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Sample records for particleboards

  1. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  2. Integration of textile fabric and coconut shell in particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, M. I.; Bahari, S. A.; Islam, M. M.; Epaarachchi, J. A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, cotton fabric and coconut shell were integrated in particleboard to reduce the use of wood. Particleboards containing mixed rubberwood and coconut shell with an equal weight ratio have been integrated with various layers of cotton fabric. These materials were bonded by urea formaldehyde with a content level of 12% by weight. Flexural and water absorption tests were conducted to analyze its mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Results of flexural test showed an increment at least double strength values in fabricated materials as compared to control sample. The existence of fabric in the particleboard system also improved the dimensional stability of the produced material. Enhancement of at least 39% of water absorption could help the dimensional stability of the produced material. Overall, these new particleboards showed better results with the incorporation of cotton fabric layers and this study provided better understanding on mechanical and physical properties of the fabricated particleboard.

  3. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States and to...

  4. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  5. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States and to...

  6. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  7. 40 CFR 429.140 - Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... particleboard manufacturing subcategory. 429.140 Section 429.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Particleboard Manufacturing Subcategory § 429.140 Applicability; description of the particleboard manufacturing subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  8. Suitability of sorghum stalk fibers for production of particleboard.

    PubMed

    Khazaeian, Abolghasem; Ashori, Alireza; Dizaj, Mostafa Yahyavi

    2015-04-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) stalk (SS) as a promising raw material for particleboard manufacturing. The SS particles and industrial hardwood particles in various proportions were used as the raw materials for the surface and core layers of the three-layer particleboards. Commercial urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive was used as a binder. Morphological and chemical characteristics of the SS were evaluated. Effects of five variable parameters on the physical (thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA)), and mechanical (modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond (IB)) properties of the particleboards were determined. Other parameters such as type of resin (UF), hardener content (1%), type of hardener (NH4Cl), press closing time (5 mm/s), board density (0.70 g/cm(3)), and press pressure (30 kg/m(2)) were held constant. Fractional factorial was used to find the optimum condition for the studied variable parameters. The morphological results showed that SS had comparable fiber length with softwoods and fiber width and wall thickness values greater than the hardwood of common forest species. They had higher hot-water solubility values, lignin and ash contents than those of the other woody materials. The experimental results showed that increasing of SS particles usage in the surface layer significantly affects the board properties. Containing 50 wt% SS particles in the surface, the MOE and MOR values exceed the minimum requirements of the European norms (EN) standards, for general purposes. All of the particleboards produced from SS had IB higher than the EN standard requirement. The presence of SS in the particleboards resulted in higher WA and TS values. All the mechanical properties of the boards decreased when the press temperature was increased from 160 to 180°C. Finally, it can be stated that SS has enough potential as a supplement fibrous material, in combination with industrial

  9. PROPERTIES OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE ATHEL WOOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Athel tree, Tamarix aphylla (L), can potentially be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. In this study, Athel wood was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard with an aim of developing new applications for the saline...

  10. Particleboard quality characteristics of saline jose tall wheatgrass and chemical treatment effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Pan, Zhongli; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; Blunk, Sherry

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the qualities (mechanical properties and water resistance) of particleboard made from saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum. For the JTW particleboards made with 4% polymeric methane diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI), the mechanical properties and water resistance improved with the increase of particleboard density from 0.71 to 0.75 g/cm(3). The particleboards with density of 0.74 g/cm(3) had similar mechanical properties of wood-based particleboards, except for lower internal bond strength. Among the particleboards made with particles of different initial moisture contents from 2% to 10%, the particleboard with the particles of 8% initial moisture content had the highest qualities. The pretreatment using NaOH solution to wash the JTW particles reduced the qualities of finished particleboards bonded with both PMDI and urea formaldehyde (UF) resins. Particleboards made with PMDI showed superior qualities than those made with UF, as shown by the measured contact angle results between the adhesives and JTW. PMID:16806907

  11. Particleboard manufacturing: an innovative way to recycle paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Taramian, Asghar; Doosthoseini, Kazem; Mirshokraii, Sayyed Ahmad; Faezipour, Mehdei

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results on a study to use paper mill sludge for particleboard production. Single-layer board and three-layer board, with paper sludge on the surface, were fabricated. Four levels of mixing ratios of paper sludge to wood particles (0:100, 15:85, 30:70, and 45:55) were used. The boards were produced with 3% and 4% methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and 10% and 12% urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives. The bending and shear strengths, water absorption, and thickness swelling of the boards were investigated. The results indicated that the mechanical properties of the boards were negatively affected by the paper sludge amount. Overall, UF-bonded particleboards gave superior mechanical performance, water resistance, and thickness swell than MDI-bonded particleboards. The strengths of the UF-bonded board decreased much more than those of MDI-bonded board as paper sludge content increased. The three-layer boards made from 15% paper sludge with 12% UF satisfied fully the minimum requirements set by EN, ASTM D 1037-99, and ANSI A208.1 standards for general uses. PMID:17123814

  12. EFFECTS OF VENTILATION RATES AND PRODUCT LOADING ON ORGANIC EMISSION RATES FROM PARTICLEBOARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effects of ventilation rates and product loading on organic emission rates from particleboard. Recently, investigators have confirmed the presence of varied and significant amounts of organic compounds in indoor environment, including compounds known or su...

  13. Properties of Particleboard Made from Pretreated Particles of Rubberwood, EFB and Rubberwood-EFB Blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidon, A.; Norhairul Nizam, A. M.; Mohd Nor, M. Y.; Abood, F.; Paridah, M. T.; Nor Yuziah, M. Y.; Jalaluddin, H.

    The increasing use of low formaldehyde emission adhesives such as Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF) for bonding particleboard and other wood composites has led researchers to find ways to improve the durability of these products against biodeterioration agents. A study on the treatment of particleboard through soaking of particles with 2% boric acid and 0.2% deltamethrin solutions was conducted. Particleboards were produced utilizing treated particles of rubberwood (clone RRIM 2002), Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) and rubberwood-EFB blend (70:30). A low formaldehyde emission MUF resin (E1-grade) was used as a binder. The boards were evaluated for resistance against termite and fungal attack, static bending, internal bonding and dimensional stability. The properties were compared with those of untreated boards. The results of this study showed that the resistance of E1 grade MUF-bonded rubberwood and EFB particleboards against white rot fungus (Pycnoporous sanguiness) and termite (Coptotermes curvignathus) can be enhanced through the proposed treatment method. The particleboards made from both rubberwood and rubberwood-EFB blend require longer pressing time (> 6 min). Boric acid offered better protection against white rot wheras deltamethrin was more effective against termite. The bonding quality of both treated rubberwood and rubberwood-EFB blend boards was inferior compared to that of untreated board. Nonetheless, all treated EFB particleboards have higher IB. The strength and stiffness properties of rubberwood and rubberwood-EFB blend particleboards for both dry and wet conditions were markedly reduced by the treatments. The treatments increased the dry MOR and MOE values of EFB boards but lowered the wet MOR and MOE values. The study also indicated that the presence of preservatives had markedly decreased the stability of rubberwood and rubberwood-EFB blend particleboards.

