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1

Characterization of circulating microparticle-associated CD39 family ecto-nucleotidases in human plasma.  

PubMed

Phosphohydrolysis of extracellular ATP and ADP is an essential step in purinergic signaling that regulates key pathophysiological processes, such as those linked to inflammation. Classically, this reaction has been known to occur in the pericellular milieu catalyzed by membrane bound cellular ecto-nucleotidases, which can be released in the form of both soluble ecto-enzymes as well as being associated with exosomes. Circulating ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase 1/CD39) and adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) activities have been shown to be present in plasma. However, other ecto-nucleotidases have not been characterized in depth. An in vitro ADPase assay was developed to probe the ecto-enzymes responsible for the ecto-nucleotidase activity in human platelet-free plasma, in combination with various specific biochemical inhibitors. Identities of ecto-nucleotidases were further characterized by chromatography, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry of circulating exosomes. We noted that microparticle-bound E-NTPDases and soluble AK1 constitute the highest levels of ecto-nucleotidase activity in human plasma. All four cell membrane expressed E-NTPDases are also found in circulating microparticles in human plasma, inclusive of: CD39, NTPDase 2 (CD39L1), NTPDase 3 (CD39L3), and NTPDase 8. CD39 family members and other ecto-nucleotidases are found on distinct microparticle populations. A significant proportion of the microparticle-associated ecto-nucleotidase activity is sensitive to POM6, inferring the presence of NTPDases, either -2 or/and -3. We have refined ADPase assays of human plasma from healthy volunteers and have found that CD39, NTPDases 2, 3, and 8 to be associated with circulating microparticles, whereas soluble AK1 is present in human plasma. These ecto-enzymes constitute the bulk circulating ADPase activity, suggesting a broader implication of CD39 family and other ecto-enzymes in the regulation of extracellular nucleotide metabolism. PMID:25165006

Jiang, Z Gordon; Wu, Yan; Csizmadia, Eva; Feldbrügge, Linda; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christina E; McKnight, C James; Moss, Alan; Robson, Simon C

2014-12-01

2

Polyoxometalates-Potent and selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic cluster metal complexes that possess versatile biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects. Their mechanisms of action at the molecular level are largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the inhibition of several enzyme families (e.g., phosphatases, protein kinases or ecto-nucleotidases) by POMs may contribute to their pharmacological properties. Ecto-nucleotidases are cell membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides thereby regulating purinergic (and pyrimidinergic) signaling. They comprise four distinct families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), alkaline phosphatases (APs) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of a series of polyoxometalates as well as chalcogenide hexarhenium cluster complexes at a broad range of ecto-nucleotidases. [Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2](10-) (5, PSB-POM142) was discovered to be the most potent inhibitor of human NTPDase1 described so far (Ki: 3.88nM). Other investigated POMs selectively inhibited human NPP1, [TiW11CoO40](8-) (4, PSB-POM141, Ki: 1.46nM) and [NaSb9W21O86](18-) (6, PSB-POM143, Ki: 4.98nM) representing the most potent and selective human NPP1 inhibitors described to date. [NaP5W30O110](14-) (8, PSB-POM144) strongly inhibited NTPDase1-3 and NPP1 and may therefore be used as a pan-inhibitor to block ATP hydrolysis. The polyoxoanionic compounds displayed a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition of NPPs and eN, but appeared to be competitive inhibitors of TNAP. Future in vivo studies with selected inhibitors identified in the current study are warranted. PMID:25449596

Lee, Sang-Yong; Fiene, Amelie; Li, Wenjin; Hanck, Theodor; Brylev, Konstantin A; Fedorov, Vladimir E; Lecka, Joanna; Haider, Ali; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Sévigny, Jean; Kortz, Ulrich; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E

2014-11-13

3

Ecto-nucleotidase activities in the fat body of Rhodnius prolixus.  

PubMed

In this study, we describe the ability of intact fat body of an insect, Rhodnius prolixus, to hydrolyze extracellular ATP. In these fat bodies, the ATP hydrolysis was low in the absence of any divalent metal, and was stimulated by MgCl(2). Both activities (in the absence or presence of MgCl(2)) were linear with time for at least 30 min. In order to confirm the observed nucleotidase activities as ecto-nucleotidases, we used an impermeant inhibitor, DIDS (4, 4'-diisothiocyanostylbene 2'-2'-disulfonic acid). This reagent inhibited both nucleotidase activities and its inhibitory effect was suppressed by ATP. Both ecto-nucleotidase activities were insensitive to inhibitors of other ATPase and phosphatase activities, such as oligomycin, sodium azide, bafilomycin, ouabain, vanadate, molybdate, sodium fluoride, levamizole, tartrate, p-NPP, sodium phosphate, and suramin. Concanavalin A, activator of some ecto-ATPases, was able to stimulate the Mg(2+)-independent nucleotidase activity, but not the Mg(2+)-dependent one. The Mg(2+)-independent nucleotidase activity was enhanced with increases in the pH in the range between 6.4-8.0, but the Mg(2+)-dependent nucleotidase activity was not affected. Besides MgCl(2) , the ecto-ATPase activity was also stimulated by CaCl(2),() MnCl(2), and SrCl(2), but not by ZnCl(2). ATP, ADP, and AMP were the best substrates for the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-nucleotidase activity, and CTP, GTP, and UTP produced very low reaction rates. However, the Mg(2+)-independent nucleotidase activity recognized all these nucleotides producing similar reaction rates, but GTP was a less efficient substrate. The possible role of the two ecto-nucleotidase activities present on the cell surface of fat body of Rhodnius prolixus, which are distinguished by their substrate specificity and their response to Mg(2+), is discussed. PMID:16380977

Entringer, Petter F; Gondim, Katia C; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

2006-01-01

4

Isolated CD39 Expression on CD4+ T Cells Denotes both Regulatory and Memory Populations  

PubMed Central

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) express both ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73, which in tandem hydrolyze pericellular ATP into adenosine, an immunoinhibitory molecule that contributes to Treg suppressive function. Using Foxp3GFP knockin mice, we noted that the mouse CD4+CD39+ T-cell pool contains two roughly equal size Foxp3+ and Foxp3? populations. While Foxp3+CD39+ cells are CD73bright and are the bone fide Tregs, Foxp3?CD39+ cells do not have suppressive activity and are CD44+CD62L?CD25?CD73dim/?, exhibiting memory cell phenotype. Functionally, CD39 expression on memory and Treg cells confers protection against ATP-induced apoptosis. Compared with Foxp3?CD39? naïve T cells, Foxp3?CD39+ cells freshly isolated from non-immunized mice express at rest significantly higher levels of mRNA for T-helper lineage-specific cytokines IFN-? (Th1), IL-4/IL-10 (Th2), IL-17A/F (Th17), as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and rapidly secrete these cytokines upon stimulation. Moreover, the presence of Foxp3?CD39+ cells inhibits TGF-? induction of Foxp3 in Foxp3?CD39? cells. Furthermore, when transferred in vivo, Foxp3?CD39+ cells rejected MHC-mismatched skin allografts in a much faster tempo than Foxp3?CD39? cells. Thus, besides Tregs, CD39 is also expressed on pre-existing memory T cells of Th1-, Th2- and Th17-types with heightened alloreactivity. PMID:19656134

Zhou, Q.; Yan, J.; Putheti, P.; Wu, Y.; Sun, X.; Toxavidis, V.; Tigges, J.; Kassam, N.; Enjyoji, K.; Robson, S. C.; Strom, T. B.; Gao, W.

2010-01-01

5

Central role of Sp1-regulated CD39 in hypoxia/ischemia protection  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia is common to several inflammatory diseases, where multiple cell types release adenine-nucleotides (particularly adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate). Adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate is metabolized to adenosine through a 2-step enzymatic reaction initiated by CD39 (ectonucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase-1). Thus, extracellular adenosine becomes available to regulate multiple inflammatory endpoints. Here, we hypothesized that hypoxia transcriptionally up-regulates CD39 expression. Initial studies revealed hypoxia-dependent increases in CD39 mRNA and immunoreactivity on endothelia. Examination of the human CD39 gene promoter identified a region important in hypoxia inducibility. Multiple levels of analysis, including site-directed mutagenesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and inhibition by antisense, revealed a critical role for transcription-factor Sp1 in hypoxia-induction of CD39. Using a combination of cd39?/? mice and Sp1 small interfering RNA in in vivo cardiac ischemia models revealed Sp1-mediated induction of cardiac CD39 during myocardial ischemia. In summary, these results identify a novel Sp1-dependent regulatory pathway for CD39 and indicate the likelihood that CD39 is central to protective responses to hypoxia/ischemia. PMID:18812468

Köhler, David; Eckle, Tobias; Kong, Tianqing; Robson, Simon C.

2009-01-01

6

CD39 improves survival in microbial sepsis by attenuating systemic inflammation.  

PubMed

Sepsis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Excessive inflammation is a major cause of organ failure and mortality in sepsis. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, ENTPDase1 (CD39) is a cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, which degrades the extracellular purines ATP and ADP, thereby regulating purinergic receptor signaling. Although the role of purinergic receptor signaling in regulating inflammation and sepsis has been addressed previously, the role of CD39 in regulating the host's response to sepsis is unknown. We found that the CD39 mimic apyrase (250 U/kg) decreased and knockout or pharmacologic blockade with sodium polyoxotungstate (5 mg/kg; IC50 ? 10 ?M) of CD39 increased mortality of mice with polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. CD39 decreased inflammation, organ damage, immune cell apoptosis, and bacterial load. Use of bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CD39 expression on myeloid cells decreases inflammation in septic mice. CD39 expression is upregulated during sepsis in mice, as well as in both murine and human macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli. Moreover, E. coli increases CD39 promoter activity in macrophages. Altogether, these data indicate CD39 as an evolutionarily conserved inducible protective pathway during sepsis. We propose CD39 as a novel therapeutic target in the management of sepsis.-Csóka, B., Németh, Z. H., Tör?, G., Koscsó, B., Kókai, E., Robson, S. C., Enjyoji, K., Rolandelli, R. H., Erdélyi, K., Pacher, P., Haskó, G. CD39 improves survival in microbial sepsis by attenuating systemic inflammation. PMID:25318479

Csóka, Balázs; Németh, Zoltán H; Tör?, Gábor; Koscsó, Balázs; Kókai, Endre; Robson, Simon C; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Erdélyi, Katalin; Pacher, Pál; Haskó, György

2015-01-01

7

ENTPD1/CD39 is a promising therapeutic target in oncology.  

PubMed

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subpopulation of CD4(+) T cells that are essential for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system, limiting self-reactivity and excessive immune responses against foreign antigens. In cancer, infiltrated Tregs inhibit the effector lymphocytes and create a favorable environment for the growth of the tumor. Although Tregs mediate immunosuppression through multiple, non-redundant, cell-contact dependent and independent mechanisms, a growing body of evidence suggests an important role for the CD39-CD73-adenosine pathway. CD39 ectonucleotidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of a cascade leading to the generation of suppressive adenosine that alters CD4 and CD8 T cell and natural killer cell antitumor activities. Here, we review the recent literature supporting CD39 as a promising therapeutic target in oncology. In vitro and in vivo experiments involving knockout models and surrogate inhibitors of CD39 provide evidence in support of the anticancer activity of CD39 inhibition and predict a favorable safety profile for CD39 inhibitory compounds. In addition, we report the ongoing development of CD39-blocking monoclonal antibodies as potential anticancer drugs. Indeed, CD39 antagonistic antibodies could represent novel therapeutic tools for selectively inhibiting Treg function without depletion, a major limitation of current Treg-targeting strategies. PMID:22751118

Bastid, J; Cottalorda-Regairaz, A; Alberici, G; Bonnefoy, N; Eliaou, J-F; Bensussan, A

2013-04-01

8

Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Directly Promotes Tumor Cell Growth by Scavenging Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate12  

PubMed Central

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5?-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X7 receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X7 expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

2011-01-01

9

Increased CD39 Nucleotidase Activity on Microparticles from Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a devastating disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates, and in situ thrombosis. Circulating intravascular ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine activate purinergic cell signaling pathways and appear to induce many of the same pathologic processes that underlie IPAH. Extracellular dephosphorylation of ATP to ADP and AMP occurs primarily via CD39 (ENTPD1), an ectonucleotidase found on the surface of leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells [1]. Microparticles are micron-sized phospholipid vesicles formed from the membranes of platelets and endothelial cells. Objectives: Studies here examine whether CD39 is an important microparticle surface nucleotidase, and whether patients with IPAH have altered microparticle-bound CD39 activity that may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. Methodology/ Principal Findings Kinetic parameters, inhibitor blocking experiments, and immunogold labeling with electron microscopy support the role of CD39 as a major nucleotidase on the surface of microparticles. Comparison of microparticle surface CD39 expression and nucleotidase activity in 10 patients with advanced IPAH and 10 healthy controls using flow cytometry and thin layer chromatograph demonstrate the following: 1) circulating platelet (CD39+CD31+CD42b+) and endothelial (CD39+CD31+CD42b?) microparticle subpopulations in patients with IPAH show increased CD39 expression; 2) microparticle ATPase and ADPase activity in patients with IPAH is increased. Conclusions/ Significance We demonstrate for the first time increased CD39 expression and function on circulating microparticles in patients with IPAH. Further research is needed to elucidate whether these findings identify an important trigger for the development of the disease, or reflect a physiologic response to IPAH. PMID:22792409

Visovatti, Scott H.; Hyman, Matthew C.; Bouis, Diane; Neubig, Richard; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Pinsky, David J.

