

Particle Data Group; Amsler, C.; Doser, M.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D. M.; Babu, K. S.; Baer, H.; Band, H. R.; Barnett, R. M.; Bergren, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Caso, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M.-C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; Dahl, O.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; de Gouvêa, A.; Degrand, T.; Dobrescu, B.; Drees, M.; Edwards, D. A.; Eidelman, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Feng, J. L.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gerbier, G.; Gherghetta, T.; Giudice, G. F.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groom, D. E.; Grünewald, M.; Gurtu, A.; Gutsche, T.; Haber, H. E.; Hagiwara, K.; Hagmann, C.; Hayes, K. G.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hikasa, K.; Hinchliffe, I.; Höcker, A.; Huston, J.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Jackson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Junk, T.; Karlen, D.; Kayser, B.; Kirkby, D.; Klein, S. R.; Knowles, I. G.; Kolda, C.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Kreitz, P.; Krusche, B.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Kwon, Y.; Lahav, O.; Langacker, P.; Liddle, A.; Ligeti, Z.; Lin, C.-J.; Liss, T. M.; Littenberg, L.; Liu, J. C.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, S. B.; Mahlke, H.; Mangano, M. L.; Mannel, T.; Manohar, A. V.; Marciano, W. J.; Martin, A. D.; Masoni, A.; Milstead, D.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Murayama, H.; Nakamura, K.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Navas, S.; Nevski, P.; Nir, Y.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Patrignani, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Piepke, A.; Punzi, G.; Quadt, A.; Raby, S.; Raffelt, G.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Renk, B.; Richardson, P.; Roesler, S.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Rosner, J. L.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sakai, Y.; Sarkar, S.; Sauli, F.; Schneider, O.; Scott, D.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sjöstrand, T.; Smith, J. G.; Smoot, G. F.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Stone, S. L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tanabashi, M.; Terning, J.; Titov, M.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Tovey, D.; Trilling, G. H.; Trippe, T. G.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, P.; Ward, D. R.; Watari, T.; Webber, B. R.; Weiglein, G.; Wells, J. D.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, A.; Wohl, C. G.; Wolfenstein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Workman, R. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Yao, W.-M.; Zenin, O. V.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Zyla, P. A.; Harper, G.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Schaffner, P.

2008-09-01

12

Review of Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on CKM quark-mixing matrix, V ud & V us, V cb & V ub, top quark, muon anomalous magnetic moment, extra dimensions, particle detectors, cosmic background radiation, dark matter, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

Amsler, C.; Doser, M.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D. M.; Babu, K. S.; Baer, H.; Band, H. R.; Barnett, R. M.; Bergren, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Caso, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M.-C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; Dahl, O.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; de Gouvêa, A.; DeGrand, T.; Dobrescu, B.; Drees, M.; Edwards, D. A.; Eidelman, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Feng, J. L.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gerbier, G.; Gherghetta, T.; Giudice, G. F.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groom, D. E.; Grünewald, M.; Gurtu, A.; Gutsche, T.; Haber, H. E.; Hagiwara, K.; Hagmann, C.; Hayes, K. G.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hikasa, K.; Hinchliffe, I.; Höcker, A.; Huston, J.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Jackson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Junk, T.; Karlen, D.; Kayser, B.; Kirkby, D.; Klein, S. R.; Knowles, I. G.; Kolda, C.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Kreitz, P.; Krusche, B.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Kwon, Y.; Lahav, O.; Langacker, P.; Liddle, A.; Ligeti, Z.; Lin, C.-J.; Liss, T. M.; Littenberg, L.; Liu, J. C.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, S. B.; Mahlke, H.; Mangano, M. L.; Mannel, T.; Manohar, A. V.; Marciano, W. J.; Martin, A. D.; Masoni, A.; Milstead, D.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Murayama, H.; Nakamura, K.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Navas, S.; Nevski, P.; Nir, Y.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Patrignani, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Piepke, A.; Punzi, G.; Quadt, A.; Raby, S.; Raffelt, G.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Renk, B.; Richardson, P.; Roesler, S.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Rosner, J. L.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sakai, Y.; Sarkar, S.; Sauli, F.; Schneider, O.; Scott, D.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sjöstrand, T.; Smith, J. G.; Smoot, G. F.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Stone, S. L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tanabashi, M.; Terning, J.; Titov, M.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Törnqvist, N. A.; Tovey, D.; Trilling, G. H.; Trippe, T. G.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, P.; Ward, D. R.; Watari, T.; Webber, B. R.; Weiglein, G.; Wells, J. D.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, A.; Wohl, C. G.; Wolfenstein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Workman, R. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Yao, W.-M.; Zenin, O. V.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Zyla, P. A.; Harper, G.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Schaffner, P.; Particle Data Group

13

Review of Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2633 new measurements from 689 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 110 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on CKM quark-mixing matrix, Vud & Vus, Vcb & Vub, top quark, muon anomalous magnetic moment, extra dimensions, particle detectors, cosmic background radiation, dark matter, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

Yao, W.-M.; Amsler, C.; Asner, D.; Barnett, R. M.; Beringer, J.; Burchat, P. R.; Carone, C. D.; Caso, C.; Dahl, O.; D'Ambrosio, G.; De Gouvea, A.; Doser, M.; Eidelman, S.; Feng, J. L.; Gherghetta, T.; Goodman, M.; Grab, C.; Groom, D. E.; Gurtu, A.; Hagiwara, K.; Hayes, K. G.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hikasa, K.; Jawahery, H.; Kolda, C.; Kwon, Y.; Mangano, M. L.; Manohar, A. V.; Masoni, A.; Miquel, R.; Mönig, K.; Murayama, H.; Nakamura, K.; Navas, S.; Olive, K. A.; Pape, L.; Patrignani, C.; Piepke, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffelt, G.; Smith, J. G.; Tanabashi, M.; Terning, J.; Törnqvist, N. A.; sTrippe, T. G.; Vogel, P.; Watari, T.; Wohl, C. G.; Workman, R. L.; Zyla, P. A.; Armstrong, B.; Harper, G.; Lugovsky, V. S.; Schaffner, P.; Artuso, M.; Babu, K. S.; Band, H. R.; Barberio, E.; Battaglia, M.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Blucher, E.; Cahn, R. N.; Casper, D.; Cattai, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; Damour, T.; DeGrand, T.; Desler, K.; Dobbs, M. A.; Drees, M.; Edwards, A.; Edwards, D. A.; Elvira, V. D.; Erler, J.; Ezhela, V. V.; Fetscher, W.; Fields, B. D.; Foster, B.; Froidevaux, D.; Gaisser, T. K.; Garren, L.; Gerber, H.-J.; Gerbier, G.; Gibbons, L.; Gilman, F. J.; Giudice, G. F.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grünewald, M.; Haber, H. E.; Hagmann, C.; Hinchliffe, I.; Höcker, A.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; JAckson, J. D.; Johnson, K. F.; Karlen, D.; Kayser, B.; Kirkby, D.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knowles, I. G.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Kreitz, P.; Kursche, B.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Lahav, O.; Langacker, P.; Liddle, A.; Ligeti, Z.; Liss, T. M.; Littenberg, L.; Liu, J. C.; Lugovsky, K. S.; Lugovsky, s. B.; Mannel, T.; Manley, D. M.; Marciano, W. J.; Martin, A. D.; Milstead, D.; Narain, M.; Nason, P.; Nir, Y.; Peacock, J. A.; Prell, S. A.; Quadt, A.; Raby, S.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Razuvaev, E. A.; Renk, B.; Richardson, P.; Roesler, S.; Rolandi, G.; Ronan, M. T.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sakai, Y.; Sarkar, S.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Scott, D.; Sjöstrand, T.; Smoot, G. F.; Sokolsky, P.; Spanier, S.; Spieler, H.; Stahl, A.; Stanev, T.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tkachenko, N. P.; Trilling, G. H.; Valencia, G.; van Bibber, K.; Vincter, M. G.; Ward, D. R.; Webber, B. R.; Wells, J. D.; Whalley, M.; Wolfenstsein, L.; Womersley, J.; Woody, C. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Zenin, O. V.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, R.-Y.

2006-07-01

14

Review of Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2158 new measurements from 551 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on neutrino mass, mixing, and oscillations, QCD, top quark, CKM quark-mixing matrix, Vud & Vus, Vcb & Vub, fragmentation functions, particle detectors for accelerator and non-accelerator physics, magnetic monopoles, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: pdg.lbl.gov.

Nakamura, K.; Particle Data Group

2010-07-01

15

REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS  

SciTech Connect

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, V{sub cb} & V{sub ub}, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

Beringer, Juerg

2012-07-16

16

Play Therapy: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

2009-01-01

17

Charged Particle Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Historically, the use of external beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been limited by toxicity to the uninvolved liver and surrounding structures. Advances in photon radiotherapy have improved dose conformality to the tumor and facilitated dose escalation, a key contributor to improved HCC radiation treatment outcomes. However, despite these advances in photon radiotherapy, significant volumes of liver still receive low doses of radiation that can preclude dose escalation, particularly in patients with limited functional liver reserves. By capitalizing on the lack of exit dose along the beam path beyond the tumor and higher biological effectiveness, charged particle therapy offers the promise of maximizing tumor control via dose escalation without excessive liver toxicity. In this review we discuss the distinctive biophysical attributes of both proton and carbon ion radiotherapy, particularly as they pertain to treatment of HCC. We also review the available literature regarding clinical outcomes and toxicity of using charged particles for the treatment of HCC.

Skinner, Heath D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Krishnan, Sunil

2011-01-01

18

Particle size analysis. [Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle size analysis is a specialized area of analytical chemistry which is required in a great number of industries where the product's end-use is affected by particle size distribution. Particles can be in the form of solids, liquids, (emulsions and dispersions), or gases (bubbles) or an aggregation of molecules as in the case of micelles. In some instances, especially in

H. G. Barth; S. T. Sun

1985-01-01

19

Regenerative photonic therapy: Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman

2012-09-01

20

Gantry for medical particle therapy facility  

DOEpatents

A particle therapy gantry for delivering a particle beam to a patient includes a beam tube having a curvature defining a particle beam path and a plurality of fixed field magnets sequentially arranged along the beam tube for guiding the particle beam along the particle path. In a method for delivering a particle beam to a patient through a gantry, a particle beam is guided by a plurality of fixed field magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube of the gantry and the beam is alternately focused and defocused with alternately arranged focusing and defocusing fixed field magnets.

Trbojevic, Dejan (Wading River, NY)

2012-05-08

21

Gantry for medical particle therapy facility  

DOEpatents

A particle therapy gantry for delivering a particle beam to a patient includes a beam tube having a curvature defining a particle beam path and a plurality of superconducting, variable field magnets sequentially arranged along the beam tube for guiding the particle beam along the particle path. In a method for delivering a particle beam to a patient through a gantry, a particle beam is guided by a plurality of variable field magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube of the gantry and the beam is alternately focused and defocused with alternately arranged focusing and defocusing variable field magnets.

Trbojevic, Dejan

2013-04-23

22

Analytic Reviews : Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological effects of hyperbaric oxygen extend beyond the elevation of oxygen concentration in body tissues, and clinical data is available to support its use in more than gas bubble diseases. Hyperbaric medicine is discussed within the context of its recognized mecha nisms of action. The experimental data and clinical ex perience for hyperbaric oxygen therapy are reviewed for the

Stephen R. Thom

1989-01-01

23

Particle Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Treatment-related toxicity is common in the radiotherapeutic management of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. These toxicities can diminish treatment efficacy by necessitating treatment breaks, limiting the radiation dose that can be delivered, and hindering concomitant use of chemotherapy and targeted drug agents. Many efforts have focused on widening the gap between the likelihood of tumor control and the likelihood of toxicities associated with radiation. Use of particles that exhibit a Bragg peak phenomenon in their interactions with tissue, such as protons, heavier ions like carbon ions, and pions, is one means of concentrating radiation dose in tumors and away from normal tissues. Neutron beams have also been used in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers in an effort to take advantage of their potent biologic effects. This report reviews basic particle radiation physics and biology, as well as the clinical experience with protons, heavier ions, pions, and neutrons in the treatment of various gastrointestinal malignancies. Potential future directions in clinical research with particle therapy are discussed.

Meyer, Jeffrey J.; Willett, Christopher G.

2007-01-01

24

Tumour therapy with particle beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photons are exponentially attenuated in matter producing high doses close to the surface. Therefore they are not well suited for the treatment of deep seated tumours. Charged particles, in contrast, exhibit a sharp increase of ionization density close to the end of their range, the so-called Bragg-peak. The depth of the Bragg-peak can be adjusted by varying the particle's energy.

Claus Grupen

2000-01-01

25

Veterinary photodynamic therapy: a review.  

PubMed

Whereas in human medicine photodynamic therapy represents a well-known and recognized treatment option for diverse indications, it is still little known and unfortunately not yet established treatment option for pets. Various photosensitizers and light sources have been used and clinical results have been published. The main indication is a frequently occurring skin tumor in cats: in situ carcinoma/squamous cell carcinoma, mainly found in not or only slightly pigmented areas of the head. For early stages of this tumor, promising results have been published, partly using new, selective drugs to decrease light sensitivity after systemic administration and to increase response rates. Other possible indications are urinary tract neoplasia of dogs and equine sarcoids, the latter representing very common tumors in horses where no effective treatment is known so far. This review article summarizes the role of photodynamic therapy in veterinary medicine. PMID:24284083

Buchholz, Julia; Walt, Heinrich

2013-12-01

26

Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

Haber, David

2006-01-01

27

[Negative pressure wound therapy - review].  

PubMed

Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a new therapeutic option in wound healing and was first described in its present form in 1997. A vacuum source is used to create sub-atmospheric pressure in the local wound environment to promote healing. This is achieved by connecting a vacuum pump to a tube that is threaded into a wound gauze or foam filler dressing covered with a drape. This concept in wound treatment has been shown to be useful in treating different wound infections, including diabetic wounds as well as complex infections of the abdomen and thorax. NPWT has been used in Iceland for over a decade and its use is steadily increasing. This review describes the indications and outcome of NPWT and is aimed at a broad group of doctors and nurses where recent Icelandic studies on the subject are covered. PMID:24713539

Gudmundsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Valsdottir, Elsa; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

2014-04-01

28

Review of Narrative Therapy: Research and Utility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative therapy has captured the attention of many in the family counseling field. Despite the apparent appeal of narrative therapy as a therapeutic modality, research on its effectiveness is in its infancy. This article will review current research on narrative therapy and discuss why a broader research base has yet to be developed. Suggestions…

Etchison, Mary; Kleist, David M.

2000-01-01

29

Gene Therapy in Oral Cancer: A Review  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy is the use of DNA as an agent to treat disease. Gene therapy aims at the insertion of a functional gene into the cells of a patient for the correction of an inborn error of metabolism, to alter or repair an acquired genetic abnormality, and to provide new function to the cell. Many experiments have been done with respect to its application in various diseases.Today, most of the gene therapy studies are aimed at cancer and hereditary diseases which are linked to genetic defects. Cancer usually occurs due to the production of multiple mutations in a single cell which cause it to proliferate out of control. Several methods such as surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been used widely to treat cancers. But, the cancer patients who are not helped by these therapies can be treated by gene therapy. The purpose of this article is to review the use and purpose of gene therapy in oral cancer.

Kumar, M. Sathish; Masthan, K.M.K.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Dash, Kailash Chandra

2013-01-01

30

Gene therapy in oral cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Gene therapy is the use of DNA as an agent to treat disease. Gene therapy aims at the insertion of a functional gene into the cells of a patient for the correction of an inborn error of metabolism, to alter or repair an acquired genetic abnormality, and to provide new function to the cell. Many experiments have been done with respect to its application in various diseases.Today, most of the gene therapy studies are aimed at cancer and hereditary diseases which are linked to genetic defects. Cancer usually occurs due to the production of multiple mutations in a single cell which cause it to proliferate out of control. Several methods such as surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been used widely to treat cancers. But, the cancer patients who are not helped by these therapies can be treated by gene therapy. The purpose of this article is to review the use and purpose of gene therapy in oral cancer. PMID:23905156

Kumar, M Sathish; Masthan, K M K; Babu, N Aravindha; Dash, Kailash Chandra

2013-06-01

31

Future Particle Accelerator Developments for Radiation Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade particle beam cancer therapy has seen a rapid increase in interest, and several new centers have been built, are currently under construction, or are in an advanced stage of planning. Typical treatment centers today consist of an accelerator capable of producing proton or ion beams in an energy range of interest for medical treatment, i.e. providing a penetration depth in water of about 30 cm, a beam delivery system to transport the produced beam to the patient treatment rooms, and several patient stations, allowing for an optimal usage of the continuously produced beam. This makes these centers rather large and consequently expensive. Only major hospital centers situated in an area where they can draw on a population of several million can afford such an installation. In order to spread the use of particle beam cancer therapy to a broader population base it will be necessary to scale down the facility size and cost. This can in principle be done by reducing the number of treatment rooms to one, eliminating the need of an elaborate beam delivery system, and thereby reducing the building size and cost. Such a change should be going in parallel with a reduction of the accelerator itself, and a number of approaches to this are currently being pursued. If successful, such developments could eventually lead to a compact system where all components would fit into a single shielded room, not much different in size from a typical radiation vault for radiotherapy with X-rays.

Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels

32

Surgery and complementary therapies: a review.  

PubMed

The incorporation of complementary therapies into the surgical setting has been slow compared to that of other areas of conventional medicine. This paper summarizes the available information on complementary therapies in surgery from a broad range of sources in the medical literature. The effects of psychological distress on the surgical patient and potential relief from that distress by such methods as relaxation techniques, hypnosis, suggestion, and imagery, as well as the role of coping style and locus of control on choice of therapy are reviewed. The role of acupuncture, music, massage therapy, therapeutic touch, and Reiki, as well as the use of herbs and supplements in modifying surgical outcome, is explored. PMID:10979163

Petry, J J

2000-09-01

33

Larval therapy in wound management: a review.  

PubMed

Debridement is an essential component of wound care as the presence of devitalised tissue can impede the healing process. Larval therapy has been used for the debridement of wounds for several hundred years. A plethora of literature is available on larval therapy, but many authors acknowledge the paucity of large-scale clinical trials supporting its effectiveness. While the exact mechanism of larval therapy remains unknown, it encompasses three processes: debridement, disinfection and promotion of healing. This literature review discusses the applications, benefits and disadvantages of larval therapy as well as the processes involved. The literature reviewed suggests that further comprehensive research into the mechanisms involved in larval therapy is required to ensure that it may be used to best medical advantage. PMID:17313618

Parnés, A; Lagan, K M

2007-03-01

34

Real-time tumour tracking in particle therapy: technological developments and future perspectives.  

PubMed

A key challenge in radiation oncology is accurate delivery of the prescribed dose to tumours that move because of respiration. Tumour tracking involves real-time target localisation and correction of radiation beam geometry to compensate for motion. Uncertainties in tumour localisation are important in particle therapy (proton therapy, carbon-ion therapy) because charged particle beams are highly sensitive to geometrical and associated density and radiological variations in path length, which will affect the treatment plan. Target localisation and motion compensation methods applied in x-ray photon radiotherapy require careful performance assessment for clinical applications in particle therapy. In this Review, we summarise the efforts required for an application of real-time tumour tracking in particle therapy, by comparing and assessing competing strategies for time-resolved target localisation and related clinical outcomes in x-ray radiation oncology. PMID:22935238

Riboldi, Marco; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido

2012-09-01

35

Targeted ?-Particle Therapy of Bone Metastases in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Medical oncology is moving toward personalized and precision treatments. This evolution is spearheaded by ongoing discoveries on the fundamental machinery that controls tumor and hosts microenvironment biological behavior. ?-Particles with their high energy and short range had long been recognized as potentially useful in the treatment of cancer. More than a century after the discovery of radium by the Curies, 223Ra dichloride is now available in the expanding armamentarium of therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. This advance occurs in the context of several other novel therapeutics in advanced prostate cancer that include more effective androgen receptor pathway inhibition, better chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. We present a concise review on the therapeutic use of 223Ra dichloride in this clinically important setting including excerpts on the radium history, physical properties, the alpharadin in symptomatic prostate cancer clinical trial, and practical information on its use in the clinic. It is anticipated that, with the current emergence of 223Ra as a viable form of therapy, interest in and use of ?-particle therapy in the management of cancer will grow.

Jadvar, Hossein; Quinn, David I.

2013-01-01

36

Respiratory motion management in particle therapy  

SciTech Connect

Clinical outcomes of charged particle therapy are very promising. Currently, several dedicated centers that use scanning beam technology are either close to clinical use or under construction. Since scanned beam treatments of targets that move with respiration most likely result in marked local over- and underdosage due to interplay of target motion and dynamic beam application, dedicated motion mitigation techniques have to be employed. To date, the motion mitigation techniques, rescanning, beam gating, and beam tracking, have been proposed and tested in experimental studies. Rescanning relies on repeated irradiations of the target with the number of particles reduced accordingly per scan to statistically average local misdosage. Specific developments to prohibit temporal correlation between beam scanning and target motion will be required to guarantee adequate averaging. For beam gating, residual target motion within gating windows has to be mitigated in order to avoid local misdosage. Possibly the most promising strategy is to increase the overlap of adjacent particle pencil beams laterally as well as longitudinally to effectively reduce the sensitivity against small residual target motion. The most conformal and potentially most precise motion mitigation technique is beam tracking. Individual particle pencil beams have to be adapted laterally as well as longitudinally according to the target motion. Within the next several years, it can be anticipated that rescanning as well as beam gating will be ready for clinical use. For rescanning, treatment planning margins that incorporate the full extent of target motion as well as motion induced density variations in the beam paths will result in reduced target conformity of the applied dose distributions. Due to the limited precision of motion monitoring devices, it seems likely that beam gating will be used initially to mitigate interplay effects only but not to considerably decrease treatment planning margins. Then, in the next step, beam gating, based on more accurate motion monitoring systems, provides the possibility to restore target conformity as well as steep dose gradients due to reduced treatment planning margins. Accurate motion monitoring systems will be required for beam tracking. Even though beam tracking has already been successfully tested experimentally, full clinical implementation requires direct feedback of the actual target position in quasireal time to the treatment control system and can be anticipated to be several more years ahead.

Rietzel, Eike; Bert, Christoph [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany) and Siemens Healthcare Sector, Workflow and Solutions, Particle Therapy, Hofmannstrasse 26, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-02-15

37

Ozone therapy: A clinical review.  

PubMed

Ozone (O(3)) gas discovered in the mid-nineteenth century is a molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen in a dynamically unstable structure due to the presence of mesomeric states. Although O(3) has dangerous effects, yet researchers believe it has many therapeutic effects. Ozone therapy has been utilized and heavily studied for more than a century. Its effects are proven, consistent, safe and with minimal and preventable side effects. Medical O(3) is used to disinfect and treat disease. Mechanism of actions is by inactivation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast and protozoa, stimulation of oxygen metabolism, activation of the immune system. Medication forms in a gaseous state are somewhat unusual, and it is for this reason that special application techniques have had to be developed for the safe use of O(3). In local applications as in the treatment of external wounds, its application in the form of a transcutaneous O(3) gas bath has established itself as being the most practical and useful method, for example at low (sub-atmospheric) pressure in a closed system guaranteeing no escape of O(3) into the surrounding air. Ozonized water, whose use is particularly known in dental medicine, is optimally applied as a spray or compress. Diseases treated are infected wounds, circulatory disorders, geriatric conditions, macular degeneration, viral diseases, rheumatism/arthritis, cancer, SARS and AIDS. PMID:22470237

Elvis, A M; Ekta, J S

2011-01-01

38

Ozone therapy: A clinical review  

PubMed Central

Ozone (O3) gas discovered in the mid-nineteenth century is a molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen in a dynamically unstable structure due to the presence of mesomeric states. Although O3 has dangerous effects, yet researchers believe it has many therapeutic effects. Ozone therapy has been utilized and heavily studied for more than a century. Its effects are proven, consistent, safe and with minimal and preventable side effects. Medical O3 is used to disinfect and treat disease. Mechanism of actions is by inactivation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast and protozoa, stimulation of oxygen metabolism, activation of the immune system. Medication forms in a gaseous state are somewhat unusual, and it is for this reason that special application techniques have had to be developed for the safe use of O3. In local applications as in the treatment of external wounds, its application in the form of a transcutaneous O3 gas bath has established itself as being the most practical and useful method, for example at low (sub-atmospheric) pressure in a closed system guaranteeing no escape of O3 into the surrounding air. Ozonized water, whose use is particularly known in dental medicine, is optimally applied as a spray or compress. Diseases treated are infected wounds, circulatory disorders, geriatric conditions, macular degeneration, viral diseases, rheumatism/arthritis, cancer, SARS and AIDS.

Elvis, A. M.; Ekta, J. S.

2011-01-01

39

Republished review: Gene therapy for ocular diseases  

PubMed Central

The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

2011-01-01

40

A Comprehensive Review of Retinal Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Blindness, although not life threatening, is a debilitating disorder for which few, if any treatments exist. Ocular gene therapies have the potential to profoundly improve the quality of life in patients with inherited retinal disease. As such, tremendous focus has been given to develop such therapies. Several factors make the eye an ideal organ for gene-replacement therapy including its accessibility, immune privilege, small size, compartmentalization, and the existence of a contralateral control. This review will provide a comprehensive summary of (i) existing gene therapy clinical trials for several genetic forms of blindness and (ii) preclinical efficacy and safety studies in a variety of animal models of retinal disease which demonstrate strong potential for clinical application. To be as comprehensive as possible, we include additional proof of concept studies using gene replacement, neurotrophic/neuroprotective, optogenetic, antiangiogenic, or antioxidative stress strategies as well as a description of the current challenges and future directions in the ocular gene therapy field to this review as a supplement.

Boye, Shannon E; Boye, Sanford L; Lewin, Alfred S; Hauswirth, William W

2013-01-01

41

Volatiles in interplanetary dust particles: a review.  

PubMed

The paper presents a review of the volatiles found within interplanetary dust particles. These particles have been shown to represent primitive material from early in the solar system's formation and also may contain records of stellar processes. The organogenic elements (i.e., H, C, N, O, and S) are among the most abundant elements in our solar system, and their abundances, distributions, and isotopic compositions in early solar system materials permit workers to better understand the processes operating early in the evolutionary history of solar system materials. Interplanetary dust particles have a range of elemental compositions, but generally they have been shown to be similar to carbonaceous chondrites, the solar photosphere, Comet Halley's chondritic cores, and matrix materials of chondritic chondrites. Recovery and analysis of interplanetary dust particles have opened new opportunities for analysis of primitive materials, although interplanetary dust particles represent major challenges to the analyst because of their small size. PMID:11537855

Gibson, E K

1992-03-25

42

Particle Beam Therapy for Cancer of the Skull Base, Nasal Cavity, and Paranasal Sinus  

PubMed Central

Particle beam therapy has been rapidly developed in these several decades. Proton and carbon ion beams are most frequently used in particle beam therapy. Proton and carbon ion beam radiotherapy have physical and biological advantage to the conventional photon radiotherapy. Cancers of the skull base, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus are rare; however these diseases can receive the benefits of particle beam radiotherapy. This paper describes the clinical review of the cancer of the skull base, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus treated with proton and carbon ion beams, adding some information of feature and future direction of proton and carbon ion beam radiotherapy.

Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi

2012-01-01

43

TOPICAL REVIEW: Deformation behaviour of soft particles: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of soft particle deformation is of paramount importance for the advancement of fundamental colloidal science as well as its biomedical applications, particularly in drug delivery and cell mechanics/adhesion. Recent developments of both theoretical modelling and experimental techniques have made it possible to measure the deformation behaviour of a single micro-/nano-particle under both adhesive and non-adhesive deformation and, therefore, to facilitate the determination of its mechanical and interfacial properties. This review aims to introduce several modern experimental techniques, such as atomic force microscopy, the micro-compression method and reflectance interference contrast microscopy, and a number of theoretical models, which have been applied to characterize the mechanical and interfacial properties of the soft particles in a quantitative manner. More specifically, their recent applications to biomimetic/biological particles or vesicles, which normally inherit non-linear elasticity and inhomogeneous structure, will also be reviewed.

Liu, Kuo-Kang

2006-06-01

44

Drug therapy reviews: pharmacotherapy of diarrhea.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal physiology, and the pathophysiology, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of acute and chronic diarrhea are reviewed. Drugs used in the treatment of diarrhea include opiates (morphine, codeine), synthetic anti-diarrheals (diphenoxylate, loperamide), anticholinergics (atropine, propantheline), adsorbents (kaolin, pectin, cholestyramine resin) and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Chronic diarrhea and acute diarrhea caused by microorgansims, drugs and viruses are described. The management of diarrhea can be divided into three categories: (1) supportive therapy (fluid and electrolyte replacement); (2) symptomatic therapy which improves the consistency of the stool and reduces the frequency of bowel movements; and (3) specific therapy aimed at treating the cause (e.g., antibiotics for bacteria-induced diarrhea) or blocking the cellular mechanisms of fluid and electrolyte loss. Most acute diarrheal conditions can be managed successfully by avoiding oral solids and ingesting carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions. Synthetic antidiarrheals may increase the toxicity associated with bacterial diahhrea. PMID:111547

Pietrusko, R G

1979-06-01

45

Endovascular therapy for intracranial aneurysms: a historical and present status review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in the 1960s, neurosurgeons and radiologists have made attempts to treat intracranial aneurysms using nonclip techniques. The evolution of such therapy has included acrylics, metallic particles, balloons, electric current, and nondetachable and detachable coils. This article will chronologically review these various techniques and the papers that reported their results so that the reader can understand how endovascular therapy developed

Michael B Horowitz; Elad Levy; Amin Kassam; Phillip D Purdy

2002-01-01

46

Review of pharmacological therapies in fibromyalgia syndrome  

PubMed Central

This review addresses the current status of drug therapy for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and is based on interdisciplinary FMS management guidelines, meta-analyses of drug trial data, and observational studies. In the absence of a single gold-standard medication, patients are treated with a variety of drugs from different categories, often with limited evidence. Drug therapy is not mandatory for the management of FMS. Pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran, and amitriptyline are the current first-line prescribed agents but have had a mostly modest effect. With only a minority of patients expected to experience substantial benefit, most will discontinue therapy because of either a lack of efficacy or tolerability problems. Many drug treatments have undergone limited study and have had negative results. It is unlikely that these failed pilot trials will undergo future study. However, medications, though imperfect, will continue to be a component of treatment strategy for these patients. Both the potential for medication therapy to relieve symptoms and the potential to cause harm should be carefully considered in their administration.

2014-01-01

47

Emerging targeted therapies for melanoma treatment (Review).  

PubMed

Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis for patients with advanced disease. The identification of several key molecular pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma has led to the development of novel therapies for this devastating disease. In melanoma, both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and the PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways are constitutively activated through multiple mechanisms. Targeting various effectors of these pathways with pharmacologic inhibitors may inhibit melanoma cell growth and angiogenesis. Ongoing clinical trials provide hope to improve progression-free survival of patients with advanced melanoma. This review summarizes the most relevant studies focused on the specific action of these new molecular targeted agents. Mechanisms of resistance to therapy are also discussed. PMID:24899250

Russo, Angela; Ficili, Bartolomea; Candido, Saverio; Pezzino, Franca Maria; Guarneri, Claudio; Biondi, Antonio; Travali, Salvatore; McCubrey, James A; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo

2014-08-01

48

Emerging targeted therapies for melanoma treatment (Review)  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis for patients with advanced disease. The identification of several key molecular pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma has led to the development of novel therapies for this devastating disease. In melanoma, both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and the PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways are constitutively activated through multiple mechanisms. Targeting various effectors of these pathways with pharmacologic inhibitors may inhibit melanoma cell growth and angiogenesis. Ongoing clinical trials provide hope to improve progression-free survival of patients with advanced melanoma. This review summarizes the most relevant studies focused on the specific action of these new molecular targeted agents. Mechanisms of resistance to therapy are also discussed.

RUSSO, ANGELA; FICILI, BARTOLOMEA; CANDIDO, SAVERIO; PEZZINO, FRANCA MARIA; GUARNERI, CLAUDIO; BIONDI, ANTONIO; TRAVALI, SALVATORE; McCUBREY, JAMES A.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; LIBRA, MASSIMO

2014-01-01

49

A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Studies of Art Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review article examines current knowledge about the efficacy of art therapy based on the findings of 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted with adult populations from 2008-2013 that met a high standard of rigor. Of these studies, all but one reported beneficial effects of art therapy. Review findings suggest that art therapy may…

Maujean, Annick; Pepping, Christopher A.; Kendall, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

50

Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Emotional stress can either precipitate or exacerbate both acute and chronic asthma. There is a large body of literature available on the use of relaxation techniques for the treatment of asthma symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if there is any evidence for or against the clinical efficacy of such interventions. Methods: Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data from trials that statistically compared the treatment group with that of the control were extracted in a standardised predefined manner and assessed critically by two independent reviewers. Results: Fifteen trials were identified, of which nine compared the treatment group with the control group appropriately. Five RCTs tested progressive muscle relaxation or mental and muscular relaxation, two of which showed significant effects of therapy. One RCT investigating hypnotherapy, one of autogenic training, and two of biofeedback techniques revealed no therapeutic effects. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor. Conclusions: There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of relaxation therapies in the management of asthma. This deficiency is due to the poor methodology of the studies as well as the inherent problems of conducting such trials. There is some evidence that muscular relaxation improves lung function of patients with asthma but no evidence for any other relaxation technique.

Huntley, A; White, A; Ernst, E

2002-01-01

51

FTY720 for cancer therapy (Review).  

PubMed

2-Amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride (FTY720) is a potent immunosuppressant which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a new treatment for multiple sclerosis. As an immunosuppressant, it displays its anti-multiple sclerosis, immunosuppressive effects by activating sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs). In addition to the immunosuppressive effects, FTY720 also shows preclinical antitumor efficacy in several cancer models. In most cases, phosphorylation of FTY720 is not required for its cytotoxic effect, indicating the involvement of S1PR-independent mechanisms which are starkly different from the immunosuppressive property of FTY720. In the present study, we reviewed the rapidly advancing field of FTY720 in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of the unphosphorylated form of FTY720. PMID:24100923

Zhang, Li; Wang, Han-Dong; Ji, Xiang-Jun; Cong, Zi-Xiang; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Zhou, Yuan

2013-12-01

52

A review of novel therapies for melanoma.  

PubMed

This review summarizes results from major recent trials regarding novel therapeutic agents in melanoma. The topics discussed include targeted therapy with BRAF (V-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib), MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) inhibitors (trametinib), bcr-abl/c-kit/PDGF-R inhibitors (imatinib), and angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab and aflibercept), as well as immunotherapy with anti-CTLA-4 (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4) antibodies (ipilimumab), anti-PD (anti-programmed death receptor) antibodies (nivolumab and lambrolizumab), and anti-PD-L (anti-programmed death ligand) antibodies. Various combinations of these agents, as well as adjunctive GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec) oncolytic viruses, and novel chemotherapeutic agents, are also described. Despite the tremendous advances that these novel treatments have created, optimal therapeutic agent selection remains a highly individualized decision. Melanoma therapy has vastly progressed since the days when dacarbazine was the sole option for advanced melanoma patients. The molecular understanding of melanoma pathogenesis has yielded a brighter future for advanced melanoma patients. PMID:24928310

Karimkhani, Chante; Gonzalez, Rene; Dellavalle, Robert P

2014-08-01

53

Glycolic acid peel therapy - a current review  

PubMed Central

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay.

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

54

Glycolic acid peel therapy - a current review.  

PubMed

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

55

President's conference paper The case for particle therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most important decisions facing the British Government regarding the treatment of cancer in the National Health Service (NHS) is the purchase of charged particle therapy (CPT) centres. CPT is different from conventional radiotherapy: the dose is deposited far more selectively in Bragg Peaks by either protons or ''heavy'' ions, such as carbon. In this way, it is possible

B JONES

56

Endovascular therapy for intracranial aneurysms: a historical and present status review.  

PubMed

Beginning in the 1960s, neurosurgeons and radiologists have made attempts to treat intracranial aneurysms using nonclip techniques. The evolution of such therapy has included acrylics, metallic particles, balloons, electric current, and nondetachable and detachable coils. This article will chronologically review these various techniques and the papers that reported their results so that the reader can understand how endovascular therapy developed and the position it currently holds in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. PMID:12009536

Horowitz, Michael B; Levy, Elad; Kassam, Amin; Purdy, Phillip D

2002-03-01

57

Concise Review: Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developed countries. Various therapies for cardiovascular disease are investigated actively and are performed clinically. Recently, cell-based regenerative medicine using several cell sources has appeared as an alternative therapy for curing cardiovascular diseases. Scaffold-based or cell sheet-based tissue engineering is focused as a new generational cell-based regenerative therapy, and the clinical trials have also been started. Cell-based regenerative therapies have an enormous potential for treating cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the recent research of cell sources and cell-based-regenerative therapies for cardiovascular diseases.

Haraguchi, Yuji; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki

2012-01-01

58

Lateral epicondylitis: review of injection therapies.  

PubMed

Lateral epicondylitis has several different treatment methods, with no single agreed upon therapy. This article summarizes the current literature on injection therapies for lateral epicondylitis. Glucocorticoid, botulinum toxin, autologous blood, platelet-rich plasma, hyaluronic acid, polidocanol, glycosaminoglycan, and prolotherapy injections are discussed. PMID:24095076

Judson, Christopher H; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis

2013-10-01

59

Accelerators for charged particle therapy: PAMELA and related issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer is a dreadful disease that will affect one in three people at some point in their life; radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cancer treatment, and contributes about 40% to the successful treatment of cancer. Charged Particle Therapy uses protons and other light ions to deliver the lethal dose to the tumor while being relatively sparing of healthy tissue and, because of the finite range of the particles, is able to avoid giving any dose to vital organs. While there are adequate technologies currently available to deliver the required energies and fluxes, the two main technologies (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) have limitations. PAMELA (the Particle Accelerator for MEdicaL Applications) uses the newly-developed non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerator concepts to deliver therapeutically relevant beams. The status of the development of the PAMELA conceptual design is discussed.

Peach, Ken

2014-05-01

60

Recent Reviews in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent Reviews in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy is a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists. It contains abst...

1986-01-01

61

Manual therapies in myofascial trigger point treatment: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is thought by some authors the main cause of headache and neck pain. MPS is characterized by Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs). However, there are not many controlled studies that have analyzed the effects of the manual therapies in their treatment. The aim of this systematic review is to establish whether manual therapies have

César Fernández de las Peñas; Mónica Sohrbeck Campo; Josué Fernández Carnero; Juan Carlos Miangolarra Page

2005-01-01

62

Occupational therapy for community dwelling elderly people: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Occupational therapy might play an important role in maintaining independent living for community dwelling elderly people. The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether occupational therapy improves outcome for people who are >\\/=60 years and are living independently. METHODS: An extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED and SCISEARCH until July 2002 was performed. Studies with controlled

E. M. J. Steultjens; J. Dekker; L. M. Bouter; S. Jellema; E. B. Bakker; C. H. M. van den Ende

2004-01-01

63

Occupational therapy for community dwelling elderly people: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: occupational therapy might play an important role in maintaining independent living for community dwelling elderly people. The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether occupational therapy improves outcome for people who are ?60 years and are living independently. Methods: an extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED and SCISEARCH until July 2002 was per- formed. Studies with

ESTHER M. J. STEULTJENS; JOOST DEKKER; LEX M. BOUTER; SANDRA JELLEMA; ERICA B. BAKKER; CORNELIA H. M. VAN DEN ENDE

64

TOPICAL REVIEW: Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, the concept of zeta potential, which is important in the electrokinetics of hard particles, loses its physical meaning in the electrokinetics of soft particles. In this review, we discuss the potential distribution around a soft particle, the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles, and the motion of a soft particle in an electric field.