  14. Prospects for the use of municipal tree pruning wastes in particleboard production.

    PubMed

    Duarte da Silva, Manuel Joaquim; Bezerra, Barbara Stolte; Gomes Battistelle, Rosane Aparecida; Valarelli, Ivaldo De Domenico

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made with pruning wastes from Ipê (Tabebuia serratifolia) and Chapéu-de-Sol (Terminalia catappa) trees. Particleboards were prepared with both wood species, using all the material produced by grinding the pruning wastes. The particleboards had dimensions of 45 × 45 cm, a thickness of approximately 11.5 mm and an average density of 664 kg/m3. A urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used in the proportion of 12% of the dry particle mass. The particleboards were pressed at a temperature of 130°C for 10 mins. The physical and mechanical properties analyzed were density, moisture content, thickness swelling, percentage of lignin and cellulose, modulus of resilience, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength parallel to the grain, accordingly to the standards NBR 14810 and CS 236-66 (1968). The particleboards were considered to be of medium density. The particle size significantly affected the static bending strength and tensile strength parallel to the grain. Ipê presented better results, demonstrating a potential for the production and use of particleboard made from this species. PMID:23836102

  15. Durian Husk as Potential Source for Particleboard Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zddin, Z.; Risby, M. S.

    2010-03-11

    The main purpose of this study is to develop low cost particleboards using durian skin as its reinforcing materials. Mechanical characterizations such as tensile, compressive and flexural strength were investigated. The fibers were extracted through the traditional retting and also mechanized process to compare the fibers production output. Surface topology study using Scanning Electron Microscope was done to examine the surface texture of the produced fibers, as shown in Figure 1. The experimental investigation reveals that the addition of these fibers reduces the mechanical properties of the composite specimen. However it can be concluded that this composite satisfies the basic requirement of non-load bearing construction materials, and they could be used for partition walls and the like. Thus, the potential for development, therefore, seems to be very promising. Finally, apart from saving energy consumption for the building, the proposed materials offer an alternative option to dispose waste of fruit industry.

  16. Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Dede; Hadi, Yusuf S; Fajriani, Esi; Massijaya, Muhamad Y; Hadjib, Nurwati

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae) by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea) with a density of 0.41 g/cm³; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae) with a density of 0.46 g/cm³; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae) with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm³ and 0.80 g/cm³ by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon. PMID:26466542

  17. Medium-density particleboards from modified rice husks and soybean protein concentrate-based adhesives.

    PubMed

    Ciannamea, Emiliano M; Stefani, Pablo M; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using rice husk (RH) as wood substitute in the production of environmentally sound medium-density particleboards using adhesives from soybean protein concentrate (SPC). Chemical modification of rice husk with sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide (bleaching) were undertaken to evaluate the effect of such treatments on the composition and topology of rice husk and the performance of produced panels. Both treatments were efficient in partially eliminating hemicelluloses, lignin and silica from RH, as evidenced by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy observations suggested that alkaline treatment resulted in a more damaged RH substrate than bleaching. The dependence of mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond) and the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) on chemical treatments performed on both, rice husk and SPC was studied. Bleached-rice husk particleboards bonded with alkaline-treated soybean protein concentrate displayed the best set of final properties. Particleboards with this formulation met the minimum requirements of internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture recommended by the US Standard ANSI/A208.1 specifications for M1, MS and M2-grade medium-density particleboards, but failed to achieve the thickness swelling value recommended for general use panels. This limitation of soybean protein concentrate-bonded rice husk particleboards was counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde-free which makes them a suitable alternative for indoor applications. PMID:19766482

  18. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  19. The Research of Improving the Particleboard Glue Dosing Process Based on TRIZ Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huiling; Fan, Delin; Zhang, Yizhuo

    This research creates a design methodology by synthesizing the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) and cascade control based on Smith predictor. The particleboard glue supplying and dosing system case study defines the problem and the solution using the methodology proposed in the paper. Status difference existing in the gluing dosing process of particleboard production usually causes gluing volume inaccurately. In order to solve the problem above, we applied the TRIZ technical contradiction and inventive principle to improve the key process of particleboard production. The improving method mapped inaccurate problem to TRIZ technical contradiction, the prior action proposed Smith predictor as the control algorithm in the glue dosing system. This research examines the usefulness of a TRIZ based problem-solving process designed to improve the problem-solving ability of users in addressing difficult or reoccurring problems and also testify TRIZ is practicality and validity. Several suggestions are presented on how to approach this problem.

  20. Anaerobic Digestion of Saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass for Biogas Production and Pretreatment of Particleboard Material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop an integrated process to produce biogas and high-quality particleboard using saline creeping wild ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides through anaerobic digestion (AD). Besides producing biogas, AD also serves as a pretreatment method to remove the wax la...

  1. Processing of Fireproof and High Temperature Durable Particleboard from Rice Husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürü, Metin; Karabulut, Ahmet F.; Aydın, Mustafa Yasir; Bilici, İbrahim

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is the recovery of rice husk waste by researching usability in industry as an alternative to wood. In this study urea formaldehyde resin was used mainly as binding agent for wood-panel used in industry. For the preparation of composite material, ground powder rice husks were mixed with urea formaldehyde resin used in different proportions (65/50, 75/50, 80/50, 85/50, 95/50 by mass of filler/binder). Each particleboard produced in 393.15 K and 9.8 MPa pressure was tested by means of three point bending strength, shore hardness and limited oxygen index (LOI) tests. Particleboard made with 75/50 paddy husk/urea formaldehyde composition material formed of 11.40 MPa specimens showed the highest strength. Limited oxygen index value increased by increasing the filler material usage. The highest LOI value was recorded as 40%. Besides, fire point of particleboards which have the best three point bending strength has been analyzed at environmental atmosphere and 493.15 K has been measured as fire point. The results of the tests showed that this material maybe used instead of wooden plate. The usage of agricultural wastes like these in processing of particleboard will give economically benefits and slow down waste products.

  2. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  3. Interlaboratory comparison of formaldehyde emissions from particleboard underlayment in small-scale environmental chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.; Wilson, D.L.; Thompson, A.J.; Mason, M.A.; Bailey, S.N.; Nelms, L.H.

    1987-11-01

    Formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) emissions from particleboard underlayment have been measured in 0.17 and 0.2 m/sup 3/ chambers at separate laboratories to test the comparability of small scale environmental chamber measurements under different ventilation and product loading conditions. Absolute CH/sub 2/O calibration was established through intermethod comparison of different monitoring techniques against a CH/sub 2/O generation apparatus. Interlaboratory precision was enhanced via co-calibration of each laboratory's CH/sub 2/O colorimetric analyzer against the same blank and bi-level generation source at the beginning and end of the study. The results show excellent intermethod and interlaboratory agreement in both the CH/sub 2/O calibration and particleboard emissions testing. The CH/sub 2/O emission rates of the test specimens demonstrate a Fick's Law dependence on CH/sub 2/O vapor concentration. Measured CH/sub 2/O concentrations are described by a single-compartment, single emitter model, and are inversely proportional to the ratio (N/L (m/h)) of the air exchange rate (N(h/sup -1/)) and product loading (L(m/sup -1/)). Comparison tests at varying N and L, but uniform N/L were performed; similar CH/sub 2/O concentrations were measured for N and L levels selected from an indoor compartment model, and for fivefold larger N and L values, which are more convenient for small-scale chamber testing.

  4. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 - 25.26 keV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941).

  5. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    PubMed

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation. PMID:24519224

  6. Feasibility of incorporating waste grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) in particleboard composites.

    PubMed

    Nemli, Gökay; Demirel, Samet; Gümüşkaya, Esat; Aslan, Mustafa; Acar, Cengiz

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated some of the important physical (thickness swelling) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties of single-layer particleboard panels made from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), waste of grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) and combinations of the two. The chemical properties (pH, holocelluse and alpha cellulose contents, and water, alcohol-benzene and 1% sodium hydroxide solubilities) of the raw materials were also determined. Panels with a 6:94 ratio of grass-to-eucalyptus particles had the required mechanical properties for interior fitments including furniture and general uses. Boards manufactured with 100% grass clippings exhibited the lowest quality. The overall panel properties improved with a lower percentage of grass clippings added. Based on initial results, it also appears that grass should compose no more than 13% to achieve acceptable panel properties for interior fitments and general uses. PMID:18804991

  7. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 – 25.26 keV photon energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)

  8. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and

  10. Effects of tree species and wood particle size on the properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufacturing from tree prunings.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Ramadan A; Al-Mefarrej, H A; Abdel-Aal, M A; Alshahrani, T S

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown tree species in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m(-3) meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2 and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the tree prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment. PMID:25204074

  11. The manufacture of particleboards using mixture of peanut hull (Arachis hypoqaea L.) and European Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) wood chips.