2012-01-01

10

Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously demonstrated that CD133 and CD39 are expressed by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are mobilized after liver injury and target sites of injury, limit vascular inflammation and boost hepatic regeneration. Plasma microparticles (MP) expressing CD39 can block endothelial activation. Here, we tested whether CD133+ MP might be shed in a CD39-dependent manner in a model of liver injury and could potentially serve as biomarkers of liver failure in the clinic. Methods Wild type and Cd39 null mice were subjected to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. Mice were sacrificed and plasma MP isolated by ultracentrifugation. HSC and CD133+ MP levels were analyzed by FACS. Patients were enrolled with acute (n = 5) and acute on chronic (n = 5) liver injury with matched controls (n = 7). Blood was collected at admission and plasma CD133+ and CD39+ MP subsets were analysed by FACS. Results HSC and CD133+ MP levels were significantly increased only in the plasma of wild type mice with APAP-hepatoxicity (p<0.05). No increases in CD133+ MP were noted in Cd39 null mice. Plasma MP increases were observed in patients with liver injury. These MP were characterized by significantly higher levels of CD39 (P< 0.05). Conclusions HSC and plasma CD133+ MP levels increase in a CD39-dependent manner during experimental acute liver injury. Increased levels of CD39+ MP are differentially noted in patients with liver injury. Further research is needed to determine whether MP fluxes are secondary to pathophysiologic insults to the liver or might reflect compensatory responses. PMID:23232366

Schmelzle, Moritz; Splith, Katrin; Andersen, Lars W.; Kornek, Miroslaw; Schuppan, Detlef; Jones-Bamman, Caitlin; Nowak, Martina; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Salhanick, Steven D.; Han, Lihui; Schulte am Esch, Jan; Jonas, Sven; Donnino, Michael W.; Robson, Simon C.

2012-01-01

11

CD39/ENTPD1 expression by CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells promotes hepatic metastatic tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Adenosine mediates immune suppression and is generated by the ectonucleotidases CD39 (ENTPD1) and CD73 that are expressed on vascular endothelial cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Although tumor-infiltrating immune cells include Foxp3+ Treg, it is not clear whether local adenosine generation by Treg promotes tumor growth in a CD39-dependent manner. In this study, we have examined the impact of CD39 expression by Treg on effector immune cell responses to hepatic metastases in vivo. Methods and Results A model of hepatic metastatic cancer was developed with portal vein infusion of luciferase-expressing melanoma B16/F10 cells and MCA38 colon cancer cells in wild type and mutant mice null for Cd39. Chimeric mice were generated by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using Cd39 null or wild type (wt) C57BL6 donors and irradiated recipient mice. We demonstrate that hepatic growth of melanoma metastatic tumors was strongly inhibited in mice with Cd39 null vasculature or in wild type mice with circulating Cd39 null bone marrow-derived cells. We show functional CD39 expression on CD4+Foxp3+ Treg suppressed anti-tumor immunity mediated by NK cells in vitro and in vivo. Lastly, inhibition of CD39 activity by POM-1 (polyoxometalate-1), a pharmacological inhibitor of NTPDase activity, significantly inhibited tumor growth (P < .001). Conclusions CD39 expression on Treg inhibits NK activity and is permissive for metastatic growth. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy for secondary hepatic malignancies. PMID:20546740

SUN, XIAOFENG; WU, YAN; GAO, WENDA; ENJYOJI, KEIICHI; CSIZMADIA, EVA; MÜLLER, CHRISTA E.; MURAKAMI, TAKASHI; ROBSON, SIMON C.

2010-01-01

12

An intestinal commensal symbiosis factor controls neuroinflammation via TLR2-mediated CD39 signaling  

PubMed Central

The mammalian immune system constitutively senses vast quantities of commensal bacteria and their products through pattern recognition receptors, yet excessive immune reactivity is prevented under homeostasis. Intestinal microbiome can influence host susceptibility to extra-intestine autoimmune disorders. Here we report that polysaccharide A (PSA), a symbiosis factor for human intestinal commensal Bacteroides fragilis, protects against central nervous system demyelination and inflammation during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 mediates tissue-specific expansion of a critical regulatory CD39+ CD4 T cell subset by PSA. Ablation of CD39 signaling abrogates PSA control of EAE manifestations and inflammatory cytokine responses. Further, CD39 confers immune-regulatory phenotypes to total CD4 T cells and Foxp3+ CD4 Tregs. Importantly, CD39-deficient CD4 T cells show an enhanced capability to drive EAE progression. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanism by which an intestinal symbiont product modulates CNS-targeted demyelination. PMID:25043484

Wang, Yan; Telesford, Kiel M.; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Haque-Begum, Sakhina; Christy, Marc; Kasper, Eli J.; Wang, Li; Wu, Yan; Robson, Simon C.; Kasper, Dennis L.; Kasper, Lloyd H.

2014-01-01

13

CD39 Modulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recruitment and Promotes Liver Regeneration in Mice and Humans After Partial Hepatectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective To study molecular mechanisms involved in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization after liver resection and determine impacts on liver regeneration. Background Extracellular nucleotide-mediated cell signaling has been shown to boost liver regeneration. Ectonucleotidases of the CD39 family are expressed by bone marrow–derived cells, and purinergic mechanisms might also impact mobilization and functions of HSC after liver injury. Methods Partial hepatectomy was performed in C57BL/6 wild-type, Cd39 ectonucleotidase-null mice and in chimeric mice after transplantation of wild-type or Cd39-null bone marrow. Bone marrow–derived HSCs were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and administered after hepatectomy. Chemotactic studies were performed to examine effects of purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro. Mobilization of human HSCs and expression of CD39 were examined and linked to the extent of resection and liver tests. Results Subsets of HSCs expressing Cd39 are preferentially mobilized after partial hepatectomy. Chemotactic responses of HSCs are increased by CD39-dependent adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis and adenosine signaling via A2A receptors in vitro. Mobilized Cd39high HSCs boost liver regeneration, potentially limiting interleukin 1? signaling. In clinical studies, mobilized human HSCs also express CD39 at high levels. Mobilization of HSCs correlates directly with the restoration of liver volume and function after partial hepatectomy. Conclusions We demonstrate CD39 to be a novel HSC marker that defines a functionally distinct stem cell subset in mice and humans. HSCs are mobilized after liver resection, limit inflammation, and boost regeneration in a CD39-dependent manner. These observations have implications for monitoring and indicate future therapeutic avenues. PMID:23474584

Schmelzle, Moritz; Duhme, Constanze; Junger, Wolfgang; Salhanick, Steven D.; Chen, Yu; Wu, Yan; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Fürst, Günter; Nowak, Martina; Karp, Seth J.; Knoefel, Wolfram T.

2014-01-01

14

CD39 is highly involved in mediating the suppression activity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T regulatory lymphocytes.  

PubMed

CD39 is an ectoenzyme, present on different immune cell subsets, which mediates immunosuppressive functions catalyzing ATP degradation. It is not known whether CD39 is expressed and implicated in the activity of CD8+ regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg). In this study, CD39 expression and function was analyzed in both CD8+ and CD4+CD25(hi) Treg from the peripheral blood of healthy donors as well as from tumor specimens. CD39 was found expressed by both CD8+ (from the majority of healthy donors and tumor patients) and CD4+CD25(hi) Treg, and CD39 expression correlated with suppression activity mediated by CD8+ Treg. Importantly, CD39 counteraction remarkably inhibited the suppression activity of CD8+ Treg (both from peripheral blood and tumor microenvironment) suggesting that CD39-mediated inhibition constitutes a prevalent hallmark of their function. Collectively, these findings, unveiling a new mechanism of action for CD8+ Treg, provide new knowledge on intratumoral molecular pathways related to tumor immune escape, which could be exploited in the future for designing new biological tools for anticancer immune intervention. PMID:23359087

Parodi, Alessia; Battaglia, Florinda; Kalli, Francesca; Ferrera, Francesca; Conteduca, Giuseppina; Tardito, Samuele; Stringara, Silvia; Ivaldi, Federico; Negrini, Simone; Borgonovo, Giacomo; Simonato, Alchiede; Traverso, Paolo; Carmignani, Giorgio; Fenoglio, Daniela; Filaci, Gilberto

2013-05-01

15

Delayed targeting of CD39 to activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa via a single-chain antibody: breaking the link between antithrombotic potency and bleeding?  

PubMed Central

The ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase CD39 represents a promising antithrombotic therapeutic. It degrades adenosine 5?-diphosphate (ADP), a main platelet activating/recruiting agent. We hypothesized that delayed enrichment of CD39 on developing thrombi will allow for a low and safe systemic concentration and thus avoid bleeding. We use a single-chain antibody (scFv, specific for activated GPIIb/IIIa) for targeting CD39. This should allow delayed enrichment on growing thrombi but not on the initial sealing layer of platelets, which do not yet express activated GPIIb/IIIa. CD39 was recombinantly fused to an activated GPIIb/IIIa-specific scFv (targ-CD39) and a nonfunctional scFv (non–targ-CD39). Targ-CD39 was more effective at preventing ADP-induced platelet activation than non–targ-CD39. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, non–targ-CD39, although protective against vessel occlusion, was associated with significant bleeding on tail transection. In contrast, targ-CD39 concentrated at the thrombus site; hence, a dose ?10 times less of CD39 prevented vessel occlusion to a similar extent as high-dose non–targ-CD39, without prolonged bleeding time. An equimolar dose of non–targ-CD39 at this low concentration was ineffective at preventing vessel occlusion. Thus, delayed targeting of CD39 via scFv to activated platelets provides strong antithrombotic potency and yet prevents bleeding and thereby promotes CD39 toward clinical use. PMID:23380744

Hohmann, Jan David; Wang, Xiaowei; Krajewski, Stefanie; Selan, Carly; Haller, Carolyn A.; Straub, Andreas; Chaikof, Elliot L.; Nandurkar, Harshal H.; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

2013-01-01

16

Expression, purification and crystallization of the ecto-enzymatic domain of rat E-NTPDase1 CD39.  

PubMed

CD39 is a prototype member of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family that hydrolyzes extracellular nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates in the presence of divalent cations. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the ecto-enzymatic domain of rat CD39, sCD39, are described. The 67 kDa secreted soluble glycoprotein was recombinantly overexpressed in a glycosylation mutant CHO line, Lec.3.2.8.1, and purified from conditioned media. Diffraction-quality crystals of sCD39 were produced by the vapor-diffusion method using PEG 3350 and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as precipitants. The enzyme crystallized in a primitive trigonal form in space group P3(2), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 118.1, c = 81.6 A and with two sCD39 copies in the asymmetric unit. Several low- to medium-resolution diffraction data sets were collected using an in-house X-ray source. Analysis of the intensity statistics showed that the crystals were invariably merohedrally twinned with a high twin fraction. For initial phasing, a molecular-replacement search was performed against the complete 3.2 A data set using a maximum-likelihood molecular-replacement method as implemented in Phaser. The initial model of the two sCD39 monomers was placed into the P3(2) lattice and rigid-body refined and position-minimized with PHENIX. PMID:18997343

Zhong, Xiaotian; Buddha, Madhavan; Guidotti, Guido; Kriz, Ron; Somers, Will; Mosyak, Lidia

2008-11-01

17

Resident Cardiac Immune Cells and Expression of the Ectonucleotidase Enzymes CD39 and CD73 after Ischemic Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73 are expressed by a broad range of immune cells and promote the extracellular degradation of nucleotides to anti-inflammatory adenosine. This study explored the abundance of CD73 and CD39 on circulating and resident cardiac leukocytes and coronary endothelial cells under control conditions and in response to inflammation following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Methods and Results A method was elaborated to permit FACS analysis of non-myocardial cells (resident leukocytes, coronary endothelium and CD31? CD45? cells) of the unstressed heart. Under control conditions the murine heart contained 2.3×103 resident leukocytes/mg tissue, the most prominent fraction being antigen-presenting mononuclear cells (CD11b+ CD11c+ F4/80+ MHCII+) followed by B-cells, monocytes and T-cells. CD73 was highly expressed on circulating and resident cardiac lymphoid cells with little expression on myeloid cells, while the opposite was true for CD39. Cardiomyocytes and erythrocytes do not measurably express CD39/CD73 and CD39 dominates on coronary endothelium. Three days after I/R, CD73 was significantly upregulated on invading granulocytes (2.8-fold) and T-cells (1.5-fold). Compared with coronary endothelial cells, CD73 associated with leukocytes comprised 2/3 of the total cardiac CD73. Conclusion Our study suggests that extracellular ATP formed during I/R is preferentially degraded by CD39 present on myeloid cells, while the formation of immunosuppressive adenosine is mainly catalysed by CD73 present on granulocytes and lymphoid cells. Upregulated CD73 on granulocytes and T-cells infiltrating the injured heart is consistent with the existence of an autocrine adenosinergic loop which may promote the healing process. PMID:22514659

Burghoff, Sandra; Schrader, Jürgen

2012-01-01

18

CD39 is a negative regulator of P2X7-mediated inflammatory cell death in mast cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mast cells (MCs) are major contributors to an inflammatory milieu. One of the most potent drivers of inflammation is the cytokine IL-1?, which is produced in the cytoplasm in response to danger signals like LPS. Several controlling mechanisms have been reported which limit the release of IL-1?. Central to this regulation is the NLRP3 inflammasome, activation of which requires a second danger signal with the capacity to subvert the homeostasis of lysosomes and mitochondria. High concentrations of extracellular ATP have the capability to perturb the plasma membrane by activation of P2X7 channels and serve as such a danger signal. In this study we investigate the role of P2X7 channels and the ecto-5´-nucleotidase CD39 in ATP-triggered release of IL-1? from LPS-treated mast cells. Results We report that in MCs CD39 sets an activation threshold for the P2X7-dependent inflammatory cell death and concomitant IL-1? release. Knock-out of CD39 or stimulation with non-hydrolysable ATP led to a lower activation threshold for P2X7-dependent responses. We found that stimulation of LPS-primed MCs with high doses of ATP readily induced inflammatory cell death. Yet, cell death-dependent release of IL-1? yielded only minute amounts of IL-1?. Intriguingly, stimulation with low ATP concentrations augmented the production of IL-1? in LPS-primed MCs in a P2X7-independent but caspase-1-dependent manner. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the fine-tuned interplay between ATP and different surface molecules recognizing or modifying ATP can control inflammatory and cell death decisions. PMID:25184735

2014-01-01

19

CD39/NTPDase-1 expression and activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells are differentially regulated by leaf extracts from Rubus caesius and Rubus idaeus.  