Ohshima, Hiroyuki

2009-12-01

65

EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

66

Combination therapy for erectile dysfunction: an update review  

PubMed Central

The introduction of oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) in the late 1990s and early 2000s revolutionized the field of sexual medicine and PDE5Is are currently first-line monotherapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, a significant proportion of patients with complex ED will be therapeutic non-responders to PDE5I monotherapy. Combination therapy has recently been adopted for more refractory cases of ED, but a critical evaluation of current combination therapies is lacking. A thorough PubMed and Cochrane Library search was conducted focusing on the effectiveness of combination therapies for ED in therapeutic non-responders to PDE5I therapy. Journal articles spanning the time period between January 1990 and December 2010 were reviewed. Criteria included all pertinent review articles, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and retrospective analyses. References from retrieved articles were also manually scanned for additional relevant publications. Published combination therapies include PDE5I plus vacuum erectile device (VED), intraurethral medication, intracavernosal injection (ICI), androgen supplement, ?-blocker or miscellaneous combinations. Based on this review, some of these combination treatments appeared to be quite effective in preliminary testing. Caution must be advised, however, as the majority of combination therapy articles in the last decade have numerous limitations including study biases and small subject size. Regardless of limitations, present combination therapy research provides a solid foundation for future studies in complex ED management.

Dhir, Rohit R; Lin, Hao-Cheng; Canfield, Steven E; Wang, Run

2011-01-01

67

Atypical antipsychotic therapy and hyperlipidemia: a review.  

PubMed

Ziprasidone (Geodon), risperidone (Risperdal), and aripiprazole (Abilify) appear to be associated with a relatively low risk for hyperlipidemia, whereas quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), and clozapine (Clozaril) are associated with a relatively high risk for hyperlipidemia. Possible underlying causes of lipid dysregulation include weight gain, dietary changes, and glucose intolerance. Given the multiple cardiovascular risk factors reported for patients with schizophrenia, great care must be exercised to minimize the additional risk for hyperlipidemia when choosing antipsychotic therapy. It is recommended that a lipid panel be obtained at baseline for all patients with schizophrenia and annually thereafter for patients taking relatively low-risk agents or quarterly thereafter for patients taking relatively high-risk agents. Patients with persistent dyslipidemia should be referred for lipid-lowering therapy or switched to a less lipid-enhancing antipsychotic agent. PMID:15869022

Koro, Carol E; Meyer, Jonathan M

2005-01-01

68

Ozone therapy in dentistry: A strategic review  

PubMed Central

The oral cavity appears as an open ecosystem, with a dynamic balance between the entrance of microorganisms, colonization modalities, and host defenses aimed to their removal: To avoid elimination, bacteria need to adhere to either hard dental surfaces or epithelial surfaces. The oral biofilm formation and development, and the inside selection of specific microorganisms have been correlated with the most common oral pathologies, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and peri-implantitis. The mechanical removal of the biofilm and adjunctive use of antibiotic disinfectants or various antibiotics have been the conventional methods for periodontal therapy. Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms, and its application in medicine and dentistry has been indicated for the treatment of 260 different pathologies. The ozone therapy has been more beneficial than present conventional therapeutic modalities that follow a minimally invasive and conservative application to dental treatment. The exposition of molecular mechanisms of ozone further benefits practical function in dentistry.

Saini, Rajiv

2011-01-01

69

Oral 17b-estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy in postmenopausal women increases HDL particle size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menopause is accompanied by changes in lipoprotein particles that include an increase in density of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) particles. The effect of 3 months of oral hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on lipoprotein particle size in postmenopausal women who were randomized to (1) estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) alone (either 17b-estradiol (1 mg) or conjugated equine

Christine C. Tangney; Lori J. Mosca; James D. Otvos; Robert S. Rosenson

70

Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for the prevention and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer. Until recently, clinically\\u000a approved indications have been restricted to actinic keratoses, nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma, and, since 2006,\\u000a Bowen disease. However, the range of indications has been expanding continuously. PDT is also used for the treatment of non-malignant\\u000a conditions such as acne vulgaris and

Sonal Choudhary; Keyvan Nouri; Mohamed L. Elsaie

2009-01-01

71

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Malignancy: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

One unique feature of tumors is the presence of hypoxic regions, which occur predominantly at the tumor center. Hypoxia has\\u000a a major impact on various aspects of tumor cell function and proliferation. Hypoxic tumor cells are relatively insensitive\\u000a to conventional therapy owing to cellular adaptations effected by the hypoxic microenvironment. Recent efforts have aimed\\u000a to alter the hypoxic state and

Jurstine Daruwalla; Chris Christophi

2006-01-01

72

Pulmonary toxicities from targeted therapies: a review.  

PubMed

Pulmonary toxicity is rarely seen with most commonly used targeted therapies. The endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib and erlotinib can cause interstitial lung disease (ILD). BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and dasatinib can cause pleural effusions. Infusion-related bronchospasm is common with the monoclonal antibodies to EGFR cetuximab and panitumumab, and case reports of bronchiolitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been described. Up to one-sixth of patients taking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors get a reversible interstitial pneumonitis. Bevacizumab, the monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been associated with hemoptysis and pulmonary embolism particularly in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. Infusion-related bronchospasms, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and interstitial pneumonitis can be seen with the anti-lymphocyte monoclonal antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab, and alemtuzumab. While most pulmonary toxicities from these therapies are mild and resolve promptly with dose reduction or discontinuation, it is important for the clinician to recognize these potential toxicities when faced with treatment-related complications. Discerning these pulmonary adverse effects may help in making decisions on diagnostic testing and therapy, particularly for those with pulmonary and cardiovascular co-morbidities. PMID:22076388

Barber, Nicholas A; Ganti, Apar Kishor

2011-12-01

73

Transport of particles through gas leaks: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review has shown that relatively few studies have been undertaken to determine the rate at which particles may be transported through narrow passageways. Deterrent to experiment is difficulty in measuring the very small quantity and the large number of variables. The principal mechanisms for removing particles in channels are diffusion, gravitational settling, turbulent impaction, and electrostatic scattering. Each

L. C. Schwendiman; S. L. Sutter

2009-01-01

74

Agonist replacement therapy for cocaine dependence: a translational review  

PubMed Central

Cocaine use disorders are prevalent throughout the world. Agonist replacement therapy is among the most effective strategies for managing substance use disorders including nicotine and opioid dependence. This paper reviews the translational literature, including preclinical experiments, human laboratory studies and clinical trials, to determine whether agonist-replacement therapy is a viable strategy for managing cocaine dependence. Discussion is limited to transporter blockers (i.e., methylphenidate) and releasers (i.e., amphetamine analogs) that are available for use in humans in the hope of impacting clinical research and practice more quickly. The translational review suggests that agonist-replacement therapy, especially monoamine releasers, may be effective for managing cocaine dependence. Future directions for medications development are also discussed because the viability of agonist-replacement therapy for cocaine dependence may hinge on identifying novel compounds or formulations that have less abuse and diversion potential.

Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

2012-01-01

75

BOOK REVIEW: Particle Astrophysics (Second Edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle astrophysics, the interface of elementary particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology, is a rapidly evolving field. Perkins' book provides a nice introduction to this field, at a level appropriate for senior undergraduate students. Perkins develops the foundations underlying both the particle and astrophysics areas, and also covers some of the most recent developments in this field. The latter is an appealing feature, as students rarely encounter topics of current research in their undergraduate textbooks. Part 1 of the text introduces the elementary particle content, and interactions, of the standard model of particle physics. Relativity is addressed at the level of special relativistic kinematics, the equivalence principle and the Robertson-Walker metric. Part 2 covers cosmology, starting with the expansion of the Universe and basic thermodynamics. It then moves on to primordial nucleosynthesis, baryogenesis, dark matter, dark energy, structure formation and the cosmic microwave background. Part 3 covers cosmic rays, stellar evolution, and related topics. Cutting edge topics include the use of the cosmological large scale structure power spectrum to constrain neutrino mass, the creation of the baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis, and the equation of state for dark energy. While the treatment of many topics is quite brief, the level of depth is about right for undergraduates who are being exposed to these topics for the first time. The breadth of topics spanned is excellent. Perkins does a good job connecting theory with the experimental underpinnings, and of simplifying the theoretical presentation of complex subjects to a level that senior undergraduate students should find accessible. Each chapter includes a number of exercises. Brief solutions are provided for all the exercises, while fully worked solutions are provided for a smaller subset.

Bell, Nicole

2009-07-01

76

Radiation therapy with fast neutrons: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their biological effects fast neutrons are most effective in treating large, slow-growing tumours which are resistant to conventional X-radiation. Patients are treated typically 3-4 times per week for 4-5 weeks (sometimes in combination with X-radiation) for a variety of conditions such as carcinomas of the head and neck, salivary gland, paranasal sinus and breast; soft tissue, bone and uterine sarcomas and malignant melanomas. It is estimated that about 27,000 patients have undergone fast neutron therapy to date.

Jones, D. T. L.; Wambersie, A.

2007-09-01

77

[Music therapy in oncology--concepts and review].  

PubMed

The following article is addresses the applications and functions of music therapy in the acute and rehabilitative phases of treatment of adult cancer patients. It is based on a literature review with a focus on the state of empirical research in the oncology sector of music therapy and consequences for the concepts of music therapy. First the basic aspects of music therapy treatment are explained to clarify the different research methods and to examine the special demands of oncology patients. Furthermore, a brief summary of the approaches of music therapy research in the most renowned educational institutions in Germany are outlined. The results of the studies and case histories are summarized and evaluated and provide the basis for the conclusions and recommendations for the music therapeutic practice in oncology. PMID:15551190

Rose, Jens-Peter; Brandt, Kerstin; Weis, Joachim

2004-12-01

78

Low level laser therapy: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological and clinical effects of sub-thermal doses of laser light is an area of some controversy. In this review the published scientific evidence for such effects is examined with particular reference to the physics of the light delivery and dosimetry.

Paul R. King

1989-01-01

79

Review of progress in magnetic particle inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) has been widely utilized for decades, and sees considerable use in the aerospace industry with a majority of the steel parts being inspected with MPI at some point in the lifecycle. Typical aircraft locations inspected are landing gear, engine components, attachment hardware, and doors. In spite of its numerous applications the method remains poorly understood, and there are many aspects of that method which would benefit from in-depth study. This shortcoming is due to the fact that MPI combines the complicated nature of electromagnetics, metallurgical material effects, fluid-particle motion dynamics, and physiological human factors into a single inspection. To promote understanding of the intricate method issues that affect sensitivity, or to assist with the revision of industry specifications and standards, research studies will be prioritized through the guidance of a panel of industry experts, using an approach which has worked successfully in the past to guide fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) research efforts.

Eisenmann, David J.; Enyart, Darrel; Lo, Chester; Brasche, Lisa

2014-02-01

80

Proton radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a review of the clinical experience to date.  

PubMed

Proton beam radiation has been used for cancer treatment since the 1950s, but recent increasing interest in this form of therapy and the construction of hospital-based and clinic-based facilities for its delivery have greatly increased both the number of patients and the variety of tumors being treated with proton therapy. The mass of proton particles and their unique physical properties (ie, the Bragg peak) allow proton therapy to spare normal tissues distal to the tumor target from incidental irradiation. Initial observations show that proton therapy is particularly useful for treating tumors in challenging locations close to nontarget critical structures. Specifically, improvements in local control outcomes for patients with chordoma, chonodrosarcoma, and tumors in the sinonasal regions have been reported in series using proton. Improved local control and survival outcomes for patients with cancer of the head and neck region have also been seen with the advent of improvements in better imaging and multimodality therapy comprising surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. However, aggressive local therapy in the proximity of critical normal structures to tumors in the head and neck region may produce debilitating early and late toxic effects. Great interest has been expressed in evaluating whether proton therapy can improve outcomes, especially early and late toxicity, when used in the treatment of head and neck malignancies. This review summarizes the progress made to date in addressing this question. PMID:24837890

Holliday, Emma B; Frank, Steven J

2014-06-01

81

Outcome Studies on the Efficacy of Art Therapy: A Review of Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a review by Reynolds, Nabors, and Quinlan (2000) of the art therapy literature prior to 1999, this review article identifies studies from 1999–2007 that measured outcomes of art therapy effectiveness with all ages of clinical and nonclinical populations. Although numerous studies blend art therapy with other modalities, this review is limited to studies that isolate art therapy

Sarah C. Slayton; Jeanne DArcher; Frances Kaplan

2010-01-01

82

Wound healing after radiation therapy: Review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy is an established modality in the treatment of head and neck cancer patients. Compromised wound healing in irradiated tissues is a common and challenging clinical problem. The pathophysiology and underlying cellular mechanisms including the complex interaction of cytokines and growth factors are still not understood completely. In this review, the current state of research regarding the pathomechanisms of compromised wound healing in irradiated tissues is presented. Current and possible future treatment strategies are critically reviewed.

2012-01-01

83

Exercise therapy for spondyloarthritis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effects of therapeutic exercise on pain, stiffness, quality of life, physical function, disease activity, health-related fitness and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to October 2013 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and a hand search of reference lists of included studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised studies of adults with SpA in which at least one of the comparison groups received an exercise intervention were included. Outcomes of interest were pain, stiffness, quality of life, physical function and disease activity. Secondary outcomes were health-related fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the PEDro scale. Twenty-four studies, involving 1,498 participants, were included. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to clinical heterogeneity, and this review focuses on qualitative synthesis. Moderate evidence supports exercise interventions in improving physical function, disease activity and chest expansion compared to controls; there is low-level evidence of improved pain, stiffness, spinal mobility and cardiorespiratory function. Supervised group exercise yields better outcomes than unsupervised home exercise. The addition of aerobic components to flexibility programmes improves cardiorespiratory outcomes, but not cardiovascular risk factors. The most effective exercise protocol remains unclear. Current evidence suggests that therapeutic exercises are beneficial for adults with ankylosing spondylitis; effects on other SpA subtypes are unknown. PMID:24549404

O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

2014-07-01

84

Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy. PMID:23661891

Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

2013-01-01

85

Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line “rescue,” and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

Olokoba, A. B.; Obateru, O. A.; Bojuwoye, M. O.

2013-01-01

86

Stereotactic body radiation therapy: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a novel technique that takes advantage of the technologic advancements in image guidance and radiation dose delivery to direct ablative doses to tumors with acceptable toxicity that was not previously achievable with conventional techniques. SBRT requires a high degree of confidence in tumor location provided by high quality diagnostic and near real-time imaging studies for accurate treatment delivery and precise assessment of physiologic tumor motion. In addition, stringent dosimetric parameters must be applied, paying close attention to the spatial arrangement of functional subunits in the adjacent normal tissues, to optimize clinical outcomes. Phase I/II trials for tumors of the lung, liver, spine, pancreas, kidney, and prostate provide evidence that the potent doses delivered with SBRT may provide results that rival surgery while avoiding the typical morbidities associated with that invasive approach. Further clinical study in the form of multi-institutional Phase II trials is currently underway, and ultimately collaborative efforts on a national level to support Phase III trials will be necessary, to firmly establish SBRT as a comparable noninvasive alternative to surgery. PMID:18091059

Chang, Brian K; Timmerman, Robert D

2007-12-01

87

Analgesic Therapy in Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Quantitative Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPostherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review

Kathleen Hempenstall; Turo J. Nurmikko; Robert W. Johnson; Roger P AHern; Andrew S. C. Rice

2005-01-01

88

Occupational therapy for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Occupational therapy (OT) for cerebral palsy focuses on the development of skills necessary for the performance of activities of daily living. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether OT interventions improve outcome for children with cerebral palsy (CP).Methods: An extensive search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED and SCISEARCH was performed. Studies with controlled and uncontrolled designs

Esther M. J. Steultjens; Joost Dekker; Lex M. Bouter; Brigitte L. M. Lambregts; Cornelia H. M. Van Den Ende

2004-01-01

89

A Literature Review and Analysis of Mode Deactivation Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a review of articles, chapters and current research examining Mode Deactivation Therapy. Current applications of MDT suggest that mindfulness is a core component of MDT, as well as acceptance, defusion and validation, clarification and redirection of the functional alternative beliefs. These components are the core of MDT and a…

Apsche, Jack A.

2010-01-01

90

TRAIL combinations: The new 'trail' for cancer therapy (Review)  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) therapy is anticipated to be one of the most effective cancer treatments. However, resistance to TRAIL therapy remains a challenge facing the development of anticancer strategies. To circumvent this problem, TRAIL combinations have been experimented with for over ten years to induce synergism or sensitize resistant cancer cells. By analyzing the signaling pathways triggered by these combinations, this review has defined a set of core targets for novel combinatorial treatments. The review suggests specific pathways to be targeted together with TRAIL for more efficient treatment, including cellular FLICE inhibitory protein and its downstream survival factors, the Bcl-2 family and other prominent targets. The suggested pathways provide new avenues for more effective TRAIL-based cancer therapy.

REFAAT, ALAA; ABD-RABOU, AHMED; REDA, ASMAA

2014-01-01

91

[Psychological therapy of migraine: systematic review].  

PubMed

This review summarizes the various forms of behavioral treatment of migraine which could demonstrate empirical efficacy. The main unimodal kinds of treatment are thermal and electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training and progressive muscle relaxation. The various relaxation techniques do not differ in their efficacy in treating migraine. On average a reduction in migraine frequency of 35-45 % is achieved. The mean effect sizes (ES) of various biofeedback techniques are between 0.4 and 0.6. Cognitive-behavioral treatment is applied as a multimodal treatment and on average achieves an improvement in migraine activity by 39 % and an ES of 0.54. All behavioral procedures can be used in combination or as an alternative to drug prophylaxis with comparable success. A combination of pharmacological and behavioral treatment can achieve additional success. There is strong evidence for the clinically significant efficacy of all forms of behavioral treatment in childhood and adolescence. There are no signs of differential indications. PMID:23685993

Fritsche, G; Kröner-Herwig, B; Kropp, P; Niederberger, U; Haag, G

2013-06-01

92

Review of Breast Conservation Therapy: Then and Now  

PubMed Central

Breast conservation therapy (BCT), which is the marriage of breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy to the breast, has revolutionized the treatment of breast cancer over the last few decades. Surgical direction had seen a heightened interest in the performance of cosmetically superior partial and segmental resections in breast conservation as well as increased demand by patients for breast preservation. The broadening of approaches to delivery of breast irradiation from whole breast to accelerated partial breast has allowed more patients to opt for breast conservation and allowed for what appears to be comparable measurable outcomes in emerging data. As well, the addition of state-of-the-art chemotherapeutic and hormonal therapies has allowed improved outcomes of patients from both local regional recurrence and overall survival standpoints. This paper will provide an overview of BCT and review some of the newest developments in optimizing this therapy for patients with breast cancer from a surgical-, medical-, and radiation-oncology standpoint.

Hoover, Susan; Bloom, Elizabeth; Patel, Sunil

2011-01-01

93

A Current Review of the Behavioral Frame of Reference and Its Application to Occupational Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical roots and current trends in behavior therapy and their relationship to psychiatric occupational therapy are reviewed. Key concepts in behavior therapy are defined, case study examples in various psychiatric disorders are cited and examples of applying behavior therapy to occupational therapy are described. Social skills training and a model for developing an occupational therapy program to decrease stress

F. Stein

1983-01-01

94

A systematic data review of the cost of rehydration therapy.  

PubMed

Dehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis is a commonly encountered condition among patients presenting to physicians' offices and hospital EDs. Treatment options consist of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), intravenous rehydration therapy (IVRT) and subcutaneous rehydration therapy (SCRT). Although most patients with dehydration can be effectively treated in an outpatient setting, hospitalization is frequently warranted, with estimated annual inpatient costs for dehydration therapy exceeding $US1 billion in the US in 1999 for elderly patients alone. Although most treatment guidelines recommend ORT as first-line treatment for mild to moderate dehydration, IVRT remains the predominant route of administration for rehydration fluids in the acute care setting in the US. To evaluate the current state of the literature examining costs associated with dehydration therapy, a systematic review of articles published on MEDLINE from 2000 to 2009 was conducted. A total of 20 reports containing pharmacoeconomic data on rehydration therapy were evaluated. Findings suggest that ORT and SCRT may be less costly than IVRT in the treatment of mild to moderate dehydration; however, variability in cost parameters examined or data collection methods described in the literature precluded a comprehensive comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment options. Future pharmacoeconomic analyses of rehydration therapy should incorporate time-motion analyses comprising a consistent set of variables to determine the most cost-effective treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate dehydration. PMID:20205481

Pershad, Jay

2010-01-01

95

Annual review of nuclear and particle science. Vol. 52  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2002 volume of the ''Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science'' ranges from the applied to the speculative, from the accomplished to the inchoate, bearing witness to the vitality and diversity of subatomic physics. Milla Baldo Ceolin's prefatory chapter , ''The Discreet Charm of the Nuclear Emulsion Era,'' takes us back to the rebirth of particle physics in Europe

Quigg

2002-01-01

96

Review of lattice results concerning low energy particle physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review lattice results relevant for pion and kaon physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. Specifically, we review the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f_+(0), relevant for the semileptonic K -> pi transition at zero momentum transfer as well as the ratio f_K\\/f_pi of decay constants and discuss the

Gilberto Colangelo; Stephan Durr; Andreas Juttner; Laurent Lellouch; Heinrich Leutwyler; Vittorio Lubicz; Silvia Necco; Christopher T. Sachrajda; Silvano Simula; Anastassios Vladikas; Urs Wenger; Hartmut Wittig

2010-01-01

97

Manual therapies in myofascial trigger point treatment: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background,and,purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome,(MPS) is thought,by some,authors,the main,cause of headache,and,neck,pain. MPS is characterized,by Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs). However, there are not many controlled studies that have,analyzed,the effects of the manual,therapies,in their treatment.,The aim of this systematic,review,is to establish whether,manual,therapies,have,specific efficacy in the management of MPS, based on published studies. Methods: Data sources: PubMed (from 1975), Ovid MEDLINE (from 1975),

Juan Carlos Miangolarra Page; Avenida de Atenas

98

Efficacy of light therapy for perinatal depression: a review  

PubMed Central

Perinatal depression is an important public health problem affecting 10% to 20% of childbearing women. Perinatal depression is associated with significant morbidity, and has enormous consequences for the wellbeing of the mother and child. During the perinatal period, treatment of depression, which could affect the mother and child during pregnancy and lactation, poses a complex problem for both mother and clinician. Bright light therapy may be an attractive treatment for perinatal depression because it is low cost, home-based, and has a much lower side effect profile than pharmacotherapy. The antidepressant effects of bright light are well established, and there are several rationales for expecting that bright light might also be efficacious for perinatal depression. This review describes these rationales, summarizes the available evidence on the efficacy of bright light therapy for perinatal depression, and discusses future directions for investigation of bright light therapy as a treatment for perinatal depression.

2012-01-01

99

Gene therapy of skin adhesion disorders (mini review).  

PubMed

Gene therapy is a potential treatment for severe inherited disorders for which there is little hope of finding a conventional cure. These include lethal diseases like immunodeficiencies and metabolic disorders, and non lethal conditions associated to poor quality of life and life-long symptomatic treatments, like muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis or thalassemia. Skin adhesion defects belong to both groups. For the non-lethal forms, gene therapy, or transplantation of cultured skin derived from genetically corrected epidermal stem cells, represents a very attractive therapeutic option, and potentially a definitive treatment. Recent advances in gene transfer and stem cell culture technology are making this option closer than ever. This paper critically reviews the progress and prospects of gene therapy for skin adhesion defects, and the factors currently limiting its development. PMID:22250710

Cavazza, Alessia; Mavilio, Fulvio

2012-08-01

100

The efficacy of personal construct therapy: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Prior narrative and quantitative reviews have suggested that personal construct therapy (PCT) is an efficacious and viable form of treatment. However, these reviews failed to include all published, controlled PCT outcome studies and did not account for all measures of outcome. The present quantitative review, therefore, offers a comprehensive integration of the 22 published studies that compare PCT to a control group, examining its overall efficacy at posttest and follow-up as well as its effects for different types of outcome measures. Overall, the efficacy of PCT was found to be somewhat weaker than that reported in previous reviews. It was also found that traditional self-report and behavioral observation measures tended to yield larger effects compared to measures that focused on personal meanings and scored content supplied by the client. PMID:17115431

Holland, Jason M; Neimeyer, Robert A; Currier, Joseph M; Berman, Jeffrey S

2007-01-01

101

Local Effects of Vaginally Administered Estrogen Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

The results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) led to a distinct decline in the routine use of estrogen as preventive therapy for vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Without estrogen replacement, one third of women experience symptoms of atrophic vaginitis including dryness, irritation, itching and or dyspareunia. Local application of estrogen has been shown to relieve these symptoms and improve quality of life for these women. In addition, local estrogen therapy may have a favorable effect on sexuality, urinary tract infections, vaginal surgery, and incontinence. This review examines the effects of vaginally applied estrogen on the vaginal epithelium, urethra and endometrium. An accompanying review examines the systemic effects of vaginally applied estrogen.

Krause, Megan; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Snyder, Thomas E.; Richter, Holly E.

2011-01-01

102

A Review of Progress in Clinical Photodynamic Therapy  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received increased attention since the regulatory approvals have been granted to several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators world-wide. Much progress has been seen in basic sciences and clinical photodynamics in recent years. This review will focus on new developments of clinical investigation and discuss the usefulness of various forms of PDT techniques for curative or palliative treatment of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

Huang, Zheng

2005-01-01

103

Outcome Studies on the Efficacy of Art Therapy: A Review of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a review by Reynolds, Nabors, and Quinlan (2000) of the art therapy literature prior to 1999, this review article identifies studies from 1999-2007 that measured outcomes of art therapy effectiveness with all ages of clinical and nonclinical populations. Although numerous studies blend art therapy with other modalities, this review

Slayton, Sarah; D'Archer, Jeanne; Kaplan, Frances

2010-01-01

104

RF Electrodynamics in Small Particles of Oxides - A Review  

SciTech Connect

RF electrodynamics, particularly, the low field rf absorption in small superconducting and manganite particles is reviewed and compared with their respective bulk counterparts. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the small particle electrodynamical response which is qualitatively different as compared to its bulk form, atleast in the high-T{sub c} superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}(YBCO) cuprate superconductor and in the CMR manganite family members are discussed. We focus attention on fascinating new phenomena like rf power induced 'anomalous rf absorption' in the small particle system of YBCO and room temperature 'Colossal Magneto Impedance'(CMI) in the micron size particles of manganites occurs, illustrating rich physics and paving way for new device applications.

Srinivasu, V. V. [National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2008-10-23

105

The efficacy of cognitive behavior therapies: A quantitative review of the research evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapies in a review of 48 studies of adolescents and adults that compared cognitive behavioral therapy with some form of control group. Analyses indicated that cognitive behavior therapies were superior to no treatment; however, there was no firm evidence that these therapies were superior to other psychotherapies. Analyses failed to find cognitive behavior therapies

R. Christopher Miller; Jeffrey S. Berman

1983-01-01

106

Heuristic optimization of the scanning path of particle therapy beams.  

PubMed

Quasidiscrete scanning is a delivery strategy for proton and ion beam therapy in which the beam is turned off when a slice is finished and a new energy must be set but not during the scanning between consecutive spots. Different scanning paths lead to different dose distributions due to the contribution of the unintended transit dose between spots. In this work an algorithm to optimize the scanning path for quasidiscrete scanned beams is presented. The classical simulated annealing algorithm is used. It is a heuristic algorithm frequently used in combinatorial optimization problems, which allows us to obtain nearly optimal solutions in acceptable running times. A study focused on the best choice of operational parameters on which the algorithm performance depends is presented. The convergence properties of the algorithm have been further improved by using the next-neighbor algorithm to generate the starting paths. Scanning paths for two clinical treatments have been optimized. The optimized paths are found to be shorter than the back-and-forth, top-to-bottom (zigzag) paths generally provided by the treatment planning systems. The gamma method has been applied to quantify the improvement achieved on the dose distribution. Results show a reduction of the transit dose when the optimized paths are used. The benefit is clear especially when the fluence per spot is low, as in the case of repainting. The minimization of the transit dose can potentially allow the use of higher beam intensities, thus decreasing the treatment time. The algorithm implemented for this work can optimize efficiently the scanning path of quasidiscrete scanned particle beams. Optimized scanning paths decrease the transit dose and lead to better dose distributions. PMID:19610293

Pardo, J; Donetti, M; Bourhaleb, F; Ansarinejad, A; Attili, A; Cirio, R; Garella, M A; Giordanengo, S; Givehchi, N; La Rosa, A; Marchetto, F; Monaco, V; Pecka, A; Peroni, C; Russo, G; Sacchi, R

2009-06-01

107

Ridge filter design for a particle therapy line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beam irradiation system for particle therapy can use a passive or an active beam irradiation method. In the case of an active beam irradiation, using a ridge filter would be appropriate to generate a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) through a large scanning area. For this study, a ridge filter was designed as an energy modulation device for a prototype active scanning system at MC-50 in Korea Institute of Radiological And Medical Science (KIRAMS). The ridge filter was designed to create a 10 mm of SOBP for a 45-MeV proton beam. To reduce the distal penumbra and the initial dose, [DM] determined the weighting factor for Bragg Peak by applying an in-house iteration code and the Minuit Fit package of Root. A single ridge bar shape and its corresponding thickness were obtained through 21 weighting factors. Also, a ridge filter was fabricated to cover a large scanning area (300 × 300 mm2) by Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA). The fabricated ridge filter was tested at the prototype active beamline of MC-50. The SOBP and the incident beam distribution were obtained by using HD-810 GaF chromatic film placed at a right triangle to the PMMA block. The depth dose profile for the SOBP can be obtained precisely by using the flat field correction and measuring the 2-dimensional distribution of the incoming beam. After the flat field correction is used, the experimental results show that the SOBP region matches with design requirement well, with 0.62% uniformity.

Kim, Chang Hyeuk; Han, Garam; Lee, Hwa-Ryun; Kim, Hyunyong; Jang, Hong Suk; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Dong Wook; Jang, Sea Duk; Hwang, Won Taek; Kim, Geun-Beom; Yang, Tae-Keun

2014-05-01

108

Internal radiotherapy techniques using radiolanthanide praseodymium-142: a review of production routes, brachytherapy, unsealed source therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclides of rare earth elements are gaining importance as emerging therapeutic agents in nuclear medicine. ?\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a -particle emitter 142Pr [T\\u000a 1\\/2 = 19.12 h, E\\u000a ?? = 2.162 MeV (96.3%), E? = 1575 keV (3.7%)] is one of the praseodymium-141 (100% abundant) radioisotopes. Production routes and therapy aspects of\\u000a 142Pr will be reviewed in this paper. However, 142Pr produces via 141Pr(n, ?)142Pr reaction by irradiation in a low-fluence

Mohamadreza K. Bakht; Mahdi Sadeghi

109

TOPICAL REVIEW: The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components—light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT.

Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.

2008-05-01

110

Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review lattice results relevant for pion and kaon physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle\\u000a physics community. Specifically, we review the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f\\u000a +(0), relevant for the semileptonic K?? transition at zero momentum transfer as well as the ratio f\\u000a \\u000a K\\u000a \\/f\\u000a \\u000a ?\\u000a of decay constants and

G. Colangelo; S. Dürr; A. Jüttner; L. Lellouch; H. Leutwyler; V. Lubicz; S. Necco; C. T. Sachrajda; S. Simula; A. Vladikas; U. Wenger; H. Wittig

2011-01-01

111

Review Article: Celiac Disease, New Approaches to Therapy  

PubMed Central

STRUCTURED SUMMARY Background Celiac disease is managed by life-long gluten withdrawal from the diet. However strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is difficult and is not always effective. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to supplement or even replace the dietary treatment. Aims To review recent advances in new therapeutic options for celiac disease. Methods A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, DDW.org and ClinicalTrial.gov for English articles and abstracts. The search terms used include but not limited to “Celiac disease”, “new”, “novel”, Advances”, “alternatives” and “Drug therapy”. The cited articles were selected based on the relevancy to the review objective. Results Several new therapeutic approaches for celiac disease are currently under development by targeting its underlying pathogenesis. Alternative therapies range from reproduction of harmless wheat strains to immunomodulatory approaches. Some of these therapies such as enzymatic cleavage of gluten and permeability inhibitors have shown promise in clinical studies. Conclusion Gluten-free diet is still the only practical treatment for patients with celiac disease. Novel strategies provide promise of alternative adjunctive approaches to diet restriction alone for patients with this disorder.

Rashtak, Shahrooz; Murray, Joseph A

2014-01-01

112

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. (a)...

2014-04-01

113

21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5050 Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system. (a)...

2013-04-01

114

Using antimicrobial adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment: a review  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical and pre-clinical data demonstrate that adjuvant antimicrobial therapy is beneficial in cancer treatment. There could be several reasons for this effect, which include treating cancer associated bacteria and viruses, prophylaxis of post-chemotherapy infections due to immunosuppression, and antiproliferative effect of certain antimicrobials. Targeting cancer associated viruses and bacteria with antimicrobial agents is currently used for gastric, cervical, hematopoietic, liver and brain cancer. However this treatment is effective only in combination with conventional therapies. Antimicrobials can also have a direct antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect, and can cause apoptosis. Moreover, some antimicrobials are known to be helpful in overcoming side effects of drugs commonly used in cancer treatment. Chemotherapy related bacteremia and neutropenia can be overcome by the appropriately timed use of antimicrobials. This review summarizes the data on the effects of antivirals and antibiotics on cancer treatment and describes their mechanisms.

2012-01-01

115

Acanthamoeba encephalitis: A Case Report and Review of Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: Acanthamoeba is a rare cause of encephalitis yet is associated with high mortality. Treatment protocols vary greatly and generally include combination therapy across a wide spectrum of antiinfective classes. Case Description: A 63-year-old male who underwent renal transplantation presented 6 months after transplantation with depressed level of consciousness. Imaging of the head with computerized tomography showed an enhancing lesion suspicious for brain abscess. Biopsy of the lesion showed Acanthamoeba cysts. The patient was treated with sulfadiazine, fluconazole, flucytosine, azithromycin, and miltefosine but without success. We review recently published cases of Acanthamoeba encephalitis with an emphasis on treatment protocols and outcomes. Conclusion: Free-living protozoans such as Acanthamoeba are ubiquitous in the environment and should be suspected in immunosuppressed persons who present with central nervous system findings and brain abscess. Biopsy is critical to establish the etiology so that appropriate combination therapy can be deployed.

Zamora, A.; Henderson, H.; Swiatlo, E.

2014-01-01

116

Endoscopic therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Western societies has accelerated the need for new modalities of treatment. Currently, medical and surgical therapies are widely accepted among patients and physicians. The minimally invasive treatment revolution, however, has stimulated several new endoscopic techniques for GERD. Up to now, the data is limited and further studies are necessary to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the various endoscopic techniques to medical and laparoscopic management of GERD. This systematic review reports the efficacy and durability of various endoscopic therapies for GERD whilst the potential for widespread use of these techniques is also discussed. Despite the limited number of studies and remarkable differences between various trials, strict criteria were used for the pooled data presented and an effort was made to avoid bias by including only studies that used off-antisecretory medication scoring as baseline and intent to treat. PMID:16940729

Sgouros, Spiros N; Bergele, Christina

2006-01-01

117

[Eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: review of world trends].  

PubMed

The literature review gives current views on the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. The rising antibiotic resistance of H. pylori in the first decade of the 21st century entailed the decreased efficiency of common eradication therapy (ET) regimens, by determining the higher interest in this problem. The paper summarizes data on the efficiency of current ET regimens in different regions of the world in the past 3 years. The prospects of alternative ET regimens are considered. The existing and promising ways of optimizing the current ET regimens are presented. PMID:24779078

Maev, I V; Kucheriavy?, Iu A; Andreev, D N; Barkalova, E V

2014-01-01

118

Laser and light therapy for onychomycosis: a systematic review.  

PubMed

More than just a cosmetic concern, onychomycosis is a prevalent and extremely difficult condition to treat. In older and diabetic populations, severe onychomycosis may possibly serve as a nidus for infection, and other more serious complications may ensue. Many treatment modalities for the treatment of onychomycosis have been studied, including topical lacquers and ointments, oral antifungals, surgical and chemical nail avulsion, and lasers. Due to their minimally invasive nature and potential to restore clear nail growth with relatively few sessions, lasers have become a popular option in the treatment of onychomycosis for both physicians and patients. Laser or light systems that have been investigated for this indication include the carbon dioxide, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, 870/930-nm combination, and femtosecond infrared 800-nm lasers, in addition to photodynamic and ultraviolet light therapy. This systematic review will discuss each of these modalities as well as their respective currently published, peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23179307

Ledon, Jennifer A; Savas, Jessica; Franca, Katlein; Chacon, Anna; Nouri, Keyvan

2014-03-01

119

Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed through the music therapy treatment process are provided.

Michael J. Silverman

2008-01-01

120

Vitamin Therapy and Children with Down's Syndrome: A Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a brief outline of vitamin therapy's effects on schizophrenia and learning disabilities, research is reviewed on vitamin therapy for children with Down's Syndrome, concluding with a discussion of critical responses to research endorsing vitamin therapy. It is concluded that vitamin therapy contributes nothing to the development of…

Pruess, James B.; And Others

1989-01-01

121

Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review  

SciTech Connect

The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

122

Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters  

PubMed Central

Static magnetic field (SMF) therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to:(i) summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii) critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii) propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61%) of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.

Wahbeh, Helane; Harling, Noelle; Connelly, Erin; Schiffke, Heather C.; Forsten, Cora; Gregory, William L.; Markov, Marko S.; Souder, James J.; Elmer, Patricia; King, Valerie

2009-01-01

123

ROLE OF PARTICLE HYGROSCOPICITY IN AEROSOL THERAPY AND INHALATION TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The extrathoracic compartment of the human respiratory tract (i.e., the naso- and oropharyngeal regions) effectively conditions inhaled air by warming and humidifying processes even in extreme ambient environments. When airborne particles are inhaled, the effectiveness of interac...

124

Review of strange particle production from the WA85 Collaboration  

SciTech Connect

Strange and, especially, multistrange baryon and anti-baryon production is expected to be a useful probe in the search for Quark-Gluon Plasma formation. A review of WA85 results on strange and multistrange particle production in SW and pW interactions at 200 GeV/c per nucleons is presented. In particular, {ital m}{sub {ital T}} distributions and relative ratios are presented for {Xi}{sup {minus}}s, {bar {Xi}}{sup {minus}}s, {Lambda}s, {bar {Lambda}}s, and {ital K}{sup 0}s. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Abatzis, S. [Athens University, Athens (Greece); Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Carney, J.N.; de la Cruz, B.; Di Bari, D.; Dufey, J.P.; Davies, J.P.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Lassale, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Manzari, V.; Navach, F.; Narjoux, J.L.; Quercigh, E.; Rossi, L.; Safarrik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Storas, T.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; D. Evans for the WA85 Collaboration

1995-07-20

125

Disagreement in primary study selection between systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) regarding their agreement in primary study selection. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was conducted within the framework of a systematic review (a full review and a subsequent rapid

Frank Peinemann; Natalie McGauran; Stefan Sauerland; Stefan Lange

2008-01-01

126

Life-review therapy with computer supplements for depression in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-review therapy has been recognized as an effective therapeutic approach for depression in older adults. Additionally, the use of new media is becoming increasingly common in psychological interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate a life-review therapy in a face-to-face setting with additional computer use. This study explored whether a six-week life-review therapy with computer supplements from the

Barbara Preschl; Andreas Maercker; Birgit Wagner; Simon Forstmeier; Rosa M. Baños; Mariano Alcañiz; Diana Castilla; Cristina Botella

2012-01-01

127

Laser therapy and photosensitive medication: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

In the 2009 guidelines from the BMLA, the use of non-essential aesthetic lasers was contraindicated in patients receiving medication that causes whole-body photosensitisation as well as those causing local light sensitisation. Following this and anecdotal advice, many laser centres refuse to treat patients who are on known photosensitive medication. Therefore, specific patient cohorts that would benefit from laser therapy are being denied because of medications, such as long-term antibiotics for chronic facial acne. This article reviews the published literature on lasers and photosensitive medications, the mechanisms of photosensitivity and the role of laser in its production. The aim is to analyse the available evidence regarding adverse reactions to laser treatment related to photosensitive medication. A PubMed review of published article titles and abstracts was performed using the search term Laser with each of the following terms individually: photosensitive, photosensitiser, photosensitizer, phototoxicity, photoallergy, complications, case-report, tetracycline, minocycline, amiodarone, nitrofurantoin and medication. Four publications were identified, none of which reported any complication in the use of laser in patients taking photosensitising medication. As there are no published accounts of adverse effects of laser in patients with photosensitive medication, we performed a review of the mechanism of photosensitivity by compiling a list of photosensitive medication and the peak wavelength of radiation required to activate the drug. We recommend a national database of drugs and the wavelengths causing photosensitive reactions of each which a laser department can access prior to treatment. PMID:24590242

Kerstein, Ryan L; Lister, Tom; Cole, Richard

2014-07-01

128

Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and ?-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

2011-06-01

129

Heavy Charged Particle Radiobiology: Using Enhanced Biological Effectiveness and Improved Beam Focusing to Advance Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and ?-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation.

Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B.; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A.

2011-01-01

130

Corneal Neovascularization: An Anti-VEGF Therapy Review  

PubMed Central

Corneal neovascularization is a serious condition that can lead to a profound decline in vision. The abnormal vessels block light, cause corneal scarring, compromise visual acuity, and may lead to inflammation and edema. Corneal neovascularization occurs when the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors is tipped toward angiogenic molecules. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most important mediators of angiogenesis, is upregulated during neovascularization. In fact, anti-VEGF agents have efficacy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, neovascular glaucoma, and other neovascular diseases. These same agents have great potential for the treatment of corneal neovascularization. We review some of the most promising anti-VEGF therapies, including bevacizumab, VEGF trap, siRNA, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Chang, Jin-Hong; Garg, Nitin K.; Lunde, Elisa; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Jain, Sandeep; Azar, Dimitri T.

2013-01-01

131

Drug therapy in undifferentiated arthritis: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is defined as an inflammatory oligoarthritis or polyarthritis in which no definitive diagnosis can be made. We performed a literature review to assess the efficacy of various drug therapies in patients with UA. The literature search was conducted using electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE and MEDLINE in adults with UA or early arthritis (not fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 or ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) 2010 criteria for rheumatoid arthritis). Drug therapy consisted of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biological agents and oral, intramuscular or intra-articular corticosteroids. Nine publications on eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs), two publications on two uncontrolled open-label trials and seven publications on three cohort studies were included. Temporary treatment with methotrexate (MTX), abatacept and intramuscular corticosteroids were demonstrated in RCTs with 12 months to 5 years follow-up to be more effective than placebo in suppressing disease activity or radiological progression. One study suggests that DMARD combination therapy is, at least after 4 months, superior to MTX monotherapy in patients with UA at high risk of developing persistent arthritis. The open-label uncontrolled trials and cohort studies also suggested that early treatment may provide immediate suppression of inflammation. The long-term benefit of early treatment in UA remains unclear. In conclusion, patients with UA benefit from early treatment with MTX. Combining multiple DMARDs or DMARDs with corticosteroids and biological agents may be even more beneficial. However, which treatment may provide the best results or may alter the disease course has still to be determined. More RCTs with longer follow-up time are needed. PMID:23744979

Wevers-de Boer, K V C; Heimans, L; Huizinga, T W J; Allaart, C F

2013-09-01

132

Microfabricated Particles for Engineered Drug Therapies: Elucidation into the Mechanisms of Cellular Internalization of PRINT Particles  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the cellular internalization pathways of shape- and size-specific particles as a function of zeta potential in different cell types. Methods A top-down particle fabrication technique called PRINT was utilized to fabricate monodisperse 1 ?m cylindrical particles. Cellular internalization of these PRINT particles was monitored using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The endocytic pathway used by 1 ?m cationic PRINT particles was evaluated using different inhibitory strategies. Cytotoxicity assays were used to determine the toxicity of both cationic and anionic PRINT particles in multiple cell types. Results Particle internalization was confirmed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanism of internalization of positively charged PRINT particles was found to be predominantly clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis with very few particles utilizing a caveolae-mediated endocytic pathway. The exposed charge on the surface of the particles had a significant effect on the rate of endocytosis in all cell types tested, except for the macrophage cells. No significant cytotoxicity was observed for all PRINT particles used in the present study. Conclusions Cylindrical 1 ?m PRINT particles were readily internalized into HeLa, NIH 3T3, OVCAR-3, MCF-7, and RAW 264.7 cells. Particles with a positive zeta potential exhibited an enhanced rate of endocytosis compared to negatively charged particles with identical sizes and shapes. It was found that PRINT particles with a positive zeta potential were endocytosed into HeLa cells using predominantely clathrin-mediated and macropinocytotic pathways.

Gratton, Stephanie E. A.; Napier, Mary E.; Ropp, Patricia A.; Tian, Shaomin; DeSimone, Joseph M.

2008-01-01

133

Mini-review: bmx kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Kinase inhibitors are among the fastest growing class of anti-cancer therapies. One family of kinases that has recently gained attention as a target for treating malignant disorders is the Tec kinase family. Evidence has been published that one member of this family; the Bmx kinase, may play a role in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma, prostate, breast and lung cancer. Bmx has also shown potential as an anti-vascular therapy in combination with radiation or as a sensitizer to chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, several companies such as Pharmacyclics, Avila Therapeutics, Merck and Co., Metaproteomics, IRM, and Moerae Matrix have developed compounds or peptides that function as Bmx kinase inhibitors. These companies have subsequently been issued patents for these inhibitors. Additionally, it has been shown that current clinical stage EGFR inhibitors can irreversibly inhibit Bmx, suggesting these compounds might be rapidly moved to clinical trials for other malignancies. This review will discuss current patents issued since 2009 that contain data specifically on inhibition of the Bmx kinase, and will also discuss the scientific literature that suggests their potential application as therapeutics in the treatment of the aforementioned malignancies. PMID:23198769

Jarboe, John S; Dutta, Shilpa; Velu, Sadanandan E; Willey, Christopher D

2013-09-01

134

Particle Accelerators in Cancer Therapy Current Status and Overview of the Planned Program for Heavy Particle Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of radiation therapy is uncomplicated local control of cancer. Practical approaches to this goal currently utilize a variety of electron accelerators which produce electron and photon beams at a range of energies for the treatment of cancer. To capitalize on the physical advantages of the available beams and the mechanical sophistication of isocentric mounting, treatment planning (tumor and

J. Robert Stewart

1979-01-01

135

Sinonasal Malignancies and Charged Particle Radiation Treatment: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Paranasal and nasal cavity malignancies are rare tumors that frequently present at advanced stages. Tumor extension and anatomic complexity pose a challenge for their treatment. Due to their peculiar physical and biological properties particle radiation therapy, i.e. protons and ions can have a role in their management. We performed a systematic literature review to gather clinical evidence about their use to treat sinonasal malignancies. Materials and Methods. We searched the browsers PubMed and Medline as well as specific journals and conference proceedings. Inclusion criteria were: at least 10 patients, English language, reporting outcome and/or toxicity data. Results. We found six studies with data on clinical outcome. Carbon and helium ions were each used in one study, protons in four. Toxicity was specifically described in five studies. One reported acute toxicity of carbon ions, one dealt with brain toxicity from both carbon ions and protons. Three papers reported on visual toxicity: one from carbon ions, one from protons and one from both. Specific data were extracted and compared with the most pertinent literature. Conclusion. Particle radiation therapy is in its early phase of development. Promising results achieved so far must be confirmed in further studies.

Cianchetti, Marco; Amichetti, Maurizio

2012-01-01

136

Barriers to accessing radiation therapy in Canada: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radiation therapy (RT) is effective treatment for curing and palliating cancer, yet concern exists that not all Canadians for whom RT is indicated receive it. Many factors may contribute to suboptimal use of RT. A review of recent Canadian literature was undertaken to identify such barriers. Methods MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBase databases were used to search keywords relating to barriers to accessing or utilizing RT in Canada. Collected abstracts were reviewed independently. Barriers identified in relevant articles were categorized as relating to the health systems, patient socio-demographic, patient factors, or provider factors contexts and thematic analysis performed for each context. Results 535 unique abstracts were collected. 75 met inclusion criteria. 46 (61.3%) addressed multiple themes. The most cited barriers to accessing RT when indicated were patient age (n?=?26, 34.7%), distance to treatment centre (n?=?23, 30.7%), wait times (n?=?22, 29.3%), and lack of physician understanding about the use of RT (n?=?16, 21.6%). Conclusions Barriers to RT are reported in many areas. The role of provider factors and the lack of attention to patient fears and mistrust as potential barriers were unexpected findings demanding further attention. Solutions should be sought to overcome identified barriers facilitating more effective cancer care for Canadians.

2012-01-01

137

Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

Silverman, Michael J.

2008-01-01

138

Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams  

SciTech Connect

Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany)

2013-07-26

139

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies – an annotated bibliography. Part 3: Homeopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with homeopathy. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles

Klaus Linde; Maria Hondras; Andrew Vickers; Gerben ter Riet; Dieter Melchart

2001-01-01

140

The Outcomes of Manipulation or Mobilization Therapy Compared with Physical Therapy or Exercise for Neck Pain: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Systematic review. Study Rationale?Neck pain is a prevalent condition. Spinal manipulation and mobilization procedures are becoming an accepted treatment for neck pain. However, data on the effectiveness of these treatments have not been summarized. Objective?To compare manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine to physical therapy or exercise for symptom improvement in patients with neck pain. Methods?A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse Database, and bibliographies of key articles, which compared spinal manipulation or mobilization therapy with physical therapy or exercise in patients with neck pain. Articles were included based on predetermined criteria and were appraised using a predefined quality rating scheme. Results?From 197 citations, 7 articles met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. There were no differences in pain improvement when comparing spinal manipulation to exercise, and there were inconsistent reports of pain improvement in subjects who underwent mobilization therapy versus physical therapy. No disability improvement was reported between treatment groups in studies of acute or chronic neck pain patients. No functional improvement was found with manipulation therapy compared with exercise treatment or mobilization therapy compared with physical therapy groups in patients with acute pain. In chronic neck pain subjects who underwent spinal manipulation therapy compared to exercise treatment, results for short-term functional improvement were inconsistent. Conclusion?The data available suggest that there are minimal short- and long-term treatment differences in pain, disability, patient-rated treatment improvement, treatment satisfaction, health status, or functional improvement when comparing manipulation or mobilization therapy to physical therapy or exercise in patients with neck pain. This systematic review is limited by the variability of treatment interventions and lack of standardized outcomes to assess treatment benefit.

Schroeder, Josh; Kaplan, Leon; Fischer, Dena J.; Skelly, Andrea C.

2013-01-01

141

Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. PMID:24897784

Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

2014-02-01

142

Isoniazid preventive therapy in correctional facilities: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the main cause of death in correctional facilities in middle- and low-income countries. Due to the closed environment and the concentration of individuals with TB-related risk factors, effective measures are required to control TB in such settings. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) represents an effective and cost-effective measure. Despite international recommendations that IPT be integral to TB control, it is seldom deployed. A systematic review of interventions used to assess IPT initiation and completion in correctional facilities was conducted using published studies from two biomedical databases and relevant keywords. Additional references were reviewed, resulting in 18 eligible studies. Most (72%) studies were conducted in the United States and in jail settings (60%), with the main objective of improving completion rates inside the facility or after release. Studies that provided data about initiation and completion rates showed poor success in correctional facilities. Adverse consequences and treatment interruption ranged from 1% to 55% (median 5%) in reported studies; hepatotoxicity was the most prevalent adverse reaction. Despite its accelerating effect on the development of active TB, information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was provided in only half of the studies. Among the four studies where IPT effectiveness was assessed, the results mirror those described in community settings. Future studies require thorough assessments of IPT initiation and completion rates and adverse effects, particularly in low- and middle-income countries and where comorbid viral hepatitis may contribute significantly to outcomes, and in settings where TB and HIV are more endemic. PMID:22410101

Al-Darraji, H A A; Kamarulzaman, A; Altice, F L

2012-07-01

143

Heavy charged particle radiobiology: Using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and ?-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce

Christopher Allen; Thomas B. Borak; Hirohiko Tsujii; Jac A. Nickoloff

2011-01-01

144

Microscopic Gold Particle-Based Fiducial Markers for Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We examined the feasibility of using fiducial markers composed of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers as a means to overcome current problems with conventional macroscopic gold fiducial markers, such as dose reduction and artifact generation, in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We examined two types of gold particle fiducial marker interactions: that with diagnostic X-rays and with a therapeutic proton beam. That is, we qualitatively and quantitatively compared the radiographic visibility of conventional gold and gold particle fiducial markers and the CT artifacts and dose reduction associated with their use. Results: The gold particle fiducials could be easily distinguished from high-density structures, such as the pelvic bone, in diagnostic X-rays but were nearly transparent to a proton beam. The proton dose distribution was distorted <5% by the gold particle fiducials with a 4.9% normalized gold density; this was the case even in the worst configuration (i.e., parallel alignment with a single-direction proton beam). In addition, CT artifacts were dramatically reduced for the gold particle mixture. Conclusion: Mixtures of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers have excellent potential as fiducial markers for proton therapy for prostate cancer. These include good radiographic visibility, low distortion of the depth-dose distribution, and few CT artifacts.

Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soah [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Sung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Shin, Jungwook [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr; Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryeol; Kim, Dae Yong M.D.; Cho, Kwan Ho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-01

145

Thermal modelling using discrete vasculature for thermal therapy: a review  

PubMed Central

Reliable temperature information during clinical hyperthermia and thermal ablation is essential for adequate treatment control, but conventional temperature measurements do not provide 3D temperature information. Treatment planning is a very useful tool to improve treatment quality and substantial progress has been made over the last decade. Thermal modelling is a very important and challenging aspect of hyperthermia treatment planning. Various thermal models have been developed for this purpose, with varying complexity. Since blood perfusion is such an important factor in thermal redistribution of energy in in vivo tissue, thermal simulations are most accurately performed by modelling discrete vasculature. This review describes the progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature for the purpose of hyperthermia treatment planning and thermal ablation. There has been significant progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature. Recent developments have made real-time simulations possible, which can provide feedback during treatment for improved therapy. Future clinical application of thermal modelling with discrete vasculature in hyperthermia treatment planning is expected to further improve treatment quality.

Kok, H.P.; Gellermann, J.; van den Berg, C.A.T.; Stauffer, P.R.; Hand, J.W.; Crezee, J.

2013-01-01

146

Nanotechnology in Corneal Neovascularization Therapy--A Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1–100?nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels.1 The term “nanotechnology” was first coined in 1974.2 Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods.3 The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play.

Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J.; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo

2013-01-01

147

Systematic review of overactive bladder therapy in females  

PubMed Central

Although the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) is similar in both male and female populations, females have a greater tendency to seek medical advice regarding their symptoms. A review of the evidence of therapy among women shows that a variety of modalities has been shown to be effective for symptom improvement in women with OAB. Bladder retraining/re-education should be considered for all women with OAB. With respect to first-line pharmacotherapy with antimuscarinic agents, the development of extended release preparations, bladder selective M3 antagonists and alternative routes of delivery, have improved compliance and persistence. Other pharmacotherapeutic options with potential for providing benefit include antidepressants, vasopressin analogues, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists and beta-adrenoceptor agonists. There are also a number of newer agents currently being investigated, including calcium channel blocking agents, potassium channel opening drugs, beta agonists and neurokinin receptor antagonists. Intravesical injections of botulinum toxin may be an alternative, while surgery can be considered for truly intractable cases.

Cardozo, Linda

2011-01-01

148

A review of ultrabrief pulse width electroconvulsive therapy  

PubMed Central

The effect of shortening the pulse width of the electrical stimulus when administering electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has recently been systematically studied with promising results. This review examines reported outcomes from three randomized controlled trials which compared ultrabrief (?0.3 ms) with brief (0.5–1.5 ms) pulse width ECT, and other recent clinical trials of ultrabrief pulse width ECT. The emerging evidence for ultrabrief pulse right unilateral (RUL) ECT suggests clinically meaningful efficacy and substantially reduced neuropsychological side effects compared with standard (brief) pulse ECT; this may represent a generational advance in the ECT technique. However, it is unclear if patients receiving ultrabrief pulse RUL ECT may have a slower speed of response and require additional treatments compared with brief pulse ECT. Therefore, until further data are available, clinicians may be well advised to use brief pulse ECT in situations requiring an urgent clinical response. The evidence base for ultrabrief bilateral ECT is limited, with findings that efficacy may be reduced compared with brief pulse width ECT. Thus ultrabrief bilateral ECT should not be used outside the research setting.

Katalinic, Natalie; Martin, Donel; Schweitzer, Isaac

2012-01-01

149

Thermal modelling using discrete vasculature for thermal therapy: A review.  

PubMed

Reliable temperature information during clinical hyperthermia and thermal ablation is essential for adequate treatment control, but conventional temperature measurements do not provide 3D temperature information. Treatment planning is a very useful tool to improve treatment quality, and substantial progress has been made over the last decade. Thermal modelling is a very important and challenging aspect of hyperthermia treatment planning. Various thermal models have been developed for this purpose, with varying complexity. Since blood perfusion is such an important factor in thermal redistribution of energy in in vivo tissue, thermal simulations are most accurately performed by modelling discrete vasculature. This review describes the progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature for the purpose of hyperthermia treatment planning and thermal ablation. There has been significant progress in thermal modelling with discrete vasculature. Recent developments have made real-time simulations possible, which can provide feedback during treatment for improved therapy. Future clinical application of thermal modelling with discrete vasculature in hyperthermia treatment planning is expected to further improve treatment quality. PMID:23738700

Kok, H Petra; Gellermann, Johanna; van den Berg, Cornelis A T; Stauffer, Paul R; Hand, Jeffrey W; Crezee, Johannes

2013-06-01

150

Ridge Preservation for Implant Therapy: a Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Healing of the extraction socket after tooth removal involves retention of the blood clot followed by a sequence of events that lead to changes in the alveolar process in a three dimensional fashion. This normal healing event results in a minimal loss of vertical height (around 1 mm), but a substantial loss of width in the buccal-lingual plane (4-6 mm). During the first three months following extraction that loss has been shown to be significant and may result in both a hard tissue and soft tissue deformity affecting the ability to restore the site with acceptable esthetics. Procedures that reduce the resorptive process have been shown to be predictable and potentially capable of eliminating secondary surgery for site preparation when implant therapy is planned. The key element is prior planning by the dental therapist to act at the time of extraction to prevent the collapse of the ridge due to the loss of the alveolus. Several techniques have been employed as ridge preservation procedures involving the use of bone grafts, barrier membranes and biologics to provide a better restorative outcome. This review will explore the evidence behind each technique and their efficacy in accomplishing site preparation. The literature does not identify a single technique as superior to others; however, all accepted therapeutic procedures for ridge preservation have been shown to be more effective than blood clot alone in randomized controlled studies.

Tomlin, Elizabeth M; Nelson, Shelby J; Rossmann, Jeffrey A

2014-01-01

151

One-day therapy for vaginal candidiasis. A review.  

PubMed

Shorter courses of therapy have been developed for most antifungal agents used for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, including clotrimazole, econazole, isoconazole, miconazole, terconazole and fluconazole. A search of the medical literature identified 14 studies that compared single-dose therapy for vaginal candidiasis in nonpregnant women. These studies, conducted according to similar study designs, provided sufficient information to evaluate clinical and mycologic cure rates. There were few significant differences in either the clinical or mycologic cure rates of single-dose therapy, and no one therapy was consistently better than any other. Until further information is available, the choice of therapy will continue to be based on individual clinician preference. PMID:10394549

Edelman, D A; Grant, S

1999-06-01

152

Physical Therapy Interventions for Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Knee: An Overview of Systematic Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with osteoarthritis of the knee are commonly treated by physical therapists. Practice should be informed by updated evidence from systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to summarize the evidence from systematic reviews on the effectiveness of physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2007 were identified by a comprehensive literature search.

Gro Jamtvedt; Kristin Thuve Dahm; Anne Christie; Rikke H Moe; Espen Haavardsholm; Inger Holm; Kåre B Hagen

153

Electron beam ion sources for use in second generation synchrotrons for medical particle therapy.  

PubMed

Cyclotrons and first generation synchrotrons are the commonly applied accelerators in medical particle therapy nowadays. Next generation accelerators such as Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotrons (RCMS), direct drive accelerators, or dielectric wall accelerators have the potential to improve the existing accelerator techniques in this field. Innovative accelerator concepts for medical particle therapy can benefit from ion sources which meet their special requirements. In the present paper we report on measurements with a superconducting Electron Beam Ion Source, the Dresden EBIS-SC, under the aspect of application in combination with RCMS as a well proven technology. The measurements indicate that this ion source can offer significant advantages for medical particle therapy. We show that a superconducting EBIS can deliver ion pulses of medically relevant ions such as protons, C(4 +) and C(6 +) ions with intensities and frequencies required for RCMS [S. Peggs and T. Satogata, "A survey of Hadron therapy accelerator technology," in Proceedings of PAC07, BNL-79826- 2008-CP, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 2007; A. Garonna, U. Amaldi et al., "Cyclinac medical accelerators using pulsed C(6 +)/H2(+) ion sources," in Proceedings of EBIST 2010, Stockholm, Sweden, July 2010]. Ion extraction spectra as well as individual ion pulses have been measured. For example, we report on the generation of proton pulses with up to 3 × 10(9) protons per pulse and with frequencies of up to 1000 Hz at electron beam currents of 600 mA. PMID:24593601

Zschornack, G; Ritter, E; Schmidt, M; Schwan, A

2014-02-01

154

Chest physical therapy in acute viral bronchiolitis: an updated review.  

PubMed

We describe the various therapies for infant acute viral bronchiolitis and the contradictory results obtained with chest physical therapy. The treatment target is bronchial obstruction, which is a multifactorial phenomenon that includes edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production, with a clinical grading defined as severe, moderate, or mild. Chest physical therapy is revisited in its various modalities, according to preliminary scoring of the disease. PMID:23287014

Postiaux, Guy; Zwaenepoel, Bruno; Louis, Jacques

2013-09-01

155

Annual review of nuclear and particle science. Vol. 52  

SciTech Connect

The 2002 volume of the ''Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science'' ranges from the applied to the speculative, from the accomplished to the inchoate, bearing witness to the vitality and diversity of subatomic physics. Milla Baldo Ceolin's prefatory chapter , ''The Discreet Charm of the Nuclear Emulsion Era,'' takes us back to the rebirth of particle physics in Europe after World War II through international emulsion collaborations that revealed wonders unimagined. Gaisser & Honda detail progress toward understanding the flux of atmospheric neutrinos, which is crucial for interpreting evidence for neutrino oscillations and searching for extraterrestrial neutrino sources. Elliott & Vogel's status report on double beta decay explores the sensitivity frontier and the prospects for testing the notion that the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Kado & Tully take stock of searches for electroweak theory's Higgs boson at CERN's Large Electron-Positron collider. Lee & Redwine draw lessons from three decades' exploration of pion-nucleus interactions at meson factories. Bedaque & van Kolck review recent progress in effective field theories that permit systematic treatment of few-nucleon systems. El-Khadra & Luke describe the ways in which Quantum Chromodynamics makes possible a precise determination of the b-quark mass. Harrison, Peggs, & Roser report on Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, which explores new realms of collisions among heavy nuclei. Gomez-Cadenas & Harris introduce the scientific motivations and technical challenges of neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. The study of biological function through positron-emission tomography is a burgeoning application of antimatter. PET's history, practice, and promise are presented by Phelps. Michael Faraday's words, ''Nothing is too wonderful to be true,'' and ''Experiment is the best test,'' are especially apt for the delicious possibility that spacetime extends beyond the familiar 3 + 1 dimensions. Hewett & Spiropulu survey the new wave of ideas and experiments to test them. We thank Volume 52's authors for contributing to a spirited conversation among all the friends and practitioners of nuclear and particle science.

Quigg, C., [ed.

2002-01-01

156

Pharmacologic therapy for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.  

PubMed

This article reviews available data on the drug therapy armamentarium for the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Summaries of studies and therapeutic issues for bronchodilators, antibiotic therapy, corticosteroid use, and a few miscellaneous agents are presented. Many controversies exist in the criteria defining the acute exacerbation, in defining appropriate outcome parameters for assessment, and, consequently, in developing specific consistent recommendations for drug therapy. Five published guidelines assist the clinician in therapeutic drug management of the acute exacerbation of COPD, and each differs in its recommendations for drug therapy prescription. The article includes synopses for drug therapy recommendations from the guidelines. PMID:15358379

Hockman, Rebecca Haynes

2004-09-01

157

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has a proven role as an adjunct to antipsychotic medica- tion and remediative approaches such as social skills training in the management of residual symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. Positive symptoms, depression, and overall symptoms appear to be viable treatment targets for CBT with a less pronounced effect on negative symptoms. The effect size at end of therapy

DOUGLAS TURKINGTON; ROBERT DUDLEY; DEBBIE M. WARMAN; AARON T. BECK

2004-01-01

158

Cardiac Toxicity From Systemic Cancer Therapy: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular toxicity is a potential short- or long-term complication of anticancer therapy. Exposure to chemotherapy medications, primarily the anthracycline class, can lead to potentially irreversible clinically significant cardiac dysfunction. The advent of novel biologic agents, including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, has revolutionized the treatment of several types of malignancies. Although targeted therapies are considered less toxic and better

Giuseppe Curigliano; Erica L. Mayer; Harold J. Burstein; Eric P. Winer; Aron Goldhirsch

2010-01-01

159

[Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review].  

PubMed

Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. PMID:22147456

Satoh, Masayuki

2011-12-01

160

Dosimetry in Peptide Radionuclide Receptor Therapy: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of targeted therapy with radiolabeled peptides has been reported in several clinical trials. Although there have been many improvements in dose estimation, a general and reliable dosimetric approach in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT)isstillamatterofdebate.Thisarticlereviewsthemethods for PRRT dosimetry and the results presented in the literature. Radiopharmaceutical characteristics, data processing, dosi- metric outcomes, and methods to protect critical organs are

Marta Cremonesi; Mahila Ferrari; Lisa Bodei; Giampiero Tosi; Giovanni Paganelli

161

Therapies for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... Summary – Jun. 30, 2011 Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Research for ... autism1.cfm . Understanding Your Child’s Condition What are Autism Spectrum Disorders? Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a ...

162

Systematic review of efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapies in childhood and adolescent depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent depressive disorder. Design: Systematic review of six randomised trials comparing the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy with inactive interventions in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder. Main outcome measure: Remission from depressive disorder. Results: The rate of remission from depressive disorder was

Richard Harrington; Jane Whittaker; Philip Shoebridge; Fiona Campbell

1998-01-01

163

Effectiveness of Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Pathology for People with Huntington's Disease: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a summary of the current literature examining the outcomes of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology interventions for people with Huntington's disease. The literature was retrieved via a systematic search using a combination of key words that included Huntington's disease, physiotherapy, occu- pational therapy, and speech pathology. The electronic databases for Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials

Belinda Bilney; Meg E. Morris; Alison Perry

2003-01-01

164

A review of research into the uses of low level ultrasound in cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low power ultrasound in therapeutic medicine is a developing field and this review will concentrate on the applications of this technology in cancer therapy. The effects of low power ultrasound have been evaluated in terms of the biological changes induced in the structure and function of tissue. The main fields of study have been in sonodynamic therapy,

Tinghe Yu; Zhibiao Wang; Timothy J. Mason

2004-01-01

165

Maintaining clarity: Review of maintenance therapy in non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to review the role of maintenance therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A brief overview about induction chemotherapy and its primary function in NSCLC is provided to address the basis of maintenance therapies foundation. The development of how maintenance therapy is utilized in this population is discussed and current guidelines for maintenance therapy are reviewed. Benefits and potential pitfalls of maintenance therapy are addressed, allowing a comprehensive review of the achieved clinical benefit that maintenance therapy may or may not have on NSCLC patient population. A review of current literature was conducted and a table is provided comparing the results of various maintenance therapy clinical trials. The table includes geographical location of each study, the number of patients enrolled, progression free survival and overall survival statistics, post-treatment regimens and if molecular testing was conducted. The role of molecular testing in relation to therapeutic treatment options for advanced NSCLC patients is discussed. A treatment algorithm clearly depicts first line and second line treatment for management of NSCLC and includes molecular testing, maintenance therapy and the role clinical trials have in treatment of NSCLC. This treatment algorithm has been specifically tailored and developed to assist clinicians in the management of advanced NSCLC.

Dearing, Kristen R; Sangal, Ashish; Weiss, Glen J

2014-01-01

166

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological and Physiological Illnesses: A Systematic Review for Social Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…

Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia

2011-01-01

167

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for Pediatric HIV Infection: Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review described and compared empirical investigations of adherence to pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) and predictors\\/correlates of adherence with regard to methodology and outcome. Thirteen empirical studies of children's adherence to ART, conducted between the years 1981 and 2002 were identified. Investigations varied by age of participant, drug therapy regimen, method of adherence assessment, and by the reporting of predictors\\/correlates

Ric G. Steele; Dennis Grauer

2003-01-01

168

Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: an updated Cochrane review  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVE: To determine if injection therapy is more effective than placebo or other treatments for patients with subacute or chronic low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The effectiveness of injection therapy for low back pain is still debatable. Heterogeneity of target tissue, pharmacological agent, and dosage, generally found in

J Bart Staal; Rob A. de Bie; Henrica C. W. de Vet; Jan Hildebrandt; Patty Nelemans

2009-01-01

169

Maintaining clarity: Review of maintenance therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review the role of maintenance therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A brief overview about induction chemotherapy and its primary function in NSCLC is provided to address the basis of maintenance therapies foundation. The development of how maintenance therapy is utilized in this population is discussed and current guidelines for maintenance therapy are reviewed. Benefits and potential pitfalls of maintenance therapy are addressed, allowing a comprehensive review of the achieved clinical benefit that maintenance therapy may or may not have on NSCLC patient population. A review of current literature was conducted and a table is provided comparing the results of various maintenance therapy clinical trials. The table includes geographical location of each study, the number of patients enrolled, progression free survival and overall survival statistics, post-treatment regimens and if molecular testing was conducted. The role of molecular testing in relation to therapeutic treatment options for advanced NSCLC patients is discussed. A treatment algorithm clearly depicts first line and second line treatment for management of NSCLC and includes molecular testing, maintenance therapy and the role clinical trials have in treatment of NSCLC. This treatment algorithm has been specifically tailored and developed to assist clinicians in the management of advanced NSCLC. PMID:24829857

Dearing, Kristen R; Sangal, Ashish; Weiss, Glen J

2014-05-10

170

Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness- based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a meditation program based on an integration of Cognitive behavioural therapy and Mindfulness-based stress reduction. The aim of the present work is to review and conduct a meta-analysis of the current findings about the efficacy of MBCT for psychiatric patients. A literature search was undertaken using five electronic databases and references of retrieved articles.

Alberto Chiesa; Alessandro Serretti

2011-01-01

171

10B quantitative determination in ppb range by particle tracks reading for boron neutron capture therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative determination of ppb-order 10B was carried out in a small number of cultured tumor cells by particle tracks by the 10B(n,)7Li reactions using solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) for boron neutron capture therapy research. The detection limit of 10B concentration in tumor cells is less than 1·10-3 ppm under our experimental conditions which permits the quantitative determination of

M. Takagaki; K. Ono; S. I. Masunaga; Y. Kinashi; Y. Sakurai; T. Kobayashi; S. I. Miyatake; N. Hashimoto

2001-01-01

172

Review of ion beam therapy: Present and Future  

SciTech Connect

First therapy efforts at the Bevalac using neon ions took place in the 70's and 80's. Promising results led to construction of HIMAC in Chiba Japan, and more recently to therapy trials at GSI. Both these facilities are now treating patients with carbon beams. Advances in both accelerator technology and beam delivery have taken place at these two centers. Plans are well along for new facilities in Europe and Japan.

Alonso, Jose R.

2000-06-01

173

Physiological, psychological and performance effects of massage therapy in sport: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Massage is widely used by the athletic population for a variety of purposes such as injury prevention, recovery from fatigue, relaxation, and to increase performance. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the use and effects of massage therapy in sport. Specifically, the review addresses physiological, psychological and performance effects. Method: A literature search was conducted using Medline, Psychlit

Brian J. Hemmings

2001-01-01

174

A review of research and methods used to establish art therapy as an effective treatment method for traumatized children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art therapy uses creative expression to provide individuals with a safe outlet for expressing thoughts and emotions to successfully facilitate recovery from psychological distress. The present study reviews the efficacy of art therapy as a method for treating traumatized children. Published, peer-reviewed literature that focused exclusively on the use of art therapy for treating children who had experienced a traumatic

Leslie G. Eaton; Kimberly L. Doherty; Rebekah M. Widrick

2007-01-01

175

A Systematic Review of Directly Applied Biologic Therapies for Acute Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract An increasing number of therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI) are emerging from the laboratory and seeking translation into human clinical trials. Many of these are administered as soon as possible after injury with the hope of attenuating secondary damage and maximizing the extent of spared neurologic tissue. In this article, we systematically reviewed the available preclinical research on such neuroprotective therapies that are administered in a non-invasive manner for acute SCI. Specifically, we reviewed treatments that have a relatively high potential for translation due to the fact that they are already used in human clinical applications or are available in a form that could be administered to humans. These included: erythropoietin, NSAIDs, anti-CD11d antibodies, minocycline, progesterone, estrogen, magnesium, riluzole, polyethylene glycol, atorvastatin, inosine, and pioglitazone. The literature was systematically reviewed to examine studies in which an in vivo animal model was utilized to assess the efficacy of the therapy in a traumatic spinal cord injury paradigm. Using these criteria, 122 studies were identified and reviewed in detail. Wide variations exist in the animal species, injury models, and experimental designs reported in the preclinical literature on the therapies reviewed. The review highlights the extent of investigation that has occurred in these specific therapies, and points out gaps in our knowledge that would be potentially valuable prior to human translation.

Okon, Elena B.; Plunet, Ward; Baptiste, Darryl; Fouad, Karim; Hillyer, Jessica; Weaver, Lynne C.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2011-01-01

176

Research Ethics: Institutional Review Board Oversight of Art Therapy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…

Deaver, Sarah P.

2011-01-01

177

Endoscopic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Western societies has accelerated the need for new modalities of treatment. Currently, medical and surgical therapies are widely accepted among patients and physicians. The minimally invasive treatment revolution, however, has stimulated several new endoscopic techniques for GERD. Up to now, the data is limited and further studies are necessary to compare

Spiros N. Sgouros; Christina Bergele

2006-01-01

178

Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

2012-01-01

179

Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: A review of medical therapy  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. While a cure remains elusive, both can be treated with medications that induce and maintain remission. With the recent advent of therapies that inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha the overlap in medical therapies for UC and CD has become greater. Although 5-ASA agents have been a mainstay in the treatment of both CD and UC, the data for their efficacy in patients with CD, particularly as maintenance therapy, are equivocal. Antibiotics may have a limited role in the treatment of colonic CD. Steroids continue to be the first choice to treat active disease not responsive to other more conservative therapy; non-systemic steroids such as oral and rectal budesonide for ileal and right-sided CD and distal UC respectively are also effective in mild-moderate disease. 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its prodrug azathioprine are steroid-sparing immunomodulators effective in the maintenance of remission of both CD and UC, while methotrexate may be used in both induction and maintenance of CD. Infliximab and adalimumab are anti-TNF agents approved in the US and Europe for the treatment of Crohn's disease, and infliximab is also approved for the treatment of UC.

Kozuch, Patricia L; Hanauer, Stephen B

2008-01-01

180

Proton therapy - A systematic review of clinical effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Proton therapy is an emerging treatment modality for cancer that may have distinct advantages over conventional radiotherapy. This relates to its ability to confine the high-dose treatment area to the tumour volume and thus minimizing radiation dose to surrounding normal tissue. Several proton facilities are currently operating or under planning world-wide - in the United States, Asia

Dag Rune Olsen; Øyvind S. Bruland; Gunilla Frykholm; Inger Natvig Norderhaug

181

Analytic Review: Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salvage of myocardium in the setting of acute myocardial infarction has long been a goal of physicians involved in the care of patients with coronary artery disease. Understanding the role of thrombosis in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction has led the way to an entirely new approach to the treatment of this entity. Thrombolytic therapy has now become

Peter L. Zwerner; Joel M. Gore

1986-01-01

182

[Analysis of the safety and efficacy of percutaneous isolated hepatic perfusion after particle therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma].  

PubMed

Here, we report the efficacy of dual treatment with hepatic resection and percutaneous isolated hepatic perfusion (PIHP) for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma( HCC). Recently, we introduced treatment with combined particle therapy and PIHP for unresectable HCC in cases of insufficient liver function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PIHP for local control in the liver after particle therapy. From 2006 to 2013, 6 patients underwent particle therapy for the main lesion and subsequent PIHP for remnant liver lesions. Their mean age was 64 years, and the mean size of the main lesion was 6.2 cm (range, 2.0-10.8 cm). All patients had liver cirrhosis. After particle therapy, PIHP was performed by hepatic arterial infusion of 100 mg/m2 of doxorubicin and 30 mg/m2 of mitomycin C. With regard to side effects, neutropenia occurred in all patients but no serious hepatobiliary injury was observed. The response rate for PIHP was 50% (partial response: 3 and stable disease: 3). The mean overall survival time was 26.9 months after particle therapy. In conclusion, even after particle therapy, PIHP is a safe treatment and is associated with a good local control rate for remnant HCCs. Further accumulation of data is needed to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment strategy in terms of prognosis. PMID:24393887

Tanaka, Motofumi; Fukumoto, Takumi; Kido, Masahiro; Takebe, Atsushi; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Kinoshita, Hisoka; Komatsu, Shohei; Fukushima, Kenji; Urade, Takeshi; So, Shinichi; Shinzeki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Terashima, Kazuki; Fujii, Osamu; Demizu, Yusuke; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Ku, Yonson

2013-11-01

183

A review of the numerical investigation on the scattering of Gaussian beam by complex particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of light scattering by various particles is an active and important subject of research with myriad practical applications. During the years the scattering of plane wave by various particles has been investigated extensively. In recent years, with the development of laser sources and the tremendous expansion of their application, there has been a growing interest in the study of light scattering by various particles illuminated by a focused Gaussian beam. Since the analytical methods are only suitable for the analysis of Gaussian beam scattering by some regular particles, for complex particles with arbitrary shape and structure, one has to resort to the numerical methods. In this article, we review the recent numerical investigation on the scattering of Gaussian beam by systems of complex particles, including arbitrarily shaped conducting particles, dielectric particles, composite particles with inclusions, as well as random discrete particles and fractal soot aggregates. The essential formulations of the proposed numerical methods are outlined and the numerical results for some complex particles are also presented. This review is expected to provide useful help for the study of the interaction between the laser beams and the complex particles.

Cui, Zhiwei; Han, Yiping

2014-05-01

184

An improved Monte Carlo (MC) dose simulation for charged particle cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy are more popular nowadays because of the nature characteristics of charged particle and almost no side effect to patients. An effective treatment is achieved with high precision of dose calculation, in this research work, Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulation method has been used to calculate the radiation transport and dose distribution. The simulation have the same setting with the treatment room in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator, HIMAC. The carbon ion beam at the isocentric gantry nozzle for the therapeutic energy of 290 MeV/u was simulated, experimental work was carried out in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Chiba, Japan by using the HIMAC to confirm the accuracy and qualities dose distribution by MC methods. The Geant4 based simulated dose distribution were verified with measurements for Bragg peak and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) respectively. The verification of results shows that the Bragg peak depth-dose and SOBP distributions in simulation has good agreement with measurements. In overall, the study showed that Geant4 based can be fully applied in the heavy-ion therapy field for simulation, further works need to be carry on to refine and improve the Geant4 MC simulations.

Ying, C. K.; Kamil, W. A.; Shuaib, I. L.; Matsufuji, Naruhiro

2014-02-01

185

Review of the facile (F/sub N/) method in particle transport theory  

SciTech Connect

The facile (F/sub N/) method for solving particle transport problems is reviewed. The fundamentals of the method are summarized, recent developments are discussed and several applications of the method are described in detail.

Garcia, R.D.M.