    PubMed

    Guler, Cengiz; Copur, Yalcin; Tascioglu, Cihat

    2008-05-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the suitability of peanut hull to produce general purpose particleboards. A series of panels were produced using peanut hull and mixture of peanut hull and European Black pine wood chips. Particleboards were manufactured using various hull ratios in the mixture (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Urea formaldehyde adhesive was utilized in board production and boards were produced to target panel's density of 0.7 g/cm3. Panels were tested for some physical (water absorption and thickness swelling), chemical (holocellulose content, lignin content, alcohol-benzene solubility, 1% NaOH solubility, hot water solubility and cold water solubility) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties. The main observation was that increase in peanut hull in the mixture resulted in a decrease in mechanical and physical properties of produced panels and panel including 25% hull in the mixture solely met the standard required by TS-EN 312 standard. Conclusively, a valuable renewable natural resource, peanut hull could be utilized in panel production while it has been mixed to the wood chips. PMID:17689074

  12. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  13. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ2 value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ2 value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  14. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards in the 16.59-25.26 keV photon energy range and their density profile using x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Marashdeh, M W; Bauk, S; Tajuddin, A A; Hashim, R

    2012-04-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard with four different particle sizes (samples A, B, C and D) and natural raw Rhizophora spp. wood (sample E) were determined using single-beam photon transmission in the energy range between 16.59 and 25.26 keV. This was done by determining the attenuation of K(α1) X-ray fluorescent (XRF) photons from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin targets. The results were compared with theoretical values of young-age breast (Breast 1) and water calculated using a XCOM computer program. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards to be close to the calculated XCOM values in water than natural Rhizophora spp. wood. Computed tomography (CT) scans were then used to determine the density profile of the samples. The CT scan results showed that the Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard has uniform density compared to natural Rhizophora spp. wood. In general, the differences in the variability of the profile density decrease as the particle size of the pellet samples decreases. PMID:22304963

  15. Determining the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density of raw wood and binderless particleboards of Rhizophora spp. by using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashdeh, Mohammad W.; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F.; Abdel Munem, Eid M.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Ariffin, Alawiah; Al-Omari, Saleh

    Rhizophora spp. wood has the potential to serve as a solid water or tissue equivalent phantom for photon and electron beam dosimetry. In this study, the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron density (Neff) of raw wood and binderless Rhizophora spp. particleboards in four different particle sizes were determined in the 10-60 keV energy region. The mass attenuation coefficients used in the calculations were obtained using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation code. The MCNP5 calculations of the attenuation parameters for the Rhizophora spp. samples were plotted graphically against photon energy and discussed in terms of their relative differences compared with those of water and breast tissue. Moreover, the validity of the MCNP5 code was examined by comparing the calculated attenuation parameters with the theoretical values obtained by the XCOM program based on the mixture rule. The results indicated that the MCNP5 process can be followed to determine the attenuation of gamma rays with several photon energies in other materials.

  16. Attenuation properties and percentage depth dose of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms using computed tomography (CT) and treatment planning system (TPS) at high energy x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, M. F. Mohd; Abdullah, R.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Hashim, R.; Bauk, S.

    2016-01-01

    A set of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms with dimension of 30 cm x 30 cm was fabricated at target density of 1.0 g/cm3. The mass attenuation coefficient of the phantom was measured using 60Co gamma source. The phantoms were scanned using Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and the percentage depth dose (PDD) of the phantom was calculated using treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray and compared to that in solid water phantoms. The result showed that the mass attenuation coefficient of tannin-based Rhizohora spp. phantoms was near to the value of water with χ2 value of 1.2. The measured PDD also showed good agreement with solid water phantom at both 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray with percentage deviation below 8% at depth beyond the maximum dose, Zmax.

  17. Improved Properties of Medium-Density Particleboard Manufactured from Saline Creeping Wild Rye and HDPE Plastic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creeping Wild Rye (CWR), Leymus triticoides, is a salt-tolerant perennial grass used for mitigating the problems of saltilization and alkalization in drainage irrigation water and soil to minimize potential pollution of water streams. In this study, CWR was used as a raw material to manufacture med...

  18. 77 FR 56870 - Notice of Continuation of Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... that may not be either like or directly competitive with either particleboard or laminated wood panels... particleboard and/or laminated wood panels, and provided additional information regarding the subject facilities... to the subject firm's customers of particleboard and/or laminated wood panels. Taking...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... thinner; or (C) The grooving pattern on the panels is changed so that the grooves are deeper or closer...) Treatment after certification. If certified plywood or particleboard subsequently is treated with...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thinner; or (C) The grooving pattern on the panels is changed so that the grooves are deeper or closer...) Treatment after certification. If certified plywood or particleboard subsequently is treated with...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plastic panel countertop; (ii) 1/4-inch or thicker unfinished plywood with phenolic or urea glue; (iii... particleboard with phenolic or urea binder; (v) Natural gum-varnished or latex- or alkyd-painted: (A)...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... plastic panel countertop; (ii) 1/4-inch or thicker unfinished plywood with phenolic or urea glue; (iii... particleboard with phenolic or urea binder; (v) Natural gum-varnished or latex- or alkyd-painted: (A)...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-to-urea ratio is increased; (B) The amount of formaldehyde resin used is increased; or (C) The press... formaldehyde-to-urea ratio is increased; or (ii) In the case of particleboard or plywood, the finishing or...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-to-urea ratio is increased; (B) The amount of formaldehyde resin used is increased; or (C) The press... formaldehyde-to-urea ratio is increased; or (ii) In the case of particleboard or plywood, the finishing or...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-to-urea ratio is increased; (B) The amount of formaldehyde resin used is increased; or (C) The press... formaldehyde-to-urea ratio is increased; or (ii) In the case of particleboard or plywood, the finishing or...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... plastic panel countertop; (ii) 1/4-inch or thicker unfinished plywood with phenolic or urea glue; (iii... particleboard with phenolic or urea binder; (v) Natural gum-varnished or latex- or alkyd-painted: (A)...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND EMISSIONS AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS FOR THE COMPOSITE WOOD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes information gathered on emissions from the composite wood industry (also called the Plywood and particleboard industry) and potential pollution prevention options. Information was gathered during a literature search that included trade association publicatio...

  8. 77 FR 5484 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Amended Antidumping and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 76690 (December 8, 2011) (``AD Order'') and Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order, 76 FR 76693 (December 8..., particleboard, medium-density fiberboard, high-density fiberboard (``HDF''), stone and/or plastic composite,...

  9. 76 FR 76690 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... at Less Than Fair Value, 76 FR 64318 (October 18, 2011) (``Final Determination''). On December 1... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 76 FR 30656 (May 26, 2011) (``Preliminary Determination... softwood veneer, particleboard, medium-density fiberboard, high-density fiberboard (``HDF''), stone...

  10. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

  11. 24 CFR 200.952 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for particleboard interior stair treads. 200.952 Section 200.952 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  12. Chamber assessment of formaldehyde and VOC emissions from wood-based panels.