PubMed

Many experimental studies have demonstrated the favorable biological activities of plants belonging to the genus Rubus, but little is known of the role of Rubus leaf extracts in the modulation of the surface membrane expression and activity of endothelial apyrase. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 1-15 ?g/ml Rubus extracts on CD39 expression and enzymatic activity, and on the activation (ICAM-1 expression) and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The polyphenolic contents and antioxidative capacities of extracts from dewberry (R. caesius L.) and raspberry (R. idaeus L.) leaves were also investigated. The techniques applied were flow cytometry (endothelial surface membrane expression of ICAM-1 and CD39), malachite green assay (CD39 activity), HPLC-DAD (quantitative analysis of polyphenolic extract), ABTS, DPPH and FRAP spectrometric assays (antioxidant capacity), and the MTT test (cell viability). Significantly increased CD39 expressions and significantly decreased ATPDase activities were found in the cells treated with 15 ?g/ml of either extract compared to the results for the controls. Neither of the extracts affected cell proliferation, but both significantly augmented endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression. The overall antioxidant capacities of the examined extracts remained relatively high and corresponded well to the determined total polyphenol contents. Overall, the results indicate that under in vitro conditions dewberry and raspberry leaf extracts have unfavorable impact on endothelial cells. PMID:25034034

Dudzinska, Dominika; Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Podsedek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

2014-09-01

20

Metabolism of circulating ADP in the bloodstream is mediated via integrated actions of soluble adenylate kinase-1 and NTPDase1/CD39 activities  

PubMed Central

Extracellular ATP and ADP trigger inflammatory, vasodilatatory, and prothrombotic signaling events in the vasculature, and their turnover is governed by networks of membrane-associated enzymes. The contribution of soluble activities to intravascular nucleotide homeostasis remains controversial. By using thin-layer chromatographic assays, we revealed transphosphorylation of [?-32P]ATP and AMP by human and murine sera, which was progressively inhibited by specific adenylate kinase (AK) inhibitor Ap5A. This phosphotransfer reaction was diminished markedly in serum from knockout mice lacking the major AK isoform, AK1, and in human serum immunodepleted of AK1. We also showed that ?75% ADP in cell-free serum is metabolized via reversible AK1 reaction 2ADP ? ATP + AMP. The generated ATP and AMP are then metabolized through the coupled nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase and 5?-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, respectively. Constitutive presence of another nucleotide-converting enzyme, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1, known as CD39), was ascertained by the relative deficiency of serum from CD39-null mice to dephosphorylate [3H]ADP and [?-32P]ATP, and also by diminished [3H]ADP hydrolysis by human serum pretreated with NTPDase1 inhibitors, POM-1 and ARL-67156. In summary, we have identified hitherto unrecognized soluble forms of AK1 and NTPDase1/CD39 that contribute in the active cycling between the principal platelet-recruiting agent ADP and other circulating nucleotides.—Yegutkin, G. G., Wieringa, B., Robson, S. C., Jalkanen, S. Metabolism of circulating ADP in the bloodstream is mediated via integrated actions of soluble adenylate kinase-1 and NTPDase1/CD39 activities PMID:22637533

Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Wieringa, Bé; Robson, Simon C.; Jalkanen, Sirpa

2012-01-01

21

Milk-Based Nutraceutical for Treating Autoimmune Arthritis via the Stimulation of IL-10- and TGF-?-producing CD39+ Regulatory T Cells  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases arise from the loss of tolerance to self, and because the etiologies of such diseases are largely unknown, symptomatic treatments rely on anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Tolerogenic treatments that can reverse disease are preferred, but again, often thwarted by not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags). Hence, a viable alternative to stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) is to induce bystander tolerance. Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) has been shown to evoke bystander immunity and to hasten Ag-specific Treg development independent of auto-Ag. To translate in treating human autoimmune diseases, the food-based Lactococcus was engineered to express CFA/I fimbriae, and Lactococcus-CFA/I fermented milk fed to arthritic mice proved highly efficacious. Protection occurred via CD39+ Tregs producing TGF-? and IL-10 to potently suppress TNF-? production and neutrophil influx into the joints. Thus, these data demonstrate the feasibility of oral nutraceuticals for treating arthritis, and potency of protection against arthritis was improved relative to that obtained with Salmonella-CFA/I. PMID:25629976

Maddaloni, Massimo; Kochetkova, Irina; Jun, SangMu; Callis, Gayle; Thornburg, Theresa; Pascual, David W.

2015-01-01

22

Milk-Based Nutraceutical for Treating Autoimmune Arthritis via the Stimulation of IL-10- and TGF-?-producing CD39+ Regulatory T Cells.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases arise from the loss of tolerance to self, and because the etiologies of such diseases are largely unknown, symptomatic treatments rely on anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Tolerogenic treatments that can reverse disease are preferred, but again, often thwarted by not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags). Hence, a viable alternative to stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) is to induce bystander tolerance. Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) has been shown to evoke bystander immunity and to hasten Ag-specific Treg development independent of auto-Ag. To translate in treating human autoimmune diseases, the food-based Lactococcus was engineered to express CFA/I fimbriae, and Lactococcus-CFA/I fermented milk fed to arthritic mice proved highly efficacious. Protection occurred via CD39+ Tregs producing TGF-? and IL-10 to potently suppress TNF-? production and neutrophil influx into the joints. Thus, these data demonstrate the feasibility of oral nutraceuticals for treating arthritis, and potency of protection against arthritis was improved relative to that obtained with Salmonella-CFA/I. PMID:25629976

Maddaloni, Massimo; Kochetkova, Irina; Jun, SangMu; Callis, Gayle; Thornburg, Theresa; Pascual, David W

2015-01-01

23

South African Particulates  

article title:  Airborne Particulates over Southern Africa     View Larger ... the abundance of airborne particulates, or aerosols, over Southern Africa during the period August 14 - September 29, 2000. Low particle ...

2013-04-16

24

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH 02  

EPA Science Inventory

2002 PARTICULATE MATTER GPRA Goal 1: Clean Air; Objective 1.1: Ozone, PM, and SO2 NAAQS; Sub-Objective 1.1.5: Particulate Matter Research Description: In July 1997, EPA revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM), recogniz...

25

Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

Murphy, James E.

1973-01-01

26

Pitch based foam with particulate  

DOEpatents

A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

27

Airborne particulate discriminator  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-08-11

28

Feeder for particulate material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeder apparatus for feeding at a controlled variable rate particulate solid material, such as coal, from a supply conduit located above a gravimetric feeder to a discharge chute located below the feeder. The particulate material flows to the feeder from the supply conduit along a path having a generally vertical center line and the discharge chute provides a flow path

D. E. Christofer; A. J. Stock

1981-01-01

29

Diesel particulate traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

For use with a diesel engine having at least one exhaust bank, a particulate trap system is described comprising: an exhaust conduit ducting exhaust materials firstly through an exhaust cooler, thence to a diesel particulate trap, thence to the atmosphere, a by-pass conduit connected in parallel with the exhaust cooler between a first location upstream of the cooler and a

Burlington

1987-01-01

30

Fine particulate capture device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To capture fine particulate matter in a gas such as air, a dielectric fluid is directed to the center of whichever face of a rotating disc is exposed to the air flow. The disc is comprised of two or more segments which bear opposite electrostatic potentials. As the dielectric fluid is centrifuged towards the periphery of the rotating disc, the fluid becomes charged to the same potential as the segment over which it is passing. Particulate matter is attracted to the charged segment and is captured by the fluid. The fluid then carries the captured particulate matter to a collection device such as a toroidal container disposed around the periphery of the disc. A grounded electrically-conductive ring may be disposed at the outer periphery of the disc to neutralize the captured particles and the fluid before they enter the container.

Peterson, V. S.; Siewert, R. D. (inventors)

1979-01-01

31

Void/particulate detector  

DOEpatents

Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Karplus, Henry B. (Hinsdale, IL)

1985-01-01

32

Fluidizing device for solid particulates  

DOEpatents

A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Golden, CO)

1986-01-01

33

Fluidizing device for solid particulates  

DOEpatents

A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

1984-06-27

34

Health Effects of Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site gives a brief overview of how different sized particulate matter affects human health. It also discusses the environmental impacts of particulate matter, including haze and acid rain. The site also provides links to more in-depth resources about particle pollution and air quality criteria for particulate matter.

Environmental Protection Agency

35

Analysis of microsize particulates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unique methods for analyzing individual particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 1000 micrometers have been developed for investigation of nature of cosmic dust. Methods are applicable to particulate aerosols and contaminants characteristically encountered in studies of air pollution and in experiments designed to abate pollution.

Blanchard, M. B.; Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.

1972-01-01

36

Feeder for particulate material  

SciTech Connect

Feeder apparatus for feeding at a controlled variable rate particulate solid material, such as coal, from a supply conduit located above a gravimetric feeder to a discharge chute located below the feeder. The particulate material flows to the feeder from the supply conduit along a path having a generally vertical center line and the discharge chute provides a flow path having a generally vertical center line closely laterally spaced relative to the center line of flow to the feeder. The feeder apparatus has a horizontally extending housing with an upwardly facing inlet through which the material flows to the feeder and a downwardly facing outlet forming part of the discharge chute through which the material flows from the feeder. Within the housing is a main feeder conveyor including an endless belt with a generally horizontal span adapted to receive at one end the particulate material flowing to the feeder and to convey in a layer a measured quantity of material a horizontal distance across weighing means to an exit zone at the opposite end of the belt, the horizontal distance being substantially greater than the spacing between the center lines of flow to the feeder and through such discharge chute. Associated with the main feeder conveyor is a gravimetric control system for controlling the amount of material deposited on the belt. Particulate material that drops off the main conveyor belt at the exit zone is received on a return belt conveyor and carried in a reverse direction a sufficient distance to bring the material to the discharge chute. Cooperation between the main feeder conveyor and the return conveyor permits gravimetric feeding of particulate material to the discharge chute that is closely laterally spaced to the flow path of material to the main conveyor by a distance that is substantially less than the length of travel of the material on the main conveyor.

Christofer, D.E.; Stock, A.J.

1981-03-24

37

Rigid particulate matter sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-02-22

38

Particulate matter dynamics  

E-print Network

A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L weather on the final deposition of these particles.

Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

2012-01-01

39

Void/particulate detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

1983-09-26

40

Diesel particulate traps  

SciTech Connect

For use with a diesel engine having at least one exhaust bank, a particulate trap system is described comprising: an exhaust conduit ducting exhaust materials firstly through an exhaust cooler, thence to a diesel particulate trap, thence to the atmosphere, a by-pass conduit connected in parallel with the exhaust cooler between a first location upstream of the cooler and a second location downstream of the cooler but upstream of the trap, a first valve in the exhaust conduit between the first location and the cooler, a second valve in the by-pass conduit, and microprocessor-based control means which carries out the steps of (a) allowing normal operation with the first valve open and the second valve closed, (b) when backpressure in the exhaust conduit reaches a predetermined level due to particulate build-up in the trap, gradually opening the second valve and closing the first valve, thereby allowing exhaust materials to by-pass the cooler, (c) when the trap begins to regenerate thereby causing increased temperature in the trap, closing the second valve and opening the first valve.

Burlington, K.H.

1987-08-11

41

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514/2014 Fluid mechanics ­ re-wrap of basic principles januari 2014 �boFluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514/2014 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate systems 424514 /2014 BASIC PRINCIPLES / REVIEW COURSE OVERVIEW

Zevenhoven, Ron

42

Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

2008-12-31

43

Particulate technology issues  

SciTech Connect

Advanced systems for power generation based on coal combustion or gasification will require effective particulate control both for protection of equipment in the gas stream and for compliance with environmental regulations. These new classes of systems will require efficient removal of particles from gas streams at high temperature and high pressure. Primary candidates for particulate control are various types of ceramic filter systems; however, the long-term effects of hot gases and fine particles on the structure and filtration effectiveness of potential filter materials require further study. Thermal gradients induced by pulse cleaning are also of concern. Long-term patch tests'' will be conducted on ceramic disks of the same materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic crossflow filters. The primary issues to be addressed in these tests are the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse cleaning systems. Each long-term patch test will require about 3 to 4 months of nearly continuous operation.

Pontius, D.H.; Vann Bush, P.

1992-01-01

44

Particulate technology issues  

SciTech Connect

Advanced systems for power generation based on coal combustion or gasification will require effective particulate control both for protection of equipment in the gas stream and for compliance with environmental regulations. These new classes of systems will require efficient removal of particles from gas streams at high temperature and high pressure. Primary candidates for particulate control are various types of ceramic filter systems; however, the long-term effects of hot gases and fine particles on the structure and filtration effectiveness of potential filter materials require further study. Thermal gradients induced by pulse cleaning are also of concern. Long-term ``patch tests`` will be conducted on ceramic disks of the same materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic crossflow filters. The primary issues to be addressed in these tests are the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse cleaning systems. Each long-term patch test will require about 3 to 4 months of nearly continuous operation.

Pontius, D.H.; Vann Bush, P.

1992-12-01

45

Particulate erosion mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particulate damage and erosion of ductile metals are today plaguing design and field engineers in diverse fields of engineering and technology. It was found that too many models and theories were proposed leading to much speculation from debris analysis and failure mechanism postulations. Most theories of solid particle erosion are based on material removal models which do not fully represent the actual physical processes of material removal. The various mechanisms proposed thus far are: melting, low-cycle fatigue, extrusion, delamination, shear localization, adhesive material transfer, etc. The experimental data on different materials highlighting the observed failure modes of the deformation and cutting wear processes using optical and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The most important mechanisms proved from the experimental observations of the specimens exposed to both spherical and angular particles are addressed, and the validity of the earlier theories discussed. Both the initial stages of damage and advanced stages of erosion were studied to gain a fundamental understanding of the process.

Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

1983-01-01

46

Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

1996-01-01

47

Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy  

DOEpatents

A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2011-07-12

48

Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

2013-12-31

49

Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition  

DOEpatents

A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

2010-02-02

50

42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against...

2010-10-01

51

42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against...

2011-10-01

52

PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

53

Process for particulate removal from coal liquids  

DOEpatents

Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01

54

Polarization signatures of airborne particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

2013-07-01

55

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER MODULES OF PARTICULATE PROCESSES FOR REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of an aerosol model for inclusion in the EPA Regional Particulate Model is described. Existing computer modules of particulate processes developed under EPA contract by Professors Brock, Seinfeld, and Whitby are compared to determine efficient and accurate methods...

56

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

SciTech Connect

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08

57

Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

Grant, N. J.

1982-01-01

58

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16

59

Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

2014-07-01

60

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

DOEpatents

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05

61

Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Particulate ...