1985-10-01

186

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies - an annotated bibliography. Part 3: Homeopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with homeopathy. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of homeopathy; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pretested form and summarized descriptively. Results Eighteen out of 22 potentially relevant reviews preselected in the screening process met the inclusion criteria. Six reviews addressed the question whether homeopathy is effective across conditions and interventions. The majority of available trials seem to report positive results but the evidence is not convincing. For isopathic nosodes for allergic conditions, oscillococcinum for influenza-like syndromes and galphimia for pollinosis the evidence is promising while in other areas reviewed the results are equivocal. Interpretation Reviews on homeopathy often address general questions. While the evidence is promising for some topics the findings of the available reviews are unlikely to end the controversy on this therapy.

Linde, Klaus; Hondras, Maria; Vickers, Andrew; Riet, Gerben ter; Melchart, Dieter

2001-01-01

187

Anterior pituitary hormone replacement therapy—a clinical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This clinical review summarizes current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. The\\u000a diagnostic value of endocrine function tests and replacement strategies for hydrocortisone, thyroxine, sex steroids, and growth\\u000a hormone replacement are reviewed. Female androgen deficiency syndrome and the current role of DHEA and testosterone replacement\\u000a in women are also discussed.

Christoph J. Auernhammer; George Vlotides

2007-01-01

188

Literature Review on LINACs and FFAGs for Hadron Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The document summarizes the recent papers, presentations and other public information on Radio-Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerators (linacs) and Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for hadron therapy. The main focus is on technical aspects of these accelerators. This report intends to provide a general overview of the state-of-the-art in those accelerators which could be used in short and middle-term for treating cancer.

Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Amaldi, Ugo; Faus-Golfe, Ángeles

189

Prophylactic chelation therapy in occupational lead poisoning: a review.  

PubMed

Chelating agents are useful in the therapy of acute overexposure to lead. However, prophylactic use of chelating agents, particularly under conditions of continued exposure to lead can be harmful to health. Potential adverse effects include kidney damage, symptomatic lead poisoning, increased absorption of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and disruption in the metabolism of trace metals other than lead. Prophylactic chelation is an unacceptable medical practice which cannot be condoned. PMID:411363

Bridbord, K; Blejer, H P

1977-10-01

190

A review of electron bombardment thruster systems/spacecraft field and particle interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the field and particle interfaces of electron bombardment ion thruster systems was summarized. Major areas discussed were the nonpropellant particles, neutral propellant, ion beam, low energy plasma, and fields. Spacecraft functions and subsystems reviewed were solar arrays, thermal control systems, optical sensors, communications, science, structures and materials, and potential control.

Byers, D. C.

1978-01-01

191

Numerical Simulation of Single Aluminum Particle Combustion (Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional, unsteady-state, kinetic-diffusion-vaporization-controlled numerical model for aluminum particle combustion\\u000a is presented. The model solves the conservation equations, while accounting for species generation and destruction with a\\u000a 15-reaction kinetic mechanism. Two of the major phenomena that differentiate aluminum combustion from hydrocarbon-droplet\\u000a combustion, namely, condensation of the aluminum-oxide product and subsequent deposition of part of the condensed oxide onto\\u000a the particle,

M. W. Beckstead; Y. Liang; K. V. Pudduppakkam

2005-01-01

192

Safety and tolerability of intermittent androgen deprivation therapy: a literature review.  

PubMed

Androgen deprivation therapy is commonly used in men with advanced prostate cancer; however, it is associated with many short- and long-term side-effects. Intermittent androgen deprivation therapy was first suggested as an alternative regimen in the early 1990s and is now part of treatment guidelines as a result of its ability to reduce adverse events associated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy without decreasing its efficacy. Although many publications evaluated intermittent androgen deprivation therapy's efficacy, the safety and tolerability information of this regimen is relatively limited. The goal of this literature review was to analyze clinical trials that have reported safety and tolerability data in prostate cancer patients treated with intermittent androgen deprivation therapy, as well as assessing quality of life outcomes. A literature search was carried out using biomedical and pharmaceutical databases for published information comparing intermittent androgen deprivation therapy with continuous androgen deprivation therapy. A total of 13 randomized and non-randomized studies were selected and reviewed based on their relevance to the safety, tolerability and quality of life of intermittent androgen deprivation therapy. Benefits for intermittent androgen deprivation therapy were observed for the short-term side-effects (hot flushes and sexual functions) mainly during the off-treatment phase, whereas the data for the long-term side-effects were not as conclusive. Quality of life evaluations are more in support of intermittent androgen deprivation therapy. Although there are some safety, tolerability and quality of life benefits associated with intermittent androgen deprivation therapy, the overall evidence is still limited. PMID:22435512

Gruca, Damian; Bacher, Peter; Tunn, Ulf

2012-07-01

193

Water molecule ionization by charged particles: a short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present both singly differential and total cross sections for the direct ionization of water vapour by electrons as well as by ions (protons and alpha particles). An ab-initio calculation has been made by using the first Born approximation and an accurate molecular wave function proposed by Moccia [J. Chem. Phys. 40, 2186 (1964)]. The results of this model are

C. Champion; O. Boudrioua; C. D. Cappello

2008-01-01

194

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF UTAH VALLEY PARTICLES: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Utah Valley provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) in humans. The area has had intermittently high particle levels with the principal point source being a steel mill. Due to a labor dispute, the mill was shut down. The closu...

195

Global eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis of sequential therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective To do a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing sequential therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori with pre-existing and new therapies, thus providing a glimpse of eradication success worldwide. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to May 2013; abstract books of major European, American, and Asian gastroenterological meetings. Study selection Randomised controlled trials in previously untreated adults, in which sequential therapy was compared with a pre-existing or new therapy. Results 46 randomised controlled trials were reviewed and analysed. 5666 patients were randomised to sequential therapy and 7866 to other (established and new) treatments. The overall eradication rate of sequential therapy was 84.3% (95% confidence interval 82.1% to 86.4%). Sequential therapy was superior to seven day triple therapy (relative risk 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.25; I2=29.3%; number needed to treat 6 , 95% confidence interval 5% to 7%), marginally superior to 10 day triple therapy (1.11, 1.04 to 1.19; I2= 67.2%; NNT 10, 7 to 15), but not superior to 14 day triple therapy (1.00, 0.94 to 1.06; I2=54.3%), bismuth based therapy (1.01, 0.95 to 1.06; I2=21.1%), and non-bismuth based therapy (0.99, 0.94 to 1.05; I2=52.3%). Data on eradication according to pre-treatment antimicrobial susceptibility testing were available in eight studies, and sequential therapy was able to eradicate 72.8% (61.6% to 82.8%) of the strains resistant to clarithromycin. Conclusions Eradication rates with pre-existing and new therapies for H pylori are suboptimal. Regional monitoring of resistance rates should help to guide treatment, and new agents for treatment need to be developed.

2013-01-01

196

Harm Reduction Therapy: A Practice-Friendly Review of Research  

PubMed Central

Harm reduction is an umbrella term for interventions aiming to reduce the problematic effects of behaviors. Although harm reduction was originally and most frequently associated with substance use, it is increasingly being applied to a multitude of other behavioral disorders. This article reviews the state of empirical research on harm reduction practices including alcohol interventions for youth, college students, and a variety of other adult interventions. We also review nicotine replacement and opioid substitution, as well as needle exchanges and safe injection sites for intravenous drug users. Dozens of peer-reviewed controlled trial publications provide support for the effectiveness of harm reduction for a multitude of clients and disorders without indications of iatrogenic effects. Harm reduction interventions provide additional tools for clinicians working with clients who, for whatever reason, may not be ready, willing, or able to pursue full abstinence as a goal.

Logan, Diane E.; Marlatt, G. Alan

2014-01-01

197

Adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy among breast cancer survivors in clinical practice: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Adjuvant hormonal therapy significantly improves long-term survival of breast cancer patients with hormone receptor-positive disease. Despite the proven clinical efficacy of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, many breast cancer survivors either fail to take the correct dosage at the prescribed frequency (adherence) or discontinue therapy (persistence). This systematic review aims to: (1) determine the prevalence of adherence and persistence to adjuvant hormonal therapy among breast cancer survivors in clinical practice, and (2) identify correlates of adherence and persistence. We searched Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL for studies that measured rates and/or correlates of adherence and/or persistence to adjuvant hormonal therapy. Studies were reviewed in a multi-step process: (1) the lead author screened titles and abstracts of all potentially eligible studies; (2) each coauthor reviewed a random 5 % sample of abstracts; and (3) two sets of coauthors each reviewed half of all "maybe" abstracts. Any disagreements were discussed until consensus was reached. Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria. Prevalence of adherence ranged from 41 to 72 % and discontinuation (i.e., nonpersistence) ranged from 31 to 73 %, measured at the end of 5 years of treatment. Extremes of age (older or younger), increasing out-of-pocket costs, follow-up care with a general practitioner (vs. oncologist), higher CYP2D6 activity, switching from one form of therapy to another, and treatment side effects were negatively associated with adherence and/or persistence. Taking more medications at baseline, referral to an oncologist, and earlier year at diagnosis were positively associated with adherence and/or persistence. Adherence and persistence to adjuvant hormonal therapy among breast cancer survivors is suboptimal. Many of the correlates of adherence and persistence studied to date are not modifiable. Our review reveals a critical need for further research on modifiable factors associated with adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy, and the development of behavioral interventions to improve adherence in this population. PMID:22689091

Murphy, Caitlin C; Bartholomew, L Kay; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Bluethmann, Shirley M; Vernon, Sally W

2012-07-01

198

Adherence to Adjuvant Hormonal Therapy among Breast Cancer Survivors in Clinical Practice: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Adjuvant hormonal therapy significantly improves long-term survival of breast cancer patients with hormone receptor-positive disease. Despite the proven clinical efficacy of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, many breast cancer survivors either fail to take the correct dosage at the prescribed frequency (adherence) or discontinue therapy (persistence). This systematic review aims to: 1) determine the prevalence of adherence and persistence to adjuvant hormonal therapy among breast cancer survivors in clinical practice, and 2) identify correlates of adherence and persistence. Methods We searched Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL for studies that measured rates and/or correlates of adherence and/or persistence to adjuvant hormonal therapy. Studies were reviewed in a multi-step process: 1) the lead author screened titles and abstracts of all potentially eligible studies; 2) each coauthor reviewed a random 5% sample of abstracts; and 3) two sets of coauthors each reviewed half of all “maybe” abstracts. Any disagreements were discussed until consensus was reached. Results Twenty nine studies met inclusion criteria. Prevalence of adherence ranged from 41–72% and discontinuation (i.e., nonpersistence) ranged from 31–73%, measured at the end of 5 years of treatment. Extremes of age (older or younger), increasing out-of-pocket costs, follow-up care with a general practitioner (vs. oncologist), higher CYP2D6 activity, switching from one form of therapy to another, and treatment side effects were negatively associated with adherence and/or persistence. Taking more medications at baseline, referral to an oncologist, and earlier year at diagnosis were positively associated with adherence and/or persistence. Conclusions/Implications Adherence and persistence to adjuvant hormonal therapy among breast cancer survivors is suboptimal. Many of the correlates of adherence and persistence studied to date are not modifiable. Our review reveals a critical need for further research on modifiable factors associated with adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy, and the development of behavioral interventions to improve adherence in this population.

Murphy, Caitlin C.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Bluethmann, Shirley M.; Vernon, Sally W.

2013-01-01

199

Efficacy of estrogen therapy in patients with intrauterine adhesions: systematic review.  

PubMed

Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis has become the preferred option for management of intrauterine adhesions (IUA). Use of estrogen as perioperative adjuvant therapy has been suggested for preventing recurrent adhesions. The primary objective of this article was to review the literature for evidence of the efficacy of estrogen therapy in the management of IUA. All eligible studies were identified using computerized databases (PubMed, Scopus. and Web of Science) from their earliest publication date to July 2013. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. Twenty-six studies were identified that reported use of hormone therapy as ancillary treatment after adhesiolysis. Of these studies, 19 used at least one of the following methods: intrauterine device, Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, or amnion graft, in addition to hormone therapy as ancillary treatment. In 7 studies, hormone therapy was used as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. Meta-analysis could not be performed because of the differences in treatment methods in these articles. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes. Better menstrual and fertility outcomes were associated with use of estrogen in combination with other methods of ancillary treatment. At present, hormone therapy, in particular estrogen therapy, is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, estrogen therapy needs to be combined with ancillary treatment to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:23933351

Johary, Jolinda; Xue, Min; Zhu, Xiaogang; Xu, Dabao; Velu, Prasad Palani

2014-01-01

200

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Regenerative therapy is one of the most challenging and intriguing branches of modern medicine. Basic research has demonstrated the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWT) in stimulating biological activities that involve intra-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These interactions are at the basis of the current clinical applications, and open the horizons to new applications in tissue regeneration. It is also feasible that shock waves could be used to treat various orthopaedic pathologies, removing the need for surgery. However, suitable translational studies need to be performed before ESWT can become a valid alternative to surgery. PMID:24217134

Romeo, Pietro; Lavanga, Vito; Pagani, Davide; Sansone, Valerio

2014-01-01

201

A review on photoneutrons characteristics in radiation therapy with high-energy photon beams  

PubMed Central

In radiation therapy with high-energy photon beams (E > 10 MeV) neutrons are generated mainly in linacs head thorough (?,n) interactions of photons with nuclei of high atomic number materials that constitute the linac head and the beam collimation system. These neutrons affect the shielding requirements in radiation therapy rooms and also increase the out-of-field radiation dose of patients undergoing radiation therapy with high-energy photon beams. In the current review, the authors describe the factors influencing the neutron production for different medical linacs based on the performed measurements and Monte Carlo studies in the literature.

Naseri, Alireza; Mesbahi, Asghar

2010-01-01

202

Review article: medical therapy for fistulizing Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background Fistulae will develop in approximately one-third of patients with Crohn's disease. With an expected spontaneous healing rate of only 10%, fistulizing Crohn's disease requires a comprehensive strategy with a medical and possible surgical approach. Aim To summarize the current literature evaluating various medical options for treating patients with fistulizing Crohn's disease. Methods A literature review was conducted using

B. BRESSLER; B. E. SANDS

2006-01-01

203

Review of intraurethral suppositories and iontophoresis therapy for erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief review examines the history of the intraurethral (IU) pharmacotherapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). Emphasis is placed on the design, study endpoints and results of a limited number of clinical trials undertaken with PGE1-MUSE to demonstrate the efficacy of this unique delivery system. Next, the theory of the iontophoretic technique of drug delivery is discussed. Clinical

R Lewis

2000-01-01

204

Usage of complementary therapies in rheumatology: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary medicine (CM) is more popular than ever before. Rheumatology patients seem particularly keen to try CM. In this paper, surveys on rheumatology patients' use of CM are reviewed. The issues of perceived effectiveness, safety and costs are also addressed. In addition surveys of doctors' attitudes towards CM in rheumatology are summarised. Fourteen surveys on patients' use of CM and

E. Ernst

1998-01-01

205

Orthodontic therapy and gingival recession: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

To perform a systematic review on the effect of changes in incisor inclination owing to orthodontic treatment and the occurrence of gingival recession. PubMed, EMBASE Excerpta Medica and CENTRAL of the Cochrane Library were searched and a hand search was performed. From 1925 articles identified, 17 articles were finally included: six experimental animal studies and 11 retrospective clinical studies in

I. Joss-Vassalli; C. Grebenstein; N. Topouzelis; A. Sculean; C. Katsaros

2010-01-01

206

Injection therapy and denervation procedures for chronic low-back pain: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Injection therapy and denervation procedures are commonly used in the management of chronic low-back pain (LBP) despite uncertainty regarding their effectiveness and safety. To provide an evaluation of the current evidence associated with the use of these procedures, a systematic review was performed. Existing systematic reviews were screened, and the Cochrane Back Review Group trial register was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they recruited adults with chronic LBP, evaluated the use of injection therapy or denervation procedures and measured at least one clinically relevant outcome (such as pain or functional status). Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility and risk of bias (RoB). A meta-analysis was performed with clinically homogeneous studies, and the GRADE approach was used to determine the quality of evidence. In total, 27 RCTs were included, 14 on injection therapy and 13 on denervation procedures. 18 (66%) of the studies were determined to have a low RoB. Because of clinical heterogeneity, only two comparisons could be pooled. Overall, there is only low to very low quality evidence to support the use of injection therapy and denervation procedures over placebo or other treatments for patients with chronic LBP. However, it cannot be ruled out that in carefully selected patients, some injection therapy or denervation procedures may be of benefit.

Kuijpers, Ton; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Ostelo, Raymond; Verhagen, Arianne; Koes, Bart W.; van Tulder, Maurits W.

2010-01-01

207

Review of antifungal therapy and the severity index for assessing onychomycosis: part I.  

PubMed

This review outlines recent data on treatment modalities and outcomes with antifungal therapy in onychomycosis. Included are topical, mechanical, chemical and systemic treatments or a combination thereof. Topical treatments, or transungual drug delivery systems (TUDDS), including ciclopirox and amorolfine were shown to be effective if used alone for mild-moderate nail involvement. Specifically, superficial white onychomycosis (SWO) restricted to the dorsum of the nail plate and moderate distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO). Mechanical treatments were mostly effective as adjuncts to topical therapy which include nail avulsion and abrasion. In particular, partial nail avulsion aids topical therapy in DLSO and partial subungual onychomycosis for a more effective therapy. Chemical avulsion is a painless method of debridement which uses a keratinolysis formula that is effective only in limited and early disease. Systemic therapies have been shown to be effective with terbinafine and itraconazole is suggested as being the most cost-effective therapy. Systemic therapies require consideration of side effects and monitoring by both patient and physician prior to treatment application. An effective suggestion is the use of a topical with debridement for mild-moderate onychomycosis and systemic (terbinafine) plus topical for severe onychomycosis. Most treatment modalities will require long-term use from 3 to 9 months to be most effective, with strategies presented in Part II of this review. PMID:18484426

Baran, Robert; Hay, Rod J; Garduno, Javier I

2008-01-01

208

A Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) analytical representations of particle size distribution. The choice of particle shape complexity is driven primarily by opposing tradeoffs with total number of particles, computer memory, and total simulation computer processing time. The choice is also dependent on available DEM software capabilities. For example, PFC2D/PFC3D and EDEM support clustering of spheres; MIMES incorporates superquadric particle shapes; and BLOKS3D provides polyhedra shapes. Most commercial and custom DEM software supports some type of complex particle shape beyond the standard sphere. Convex polyhedra, clusters of spheres and single parametric particle shapes such as the ellipsoid, polyellipsoid, and superquadric, are all motivated by the desire to introduce asymmetry into the particle shape, as well as edges and corners, in order to better simulate actual granular particle shapes and behavior. An empirical particle size distribution (PSD) formula is shown to fit desert sand data from Bagnold. Particle size data of JSC-1a obtained from a fine particle analyzer at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is also fitted to a similar empirical PSD function.

Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

2010-01-01

209

Algorithms for the optimization of RBE-weighted dose in particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on various algorithms used for the nonlinear optimization of RBE-weighted dose in particle therapy. Concerning the dose calculation carbon ions are considered and biological effects are calculated by the Local Effect Model. Taking biological effects fully into account requires iterative methods to solve the optimization problem. We implemented several additional algorithms into GSI's treatment planning system TRiP98, like the BFGS-algorithm and the method of conjugated gradients, in order to investigate their computational performance. We modified textbook iteration procedures to improve the convergence speed. The performance of the algorithms is presented by convergence in terms of iterations and computation time. We found that the Fletcher-Reeves variant of the method of conjugated gradients is the algorithm with the best computational performance. With this algorithm we could speed up computation times by a factor of 4 compared to the method of steepest descent, which was used before. With our new methods it is possible to optimize complex treatment plans in a few minutes leading to good dose distributions. At the end we discuss future goals concerning dose optimization issues in particle therapy which might benefit from fast optimization solvers.

Horcicka, M.; Meyer, C.; Buschbacher, A.; Durante, M.; Krämer, M.

2013-01-01

210

Disagreement in primary study selection between systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) regarding their agreement in primary study selection. Methods This retrospective analysis was conducted within the framework of a systematic review (a full review and a subsequent rapid report) on NPWT prepared by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). For the IQWiG review and rapid report, 4 bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL) were searched to identify systematic reviews and primary studies on NPWT versus conventional wound therapy in patients with acute or chronic wounds. All databases were searched from inception to December 2006. For the present analysis, reviews on NPWT were classified as eligible systematic reviews if multiple sources were systematically searched and the search strategy was documented. To ensure comparability between reviews, only reviews published in or after December 2004 and only studies published before June 2004 were considered. Eligible reviews were compared in respect of the methodology applied and the selection of primary studies. Results A total of 5 systematic reviews (including the IQWiG review) and 16 primary studies were analysed. The reviews included between 4 and 13 primary studies published before June 2004. Two reviews considered only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Three reviews considered both RCTs and non-RCTs. The overall agreement in study selection between reviews was 96% for RCTs (24 of 25 options) and 57% for non-RCTs (12 of 21 options). Due to considerable disagreement in the citation and selection of non-RCTs, we contacted the review authors for clarification (this was not initially planned); all authors or institutions responded. According to published information and the additional information provided, most differences between reviews arose from variations in inclusion criteria or inter-author study classification, as well as from different reporting styles (citation or non-citation) for excluded studies. Conclusion The citation and selection of primary studies differ between systematic reviews on NPWT, particularly with regard to non-RCTs. Uniform methodological and reporting standards need to be applied to ensure comparability between reviews as well as the validity of their conclusions.

Peinemann, Frank; McGauran, Natalie; Sauerland, Stefan; Lange, Stefan

2008-01-01

211

Alopecia: a review of laser and light therapies.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, laser technology has become increasingly popular to treat a variety of cutaneous conditions. Its successful use as an epilator comes with the rare but interesting side effect of paradoxical hypertrichosis. In this review, we summarize cases describing hair growth after photoepilation, as well as studies testing laser and light sources as treatment for alopecia, particularly androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. We also discuss the possible biologic mechanisms by which phototherapy induces hair regeneration. PMID:22398224

Rangwala, Sophia; Rashid, Rashid M

2012-02-01

212

Leech therapy for epidermoid cysts and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Hirudo medicinalis sucks blood directly through the external mammalian skin. We recently observed a healthy 64-year-old Iranian man, who presented with numerous asymptomatic multilobular oval-to-round well-defined 0.5 to 1.5 cm cystic lesions with central umbilication (central black eschar) over the upper portion of his chest. We made the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, giant comedone and leech bite on the basis of the constellation of clinical features. The patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin at a dose of 2 g daily, and 2% topical erythromycin solution. Despite improvement, the evidence of cystic lesions persisted. There was no history of similar lesions in any other family member. There was no history of trauma. The patient was not using any topical or systemic medication. Two weeks before his visit, he had a history of leech therapy under the supervision of a general practitioner. His medical history was significant for leech therapy of the lesions, five days previously. He was followed up for another two weeks and after disappearance of the inflammation, with the patient under local anesthesia, the well-circumscribed mass was completely evacuated with a sharp curette and comedone extractor. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Considering the efficacy of leeches, it would be favorable to breed a germ-free leech. In Iran, the use of the leeches in surgery, in recent years, has been infrequent. It appears that the positive effects of this ancient remedy may now be explained through scientific methods, promising potentially even more uses of this admirable creature in medicine.

Rasi, Abbas; Faghihi, Alireza; Jalali, Mirhadi Aziz; Zamanian, Abbas; Ghaffarpour, Gholamhossein

2014-01-01

213

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies - an annotated bibliography. Part 2: Herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of herbal medicines; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pre-tested form and summarized descriptively. Results From a total of 79 potentially relevant reviews pre-selected in the screening process 58 met the inclusion criteria. Thirty of the reports reviewed ginkgo (for dementia, intermittent claudication, tinnitus, and macular degeneration), hypericum (for depression) or garlic preparations (for cardiovascular risk factors and lower limb atherosclerosis). The quality of primary studies was criticized in the majority of the reviews. Most reviews judged the available evidence as promising but definitive conclusions were rarely possible. Conclusions Systematic reviews are available on a broad range of herbal preparations prescribed for defined conditions. There is very little evidence on the effectiveness of herbalism as practised by specialist herbalists who combine herbs and use unconventional diagnosis.

Linde, Klaus; ter Riet, Gerben; Hondras, Maria; Vickers, Andrew; Saller, Reinhard; Melchart, Dieter

2001-01-01

214

Method for the systematic reviews on occupational therapy and neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews of the literature relevant to neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are important to the practice of occupational therapy. We describe the four questions that served as the focus for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for PD, MS, and ALS. We include the background for the reviews; the process followed for addressing each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. The final number of articles included in each systematic review; a summary of the themes of the results; the strengths and limitations of the findings; and implications for practice, education, and research are presented. PMID:24367950

Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah; Berlanstein, Debra R

2014-01-01

215

Complementary and alternative therapies for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system without a known cure. Thus the role of complementary and alternative therapies (CATs) for the management of symptoms lies in palliative care and this is borne out by the popularity of these treatments amongst MS sufferers. This review is aimed at determining whether this use is supported by evidence of effectiveness from rigorous clinical trials. Database literature searches were performed and papers were extracted in a pre-defined manner. Twelve randomized controlled trials were located that investigated a CAT for MS: nutritional therapy (4), massage (1), Feldenkrais bodywork (1), reflexology (1), magnetic field therapy (2), neural therapy (1) and psychological counselling (2). The evidence is not compelling for any of these therapies, with many trials suffering from significant methodological flaws. There is evidence to suggest some benefit of nutritional therapy for the physical symptoms of MS. Magnetic field therapy and neural therapy appear to have a short-term beneficial effect on the physical symptoms of MS. Massage/bodywork and psychological counselling seem to improve depression, anxiety and self-esteem. The effectiveness for other CATs is unproven at this time. In all the CATs examined further investigations are needed in the form of rigorous large-scale trials. PMID:10859602

Huntley, A; Ernst, E

2000-06-01

216

Advances in 4D Treatment Planning for Scanned Particle Beam Therapy - Report of Dedicated Workshops.  

PubMed

We report on recent progress in the field of mobile tumor treatment with scanned particle beams, as discussed in the latest editions of the 4D treatment planning workshop. The workshop series started in 2009, with about 20 people from 4 research institutes involved, all actively working on particle therapy delivery and development. The first workshop resulted in a summary of recommendations for the treatment of mobile targets, along with a list of requirements to apply these guidelines clinically. The increased interest in the treatment of mobile tumors led to a continuously growing number of attendees: the 2012 edition counted more than 60 participants from 20 institutions and commercial vendors. The focus of research discussions among workshop participants progressively moved from 4D treatment planning to complete 4D treatments, aiming at effective and safe treatment delivery. Current research perspectives on 4D treatments include all critical aspects of time resolved delivery, such as in-room imaging, motion detection, beam application, and quality assurance techniques. This was motivated by the start of first clinical treatments of hepato cellular tumors with a scanned particle beam, relying on gating or abdominal compression for motion mitigation. Up to date research activities emphasize significant efforts in investigating advanced motion mitigation techniques, with a specific interest in the development of dedicated tools for experimental validation. Potential improvements will be made possible in the near future through 4D optimized treatment plans that require upgrades of the currently established therapy control systems for time resolved delivery. But since also these novel optimization techniques rely on the validity of the 4DCT, research focusing on alternative 4D imaging technique, such as MRI based 4DCT generation will continue. PMID:24354749

Bert, C; Graeff, C; Riboldi, M; Nill, S; Baroni, G; Knopf, A-C

2014-12-01

217

A Monte Carlo tool for raster-scanning particle therapy dose computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of this work was to implement Monte Carlo (MC) dose computation in realistic patient geometries with raster-scanning, the most advanced ion beam delivery technique, combining magnetic beam deflection with energy variation. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo package well-established in particle therapy applications, was extended to simulate raster-scanning delivery with clinical data, unavailable as built-in feature. A new complex beam source, compatible with FLUKA public programming interface, was implemented in Fortran to model the specific properties of raster-scanning, i.e. delivery by means of multiple spot sources with variable spatial distributions, energies and numbers of particles. The source was plugged into the MC engine through the user hook system provided by FLUKA. Additionally, routines were provided to populate the beam source with treatment plan data, stored as DICOM RTPlan or TRiP98's RST format, enabling MC recomputation of clinical plans. Finally, facilities were integrated to read computerised tomography (CT) data into FLUKA. The tool was used to recompute two representative carbon ion treatment plans, a skull base and a prostate case, prepared with analytical dose calculation (TRiP98). Selected, clinically relevant issues influencing the dose distributions were investigated: (1) presence of positioning errors, (2) influence of fiducial markers and (3) variations in pencil beam width. Notable differences in modelling of these challenging situations were observed between the analytical and Monte Carlo results. In conclusion, a tool was developed, to support particle therapy research and treatment, when high precision MC calculations are required, e.g. in presence of severe density heterogeneities or in quality assurance procedures.

Jelen, U.; Radon, M.; Santiago, A.; Wittig, A.; Ammazzalorso, F.

2014-03-01

218

Nonpharmacological Therapies in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Nonpharmacological therapies (NPTs) can improve the quality of life (QoL) of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their carers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the best evidence on the effects of NPTs in AD and related disorders (ADRD) by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of the entire field. Methods: Existing reviews and major electronic databases

Javier Olazarán; Barry Reisberg; Linda Clare; Isabel Cruz; Jordi Peña-Casanova; Teodoro del Ser; Bob Woods; Cornelia Beck; Stefanie Auer; Claudia Lai; Aimee Spector; Sam Fazio; John Bond; Miia Kivipelto; Henry Brodaty; José Manuel Rojo; Helen Collins; Linda Teri; Mary Mittelman; Martin Orrell; Howard H. Feldman; Ruben Muñiz

2010-01-01

219

Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy for Stroke: A Review of Recent Studies and Controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: To review the randomized, controlled, multicenter trials of intravenous thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke. Methods: Studies of ischemic stroke confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and randomization of more than 100 patients are reviewed. Streptokinase studies are the MAST-I, the MAST-E, and the ASK Trial. Studies using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are the NINDS Stroke Study, ECASS I, ECASS

Tiffany Medlin Osborn; Marian P LaMonte; Wade R Gaasch

1999-01-01

220

Treatment of pediatric patients and young adults with particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): establishment of workflow and initial clinical data  

PubMed Central

Background To report on establishment of workflow and clinical results of particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Materials and methods We treated 36 pediatric patients (aged 21 or younger) with particle therapy at HIT. Median age was 12 years (range 2-21 years), five patients (14%) were younger than 5 years of age. Indications included pilocytic astrocytoma, parameningeal and orbital rhabdomyosarcoma, skull base and cervical chordoma, osteosarcoma and adenoid-cystic carcinoma (ACC), as well as one patient with an angiofibroma of the nasopharynx. For the treatment of small children, an anesthesia unit at HIT was established in cooperation with the Department of Anesthesiology. Results Treatment concepts depended on tumor type, staging, age of the patient, as well as availability of specific study protocols. In all patients, particle radiotherapy was well tolerated and no interruptions due to toxicity had to be undertaken. During follow-up, only mild toxicites were observed. Only one patient died of tumor progression: Carbon ion radiotherapy was performed as an individual treatment approach in a child with a skull base recurrence of the previously irradiated rhabdomyosarcoma. Besides this patient, tumor recurrence was observed in two additional patients. Conclusion Clinical protocols have been generated to evaluate the real potential of particle therapy, also with respect to carbon ions in distinct pediatric patient populations. The strong cooperation between the pediatric department and the department of radiation oncology enable an interdisciplinary treatment and stream-lined workflow and acceptance of the treatment for the patients and their parents.

2012-01-01

221

Management and therapy of vasovagal syncope: A review  

PubMed Central

Vasovagal syncope is a common cause of recurrent syncope. Clinically, these episodes may present as an isolated event with an identifiable trigger, or manifest as a cluster of recurrent episodes warranting intensive evaluation. The mechanism of vasovagal syncope is incompletely understood. Diagnostic tools such as implantable loop recorders may facilitate the identification of patients with arrhythmia mimicking benign vasovagal syncope. This review focuses on the management of vasovagal syncope and discusses the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options, especially the use of midodrine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The role of cardiac pacing may be meaningful for a subgroup of patients who manifest severe bradycardia or asystole but this still remains controversial.

Aydin, Muhammet Ali; Salukhe, Tushar V; Wilke, Iris; Willems, Stephan

2010-01-01

222

Triple antiplatelet therapy for preventing vascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Dual antiplatelet therapy is usually superior to mono therapy in preventing recurrent vascular events (VEs). This systematic review assesses the safety and efficacy of triple antiplatelet therapy in comparison with dual therapy in reducing recurrent vascular events. Methods Completed randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of triple versus dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease were identified using electronic bibliographic searches. Data were extracted on composite VEs, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, death and bleeding and analysed with Cochrane Review Manager software. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random effects models. Results Twenty-five completed randomized trials (17,383 patients with IHD) were included which involving the use of intravenous (iv) GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban), aspirin, clopidogrel and/or cilostazol. In comparison with aspirin-based therapy, triple therapy using an intravenous GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor significantly reduced composite VEs and MI in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) (VE: OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86; MI: OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (VE: OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.30-0.51; MI: OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.17-0.38). A significant reduction in death was also noted in STEMI patients treated with GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.99). Increased minor bleeding was noted in STEMI and elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients treated with GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy. Stroke events were too infrequent for us to be able to identify meaningful trends and no data were available for patients recruited into trials on the basis of stroke or peripheral vascular disease. Conclusions Triple antiplatelet therapy based on iv GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors was more effective than aspirin-based dual therapy in reducing VEs in patients with acute coronary syndromes (STEMI and NSTEMI). Minor bleeding was increased among STEMI and elective PCI patients treated with a GP IIb/IIIa based triple therapy. In patients undergoing elective PCI, triple therapy had no beneficial effect and was associated with an 80% increase in transfusions and an eightfold increase in thrombocytopenia. Insufficient data exist for patients with prior ischaemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease and further research is needed in these groups of patients.

2010-01-01

223

Concise Review: Clinical Translation of Wound Healing Therapies Based on Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

There is enormous worldwide demand for therapies to promote the efficient resolution of hard-to-heal wounds with minimal appearance of scarring. Recent in vitro studies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have identified numerous mechanisms by which these cells can promote the process of wound healing, and there is significant interest in the clinical translation of an MSC-based therapy to promote dermal regeneration. This review provides a systematic analysis of recent preclinical and clinical research to evaluate the use of MSCs in wound healing applications. These in vivo studies provide overwhelming evidence that MSCs can accelerate wound closure by modulating the inflammatory environment, promoting the formation of a well-vascularized granulation matrix, encouraging the migration of keratinocytes, and inhibiting apoptosis of wound healing cells. The trophic effects of MSC therapy also appear to augment wound healing in diabetic tissues, thereby preventing the formation of nonhealing ulcers. Finally, a number of delivery systems have been evaluated and indicate that MSCs could be the basis of a versatile therapy to fulfill the clinical needs for dermal regeneration. However, despite the apparent advantages of MSC-based therapies, there have been only limited clinical investigations of this type of therapy in humans. Thus, our review concludes with a discussion of the translational barriers that are limiting the widespread clinical use of MSCs to enhance wound healing.

Jackson, Wesley M.; Nesti, Leon J.

2012-01-01

224

Review article: Nutritional therapy in alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol consumption may lead to primary and secondary malnutrition. In particular, protein energy malnutrition not only aggravates alcoholic liver disease but also correlates with impaired liver function and increased mortality. Therefore, in these patients, adequate nutritional support should be implemented in order to improve their prognosis. Clinical trials addressing this issue have shown that nutritional therapy either enterally or parenterally improves various aspects of malnutrition, and there is increasing evidence that it may also improve survival. Therefore, malnourished alcoholics should be administered a diet rich in carbohydrate- and protein-derived calories preferentially via the oral or enteral route. Micronutrient deficiencies typically encountered in alcoholics, such as for thiamine and folate, require specific supplementation. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may be treated with branched-chain amino acids in order to achieve a positive nitrogen balance. Fatty liver represents the early stage of alcoholic liver disease, which is usually reversible with abstinence. Metadoxine appears to improve fatty liver but confirmatory studies are necessary. S-adenosyl-L-methionine may be helpful for patients with severe alcoholic liver damage, since various mechanisms of alcohol-related hepatotoxicity are counteracted with this essential methyl group donor, while a recent large trial showed that the use of polyenylphosphatidylcholine is of limited efficacy. PMID:12940921

Stickel, F; Hoehn, B; Schuppan, D; Seitz, H K

2003-08-15

225

Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction: A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a prevailing health problem that seriously impacts quality of life. Current treatment options are less effective for patients having cavernous nerve (CN) injury or diabetes mellitus-related ED. These 2 types of ED are thus the main focus of past and current stem cell (SC) therapy studies. In a total of 16 studies so far, rats were exclusively used as disease models and SCs were mostly derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, or skeletal muscle. For tracking, SCs were labeled with LacZ, green fluorescent protein, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DiI, bromodeoxyuridine, or 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine, some of which might have led to data misinterpretation. SC transplantation was done exclusively by intracavernous (IC) injection, which has been recently shown to have systemic effects. Functional assessment was done exclusively by measuring increases of IC pressure during electrostimulation of CN. Histological assessment usually focused on endothelial, smooth muscle, and CN contents in the penis. In general, favorable outcomes have been obtained in all trials so far, although whether SCs had differentiated into specific cell lineages remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that intracavernously injected SCs rapidly escaped the penis and homed into bone marrow. This could perhaps explain why intracavernously injected SCs had systemic antidiabetic effects and prolonged anti-ED effects. These hypotheses and the differentiation-versus-paracrine debate require further investigation.

Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Wang, Zhong; Deng, Chunhua; Huang, Yun-Ching; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.

2012-01-01

226

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Somatization and Symptom Syndromes: A Critical Review of Controlled Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few treatments for somatization have been proven effective. In the past decade, however, clinical trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) have been promising. Our aim was to critically review and synthesize the evidence from these trials. Methods: A search of the Medline database from 1966 through July 1999 was conducted to identify controlled trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of

Kurt Kroenke; Ralph Swindle

2000-01-01

227

Fission Reactor Neutron Sources for Neutron Capture Therapy – A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of fission reactor-based neutron beams for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is reviewed critically. Epithermal neutron beams, which are favored for treatment of deep-seated tumors, have been constructed or are under construction at a number of reactors worldwide. Some of the most recently constructed epithermal neutron beams approach the theoretical optimum for beam purity. Of these higher quality beams,

Otto K. Harling; Kent J. Riley

2003-01-01

228

Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions on functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: A search was made in Medline, Cinahl, PEDro and the Cochrane library for the period 1990 to February 2007. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PT interventions in children with diagnosed CP were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality

Heidi Anttila; Ilona Autti-Rämö; Jutta Suoranta; Marjukka Mäkelä; Antti Malmivaara

2008-01-01

229

Assessment in Marriage and Family Therapy: A Review of Clinical Updates for Family Therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents information from an integrative literature review that examined assessment processes presented to marriage and family therapists in Clinical Updates for Family Therapists, Volumes 1 (2005), 2 (2006), and 3 (2007). The study was based on the concern that marriage and family therapy is losing its systemic relational focus as practitioners must comply with diagnosis models using the

Deborah C. Bailey

2012-01-01

230

Conference Report Current limitations of antiepileptic drug therapy: a conference review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current limitations of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy were the topic of a discussion group meeting at the 5th European Congress on Epileptology, Madrid, 6-10 October 2002. This review contains four short papers covering the topics discussed by the speakers at this meeting and an account of the ensuing discussion with all participants. The meeting focused on four issues. (i)

C. L. P. Deckers; P. Genton; G. J. Sills; D. Schmidt

231

The Modern Age of Acne Therapy: A Review of Current Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of current acne treatments begins with the crucial discovery in 1979 of isotretinoin treat- ment for nodulocystic acne. This drug's approval in 1982 revolutionized therapy, since it was the first oral acne-specific drug, and it provided prolonged remissions. In addition, it may prevent the emer- gence of resistant bacteria, a problem linked to the traditional use of antibiotics

SUSAN V. B ERSHAD

232

Intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis. A review of efficacy and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYP) used in severe and refractory juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Methods. Retrospective case note review of the outcome of 12 patients. Results. Assessment at 6 months of therapy in 10 of the 12 patients showed a significant improvement in muscle function as assessed by the Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS) (P

P. Riley; S. M. Maillard; L. R. Wedderburn; P. Woo; K. J. Murray; C. A. Pilkington

2004-01-01

233

Palliative Sedation Therapy in the Last Weeks of Life: A Literature Review and Recommendations for Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Palliative sedation therapy (PST) is a controversial issue. There is a need for inter- nationally accepted definitions and standards. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed by an international panel of 29 palliative care experts. Draft papers were written on various topics concerning PST. This paper is a summary of the individual papers, written after two meetings

Alexander De Graeff; Mervyn Dean

2007-01-01

234

Constraint-induced movement therapy following stroke: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review investigated the effects on function, quality of life, health care costs, and patient\\/carer satisfaction of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for upper limb hemiparesis following stroke. A comprehensive search of the complete holdings of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PEDro and OTseeker to March 2005 was conducted. Fourteen eligible randomised controlled trials were identified and relevant data extracted

Sharon Hakkennes; Jennifer L Keating

2005-01-01

235

Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We review all available controlled outcome studies of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) to evaluate evidence of its effectiveness. Method: Forty-three studies were located and key data abstracted on problem, setting, SFBT intervention, design characteristics, and outcomes. Results: Thirty-two (74%) of the studies reported…

Gingerich, Wallace J.; Peterson, Lance T.