    PubMed

    Brown, S K

    1999-09-01

    Volatile organic emissions from particleboard, medium density fibreboard (MDF) and office furniture have been measured in dynamic environmental chambers, both small and room-sized. Characterisation of product emission properties in small chambers was possible when inter- and intra-sheet variations were considered. Formaldehyde emission factors for all products were approximately double European low-emission specifications and did not decay to the latter for several months. Long-term emission behaviour could not be predicted from short-term measurements. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions were low for the MDF product, higher for particleboard, and highest for laminated office furniture. The compounds emitted differed from those reported in other countries. VOC emissions from the sheet products decreased more quickly than formaldehyde, reaching low levels within two weeks, except for MDF which was found to become a low-level source of hexanal after several months. PMID:10439559

  13. Predicting formaldehyde concentrations in manufactured housing resulting from medium-density fiberboard

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, S.

    1988-04-01

    HUD previously issued Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards limiting formaldehyde emissions of particleboard and plywood paneling that were manufactured using urea-formaldehyde resins for use in manufactured homes. The report uses indoor air quality models to predict how much medium-density fiberboard(mdf) may be added to manufactured homes already containing maximum loadings of particleboard and plywood paneling, without raising the formaldehyde concentration beyond 400 ppb. It was found that any combination of mdf that results in a chamber-test concentration of 300 ppb may be added to such a home. A sensitivity analysis was done to predict how this formaldehyde concentration limit is affected by variations in temperature, relative humidity, and air-exchange rate. It was concluded that limiting chamber concentrations to 200 ppb would allow for small errors in temperature, relative humidity, and air-exchange rate that might be expected to arise in practice.

  14. Characterization of manufacturing processes and emissions and pollution prevention options for the composite wood industry. Final report, January 1994-August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, C.; Northeim, C.

    1996-06-01

    The report summarizes information gathered on emissions from the composite wood industry (also called the Plywood and particleboard industry) and potential pollution prevention options. Some of these potential pollution prevention options presented in the report include: conveyor belt drying, low temperature drying, light moisture bonding adhesives, foam extrusion, and variable glue application rate. Other pollution prevention options presented in the report include alternative fiber sources (e.g., agricultural fiber and recycled wood waste) and naturally derived adhesives.

  15. Measurements of VOC emissions from three building materials using small environmental chamber under defined standard test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, J.; Lusztyk, E.; Magee, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    VOC emission profile is an important parameter to describe the building materials and consumer products for their impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). Emission profiles are dependent on the test conditions. It is therefore very important to standardize testing conditions in order to compare emission factors and decay constants reported by various testing laboratories. Standard chamber test conditions (Chamber temperature of 23 C, relative humidity of 50 %, air change rate of 1 ACH, and specimen loading ratio of 0.4 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}) have been proposed for using small environment chamber (0.05 m{sup 3}) by an international consortium research program led by the Institute for Research in Construction, NRCC. VOC emissions (excluding formaldehyde) from three building materials, a particleboard, a carpet with rubber backing and a vinyl floor tile were measured under above defined test conditions. Samples of the chamber air were collected using multi-sorbent tubes during the chamber tests, and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) GC/FID. GC peaks were identified using TD/GC/MS. Major VOCs emitted were solvents, aldehydes, C10-and C15-terpenes for the particleboard, alkanes, alkenes and 4-phenyl cyclohexene for the carpet. VOC emissions from vinyl floor tile were dominated by a mixture of two alkyl propanoates, which eluted late (at about 230 C) on GC column. Total VOCs in the chamber air reached at 1100, 210 and 2400 m g/m3 for the particleboard, carpet and vinyl floor tile respectively. The analytical variation was around 5 to 10 % judged by a number of duplicates analyzed during the tests. First order exponential decay model and power law decay model were used to describe the emission factor decay from 12 h after the start of dynamic chamber tests. The power law model was found to better fit the experimental data than the first order decay model.

  16. Soy protein isolate molecular level contributions to bulk adhesive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Jeanne Norton

    Increasing environmental awareness and the recognized health hazards of formaldehyde-based resins has prompted a strong demand for environmentally-responsible adhesives for wood composites. Soy protein-based adhesives have been shown to be commercially viable with 90-day shelf stability and composite physical properties comparable to those of commercial formaldehyde-based particleboards. The main research focus is to isolate and characterize the molecular level features in soy protein isolate responsible for providing mechanical properties, storage stability, and water resistance during adhesive formulation, processing, and wood composite fabrication. Commercial composite board will be reviewed to enhance our understanding of the individual components and processes required for particleboard production. The levels of protein structure will be defined and an overview of current bio-based technology will be presented. In the process, the logic for utilizing soy protein as a sole binder in the adhesive will be reinforced. Variables such as adhesive components, pH, divalent ions, blend aging, protein molecular weight, formulation solids content, and soy protein functionalization will relate the bulk properties of soy protein adhesives to the molecular configuration of the soybean protein. This work has demonstrated that when intermolecular beta-sheet interactions and protein long-range order is disrupted, viscosity and mechanical properties decrease. Storage stability can be maintained through the stabilization of intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. When molecular weight is reduced through enzymatic digestion, long-range order is disrupted and viscosity and mechanical properties decrease accordingly. Processibility and physical properties must be balanced to increase solids while maintaining low viscosity, desirable mechanical properties, and adequate storage stability. The structure of the soybean protein must be related to the particleboard bulk mechanical

  17. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  18. Feasibility Study on Laser Cutting of Phenolic Resin Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Comesaña, R.; Pou, J.

    Laser cutting is the most widely implemented application of lasers in industry. The many advantages of this process stimulate users in industry to cut many different materials, such as wood and wood composites -particleboard, plywood, etc.-, which are being cut with excellent results and productivity. Phenolic resins boards are a new substitute of wood in highly aggressive environments. In the present work we study the feasibility of CO2 lasers to cut phenolic resin boards and assess the potential health hazards of the vapours and residues produced, since its thermal degradation may produce toxic organic vapors.

  19. Adhesion improvement of lignocellulosic products by enzymatic pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Widsten, Petri; Kandelbauer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic bonding methods, based on laccase or peroxidase enzymes, for lignocellulosic products such as medium-density fiberboard and particleboard are discussed with reference to the increasing costs of presently used petroleum-based adhesives and the health concerns associated with formaldehyde emissions from current composite products. One approach is to improve the self-bonding properties of the particles by oxidation of their surface lignin before they are fabricated into boards. Another method involves using enzymatically pre-treated lignins as adhesives for boards and laminates. The application of this technology to achieve wet strength characteristics in paper is also reviewed. PMID:18502077

  20. Bamboo composite materials for low-cost housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagilis, Trevor David

    Investigation into the use of bamboo in composite panels for low-cost housing is presented. Information on the housing situation, the state of the forest resources, and the needs for low-cost housing are given for Ecuador, which is seen as representative of countries with a history of bamboo use, and potential for further development. Specifically bamboo particleboard using Guadua angustifolia, Dendrocalamus strictus, Phyllostachys pubescens, and Bambusa vulgaris manufactured with steam injection pressing is presented. High strength panels including waferboard made from randomly placed and oriented Bambusa vulgaris wafers, bamboo particleboard overlaid with woven bamboo mats, and "picada panels" were developed. Emphasis was given to short press times, low resin contents, and low product densities in comparison with previous technology to ensure economic viability. This investigation is a unique contribution to the science of composite products and has developed a number of panel products that are both technically and economically feasible. A discussion of economic, social and environmental issues surrounding bamboo industrialisation is also presented.