62

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 PARTICULATES #2PARTICULATES #2  

E-print Network

particulate control ·· Particulate emission control for vehiclesParticulate emission control for vehicles see OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Filters : major types & characteristicsFilters : major types & characteristics Bag.153 Filters : cleaning methodsFilters : cleaning methods TypeType MethodMethod MechanismMechanism Bag filter

Zevenhoven, Ron

63

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOEpatents

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-01-26

64

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOEpatents

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-11-08

65

Measuring Particulate Emissions from Autos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science or biology students connect a real-world problem to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts; the lesson specifically focuses on particulate emissions from automobiles and their impact on air pollution. The activity should take about one class period to complete (plus time for students to complete analysis outside of class), and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

66

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOEpatents

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1988-01-01

67

40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1880 Section 52.1880 Protection...1880 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Greater Metropolitan...

2012-07-01

68

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection...776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis...

2012-07-01

69

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2010-07-01

70

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection...776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis...

2011-07-01

71

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2011-07-01

72

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

...false Control strategy; Particulate matter. 52.2584 Section 52.2584 Protection...2584 Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval...maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain an...

2014-07-01

73

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection...776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Link to an amendment published at...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis...

2013-07-01

74

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection...776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Indianapolis...

2010-07-01

75

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2013-07-01

76

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2012-07-01

77

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2010-07-01

78

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

... 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2014-07-01

79

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2013-07-01

80

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per...

2012-07-01

81

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2011-07-01

82

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2012-07-01

83

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2014-07-01

85

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57...Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only §...

2010-07-01

86

Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

1988-01-01

87

High efficiency particulate air filter  

SciTech Connect

A high efficiency particulate air filter is described which is characterized by being lightweight and readily disposable after use, and comprising a sheet of high efficiency particulate air filtering medium folded upon itself in accordion fashion to form a generally rectangular filter pack which includes opposite side edges defined by the edges of the folded sheet and opposite end edges defined by the ends of the sheet, a relatively thin and lightweight four sided peripheral frame surrounding and supporting the filter pack, with the four sides of the frame being separately molded and overlying and covering respective ones of the opposite side edges and opposite end edges of the pack, the frame being composed of a relatively thin, hard, air impermeable material which is self-bonded and sealed to the filter medium over substantially the entire interface between the medium and the frame to effectively preclude the leakage of air therebetween, and with adjacent edges of adjacent sides of the frame being self-bonded to each other, the frame further having an exterior surface which includes a peripheral shoulder formed in the exterior surface adjacent at least one end of the filter to define a peripheral ledge thereabout, and at least one separate header surrounding and sealably secured to the external periphery of the frame, with the one header being mounted upon the ledge in abutting relation with the associated shoulder.

Allan, T.T.; Cramer, R.V.

1987-08-11

88

Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project  

SciTech Connect

This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

Ashley Williamson

2003-05-31

89

RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

90

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10

91

Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

92

EMISSION CONTROL: CONTROL OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews the results of fine particulate control technology tests by the Particulate Technology Branch (PATB) of EPA's IERL-RTP over the last 3 years. The review covers characterization of conventional control equipment, assessment of the collectability of dusts, and ne...

93

Ultrasonic detecting and identifying of particulates  

SciTech Connect

A method of detecting and identifying particulates in the recirculating fluid flow for an oil recovery system by counting the number of ultrasonic pulses reflected from the particulates and comparing the number counted with the amount of attenuation of ultrasonic energy across the flow.

Abts, L.R.

1983-05-03

94

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27

95

Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

2012-10-23

96

Collective migration Inertial migration Transition to turbulence Particulate flow  

E-print Network

to turbulence Particulate flow in a pipe Rigid spherical particles Neutrally-buoyant particles Particulate flow Collective migration of rigid spherical particles in pipe flow Inertial migration of rigid spherical particles in pipe flow Transition to turbulence in particulate pipe flow Particulate flow IUSTI - CNRS

97

Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

98

TRANSMUTATION DES PARTICULES FONDAMENTALES. CHANGEMENT DE SPIN  

E-print Network

123. TRANSMUTATION DES PARTICULES FONDAMENTALES. CHANGEMENT DE SPIN Par A. PROCA. Institut Henri'entre elles, comme autant d'états distincts d'un seul et même corpus- cule et de regarder les transmutations

Boyer, Edmond

99

GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

100

PARTICULATE SAMPLING SUPPORT: 1977 ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the activities supporting the particulate sampling efforts of EPA/IERL-RTP during FY 1977. Twenty technical directives were issued in seven categories: cascade impactors (7), cyclones (5), sampling electrostatic precipitators (1), guidelines and manuals (3), ...

101

OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

102

PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract, cascade impactors were...

103

An improved visualization of diesel particulate filter/  

E-print Network

The prevalence of diesel particulate filters (DPF) is increasing as emissions standards worldwide evolve to match current technologies. Since the first application of DPFs in the 1980's, PM trapping effectiveness has ...

Boehm, Kevin (Kevin W.)

2011-01-01

104

Particulate Dispersion in a Turbulent Serpentine Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate dispersion in an S-shaped duct, with periodicity between inlet and exit, is studied by direct numerical simulation.\\u000a Stokes numbers range from 0.125 to 6.0. In a straight, turbulent channel flow, eddies are responsible for particulate impact.\\u000a Turbophoresis causes a mean drift toward the wall. In a curved channel, particle inertia can be the dominant cause of impact.\\u000a Above the

Xin Huang; Paul Durbin

2010-01-01

105

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

viscosity )1( 1density For homogeneous flows: D u½ L p QQ Q 1S 2 mixmix LG G GG 4f velocity)sameL(G liquid ­ solid Three phase flow: Gas-liquid-solid (trickled bed) or G/S or L/S with many size fractions&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514/2012 Vertical two-phase (G/L) flows RoNz 5 Upward Patterns

Zevenhoven, Ron

106

Efficient material design for diesel particulate filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will give an overview about the filter development for diesel particulate emission control in automotive applications.\\u000a The material development for passenger car diesel particulate filters led to new materials like silicon carbide while for\\u000a heavy duty applications still Cordierite plays a major role. But in the future other materials might also be used for passenger\\u000a cars. This paper

A. Schaefer-Sindlinger; I. Lappas; C. D. Vogt; T. Ito; H. Kurachi; M. Makino; A. Takahashi

2007-01-01

107

Condensation cleaning of particulate laden gases  

SciTech Connect

Particulate laden gas, especially those gases carrying particulates having a size in the micron or submicron range, are removed by humidifying the gas with water and thereafter subjecting the gas to indirect contact heat exchange sufficient to provide an energy transfer for water vapor condensation of at least 5 horsepower per 1000 cfm. Heat exchange is accomlished by passing the gas downwardly through an exchange element having smooth and vertical gas passages of a relatively large dimension.

Devries, E.

1981-08-18

108

Airborne Particulates over Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This map shows the abundance of airborne particulates, or aerosols, over Southern Africa during the period August 14 - September 29, 2000. Low particle concentrations are shown in shades of blue, and high concentrations in shades of red. The results were generated from MISR imagery acquired over this time period, and processed using MISR's automated software system. The approach for deriving aerosol amount makes use of the variation of scene brightness and contrast as a function of observation angle. Black areas over the land area correspond to places where a result was not obtained, for example, due to the presence of clouds.

Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. Vegetation availability increases northward, hence the greater abundance of haze and smoke in Angola and southern Zaire. The lower aerosol abundance around Lesotho and southeastern South Africa is consistent with the higher terrain elevations near the Drakensberg Mountains.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

109

New ESP additive controls particulates  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

1997-06-01

110

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

Miller, S.J.

1995-11-01

111

Comparison of particulate verification techniques study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficacy of five particulate verification techniques on four types of materials was studied. Statistical Analysis Software/JMP 6.0 was used to create a statistically valid design of experiments. In doing so, 35 witness coupons consisting of the four types of materials being studied, were intentionally contaminated with particulate fallout. Image Analysis was used to characterize the extent of particulate fallout on the coupons and was used to establish a baseline, or basis of comparison, against the five techniques that were studied. The five particulate verification techniques were the Tapelift, the Particulate Solvent Rinse, the GelPak lift, an in-line vacuum filtration probe, and the Infinity Focusing Microscope (IFM). The four types of materials consisted of magnesium flouride (MgF II) coated mirrors, composite coated silver aluminum (CCAg), Z93 and NS43G coated aluminum, and silicon (si) wafers. The vacuum probe was determined to be most effective for Z93, the tapelift or vacuum probe for MgF2, and the GelPak Lift for CCAg and si substrates. A margin of error for each technique, based on experimental data from two experiments, for si wafer substrates, yielded the following: Tapelift - 67%, Solvent Rinse - 58%, GelPak- 26%, Vacuum Probe - 93%, IFM-to be determined.

Rivera, Rachel

2006-08-01

112

Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

2007-03-01

113

Particulate matter sensor with a heater  

DOEpatents

An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-08-16

114

Modeling of Particulate Behavior in Pinhole Breaches  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented for calculating depressurization time for and particulate release from used nuclear fuel dry storage containers that have developed a pinhole breach. Particular attention is given to particulate deposition and transmission within the breach pathway. The model is modular in nature and is developed in a way that allows for more advanced treatments of internal temperature, internal component geometry, or aerosol flow to be readily incorporated. The model can be treated as a basis for addressing concerns associated with monitoring and verification efforts during long-term dry cask storage

Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Hanson, Brady D.

2014-04-01

115

Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer  

DOEpatents

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1988-01-01

116

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

SciTech Connect

The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

1999-09-30

117

40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...submitted requests to redesignate the Granite City Particulate Matter (PM) nonattainment...as well as a maintenance plan for the Granite City area to ensure continued attainment...Calumet (SE Chicago), McCook, and Granite City, Illinois, Particulate...

2010-07-01

118

METALLURGICAL COKE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the metallurgical coke industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from metallurgical coke plants, the data were...

119

ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives the status of the most promising high-temperature/high-pressure (HTP) particulate control devices being developed. Data are presented and anticipated performance and development problems are discussed. HTP particulate control offers efficiency and potential econo...

120

40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Weighted mass particulate, grams per brake horsepower-hour. (2) PC = Mass particulate measured...grams. (4) BHP-hrC = Total brake horsepower-hour (brake horsepower integrated with respect to time) for the...

2012-07-01

121

40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Weighted mass particulate, grams per brake horsepower-hour. (2) PC = Mass particulate measured...grams. (4) BHP-hrC = Total brake horsepower-hour (brake horsepower integrated with respect to time) for the...

2011-07-01

122

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2013-07-01

123

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2011-07-01

124

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2014-07-01

125

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2011-07-01

126

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2011-07-01

127

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.292 Section 60.292 Protection...60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those...

2014-07-01

128

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2013-07-01

129

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2012-07-01

130

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2012-07-01

131

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2011-07-01

132

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2010-07-01

133

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.292 Section 60.292 Protection...60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those...

2011-07-01

134

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2011-07-01

135

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2013-07-01

136

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.292 Section 60.292 Protection...60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those...

2012-07-01

137

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2012-07-01

138

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2014-07-01

139

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2014-07-01

140

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2010-07-01

141

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2013-07-01

142

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2014-07-01

143

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2012-07-01

144

40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.292 Section 60.292 Protection...60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gaseous fuel or a liquid fuel, particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those...

2013-07-01

145

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2014-07-01

146

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2013-07-01

147

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2012-07-01

148

Health Effects of Atmospheric Particulates: A Medical Geology Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, atmospheric particulates as composite airborne earth materials often containing both natural and anthropogenic components were examined in the context of medical geology. Despite a vast number of both experimental and epidemiological studies confirming the direct and indirect links between atmospheric particulates and human health, the exact nature of mechanisms affecting the particulate-induced pathogenesis largely remains unexplored. Future

Nurdan S Duzgoren-Aydin

2008-01-01

149

CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE DIESEL VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate emissions data are presented from a group of 19 in-use diesel automobiles. Five driving cycles and three fuel/lubricating oil combinations have been used to obtain particulate emissions data and also to collect particulate samples for chemical and bioassay characteriz...

150

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-print Network

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01

151

Spatial and temporal distributions of particulate matter and particulate organic carbon, Northeast Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

entrained less saline, high particulate river water offshore. A similar effect was noted during Summer 1999, but to a lesser degree. A shelf edge current associated with anticyclonic flow seems to be a mechanism responsible for the appearance of nepheloid...

Bernal, Christina Estefana

2012-06-07

152

Atmospheric particulate measurements in Norfolk, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterization of atmospheric particulates was conducted at a site near the center of Norfolk, Virginia. Air quality was measured in terms of atmospheric mass loading, particle size distribution, and particulate elemental composition for a period of 2 weeks. The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a mean level of air quality and deviations about this mean, (2) to ascertain diurnal changes or special events in air quality, and (3) to evaluate instrumentation and sampling schedules. Simultaneous measurements were made with the following instruments: a quartz crystal microbalance particulate monitor, a light-scattering multirange particle counter, a high-volume air sampler, and polycarbonate membrane filters. To assess the impact of meteorological conditions on air quality variations, continuous data on temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction were recorded. Particulate elemental composition was obtained from neutron activation and scanning electron microscopy analyses of polycarbonate membrane filter samples. The measured average mass loading agrees reasonably well with the mass loadings determined by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board. There are consistent diurnal increases in atmospheric mass loading in the early morning and a sample time resolution of 1/2 hour seems necessary to detect most of the significant events.

Storey, R. W., Jr.; Sentell, R. J.; Woods, D. C.; Smith, J. R.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

1975-01-01

153

EVALUATIONS OF NOVEL PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of four novel particulate control devices. Three were wet scrubbers: an Aronetics (Chemico) Two-Phase Jet Scrubber, an Entoleter Centrifield Scrubber, and a CEA Variable-Throat Venturi Scrubber. The fourth w...

154

DESIGN OF A LABORATORY FOR PARTICULATE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects on human health resulting from asbestos exposure in various environments are a subject of national concern and debate. In recognition of the need for a 'state-of-the-art' laboratory for particulates analysis, with emphasis on asbestos, the Environmental Protection Age...