2013-01-01

236

Probiotic therapy for gastro-intestinal allergenic infants : A preliminary review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article seeks to review the incidence of food allergy or food sensitization in children which has increased during the past decade and can manifest urticaria or angioedema, anaphylaxis, atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms or gastro-intestinal disorders, and to looks closely at probiotic therapy, which appears to alleviate allergy inflammation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Literature related to probiotics and their exploitation

S. Sarkar

2007-01-01

237

Neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for resectable esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. The large and growing number of patients affected, the high mortality rates, the worldwide geographic variation in practice, and the large body of good quality research warrants a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Richard A Malthaner; Rebecca KS Wong; R Bryan Rumble; Lisa Zuraw

2004-01-01

238

Proton therapy in lung cancer: Clinical outcomes and technical issues. A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose. To determine whether, according to the currently available literature, proton therapy (PT) has a role in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), to assess its safety and efficacy and to evaluate the main technical issues specifically related to this treatment technique. Materials and methods. During March 2007, two independent researchers conducted a systematic review of the

Lamberto Widesott; Maurizio Amichetti; Marco Schwarz

239

Review of Gestalt therapy in clinical practice: From psychopathology to the aesthetics of contact.  

PubMed

Reviews the book, Gestalt Therapy in Clinical Practice: From Psychopathology to the Aesthetics of Contact edited by Gianni Francesetti, Michela Gecele, and Jan Roubal (2013). In this historic, encyclopedic work, a group of well-known, talented Italian Gestalt therapists and trainers contribute close to half of the 33 chapters. Around this core are writers from 13 other countries, mostly European. Unusually, but true to the dialogical nature of Gestalt therapy, each chapter concludes with a critical commentary by another expert in the same topic. The result is a rich, international polyphony on the current state of Gestalt theory and practice, appropriate for inexperienced and experienced practitioners, especially whose with a humanistic therapy orientation. The ambitiousness of this work and the degree to which it succeeds inspires the reviewer to conclude with his personal wish list for a second edition or later version. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068196

Elliott, Robert

2014-09-01

240

Systemic Therapy for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review and Update  

PubMed Central

An in-depth understanding of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is important so that practitioners can make informed evidenced-based decisions with patients to optimize not only quantity of life but quality of life as well. Therefore, this review focuses on the biology of mRCC as it relates to targets for therapy, as well as on the small molecules rationally designed with these targets in mind. In addition, anticipated emerging therapies are highlighted, including the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors axitinib and tivozanib, as well as new immune-based therapies such as dendritic cell-based vaccines and antibodies. We also briefly review recent reports from the emerging field of predicting drug response based on molecular markers. And finally, management of metastatic non-clear cell RCC histologies are discussed focusing on available evidence to direct decision making when assessing therapeutic options.

Logan, Joshua E; Rampersaud, Edward N; Sonn, Geoffrey A; Chamie, Karim; Belldegrun, Arie S; Pantuck, Allan J; Slamon, Dennis J; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F

2012-01-01

241

Systemic therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a review and update.  

PubMed

An in-depth understanding of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is important so that practitioners can make informed evidenced-based decisions with patients to optimize not only quantity of life but quality of life as well. Therefore, this review focuses on the biology of mRCC as it relates to targets for therapy, as well as on the small molecules rationally designed with these targets in mind. In addition, anticipated emerging therapies are highlighted, including the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors axitinib and tivozanib, as well as new immune-based therapies such as dendritic cell-based vaccines and antibodies. We also briefly review recent reports from the emerging field of predicting drug response based on molecular markers. And finally, management of metastatic non-clear cell RCC histologies are discussed focusing on available evidence to direct decision making when assessing therapeutic options. PMID:23526579

Logan, Joshua E; Rampersaud, Edward N; Sonn, Geoffrey A; Chamie, Karim; Belldegrun, Arie S; Pantuck, Allan J; Slamon, Dennis J; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F

2012-01-01

242

Milieu Therapy as a Communication Intervention: A Review of the Literature Related to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several researchers have employed milieu therapy to address the communication needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Thus, the purpose of this review is to examine milieu therapy, particularly, the environments and individuals involved in the training and the effectiveness of milieu therapy with children who have a diagnosis of ASD…

Mancil, G. Richmond

2009-01-01

243

Adequate margin definition for scanned particle therapy in the incidence of intrafractional motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced 4D dose calculations (4DDCs) for scanned particle therapy show that in the incidence of motion, it is insufficient to use target contours defined on one reference CT phase. ICRU Report 62 (ICRU 1999 ICRU Report 62 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)) advises that variations in size, shape and position of CTVs relative to anatomic reference points have to be considered for internal target volumes (ITVs). In addition to geometrical margin adaption, changes of water equivalent path length have to be considered for particle therapy. Different ITV concepts have been applied to six representative patients (liver and lung indications) based on 4DCT. Geometrical ITVs (gITV) were calculated by combining deformed CTVs over all motion phases. To take into account path length changes, range adapted ITVs (raITV) were established as the union of range adapted CTVs in all phases. For gated delivery, gat_gITVs and gat_raITVs were calculated. Extensive 4DDCs have been performed for two exemplary patients to illustrate that neither re-scanning nor gating can sufficiently compensate for motion effects if no appropriate margins are employed and to evaluate the effectiveness of gITVs and raITVs. CTVs significantly differ from gITVs and raITVs in size (up to a factor 2 in volume). But also raITVs and gITVs differ significantly in size and are spatially displaced, particularly for lung patients. raITVs show a strong field dependence in shape. All volumes are reduced in size when gating is applied and considered during margin adaption. 4D dose distributions show big improvements when gITV or raITV are used compared to CTVs. However, the use of either gITVs or raITVs do not result in significant differences. If raITVs are used, slightly better target coverage is gained at the cost of more healthy tissue exposure. Our results emphasize that adapted target volumes have to be used for scanned particle therapy in the presence of motion. However, even though gITVs and raITVs differ significantly in shape and size, this difference does not necessarily translate into significant differences in the resultant 4D dose distributions.

Knopf, Antje-Christin; Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Antony; Mori, Shininchiro

2013-09-01

244

Management and therapy of vasovagal syncope: A review.  

PubMed

Vasovagal syncope is a common cause of recurrent syncope. Clinically, these episodes may present as an isolated event with an identifiable trigger, or manifest as a cluster of recurrent episodes warranting intensive evaluation. The mechanism of vasovagal syncope is incompletely understood. Diagnostic tools such as implantable loop recorders may facilitate the identification of patients with arrhythmia mimicking benign vasovagal syncope. This review focuses on the management of vasovagal syncope and discusses the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options, especially the use of midodrine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The role of cardiac pacing may be meaningful for a subgroup of patients who manifest severe bradycardia or asystole but this still remains controversial. PMID:21160608

Aydin, Muhammet Ali; Salukhe, Tushar V; Wilke, Iris; Willems, Stephan

2010-10-26

245

Nasolacrimal drainage obstruction after radioiodine therapy: case report and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The authors report a 54-year-old woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma (Lindsay type, pT2 N0 M1) with pulmonary metastases. After a total thyroidectomy, a series of 3 radioiodine therapies were performed with a cumulative dose of 700 mCi I-131. After termination of the therapy, the patient was initially without complaints, but approximately 6 months later, epiphora was noted, first only of the right eye and eventually of both eyes. A whole-body I-131 scan performed 1 year after final radioiodine therapy showed atypical tracer accumulation in both medial orbital regions. This finding was new compared with the scan that was done 1 year before. Dacryocystography revealed bilateral occlusion of the lacrimal drainage system. A review of the literature shows that epiphora and lacrimal duct alterations are rarely investigated and potentially underestimated side effects after high-dose radioiodine therapy. PMID:16024949

Brockmann, Holger; Wilhelm, Kai; Joe, Alexius; Palmedo, Holger; Biersack, Hans-Juergen

2005-08-01

246

The Effect of Orthodontic Therapy on Periodontal Health: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This review aims to evaluate the effect of orthodontic therapy on periodontal health. Data. Original articles that reported on the effect of orthodontic therapy on periodontal health were included. The reference lists of potentially relevant review articles were also sought. Sources. A literature search was conducted using the databases, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “orthodontics” and “root resorption.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Articles published only in English language were included. Letters to the Editor, historical reviews and unpublished articles were not sought. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the present literature review, it was observed that there is a very close inter-relationship between the periodontal health and the outcome of orthodontic therapy.

Alfuriji, Samah; Alhazmi, Nora; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Alruwaithi, Moatazbellah; Alkatheeri, Nasser; Geevarghese, Amrita

2014-01-01

247

T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the current status of Waterman's T-matrix approach which is one of the most powerful and widely used tools for accurately computing light scattering by nonspherical particles, both single and composite, based on directly solving Maxwell's equations. Specifically, we discuss the analytical method for computing orientationally-averaged light-scattering characteristics for ensembles of nonspherical particles, the methods for overcoming the numerical

Michael I. Mishchenko; Larry D. Travis; Daniel W. Mackowski

1996-01-01

248

Preclinical investigations towards the first spacer gel application in prostate cancer treatment during particle therapy at HIT  

PubMed Central

Background The application of spacer gel represents a promising approach to reliably spare the rectal frontal wall during particle therapy (IJROBP 76:1251-1258, 2010). In order to qualify the spacer gel for the clinical use in particle therapy, a variety of measurements were performed in order to ensure the biological compatibility of the gel, its physical stability during and after the irradiation, and a proper definition of the gel in terms of the Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for the treatment planning system. The potential for the use of the spacer gel for particle therapy monitoring with off-line Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was also investigated. Results The spacer gel implanted to the prostate patient in direct neighbourhood to the clinical target volume does not interfere with the particle therapy treatment planning procedure applied at Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre (HIT). The performed measurements show that Bragg-peak position of the particles can be properly predicted on the basis of computed tomography imaging with the treatment planning system used at HIT (measured water equivalent path length of 1.011 ±0.011 (2?), measured Hounsfield Unit of 28.9 ±6.1 (2?)). The spacer gel samples remain physically unchanged after irradiation with a dose exceeding the therapeutic dose level. The independently measured Bragg-Peak position does not change within the time interval of 10 weeks. Conclusions As a result of the presented experiments, the first clinical application of spacer gel implant during prostate cancer treatment with carbon ions and protons was possible at HIT in 2012. The reported pre-clinical investigations demonstrate that use of spacer gel is safe in particle therapy in presence of therapy target motion and patient positioning induced particle range variations. The spacer gel injected between prostate and rectum enlarge the distance between both organs, which is expected to clinically significantly decrease the undesirable exposure of the most critical organ at risk, i.e. rectal frontal wall. Further research on the composition of spacer gel material might lead to additional clinical benefits by validation of particle therapy of prostate via post-therapeutic PET-imaging or by patient positioning based on the gel as a radio-opaque marker.

2013-01-01

249

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia: a systematic review of preclinical studies.  

PubMed

The most severe forms of xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction, as well as a severely reduced quality of life, are seen in Sjögren syndrome (SS) and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. For both conditions, no effective regenerative therapies yet exist. Thus, the aim of this article was to assess, through systematic review, the potential benefit of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in radiation-induced and SS-related salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Google Scholar. We identified 6 separate study comparisons eligible for inclusion. Owing to the limited number of studies, we conclude that more randomized, adequately powered clinical trials are needed to validate the potential beneficial effect of MSCs on salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Nonetheless, the preliminary studies identified in the present review were encouraging for further research. PMID:24528792

Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Oliveri, Roberto Stefan; Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Specht, Lena; Bardow, Allan; Buchwald, Christian

2014-03-01

250

Clinical review: Therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension in ischaemic stroke  

PubMed Central

The treatment of patients with large hemispheric ischaemic stroke accompanied by massive space-occupying oedema represents one of the major unsolved problems in neurocritical care medicine. Despite maximum intensive care, the prognosis of these patients is poor, with case fatality rates as high as 80%. Therefore, the term 'malignant brain infarction' was coined. Because conservative treatment strategies to limit brain tissue shift almost consistently fail, these massive infarctions often are regarded as an untreatable disease. The introduction of decompressive surgery (hemicraniectomy) has completely changed this point of view, suggesting that mortality rates may be reduced to approximately 20%. However, critics have always argued that the reduction in mortality may be outweighed by an accompanying increase in severe disability. Due to the lack of conclusive evidence of efficacy from randomised trials, controversy over the benefit of these treatment strategies remained, leading to large regional differences in the application of this procedure. Meanwhile, data from randomised trials confirm the results of former observational studies, demonstrating that hemicraniectomy not only significantly reduces mortality but also significantly improves clinical outcome without increasing the number of completely dependent patients. Hypothermia is another promising treatment option but still needs evidence of efficacy from randomised controlled trials before it may be recommended for clinical routine use. This review gives the reader an integrated view of the current status of treatment options in massive hemispheric brain infarction, based on the available data of clinical trials, including the most recent data from randomised trials published in 2007.

Juttler, Eric; Schellinger, Peter D; Aschoff, Alfred; Zweckberger, Klaus; Unterberg, Andreas; Hacke, Werner

2007-01-01

251

Breast cancer pain management - A review of current & novel therapies  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients’ lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO's three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management, their limitations, and novel targets and non-pharmacological measures under investigation which have the potential to produce a radical change in pain management measures for the breast cancer patients.

Satija, Aanchal; Ahmed, Syed Mehmood; Gupta, Rahul; Ahmed, Arif; Rana, Shiv Pratap Singh; Singh, Suraj Pal; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

2014-01-01

252

Autophagy: A potential target for thyroid cancer therapy (Review)  

PubMed Central

The sharply increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has attracted considerable attention over the last few years. The combination of surgery, radioiodine ablation and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression is usually efficient for the majority of thyroid tumors. However, advanced thyroid cancer that is recurrent, metastatic and 131I-refractory, or medullary thyroid cancer, pose a therapeutic challenge. Autophagy is a process that metabolizes damaged cytoplasmic organelles and long-lived proteins in order to recycle cellular materials and maintain homeostasis. It has been confirmed that autophagy plays a dual role during cancer development, progression and treatment, mainly depending on the type and stage of the tumor. Autophagy modulation has become a potential therapeutic target for diverse diseases. The mechanism of thyroid tumorigenesis and cancer progression was largely demonstrated to be correlated with the dysregulation of the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways, as well as with abnormal epigenetic modifications. Those mechanisms are associated with autophagy regulation and may be beneficial for the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer. However, the number of available studies on the role of autophagy in thyroid cancer development, progression and treatment outcome, is currently limited. The aim of this review was to elaborate on the relevant knowledge and future prospectives of autophagy in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

YI, HEQING; LONG, BIN; YE, XUEMEI; ZHANG, LIJUN; LIU, XIAODONG; ZHANG, CHUNYAN

2014-01-01

253

Improvement of extraction efficiency from a compact synchrotron for proton beam therapy by applying particle tracking analysis  

SciTech Connect

Various types of synchrotrons are used for particle beam therapy. In particle beam therapy, especially in proton beam therapy, downsizing of the accelerator system is a major concern. A compact synchrotron dedicated for proton beam therapy is presented. The synchrotron is horizontally weakly focusing and consists of 4 H-type zerogradient dipole magnets and 4 quadrupole magnets. The circumference of the ring is a little shorter than 18 m, and the energies are up to 230MeV. Beam extraction from the synchrotron is performed by RF-driven slow extraction technology. Two sextupole magnets set in adjacent straight sections form a horizontal separatrix which is fixed during the beam extraction. Horizontal RF voltage excites betatron oscillation of the circulating beam, and protons exceeding the separatrix are extracted by an electrostatic deflector and a horizontal septum dipole magnet. To achieve adequately high extraction efficiency, the relationship between the extraction efficiency and the horizontal chromaticity of the ring is analyzed by particle tracking simulation. The horizontal chromaticity with maximum extraction efficiency is half of the theoretical value because of the distortion of the horizontal separatrix for the extraction. With this chromaticity, the spiral-step of the extracted particle is independent of the momentum deviation of the particle, and the separatrix across the electrostatic septum electrodes is superpositioned.

Ebina, Futaro; Umezawa, Masumi; Hiramoto, Kazuo [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd. 2-1, Omika-cho 7-chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1221 (Japan)

2013-04-19

254

Models of Particle Physics from Type Iib String Theory and F-Theory a Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review particle physics model building in type IIB string theory and F-theory. This is a region in the landscape where in principle many of the key ingredients required for a realistic model of particle physics can be combined successfully. We begin by reviewing moduli stabilization within this framework and its implications for supersymmetry breaking. We then review model building tools and developments in the weakly coupled type IIB limit, for both local D3-branes at singularities and global models of intersecting D7-branes. Much of recent model building work has been in the strongly coupled regime of F-theory due to the presence of exceptional symmetries which allow for the construction of phenomenologically appealing Grand Unified Theories. We review both local and global F-theory model building starting from the fundamental concepts and tools regarding how the gauge group, matter sector and operators arise, and ranging to detailed phenomenological properties explored in the literature.

Maharana, Anshuman; Palti, Eran

2013-03-01

255

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for treatment of children with autism: a systematic review of randomized trials  

PubMed Central

There is a controversy about the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for the treatment of autism. This study systematically reviews the current evidences for treating of autism with HBO therapy. According to PRISMA guidelines for a systematic review, the databases of MEDLINE/Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Randomised Controlled Trials in Hyperbaric Medicine were electronically searched. In addition, medical subject heading terms and text words for hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autism were used. The main inclusion criteria were published studies which reported the original data from the trials conducted on the patients with autism and assessed outcomes with a valid and reliable instrument. A quality assessment was also conducted. The electronically search resulted in 18 title of publications. Two studies were randomized, double-blind, controlled-clinical trials. While some uncontrolled and controlled studies suggested that HBO therapy is effective for the treatment of autism, these promising effects are not replicated. Therefore, sham-controlled studies with rigorous methodology are required to be conducted in order to provide scientific evidence-based HBO therapy for autism treatment.

2012-01-01

256

Evidence-based review: fixed-combination therapy and topical retinoids in the treatment of acne.  

PubMed

Topical fixed-combination products and topical retinoid monotherapy are established first-line treatments for mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris, yet adequate comparative data are lacking. The following evidence-based review addresses the question: "In patients with mild-to-moderate acne, are topical fixed-combination products or topical retinoids a more efficacious choice in reducing noninflammatory, inflammatory and total lesions after 12 weeks of treatment?" To identify relevant studies, a PubMed search was performed using "acne" and search terms for adapalene, tretinoin, tazarotene, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, or erythromycin. Forty-two studies from January 1991 to November 2009 were included. The studies were evaluated using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy, and all but seven received the highest level of evidence grade. To evaluate efficacy, a side-by-side comparison was made using reduction in acne lesion counts at week 12 for study groups treated with fixed-combination therapy or retinoid monotherapy. Twenty-nine studies containing relevant efficacy data for fixed-combination therapy and retinoid monotherapy are summarized here. Nine studies compared fixed-combination therapy with retinoid monotherapy; in eight of these studies, fixed-combination therapy was significantly more efficacious in reducing acne lesion counts. This evidence-based review analyzes clinical evidence to date for these therapies to provide guidance in determining appropriate treatment for patients with mild-to-moderate acne. PMID:21637904

Webster, Guy F

2011-06-01

257

Proton therapy in chordoma of the base of the skull: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chordoma is a rare, slow-growing, locally aggressive, primary bone tumor that arises from the skull base region in approximately\\u000a 25–35% of cases. The therapeutic approach to chordoma has traditionally been surgery, followed by radiation therapy. The advent\\u000a of charged particle radiotherapy has let us consider protons as the postoperative treatment of choice, but no controlled studies\\u000a have yet confirmed the

Maurizio Amichetti; Marco Cianchetti; Dante Amelio; Riccardo Maurizi Enrici; Giuseppe Minniti

2009-01-01

258

Tinted lenses and related therapies for learning disabilities--a review.  

PubMed

Research relating to the use of Irlen tinted lenses and coloured overlays for underachievers is reviewed. Many of the studies were not published in refereed journals and were methodologically poor. The weaknesses of the Irlen argument are discussed, including the absence of evidence to support the claims that these tints need to be uniquely prescribed and manufactured. Syntonics is another form of visual colour therapy that has been applied to those with a learning disability. Research on this is reviewed, and is also shown to have procedural irregularities which preclude firm conclusions. Owing to the poor quality of much of this research the claims of the protagonists of these therapies cannot be proved or disproved. A proposed new therapy is normally preceded by a valid theoretical hypothesis; this has been lacking in the present topic. Recently, a feasible explanation has been proposed in terms of 'pattern glare' resulting from mild hypersensitivity to epileptogenic patterns. This, together with potential alternative theories, is discussed. In the conclusion of this review, advice is given for eye-care practitioners who may be consulted on these therapies. PMID:1766684

Evans, B J; Drasdo, N

1991-07-01

259

Effectiveness of manual physical therapy in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Study design Systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Objective Review of current literature regarding the effectiveness of manual therapy in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Background Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is a clinical condition frequently encountered in the physical therapy clinic. Cervical radiculopathy is a result of space occupying lesions in the cervical spine: either cervical disc herniations, spondylosis, or osteophytosis. These affect the pain generators of bony and ligamentous tissues, producing radicular symptoms (i.e. pain, numbness, weakness, paresthesia) observed in the upper extremity of patients with cervical nerve root pathology. Cervical radiculopathy has a reported annual incidence of 83·2 per 100?000 and an increased prevalence in the fifth decade of life among the general population. Results Medline and CINAHL via EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were used to retrieve the randomized clinical trial studies for this review between the years of 1995 and February of 2011. Four studies met inclusion criteria and were considered to be high quality (PEDro scores of ?5). Manual therapy techniques included muscle energy techniques, non-thrust/thrust manipulation/mobilization of the cervical and/or thoracic spine, soft-tissue mobilization, and neural mobilization. In each study, manual therapy was either a stand-alone intervention or part of a multimodal approach which included therapeutic exercise and often some form of cervical traction. Although no clear cause and effect relationship can be established between improvement in radicular symptoms and manual therapy, results are generally promising. Conclusion Although a definitive treatment progression for treating CR has not been developed a general consensus exists within the literature that using manual therapy techniques in conjunction with therapeutic exercise is effective in regard to increasing function, as well as AROM, while decreasing levels of pain and disability. High quality RCTs featuring control groups are necessary to establish clear and effective protocols in the treatment of CR.

Boyles, Robert; Toy, Patrick; Mellon, James; Hayes, Margaret; Hammer, Bradley

2011-01-01

260

A systematic review of dental disease in patients undergoing cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction This purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature and update our current understanding of the impact of present cancer therapies on the dental apparatus (teeth and periodontium) since the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies. Review method A systematic literature search was conducted with assistance from a research librarian in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE for articles published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2008. Each study was independently assessed by two reviewers. Taking into account predetermined quality measures, a weighted prevalence was calculated for the prevalence of dental caries, severe gingival disease, and dental infection. Data on DMFT/dmft, DMFS/dmfs, plaque, and gingival indexes were also gathered. The level of evidence, recommendation, and guideline (if possible) were given for published preventive and management strategies. Results Sixty-four published papers between 1990 and 2008 were reviewed. The weighted overall prevalence of dental caries was 28.1%. The overall DMFT for patients who were post-antineoplastic therapy was 9.19 (SD, 7.98; n?=?457). The overall plaque index for patients who were post-antineoplastic therapy was 1.38 (SD, 0.25; n?=?189). The GI for patients who were post-chemotherapy was 1.02 (SD, 0.15; n?=?162). The weighted prevalence of dental infections/abscess during chemotherapy was reported in three studies and was 5.8%. Conclusions Patients who were post-radiotherapy had the highest DMFT. The use of fluoride products and chlorhexidine rinses are beneficial in patients who are post-radiotherapy. There continues to be lack of clinical studies on the extent and severity of dental disease that are associated with infectious complications during cancer therapy.

Napenas, Joel J.; Hodgson, Brian D.; Stokman, Monique A.; Mathers-Stauffer, Vickie; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

2010-01-01

261

FUNCTIONAL PROTEOME OF MACROPHAGE CARRIED NANOFORMULATED ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY DEMONSTRATES ENHANCED PARTICLE CARRYING CAPACITY  

PubMed Central

Our laboratory has pioneered the development of long-acting nanoformulations of antiretroviral therapy (nanoART). NanoART serves to improve drug compliance, toxicities, and access to viral reservoirs. These all function to improve treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Formulations are designed to harness the carrying capacities of mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes and macrophages) and to use these cells as Trojan horses for drug delivery. Such a drug distribution system limits ART metabolism and excretion while facilitating access to viral reservoirs. Our prior works demonstrated a high degree of nanoART sequestration in macrophage recycling endosomes with broad and sustained drug tissue biodistribution and depots with limited untoward systemic toxicities. Despite such benefits, the effects of particle carriage on the cells’ functional capacities remained poorly understood. Thus, we employed pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture to elucidate the macrophage proteome and assess any alterations in cellular functions that would affect cell-drug carriage and release kinetics. NanoART-MP interactions resulted in the induction of a broad range of activation-related proteins that can enhance phagocytosis, secretory functions, and cell migration. Notably, we now demonstrate that particle-cell interactions serve to enhance drug loading while facilitating drug tissue depots and transportation.

Martinez-Skinner, Andrea L.; Veerubhotla, Ram S.; Liu, Han; Xiong, Huangui; Yu, Fang; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Gendelman, Howard E.

2013-01-01

262

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy - A Review of its Uses in Orthopaedic Trauma  

PubMed Central

The use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) for complex and large wounds has increased in popularity over the past decade. Modern NPWT systems consisting of an open pore foam sponge, adhesive dressing and a vacuum pump producing negative pressure have been used as an adjunct to surgical debridement to treat tissue defects around open fractures and chronic, contaminated wounds. Other uses include supporting skin grafts and protecting wounds at risk of breaking down. This review outlines the current and emerging indications for negative pressure wound therapy in Orthopaedic trauma and the existing preclinical and clinical evidence base for its use.

Putnis, Sven; Khan, Wasim S; Wong, James M.-L

2014-01-01

263

Rhabdomyolysis associated with fibrate therapy: review of 76 published cases and a new case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fibrates are used to manage mixed dyslipidemia. However, these drugs have the potential risk of inducing rhabdomyolysis. This\\u000a paper gives an overview of the literature on rhabdomyolysis associated with fibrate therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We reported a case of rhabdomyolysis induced by fenofibrate and reviewed the published rhabdomyolysis cases associated with\\u000a fibrate therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Seventy-six published rhabdomyolysis cases associated with fibrates were evaluated, and

Jianyong Wu; Yan Song; Heng Li; Jianghua Chen

2009-01-01

264

Vertebral compression fractures: a review of current management and multimodal therapy  

PubMed Central

Vertebral compression fractures are a prevalent disease affecting osteoporotic patients. When symptomatic, they cause significant pain and loss of function and have a high public health impact. In this paper we outline the diagnosis and management of these patients, with evidence-based review of treatment outcomes for the various therapeutic options. Diagnosis involves a clinical history focusing on the nature of the patient’s pain as well as various imaging studies. Management is multimodal in nature and starts with conservative therapy consisting of analgesic medication, medication for osteoporosis, physical therapy, and bracing. Patients who are refractory to conservative management may be candidates for vertebral augmentation through either vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty.

Wong, Cyrus C; McGirt, Matthew J

2013-01-01

265

Conservative therapy for plantar fasciitis: a narrative review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

A narrative literature review of RCTs only, was conducted to ascertain which conservative treatments provide the best results for plantar fasciitis patients. Stretching, prefabricated and custom-made orthotics and night splints have all been scrutinized in numerous studies with mixed results. Chiropractic manipulative therapy has been examined in one study, with favorable results. Therapeutic ultrasound and low intensity laser therapy have been examined in one study apiece with unsatisfactory results. Based on the trials reviewed a trial of therapy beginning with low-cost, patient-centered treatments is recommended, particularly stretching, over-the-counter orthotics, and patient education. Several (but not all) of the reviewed articles indicated that custom-made orthoses are more beneficial for plantar fasciitis than over-the-counter orthotics. In the event these treatments do not provide satisfactory results, use of night splints should be considered. Based on this review, there is no support for the use of magnetic insoles for plantar fasciitis. Most of the studies were found to have at least one methodological flaw, including inadequate sample sizes, high drop-out rates, comparing multiple interventions to multiple interventions (thus making it difficult to determine the effect of each individual intervention) and lack of long-term follow-up. Outcome measure use between studies was inconsistent.

Stuber, Kent; Kristmanson, Kevyn

2006-01-01

266

Clinical review: Use of renal replacement therapies in special groups of ICU patients  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in ICU patients is typically associated with other severe conditions that require special attention when renal replacement therapy (RRT) is performed. RRT includes a wide range of techniques, each with specific characteristics and implications for use in ICU patients. In the present review we discuss a wide range of conditions that can occur in ICU patients who have AKI, and the implications this has for RRT. Patients at increased risk for bleeding should be treated without anticoagulation or with regional citrate anticoagulation. In patients who are haemodynamically unstable, continuous therapies are most often employed. These therapies allow slow removal of volume and guarantee a stable blood pH. In patients with cerebral oedema, continuous therapy is recommended in order to prevent decreased cerebral blood flow, which will lead to cerebral ischemia. Continuous therapy will also prevent sudden change in serum osmolality with aggravation of cerebral oedema. Patients with hyponatraemia, as in liver failure or decompensated heart failure, require extra attention because a rapid increase of serum sodium concentration can lead to irreversible brain damage through osmotic myelinolysis. Finally, in patients with severe lactic acidosis, RRT can be used as a bridging therapy, awaiting correction of the underlying cause. Especially in ICU patients who have severe AKI, treatment with RRT requires balancing the pros and cons of different options and modalities. Exact and specific guidelines for RRT in these patients are not available for most clinical situations. In the present article we provide an update on the existing evidence.

2012-01-01

267

Accelerated partial breast irradiation using external beam conformal radiation therapy: a review.  

PubMed

Lumpectomy followed by whole breast radiation therapy (i.e. breast conservation therapy (BCT)) is the standard of care for management of early stage breast cancer. However, its utilization has not been maximized because of a number of reasons including the logistic issues associated with the 5-6 weeks of radiation treatment. Also, pathological and clinical data suggest that most ipsilateral breast cancer recurrences are in the vicinity of the lumpectomy. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an approach that treats only the lumpectomy bed plus a 1-2 cm margin, rather than the whole breast with higher doses of radiation in a shorter period of time. There has been growing interest for APBI and various approaches have been developed and are under phase I-III clinical studies. This paper reviews external beam conformal radiation therapy (EBCRT) as a possible technique to APBI. The various EBCRT approaches such as 3D conformal radiation therapy, IMRT, proton therapy, tomotherapy, and volumetric arc therapy are discussed. Issues with the implementation of these techniques such as target volume delineation and organ motion are also presented. It is evident that EBCRT has potential for APBI of a selected group of early breast cancer patient. However, issues with setup errors and breathing motions need to be adequately addressed. PMID:21376625

Njeh, Christopher F; Saunders, Mark W; Langton, Christian M

2012-01-01

268

Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) ...

J. E. Lane P. T. Metzger R. A. Wilkinson

2010-01-01

269

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE ON PARTICLE COLLECTION MECHANISMS: THEORETICAL REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a critical review and evaluation of the mechanics of aerosols at high temperatures and pressures. It discusses equations and models used to predict particle behavior at normal conditions, with regard to their applicability at high temperatures and pressures. It disc...

270

Common platform of Monte Carlo dose calculation on universal grid interface with Geant4 based particle therapy simulation framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is believed to be the most reliable method of dose calculation in particle therapy, the simulation time is critical in attaining sufficient statistical accuracy for clinical applications. Therefore, parallelization of simulations is essential. This paper describes a common platform of MC dose calculation in grid-distributed computing environments. The platform is flexible and effective for dose calculation in both clinical and research applications for particle therapy. The platform consists of the universal grid interface (UGI) and the Geant4-based particle therapy simulation framework (PTSIM). The UGI, written in Python, provides a command-line interface for job submission, file manipulation, and monitoring in multiple-grid middleware environments. The PTSIM is a single software application for modeling a treatment port with patient data obtained from CT images. The common platform was constructed in grid computing environments using the computing resources in five institutions. The platform utilized these resources through the NAREGI grid middleware under UGI to provide stable computing resources and a common environment for MC dose calculation in particle therapy.

Iwai, G.; Takase, W.; Aso, T.; Watase, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Akagi, T.; Yamashita, T.; Maeda, Y.; Nishio, T.

2014-03-01

271

Replacement therapy for invasive procedures in patients with haemophilia: literature review, European survey and recommendations.  

PubMed

Although most surgical and invasive procedures can be performed safely in patients with haemophilia, the optimal level and duration of replacement therapy required to prevent bleeding complications have not been established conclusively. For providing more insight into optimal therapy during invasive procedures, a literature review of surgical procedures in patients with haemophilia was conducted. Concomitantly, current practice was surveyed in 26 European Haemophilia Comprehensive Care Centres, representing 15 different countries. The review identified 110 original papers published between 1965 and 2007. Of these, only two studies were randomized controlled trials. Target levels and the duration of replacement therapy in the published studies were as follows. For major orthopaedic surgery: preoperative targets were 80-90%; postoperative targets showed a high degree of variation, with trough levels ranging from 20% to 80%, duration 10-14 days; for liver biopsy, 70-100%, 1-7 days; tonsillectomy: 90-100%, 5-11 days; indwelling venous access device insertion: 100%, 3-10 days; circumcision: 50-60%, 2-4 days; dental surgery: 30-50%, single treatment. With the exception of dental surgery, current practice in Europe, as assessed by the survey, was largely in agreement with published data. In conclusion, this study provides both a comprehensive review and a large survey of replacement therapy in patients with haemophilia undergoing invasive procedures; these data have informed the consensus practical treatment recommendations made in this paper. This study highlights the need for better-designed studies in order to better define minimal haemostatic levels of replacement therapy and optimal treatment duration. PMID:19444969

Hermans, C; Altisent, C; Batorova, A; Chambost, H; De Moerloose, P; Karafoulidou, A; Klamroth, R; Richards, M; White, B; Dolan, G

2009-05-01

272

Review of Occupational Therapy Research in the Practice Area of Children and Youth  

PubMed Central

A systematic review was conducted focusing on articles in the Occupational Therapy (OT) practice category of Childhood and Youth (C&Y) published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) over the two-year period of 2009–2010. The frameworks of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and Positive Youth Development (PYD) were used to explore OT research progress toward the goals of the Centennial Vision (CV). Forty-six research articles were organized by research type and were classified within these two frameworks. The majority of reviewed published research investigated variables representing constructs falling within the ICF domains of Body Functioning and Activity. The effect of OT interventions on PYD resided primarily in building competence. In order to meet the tenets of the CV, OTs must document changes in children’s engagement in everyday life situations and build the evidence of OT’s efficacy in facilitating participation.

Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Kreider, Consuelo M.

2011-01-01

273

A review of "music and movement" therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development.  

PubMed

The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962

Srinivasan, Sudha M; Bhat, Anjana N

2013-01-01

274

Fission reactor neutron sources for neutron capture therapy — a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The status of fission reactor-based neutron beams for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is reviewed critically. Epithermal neutron\\u000a beams, which are favored for treatment of deep-seated tumors, have been constructed or are under construction at a number\\u000a of reactors worldwide. Some of the most recently constructed epithermal neutron beams approach the theoretical optimum for\\u000a beam purity. Of these higher quality beams,

Otto K. Harling; Kent J. Riley

2003-01-01

275

Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cummings TM, White AR. Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:986-92. Objective: To establish whether there is evidence for or against the efficacy of needling as a treatment approach for myofascial trigger point pain. Data Sources: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, AMED, and CISCOM databases, searched

T. Michael Cummings; Adrian R. White

2001-01-01

276

Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of auditory integration training (AIT) or other methods of sound therapy in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).Study design: A systematic review was carried out of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults or children with ASD. Meta-analysis was attempted.Results: Six RCTs of AIT, including one crossover trial, were identified, with a total of 171 participants

Y Sinha; N Silove; D Wheeler; K Williams

2006-01-01

277

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for musculoskeletal pathology--a literature review.  

PubMed

For more than two decades extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has emerged as the standard therapy for calculi in the kidney and urinary tract, and biliary system. Application of extracorporeal shock waves in orthopaedics involves treatment of recalcitrant chronic pain of plantar fasciitis, tennis elbow and calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder. This review explores current evidence-based issues related to its potential use as a treatment option for some musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:16381274

Saw, A

2005-07-01

278

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for stroke: a systematic review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the benefits and harms of using hyperbaric oxygen therapy to treat acute or subacute stroke or the chronic effects of a stroke. We aimed to identify any gaps in the evidence to provide guidance for future research.Design: A systematic review of the evidence.Search strategy: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, HealthSTAR, CINAHL, MANTIS, bibliographic databases from

Susan Carson; Marian McDonagh; Barry Russman; Mark Helfand

2005-01-01

279

Continuation and Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy for Mood Disorders: Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for mood disorders. Continuation ECT (C-ECT) and maintenance ECT (M-ECT) are required for many patients suffering from severe and recurrent forms of mood disorders. This is a review of the literature regarding C- and M-ECT. Methods: We conducted a computerized search using the words continuation ECT, maintenance ECT, depression, mania, bipolar

Georgios Petrides; Kristen G. Tobias; Charles H. Kellner; Matthew V. Rudorfer

2011-01-01

280

Patient Retention in Antiretroviral Therapy Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLong-term retention of patients in Africa's rapidly expanding antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs for HIV\\/AIDS is essential for these programs' success but has received relatively little attention. In this paper we present a systematic review of patient retention in ART programs in sub-Saharan Africa.Methods and FindingsWe searched Medline, other literature databases, conference abstracts, publications archives, and the “gray literature” (project reports

Sydney Rosen; Matthew P Fox; Christopher J Gill

2007-01-01

281

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We systematically reviewed empirical studies that investigated the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for premenstrual\\u000a syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Our multi-database search identified seven published empirical reports.\\u000a Three were identified as randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The methods utilized to investigate therapeutic efficacy of\\u000a CBT in these studies varied widely from case reports to RCTs with pharmacotherapy comparison

M. Kathleen B. Lustyk; Winslow G. Gerrish; Shelley Shaver; Shaunie L. Keys

2009-01-01

282

Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Articular cartilage injury remains one of the major concerns in orthopaedic surgery. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation\\u000a has been introduced to avoid some of the side effects and complications of current techniques. The purpose of this paper is\\u000a to review the literature on MSC-based cell therapy for articular cartilage repair to determine if it can be an alternative\\u000a treatment for

Hideyuki Koga; Lars Engebretsen; Jan E. Brinchmann; Takeshi Muneta; Ichiro Sekiya

2009-01-01

283

Impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To systematically determine the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature.Design Systematic review.Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials from 1985 to April 2010.Data extraction Height in adulthood (standard deviation score) and overall gain in height (SD

Annalisa Deodati; Stefano Cianfarani

2011-01-01

284

Moving from Virtual Reality Exposure-Based Therapy to Augmented Reality Exposure-Based Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed “safely” to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia.

Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stephane

2014-01-01

285

Moving from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy: a review.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed "safely" to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user's experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia. PMID:24624073

Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane

2014-01-01

286

Adenovirus-mediated REIC/Dkk-3 gene therapy: Development of an autologous cancer vaccination therapy (Review)  

PubMed Central

Reduced expression in immortalized cells (REIC)/Dickkopf (Dkk)-3 is a tumor suppressor and therapeutic gene and has been studied with respect to the application of cancer gene therapy. Our previous studies demonstrated that the intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC) suppresses tumor growth in mouse models of prostate, breast and testicular cancer and malignant mesothelioma. The mechanisms underlying these antitumor therapeutic effects have only been clarified recently. It has been demonstrated that Ad-REIC treatment inhibits cancer progression via the upregulation of systemic anticancer immunity. Under experimental conditions, autologous cancer vaccination via cancer-specific apoptosis and anticancer immune activation is a possible therapeutic mechanism. The robust anticancer effects observed in previous preclinical studies support the clinical utility of Ad-REIC. At present, a phase I–IIa study of Ad-REIC gene therapy in prostate cancer patients is ongoing. The current study reviews the observations of previous fundamental studies and summarizes the anticancer mechanisms of intratumoral Ad-REIC treatment in terms of cancer vaccination.

WATANABE, MASAMI; NASU, YASUTOMO; KUMON, HIROMI

2014-01-01

287

4D particle therapy PET simulation for moving targets irradiated with scanned ion beams.  

PubMed

Particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) allows for an in vivo and in situ verification of applied dose distributions in ion beam therapy. Since the dose distribution cannot be extracted directly from the ?(+)-activity distribution gained from the PET scan the validation is done by means of a comparison between the reconstructed ?(+)-activity distributions from a PT-PET measurement and from a PT-PET simulation. Thus, the simulation software for generating PET data predicted from the treatment planning is an essential part of the dose verification routine. For the dose monitoring of intra-fractionally moving target volumes the PET data simulation needs to be upgraded by using time resolved (4D) algorithms to account correctly for the motion dependent displacement of the positron emitters. Moreover, it has to consider the time dependent relative movement between target volume and scanned beam to simulate the accurate positron emitter distribution generated during irradiation. Such a simulation program is presented which properly proceeds with motion compensated dose delivery by scanned ion beams to intra-fractionally moving targets. By means of a preclinical phantom study it is demonstrated that even the sophisticated motion-mitigated beam delivery technique of range compensated target tracking can be handled correctly by this simulation code. The new program is widely based on the 3D PT-PET simulation program which had been developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany (HZDR) for application within a pilot project to simulate in-beam PET data for about 440 patients with static tumor entities irradiated at the former treatment facility of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany (GSI). A simulation example for a phantom geometry irradiated with a tracked (12)C-ion beam is presented for demonstrating the proper functionality of the program. PMID:23306167

Laube, K; Menkel, S; Bert, C; Enghardt, W; Helmbrecht, S; Saito, N; Fiedler, F

2013-02-01

288

4D particle therapy PET simulation for moving targets irradiated with scanned ion beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) allows for an in vivo and in situ verification of applied dose distributions in ion beam therapy. Since the dose distribution cannot be extracted directly from the ?+-activity distribution gained from the PET scan the validation is done by means of a comparison between the reconstructed ?+-activity distributions from a PT-PET measurement and from a PT-PET simulation. Thus, the simulation software for generating PET data predicted from the treatment planning is an essential part of the dose verification routine. For the dose monitoring of intra-fractionally moving target volumes the PET data simulation needs to be upgraded by using time resolved (4D) algorithms to account correctly for the motion dependent displacement of the positron emitters. Moreover, it has to consider the time dependent relative movement between target volume and scanned beam to simulate the accurate positron emitter distribution generated during irradiation. Such a simulation program is presented which properly proceeds with motion compensated dose delivery by scanned ion beams to intra-fractionally moving targets. By means of a preclinical phantom study it is demonstrated that even the sophisticated motion-mitigated beam delivery technique of range compensated target tracking can be handled correctly by this simulation code. The new program is widely based on the 3D PT-PET simulation program which had been developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany (HZDR) for application within a pilot project to simulate in-beam PET data for about 440 patients with static tumor entities irradiated at the former treatment facility of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany (GSI). A simulation example for a phantom geometry irradiated with a tracked 12C-ion beam is presented for demonstrating the proper functionality of the program.

Laube, K.; Menkel, S.; Bert, C.; Enghardt, W.; Helmbrecht, S.; Saito, N.; Fiedler, F.

2013-02-01

289

Selecting deep brain stimulation or infusion therapies in advanced Parkinson's disease: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD) result from the short half-life and irregular plasma fluctuations of oral levodopa. When strategies of providing more continuous dopaminergic stimulation by adjusting oral medication fail, patients may be candidates for one of three device-aided therapies: deep brain stimulation (DBS), continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion, or continuous duodenal/jejunal levodopa/carbidopa pump infusion (DLI). These therapies differ in their invasiveness, side-effect profile, and the need for nursing care. So far, very few comparative studies have evaluated the efficacy of the three device-aided therapies for specific motor problems in advanced PD. As a result, neurologists currently lack guidance as to which therapy could be most appropriate for a particular PD patient. A group of experts knowledgeable in all three therapies reviewed the currently available literature for each treatment and identified variables of clinical relevance for choosing one of the three options such as type of motor problems, age, and cognitive and psychiatric status. For each scenario, pragmatic and (if available) evidence-based recommendations are provided as to which patients could be candidates for either DBS, DLI, or subcutaneous apomorphine. PMID:23287972

Volkmann, Jens; Albanese, Alberto; Antonini, Angelo; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Clarke, Carl E; de Bie, Rob M A; Deuschl, Günther; Eggert, Karla; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Nyholm, Dag; Odin, Per; Østergaard, Karen; Poewe, Werner; Pollak, Pierre; Rabey, Jose Martin; Rascol, Olivier; Ruzicka, Evzen; Samuel, Michael; Speelman, Hans; Sydow, Olof; Valldeoriola, Francesc; van der Linden, Chris; Oertel, Wolfgang

2013-11-01

290

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.

Prazeres, Angelica M; Nascimento, Antonio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2013-01-01

291

Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it. This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. Methods We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched six electronic databases, all searches ended in December 2008. We extracted data on the type of cupping and type of diseases treated. Results 550 clinical studies were identified published between 1959 and 2008, including 73 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 22 clinical controlled trials, 373 case series, and 82 case reports. Number of RCTs obviously increased during past decades, but the quality of the RCTs was generally poor according to the risk of bias of the Cochrane standard for important outcome within each trials. The diseases in which cupping was commonly employed included pain conditions, herpes zoster, cough or asthma, etc. Wet cupping was used in majority studies, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, medicinal cupping, etc. 38 studies used combination of two types of cupping therapies. No serious adverse effects were reported in the studies. Conclusions According to the above results, quality and quantity of RCTs on cupping therapy appears to be improved during the past 50 years in China, and majority of studies show potential benefit on pain conditions, herpes zoster and other diseases. However, further rigorous designed trials in relevant conditions are warranted to support their use in practice.

2010-01-01

292

Drug therapy of post-stroke aphasia: a review of current evidence.  

PubMed

This review considers the role of drug therapy in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia, the evidence for efficacy of different agents, and the theory-based explanations of drug-related benefits for aphasia rehabilitation. Pharmacological interventions modulating stroke-induced disruption of diverse neurotransmitters may improve language and communication deficits in aphasic patients through facilitation of brain plasticity and long-term potentiation. However, benefits are not evident for all compounds and refinement in clinical trial designs is required. Some pharmacological trials have failed because drug treatment was not combined with speech-language therapy, while other trials combining drugs with intensive model-driven therapies also failed probably because of short-trial duration, inadequate sample selection, or lack of drug action. Preliminary data reveals that combining neuroscience-based intensive aphasia techniques (constraint-induced aphasia therapy) and drugs acting on cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems are associated with better outcomes than other strategies and long-term maintenance of benefits. Although further studies are needed, current state of the evidence suggests that drug therapy may play a key role in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia. PMID:21845354

Berthier, Marcelo L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Dávila, Guadalupe; Casares, Natalia García; Gutiérrez, Antonio

2011-09-01

293

Bench-to-bedside review: Inotropic drug therapy after adult cardiac surgery – a systematic literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many adult patients require temporary inotropic support after cardiac surgery. We reviewed the literature systematically to establish, present and classify the evidence regarding choice of inotropic drugs. The available evidence, while limited in quality and scope, supports the following observations; although all ?-agonists can increase cardiac output, the best studied ?-agonist and the one with the most favourable side-effect profile

Michael Gillies; Rinaldo Bellomo; Laurie Doolan; Brian Buxton

2005-01-01

294

A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn

2010-01-01

295

Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy: A comparative study of heating for different particle types  

PubMed Central

Introduction Near infrared absorbing plasmonic nanoparticles enhance photothermal therapy of tumors. In this procedure, systemically delivered gold nanoparticles preferentially accumulate at the tumor site and when irradiated using laser light, produce localized heat sufficient to damage tumor cells. Gold nanoshells and nanorods have been widely studied for this purpose, and while both exhibit strong NIR absorption, their overall absorption and scattering properties differ widely due to their geometry. In this paper, we compared the photothermal response of both nanoparticle types including the heat generation and photothermal efficiency. Methods Tissue simulating phantoms, with varying concentrations of gold nanoparticles, were irradiated with a near-infrared diode laser while concurrently monitoring the surface temperature with an infrared camera. We calculated nanoshell and nanorod optical properties using the Mie solution and the discrete dipole approximation, respectively. In addition, we measured the heat generation of nanoshells and nanorods at the same optical density to determine the photothermal transduction efficiency for both nanoparticle types. Results We found that the gold nanoshells produced more heat than gold nanorods at equivalent number densities (# of nanoparticles/mL), whereas the nanorods generated more heat than nanoshells at equivalent extinction values at the irradiance wavelength. To reach an equivalent heat generation, we found that it was necessary to have ~36x more nanorods than nanoshells. However, the gold nanorods were found to have two times the photothermal transduction efficiency than the gold nanoshells. Conclusion For the NPs tested, the nanoshells generated more heat, per nanoparticle, than nanorods, primarily due to their overall larger geometric cross section. Conversely, we found that the gold nanorods had a higher photothermal efficiency than the gold nanoshells. In conclusion, the ideal choice of plasmonic nanoparticle requires not only per particle efficiency, but also the in vivo particle targeting ability under study.

Pattani, Varun P.

2012-01-01

296

Interventions to improve delivery of isoniazid preventive therapy: an overview of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) to prevent tuberculosis has been poor, particularly in the highest risk populations. Interventions to improve IPT delivery could promote implementation. The large number of existing systematic reviews on treatment adherence has made drawing conclusions a challenge. To provide decision makers with the evidence they need, we performed an overview of systematic reviews to compare different organizational interventions to improve IPT delivery as measured by treatment completion among those at highest risk for the development of TB disease, namely child contacts or HIV-infected individuals. Methods We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), and MEDLINE up to August 15, 2012. Two authors used a standardized data extraction form and the AMSTAR instrument to independently assess each review. Results Six reviews met inclusion criteria. Interventions included changes in the setting/site of IPT delivery, use of quality monitoring mechanisms (e.g., directly observed therapy), IPT delivery integration into other healthcare services, and use of lay health workers. Most reviews reported a combination of outcomes related to IPT adherence and treatment completion rate but without a baseline or comparison rate. Generally, we found limited evidence to demonstrate that the studied interventions improved treatment completion. Conclusions While most of the interventions were not shown to improve IPT completion, integration of tuberculosis and HIV services yielded high treatment completion rates in some settings. The lack of data from high burden TB settings limits applicability. Further research to assess different IPT delivery interventions, including those that address barriers to care in at-risk populations, is urgently needed to identify the most effective practices for IPT delivery and TB control in high TB burden settings.

2014-01-01

297

Reviews  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BOOK REVIEWS (71) Calculations for A-Level Physics, 4th edition The Science of Soccer New Higher Physics, 2nd edition Standard Grade Physics, 2nd edition Particle Physics WEB WATCH (75) 'Fly me to the Moon ...'

2003-01-01

298

Monte Carlo simulations of new 2D ripple filters for particle therapy facilities.  

PubMed

At particle therapy facilities with pencil beam scanning, the implementation of a ripple filter (RiFi) broadens the Bragg peak (BP), which leads to fewer energy steps from the accelerator required to obtain an homogeneous dose coverage of the planned target volume (PTV). At the Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg, Germany, a new second generation RiFi has been developed with two-dimensional groove structures. In this work we evaluate this new RiFi design. Methods: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT12A is used to determine the RiFi-induced inhomogeneities in the dose distribution for various ion types, initial particle energies and distances from the RiFi to the phantom surface as well as in the depth of the phantom. The beam delivery and monitor system (BAMS) used at Marburg, the Heidelberg Ionentherapiezentrum (HIT), Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Germany and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany is modeled and simulated. To evaluate the PTV dose coverage performance of the new RiFi design, the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP98 is used for dose optimization. SHIELD-HIT12A is used to prepare the facility-specific physical dose kernels needed by TRiP, and for recalculating the physical dose distribution after TRiP optimization. Results: At short distances from the RiFi to the phantom surface fine structures in the dose distribution are observed. For various RiFis, ion types and initial particle energies the distance dmax at which maximum dose inhomogeneity occurs is found and an expression for dmax is deduced. The distance d0.01 at which the dose inhomogeneity is less than 1% is estimated and used as a threshold distance at which dose distributions are considered homogeneous. The MC data are found to agree with analytical expressions for dmax and d0.01; both are inversely related to the angular distribution. Increasing scatter from the beam delivery and monitoring system results in reduced dmax and d0.01. Furthermore, dmax and d0.01 are found to be proportional to the RiFi period ?. Conclusion: Our findings clearly indicate that the dose inhomogeneity induced by RiFis does not add uncertainties to the dose distribution in the clinical setting. The new RiFi design can be used in treatments to obtain homogeneous PTV dose coverage with fewer energy steps while improving lateral penumbra, thereby reducing the required treatment time. PMID:24050575

Ringbæk, Toke Printz; Weber, Uli; Petersen, Jørgen B; Thomsen, Bjarne; Bassler, Niels

2014-01-01

299

Dosimetric consequences of pencil beam width variations in scanned beam particle therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanned ion beam delivery enables the highest degree of target dose conformation attainable in external beam radiotherapy. Nominal pencil beam widths (spot sizes) are recorded during treatment planning system commissioning. Due to changes in the beam-line optics, the actual spot sizes may differ from these commissioning values, leading to differences between planned and delivered dose. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dosimetric consequences of spot size variations in particle therapy treatment plans. For 12 patients with skull base tumours and 12 patients with prostate carcinoma, scanned-beam carbon ion and proton treatment plans were prepared and recomputed simulating spot size changes of (1) ±10% to simulate the typical magnitude of fluctuations, (2) ±25% representing the worst-case scenario and (3) ±50% as a part of a risk analysis in case of fault conditions. The primary effect of the spot size variation was a dose deterioration affecting the target edge: loss of target coverage and broadening of the lateral penumbra (increased spot size) or overdosage and contraction of the lateral penumbra (reduced spot size). For changes ?25%, the resulting planning target volume mean 95%-isodose line coverage (CI-95%) deterioration was ranging from negligible to moderate. In some cases changes in the dose to adjoining critical structures were observed.

Chanrion, M. A.; Ammazzalorso, F.; Wittig, A.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Jelen, U.

2013-06-01

300

Counselling and self-management therapies for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of counselling and other self-management-based therapies on muscle and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain relief and increasing the functional abilities of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic literature review was conducted by three independent reviewers and included articles published up to 2012. PubMed and Cochrane Library electronic databases were used in addition to hand-searching to assess clinical outcomes for counselling and self-management approaches for TMD treatment. The review yielded 581 records that were narrowed down to 7. All included studies were classified as blind-randomized controlled clinical trials. The selected articles analysed revealed that counselling was able to improve tenderness upon masticatory muscle palpation and maximum mouth opening with and without pain in patients with TMD, with similar results to those of interocclusal appliances approaches. Thus, counselling- and self-management-based therapies could be considered a conservative low-cost and beneficial treatment alternative for treating TMD to potentially improve psychological domains and remove harmful behaviours for the control of the signs and symptoms of TMD. PMID:24102692

de Freitas, R F C P; Ferreira, M Â F; Barbosa, G A S; Calderon, P S

2013-11-01

301

Movement therapy induced neural reorganization and motor recovery in stroke: a review.  

PubMed

This paper is a review conducted to provide an overview of accumulated evidence on contemporary rehabilitation methods for stroke survivors. Loss of functional movement is a common consequence of stroke for which a wide range of interventions has been developed. Traditional therapeutic approaches have shown limited results for motor deficits as well as lack evidence for their effectiveness. Stroke rehabilitation is now based on the evidence of neuroplasticity, which is responsible for recovery following stroke. The neuroplastic changes in the structure and function of relevant brain areas are induced primarily by specific rehabilitation methods. The therapeutic method which induces neuroplastic changes, leads to greater motor and functional recovery than traditional methods. Further, the recovery is permanent in nature. During the last decade various novel stroke rehabilitative methods for motor recovery have been developed. This review focuses on the methods that have evidence of associated cortical level reorganization, namely task-specific training, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotic training, mental imaging, and virtual training. All of these methods utilize principles of motor learning. The findings from this review demonstrated convincing evidence both at the neural and functional level in response to such therapies. The main aim of the review was to determine the evidence for these methods and their application into clinical practice. PMID:21943628

Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta; Verma, Rajesh; Garg, R K

2011-10-01

302

Combination therapy with GLP-1 receptor agonists and basal insulin: a systematic review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Treatment algorithms for type 2 diabetes call for intensification of therapy over time as the disease progresses and glycaemic control worsens. If diet, exercise and oral antihyperglycaemic medications (OAMs) fail to maintain glycaemic control then basal insulin is added and ultimately prandial insulin may be required. However, such an intensification strategy carries risk of increased hypoglycaemia and weight gain, both of which are associated with worse long-term outcomes. An alternative strategy is to intensify therapy by the addition of a short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) rather than prandial insulin. Short-acting GLP-1 RAs such as exenatide twice daily are particularly effective at reducing postprandial glucose while basal insulin has a greater effect on fasting glucose, providing a physiological rationale for this complementary approach. This review analyzes the latest randomized controlled clinical trials of insulin/GLP-1 RA combination therapy and examines results from ‘real-world’ use of the combinations as reported through observational and clinical practice studies. The most common finding across all types of studies was that combination therapy improved glycaemic control without weight gain or an increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Many studies reported weight loss and a reduction in insulin use when a GLP-1 RA was added to existing insulin therapy. Overall, the relative degree of benefit to glycaemic control and weight was influenced by the insulin titration employed in conjunction with the GLP-1 RA. The greatest glycaemic benefits were observed in studies with structured titration of insulin to glycaemic targets while the greatest weight benefits were observed in studies with a protocol-specified focus on insulin sparing. The adverse event profile of GLP-1 RAs in the reviewed trials was similar to that reported with GLP-1 RAs as monotherapy or in combination with OAMs with gastrointestinal events being the most commonly reported.

Balena, R; Hensley, I E; Miller, S; Barnett, A H

2013-01-01

303

A Systematic Review of the Combined Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychotherapy for Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, after acute phase treatment and initial remission, relapse rates are significant. Strategies to prolong remission include continuation phase ECT, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or their combinations. This systematic review synthesizes extant data regarding the combined use of psychotherapy with ECT for the treatment of patients with severe MDD and offers the hypothesis that augmenting ECT with depression-specific psychotherapy represents a promising strategy for future investigation. Methods The authors performed two independent searches in PsychInfo (1806 – 2009) and MEDLINE (1948 – 2009) using combinations of the following search terms: Electroconvulsive Therapy (including ECT, ECT therapy, electroshock therapy, EST, shock therapy) and Psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, group, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, individual, eclectic, and supportive). We included in this review a total of six articles (English language) that mentioned ECT and psychotherapy in the abstract, and provided a case report, series, or clinical trial. We examined the articles for data related to ECT and psychotherapy treatment characteristics, cohort characteristics, and therapeutic outcome. Results Although research over the past seven decades documenting the combined use of ECT and psychotherapy is limited, the available evidence suggests that testing this combination has promise and may confer additional, positive functional outcomes. Conclusions Significant methodological variability in ECT and psychotherapy procedures, heterogeneous patient cohorts, and inconsistent outcome measures prevent strong conclusions; however, existing research supports the need for future investigations of combined ECT and psychotherapy in well-designed, controlled clinical studies. Depression-specific psychotherapy approaches may need special adaptations in view of the cognitive effects following ECT.

McClintock, Shawn M.; Brandon, Anna R.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

2011-01-01

304

Review of doped silica glass optical fibre: their TL properties and potential applications in radiation therapy dosimetry.  

PubMed

Review is made of dosimetric studies of Ge-doped SiO(2) telecommunication fibre as a 1-D thermoluminescence (TL) system for therapeutic applications. To-date, the response of these fibres has been investigated for UV sources, superficial X-ray beam therapy facilities, a synchrotron microbeam facility, electron linear accelerators, protons, neutrons and alpha particles, covering the energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Dosimetric characteristics include, reproducibility, fading, dose response, reciprocity between TL yield and dose-rate and energy dependence. The fibres produce a flat response to fixed photon and electron doses to within better than 3% of the mean TL distribution. Irradiated Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres show limited signal fading, with an average loss of TL signal of ~0.4% per day. In terms of dose response, Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres have been shown to provide linearity to x and electron doses, from a fraction of 1 Gy up to 2 kGy. The dosimeters have also been used in measuring photoelectron generation from iodinated contrast media; TL yields being some 60% greater in the presence of iodine than in its absence. The review is accompanied by previously unpublished data. PMID:22381700

Bradley, D A; Hugtenburg, R P; Nisbet, A; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek; Issa, Fatma; Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Alalawi, Amani

2012-12-01

305

The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

2003-01-01

306

Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Tuberculosis in Adults with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a systematic review and meta-analysis, Amitabh Suthar and colleagues investigate the association between antiretroviral therapy and the reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.

Amitabh B. Suthar; Stephen D. Lawn; Julia del Amo; Haileyesus Getahun; Christopher Dye; Delphine Sculier; Timothy R. Sterling; Richard E. Chaisson; Brian G. Williams; Anthony D. Harries; Reuben M. Granich

2012-01-01

307

Evaluation of different fiducial markers for image-guided radiotherapy and particle therapy  

PubMed Central

Modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques are widely used in the irradiation of moving organs. A crucial step in ensuring the correct position of a target structure directly before or during treatment is daily image guidance by computed tomography (CT) or X-ray radiography (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT). Therefore, combinations of modern irradiation devices and imaging, such as on-board imaging (OBI) with X-rays, or in-room CT such as the tomotherapy system, have been developed. Moreover, combinations of linear accelerators and in-room CT-scanners have been designed. IGRT is of special interest in hypofractionated and radiosurgical treatments where high single doses are applied in the proximity of critical organs at risk. Radiographically visible markers in or in close proximity to the target structure may help to reproduce the position during RT and could therefore be used as external surrogates for motion monitoring. Criteria sought for fiducial markers are (i) visibility in the radiologic modalities involved in radiotherapeutic treatment planning and image guidance, such as CT and kilovoltage (kV) OBI), (ii) low production of imaging artifacts, and (iii) low perturbation of the therapeutic dose to the target volume. Photon interaction with interstitial markers has been shown to be not as important as in particle therapy, where interaction of the particle beam, especially with metal markers, can have a significant impact on treatment. This applies especially with a scanned ion beam. Recently we commenced patient recruitment at our institution within the PROMETHEUS trial, which evaluates a hypofractionation regime, starting with 4 x 10 Gy (RBE), for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work is, therefore, to evaluate potential implantable fiducial markers for enabling precise patient and thus organ positioning in scanned ion beams. To transfer existing knowledge of marker application from photon to particle therapy, we used a range of commercially available markers of different forms and sizes, consisting of carbon and gold materials, and evaluated them for their potential use in the clinical setup with scanned ion beams at our institution. All markers were implanted in a standardized Alderson phantom and were examined using CT scans and orthogonal kV OBI in our clinical routine protocol. Impact on beam perturbation downstream of the markers in the plateau region of a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) was estimated by using radiographic films for clinical proton and carbon ion beams of high and low energies. All tested markers achieved good visibility in CT and kV OBI. Disturbances due to artifacts and dose perturbation were highest in the arbitrarily folded gold and the thickest gold marker, but especially low in the carbon marker. Dose perturbation was highest in the arbitrarily folded gold marker. In summary, the analyzed markers offer promising potential for identifying target structures in our treatment setup at HIT and will soon be used in clinical routine. However, a careful choice of marker, depending on the tumor localization and irradiation strategy, will need to be made.

Habermehl, Daniel; Henkner, Katrin; Ecker, Swantje; Jakel, Oliver; Debus, Jurgen; Combs, Stephanie E.

2013-01-01

308

Evaluation of different fiducial markers for image-guided radiotherapy and particle therapy.  

PubMed

Modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques are widely used in the irradiation of moving organs. A crucial step in ensuring the correct position of a target structure directly before or during treatment is daily image guidance by computed tomography (CT) or X-ray radiography (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT). Therefore, combinations of modern irradiation devices and imaging, such as on-board imaging (OBI) with X-rays, or in-room CT such as the tomotherapy system, have been developed. Moreover, combinations of linear accelerators and in-room CT-scanners have been designed. IGRT is of special interest in hypofractionated and radiosurgical treatments where high single doses are applied in the proximity of critical organs at risk. Radiographically visible markers in or in close proximity to the target structure may help to reproduce the position during RT and could therefore be used as external surrogates for motion monitoring. Criteria sought for fiducial markers are (i) visibility in the radiologic modalities involved in radiotherapeutic treatment planning and image guidance, such as CT and kilovoltage (kV) OBI), (ii) low production of imaging artifacts, and (iii) low perturbation of the therapeutic dose to the target volume. Photon interaction with interstitial markers has been shown to be not as important as in particle therapy, where interaction of the particle beam, especially with metal markers, can have a significant impact on treatment. This applies especially with a scanned ion beam. Recently we commenced patient recruitment at our institution within the PROMETHEUS trial, which evaluates a hypofractionation regime, starting with 4 x 10 Gy (RBE), for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work is, therefore, to evaluate potential implantable fiducial markers for enabling precise patient and thus organ positioning in scanned ion beams. To transfer existing knowledge of marker application from photon to particle therapy, we used a range of commercially available markers of different forms and sizes, consisting of carbon and gold materials, and evaluated them for their potential use in the clinical setup with scanned ion beams at our institution. All markers were implanted in a standardized Alderson phantom and were examined using CT scans and orthogonal kV OBI in our clinical routine protocol. Impact on beam perturbation downstream of the markers in the plateau region of a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) was estimated by using radiographic films for clinical proton and carbon ion beams of high and low energies. All tested markers achieved good visibility in CT and kV OBI. Disturbances due to artifacts and dose perturbation were highest in the arbitrarily folded gold and the thickest gold marker, but especially low in the carbon marker. Dose perturbation was highest in the arbitrarily folded gold marker. In summary, the analyzed markers offer promising potential for identifying target structures in our treatment setup at HIT and will soon be used in clinical routine. However, a careful choice of marker, depending on the tumor localization and irradiation strategy, will need to be made. PMID:23824129

Habermehl, Daniel; Henkner, Katrin; Ecker, Swantje; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

2013-07-01

309

Androgen and estrogen-androgen hormone replacement therapy: a review of the safety literature, 1941 to 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine physiology of the climacteric supports a rationale for the concomitant replacement of androgen and estrogen following menopause. Clinical and research experience with estrogen-androgen hormone replacement therapy, as well as androgen-only therapy, suggests that the health benefit offered by androgen replacement exceeds the potential risk when treatment is properly managed. In this review, we concentrate on the effects of

Morrie M. Gelfand; Brinda Wiita

1997-01-01

310

Proton therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called protons. Doctors can better aim proton beams ... D. Do we have enough evidence to implement particle therapy as standard treatment in lung cancer? A ...

311

Adolescents Exposed to Violence and Abuse: A Review of the Group Therapy Literature with an Emphasis on Preventing Trauma Reenactment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment interventions specifically targeting reenactment and risk-taking behaviors, a serious effect of trauma, are a much-neglected area of work with traumatized adolescents. This paper begins by reviewing group therapies for adolescents in general and then reviews specialized group therapies for adolescents who have been potentially traumatized by experiencing or witnessing family or community violence (e.g., sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological

AnnMarie Glodich; Jon G. Allen

1998-01-01

312

Lipodystrophy among patients with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lipodystrophy is a frequent and disfiguring adverse effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients with HIV. It affects the quality of life of the patient and adherence to treatment, and generates new needs for comprehensive healthcare services. The aim of this study will be to conduct a systematic review of the literature from observational studies and describe lipodystrophy among patients with HIV infection during current or previous use of ART. Methods and analysis A systematic review of observational studies published in MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, EMBASE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts will be carried out. Citations of included studies will be checked to identify additional studies not identified in the electronic searches. It will include any observational study that considered lipodystrophy as the primary or secondary outcome and that had enrolled adolescent and adult patients with HIV infection who were on current or previous ART for at least 6 months. Data extraction and analysis will be performed independently by two reviewers. The extracted data will be discussed, decisions documented and, where necessary, the authors of the studies will be contacted for clarification. Measures of frequency, prevalence and incidence of lipodystrophy will be stratified according to definition, method of diagnosis and risk factors of the outcome. Ethics and dissemination Ethics is not required given this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings of this study will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Updates of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice. Protocol registration PROSPERO—42013005450.

Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Perini, Edson; Menezes de Padua, Cristiane

2014-01-01

313

The peer review system (PRS) for quality assurance and treatment improvement in radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer reviews are needed across all disciplines of medicine to address complex medical challenges in disease care, medical safety, insurance coverage handling, and public safety. Radiation therapy utilizes technologically advanced imaging for treatment planning, often with excellent efficacy. Since planning data requirements are substantial, patients are at risk for repeat diagnostic procedures or suboptimal therapeutic intervention due to a lack of knowledge regarding previous treatments. The Peer Review System (PRS) will make this critical radiation therapy information readily available on demand via Web technology. The PRS system has been developed with current Web technology, .NET framework, and in-house DICOM library. With the advantages of Web server-client architecture, including IIS web server, SOAP Web Services and Silverlight for the client side, the patient data can be visualized through web browser and distributed across multiple locations by the local area network and Internet. This PRS will significantly improve the quality, safety, and accessibility, of treatment plans in cancer therapy. Furthermore, the secure Web-based PRS with DICOM-RT compliance will provide flexible utilities for organization, sorting, and retrieval of imaging studies and treatment plans to optimize the patient treatment and ultimately improve patient safety and treatment quality.

Le, Anh H. T.; Kapoor, Rishabh; Palta, Jatinder R.

2012-02-01

314

A systematic review of the neurocognitive effects of magnetic seizure therapy.  

PubMed

Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel neurotherapeutic intervention in development for the treatment of major affective disorders. Like other neurotherapeutic strategies such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a primary interest will be to monitor the associated neurocognitive effects. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the available data on the neurocognitive effects of MST. The authors performed two independent literature searches with the following terms terms: MST, magnetic, magnetic seizure therapy, depression, neurocognition, cognitive, preclinical. We included in this review a total of eleven articles that mentioned MST and neurocognition in the abstract. The articles were divided into three methodological domains that included virtual computer simulations, preclinical studies, and clinical investigations. Collectively, the available evidence suggests MST has little to no adverse cognitive effects. Specifically, virtual computer simulations found the magnetic field was localized to grey matter, and preclinical studies found no neurocortical or neurocognitive sequelae. Clinical investigations found MST to be associated with rapid reorientation and intact anterograde and retrograde memory. Future investigations using translational methods are warranted to confirm these findings and to further determine the effects of MST on neurocognitive functions. PMID:22200131

McClintock, Shawn M; Tirmizi, Owais; Chansard, Matthieu; Husain, Mustafa M

2011-10-01

315

Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Chronic, Non-malignant Pain: A Review  

PubMed Central

Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain.

2007-01-01

316

The Effect of Low-level Laser Therapy on Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

The effect of low intensity laser radiation in the treatment of acute and chronic pain is now established in many studies. Tri-geminal neuralgia is a pain passes through nerve's branches and its trigger is located in skin or mucosa that could lead to pain with a trigger stimulus. The pain involved branches of trigeminal nerve that sometimes has patients to seek the treatment for several years. Nowadays different treatments are used for relief of pain that most of them cause tolerance and various side effects. This paper reviews and summarizes scientific papers available in English literature publishedin PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Inter science, and Iran Medex from 1986 until July 2011 about the effect of these types of lasers on trigeminal neuralgia which is one of the most painful afflictions known. In different studies, the effect of laser therapy has been compared with placebo irradiation or medicinal and surgical treatment modalities. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a treatment strategy which uses a single wavelength light source. Laser radiation and monochromatic light may alter cell and tissue function. However, in most studies laser therapy was associated with significant reduction in the intensity and frequency of pain compared with other treatment strategies, a few studies revealed that between laser and placebo group there was not any significant difference according to the analgesic effect. Low-level laser therapy could be considered in treatment of trigeminal neuralgia without any side effects.

Falaki, Farnaz; Nejat, Amir Hossein; Dalirsani, Zohreh

2014-01-01

317

The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Anxiety and Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although mindfulness-based therapy has become a popular treatment, little is known about its efficacy. OBJECTIVES To conduct an effect size analysis of this popular intervention for anxiety and mood symptoms in clinical samples. DATA SOURCES A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, and manual searches. REVIEW METHODS The search identified 39 studies totaling 1,140 participants receiving mindfulness-based therapy for a range of conditions, including cancer, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and other psychiatric or medical conditions. RESULTS Effect size estimates suggest that mindfulness-based therapy was moderately effective for improving anxiety (Hedges’ g = 0.63) and mood symptoms (Hedges’ g = 0.59) from pre to post-treatment in the overall sample. In patients with anxiety and mood disorders, this intervention was associated with effect sizes (Hedges’ g) of 0.97 and 0.95 for improving anxiety and mood symptoms, respectively. These effect sizes were robust, unrelated to publication year or number of treatment sessions, and were maintained over follow-up. CONCLUSION These results suggest that mindfulness-based therapy is a promising intervention for treating anxiety and mood problems in clinical populations.

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Witt, Ashley A.; Oh, Diana

2009-01-01

318

A REVIEW OF GENE AND STEM CELL THERAPY IN CUTANEOUS WOUND HEALING  

PubMed Central

Different therapies that modulate wound repair have been proposed over the last few decades. This article reviews the two emerging fields of gene and stem cell therapy in wound healing. Gene therapy, initially developed for treatment of congenital defects, is a new option for enhancing wound repair. In order to accelerate wound closure, genes encoding for growth factors or cytokines have showed the most potential. The majority of gene delivery systems are based on viral transfection, naked DNA application, high pressure injection, or liposomal vectors. Embryonic and adult stem cells have a prolonged self renewal capacity with the ability to differentiate into various tissue types. A variety of sources, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, skin and hair follicles, have been utilized to isolate stem cells to modulate the healing response of acute and chronic wounds. Recently, the combination of gene and stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising approach for future treatment of chronic and acute wounds.

Branski, Ludwik K.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.

2014-01-01

319

Insulin Pump Therapy in the Perioperative Period: A Review of Care after Implementation of Institutional Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background An institutional policy was previously established for patients with diabetes on insulin pump therapy undergoing elective surgical procedures. Method Electronic medical records were reviewed to assess documentation of insulin pump status and glucose monitoring during preoperative, intraoperative, and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) phases of care. Results Twenty patients with insulin pumps underwent 23 procedures from March 1 to December 31, 2011. Mean (standard deviation) age was 58 (13) years, mean diabetes duration was 28 (17) years, and mean duration of insulin pump therapy was 7 (6) years. Nearly all cases (86%) during the preoperative phase had the presence of the device documented—an improvement over the 64% noted in data collected before the policy. Intraoperatively, 13 cases (61%) had the presence of the pump documented, which was higher than the 28% before implementation of the policy. However, documentation of pump status was found in only 38% in the PACU and was actually less than the 60% documented previously. Over 90% of cases had glucose checked in the preoperative area and the PACU, and only 60% had it checked intraoperatively, which was nearly identical to the percentages seen before policy implementation. No adverse events occurred when insulin pump therapy was continued. Conclusions Although some processes still require improvement, preliminary data suggest that the policy for perioperative management of insulin pumps has provided useful structure for care of these cases. The data thus far indicate that insulin pump therapy can be continued safely during the perioperative period.

Boyle, Mary E.; Seifert, Karen M.; Beer, Karen A.; Mackey, Patricia; Schlinkert, Richard T.; Stearns, Joshua D.; Cook, Curtiss B.

2012-01-01

320

Measurement of Automotive Non-Volatile Particle Number Emissions within the European Legislative Framework: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2011 the European Commission introduced a limit for non-volatile particle number (PN) emissions >23 nm from light-duty vehicles and the stated intent is to implement similar legislation for on-road heavy-duty engines at the next legislative stage. This paper reviews the recent literature regarding the operation-dependent emission of PN from light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty engines, and the measurement procedure used

BAROUCH GIECHASKIEL; ATHANASIOS MAMAKOS; JON ANDERSSON; PANAGIOTA DILARA; GIORGIO MARTINI; WOLFGANG SCHINDLER; ALEXANDER BERGMANN

2012-01-01

321

Measurement of Automotive Nonvolatile Particle Number Emissions within the European Legislative Framework: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2011, the European Commission introduced a limit for nonvolatile particle number (PN) emissions >23 nm from light-duty (LD) vehicles and the stated intent is to implement similar legislation for on-road heavy-duty (HD) engines at the next legislative stage. This paper reviews the recent literature regarding the operation-dependent emission of PN from LD vehicles and HD engines, and the measurement

Barouch Giechaskiel; Athanasios Mamakos; Jon Andersson; Panagiota Dilara; Giorgio Martini; Wolfgang Schindler; Alexander Bergmann

2012-01-01

322

Reviews  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BOOK REVIEWS (164) Salters GCSE Science: Teacher and Technician Resource Pack, Year 10 The NEW World of Mr Tompkins The Heinemann Science Scheme: Book 1 Advanced Physics Readers: Astrophysics Using the Internet in Secondary Schools, 2nd edition CD-ROM REVIEW (168) Particle Physics: A Keyhole to the Birth of Time (version 2) WEB WATCH (169) Hunting for new physics sites CORRECTION (171)

2002-03-01

323

Vital pulp therapy using calcium-enriched mixture: An evidence-based review  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, casecontrol studies have revealed that the treatment outcomes of root canal therapy (RCT) are generally favorable; however, the overall epidemiological success rate of RCT in the general population is relatively low. On the other hand, vitality of dental pulp is a key factor in the long-term prognosis of permanent teeth; in recent years, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has received significant consideration as it has been revealed that the inflamed pulp has the potential to heal. In this review article, the current best evidence with regard to VPT using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement in human permanent/primary teeth is discussed. A strategy based on a search using keywords for CEM cement as well as VPT was applied.

Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam

2013-01-01

324

Vital pulp therapy using calcium-enriched mixture: An evidence-based review.  

PubMed

Worldwide, casecontrol studies have revealed that the treatment outcomes of root canal therapy (RCT) are generally favorable; however, the overall epidemiological success rate of RCT in the general population is relatively low. On the other hand, vitality of dental pulp is a key factor in the long-term prognosis of permanent teeth; in recent years, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has received significant consideration as it has been revealed that the inflamed pulp has the potential to heal. In this review article, the current best evidence with regard to VPT using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement in human permanent/primary teeth is discussed. A strategy based on a search using keywords for CEM cement as well as VPT was applied. PMID:23716958

Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam

2013-03-01

325

Complications associated with molding helmet therapy for positional plagiocephaly: a review.  