  1. A brief review of control measures for indoor formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor environments contain a variety of consumer and construction products that emit formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) vapor. The strongest CH/sub 2/O emitters are typically particleboard underlayment and industrial particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and medium density fiberboard, all of which contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. The contribution of individual products to indoor CH/sub 2/O levels depends on several parameters, including the quantity and age of the product, building ventilation rate, presence of permeation barriers, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CH/sub 2/O vapor concentration resulting from all of the CH/sub 2/O emitters (1,3-8). Combustion sources (e.g., kerosene heaters, gas stoves and cigarettes), carpet and carpet padding, resilient flooring (e.g., linoleum), gypsum board, non-apparel and apparel textiles, ceiling tiles, fibrous glass insulation and softwood plywood subflooring are generally weak emitters that do not contribute significantly to steady-state, indoor CH/sub 2/O levels. Control measures exist to reduce CH/sub 2/O emissions from consumer and construction products during their manufacturer and in post-installation applications. This note summarized the effectiveness of the following subset of post-installation control measures: product aging, installations of permeation barriers (i.e., flooring) and increased building ventilation. 14 refs.

  2. Appendix B: Inventory of coniferous forests near Bath, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanturf, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    A zoom stereoscope was used to interpret aerial color photographs of the Finger Lakes region near Bath, New York, and areas of conifers were delineated on acetate sheets. Scale was determined for each photograph and units were converted to acres. Photographically enlarged positive transparencies of imagery from LANDSAT bands 5,6, and 7 for the southern portion of the study area were placed in a cold additive viewer and registered with each other to provide a composite image. A green filter was used on band 5, blue on band 6, and red on band 7. Conifers appeared at dark, reddish purple. Average was determined using a grid. Results show that the total confer stands within 50 miles of Bath is approximately 176,000 acres of which 60,000 acres are in Pennsylvania. The study was conducted to determine the feasibility of locating a particleboard manufacturing firm in the Southern Tier.

  3. Laser Physical Vapor Deposition of Nanocrystalline Boron Carbide Films to Enhance Cutting Tool Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.; Watkins, Thomas R; Lance, Michael J; Riester, Laura; Lemaster, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Laser physical vapor deposition was used to deposit thin films of boron carbide on Si (100) and WC-Co substrates at 550 C under different pressures of methane atmosphere. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was used to identify a boron carbide phase, which exhibited weak peaks. The presence of particulates in the size range of 50 nm-3 {micro}m embedded in an amorphous matrix was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy indicated that as methane partial pressure was increased during deposition, the amount of disorder with the boron carbide structure also increased. Also, the nanoindentation hardness decreased, while the coefficient of friction and scratch adhesion strength increased. These effects are attributed to an increase in amorphous phase/disorder in the films. Wear tests conducted by machining particleboard using boron carbide coated WC-Co tools in the absence of methane showed the same wear rate as tools coated under higher methane pressures.

  4. Formaldehyde--study of indoor air pollution in Austria.

    PubMed

    Koeck, M; Pichler-Semmelrock, F P; Schlacher, R

    1997-09-01

    As part of a long-term study of indoor air pollution, formaldehyde concentrations were determined in 792 apartments following complaints by inhabitants. Measurements were carried out using Draeger tubes as well as the acetyl acetone method. In 157 apartments, HCHO concentrations of more than 0.1 ppm, exceeding the recommended standard values for indoor air concentrations, were determined. The concentrations determined tended to decrease over time. As far as they were caused by furnishings, they were limited to the spaces where these furnishings were installed. In older-style prefabricated houses with foam-filled particle-board wall systems, concentrations of more than 1.0 ppm were determined. In spite of legal regulations governing the release of formaldehyde from substances, preparations and products containing formaldehyde which have been in existence in Austria since 1990, this substance must still be considered as a possible factor of indoor pollution in causing feelings of ill-health. PMID:9386898

  5. Multifrequency sensing of large-sized dielectric boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volgyi, Ferenc

    2000-07-01

    After introducing some possibilities and related problems of microwave moisture measurements, a non-destructive testing method of large-sized dielectric boards is shown, which is based on a microwave free-space/double transmission/reflection type two-parameter complex vector measurement. Unlike this basic idea, a 5.8 GHz monitoring system was developed, which is used for moisture content measurement and quality forecast of particleboards continuously, before mechanical testing would be accomplished. Recalling some basic equations, the calculation of Kasa's circles, dry wood basic weight, complex permittivity values, absolute moisture content and mechanical properties of composite boards, also are shown. Low cost MMICs, self-designed microstrip antennas and passive detector/backscatters are used in the instrumentation for the realization of the concept.

  6. Building ventilation and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Miksch, R.R.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Traynor, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor contaminants and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Four indoor air contaminants - carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances; formaldehyde from particleboard, plywood, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and gas appliances; and radon from building materials, soil, and ground water - are currently receiving considerable attention in the context of potential health risks associated with reduced infiltration and ventilation rates. These air contaminants in conventional and energy efficient buildings were measured and analyzed with a view to assessing their potential health risks and various control strategies capable of lowering pollutant concentrations. Preliminary findings suggest that further intensive studies are needed in order to develop criteria for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality without compromising energy efficiency.

  7. Comparative response of reconstituted wood products to European and North American test methods for determining formaldehyde emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Groah, W.J.; Gramp, G.; Rudzinski, R. ); Bradfield, J. Heroux, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The European large-chamber, the North American large-chamber, the European perforator, and the North American desiccator test protocols for formaldehyde emissions from wood products were compared. Two formaldehyde analytical techniques using chromotropic acid and pararosaniline chemistry were used for the large-chamber testing. Six sample sets, chosen for their range in formaldehyde emissions, provided the experimental data. The sets consisted of five particleboards and one medium-density fiberboard (MDF). The European large-chamber protocol produced values that were 20% lower than the North American large-chamber protocol and both analytical techniques produced similar test results. Linear relationships between all the tests were strong. These relationships should allow manufacturers on both continents a level of confidence in predicting their conformance with formaldehyde emission standards. These tests confirm a similarity seen by others in the emission rates of North American and European products.

  8. The nature of the MDI/wood bond

    SciTech Connect

    Marcinko, J.J.; Phanopoulos, C.; Newman, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    Polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) binders have been used in the wood composite industry for 20 years. Almost one half of the oriented strand board (OSB) manufactures in North America are taking advantage of its processing speed and superior board performance. MDI`s current use in Strandboard, MDF (medium density fiber board), LVL (laminated veneer lumber), Plywood, and Particleboard is wide spread. A fundamental understanding of the role of MIDI as a binder in these complex composites is essential for further processing optimization. Experimental data is presented which investigates the nature of the chemical bonding in wood composites. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is combined with data from thermal analysis and fluorescence microscopy to investigate the chemistry, penetration, and morphology of the isocyanate/wood interphase. Structure property relationships are developed and related to composite performance. The study contrasts isocyanate and phenol formaldehyde binder systems.