155

Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies  

SciTech Connect

The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

156

PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

157

Particulate air pollution and acute health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between particulate air pollution and not only exacerbations of illness in people with respiratory disease but also rises in the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among older people. Meta-analyses of these studies indicate that the associations are unlikely to be explained by any confounder, and suggest that they represent cause

A. Seaton; D. Godden; W. MacNee; K. Donaldson

1995-01-01

158

Particulate content of savanna fire emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the FOS-DECAFE experiment at Lamto (Ivory Coast) in January 1991, various aerosol samples were collected at ground level near prescribed fires or under local background conditions, to characterize the emissions of particulate matter from the burning of savanna vegetation. This paper deals with total aerosol (TPM) and carbon measurements. Detailed trace element and polycyclic hydrocarbon data are

Hélène Cachier; Catherine Liousse; Patrick Buat-Menard; Annie Gaudichet

1995-01-01

159

Indoor particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that precursors to reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prevalent indoors, the concentration of ROS inside buildings is unknown. ROS on PM2.5 was measured inside and outside twelve residential buildings and eleven institutional and retail buildings. The mean (± s.d.) concentration of ROS on PM2.5 inside homes (1.37 ± 1.2 nmoles/m(3)) was not significantly different from the outdoor concentration (1.41 ± 1.0 nmoles/m(3)). Similarly, the indoor and outdoor concentrations of ROS on PM2.5 at institutional buildings (1.16 ± 0.38 nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.68 ± 1.3 nmoles/m(3) outdoors) and retail stores (1.09 ± 0.93 nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.12 ± 1.1 nmoles/m(3) outdoors) were not significantly different and were comparable to those in residential buildings. The indoor concentration of particulate ROS cannot be predicted based on the measurement of other common indoor pollutants, indicating that it is important to separately assess the concentration of particulate ROS in air quality studies. Daytime indoor occupational and residential exposure to particulate ROS dominates daytime outdoor exposure to particulate ROS. These findings highlight the need for further study of ROS in indoor microenvironments. PMID:24742727

Khurshid, Shahana S; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Kinney, Kerry A

2014-07-01

160

TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

161

HIGH TEMPERATURE PARTICULATE CONTROL WITH CERAMIC FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of using ceramic materials as filters for fine particulate removal at high temperatures. The program was in two phases. Phase I, directed toward the development of a porous alumina membrane filter, had limited success because of the fragi...

162

STUDIES OF PARTICULATE REMOVAL FROM DIESEL EXHAUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of the collection of particulate emissions from diesel exhaust by several different methods, using 5.7 liter GM diesel engines (as sources) and such controls as fiber and gravel bed filters, trap/cyclones, and ESPs. Overall and fract...

163

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

424514/2014 Types of flow of powders in silos [2] a. Mass flow b. Funnel flow c. Expanded flow d."Pipe" e and Particulate systems 424514 /2014 POWDER MECHANICS & POWDER FLOW TESTING Ron Zevenhoven Ã?A Thermal and Flow.6 In fluids (non-flowing) h/v ~ 1 Fluids: surface tension, viscosity Powders: cohesion Ã?bo Akademi University

Zevenhoven, Ron

164

8, 327365, 2008 Particulate matter air  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 327­365, 2008 Particulate matter air quality P. Gupta and S. A. Christopher Title Page-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 8, 327­365, 2008 www ­ Published: 9 January 2008 Correspondence to: S. Christopher (sundar@nsstc.uah.edu) 327 #12;ACPD 8, 327­365

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

PARTICULATE DATA REDUCTION (PADRE) SYSTEM REFERENCE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes how to access and use the Particulate Data Reduction (PADRE) System, an interactive computer program that facilitates entry, reduction, and analysis of cascade impactor data for particle size distributions. It also summarizes its logic and capabilities. The p...

166

FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

167

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

168

FOREIGN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH IN FINE PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents unpublished fine particulate measurement and control information and information not readily available to the researcher, generated during the period 1971-76 in Australia, Canada, Japan, and the USSR. The information is used as a basis for identifying new conc...

169

Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year several accomplishments were made for both the Particulate Matter Characterization and Measurement System, (PMCMS) and PAGEMS projects. The PAGEMS focus is to measure particulate emissions as a function of combustor parameters such as inlet temperature, inlet pressure and fuel air ratio. These measurements are used to evaluate combustor performance in hopes of correlating particulate emissions with engine conditions. These measurements have taken place at in-house NASA combustor facilities and off-site facilities. Ths work is unique because particulate measurements at high- pressure conditions are not commonly made. Some calibration of the PAGEMS instrumentation was done as well as minor modifications to the PAGEMS plumbing setup. These led to measurement improvements. The instrumentation and measurement process for PAGEMS was assessed and new instruments such as a thermodenuder, thermal mass flow meters and a cyclone separator were purchased to improve the PAGEMS instrumentation and measurement process. A worksheet was created to simulate varying inlet conditions to the DMA. This worksheet allows the user to assess the error in the measurements when certain conditions exist. Two technical papers were written with the PAGEMS team for the EXCAVATE field project. A paper was also reviewed for an in house publication. Also data was processed and analyzed for another field project (PAX) and will be part of a third PAGEMS paper. Accomplishments were also made with the PMCMS project. The calibration of the radial differential mobility analyzer, (RDMA) in the particle sizing system in the PMCMS was completed and provided satisfactory results. The voltages used for the RDMA depending on the particle of interest were corrected. The measurement capability of the PMCMS was increased by replacing the MetOne CPC with a TSI CPC. Lastly, assistance was provided to three college summer students with calibration of their particulate equipment and Monica Rivera shared her understanding of the aerosol technology with them. She also provided input for their end of the summer presentations. And attended the Aviation and Particle Emissions workshop. This workshop brought together experts in the aircraft particulate emissions field. As a result Ms. Rivera made two significant contacts with academia (UMR) and government (WPAFB) which could lead to future collaboration. She also attended the Aerosol and Particle Measurement Class held at the University of Minnesota. This class refreshed her particulate knowledge and introduced her to new aerosol applications and technology. Furthermore at the class contacts were made with private industry (TSI) and government (WPAFB). Ms. Rivera also enhanced her education by taking an in-house class on aircraft design and operation.

DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

2005-01-01

170

Effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) on immune responses: contributions of particulate versus organic soluble components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure on innate, cellular and humoral pulmonary immunity was studied using high-dose, acute-exposure rat, mouse, and cell culture models. DEP consists of a complex mixture of petrochemical-derived organics adsorbed onto elemental carbon particles. DEP is a major component of particulate urban air pollution and a health concern in both urban and occupational environments.

Paul D. Siegel; Rajiv K. Saxena; Q. B. Saxena; Joseph K. H. Ma; Jane Y. C. Ma; Xue-Jun Yin; Vincent Castranova; Nabil Al-Humadi; Daniel M. Lewis

2004-01-01

171

Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and, except for the first and last day (where there was experimental error), recorded values seem to meet EPA standards. We conclude that the high particulate matter levels we observed were due to heavy crowding and traffic jams near street corners during the time of the festival. We also conclude that particulate pollution levels in the Chinatown neighborhood are generally acceptable, except during festivities that generate heavy congestion. We intend conduct further investigations, particularly at next year's street festival, to confirm observations made thus far.

Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

2007-12-01

172

Inhibition of ecto-ATPase activity by curcumin in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Effects of curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, on ecto-nucleotidases have not been clarified. Here, we investigated whether curcumin affects ecto-nucleotidase activities in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. In the cells, high levels of Mg(2+)-dependent activity of ecto-nucleotidases were observed in the presence of 1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The activity was inhibited by ecto-ATPase inhibitors such as suramin, ZnCl(2) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. On the other hand, the activity was significantly decreased at alkaline pH (pH 9) and was not inhibited by levamisole, an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase. In the presence of ATP, curcumin inhibited the activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 6.2 ?M). In contrast, curcumin had no effects on ecto-nucleotidase activity in the presence of ADP (1 mM) or AMP (1 mM). The K (m) value for ATP hydrolysis of curcumin-sensitive ecto-ATPase was similar to the value of NTPDase2, an isoform of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase. These results suggest that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of ecto-ATPase and may affect extracellular ATP-dependent responses. PMID:21932081

Fujii, Takuto; Minagawa, Takuma; Shimizu, Takahiro; Takeguchi, Noriaki; Sakai, Hideki

2012-01-01

173

Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

Hansen, M. Z.

1980-01-01

174

Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distribution. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

Hansen, M. Z.

1980-01-01

175

Sensor Technologies for Particulate Detection and Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planned Lunar missions have resulted in renewed attention to problems attributable to fine particulates. While the difficulties experienced during the sequence of Apollo missions did not prove critical in all cases, the comparatively long duration of impending missions may present a different situation. This situation creates the need for a spectrum of particulate sensing technologies. From a fundamental perspective, an improved understanding of the properties of the dust fraction is required. Described here is laboratory-based reference instrumentation for the measurement of fundamental particle size distribution (PSD) functions from 2.5 nanometers to 20 micrometers. Concomitant efforts for separating samples into fractional size bins are also presented. A requirement also exists for developing mission compatible sensors. Examples include provisions for air quality monitoring in spacecraft and remote habitation modules. Required sensor attributes such as low mass, volume, and power consumption, autonomy of operation, and extended reliability cannot be accommodated by existing technologies.

Greenberg, Paul S.

2008-01-01

176

NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

SciTech Connect

A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

2003-10-01

177

Innovations in high-temperature particulate filtration  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification expose sensitive equipment, such as high-speed turbines, to hot combustion offgases. In order to prevent erosion, corrosion, and other damage to sensitive equipment, such systems now incorporate high-temperature particulate filters. One device often considered for such applications uses a design similar to a baghouse (i.e., multiple banks of porous filter bags that remove particulate from gas streams). In this case, however, instead of polyester or teflon fabric, the filter elements are made of rigid ceramic or similar materials. These devices are sometimes called `candle filters,` and the individual ceramic filter elements are frequently called `candles.` Three high-temperature applications of candle filters are described here. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Lippert, T. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-05-01

178

Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Genes in Methanotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 45-kDa membrane polypeptide that is associated with activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) has been purified from three methanotrophic bacteria, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was found to be identical in 17 of 20 positions for all three polypeptides and identical in 14 of 20 positions for the N terminus of AmoB, the 43-kDa subunit of ammonia

J. D. SEMRAU; A. CHISTOSERDOV; J. LEBRON; A. COSTELLO; J. DAVAGNINO; E. KENNA; A. J. HOLMES; R. FINCH; J. C. MURRELL; E. LIDSTROM

1995-01-01

179

Wastewater treatment with particulate biofilm reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review presented in this paper focuses on applications of particulate biofilm reactors (e.g. Upflow Sludge Blanket, Biofilm Fluidized Bed, Expanded Granular Sludge Blanket, Biofilm Airlift Suspension, Internal Circulation reactors). Several full-scale applications for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment are presented and illustrated, and their most important design and operation aspects (e.g. biofilm formation, hydrodynamics, mass transfer, mixing) are analysed

C. Nicolella; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht; J. J. Heijnen

2000-01-01

180

Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter  

DOEpatents

A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

2014-03-18

181

Apparatus for sampling particulates in gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for sampling particulates in gases is described. The device is used to obtain samples of the upper atmosphere. The equipment used a common source of gas pressure to provide the driving gas of an air ejector pump. The sample collection cylinder has many slit impactors running longitudinally on the outer surface of a cylinder and terminating just short of each end of the cylinder.

Wood, R. C. (inventor)

1973-01-01

182

Prediction of particulate contamination on aperture window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an analysis to predict the effects of light scattering by surface particles on the sensor window of a missile during ascent flight. The particulate contaminant distribution on the window is calculated by tallying the number of particles in a set of size ranges. The particulate contamination at the end of the mission is predicted by adding the contributions from the events of ground and flight operations. The surface particle redistributions caused by vibroacoustically induced surface acceleration was found to contribute the most of the particulate surface contamination. The analytical surface obscuration calculation with a set of particle counts was compared to the results of image analyzer measurement. The analytical results, which were calculated with a given function of particle shape depending on the size, were more conservative than the measurement. A scattering calculation using a verified BSDF model showed that the scattering was less than 0.001 at 20 off the direction of the incident light in the mid IR wavelength when the surfaces were at Level 300 initially.

Lee, Aleck L.; Fong, Michael C.

1994-01-01

183

Activity of diesel engine emission particulates on the interferon system  

SciTech Connect

When mammalian (LLC-MK/sub 2/) cell monolayers were pretreated with diesel engine emission particulates of respirable size, viral induction of interferon was depressed by approximately 60%. However, the presence of particulates did not impair the ability of interferon to confer antiviral cellular resistance. When either diesel emission particulates or cell monolayers were pretreated with the nonionic polymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide), the inhibitory activity of particulates on interferon induction was significantly diminished or abolished. Influenza virus growth in cell monolayers pretreated with diesel emission particulates attained a two- to threefold higher level than that noted in normal cell monolayers or those containing polymer-pretreated particulates. This was related to suppression of viral interferon induction by diesel emission particulates. Removal of cell membrane-bound sialic acid by neuraminidase or pretreatment of diesel emission particulates with sialic acid abolished the adverse activity of particulates on viral interferon induction. These findings suggest that the receptivity for and interaction of cell membrane-bound sialic acid with diesel emission particulates are involved in the described altered cellular behavior in response to viral induction of interferon.

Hahon, N.; Booth, J.A.; Wheeler, R.

1982-08-01

184

MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

2005-05-01

185

Characterizing the origins of atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When developing policy targeted at decreasing air pollution, it is essential that we have a strong understanding of when and where the pollution originated. Towards this goal, we have implemented and evaluated two different source attribution schemes in PMCAMx, a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model. The two schemes, an online (OPSA) and offline version (PSAT), are both designed for computational efficiency and the ability to track source contributions to primary and secondary particulate matter. The two versions showed good agreement with each other and with more accurate, computationally demanding methods. The off-line algorithm (Particulate Source Apportionment Technology, PSAT) is simpler to implement, has a lower computational cost and is suitable for a range of source apportionment studies. We have utilized this algorithm to study the age distribution of atmospheric particulate matter mass in space and time. The average calculated ages are on the order of a few days for particulate matter near the ground, but are highly variable in space and time. Primary aerosol species had average ages of approximately 24 hours over this polluted continental region while the average ages for secondary species were 48-72 hours near the surface. As expected, the average age of all aerosol components increases vertically in the atmosphere. Age increases rapidly away from the sources of aerosol and its precursors and for non-volatile species it increases with particle size. PSAT is an excellent tool for the study of source-receptor relationships. We have studied the extent of pollutant transport in the Eastern United States using two approaches. The first PSAT-based approach is focused on source regions and the second is focused on receptor regions. For the source region focused approach, transport of pollutants is quantified by tracking the emissions from these regions. For the receptor region focused approach, PSAT tracks the pollutants emitted from a series of rings around the area of interest We discuss the results from these approaches looking at the impacts to primary elemental carbon, SO2, particulate sulfate and secondary organic aerosol. The source region-focused approach was applied to study the contributions to PM levels of 11 different area in the Eastern United States, ranging in size (both in terms of land area and emissions) from the Ohio River Valley to Little Rock, AR. These impacts were quantified using a variety of measures to account for both the distance that the pollutants are transported and the overall impact the emissions have on pollutant concentrations in the region. Large source regions were found to have a large impact on secondary particulate matter levels areas several hundred kilometers from the source region. The receptor region focused approach was used to evaluate the contributions from long range, mid range and long range transport to particulate matter concentrations in three receptor regions: Pittsburgh, PA, Atlanta, GA and Great Smoky Mountains. The local impacts to elemental carbon in urban areas were found to be substantial (approximately 50%) with most the additional contributions being from short range transport. The contributions to sulfate and SOA were found to be more regional with much of the contributions in all three sites resulting from mid range transport.