PubMed

Molding helmet therapy is a widely accepted treatment for positional plagiocephaly that is generally considered to be low risk. Multiple large outcome studies have shown good results, but adverse events are rarely reported. The literature on helmet therapy was reviewed to clarify the clinical experience with associated complications. Although significant complications were extremely rare, there was a large degree of variability in detection of lesser problems such as minor skin irritation. Patients with a primarily brachycephalic morphology may be at higher risk for poorly fitting orthoses. Most reported complications are minor and self-limited. Maintenance of good helmet hygiene appears to be the most effective strategy for reducing or eliminating complications. PMID:24079782

Gump, William C; Mutchnick, Ian S; Moriarty, Thomas M

2013-10-01

326

Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and topical steroid therapy: case series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Topical corticosteroids are considered first-line therapy in patients with chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases; among them, clobetasol propionate is one of the most widely used in oral medicine. Under physiological conditions, the transmucosal application is characterized by a significantly greater absorption than the skin application. Contrary to many publications about the side effects of topical corticosteroids in dermatology, few studies have investigated the systemic effects due to local application of these drugs on oral mucosa. Although topical steroid therapy for the management of oral diseases is generally associated with local adverse effects (candidiasis, stomatopyrosis, and hypogeusia), these drugs can also lead to systemic side effects, such as suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and Cushing's syndrome. This review reports five cases of systemic adverse effects caused by clobetasol propionate topical treatment. PMID:23210698

Decani, Sem; Federighi, Veronica; Baruzzi, Elisa; Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni

2014-12-01

327

Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair: a review.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage injury remains one of the major concerns in orthopaedic surgery. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been introduced to avoid some of the side effects and complications of current techniques. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on MSC-based cell therapy for articular cartilage repair to determine if it can be an alternative treatment for cartilage injury. MSCs retain both high proliferative potential and multipotentiality, including chondrogenic differentiation potential, and a number of successful results in transplantation of MSCs into cartilage defects have been reported in animal studies. However, the use of MSCs for cartilage repair is still at the stage of preclinical and phase I studies, and no comparative clinical studies have been reported. Therefore, it is difficult to make conclusions in human studies. This requires randomized clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of MSC-based cell therapy for cartilage repair. PMID:19333576

Koga, Hideyuki; Engebretsen, Lars; Brinchmann, Jan E; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro

2009-11-01

328

Does yoga therapy reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension?: an integrative review.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was to present a evidence-based integrative research review that validates yoga therapy as an effective complementary treatment in the management of high blood pressure (BP). The article also uses the theoretical framework of Dr Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome. Yoga researchers demonstrate that yoga works because it modulates the physiological system of the body, specifically its effect on the heart rate. This review is significant because yoga presents an effective method of treating hypertension that is nonpharmacologic and therefore there are no adverse effects and there are other valuable health benefits. Research suggests that stress is a contributing factor to high BP; hence, the use of the general adaptation syndrome and the most important attribute of yoga, that is, it is a physical and mental exercise program, that is in sync with the philosophy of holistic nursing care where one treats the whole individual and not just the disease. The review was conducted with a search of computerized databases such as OVID, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic edition, PsychINFO, as well as reliable Web sites such as the cdc.gov, among others. An integrative review search was conducted, and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. They include a combination of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and pilot studies. Yoga therapy is a multifunctional exercise modality with numerous benefits. Not only does yoga reduce high BP but it has also been demonstrated to effectively reduce blood glucose level, cholesterol level, and body weight, major problems affecting the American society. The completed integrative review provides guidelines for nursing implementation as a complementary treatment of high BP. PMID:22517349

Okonta, Nkechi Rose

2012-01-01

329

Manual therapy as a conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is contingent upon many variables. Simple observation is enough for less serious curvatures, but for very serious cases surgical intervention could be proposed. Between these there is a wide range of different treatments. Manual therapy is commonly used: the aim of this paper is to verify the data existing in the literature on the efficacy of this approach. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature published internationally has been performed. We have included in the term manual therapy all the manipulative and generally passive techniques performed by an external operator. In a more specific meaning, osteopathic, chiropractic and massage techniques have been considered as manipulative therapeutic methods. We performed our systematic research in Medline, Embase, Cinhal, Cochrane Library, Pedro with the following terms: idiopathic scoliosis combined with chiropractic; manipulation; mobilization; manual therapy; massage; osteopathy; and therapeutic manipulation. The criteria for inclusion were as follows: Any kind of research; diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; patients treated exclusively by one of the procedures established as a standard for this review (chiropractic manipulation, osteopathic techniques, massage); and outcome in Cobb degrees. Results We founded 145 texts, but only three papers were relevant to our study. However, no one of the three satisfied all the required inclusion criteria because they were characterized by a combination of manual techniques and other therapeutic approaches. Conclusion The lack of any kind of serious scientific data does not allow us to draw any conclusion on the efficacy of manual therapy as an efficacious technique for the treatment of Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Romano, Michele; Negrini, Stefano

2008-01-01

330

Fast neutron relative biological effects and implications for charged particle therapy  

PubMed Central

In two fast neutron data sets, comprising in vitro and in vivo experiments, an inverse relationship is found between the low-linear energy transfer (LET) ?/? ratio and the maximum value of relative biological effect (RBEmax), while the minimum relative biological effect (RBEmin) is linearly related to the square root of the low-LET ?/? ratio. RBEmax is the RBE at near zero dose and can be represented by the ratio of the ? parameters at high- and low-LET radiation exposures. RBEmin is the RBE at very high dose and can be represented by the ratio of the square roots of the ? parameters at high- and low-LET radiation exposures. In principle, it may be possible to use the low-LET ?/? ratio to predict RBEmax and RBEmin, providing that other LET-related parameters, which reflect intercept and slopes of these relationships, are used. These two limits of RBE determine the intermediate values of RBE at any dose per fraction; therefore, it is possible to find the RBE at any dose per fraction. Although these results are obtained from fast neutron experiments, there are implications for charged particle therapy using protons (when RBE is scaled downwards) and for heavier ion beams (where the magnitude of RBE is similar to that for fast neutrons). In the case of fast neutrons, late reacting normal tissue systems and very slow growing tumours, which have the smallest values of the low-LET ?/? ratio, are predicted to have the highest RBE values at low fractional doses, but the lowest values of RBE at higher doses when they are compared with early reacting tissues and fast growing tumour systems that have the largest low-LET ?/? ratios.

Jones, B; Underwood, T S A; Carabe-Fernandez, A; Timlin, C; Dale, R G

2011-01-01

331

SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT simulates the transport of ions through matter. Since SHIELD-HIT08 we added numerous features that improves speed, usability and underlying physics and thereby the user experience. The "-A" fork of SHIELD-HIT also aims to attach SHIELD-HIT to a heavy ion dose optimization algorithm to provide MC-optimized treatment plans that include radiobiology. Methods: SHIELD-HIT12A is written in FORTRAN and carefully retains platform independence. A powerful scoring engine is implemented scoring relevant quantities such as dose and track-average LET. It supports native formats compatible with the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP. Stopping power files follow ICRU standard and are generated using the libdEdx library, which allows the user to choose from a multitude of stopping power tables. Results: SHIELD-HIT12A runs on Linux and Windows platforms. We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction of computation time. Scheduled for later release are CT import and photon-electron transport. Conclusions: SHIELD-HIT12A is an interesting alternative ion transport engine. Apart from being a flexible particle therapy research tool, it can also serve as a back end for a MC ion treatment planning system. More information about SHIELD-HIT12A and a demo version can be found on http://www.shieldhit.org.

Bassler, N.; Hansen, D. C.; Lühr, A.; Thomsen, B.; Petersen, J. B.; Sobolevsky, N.

2014-03-01

332

Detection of Soluble Amyloid-? Oligomers and Insoluble High-Molecular-Weight Particles in CSF: Development of Methods with Potential for Diagnosis and Therapy Monitoring of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be established premortem based on clinical criteria like neuropsychological tests. Post mortem, specific neuropathological changes like amyloid plaques define AD. However, the standard criteria based on medical history and mental status examinations do not take into account the long preclinical features of the disease, and a biomarker for improved diagnosis of AD is urgently needed. In a large number of studies, amyloid-? (A?) monomer concentrations in CSF of AD patients are consistently and significantly reduced when compared to healthy controls. Therefore, monomeric A? in CSF was suggested to be a helpful biomarker for the diagnosis of preclinical AD. However, not the monomeric form, but A? oligomers have been shown to be the toxic species in AD pathology, and their quantification and characterization could facilitate AD diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Here, we review the current status of assay development to reliably and routinely detect A? oligomers and high-molecular-weight particles in CSF.

Funke, Susanne Aileen

2011-01-01

333

Detection of Soluble Amyloid-? Oligomers and Insoluble High-Molecular-Weight Particles in CSF: Development of Methods with Potential for Diagnosis and Therapy Monitoring of Alzheimer's Disease.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be established premortem based on clinical criteria like neuropsychological tests. Post mortem, specific neuropathological changes like amyloid plaques define AD. However, the standard criteria based on medical history and mental status examinations do not take into account the long preclinical features of the disease, and a biomarker for improved diagnosis of AD is urgently needed. In a large number of studies, amyloid-? (A?) monomer concentrations in CSF of AD patients are consistently and significantly reduced when compared to healthy controls. Therefore, monomeric A? in CSF was suggested to be a helpful biomarker for the diagnosis of preclinical AD. However, not the monomeric form, but A? oligomers have been shown to be the toxic species in AD pathology, and their quantification and characterization could facilitate AD diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Here, we review the current status of assay development to reliably and routinely detect A? oligomers and high-molecular-weight particles in CSF. PMID:22114742

Funke, Susanne Aileen

2011-01-01

334

The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples.

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

2012-01-01

335

Efficacy of AZM therapy in patients with gingival overgrowth induced by Cyclosporine A: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background In daily clinical practice of a dental department it's common to find gingival overgrowth (GO) in periodontal patients under treatment with Cyclosporine A (CsA). The pathogenesis of GO and the mechanism of action of Azithromycin (AZM) are unclear. A systematic review was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of Azithromycin in patients with gingival overgrowth induced by assumption of Cyclosporine A. Methods A bibliographic search was performed using the online databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central of Register Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the time period between 1966 and September 2008. Results The literature search retrieved 24 articles; only 5 were Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs), published in English, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A great heterogeneity between proposed treatments and outcomes was found, and this did not allow to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis. The systematic review revealed that a 5-day course of Azithromycin with Scaling and Root Planing reduces the degree of gingival overgrowth, while a 7-day course of metronidazole is only effective on concomitant bacterial over-infection. Conclusion Few RCTs on the efficacy of systemic antibiotic therapy in case of GO were found in the literature review. A systemic antibiotic therapy without plaque and calculus removal is not able to reduce gingival overgrowth. The great heterogeneity of diagnostic data and outcomes is due to the lack of precise diagnostic methods and protocols about GO. Future studies need to improve both diagnostic methods and tools and adequate classification aimed to determine a correct prognosis and an appropriate therapy for gingival overgrowth.

Clementini, Marco; Vittorini, Gianluca; Crea, Alessandro; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Macri, Ludovica Antonella; Deli, Giorgio; La Torre, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

336

Bench-to-bedside review: Inotropic drug therapy after adult cardiac surgery - a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Many adult patients require temporary inotropic support after cardiac surgery. We reviewed the literature systematically to establish, present and classify the evidence regarding choice of inotropic drugs. The available evidence, while limited in quality and scope, supports the following observations; although all ?-agonists can increase cardiac output, the best studied ?-agonist and the one with the most favourable side-effect profile appears to be dobutamine. Dobutamine and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDIs) are efficacious inotropic drugs for management of the low cardiac output syndrome. Dobutamine is associated with a greater incidence of tachycardia and tachyarrhythmias, whereas PDIs often require the administration of vasoconstrictors. Other catecholamines have no clear advantages over dobutamine. PDIs increase the likelihood of successful weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass as compared with placebo. There is insufficient evidence that inotropic drugs should be selected for their effects on regional perfusion. PDIs also increase flow through arterial grafts, reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure and improve right heart performance in pulmonary hypertension. Insufficient data exist to allow selection of a specific inotropic agent in preference over another in adult cardiac surgery patients. Multicentre randomized controlled trials focusing on clinical rather than physiological outcomes are needed.

Gillies, Michael; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Doolan, Laurie; Buxton, Brian

2005-01-01

337

Short- and Long-Term Effects of Alkali Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines recommend alkali therapy in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic acidosis to prevent complications from metabolic acidosis. We systematically reviewed the effect of sodium bicarbonate on benefits and harms in patients with CKD. Methods We searched for randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE (through July 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and scientific abstracts. We included trials that compared sodium bicarbonate to standard-of-care therapy or placebo that reported on kidney-related outcomes. We performed random-effects model meta-analyses to compute net changes (for continuous variables) and risk ratios (for binary variables). Results Two short-term (?7 days) crossover trials and 4 long-term (?2 months) parallel design randomized controlled trials met eligibility (312 patients). All 6 trials prescribed sodium bicarbonate in the alkali-treated group. In the long-term studies, alkali therapy was associated with a net decrease in serum creatinine (?0.07 mg/dL, 95% CI ?0.09, ?0.05, P<0.001; I2=0), a net improvement in GFR (3.2 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI 1.6, 4.7, P<0.001; I2=0), and a lower incidence of dialysis initiation (risk ratio 0.21, 95% CI 0.08, 0.54; P=0.001; I2=0). No benefit was observed on the serum creatinine or GFR in short-term studies. Alkali therapy was not associated with a higher likelihood of initiating or escalating anti-hypertensive medications. Conclusions Alkali therapy is associated with an improvement in kidney function, which may afford a long-term benefit in slowing the progression of CKD. However, differences in study protocols and small sample sizes preclude definitive conclusions.

Susantitaphong, Paweena; Sewaralthahab, Kamal; Balk, Ethan M.; Jaber, Bertrand L.; Madias, Nicolaos E.

2013-01-01

338

Race and Ethnicity in Trials of Antihypertensive Therapy to Prevent Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We wanted to systematically review (1) the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials of antihypertensive drug therapy and (2) racial differences in the efficacy of these therapies for the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, African Index Medicus, and the Cochrane Library were searched from their inception to December 2005 for randomized controlled trials testing the efficacy of antihypertensive drug therapy in preventing myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, or cardiovascular death. MEDLINE was also searched from 2005 through 2006. The 2 authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and quality. RESULTS Twenty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. Eight trials reported results by racial subgroup. Trials with black and Hispanic participants (ALLHAT, INVEST, VALUE) found similar primary outcomes, but ALLHAT found a greater magnitude of benefit for blacks on diuretic therapy compared with nonblacks. One trial (PROGRESS) compared Asians with non-Asians, reporting that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (vs placebo) were equally effective for preventing stroke in both groups. In the LIFE trial, post hoc analyses showed different outcomes for blacks and nonblacks, raising questions about the usefulness of angiotensin-receptor blockers as first-line antihypertensive agents in blacks. In 3 studies conducted exclusively in Asians (JMIC-B, FEVER, NICS-EH), calcium channel blockers were effective in preventing cardiovascular outcomes. No trials described cardiovascular outcomes in Native Americans. CONCLUSIONS Five trials made interethnic group comparisons; 4 had similar primary outcomes for ethnic minorities and whites. Increased minority participation in future studies is needed to determine optimal prevention therapies, especially in outcome-driven trials comparing multidrug antihypertensive treatment regimens.

Park, Ina U.; Taylor, Anne L.

2007-01-01

339

Efficacy of exposure versus cognitive therapy in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for a wide range of psychological disorders. There is a continued controversy about whether challenging maladaptive thoughts rather than use of behavioural interventions alone is associated with the greatest efficacy. However little is known about the relative efficacy of various components of CBT. This review aims to compare the relative efficacy of Cognitive Therapy (CT) versus Exposure (E) for a range of anxiety disorders using the most clinically relevant outcome measures and estimating the summary relative efficacy by combining the studies in a meta-analysis. Methods Psych INFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the first available year to May 2010. All randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of exposure with cognitive therapy were included. Odds ratios (OR) or standardised means' differences (Hedges' g) for the most clinically relevant primary outcomes were calculated. Outcomes of the studies were grouped according to specific disorders and were combined in meta-analyses exploring short-term and long-term outcomes. Results 20 Randomised Controlled Trials with (n = 1,308) directly comparing the efficacy of CT and E in anxiety disorders were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference in the relative efficacy of CT and E was revealed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and in Panic Disorder (PD). There was a statistically significant difference favouring CT versus E in Social Phobia both in the short-term (Z = 3.72, p = 0.0002) and the long-term (Z = 3.28, p = 0.001) outcomes. Conclusions On the basis of extant literature, there appears to be no evidence of differential efficacy between cognitive therapy and exposure in PD, PTSD and OCD and strong evidence of superior efficacy of cognitive therapy in social phobia

2011-01-01

340

Penile traction therapy and Peyronie's disease: a state of art review of the current literature  

PubMed Central

In recent years, penile traction therapy (PTT) has gained considerable interest as a novel nonsurgical treatment option for men with Peyronie’s disease (PD) and short penises. The current published literature suggests that selected cases of PD may benefit from a conservative approach with PTT, resulting in increased penile length and reduction of penile deformity. It appears to be safe and well tolerated but requires a great deal of patient compliance and determination. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the use of PTT in men with PD, short penises and in the setting of pre- and postprosthesis corporal fibrosis.

Brock, Gerald

2013-01-01

341

Diabetic foot ulcers treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) has been used as an adjunct for healing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) for decades. However, its use remains controversial. A literature search was conducted to locate clinical studies and assess the available evidence. Ten prospective and seven retrospective studies evaluating HBO for DFUs were located. These were reviewed and the outcomes were discussed. One study reported no difference in outcomes between patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen and the control group. However, their regime differed from all other studies in that the patients received hyperbaric oxygen twice rather than once daily. Reduced amputation rates and improved healing were the most common outcomes observed. PMID:22747586

Bishop, Alexandra J; Mudge, Elizabeth

2014-02-01

342

TOPICAL REVIEW: Multifunctional nanoassemblies of block copolymers for future cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoassemblies from amphiphilic block copolymers are promising nanomedicine platforms for cancer diagnosis and therapy due to their relatively small size, high loading capacity of drugs, controlled drug release, in vivo stability and prolonged blood circulation. Recent clinical trials with self-assembled polymeric micelles incorporating anticancer drugs have shown improved antitumor activity and decreased side effects encouraging the further development of nanoassemblies for drug delivery. This review summarizes recent approaches considering stimuli-responsive, multifunctionality and more advanced architectures, such as vesicles or worm-like micelles, for tumor-specific drug and gene delivery.

Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

2010-02-01

343

Low intensity laser therapy in wound healing — a review with special respect to diabetic angiopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: Low intensity laser radiation is characterized by its ability to induce athermic, non-destructive photobiological processes.\\u000a Albeit in use for about thirty years, this phototherapy is still not an established therapeutic modality in wound healing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We have reviewed the literature addressing both in vitro and in vivo effects of low intensity laser therapy on constituents\\u000a of the wound

A. Schindl; M. Schindl; Heidemarie Pernerstorfer-Schön; Liesbeth Schindl

2001-01-01

344

Electroconvulsive therapy for a patient with persistent tardive dyskinesia: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that presents with abnormal, involuntary, and irregular choreoathetoid movements involving mouth, tongue, face, trunk, or extremities after prolonged use of dopamine receptor-blocking agents. Currently, there is still a lack of effective treatment for it. Here, we report a female patient with paranoid schizophrenia, who has had persistent TD for 8 years. After electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was performed, both of her psychotic symptoms and dyskinetic movements were improved. The efficacy and potential clinical variables of ECT in the treatment of TD were reviewed. PMID:23965612

Peng, Li-Yun; Lee, Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen

2013-09-01

345

A review of adherence to drug therapy in patients with overactive bladder.  

PubMed

Drug therapy for overactive bladder (OAB) is associated with improvements in symptoms and quality of life, but the short- and long-term adherence and persistence is suboptimal. In this review we outline methods of measuring, and factors affecting, adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with OAB. Clinical practice suggests that adherence rates reported in clinical trials are much greater than in real practice. Factors affecting adherence include psychological and social variables that might alter patients' perception of the benefits of taking medication, and the effect of comorbidity and polypharmacy. Whilst there is some evidence that lack of efficacy and side-effects are contributory, these additional factors are also important. PMID:18616691

Basra, Ramandeep K; Wagg, Adrian; Chapple, Christopher; Cardozo, Linda; Castro-Diaz, David; Pons, Montserrat Espuna; Kirby, Mike; Milsom, Ian; Vierhout, Mark; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Kelleher, Con

2008-09-01

346

Retrospective Review of Eyes with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration Treated with Photodynamic Therapy with Verteporfin and Intravitreal Triamcinolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To review the outcomes of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin and intravitreal triamcino- lone acetonide injection. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of consecutive eyes with neovascular AMD that received an intravitreal triamcinolone injection within 1 week of their first PDT and had at least 6 months of

Tamara K Fackler; Shantan Reddy; Srilaxmi Bearelly; Sandra Stinnett; Sharon Fekrat; Michael J Cooney

347

Analytical expressions for water-to-air stopping-power ratios relevant for accurate dosimetry in particle therapy.  

PubMed

In particle therapy, knowledge of the stopping-power ratio (STPR) of the ion beam for water and air is necessary for accurate ionization chamber dosimetry. Earlier work has investigated the STPR for pristine carbon ion beams, but here we expand the calculations to a range of ions (1 ? z ? 18) as well as spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) and provide a theoretical in-depth study with a special focus on the parameter regime relevant for particle therapy. The Monte Carlo transport code SHIELD-HIT is used to calculate complete particle-fluence spectra which are required for determining the STPR according to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The STPR at a depth d depends primarily on the average energy of the primary ions at d rather than on their charge z or absolute position in the medium. However, STPRs for different sets of stopping-power data for water and air recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements are compared, including also the recently revised data for water, yielding deviations up to 2% in the plateau region. In comparison, the influence of the secondary particle spectra on the STPR is about two orders of magnitude smaller in the whole region up till the practical range. The gained insights enable us to propose simple analytical expressions for the STPR for both pristine and SOBPs as a function of penetration depth depending parametrically on the practical range. PMID:21441652

Lühr, Armin; Hansen, David C; Jäkel, Oliver; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Bassler, Niels

2011-04-21

348

Characterization of Iron-Oxide Loaded Adult Stem Cells for Magnetic Particle Imaging in Targeted Cancer Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been presented as a new method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). MPI is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of nanoparticles that are subjected to a sinusoidal magnetic field. Spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio of MPI depend on the particle quality. This is particularly important when stem cells shall be tracked with MPI. Stem cell-based treatment is an upcoming technology in targeted cancer-therapy. In this study, we analyzed the particle quality of newly developed dextran-coated SPIONs-with respect to their response in the imaging experiment-using magnetic particle spectrometry. The uptake of dextran-coated SPIONs into rat and human adult stem cells was monitored via transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, adult stem cells were incubated with FITC-dextran-coated SPIONs and stained for confocal laser scanning microscopy. The dextran- and FITC-dextran coated SPIONs were localized in the cytoplasm of rat and human adult stem cells. MPI promises real-time imaging with high spatial resolution at high sensitivity. Our data support iron oxide loaded adult stem cells as a powerful tool for targeted cancer therapy.

Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Rapoport, Daniel Hans; Schneider, Dagmar

2010-12-01

349

Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: a review of meta-analytic findings.  

PubMed

Numerous clinical trials have supported the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Accordingly, CBT has been formally recognized as an empirically supported treatment for anxiety-related conditions. This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of CBT for anxiety disorders. Specifically, contemporary meta-analytic studies on the treatment of anxiety disorders are reviewed and the efficacy of CBT is examined. Although the specific components of CBT differ depending on the study design and the anxiety disorder treated, meta-analyses suggest that CBT procedures (particularly exposure-based approaches) are highly efficacious. CBT generally outperforms wait-list and placebo controls. Thus, CBT provides incremental efficacy above and beyond nonspecific factors. For some anxiety disorders, CBT also tends to outperform other psychosocial treatment modalities. The implications of available meta-analytic findings in further delineating the efficacy and dissemination of CBT for anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:20599133

Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cisler, Josh M; Deacon, Brett J

2010-09-01

350

Role of ozone therapy in minimal intervention dentistry and endodontics - a review.  

PubMed

Ozone has been successfully used in medical field since many years owing to its oxidizing property making it an excellent antimicrobial agent. Moreover its potent anti-inflammatory property along with favorable cellular and humoral immune response made ozone an effective therapeutic agent. Also its ability to arrest and reverse carious lesions in a predictable way opened up a new chapter in minimal intervention dentistry. Furthermore its efficacy in curbing resistant poly microbial root canal flora appears very promising. This article is based on information through valid textbooks, peer reviews, journals and medline/pubmed search. How to cite this article: Reddy S A, Reddy N, Dinapadu S, Reddy M, Pasari S. Role of Ozone Therapy in Minimal Intervention Dentistry and Endodontics - A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):102-108. PMID:24155611

A, Shilpa Reddy; Reddy, Narender; Dinapadu, Sainath; Reddy, Manoranjan; Pasari, Srikanth

2013-06-01

351

Medicare Outpatient Therapy: Implementation of the 2012 Manual Medical Review Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2011, Medicare paid about $5.7 billion to provide outpatient therapy services for 48 million beneficiaries. Rising Medicare spending for outpatient therapy services--physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology--has long been o...

2013-01-01

352

The Role of Cytotoxic Therapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Children: An Evidence-Based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical research examining the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in children is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the treatment recommendations. Treatment recommendations based

Denise M. Oliansky; J. Douglas Rizzo; Peter D. Aplan; Robert J. Arceci; Louis Leone; Yaddanapudi Ravindranath; Jean E. Sanders; Franklin O. Smith; Fiona Wilmot; Philip L. McCarthy; Theresa Hahn

2007-01-01

353

The Role of Cytotoxic Therapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Therapy of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adults: An Evidence-based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence supporting the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults (?15 years) is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published medical literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence, and the strength of the treatment recommendations. Treatment recommendations

Theresa Hahn; Donna Wall; Bruce Camitta; Stella Davies; Hildy Dillon; Paul Gaynon; Richard A. Larson; Susan Parsons; Jerome Seidenfeld; Daniel Weisdorf; Philip L. McCarthy

2006-01-01

354

The Role of Cytotoxic Therapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Therapy of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children: An Evidence-Based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence supporting the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the treatment recommendations. Treatment recommendations based on

Theresa Hahn; Donna Wall; Bruce Camitta; Stella Davies; Hildy Dillon; Paul Gaynon; Richard A. Larson; Susan Parsons; Jerome Seidenfeld; Daniel Weisdorf; Philip L. McCarthy

2005-01-01

355

Psychodynamic therapies with infants and parents: a critical review of treatment methods.  

PubMed

Abstract The theory of psychoanalysis has always relied on speculations about the infant's mind, but its clinical practice was slow in taking an interest in babies and their parents. The therapy methods that nevertheless have evolved during the last 50 years differ in their emphasis on support or insight, which roles they attribute to mother and baby in therapy, and to what extent they focus on the unconscious influences in mother and baby, respectively. They also differ to what extent their theories rely on classical psychoanalysis, attachment psychology, developmental psychology, and infant research. Each method also contains assumptions, most often tacit, about which kinds of samples for which they are most suited. The article describes the most well-known modes of psychodynamic therapy with infants and parents (PTIP). There is a certain emphasis on methods that are less known to the U.S. readership, such as the French and Scandinavian traditions. It submits them and the other methods to a critical review. PMID:24828591

Salomonsson, Björn

2014-01-01

356

Bench-to-bedside review: Immunoglobulin therapy for sepsis - biological plausibility from a critical care perspective  

PubMed Central

Sepsis represents a dysregulated host response to infection, the extent of which determines the severity of organ dysfunction and subsequent outcome. All trialled immunomodulatory strategies to date have resulted in either outright failure or inconsistent degrees of success. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy falls into the latter category with opinion still divided as to its utility. This article provides a narrative review of the biological rationale for using IVIg in sepsis. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database (1966 to February 2011). The strategy included the following text terms and combinations of these: IVIg, intravenous immune globulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, immunoglobulin, immunoglobulin therapy, pentaglobin, sepsis, inflammation, immune modulation, apoptosis. Preclinical and extrapolated clinical data of IVIg therapy in sepsis suggests improved bacterial clearance, inhibitory effects upon upstream mediators of the host response (for example, the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcription factor), scavenging of downstream inflammatory mediators (for example, cytokines), direct anti-inflammatory effects mediated via Fc? receptors, and a potential ability to attenuate lymphocyte apoptosis and thus sepsis-related immunosuppression. Characterizing the trajectory of change in immunoglobulin levels during sepsis, understanding mechanisms contributing to these changes, and undertaking IVIg dose-finding studies should be performed prior to further large-scale interventional trials to enhance the likelihood of a successful outcome.

2012-01-01

357

Gene therapy with growth factors for periodontal tissue engineering--a review.  

PubMed

The treatment of oral and periodontal diseases and associated anomalies accounts for a significant proportion of the healthcare burden, with the manifestations of these conditions being functionally and psychologically debilitating. A challenge faced by periodontal therapy is the predictable regeneration of periodontal tissues lost as a consequence of disease. Growth factors are critical to the development, maturation, maintenance and repair of oral tissues as they establish an extra-cellular environment that is conducive to cell and tissue growth. Tissue engineering principles aim to exploit these properties in the development of biomimetic materials that can provide an appropriate microenvironment for tissue development. The aim of this paper is to review emerging periodontal therapies in the areas of materials science, growth factor biology and cell/gene therapy. Various such materials have been formulated into devices that can be used as vehicles for delivery of cells, growth factors and DNA. Different mechanisms of drug delivery are addressed in the context of novel approaches to reconstruct and engineer oral and tooth supporting structure. PMID:22143705

Sood, S; Gupta, S; Mahendra, A

2012-03-01

358

The Rise of Cell Therapy Trials for Stroke: Review of Published and Registered Studies  

PubMed Central

Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide. Approximately 16 million first-ever strokes occur each year, leading to nearly 6 million deaths. Nevertheless, currently, very few therapeutic options are available. Cell therapies have been applied successfully in different hematological diseases, and are currently being investigated for treating ischemic heart disease, with promising results. Recent preclinical studies have indicated that cell therapies may provide structural and functional benefits after stroke. However, the effects of these treatments are not yet fully understood and are the subject of continuing investigation. Meanwhile, different clinical trials for stroke, the majority of them small, nonrandomized, and uncontrolled, have been reported, and their results indicate that cell therapy seems safe and feasible in these conditions. In the last 2 years, the number of published and registered trials has dramatically increased. Here, we review the main findings available in the field, with emphasis on the clinical results. Moreover, we address some of the questions that have been raised to date, to improve future studies.

Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro Moreno; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; de Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia

2013-01-01

359

Low-level laser therapy in secondary lymphedema after breast cancer: systematic review.  

PubMed

Complex physical therapy is the main treatment for the secondary lymphedema after breast cancer. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in order to stimulate lymphangiogenesis, encourage lymphatic motility, and reduce lymphostatic fibrosis. However, these factors could also favor the development of recurrence and metastasis. The objective of this study is to discuss the use of LLLT in the treatment of lymphedema after breast cancer. This study utilized a systematic review on the use of LLLT in the treatment of lymphedema after breast cancer. Evaluating quality of articles was conducted through the PEDro scale. Of the 41 articles identified, four were considered to be of high methodological quality (score ? 5). The low-level laser in the axillary region was performed in all studies. The control group was not similar across studies. The results presented showed that there was a reduction in limb volume in the group subjected to low-power laser when compared with other treatments. No studies have evaluated the risk of metastasis or relapse in the irradiated areas. Because no studies have included the complex physical therapy as the comparison group, we cannot claim that laser treatment is the best efficacy or effectiveness in lymphedema treatment after breast cancer. No studies have evaluated the hypothesis that the LLLT can increase the risk of recurrence or metastasis. Therefore, the questions about the safety of this procedure in cancer patients remain. PMID:23192573

E Lima, Mariana Toledo Biscaia Raposo Mourão; E Lima, Januário Gomes Mourão; de Andrade, Mauro Figueiredo Carvalho; Bergmann, Anke

2014-05-01

360

Dry cow therapy with a non-antibiotic intramammary teat seal - a review  

PubMed Central

Dry cow antibiotic therapy is used to eliminate existing intramammary infections and to prevent new infections in the dry period. It is implemented as part of a total management system known as the 'Five-Point Plan' for mastitis control. Recent public concerns over the widespread prophylactic use of antibiotics, coupled with an increasing interest in organic farming, have lead to a re-evaluation of the treatment of cows at drying-off. As a result, attention has focussed on the use of novel alternatives to antibiotic therapy at the end of lactation. One such therapy involves the application of a non-antibiotic bismuth-based intramammary teat seal designed for use in cows with low cell counts at the end of lactation. Like the keratin plug that forms naturally in teats of cows that have been dried-off, teat seal forms a physical barrier to invading pathogens. To date, a number of independent studies have shown that teat seal is as effective as traditional dry cow antibiotic products in preventing the occurrence of new infection during the dry period in cows with somatic cell counts of ?200,000 cells ml-1 at drying-off. This paper reviews the efficacy of teat seal in preventing dry period mastitis in both conventional and organic dairying systems.

2004-01-01

361

Review: Molecular pathology in adult high-grade gliomas: from molecular diagnostics to target therapies  

PubMed Central

The classification of malignant gliomas is moving from a morphology-based guide to a system built on molecular criteria. The development of a genomic landscape for gliomas and a better understanding of its functional consequences have led to the development of internally consistent molecular classifiers. However, development of a biologically insightful classification to guide therapy is still a work in progress. Response to targeted treatments is based not only on the presence of drugable targets, but rather on the molecular circuitry of the cells. Further, tumours are heterogeneous and change and adapt in response to drugs. Therefore, the challenge of developing molecular classifiers that provide meaningful ways to stratify patients for therapy remains a major challenge for the field. In this review, we examine the potential role of MGMT methylation, IDH1/2 mutations, 1p/19q deletions, aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor and PI3K pathways, abnormal p53/Rb pathways, cancer stem-cell markers and microRNAs as prognostic and predictive molecular markers in the setting of adult high-grade gliomas and we outline the clinically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma with genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic integrated analyses. Furthermore, we describe how these advances, especially in epidermal growth factor receptor/PI3K/mTOR signalling pathway, affect our approaches towards targeted therapy, raising new challenges and identifying new leads.

Masui, K.; Cloughesy, T. F.; Mischel, P. S.

2014-01-01

362

Brain tissue oxygen-based therapy and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Observational clinical studies demonstrate that brain hypoxia is associated with poor outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, available medical literature was reviewed to examine whether brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2)-based therapy is associated with improved patient outcome after severe TBI. Clinical studies published between 1993 and 2010 that compared PbtO2-based therapy combined with intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure (ICP/CPP)-based therapy to ICP/CPP-based therapy alone were identified from electronic databases, Index Medicus, bibliographies of pertinent articles, and expert consultation. For analysis, each selected paper had to have adequate data to determine odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of outcome described by the Glasgow outcome score (GOS). Seven studies that compared ICP/CPP and PbtO2- to ICP/CPP-based therapy were identified. There were no randomized studies and no comparison studies in children. Four studies, published in 2003, 2009, and 2010 that included 491 evaluable patients were used in the final analysis. Among patients who received PbtO2-based therapy, 121(38.8%) had unfavorable and 191 (61.2%) had a favorable outcome. Among the patients who received ICP/CPP-based therapy 104 (58.1%) had unfavorable and 75 (41.9%) had a favorable outcome. Overall PbtO2-based therapy was associated with favorable outcome (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.4-3.1). Summary results suggest that combined ICP/CPP- and PbtO2-based therapy is associated with better outcome after severe TBI than ICP/CPP-based therapy alone. Cross-organizational practice variances cannot be controlled for in this type of review and so we cannot answer whether PbtO2-based therapy improves outcome. However, the potentially large incremental value of PbtO2-based therapy provides justification for a randomized clinical trial. PMID:21845489

Nangunoori, Raj; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Stiefel, Michael; Park, Soojin; Andrew Kofke, W; Levine, Joshua M; Yang, Wei; Le Roux, Peter D

2012-08-01

363

Effects of Robot-assisted therapy on upper limb recovery after stroke: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To present a systematic review of studies that investigates the effects of robot-assisted therapy on motor and functional recovery in patients with stroke. Summary of Review A database of articles published up to October 2006 was compiled using the following MEDLINE key words: cerebral vascular accident, cerebral vascular disorders, stroke, paresis, hemiplegia, upper extremity, arm and robot. References listed in relevant publications were also screened. Studies that satisfied the following selection criteria were included: (1) patients were diagnosed with cerebral vascular accident; (2) effects of robot-assisted therapy for the upper limb were investigated; (3) the outcome was measured in terms of motor and/or functional recovery of the upper paretic limb; (4) The study was a randomised clinical trial (RCT). For each outcome measure, the estimated effect size (ES) and the summary effect size (SES) expressed in standard deviation units (SDU) were calculated for motor recovery and functional ability (ADL) using fixed and random effect models. Ten studies, involving 218 patients, were included in the synthesis. Their methodological quality ranged from 4 to 8 on a (maximum) 10 point scale. Meta-analysis showed a non-significant heterogeneous SES in terms of upper limb motor recovery. Sensitivity analysis of studies involving only shoulder-elbow robotics subsequently demonstrated a significant homogeneous SES for motor recovery of the upper paretic limb. No significant SES was observed for functional ability (ADL). Conclusion As a result of marked heterogeneity in studies between distal and proximal arm robotics, no overall significant effect in favour of robot-assisted therapy was found in the present meta-analysis. However, subsequent sensitivity analysis showed a significant improvement in upper limb motor function after stroke for upper arm robotics. No significant improvement was found in ADL function. However, the administered ADL scales in the reviewed studies fail to adequately reflect recovery of the paretic upper limb and valid instruments that measure outcome of dexterity of the paretic arm and hand are mostly absent in selected studies. Future research on the effects of robot-assisted therapy should therefore distinguish between upper and lower robotics arm training and concentrate on kinematical analysis to differentiate between genuine upper limb motor recovery and functional recovery due to compensation strategies by proximal control of the trunk and upper limb.

Kwakkel, Gert; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Krebs, Hermano I.

2009-01-01

364

Tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitor therapy and fetal risk: A systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors (anti-TNFs) are effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) recalcitrant to conventional medical therapy. As the peak incidence of IBD overlaps with the prime reproductive years, it is crucial to establish pharmacologic regimens for women of childbearing age that achieve effective disease control without posing significant fetal harm. A systematic literature review was performed to identify all human studies with birth outcomes data after maternal exposure to infliximab, adalimumab, or certolizumab pegol within 3 mo of conception or during any trimester of pregnancy. Live births, spontaneous abortions or stillbirths, preterm or premature births, low birth weight or small for gestational age infants, and congenital abnormalities were recorded. Fifty selected references identified 472 pregnancy exposures. The subsequent review includes general information regarding anti-TNF therapy in pregnancy followed by a summary of our findings. The benefits of biologic modalities in optimizing disease control during pregnancy must be weighed against the potential toxicity of drug exposure on the developing fetus. Although promising overall, there is insufficient evidence to prove absolute safety for use of anti-TNFs during pregnancy given the limitations of available data and lack of controlled trials.

Marchioni, Renee M; Lichtenstein, Gary R

2013-01-01

365

REVIEW OF OUTCOME RESEARCH ON MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY IN TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLISM  

PubMed Central

This review of controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment updates our earlier review (XXXXXXX). We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, both Al-Anon facilitation and referral and spouse coping skills training (based on new findings) help family members cope better; and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) promotes treatment entry and was successfully transported to a community clinic in a new study. Once the alcoholic enters treatment, MFT, particularly behavioral couples therapy (BCT), is clearly more effective than individual treatment at increasing abstinence and improving relationship functioning. New BCT studies showed efficacy with women alcoholics and with gay and lesbian alcoholics; and BCT was successfully transported to a community clinic, a brief BCT version was tested, and BCT was adapted for family members other than spouses. Future studies should evaluate: MFT with couples where both members have a current alcohol problem and with minority patients, mechanisms of change, transportability of evidence-based MFT approaches to clinical practice settings, and replication of MFT outcomes of reduced partner violence and improved child functioning.

O'Farrell, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

366

Review of outcome research on marital and family therapy in treatment for alcoholism.  