  9. Fundamental mass transfer modeling of emission of volatile organic compounds from building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodalal, Awad Saad

    In this study, a mass transfer theory based model is presented for characterizing the VOC emissions from building materials. A 3-D diffusion model is developed to describe the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from individual sources. Then the formulation is extended to include the emissions from composite sources (system comprising an assemblage of individual sources). The key parameters for the model (The diffusion coefficient of the VOC in the source material D, and the equilibrium partition coefficient k e) were determined independently (model parameters are determined without the use of chamber emission data). This procedure eliminated to a large extent the need for emission testing using environmental chambers, which is costly, time consuming, and may be subject to confounding sink effects. An experimental method is developed and implemented to measure directly the internal diffusion (D) and partition coefficients ( ke). The use of the method is illustrated for three types of VOC's: (i) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, (ii) Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ( iii) Aldehydes, through typical dry building materials (carpet, plywood, particleboard, vinyl floor tile, gypsum board, sub-floor tile and OSB). Then correlations for predicting D and ke based solely on commonly available properties such as molecular weight and vapour pressure were proposed for each product and type of VOC. These correlations can be used to estimate the D and ke when direct measurement data are not available, and thus facilitate the prediction of VOC emissions from the building materials using mass transfer theory. The VOC emissions from a sub-floor material (made of the recycled automobile tires), and a particleboard are measured and predicted. Finally, a mathematical model to predict the diffusion coefficient through complex sources (floor adhesive) as a function of time was developed. Then this model (for diffusion coefficient in complex sources) was used to predict the emission rate from

  10. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  11. Formaldehyde emission—Comparison of different standard methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risholm-Sundman, Maria; Larsen, Annelise; Vestin, Ewa; Weibull, Anders

    The emission of formaldehyde is an important factor in the evaluation of the environmental and health effects of wood-based board materials. This article gives a comparison between commonly used European test methods: chamber method [EN 717-1, 2004. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 1: formaldehyde emission by the chamber method. European Standard, October 2004], gas analysis method [EN 717-2, 1994. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 2: formaldehyde release by the gas analysis method, European Standard, November 1994], flask method [EN 717-3, 1996. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 3: formaldehyde release by the flask method, European Standard, March 1996], perforator method [EN 120, 1993. Wood based panels—determination of formaldehyde content—extraction method called perforator method, European Standard, September 1993], Japanese test methods: desiccator methods [JIS A 1460, 2001. Building boards. Determination of formaldehyde emission—desiccator method, Japanese Industrial Standard, March 2001 and JAS MAFF 233, 2001] and small chamber method [JIS A 1901, 2003. Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes for building products—small chamber method, Japanese Industrial Standard, January 2003], for solid wood, particleboard, plywood and medium density fiberboard. The variations between the results from different methods can partly be explained by differences in test conditions. Factors like edge sealing, conditioning of the sample before the test and test temperature have a large effect on the final emission result. The Japanese limit for F **** of 0.3 mg l -1 (in desiccator) for particleboards was found to be equivalent to 0.04 mg m -3 in the European chamber test and 2.8 mg per 100 g in the perforator test. The variations in inter-laboratory tests are much larger than in intra-laboratory tests; the coefficient of variation is 16% and 6

  12. Water Absorption of Jute/Polylactic Acid Composite Intended for an Interior Application and Comparison with Wood-Based Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, C.; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, D.

    2014-04-01

    Jute/polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources with high mechanical properties. Thus, it could be a more eco-friendly alternative to the conventional wood-based panels made of formaldehyde resin which is asserted to be carcinogenic. Yet the water affinity of the natural fibres and susceptibility of polylactic acid towards hydrolysis raise a question about the water resistance of such composites in service condition. In this work, the water absorption behaviour of jute/PLA composites, jute/maleated polypropylene was investigated with regard to interior applications following the standard test method in accordance to ISO 16983:2003 `Wood-based panels—determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water' and compared to standard of wood-based panels. Untreated and treated jute/PLA composites exhibited a superior water resistance property compared to particleboard, MDF and hardboard and they are by far, below the minimum requirement of the ISO standard 16983.

  13. The Effects of Wall Roughness on Particle Velocities in a Turbulent Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Michael; Eaton, John

    2003-11-01

    Previous experiments on particle-laden turbulent channel flows have shown lower than expected particle mean velocities. This research examined wall roughness effects on particle velocity distributions. Experiments were conducted in an existing vertical, fully developed channel air flow apparatus. Particle-board walls in the flow development section were replaced with smooth acrylic walls. The final 1.7 m of the development section was either a smooth section made of acrylic or a second section roughened by attaching mesh screen made of 0.25 mm diameter wire. The channel operated at a Reynolds number of 13,800 and was seeded with 150 im diameter spherical glass particles at 15loading. The wall roughness had little effect on the mean fluid velocity profile, but the particle velocity profiles and PDF's showed substantial dependence on the wall roughness. Particle mean velocities were higher than the gas velocity for the smooth wall flow, but substantially lagged the gas phase in the rough wall case, except near the wall. The particle streamwise rms velocity was nearly uniform across the channel width for the rough wall case.

  14. Clinical evaluation of patients with complaints related to formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Imbus, H.R.

    1985-12-01

    Formaldehyde is a very widely used chemical in our present society and one with which every physician has had a first-hand experience in his early days of training in the anatomy laboratory. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health lists 52 occupations that expose people to formaldehyde. In recent years, however, the increasing use of formaldehyde resins in the production of building materials such as particleboard and urea-formaldehyde foam insulation has resulted in exposures of large numbers of people in nonoccupational settings. Consumer products such as cosmetics, cigarettes, textiles, furniture, draperies, and preservatives release formaldehyde. It is present in the outdoor atmosphere from products of combustion and automobile exhaust and likewise in the home from such things as gas cooking. These more widespread and increased exposures have resulted in concern regarding potential health effects. Therefore, it is likely that physicians have or will encounter patients who wish evaluations of a present or potential health effect from formaldehyde. This article is for the purpose of providing assistance in such evaluation.110 references.

  15. Evaluation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of ignitable liquids in fire debris.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Ina; Krüger, Simone; Deubel, Jan H; Werrel, Martin; Raspe, Tina; Piechotta, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The chemical analysis of fire debris represents a crucial part in fire investigations to determine the cause of a fire. A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure for the detection of ignitable liquids in fire debris using a fiber coated with a mixture of three different sorbent materials (Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane, DVB/CAR/PDMS) is described. Gasoline and diesel fuel were spiked upon a preburnt matrix (wood charcoal), extracted and concentrated with HS-SPME and then analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental conditions--extraction temperature, incubation and exposure time--were optimized. To assess the applicability of the method, fire debris samples were prepared in the smoke density chamber (SDC) and a controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter. The developed methods were successfully applied to burnt particleboard and carpet samples. The results demonstrate that the procedure that has been developed here is suitable for detecting these ignitable liquids in highly burnt debris. PMID:24329005

  16. Formaldehyde concentrations in household air of asthma patients determined using colorimetric detector tubes

    PubMed Central

    Dannemiller, Karen C.; Murphy, Johnna S.; Dixon, Sherry L.; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Jacobs, David E.; Sandel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent gas commonly found in homes that is a respiratory irritant, sensitizer, carcinogen and asthma trigger. Typical household sources include plywood and particleboard, cleaners, cosmetics, pesticides, and others. Development of a fast and simple measurement technique could facilitate continued research on this important chemical. The goal of this research is to apply an inexpensive short-term measurement method to find correlations between formaldehyde sources and concentration, and formaldehyde concentration and asthma control. Formaldehyde was measured using 30-minute grab samples in length-of-stain detector tubes in homes (n=70) of asthmatics in the Boston, MA area. Clinical status and potential formaldehyde sources were determined. The geometric mean formaldehyde level was 35.1 ppb and ranged from 5–132 ppb. Based on one-way ANOVA, t-tests, and linear regression, predictors of log-transformed formaldehyde concentration included absolute humidity, season, and the presence of decorative laminates, fiberglass, or permanent press fabrics (p<0.05), as well as temperature and household cleaner use (p<0.10). The geometric mean formaldehyde concentration was 57% higher in homes of children with very poorly controlled asthma compared to homes of other asthmatic children (p=0.078). This study provides a simple method for measuring household formaldehyde and suggests that exposure is related to poorly controlled asthma. PMID:23278296

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-309-1906, Louisiana-Pacific Corporation, Missoula, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.A.