Wagstrom, Kristina Michelle

186

Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

187

Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2011-01-04

188

Effects of Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollution on Cardiorespiratory Hospitalizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained data on daily numbers of admissions to hospital in Toronto, Canada, from 1980 to 1994 for respiratory, cardiac, cerebral vascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. We then linked the data to daily measures of particulate mass less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), particulate mass less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), and particulate mass between 2.5

Richard T. Burnett; Marc Smith-doiron; Dave Stieb; Sabit Cakmak; Jeffrey R. Brook

1999-01-01

189

Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

2013-10-08

190

Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates were examined in contrasting Chesapeake Bay (estuarine) and mid-Atlantic shelf\\/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) represented ?5–9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared to be a similar fraction of total sediment carbon oxidation (or Cox). When these results are compared with results from other coastal sediments and a

D. J. BURDIGE; A Skoog; K. GARDNER

2000-01-01

191

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

2012-07-01

192

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

2011-07-01

193

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

2013-07-01

194

Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-02-01

195

Process for agglomerating particulate wood material and products obtained thereby  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure describes a process for agglomerating particulate wood material such as saw dust, wood shavings, fines, bark, tree needles, wood chips, wood dust, newspaper and cardboard material, impurities normally encountered therein and mixtures thereof. The process comprises providing a particulate wood material with a moisture content of between about 10 to 40 percent by weight calculated on a dry basis. Then, the moisture containing particulate wood material is dry mixed with dry powdered lignosulfonate to form a substantially homogeneous mixture which is compressed under a pressure of at least about 400 lbs/inch2 until the particulate wood material is agglomerated. The product obtained is resilient, easily ignitable and combustible.

Moreau, J.R.; Pelletier, M.P.; Tremblay, G.B.

1980-10-28

196

Reduction of particulate matter and gaseous emission from marine diesel engines using a catalyzed particulate filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engines are used widely as the power sources of coastal ships and international vessels primarily due to their high thermal efficiency, high fuel economy and durable performance. However, the gaseous and solid substances exhausted from diesel engines during the combustion process cause air pollution, in particular around harbor regions. In order to effectively reduce particulate matter and gaseous pollution

Cherng-Yuan Lin

2002-01-01

197

The Effect of Viewing Order of Macroscopic and Particulate Visualizations on Students' Particulate Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prior study showed that students best make predictions about the outcome of opening a valve between two flasks containing a fluid or vacuum when they view both a demonstration video and a particulate animation, but the study showed no influence from the order in which these visualizations were used. The purpose of this current research was to…

Williamson, Vickie M.; Lane, Sarah M.; Gilbreath, Travis; Tasker, Roy; Ashkenazi, Guy; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

2012-01-01

198

MODELING FINE PARTICULATE MASS AND VISIBILITY USING THE EPA REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter in the atmosphere can adversely impact air quality and human health, as well as significantly affect the environment. articles in the submicrometer size range, when inhaled, may pose certain health hazards. articles in this size range also scatter light, causin...

199

Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

2012-06-01

200

Preliminary study of contaminant particulates around Skylab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques originally developed for the Skylab T025 contamination experiment were applied to S052 white-light coronagraph data in a preliminary study to investigate particulates around Skylab. Periods were selected which contained some contamination, even though there were no apparent dumps or vents during these periods. Velocity and size distributions were determined from optical data for particles within 200 meters of the spacecraft. Both photographic (61 particle tracks) and video (34 particles) observations yield an upper limit on particle radius of 100 micrometers. Selected photometric data from the S073 zodiacal light experiment during mission SL-2 were also examined for evidence of contamination.

Schuerman, D. W.; Weinberg, J. L.

1976-01-01

201

Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress  

DOEpatents

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V.

2013-03-05

202

Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

1974-01-01

203

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2011-07-01

204

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2014-07-01

205

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2010-07-01

206

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2012-07-01

207

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2010-07-01

208

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2013-07-01

209

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2012-07-01

210

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

211

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2014-07-01

212

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2011-07-01

213

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

214

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2010-07-01

215

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2013-07-01

216

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2014-07-01

217

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2013-07-01

218

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2014-07-01

219

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2011-07-01

220

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2010-07-01

221

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2012-07-01

222

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

223

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2012-07-01

224

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

225

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2011-07-01

226

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

227

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2013-07-01

228

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2013-07-01

229

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2014-07-01

230

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2011-07-01

231

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

232

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

2014-07-01

233

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

...2014-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2014-07-01

234

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy for particulate matter as outlined in the...

2012-07-01

235

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2010-07-01

236

42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2014-10-01

237

42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2013-10-01

238

42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2011-10-01

239

42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2014-10-01

240

42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2014-10-01

241

42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2012-10-01

242

42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2012-10-01

243

42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2010-10-01

244

42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2011-10-01

245

42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2013-10-01

246

42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2013-10-01

247

42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2012-10-01

248

42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2010-10-01

249

42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2011-10-01

250

42 CFR 84.179 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; filter identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.179 Non-powered air-purifying particulate...

2010-10-01

251

Modeling and interpreting the observed effects of ash on diesel particulate filter performance and regeneration  

E-print Network

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are devices that physically capture diesel particulates to prevent their release to the atmosphere. Diesel particulate filters have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as ...

Wang, Yujun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

252

77 FR 10341 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Final Rule and Proposed Rule Federal...Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals...

2012-02-21

253

30 CFR 7.89 - Test to determine the particulate index.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Humidity correction factor for particulate WF—Weighting factor i-Subscript denoting an individual mode, i=1, . . . n PI—Particulate Index (cfm) (ii) When calculating ambient humidity correction for the particulate concentration (Pf...

2011-07-01

254

30 CFR 7.89 - Test to determine the particulate index.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Humidity correction factor for particulate WF—Weighting factor i-Subscript denoting an individual mode, i=1, . . . n PI—Particulate Index (cfm) (ii) When calculating ambient humidity correction for the particulate concentration (Pf...

2012-07-01

255

30 CFR 7.89 - Test to determine the particulate index.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Humidity correction factor for particulate WF—Weighting factor i-Subscript denoting an individual mode, i=1, . . . n PI—Particulate Index (cfm) (ii) When calculating ambient humidity correction for the particulate concentration (Pf...

2013-07-01

256

Jammed particulate systems are inherently nonharmonic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal mode analysis in the harmonic approximation underlies most of solid-state physics and applies well to both ordered and dis- ordered systems. Naturally, researches apply this analysis to jammed particulate systems, such as granular media, colloids, and foams, that interact via one-sided interactions, which are nonzero only when particles overlap. However, we find that systems with one-sided repulsive interactions possess no linear, harmonic response regime for large systems (N->?) at finite pressures P, and for all N near jamming onset P->0. We perform simulations on 2D frictionless bidisperse mechanically stable disk packings over a range of packing fractions ??= ?-?J above jamming onset ?J. We apply perturbations with amplitude ? to the packings along each eigen-direction from the dynamical matrix and determine whether the response of the system evolving at constant energy remains in the original eigenmode of the perturbation. For ?> ?c, a single contact breaks and fluctuations abruptly spread to all discrete harmonic modes. As ? increases further all harmonic modes disappear into a continuous frequency band. We find that ?c˜??/N, and thus jammed particulate systems are inherently nonharmonic with no linear vibrational response regime as N->? over the full range of ??, and as ??->0 at any N. This breakdown of harmonic behavior dramatically affects all aspects of system response including heat capacity, density of states, elastic moduli, and energy propagation.

Shattuck, Mark D.

2011-03-01

257

Method for inhibiting corrosion in particulate zinc  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the inhibition of corrosion in particulate zinc, which comprises the step of subjecting said zinc in the form of an alkaline slurry to treatment by a corrosion inhibiting effective amount of a corrosion inhibitor which is at least one oxide selected from the group consisting of oxides of antimony, bismuth, cadmium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium and tin, wherein zinc has been obtained by an electrolytic process for regeneration of zinc in an at least partially spent slurry for use in metal-air batteries which slurry comprises an admixture of at least components (a) and (b), of the following components (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g): (a) zinc which has been at least partly oxidized to an oxidation product selected from zinc oxide and zincates; (b) an aqueous solution of at least one Group 1a metal comprising anions selected from the group consisting of hydroxide and zincate; (c) an inorganic inhibitor ingredient effective to inhibit an interaction of zinc and at least one Group 1a metal hydroxide in the aqueous solution, which would otherwise result in an evolution of hydrogen gas; (d) a gelling agent; (e) a filler selected from the group consisting of particulate and fibrous fillers; (f) a labelling agent; (g) a dissolved electrolyte extender.

Goldstein, J.; Meitav, A,; Lezion, R.; Kravitz, M.

1993-08-03

258

Fluidized-bed filter for particulate cleanup  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often requires reliable and efficient gas-stream-cleanup devices that can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high temperature and high pressure gas streams. A novel filter concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The filter consists of a fine screened surface immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of fine granular material is deposited and packed at the screen surface, which provides a natural filter to separate the fine particles from the gas stream. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding. Cleaning the filter (if necessary) is much easier than with a ceramic filter because the inflowing gas, not the cohesive forces, maintains the filter media at the screen surface. Therefore, the screensurface can be readily cleaned by momentarily interrupting the gas flow. A two-dimensional fluidized-bed filter cold model was designed, constructed, and operated to explore the feasibility of this novel concept.

Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.

1992-01-01

259

Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives  

SciTech Connect

The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

Shashidhar, N. [EBA Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States); Chollar, B.H. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

260

Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

2014-09-01

261

Diesel particulate extract study. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Through cooperative research, the Chemical Characterization Panel of the CRC-APRAC Program Group on Composition of Diesel Exhaust has worked to improve characterization of unregulated diesel emissions and to validate chemical analysis methods for measuring diesel-exhaust constituents. In Part I, the Panel dealt with extraction of the organic fraction from diesel particulate matter, including investigation of various solvents and laboratory techniques. Part II of the CRC-APRAC Diesel Particulate Extract Study expanded the previous research to heavy-duty diesel engines operating under transient test conditions of the U.S. EPA Heavy-Duty Diesel Certification Test Procedures. The Panel extended its extraction and characterization studies to include samples from the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) and the U.S. EPA Mobile Sources Laboratory round-robin program to determine inter-laboratory and test-to-test variability of heavy-duty diesel-engine exhaust emissions for the Transient Test and 13-Mode Steady-State Cycle Tests. Six heavy-duty diesel engines, typical of production engines in the early 1980's with rated power ranging from 150 to 285 kW (200-380 hp) were used in the round-robin program.

Not Available

1988-08-01

262

CONTROL OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN THE PRIMARY NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the symposium on 'Control of Particulate Emissions in the Primary Nonferrous Metals Industries' was to provide a forum for the exchange of knowledge and new ideas on particulate control technology with emphasis on industrial applications of environmental particulat...

263

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

264

The Relocation of Particulate Contamination During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer simulation program to model the redistribution of particulate contaminants on a spacecraft after launch is developed. The component models for particulate adhesion, meteoroid impact, and electrostatic forces are described and intermediate results are presented. The results of a sample calculation show that the recontamination process is important.

Barengoltz, J.; Edgars, D.

1975-01-01

265

Organic Content of Particulate Matter In Turbine Engine Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid particulate matter, mainly carbon, emitted into the air from the combustion of fossil fuels contains a variety of organic species adsorbed on it. In our examination of these particulates from the combustion of kerosene type fuels in a gas turbine engine, attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines, and total organics. Polynuclears were determined by HPLC, GC\\/MS,

D. J. Robertson; R. H. Groth; T. J. Blasko

1980-01-01

266

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOEpatents

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01

267

FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

268

The effect of spinal instrumentation particulate wear debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: The current study was undertaken to determine if the presence of spinal instrumentation wear particulate debris deleteriously influences early osseointegration of posterolateral bone graft or disrupts an established posterolateral fusion mass.Objectives: Using an in vivo animal model, the first phase (basic science) of this study was to evaluate the effect(s) of titanium wear particulate on a posterolateral spinal

Bryan W. Cunningham; Carlos M. Orbegoso; Anton E. Dmitriev; Nadim J. Hallab; John C. Sefter; Paul Asdourian; Paul C. McAfee

2002-01-01

269

The effect of spinal instrumentation particulate wear debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: The current study was undertaken to determine if the presence of spinal instrumentation wear particulate debris deleteriously influences early osseointegration of posterolateral bone graft or disrupts an established posterolateral fusion mass.Objectives: Using an in vivo animal model, the first phase (basic science) of this study was to evaluate the effect(s) of titanium wear particulate on a posterolateral spinal

Bryan W Cunningham; Carlos M Orbegoso; Anton E Dmitriev; Nadim J Hallab; John C Sefter; Paul Asdourian; Paul C McAfee

2003-01-01

270

MULTIPLE SERIES CYCLONES FOR HIGH PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

271

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

272

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

273

ASSESSMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE CONTROL: DIRECT AND CATALYTIC OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the technology and potential for disposal of diesel particulate by oxidation. Relevant properties of typical diesel particulate are given; note is taken of the small size (on the order of 0.1 micrometer diameter) and the presence of a portion extractable with...

274

IMPACT OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATES ON PCB VOLATILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to experimentally quantify the mass of PCBs that can be transported from PCB-contaminated suspended particulate to the air phase under various conditions as a means of evaluating the mechanism and importance of suspended particulates in volatili...