PubMed

This review of controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment updates the earlier review by O'Farrell and Fals-Stewart (2003). We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, both Al-Anon facilitation and referral and spouse coping skills training (based on new findings) help family members cope better, and CRAFT promotes treatment entry and was successfully transported to a community clinic in a new study. Once the alcoholic enters treatment, MFT, particularly behavioral couples therapy (BCT), is clearly more effective than individual treatment at increasing abstinence and improving relationship functioning. New BCT studies showed efficacy with women alcoholics and with gay and lesbian alcoholics, and BCT was successfully transported to a community clinic, a brief BCT version was tested, and BCT was adapted for family members other than spouses. Future studies should evaluate the following: MFT with couples where both members have a current alcohol problem and with minority patients, mechanisms of change, transportability of evidence-based MFT approaches to clinical practice settings, and replication of MFT outcomes of reduced partner violence and improved child functioning. PMID:22283384

O'Farrell, Timothy J; Clements, Kahni

2012-01-01

367

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in patients with inoperable meningiomas: our experience and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Few studies describe peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using (90)Y- or (177)Lu-labeled peptides in patients with recurrent meningiomas. No clinical data about (111)In-Pentetreotide in such patients are available. We report on (111)In-Pentetreotide therapy in patients with inoperable meningiomas and review the literature about PRRT of meningiomas. Methods: We reviewed clinical records of 8 patients with meningioma/meningiomatosis showing high (111)In-Pentetreotide uptake on pretherapy scintigraphy who were treated with at least one cycle of (111)In-Pentetreotide. In 2 patients, a cocktail of (111)In-Pentetreotide and beta-emitting radiolabeled peptides had been administered. Results: No patient experienced acute toxicity, neurological or renal function impairment. Mild transient bone marrow toxicity was observed in 4 patients. Objective partial response was observed in 2 patients, stable disease in 5 and disease progression in one. There were no statistically significant correlations between objective response and patient age, tumor WHO grade, baseline Karnofsky performance score, (111)In-Pentetreotide tumoral uptake grade, tumor/nontumor ratio, disease state at baseline, and cumulative dose. Conclusions: In consideration of its efficacy and the lack of significant toxicity, PRRT of meningiomas using (111)In-Pentetreotide could be proposed even nowadays when the use of (177)Lu- or (90)Y-labeled peptides seems unsafe, namely in patients with renal impairment/toxicity. PMID:24811687

Minutoli, Fabio; Amato, Ernesto; Sindoni, Alessandro; Cardile, Davide; Conti, Alfredo; Herberg, Astrid; Baldari, Sergio

2014-06-01

368

Prospects For and Progress Towards Laser-Driven Particle Therapy Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in laser-ion acceleration have motivated research towards laser-driven compact accelerators for medical therapy. Realizing laser-ion acceleration for medical therapy will require adapting the medical requirements to the foreseeable laser constraints, as well as advances in laser-acceleration physics, beam manipulation and delivery, real-time dosimetry, treatment planning and translational research into a clinical setting.

Cowan, T. E.; Schramm, U.; Burris-Mog, T.; Fiedler, F.; Kraft, S. D.; Zeil, K.; Bussmann, M.; Gaillard, S.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Kluge, T.; Schmidt, B.; Sobiella, M.; Sauerbrey, R. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Baumann, M. [OncoRay- Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Enghardt, W.; Pawelke, J. [OncoRay- Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Flippo, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, POB 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Harres, K.; Nuernberg, F.; Roth, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-11-04

369

[3] Stabilized plasmid-lipid particles: A systemic gene therapy vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a systemically administered gene therapy vector to exhibit extended circulation lifetimes, accumulate at a distal tumor site, and enable transgene expression is unique to SPLP. The flexibility and low toxicity of SPLP as a platform technology for systemic gene therapy allows for further optimization of tumor transfection properties following systemic administration. For example, the PEG coating of

David B. Fenske; Ian MacLachlan; Pieter R. Cullis

2002-01-01

370

Virtual Reality Therapy for Adults Post-Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Exploring Virtual Environments and Commercial Games in Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this analysis was to systematically review the evidence for virtual reality (VR) therapy in an adult post-stroke population in both custom built virtual environments (VE) and commercially available gaming systems (CG). Methods MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PSYCInfo, DARE, PEDro, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched from the earliest available date until April 4, 2013. Controlled trials that compared VR to conventional therapy were included. Population criteria included adults (>18) post-stroke, excluding children, cerebral palsy, and other neurological disorders. Included studies were reported in English. Quality of studies was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale (PEDro). Results Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. For body function outcomes, there was a significant benefit of VR therapy compared to conventional therapy controls, G?=?0.48, 95% CI?=?[0.27, 0.70], and no significant difference between VE and CG interventions (P?=?0.38). For activity outcomes, there was a significant benefit of VR therapy, G?=?0.58, 95% CI?=?[0.32, 0.85], and no significant difference between VE and CG interventions (P?=?0.66). For participation outcomes, the overall effect size was G?=?0.56, 95% CI?=?[0.02, 1.10]. All participation outcomes came from VE studies. Discussion VR rehabilitation moderately improves outcomes compared to conventional therapy in adults post-stroke. Current CG interventions have been too few and too small to assess potential benefits of CG. Future research in this area should aim to clearly define conventional therapy, report on participation measures, consider motivational components of therapy, and investigate commercially available systems in larger RCTs. Trial Registration Prospero CRD42013004338

Lohse, Keith R.; Hilderman, Courtney G. E.; Cheung, Katharine L.; Tatla, Sandy; Van der Loos, H. F. Machiel

2014-01-01

371

The Prevalence of Root Sensitivity following Periodontal Therapy: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The reported prevalence of dentine/root (hyper)sensitivity (DH/RS) in the published literature varies, and this may be due in part to a) the different study populations and (b) the different methodologies employed in evaluating the pain response. According to von Troil et al. (2002) there are limited data available in terms of the prevalence and intensity of DH/RS following periodontal therapy. Objectives. The aim of the present study was therefore to review the literature in order to identify all relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence of DH/RS following periodontal procedures in the published literature up to 31st December 2009 using an agreed search protocol. Methods. 840 papers were identified, from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals. Twelve papers were subsequently accepted for inclusion. Results. The results of the present study would indicate that the reported prevalence for DH/RS (following nonsurgical therapy) was between 62.5% and 90% one day after treatment decreasing to approximately 52.6% to 55% after one week. The prevalence of DH/RS following surgical therapy was between 76.8% and 80.4% one day after treatment subsequently decreasing over time to 36.8% after 1 week, 33.4% after 2 weeks, 29.6% after 4 weeks, and 21.7% after 8 weeks. Conclusions. It is evident from reviewing the included studies that patients may suffer from mild discomfort following periodontal procedures although both the prevalence and intensity of DH/RS may vary depending on the duration and the type of procedure involved. Most of the studies included in this paper would tend to suggest that DH/RS may be relatively mild/moderate in nature and transient in duration.

Lin, Y. H.; Gillam, D. G.

2012-01-01

372

Laser and intense pulsed light therapy for the treatment of hypertrophic scars: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scars are difficult to improve and remain a therapeutic challenge. Several lasers and light sources have been evaluated in the past decades and have been shown to improve hypertrophic scars. However, a systematic review is not available. To assess current evidence of efficacy of all laser and intense pulsed light therapies used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars, we performed a systematic review searching electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL. The quality of the controlled clinical trials was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Thirteen articles involving seven different lasers met the inclusion criteria. Most evidence was found for the pulsed dye laser (PDL) 585 nm (eight studies), followed by the PDL 595 nm (two studies), whereas limited evidence (one trial per laser) was available for the fractional nonablative laser 1540 nm, CO? laser 10,600 nm, low-level laser therapy, Nd:YAG laser 532 nm and Erbium:YAG laser 2940 nm. Treatment recommendations should be formulated with caution as current evidence is insufficient for comparing the efficacy of different laser therapies. The PDL 585 nm showed a low efficacy for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. With moderate efficacy, the PDL 595 nm is promising, although more research is necessary. Little evidence was found for the efficacy of other lasers. Future research, with a low risk of bias, well-defined scar characteristics, validated outcome measures, standardized measurement methods, follow-up periods of at least 6 months and well-defined laser settings, is needed. PMID:21711337

Vrijman, C; van Drooge, A M; Limpens, J; Bos, J D; van der Veen, J P W; Spuls, P I; Wolkerstorfer, A

2011-11-01

373

Current status of local therapy in malignant gliomas--a clinical review of three selected approaches.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas are the most frequently occurring, devastating primary brain tumors, and are coupled with a poor survival rate. Despite the fact that complete neurosurgical resection of these tumors is impossible in consideration of their infiltrating nature, surgical resection followed by adjuvant therapeutics, including radiation therapy and chemotherapy, is still the current standard therapy. Systemic chemotherapy is restricted by the blood-brain barrier, while methods of local delivery, such as with drug-impregnated wafers, convection-enhanced drug delivery, or direct perilesional injections, present attractive ways to circumvent these barriers. These methods are promising ways for direct delivery of either standard chemotherapeutic or new anti-cancer agents. Several clinical trials showed controversial results relating to the influence of a local delivery of chemotherapy on the survival of patients with both recurrent and newly diagnosed malignant gliomas. Our article will review the development of the drug-impregnated release, as well as convection-enhanced delivery and the direct injection into brain tissue, which has been used predominantly in gene-therapy trials. Further, it will focus on the use of convection-enhanced delivery in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas, placing special emphasis on potential shortcomings in past clinical trials. Although there is a strong need for new or additional therapeutic strategies in the treatment of malignant gliomas, and although local delivery of chemotherapy in those tumors might be a powerful tool, local therapy is used only sporadically nowadays. Thus, we have to learn from our mistakes in the past and we strongly encourage future developments in this field. PMID:23694764

Juratli, Tareq A; Schackert, Gabriele; Krex, Dietmar

2013-09-01

374

Postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective There is a rapidly evolving debate on the indications and appropriate duration of therapy for postmenopausal hormone therapy. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the specific relationships of postmenopausal estrogen therapy (ET), postmenopausal combined (estrogen-progestogen) hormone therapy (CHT), and the incidence of breast cancer. Design We performed computerized searches of MEDLINE and CancerLit through September 2003 and reviewed reference lists of retrieved studies and meta-analyses. We included English-language studies that identified noncontraceptive postmenopausal hormone use; reported on the risks of “current use” of ET and/or CHT and breast cancer incidence; were case-control, cohort, or experimental; and reported either an odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR), or HR with CIs. Two investigators were involved during all stages of study selection and independently extracted all data selected for inclusion in meta-analyses. Results Meta-analysis of 13 studies of ET and breast cancer (700,000 women) resulted in an OR of 1.16 (95% confidence limits [CL] 1.06, 1.28), with estimates for less than 5 years use 1.16 (1.02, 1.32) and more than 5 years use 1.20 (1.06, 1.37). Meta-analysis of eight studies of CHT and breast cancer (650,000 women) resulted in an OR of 1.39 (95% CL 1.12, 1.72), with estimates for less than 5 years use 1.35 (1.16, 1.57) and more than 5 years use 1.63 (1.22, 2.18). Conclusions Data from observational studies support the association of increased but considerably different risks for breast cancer incidence among current users of ET and CHT. These represent the first pooled estimates for ET. CHT estimates correspond to those from randomized trials.

Shah, Nirav R.; Borenstein, Jeff; Dubois, Robert W.

2006-01-01

375

Are complementary therapies and integrative care cost-effective? A systematic review of economic evaluations  

PubMed Central

Objective A comprehensive systematic review of economic evaluations of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) to establish the value of these therapies to health reform efforts. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, PsychInfo, Web of Science and EMBASE were searched from inception through 2010. In addition, bibliographies of found articles and reviews were searched, and key researchers were contacted. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies of CIM were identified using criteria based on those of the Cochrane complementary and alternative medicine group. All studies of CIM reporting economic outcomes were included. Study appraisal methods All recent (and likely most cost-relevant) full economic evaluations published 2001–2010 were subjected to several measures of quality. Detailed results of higher-quality studies are reported. Results A total of 338 economic evaluations of CIM were identified, of which 204, covering a wide variety of CIM for different populations, were published 2001–2010. A total of 114 of these were full economic evaluations. And 90% of these articles covered studies of single CIM therapies and only one compared usual care to usual care plus access to multiple licensed CIM practitioners. Of the recent full evaluations, 31 (27%) met five study-quality criteria, and 22 of these also met the minimum criterion for study transferability (‘generalisability’). Of the 56 comparisons made in the higher-quality studies, 16 (29%) show a health improvement with cost savings for the CIM therapy versus usual care. Study quality of the cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of CIM was generally comparable to that seen in CUAs across all medicine according to several measures, and the quality of the cost-saving studies was slightly, but not significantly, lower than those showing cost increases (85% vs 88%, p=0.460). Conclusions This comprehensive review identified many CIM economic evaluations missed by previous reviews and emerging evidence of cost-effectiveness and possible cost savings in at least a few clinical populations. Recommendations are made for future studies.

Herman, Patricia M; Poindexter, Beth L; Witt, Claudia M; Eisenberg, David M

2012-01-01

376

Epithelial cell culture models for the prevention and therapy of clinical breast cancer (Review)  

PubMed Central

Clinical breast cancer progresses via a multi-step carcinogenic process wherein genetic, molecular, endocrine and dietary factors play significant roles in the pathogenesis, prevention and therapy of the disease. Preclinical cell culture models, expressing clinically relevant genetic and endocrine defects and exhibiting quantifiable cancer risk, may provide facile, clinically translatable approaches to identify molecular targets and susceptible mechanistic pathways for the efficacy of novel interventional approaches. This review summarizes laboratory investigations focused on i) developing murine and human mammary tissue-derived cell culture models; ii) optimizing mechanism-based quantitative endpoint biomarker assays specific for carcinogenic risk and preventive/therapeutic efficacy; and iii) providing quantifiable proof-of-principle evidence for validation of the present cell culture approaches, capable of prioritizing efficacious lead compounds for subsequent in vivo animal studies and clinical trials for the prevention/therapy of breast cancer. Epithelial cell culture models are developed and characterized where the carcinogenic process is initiated by the targeted expression of clinically relevant oncogenes. The cell culture systems from mouse mammary tissue are in vitro approaches that complement the Ras and Myc transgenic mouse models. The human mammary tissue-derived systems are in vitro models for chemoendocrine, therapy-resistant, clinical, pre-invasive ER-/PR-/HER-2+ comedo ductal carcinoma in situ, ER+/PR+ chemoendocrine therapy-responsive breast cancer and ER-/PR-/HER-2- triple-negative chemoendocrine, therapy-resistant breast cancer. The oncogene-initiated phenotypes exhibit loss of homeostatic growth control, downregulation of cell apoptosis and gain of carcinogenic risk in vitro, as well as transplantable tumor development in vivo. Numerous mechanistically distinct, synthetic pharmacological agents, as well as naturally occurring dietary compounds, re-establish homeostatic growth control via cell cycle arrest and/or induction of cell apoptosis, downregulate oncogene-mediated cell signaling pathways, modulate the expression of numerous cell cycle regulatory and apoptosis-specific proteins and reduce carcinogenic risk in pre-neoplastic and carcinoma-derived cell culture models. These data validate the present cell culture approaches as novel, mechanism-based screens to evaluate and prioritize promising lead compounds for the prevention/therapy of clinical breast cancer.

2012-01-01

377

Review of embedded particle tagging methods for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials and structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acceptance of advanced composites in both retrofit applications and new construction necessitates quality control (QC)/quality assurance (QA) and in-service monitoring techniques to ensure the performance and serviceability of the composites. A technology that enhances the inspectability of the advanced composites is the particle tagging method. The concept of particle tagging involves embedding micron-sized particles into materials, such as composites, or adhesive layers to make them an integral part of the host material. When interrogated by suitable instrumentation, the embedded particle sensors interact with their host material and generate certain types of measurable signatures. The signatures can be correlated with the material and structural conditions, such as internal stress states, voids, inclusions, state-of- cure, and delaminations. This paper presents a technology assessment of the current and emerging state-of-the-art tagging methods. The objective of this review is to provide a framework for further understanding the physics and mechanisms involved in using the tagging method for in-field nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials. Information concerning the development of this technique has been obtained from patents, publications, databases within Newman Library at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), and previous work and in-progress research at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (CIMSS) at Virginia Tech. This paper includes a historic review of tagging techniques, a description of the tagging systems used for in-situ NDE of composites, and experimental results to date. The current and potential applications of this technique are also addressed. The analysis presented in this paper will assist in further efforts to develop the tagging approach that may be used as a new NDE technique for quality assurance of advanced composites.

Zhou, Su-Wei; Chaudhry, Zaffir A.; Rogers, Craig A.; Quattrone, Robert

1995-04-01

378

COST AND PERFORMANCE MODELS FOR PRIMARY FINE PARTICLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: A CRITICAL REVIEW (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Based upon the risks associated with fine particle emissions, primary fine particle control technology was selected to be the subject of a critical review. The objective was to evaluate selected particulate matter cost and performance models, critically analyze their strengths an...

379

Frequency of Non-Odontogenic Pain After Endodontic Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Little is known about ill-defined pain that persists following endodontic procedures, including an estimate of the problem’s magnitude. We conducted a systematic review of prospective studies that reported the frequency of non-odontogenic pain in patients who had undergone endodontic procedures. Methods Non-odontogenic pain was defined as dentoalveolar pain present for 6 months or more after endodontic treatment without evidence of dental pathology. Endodontic procedures reviewed were non-surgical root canal treatment, retreatment, and surgical root canal treatment. Studies were searched in four databases electronically, complemented by hand searching. A summary estimate of non-odontogenic tooth pain frequency was derived using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Of 770 articles retrieved and reviewed, 10 met inclusion criteria and 9 had data on both odontogenic and non-odontogenic causes of pain. A total of 3,343 teeth were included; 1,125 had follow-up information regarding pain status. We identified 48 teeth with non-odontogenic pain and estimated a 3.4% (95% CI: 1.4 to 5.5%) frequency of occurrence. In 9 articles containing data regarding both odontogenic and non-odontogenic causes of tooth pain, 56% (44/78) of all cases were thought to have a non-odontogenic cause. Conclusions Non-odontogenic pain is not an uncommon outcome following root canal therapy and may represent half of all cases of persistent tooth pain. These findings have implications for diagnosis and treatment of painful teeth that were previously root canal treated since therapy directed at the tooth in question would not be expected to resolve non-odontogenic pain.

Nixdorf, Donald R.; Moana-Filho, Estephan J.; Law, Alan S.; McGuire, Lisa A.; Hodges, James S.; John, Mike T.

2010-01-01

380

Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review  

PubMed Central

The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications.

Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Sile Nic

2013-01-01

381

Effects of Combined Aspirin and Clopidogrel Therapy on Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAspirin and clopidogrel monotherapies are effective treatments for preventing vascular disease. However, new evidence has emerged regarding the use of combined aspirin and clopidogrel therapy to prevent cardiovascular events. We therefore performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits and harms of combined aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on major cardiovascular outcomes.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe systematically searched Medline, Embase, the

Yu-Hao Zhou; Xin Wei; Jian Lu; Xiao-Fei Ye; Mei-Jing Wu; Jin-Fang Xu; Ying-Yi Qin; Jia He

2012-01-01

382

Management of Calcium Channel Antagonist Overdose with Hyperinsulinemia-Euglycemia Therapy: Case Series and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) are commonly involved in drug overdoses. Standard approaches to the management of CCA overdoses, including fluid resuscitation, gut decontamination, administration of calcium, glucagon, and atropine, as well as supportive care, are often ineffective. We report on two patients who improved after addition of hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia (HIE) therapy. We conclude with a literature review on hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy with an exploration of the physiology behind its potential use.

Shah, Shiwan K.; Goswami, Sanjeev Kumar; Babu, Rajesh V.; Sharma, Gulshan; Duarte, Alexander G.

2012-01-01

383

Brain Tissue Oxygen-Based Therapy and Outcome After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational clinical studies demonstrate that brain hypoxia is associated with poor outcome after severe traumatic brain\\u000a injury (TBI). In this study, available medical literature was reviewed to examine whether brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2)-based therapy is associated with improved patient outcome after severe TBI. Clinical studies published between 1993 and\\u000a 2010 that compared PbtO2-based therapy combined with intracranial and cerebral perfusion

Raj Nangunoori; Eileen Maloney-Wilensky; Michael Stiefel; Soojin Park; W. Andrew Kofke; Joshua M. Levine; Wei Yang; Peter D. Le Roux

384

AEROSOL THERAPY IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICLE DEPOSITION PATTERNS IN SIMULATED HUMAN AIRWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The efficacy of inhalation therapy may be improved by the selective deposition of aerosolized medicines, by explicitly targeting and delivering drugs to prescribed lung sites. ere, the deposition patterns of test aerosols, mapped in surrogate respiratory tracts consisting of repl...

385

The use of spinal manipulative therapy for pediatric health conditions: a systematic review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study had two purposes. These were: (i) to conduct a search of the literature between 2007 and 2011 investigating the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for pediatric health conditions and (ii) to perform a systematic review of eligible retrieved clinical trials. Methods The Index of Chiropractic Literature and PubMed were electronically searched using appropriate search words and MeSH terms, respectively, as well as reference tracking of previous reviews. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated using an instrument that assessed their methodological quality. Results Sixteen clinical trials were found that met the inclusion criteria and were scored. Discussion Six clinical trials investigated the effectiveness of SMT on colic, two each on asthma and enuresis, and one each on hip extension, otitis media, suboptimal breastfeeding, autism, idiopathic scoliosis and jet lag. None investigated the effectiveness of SMT on spinal pain. Conclusion Studies that monitored both subjective and objective outcome measures of relevance to both patients and parents tended to report the most favorable response to SMT, especially among children with asthma. Many studies reviewed suffered from several methodological limitations. Further research is clearly required in this area of chiropractic health care, especially with respect to the clinical effectiveness of SMT on pediatric back pain.

Gleberzon, Brian J.; Arts, Jenna; Mei, Amanda; McManus, Emily L.

2012-01-01

386

Over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy: a methodological review of the evidence supporting its effectiveness.  

PubMed

Despite optimistic predictions when nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was switched to over-the-counter (OTC) availability, population surveys have failed to demonstrate a positive impact on long-term smoking cessation. This review examined the strength of the evidence from randomised trials and comparison group studies supporting the effectiveness of OTCNRT. Twelve eligible studies were identified: OTCNRT was compared with placebo in four studies and with health professional-delivered NRT in four studies, and four studies involved community-based minimal intervention NRT. These studies were assessed systematically to determine their methodological quality and generalisibility to 'real-world' conditions of NRT use. The review found a number of issues, including provision of free NRT, heavy cigarette intakes (average 25 daily), high levels of personal interactions (7.6 per subject), lack of blindness assessment and failure of most studies to actively follow-up all subjects seriously limit the degree to which studies' results can be applied to non-research OTCNRT users. In addition, several important limitations affecting the meta-analyses of OTCNRT by Hughes et al. were highlighted. The review concluded that the superiority of OTCNRT over unaided smoking cessation has not been demonstrated convincingly. Future directions for research involve more innovative, rigorous controlled trials and prospective cohort studies where nicotine dependence is assessed adequately. PMID:18696300

Walsh, Raoul A

2008-09-01

387

A systematic review of the efficacy and pharmacological profile of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and pharmacological profiles of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy. Four databases were extensively retrieved that include two Chinese electronic databases (VIP Information and CNKI) and two English electronic databases (CA and MEDLINE). Herba Epimedii has been an important traditional herbal medicine for centuries in China and other Asian countries. Recently, quite a few pharmacological effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components have been identified that include improving bone health and cardiovascular function, regulating hormone level, modulating immunological function, and inhibiting tumor growth. The anti-osteoporosis activity of Herba Epimedii and its extracts have attracted world-wide attention. The literature search has revealed that a lot of studies have recently been carried out related to the bone-strengthening activity of Herba Epimedii and some of its active compounds, such as total flavonoids and icariin. Pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies have confirmed the efficacy and safety of Herba Epimedii and its most abundant active component icariin, while only a few authors have reviewed the anti-osteoporosis properties of the plants. So we summarize the work of various investigators on the effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components against osteoporosis. The underlying mechanism of osteoprotective action, derivatives of icariin, animal models and cell lines used in the research were also reviewed in this paper. PMID:24147339

Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Guo, Xin; Pan, Ya-Lei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Li, Chen-Rui; Wu, Xiang-Long; Mel, Qi-Bing

2013-09-01

388

Management of malignant pleural effusion by suicide gene therapy in advanced stage lung cancer: a case series and literature review.  

PubMed

Gene therapy can be defined as the transfer of genetic material into a cell for therapeutic purposes. Cytosine deaminase (CD) transferred into tumor cells by an adenoviral vector (Ad.CD), can convert the antifungal drug fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which kills not only the transfected tumor cells but also their neighbors by the so-called 'bystander effect'. After testing a protocol for Ad.CD transfer and lung tumor burden control in a Lewis mouse model, we used this technique in the management of lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE): two cases are presented investigating the possible enhancement of anticancer effect in both non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) by local activation of the pro-drug 5-FC. Results were discussed in parallel to a literature review on the topic. 5-FC and Ad.CD were administered intratumorally to Lewis mouse lung carcinoma and the effect was monitored by tumor size and electromicroscopy. Two patients with advanced stage lung cancer (1SCLC, 1NSCLC), which developed MPE during first-line treatment were administered 10(12) plaque-forming unit (pfu) Ad.CD by intrapleural instillation, in two doses (day 1 and day 7). Instillation was performed when the pleural fluid was ?200 ml. In addition, they received 5-FC 500 mg four times daily for 14 days. Lung tumor regression and successful transfer of adenoviral particles were observed in treated animals. Patients presented complete regression of pleural effusion as monitored by computerized tomography scan. Neutrapenia and anemia were the most severe adverse effect presented (grade III/grade IV 100%). The increased toxicity followed by the intrapleural gene therapy indicates the augmentation of anticancer effect of transformed pro-drug 5-FC to active 5-FU. The obtained data indicate that intrapleural gene therapy may be a useful tool, adjunct to chemotherapy, in the management of MPE related to lung cancer. PMID:22744209

Zarogoulidis, P; Chatzaki, E; Hohenforst-Schmidt, W; Goldberg, E P; Galaktidou, G; Kontakiotis, T; Karamanos, N; Zarogoulidis, K

2012-09-01

389

Hepatitis C, mental health and equity of access to antiviral therapy: a systematic narrative review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Access to hepatitis C (hereafter HCV) antiviral therapy has commonly excluded populations with mental health and substance use disorders because they were considered as having contraindications to treatment, particularly due to the neuropsychiatric effects of interferon that can occur in some patients. In this review we examined access to HCV interferon antiviral therapy by populations with mental health and substance use problems to identify the evidence and reasons for exclusion. Methods We searched the following major electronic databases for relevant articles: PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria comprised studies of adults aged 18 years and older, peer-reviewed articles, date range of (2002–2012) to include articles since the introduction of pegylated interferon with ribarvirin, and English language. The exclusion criteria included articles about HCV populations with medical co-morbidities, such as hepatitis B (hereafter HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (hereafter HIV), because the clinical treatment, pathways and psychosocial morbidity differ from populations with only HCV. We identified 182 articles, and of these 13 met the eligibility criteria. Using an approach of systematic narrative review we identified major themes in the literature. Results Three main themes were identified including: (1) pre-treatment and preparation for antiviral therapy, (2) adherence and treatment completion, and (3) clinical outcomes. Each of these themes was critically discussed in terms of access by patients with mental health and substance use co-morbidities demonstrating that current research evidence clearly demonstrates that people with HCV, mental health and substance use co-morbidities have similar clinical outcomes to those without these co-morbidities. Conclusions While research evidence is largely supportive of increased access to interferon by people with HCV, mental health and substance use co-morbidities, there is substantial further work required to translate evidence into clinical practice. Further to this, we conclude that a reconsideration of the appropriateness of the tertiary health service model of care for interferon management is required and exploration of the potential for increased HCV care in primary health care settings.

2013-01-01

390

A review of measurements and numerical studies for the effect of wall roughness on the gas-particle flow behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In earlier studies of gas-particle flows the effect of wall roughness was not taken into account. The present author and his colleagues did detailed PDPA measurements and numerical studies for the effect of wall roughness on the gas-particle flow behavior. This paper gives a review of our studies, showing the following results. The PDPA measurements of backward-facing step gas-particle flows shows that as the wall roughness increases, the longitudinal and transverse particle fluctuation velocities increase. The numerical simulation of swirling gas-particle flows shows that the simulation results accounting for the wall roughness agree well with the measurement results. The numerical simulation of gas-particle channel flows indicates the increase of particle fluctuation velocity with increasing wall roughness.

Zhou, Lixing

2014-04-01

391

Therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: review of the randomized clinical trials-II: systemic and local non-embolization-based therapies in unresectable and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not only common, but often presents at a stage when potentially curative therapies are not feasible. Although hepatic artery chemoembolization likely confers survival benefit in unresectable HCC, the associated toxicities are substantial and warrant investigation of more efficacious and safe therapies. Many patients who present with unresectable HCC are not chemoembolization candidates, either because of extensive disease or severely impaired hepatic function. We reviewed 44 randomized trials investigating non-embolization-based therapies in unresectable HCC. Hepatic artery infusion of [I]lipiodol appears safe; initial studies suggest a survival benefit and efficacy comparable to more toxic embolization-based therapies. Some cytotoxic chemotherapy may confer a modest survival benefit in advanced HCC (including oral fluoropyrimidines, and hepatic arterial or i.v. cisplatin and doxorubicin). Tamoxifen does not confer survival benefit, either in advanced or limited HCC. Other therapies warranting further study include interferon (in optimally cytoreduced HCC), megestrol in patients with variant estrogen receptors, octreotide and pravastatin. More adequately powered, rigorously conducted studies will hopefully identify useful chemo-, radio-, immuno-, embolization-based and biologically targeted therapies during the next decade. PMID:15166617

Schwartz, Jonathan D; Beutler, Andreas S

2004-06-01

392

[Particle load in intensive therapy. Possible solutions using a multi-lumen catheter and Intrapur filter].  

PubMed

Patients at intensive care units need very many drugs applicated via a central venous katheter. Particles caused by incompatibility reactions or coming from disposible materials possibly can provoke severe complications such as embolism, anaphylactoid reactions or ARDS. The combined use of multilumen katheters and Intrapur filters brings a significant reduction of these particles, as shown by an infusion regime. PMID:2391172

Schröder, F

1990-06-01

393

Integrated lab-on-chip biosensing systems based on magnetic particle actuation - a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

The demand for easy to use and cost effective medical technologies inspires scientists to develop innovative lab-on-chip technologies for point-of-care in vitro diagnostic testing. To fulfill medical needs, the tests should be rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and miniaturizable, and need to integrate all steps from sample-in to result-out. Here, we review the use of magnetic particles actuated by magnetic fields to perform the different process steps that are required for integrated lab-on-chip diagnostic assays. We discuss the use of magnetic particles to mix fluids, to capture specific analytes, to concentrate analytes, to transfer analytes from one solution to another, to label analytes, to perform stringency and washing steps, and to probe biophysical properties of the analytes, distinguishing methodologies with fluid flow and without fluid flow (stationary microfluidics). Our review focuses on efforts to combine and integrate different magnetically actuated assay steps, with the vision that it will become possible in the future to realize integrated lab-on-chip biosensing assays in which all assay process steps are controlled and optimized by magnetic forces. PMID:24806093

van Reenen, Alexander; de Jong, Arthur M; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Prins, Menno W J

2014-06-21

394

Lentiviral vector-based therapy in head and neck cancer (Review)  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide. Despite advances in multimodality treatments involving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the five-year survival rate has remained at ~50% for the past 35 years. Therefore, the early detection of recurrent or persistent disease is extremely important. Replication-incompetent HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors have emerged as powerful and safe tools for gene delivery. Commonly, HNSCC is a locoregional disease that presents at or close to the body surface. Thus, HNSCC is amendable to intratumoral injections of gene therapy vectors aimed at correcting defects associated with tumor suppressor genes to induce the direct cytotoxicity of cancer cells or immune modulation to promote antitumor immunity. Current investigations analyzing HNSCC gene mutations and stem cell markers and the cancer immunoediting concept are creating exciting therapeutic opportunities for lentiviral and other gene transfer vectors. The present review reports specific examples of the current applications of lentiviral vectors in HNSCC.

UPRETI, DEEPAK; PATHAK, ALOK; KUNG, SAM K.P.

2014-01-01

395

Thyroid tumor-initiating cells: increasing evidence and opportunities for anticancer therapy (review).  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence supports the notion that thyroid cancer is initiated by tumor-initiating cells (TICs) (commonly known as cancer stem cells), which are thought to play a crucial role in malignant progression, therapeutic resistance and recurrence. Thyroid TICs have been isolated and identified using specific biomarkers (such as CD133), the side population, sphere formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity assays. Although their characteristics remain largely unknown, TICs provide an attractive cellular mechanism to explain therapeutic refractoriness. Efforts are currently being directed toward the identification of therapeutic strategies that could target these cells. The present review discusses the cellular origins of TICs and the main approaches used to isolate and identify thyroid TICs, with a focus on the remaining challenges and opportunities for anticancer therapy. PMID:24424445

Gao, Yong-Ju; Li, Bo; Wu, Xin-Yu; Cui, Jing; Han, Jian-Kui

2014-03-01

396

Radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (mibg) in diagnosis and therapy of neuroblastoma - results from basic research (review).  

PubMed

[I-131]mIBG, meta-iodobenzylguanidine, a catecholamine analogous compound, was synthesized by Wieland et al in 1979. It has been used for scintigraphic imaging of normal sympathetic tissue, of pheochromocytoma, and since 1983/84 also of neuroblastoma. Later, protocols for treatment of neuroblastoma stage IV using high dose [I-131]mIBG were established. In this review the basic mechanisms concerning uptake and storage of mIBG in neuroblastoma cells as well as the cytotoxic effects of unlabeled and radiolabeled mIBG are documented. Results of these investigations have promoted the development of new concepts for optimizing the application of mIBG in diagnosis and therapy of neuroblastoma. PMID:21556593

Bruchelt, G; Klingebiel, T; Treuner, J; Beck, J; Lode, H; Seitz, G; Niethammer, D

1995-03-01

397

Intensity modulated radiation therapy: a review of current practice and future directions.  

PubMed

The use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been rapidly growing in the United States. This technology is now being used in a multitude of academic and community centers throughout the country and is being incorporated into the treatment of cancers in almost every anatomical site, most commonly head and neck cancer, central nervous system tumors, and prostate cancer. In addition, current protocols are investigating the use of IMRT for the treatment of breast cancer, lung cancer, abdominal/retroperitoneal malignancies, and gynecological diseases. This article presents a brief technical review of IMRT and addresses specific clinical concerns and caveats that radiation oncologists should be aware of when utilizing this technology. PMID:16981787

Sanghani, Mona; Mignano, John

2006-10-01

398

Targeting heat shock transcription factor 1 for novel hyperthermia therapy (review).  

PubMed

Hyperthermia (HT) has shown promising antitumor effects against various types of malignant tumors, and its pleiotropic effects support its combined use with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. However, HT is rendered less effective by the acquisition of thermoresistance in tumors, which arises through the elevation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) or other tumor responses. In mammals, the induction of HSPs is principally regulated at the transcriptional level by the activation of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). This transactivator has been shown to be abundantly expressed in a wide variety of tumors in humans. In addition, HSF1 participates in the initiation, proliferation and maintenance of tumors. Of note, HSF1 silencing has been shown to prevent the progression of tumors and to enhance their sensitivity to HT. Here, we review the physiological and pathological roles of HSF1 in cancer cells, and discuss its potential as a therapeutic target for HT therapy. PMID:23636216

Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi

2013-07-01

399

Volumetric modulated arc therapy: a review of current literature and clinical use in practice  

PubMed Central

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel radiation technique, which can achieve highly conformal dose distributions with improved target volume coverage and sparing of normal tissues compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques. VMAT also has the potential to offer additional advantages, such as reduced treatment delivery time compared with conventional static field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The clinical worldwide use of VMAT is increasing significantly. Currently the majority of published data on VMAT are limited to planning and feasibility studies, although there is emerging clinical outcome data in several tumour sites. This article aims to discuss the current use of VMAT techniques in practice and review the available data from planning and clinical outcome studies in various tumour sites including prostate, pelvis (lower gastrointestinal, gynaecological), head and neck, thoracic, central nervous system, breast and other tumour sites.

Teoh, M; Clark, C H; Wood, K; Whitaker, S; Nisbet, A

2011-01-01

400

Standard and pegylated interferon therapy of HDV infection: A systematic review and meta- analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is characterized by rapidly progressive liver disease with adverse prognosis in most patients. Although interferon is the only approved anti-HDV therapy, evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of its various regimens is either old or scattered. Materials and Methods: We searched systematically Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ISI. The studies that evaluated treatment of chronic HDV infection with standard or pegylated interferon for at least 48 weeks were identified. Our inclusion criteria were positive anti-HDV antibody for 6 months and positive HDV-PCR at the start of study. We performed a meta-analysis for proportions using the arcsine transformation in random effects model. Sustained virological response (SVR) rate (negative Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 6 months after cessation of therapy) was the end point of interest. Results: Data were abstracted from 14 studies containing 227 chronic HDV-infected patients who received standard or pegylated interferon alpha-2a or -2b. Twenty-one and 30 patients of 71 and 156 who received standard or peginterferon, respectively, beyond 48 weeks achieved SVR. Pooled SVR rates were 29% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19; 41] and 19% (95% CI 10; 29), respectively. The rates of treatment withdrawal were similar. Conclusion: Our systematic review indicates that the literature lacks sufficient evidence to establish precise recommendations for treatment of HDV infection. Meta-analysis of these studies shows that standard dose of peginterferon is more effective than high dose of standard interferon as anti-HDV therapy.

Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid; Behnava, Bita; Rizzetto, Mario

2012-01-01

401

Adalimumab in ankylosing spondylitis: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disease that has prominent effects on the spine and peripheral joints. In addition, extraarticular manifestations such as enthesitis and acute anterior uveitis may be clinically important. In recent years, the therapy of AS has changed, largely due to the introduction of inhibitors of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Adalimumab, a human monoclonal antibody specifically for TNF, is the most recent of the TNF blocking agents that have been approved for the treatment of active, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID)-refractory patients with AS. Aims: To evaluate the evidence for the therapeutic value of adalimumab in ankylosing spondylitis. Evidence review: There is clear evidence that adalimumab, administered 40 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks, substantially improves the signs and symptoms of NSAID-refractory, active AS when compared with placebo treatment. There is ample evidence that adalimumab causes significant improvements in physical health status and overall AS-specific, health-related quality of life and physical functioning, which consequently leads to better work productivity. There is substantial evidence that adalimumab improves spinal and sacroiliac joint inflammation in AS patients. Initial results from clinical trials suggest that there is no increased risk of serious infections or malignancies in adalimumab-treated patients with AS. The most common adverse events were injection-site reactions. Limited economic evidence suggests that adalimumab 40 mg may be cost effective when used according to current valid treatment guidelines. Place in therapy: Adalimumab is an effective treatment for patients with active AS.

Hennigan, Stephanie; Ackermann, Christoph; Kavanaugh, Arthur

2007-01-01

402

Equine endotoxaemia--a state-of-the-art review of therapy.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of endotoxaemia, a leading cause of death in the horse, is beginning to be understood in greater detail. Endotoxin may be absorbed into the systemic circulation in a number of different ways: most commonly the body's normal defense mechanisms are disrupted or bypassed, or the normal clearance mechanisms overwhelmed. Following this wide-spread effects are observed, although the most significant are seen in the cardiovascular system. Fever, arterial hypoxaemia and signs of abdominal pain are also common. With increased understanding of the disease new therapeutic agents have become available, however, while the newer agents offer some advantages it is important to recognise that supportive care is the mainstay of treatment for endotoxaemia. Supportive care consists of aggressive fluid therapy (crystalloid, colloid and hypertonic), the administration of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and, where appropriate, antimicrobials. The principles of supportive care are discussed in detail. Other therapies such as hyperimmune plasma, polymyxin B, pentoxifylline, dimethyl sulfoxide and heparin are commonly used in the treatment of equine endotoxaemia and their use is reviewed here. Furthermore, newer agents such as anti-tumour necrosis factor antibodies, detergent, activated protein C and insulin, which have yet to gain widespread acceptance but may have an important role in the treatment of endotoxaemia in the future, are examined. PMID:15971817

Sykes, B W; Furr, M O

2005-01-01