    1988-06-01

    An investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation, Missoula, Montana. Upper respiratory irritation, headaches, and dizziness had been reported by workers in the particle-board painting department. Eight workers operated the automated painting process. Full-shift time-weighted average exposures to solvent mixtures ranged from 26 to 110% of the combined evaluation criteria for individual solvents. Toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone were the major solvent components. Air formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 0.3mg/mT. The printer operator was exposed to 50mg/mT of butyl cellosolve. The author concludes that a potential hazard from overexposure to organic solvent mixtures existed as well as overexposure to formaldehyde. The author recommends that the ventilation system in the painting department be checked and upgraded to ensure that it is able to provide the recommended capture velocity at the paint rollers, that additional ventilation methods be installed where needed, that butyl cellosolve be replaced, and that a medical surveillance program be established.

  18. Formaldehyde concentrations in household air of asthma patients determined using colorimetric detector tubes.

    PubMed

    Dannemiller, K C; Murphy, J S; Dixon, S L; Pennell, K G; Suuberg, E M; Jacobs, D E; Sandel, M

    2013-08-01

    Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent gas commonly found in homes and is a respiratory irritant, sensitizer, carcinogen, and asthma trigger. Typical household sources include plywood and particleboard, cleaners, cosmetics, pesticides, and others. Development of a fast and simple measurement technique could facilitate continued research on this important chemical. The goal of this research is to apply an inexpensive short-term measurement method to find correlations between formaldehyde sources and concentration, and formaldehyde concentration and asthma control. Formaldehyde was measured using 30-min grab samples in length-of-stain detector tubes in homes (n = 70) of asthmatics in the Boston, MA area. Clinical status and potential formaldehyde sources were determined. The geometric mean formaldehyde level was 35.1 ppb and ranged from 5 to 132 ppb. Based on one-way ANOVA, t-tests, and linear regression, predictors of log-transformed formaldehyde concentration included absolute humidity, season, and the presence of decorative laminates, fiberglass, or permanent press fabrics (P < 0.05), as well as temperature and household cleaner use (P < 0.10). The geometric mean formaldehyde concentration was 57% higher in homes of children with very poorly controlled asthma compared to homes of other asthmatic children (P = 0.078). This study provides a simple method for measuring household formaldehyde and suggests that exposure is related to poorly controlled asthma. PMID:23278296

  19. A simple method for screening emission sources of carbonyl compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shohei; Kume, Kazunari; Horiike, Toshiyuki; Honma, Nobuyuki; Fusaya, Masahiro; Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi

    2010-06-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from building and furnishing materials are frequently observed in high concentrations in indoor air. Nondestructive analytical methods that determine the main parameters influencing concentration of the chemical substances are necessary to screen for sources of VOC emissions. Toward this goal, we have developed a new flux sampler, referred to herein as an emission cell for simultaneous multi-sampling (ECSMS), that is used for screening indoor emission sources of VOCs and for determining the emission rates of these sources. Because the ECSMS is based on passive sampling, it can be easily used on-site at a low cost. Among VOCs, low-molecular-weight carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde are frequently detected at high concentrations in indoor environments. In this study, we determined the reliability of the ECSMS for the collection of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds emitted from wood-based composites of medium density fiberboards and particleboards. We then used emission rates determined by the ECSMS to predict airborne concentrations of formaldehyde emitted from a bookshelf in a large chamber, and these data were compared to formaldehyde concentrations that were acquired simultaneously by means of an active sampling method. The values obtained from the two methods were quite similar, suggesting that ECSMS measurement is an effective method for screening primary sources influencing indoor concentrations of formaldehyde. PMID:20149530

  20. Dehydration project report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-31

    Catalytic Industrial Group became interested in the ability to use its catalytic infrared technology for the removal of moisture in substances after having had very positive experience in removing moisture from water-based coatings which are becoming increasingly popular as industry strives to comply with clean air mandates. The first attempts were crude but showed that the moisture could be removed, and intriguing enough that they started to think about a conveying-based system that would remove moisture from products. The initial tests were designed around sawdust. The authors felt that the market in particleboard and in the MDF board by itself justified the research into this concept. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment has been kept apprised of the on-going development of the infrared drying system by Catalytic Industrial Group. There were some early delays in the delivery of equipment needed to build the prototype machine. The design changes identified during the experimental phase of the development of the infrared dryer have been resolved and a process-testing device has been developed. This technical report outlines the progress made to date.

  1. Wood biodegradation in laboratory-scale landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this research was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of major wood products in municipal waste by measuring methane yields, decay rates, the extent of carbohydrate decomposition, carbon storage, and leachate toxicity. Tests were conducted in triplicate 8 L reactors operated to obtain maximum yields. Measured methane yields for red oak, eucalyptus, spruce, radiata pine, plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB) from hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW), particleboard (PB) and medium-density fiberboard (MDF) were 32.5, 0, 7.5, 0.5, 6.3, 84.5, 0, 5.6, and 4.6 mL CH(4) dry g(-1), respectively. The red oak, a HW, exhibited greater decomposition than either SW (spruce and radiata), a trend that was also measured for the OSB-HW relative to OSB-SW. However, the eucalyptus (HW) exhibited toxicity. Thus, wood species have unique methane yields that should be considered in the development of national inventories of methane production and carbon storage. The current assumption of uniform biodegradability is not appropriate. The ammonia release from urea formaldehyde as present in PB and MDF could contribute to ammonia in landfill leachate. Using the extent of carbon conversion measured in this research, 0-19.9%, predicted methane production from a wood mixture using the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change waste model is only 7.9% of that predicted using the 50% carbon conversion default. PMID:21749061

  2. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

  3. From MDF and PB wastes to adsorbents for the removal of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. A. F. L.; Azaruja, B. A.; Mourão, P. A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The production of activated carbons in powder and monolith forms, by physical activation with CO2, with specific surface areas between 804 and 1469 m2 g-1, porous volume between 0.33 and 0.59 cm3 g-1, with basic nature (PZC ∼ 9.6-10.6) was achieved in our lab, from medium density fibreboard (MDF) and particleboard (PB), engineered wood composites wastes. These highly porous adsorbents were applied in kinetic and equilibrium adsorption studies, in batch and dynamic modes, in powder and monolith forms, of specific adsorptives, considered pollutants, namely phenol (P), p-nitrophenol (PNP) and neutral red (NR). In batch the maximum adsorbed amount was 267, 162 and 92 mg g-1, for PNP, P and NR, respectively. The application of different kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion model) leads to a better knowledge of the adsorption mechanisms of those adsorptives. The results obtained in the kinetic and equilibrium tests show that the combination of the structural features and the surface chemistry nature of the adsorbents, with the adsorptives properties, establish the kinetic performance, the type and amount adsorbed for each system. This work confirms the potential of these types of wastes in the production of activated carbons and its application in adsorption from liquid phase.

  4. Application of photocuring technique on wood surface and its prospects in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattcacharia, S. K.; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2005-07-01

    Photocuring technique has unveiled a new horizon in polymer science. Application of photocuring technique on wood surface has enhanced the use of low grade wood. As Bangladesh is an overpopulated country, necessity of good quality wood is increasing day by day. So low grade wood, like Simul or Partex, locally produced particleboard, would come out with great use. As Partex board, produced from Jute sticks and various types of indigenous low grade wood and particle board are abundant in Bangladesh, so photocuring could play a major role to improve the quality of low grade wood and serve the nation. Already, a lot of research works were carried out by the local scientists to improve the wood surface using UV curing method. Different formulations were also developed by the local scientists using various oligomer, monomer and different types of additives. The used oligomers are epoxy, polyester, urethane, etc. and monomers of different functionalities and used additives are acrylic monomer, CaCO3, sand, MgSiO3, talc, etc. Thin films were prepared on glass plate with different formulations using UV radiation and different characteristics properties (pendulum hardness, abrasion, gloss (60° and 20°), microscratch hardness, weathering effect, adhesion strength, etc.) were studied. Now, a Pilot Plant has already been established with the financial assistance by the government of Bangladesh, worth US 3.5 million.