275

CONTROLLING PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a semi-technical overview of the contribution of particulate matter to the overall U.S. air pollution problem. It also discusses contributions of the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory at Research Triangle Park, NC...

276

DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

277

Microstructure and particle-laden flow in diesel particulate filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the public awareness with regard to harmful diesel emissions, more strict diesel emissions standards such as Euro V in 2008 are being set in the world. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed to reduce particulate matters (PM) in the after-treatment of exhaust gas. Since the structure of the filter is

Kazuhiro Yamamoto; Shingo Satake; Hiroshi Yamashita

2009-01-01

278

Fuel Efficient Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Modeling and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project described in this report seeks to promote effective diesel particulate filter technology with minimum fuel penalty by enhancing fundamental understanding of filtration mechanisms through targeted experiments and computer simulations. The overall backpressure of a filtration system depends upon complex interactions of particulate matter and ash with the microscopic pores in filter media. Better characterization of these phenomena is

Mark L. Stewart; Thomas R. Gallant; Do Heui Kim; Gary D. Maupin; Alla Zelenyuk

2010-01-01

279

PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH LOW FLOW PERSONAL SAMPLERS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory and the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) have conducted a particulate matter (PM) personal exposure study in Research Triangle Park, NC. Particulate carbon was sampled with pre-fired quartz filters using low flow PM2.5 samplers (2 L...

280

GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

281

Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed  

DOEpatents

The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

1999-02-02

282

Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed  

DOEpatents

The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

1999-01-01

283

KRAFT PULP INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the kraft pulp industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from kraft pulp mills, the data were summarized and r...

284

Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology  

SciTech Connect

Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ? Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ? Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ? Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ? Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States) [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)] [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States) [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)] [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

2012-02-15

285

Protein particulate detection issues in biotherapeutics development--current status.  

PubMed

Formation of aggregates and particulates in biopharmaceutical formulation continues to be one of the major quality concerns in biotherapeutics development. The presence of large quantities of aggregates is believed to be one of the causes of unwanted immunogenic responses. Protein particulates can form in a wide range of sizes and shapes. Therefore, a comprehensive characterization of particulates in biologics formulation continues to be challenging. The quantity of small size aggregates (e.g., dimer) in a stable biologics formulation is well controlled using precision analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography). Particulate in clinical and commercial formulations is monitored using visual inspection and subvisible particulate counting assays. While visual inspection (by human eye or automated systems) is intended to detect particulates (intrinsic and extrinsic) of ~100 ?m or larger, the subvisible counting methods cover smaller size ranges down to 10 ?m. It is well recognized that research of particulates in the submicron (<1 ?m) and low-micron (1-10 ?m) ranges may provide important clues to understand the mechanism of particulate formation. The recent years have seen a significant increase in the development of newer technologies for more comprehensive characterization of particulates. This is attributed to increased awareness in this field of research over the past 5 years, stimulated by scholarly articles, commentaries, and robust discussions in various forums. This article provides an overview of emerging detection technologies that provide complementary characterization data encompassing a wider size range of particulates. It also discusses their advantages and limitations in the context of applications in biotherapeutics development. PMID:22566174

Das, Tapan K

2012-06-01

286

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

SciTech Connect

This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep testing of two Refractron 326 specimens is now in progress. Among the tasks expected to be completed this quarter are analysis of the creep data obtained thus far, microstructural analysis of Refractron 326 and Schumacher FT20, definition of bending loads on candle filters, and characterization of additional candle filters from Karhula.

NONE

1998-09-01

287

Leishmania infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-2 is an Apyrase Involved in Macrophage Infection and Expressed in Infected Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis is an important tropical disease, and Leishmania infantum chagasi (synonym of Leishmania infantum) is the main pathogenic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Recently, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) were identified as enablers of infection and virulence factors in many pathogens. Two putative E-NTPDases (?70 kDa and ?45 kDa) have been found in the L. infantum genome. Here, we studied the ?45 kDa E-NTPDase from L. infantum chagasi to describe its natural occurrence, biochemical characteristics and influence on macrophage infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We used live L. infantum chagasi to demonstrate its natural ecto-nucleotidase activity. We then isolated, cloned and expressed recombinant rLicNTPDase-2 in bacterial system. The recombinant rLicNTPDase-2 hydrolyzed a wide variety of triphosphate and diphosphate nucleotides (GTP> GDP ?=? UDP> ADP> UTP ?=? ATP) in the presence of calcium or magnesium. In addition, rLicNTPDase-2 showed stable activity over a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and was partially inhibited by ARL67156 and suramin. Microscopic analyses revealed the presence of this protein on cell surfaces, vesicles, flagellae, flagellar pockets, kinetoplasts, mitochondria and nuclei. The blockade of E-NTPDases using antibodies and competition led to lower levels of parasite adhesion and infection of macrophages. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed the expression of E-NTPDases in amastigotes in the lymph nodes of naturally infected dogs from an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance In this work, we cloned, expressed and characterized the NTPDase-2 from L. infantum chagasi and demonstrated that it functions as a genuine enzyme from the E-NTPDase/CD39 family. We showed that E-NTPDases are present on the surface of promastigotes and in other intracellular locations. We showed, for the first time, the broad expression of LicNTPDases in naturally infected dogs. Additionally, the blockade of NTPDases led to lower levels of in vitro adhesion and infection, suggesting that these proteins are possible targets for rational drug design. PMID:25393008

Vasconcellos, Raphael De Souza; Mariotini-Moura, Christiane; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Serafim, Tiago Donatelli; Firmino, Rafaela de Cássia; Silva e Bastos, Matheus; de Castro, Felipe Freitas; de Oliveira, Claudia Miranda; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; de Souza, Anna Cláudia Alves; de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Gómez, Gabriel Andres Tafur; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Silva-Júnior, Abelardo; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; Afonso, Luís Carlos Crocco; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

2014-01-01

288

Stoichiometry of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen in the particulate matter of the western North Pacific marginal seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suspended particulate matter (SPM) in surface seawater was collected from 19 stations in the Sea of Japan, 42 stations in the East China Sea, 7 stations North of Taiwan and 6 stations in the Philippine Sea and the Bashi Channel. The particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic hydrogen (POH), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), particulate organic sulfur (POS), particulate organic

Chen-Tung Arthur Chen; Chi-Ming Lin; Being-Ta Huang; Lei-Fong Chang

1996-01-01

289

Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

2011-07-19

290

Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

291

Fluidized-bed filtration for particulate cleanup  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often requires reliable and efficient gas stream-cleanup devices that can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature and high-pressure gas streams. A novel filter concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The filter consists of a fine screened surface immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of fine granular material is deposited and packed at the screen surface, which provides a natural filter to separate the fine particles from the gas stream. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding. Cleaning the filter (if necessary) is much easier than with a ceramic filter because the inflowing gas, not the cohesive forces, maintains the filter media at the screen surface. Therefore, the screen surface can be readily cleaned by momentarily interrupting the gas flow. A two-dimensional fluidized-bed filter cold model was designed, constructed, and operated to explore the feasibility of this novel concept. The two-dimensional, transparent unit allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the particle layer. A series of parametric tests was conducted to provide acceptable operating conditions for the model configuration. Preliminary results are presented in this paper. Effects of various parameters, such as superficial gas velocity, bed depth, particle size, and distance from the filter to the gas distributor, on filter behavior are characterized through differential pressure and differential pressure fluctuation data.

Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

1993-01-01

292

Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation  

DOEpatents

Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

293

Discontinuous deformation analysis of particulate media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many geotechnical engineering problems involve the localization of deformations along distinct shear planes, such as the response of a layer of soil to displacement along an underlying bedrock fault. Understanding the process of deformation localization and the propagation of shear zones to the surface would aid in the siting of structures near faults, and in developing mitigation techniques. Discrete numerical methods are especially suited to this type of problem, because the discontinuous nature of soil and the kinematics of soil deformation are modeled directly. This research involves the development and validation of Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA), a type of discrete numerical method, as a tool capable of modeling realistic soil behavior, thus providing the foundation for its application to complex soil mechanics problems, such as earthquake fault rupture propagation. First, a review of the two primary types of discrete numerical modeling, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) and DDA is presented along with a discussion of the key aspects of modeling particulate materials with these methods. Next, several extensions to the numerical program Discontinuous Deformation Analysis for Disks (DDAD), implemented during the process of developing DDAD as a tool for modeling particulate materials, were implemented. A flexible, stress-controlled boundary was incorporated, allows simulation of geotechnical biaxial shear tests that are commonly performed on specimens of granular soils. Using this boundary, the stress-strain and volumetric responses of simulated assemblies of particles were investigated. A new type of particle, the disk cluster, was developed and implemented. A disk cluster is a group of circular disks permanently attached to form a single particle. Disk clusters more accurately represent the nonspherical shape of particulate materials, minimize the problem of excessive rotation that occurs with perfectly circular elements, and retain the simplicity of the original contact search routine. A measure of strain for discrete numerical methods was investigated, as the concept of strain defined for a continuum does not apply directly to an assembly of particles with voids that can open and close during deformation. Previous measures of strain were examined and a new approach, the Triangulation Method, is presented. The Triangulation Method calculates strain for a finite element-type mesh overlay that uses the centers of the particles as nodes within the mesh. Nodes are connected with constant strain triangles using a finite strain formulation. The results of a laboratory testing program using glass rods and glass balls are presented. These tests provide valuable insight into the differences in response to mechanical loading of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) particles, as most discrete numerical models are currently 2D. In addition, the tests on glass rods are used to further validate DDAD. Lastly, the results of a preliminary study of boundary deformation problems using DDAD are presented. Comparison with previous physical and numerical modeling results demonstrate the usefulness of DDAD for this type of geotechnical engineering problem.

Thomas, Patricia Ann

294

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

SciTech Connect

This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at Karhula. Key test results showed that property degradation occurred during service at Karhula but less degradation than was seen in Schumacher F40 and Pall 442T. Creep continues to be observed in tests at 1600 `F and above and was observed at 1562 `F in service at Karhula. Microstructural evaluations of FT20 and 326 materials have shown that the behavior of these materials is controlled by the ceramic binders and that the binders are still glass limited. These results were presented in a poster session and a paper written for the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference.

NONE

1998-09-01

295

MULTIWAVELENGTH TRANSMISSOMETER FOR MEASURING MASS CONCENTRATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multiwavelength transmissometer potentially capable of making near-real-time measurements of particulate mass concentration in industrial stacks was developed. A computer program is employed to interpret the transmissometer data and translate the results into mass concentration...

296

40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 Standards...completed, no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...discharged into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate matter...

2010-07-01

298

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate...determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington...5 nonattainment area of Baltimore, Maryland has attained the 1997 annual...

2013-07-01

299

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate matter. ...Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington, DC-MD-VA...

2010-07-01

300

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate...determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington...5 nonattainment area of Baltimore, Maryland has attained the 1997 annual...

2012-07-01

301

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate matter. ...Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington, DC-MD-VA...

2011-07-01

302

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate...determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington...5 nonattainment area of Baltimore, Maryland has attained the 1997 annual...

2014-07-01

303

Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses  

E-print Network

Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations, ammonia (NH?) concentrations, and ventilation rates were measured in four commercial, tunnel ventilated broiler houses in June through December of 2000 in Brazos County, Texas. Particle size...

Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

2012-06-07

304

Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

Sayuti, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Malikussaleh University of Lhokseumawe, 24300 Aceh (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

2011-01-17

305

40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...230.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN...sediments, and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain...surfaces. (b) Possible loss of environmental characteristics and values: The...

2010-07-01

306

Control of particulate processes: Recent results and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a discussion of the existing results on control of particulate processes using population balance models and presents an overview of future research directions in this field in the context of chemical, materials and biological process systems.

Panagiotis D. Christofides; Mingheng Li; Lutz Mädler

2007-01-01

307

INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

308

40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates...The following specific revisions to the Michigan Plan are disapproved: (1) Rule...Part D—Conditional Approval—The Michigan overall Plan for primary and...

2011-07-01

309

40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.  

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates...The following specific revisions to the Michigan Plan are disapproved: (1) Rule...Part D—Conditional Approval—The Michigan overall Plan for primary and...

2014-07-01

310

40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates...The following specific revisions to the Michigan Plan are disapproved: (1) Rule...Part D—Conditional Approval—The Michigan overall Plan for primary and...

2010-07-01

311

40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates...The following specific revisions to the Michigan Plan are disapproved: (1) Rule...Part D—Conditional Approval—The Michigan overall Plan for primary and...

2013-07-01

312

40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates...The following specific revisions to the Michigan Plan are disapproved: (1) Rule...Part D—Conditional Approval—The Michigan overall Plan for primary and...

2012-07-01

313

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2011-07-01

314

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2013-07-01

315

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2014-07-01

316

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2010-07-01

317

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2012-07-01

318

Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

319

PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

320

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2013-07-01

321

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2011-07-01

322

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2010-07-01

323

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2012-07-01

324

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2014-07-01

325

FIELD EVALUATION OF AN AUTOISOKINETIC STACK PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...

326

PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period of the contract. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract cascade...

327

DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A measurement methodology to evaluate fugitive particulate emissions was developed and demonstrated. The project focused on the application of the lidar (laser radar) technique under field conditions, but in circumstances that simplified and controlled the variables of the genera...

328

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

329

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2010-07-01

330

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2013-07-01

331

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2012-07-01

332

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2011-07-01

333

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2014-07-01

334

PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives highlights of a major EPA research program on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology, directed toward improving the performance of ESPs in controlling industrial particulate emissions, notably fly ash from coal combustion in electric power plants. Relationsh...

335

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

336

CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of emerging diesel particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity o...

337

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2014-07-01

338

DOSE CONCENTRATED COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE PRODUCE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. Mortality associations have generally been shown to be stronger for fine PM (...

339

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2010-07-01

340

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

341

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

342

EFFECTIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM ATYPICAL STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling techniques for measuring particulate emissions from four 'atypical' stationary source categories were developed and evaluated. The categories include low effluent velocity streams, extended dimensions, partially or totally unconfined flow, and saturated gas streams or ga...