  5. Validation of models for predicting formaldehyde concentrations in residences due to pressed wood products. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, R.A.; Silberstein, S.; Ishiguro, K.

    1985-09-01

    The interim report describes procedures and presents results of the first phase of a laboratory project undertaken at the National Bureau of Standards for the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The purpose of the project is to assess the accuracy of emission and indoor-air-quality models to be used by CPSC in predicting formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in residences due to pressed-wood products made with urea-formaldehyde bonding resins, namely particleboard underlayment, hardwood-plywood paneling and medium-density fiberboard (MDF). In phase I, these products were characterized in medium-size dynamic measuring chambers by measuring their HCHO surface emission rates over a range of HCHO concentrations, at 23C and 50% RH. They were then installed in a two-room prototype house and the equilibrium HCHO concentrations were monitored as a function of air exchange rate. Excellent agreement was obtained between measured HCHO concentrations and those predicted by a mass-balance indoor air quality model. In the next phase, the study will be repeated at various different temperatures and relative humidities so that models predicting HCHO surface emission rate as a function of temperature and humidity can be tested.

  6. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao

    2015-01-01

    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9–11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC—the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk

  7. Air concentrations of VOCs in portable and traditional classrooms: results of a pilot study in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Winer, Arthur M; Stock, Thomas H; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Maberti, Silvia; Colome, Steven D

    2004-01-01

    Recent state and federal public school class-size reduction initiatives, increased elementary and pre-K enrollment driven by population growth and immigration, and limited resources for capital projects, modernization, and maintenance at aging schools have increased the prevalence of prefabricated, portable classrooms (portables). At present, approximately one of three California students are taught in portables, whose use is especially prevalent in more populated counties such as Los Angeles, home to the nation's second largest school district. Limited data existed on chemical compound air concentrations, and thus exposures, inside American public schools. Measurements have been limited, usually performed in complaint schools, and varied in sampling protocols and analysis methods. To address a school environment and children's health issue of present concern, an assessment of public school portables was conducted in Los Angeles County. Seven schools in two school districts were recruited, from which 20 classrooms--13 portables, seven in main buildings--were randomly selected. We report indoor air concentrations of 21 target toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, measured with passive samplers (DNSH PAKS and 3M OVM 3500) in the cooling and heating seasons between June 2000 and June 2001. None of the measured indoor air formaldehyde concentrations exceeded the existing California Air Resources Board guideline (50 ppb, or 60 microg/m(3)). The main sources of aldehydes in classrooms, especially portables, were likely interior finish materials and furnishings made of particleboard without lamination. Indoor air VOC concentrations were generally low in this pilot study. The four most prevalent VOCs measured were toluene, m-/p-xylene, alpha-pinene, and delta-limonene; likely indoor sources were personal, teaching, and cleaning products. Future schools research should attempt larger samples over larger geographical

  8. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  9. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions. PMID:12653275

  10. Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: a new meta-analysis and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luoping; Steinmaus, Craig; Eastmond, David A; Xin, Xianjun K; Smith, Martyn T

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is an economically important chemical, to which more than 2 million U.S. workers are occupationally exposed. Substantially more people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally, as it is generated by automobile engines, is a component of tobacco smoke and is released from household products, including furniture, particleboard, plywood, and carpeting. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified formaldehyde as a human carcinogen that causes nasopharyngeal cancer and also concluded that there is "strong but not sufficient evidence for a causal association between leukemia and occupational exposure to formaldehyde". Here, we review the epidemiological studies published to date on formaldehyde-exposed workers and professionals in relation to lymphohematopoietic malignances. In a new meta-analysis of these studies, focusing on occupations known to have high formaldehyde exposure, we show that summary relative risks (RRs) were elevated in 15 studies of leukemia (RR=1.54; confidence interval (CI), 1.18-2.00) with the highest relative risks seen in the six studies of myeloid leukemia (RR=1.90; 95% CI, 1.31-2.76). The biological plausibility of this observed association is discussed and potential mechanisms proposed. We hypothesize that formaldehyde may act on bone marrow directly or, alternatively, may cause leukemia by damaging the hematopoietic stem or early progenitor cells that are located in the circulating blood or nasal passages, which then travel to the bone marrow and become leukemic stem cells. To test these hypotheses, we recommend that future studies apply biomarkers validated for other chemical leukemogens to the study of formaldehyde. PMID:18674636

  11. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported. PMID:23942265

  12. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao

    2015-01-01

    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9-11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC-the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk assessment

  13. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  14. Mechanical analysis of wood-fiber cement sheets under constant and repeated loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Divino Eterno

    Inorganic-bonded panels have been successfully utilized for many years around the world. Cellulose materials are extensively used for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) and for fiber-reinforced cement (FRC) composites worldwide. Particularly in Europe, this family of composites is used, among other applications, for building construction. Use of wood-fiber cement (WFC) composites in North America has been steadily increasing over the last 10 years. Problems encountered with resin-bonded wood products used in exterior environments have resulted in litigation and search for viable products. WFC sheets are currently filling this need and gaining market share by virtue of their own superior properties. This study was designed to provide basic information currently lacking in literature and important to the wise application of WFC sheets. Experimental autoclaved WFC flat sheets made with kraft Douglas fir fiber and with recycled old corrugated containers (OCC) fiber were manufactured and the results compared with an available commercial product. This experimental program was subdivided into three manuscripts. The first manuscript evaluates whether the actual mechanical properties of WFC sheets can be predicted using nondestructive parameters of the material by applying stress wave time techniques. The second manuscript deals with characterization of the WFC sheets. Physical and mechanical properties were evaluated and results discussed with the use of a scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis. Manuscript three examines the viscoelastic behavior of the material at constant and repeated loading conditions. The nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the material showed good correlation between dynamic and static modulus of elasticity (MOE). A multivariate linear regression analysis provided the strongest correlation (R = 0.828) for static MOE as a function of wave speed, density, and dynamic MOE. Results from Manuscript 2 revealed that WFC sheets manufactured with

  15. Composites from maleated polyolefin-grafted wood particles produced via reactive extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlborn, Karana

    adequate grafting. Similarly, there was no difference in grafting efficiency with molecular weight of MAPP. Reactive extrusion was found to be a suitable technique for the modification of wood particles with maleated polyolefins for all of the material compositions and processing conditions studied. Mechanical property test results indicated that most composite panels met or even exceeded the standard requirements for particleboard of medium density. While extruding the particles before panel pressing gave better internal bond (IB) strength, superior bending properties were obtained through compression molding alone. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green

  17. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    , formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

  18. Study of VOCs transport and storage in porous media and assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing

    the vapor pressure of the compound, but also increased with the increase of the Henry's law constant. Experiment results also showed that a higher relative humidity led to a larger effective diffusion coefficient for both conventional wallboard and green wallboard. The partition coefficient (Kma) of formaldehyde in conventional wallboard was larger at 50% RH than at 20% RH, while the difference in partition coefficient between 50% RH and 70% RH was insignificant. For the green wallboard and green carpet, the partition coefficient increased slightly with the increase of relative humidity from 20% to 50% and 70%. Engineered wood products such as particleboard have widely been used with wood veneer and laminate to form multilayer assembly work surfaces or panels. The multilayer model study in this dissertation comprised both numerical and experimental investigation of the VOCs emission from such an assembly. A coupled 1D multilayer model based on CHAMPS (coupled heat, air, moisture and pollutant simulations) was first described. Later, the transport properties of each material layer were determined. Several emission cases from a three-layered heterogeneous work assembly were modeled using a developed simulation model. At last, the numerical model was verified by the experimental data of both hexanal and acetaldehyde emissions in a 50L standard small scale chamber. The model is promising in predicting VOCs' emissions for multilayered porous materials in emission tests.