343

Polymer particulates control fluid loss during well completions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its Gulf of Mexico operations, Chevron U.S.A. Production Co. has effectively controlled completion fluid loss to the formation by including nondamaging, soluble particulates (NSP) in the fluid. In seven Chevron wells recently completed in the Gulf of Mexico, fluid loss dropped to very low levels or zero with NSP included in the completion fluid. Conventional particulate-based, fluid-loss control methods

S. A. Ali; P. D. Nguyen; J. D. Weaver

1997-01-01

344

Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2012-06-26

345

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

Williamson, Weldon S. (Malibu, CA); Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI)

2008-12-30

346

Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Gas-particulate Flow around Breathing Human and Particulate Inhalation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to predict the environment around the breathing human because inhalation of virus (avian influenza, SARS) is recently severe worldwide problem, and air pollution caused by diesel emission particle (DEP) and asbestos attract a great deal of attention. In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to predict unsteady flows around a breathing human and how suspended particulate matter (SPM, diameter˜1 ?m) reaches the human nose in inhalation and exhalation. In the calculation, we find out smaller breathing angle and the closer distance between the human nose and pollutant region are effective in the inhalation of SPM.

Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

2006-05-01

347

Adverse Health Effects of Particulate Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Background The short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) on mortality and morbidity differ by geographic location and season. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this variation, including different exposures with air conditioning (AC) versus open windows. Methods Bayesian hierarchical modeling was used to explore whether AC prevalence modified day-to-day associations between PM10 and mortality, and between PM2.5 and cardiovascular or respiratory hospitalizations, for those 65 years and older. We considered yearly, summer-only, and winter-only effect estimates and 2 types of AC (central and window units). Results Communities with higher AC prevalence had lower PM effects. Associations were observed for cardiovascular hospitalizations and central AC. Each additional 20% of households with central AC was associated with a 43% decrease in PM2.5 effects on cardiovascular hospitalization. Central AC prevalence explained 17% of between-community variability in PM2.5 effect estimates for cardiovascular hospitalizations. Conclusions Higher AC prevalence was associated with lower health effect estimates for PM. PMID:19535984

Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Peng, Roger D.; Dominici, Francesca

2011-01-01

348

Understanding Beth, the particulate mass functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geometric relationship between "loop" quantum gravity and partitioned (triangulated) string theory is discussed. Combinatorial analysis reveals that three spatial and three intrinsic curvature dimensions are necessary and sufficient to describe all Standard Model particles and interactions. This analysis has established that particulate mass is determined by a functional relationship involving these six extra dimensions, using the Hebrew symbol Beth. The combinatorial analysis is derived using non-commutative 3D-matrix algebra which forms the mathematical underpinnings of Dirac notation. The complete 3D-matrix algebra description of quarks and their interactions opens a fertile area of mathematical analysis. The commutative functional Beth requires Randall-Sundrum (exponential) scaling and, through the proper interpretation of complex gravity, yields a cyclic cosmology. The specific formulation of cyclic cosmology inherently involves observed "dark energy". Thus, a self-consistent theory is constructed upon fundamental theorems which qualitatively models both oscillating neutrinos and the current epoch of mini-inflation. Ref: http://www.dpf2000.org/String.htm

Lundberg, Wayne R.

2002-04-01

349

Lanthanoid geochemistry of urban atmospheric particulate matter.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about the lanthanoid element (La to Lu) chemistry of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM). PM samples collected during an air sampling campaign in the Mexico City area contain lanthanoid concentrations of mostly 1-10 ng m(-3), increasing with mass where resuspension of crustal PM is important (low PM2.5/PM10), but not where fine emissions from traffic and industry dominate (high PM2.5/ PM10). Samples show anthropogenic enrichment of lighter over heavier lanthanoids, and Ce enrichment relative to La and Sm occurs in the city center (especially PM10) possibly due to PM from road vehicle catalytic converters. La is especially enriched, although many samples show low La/V values (< 0.11), suggesting the dominating influence of fuel oil combustion sources rather than refinery emissions. We use La/Sm v La/ Ce, LaCeSm, and LaCeV plots to compare Mexico City aerosols with PM from other cities. Lanthanoid aerosol geochemistry can be used not only to identify refinery pollution events, but also as a marker for different hydrocarbon combustion emissions (e.g., oil or coal power stations) on urban background atmospheric PM. PMID:18800521

Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Minguillón, Maria Cruz; Pérez, Noemi; Bernabé, Rosa M; Blanco, Salvador; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Gibbons, Wes

2008-09-01

350

Quantifying force networks in particulate systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present mathematical models based on persistent homology for analyzing force distributions in particulate systems. We define three distinct chain complexes of these distributions: digital, position, and interaction, motivated by different types of data that may be available from experiments and simulations, e.g. digital images, location of the particles, and the forces between the particles, respectively. We describe how algebraic topology, in particular, homology allows one to obtain algebraic representations of the geometry captured by these complexes. For each complex we define an associated force network from which persistent homology is computed. Using numerical data obtained from discrete element simulations of a system of particles undergoing slow compression, we demonstrate how persistent homology can be used to compare the force distributions in different systems, and discuss the differences between the properties of digital, position, and interaction force networks. To conclude, we formulate well-defined measures quantifying differences between force networks corresponding to the different states of a system, and therefore allow to analyze in precise terms dynamical properties of force networks.

Kramár, Miroslav; Goullet, Arnaud; Kondic, Lou; Mischaikow, Konstantin

2014-08-01

351

Gene-particulate matter-health interactions  

SciTech Connect

Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

Kleeberger, Steven R. [Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, Environmental Genetics Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Building 101, Room D240, Research Triangle Park, NC 27705 (United States)]. E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan)

2005-09-01

352

Achieving low particulate emissions with electrostatic precipitators  

SciTech Connect

A great deal of literature has been published in recent years maligning electrostatic precipitators (ESP) as not being effective in achieving low emissions, or as being less effective than fabric filters in collecting fine particulate. This observation is not valid, provided the ESP is properly sized. The misconception comes from comparing modern high efficiency fabric filters, with 1950-1970`s vintage ESP`s. ESP`s were sized much smaller in that era, basically just for {open_quotes}good-neighbor{close_quotes} policies. Figure 1 shows the historical sizing practices for coal-fired utility boilers. From this, it can be seen that ESP`s from the 50`s through the early 1970`s were only about one-fourth to one-half the size of modern ESP`s. These undersized ESP`s, often in the presence of a coal switch to low sulfur coal, sometimes perform poorly. When replaced with a fabric filter, the claim is made that the ESP did not work and that a fabric filter does work properly. Had the ESP been increased in size to modern standards, it too would work properly.

Mastropietro, R.A. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

353

Roadside measurements of particulate matter size distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roadside measurements were performed in order to document the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) under dilution conditions similar to those found in real world. These activities covered measurements at engine test beds, at different locations in a road tunnel as well as in an urban environment. In order to get a clear picture of the evolution of the PM in different size classes, the in-tunnel locations ranged from curb-side to different locations inside the exhaust air system. Additional measurements were performed in the ambient air at curb-side at a street crossing as well as in urban background. At those times when heavy traffic occurs, tunnel measurements show size distributions similar to those derived from engine/vehicle measurements. During times with little traffic the size distributions are closer to those recorded in ambient air. As soon as the traffic load increases the size distribution changes, due to rapid coagulation of the smallest particles with the accumulation mode. As the travel time of the particles through the tunnel and up the stacks is very long "aging" effects could be observed. Thus, these spectra are quite different from ambient measurements in urban air, especially in the region above 30-40 nm.

Sturm, Peter J.; Baltensperger, Urs; Bacher, Michael; Lechner, Bernhard; Hausberger, Stefan; Heiden, Bernhard; Imhof, David; Weingartner, Ernest; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Kurtenbach, Ralf; Wiesen, Peter

354

Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

2006-12-15

355

PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

356

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter  

SciTech Connect

Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2001-03-05

357

Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

2005-01-01

358

Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates  

SciTech Connect

Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration in plasma - catalyst hybrid schemes for the removal of NOx employing an NO2 selective catalyst, as the oxidation of PM may deplete the key radicals necessary for NO to NO2 conversion. It was also suggested that where simultaneous NOx and PM removal are required, alternative catalyst formulations may be needed which may be selective to NO rather than NO2.

Thomas, S.E.

2000-08-20

359

Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data bank of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on May 18 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) and a particulate sample collected in the Westinghouse filter at Sierra Pacific Power Company?s Piñon Pine Power Project. Analysis of this Piñon Pine sample is ongoing: however, this report contains the results of analyses completed to date. Significant accomplishments were achieved on the HGCU data bank during this reporting quarter. The data bank was prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems ?98 Conference scheduled for July, 1998. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of testing two Dupont PRD-66C candle filters, one McDermott ceramic composite candle filter, one Blasch 4-270 candle filter, and one Specific Surface cordierite candle filter. Tensile and thermal expansion testing is complete and the rest of the testing is in progress. Also, some 20-inch long Dupont PRD-66C, McDermott ceramic composite, and Westinghouse Techniweave candle filters have been received for testing after their exposure to the gasification environment. One as-manufactured and one exposed element was received of each material and specimens are currently being machined from these candles.

None

1998-08-31

360

Photochemical reactions of particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon contained in suspended, coastal marine sediments photochemically dissolves under high doses of artificial sunlight in the laboratory, suggesting that sunlight might induce large changes in the form and fate of organic matter present in suspended particles along turbid, low-latitude coastlines. The primary goal of the work presented here was to develop a quantitative method of predicting the particulate organic carbon (POC) "photodissolution" rate in the coastal waters of Louisiana near the deltas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Pursuit of this objective required measurements of the reaction rate and apparent quantum yield, determination of sediment light absorption properties, and development of a novel method to retrieve the optical properties of coastal water from remotely-sensed reflectance measurements. This dissertation first describes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) production and oxygen consumption accompanying photodissolution. The ratio of DIC production to O2 consumption was lower for POC than in previously-described reactions of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suggesting greater photochemical incorporation of oxygen into organic matter. Particle light absorption properties control, in part, the rate of photodissolution. Absorption coefficients of suspended sediment samples from the study region are a weak function of organic carbon content but a strong function of reducible iron content. Photodissolution rate measurements and radiative transfer modeling were used to determine the wavelength-dependent apparent quantum yield for the reaction and to constrain the temperature dependence and sample composition-induced variability in the rate. Initial photodissolution rates scaled linearly with the reducible iron content of sediments but the rate was independent of composition over longer periods. High spatial-resolution optical properties of study region waters were obtained from a novel satellite reflectance inversion calibrated using the local mass-normalized optical properties of suspended sediments. Lab-based photodissolution rate measurements were scaled to match field optical conditions determined from available satellite observations. Empirical relationships between local weather and the satellite-based photodissolution predictions allowed estimates of rates on days without satellite imagery. Annually-integrated rates were small relative to river POC inputs, but results suggested photodissolution rates similar in magnitude to CDOM photoreactions.

Estapa, Margaret L.

2011-12-01

361

Watershed storage and riverine particulate organic radiocarbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral movement of carbon and other materials across landscapes is punctuated with periods of storage and reaction. Though we understand basic principles concerning transport and storage effects on the nature of some materials, an adequate understanding is lacking of the cumulative impacts of those processes as material migrates across the biogeochemical landscape. This is essential to the interpretation of geochemical soil and sedimentary records of the past as well as to predicting future responses of systems to perturbations in climate or landuse. Sources of organic carbon exported from watersheds can be broadly defined as those recently derived for extant ecosystems, those derived from materials aged and altered in storage (aged soil OC), and fossil material associated with sedimentary bedrock. Separately, these materials are easy to recognize based on isotopic and molecular compositions and each could in principle be linked to specific mass transport processes such as sheet wash, shallow landsliding or gullying. The blending and alteration of original source signatures during storage appear to attenuate the variability of the exported signal within a system and complicate source identification. Riverine particulate organic carbon 14C-compositions reveal robust relationships between radiocarbon content, suspended load concentrations and % organic C. These are explained as a result of mixing of the 14C-free fossil C from sedimentary rocks with 14C-containing material derived from extant ecosystems and soils. In essence, the 14C-content of riverine POC inversely correlates with the muddiness of the system. Whereas one might predict that POC radiocarbon content might decrease with increased storage or residence time in watersheds, no obvious relationship exists between bulk 14C-content observations and watershed size. Instead, the hypothetical watershed size effect is obscured by precipitation- and discharge-driven variations in the mixture of the fossil and non-fossil organic C sources. The influence of watershed size emerges when bulk POC 14C measurements are deconvoluted into constituent signatures. Two key parameters are the concentration of fossil C and the apparent age of the non-fossil fraction. Hypothetically, fossil C derived from upland sources via the mass wasting of sedimentary rocks should decrease in abundance with time spent within surface bioactive reservoirs such as soils because of oxidative losses. Likewise, the 14C-age of non-fossil C (contemporary plus aged soil C) should increase with time spent in the watershed. Though riverine radiocarbon data sets are small, they are consistent with both predictions. The bulk radiocarbon signatures of riverine POC thus appear to result from a balance of processes that turn over sediment-associated organic material.

Blair, N. E.; Leithold, E. L.

2011-12-01

362

Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters  

SciTech Connect

Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

1996-06-01

363

Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

2010-06-01

364

Cometary particulate analyzer. [mass spectrometry of laser plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates was evaluated. The technique utilizes a short, high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. Critical aspects of the development of this system are determining the ionization efficiencies for various atomic species and achieving adequate mass resolution. A technique called energy-time focus, which utilizes static electric fields to alter the length of the ion flight path in proportion to the ion initial energy, was used which results in a corresponding compression to the range of ion flight times which effectively improves the inherent resolution. Sufficient data were acquired to develop preliminary specifications for a flight experiment.

Friichtenicht, J. F.; Miller, D. J.; Utterback, N. G.

1979-01-01

365

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63...compliance with applicable particulate matter emission limits using . . . You...

2012-07-01

366

CONVERSATION OF DISSOLVED MANGANESE TO PARTICULATE MANGANESE DURING DIATOM BLOOM: EFFECTS ON THE MANGANESE CYCLE IN THE MERL MICROCOSMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Conversion of dissolved manganese to particulate manganese occurred during a minor diatom bloom during August and September 1978 in the MERL microcosms. Correlations between chlorophyll a and particulate manganese suggest that 29 moles Mn were transferred to the particulate phase...

367

Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

2010-01-01

368

Particulate emissions from wood stoves in a residential area  

SciTech Connect

A field study was made to measure toluene extractable particulates emitted by wood burning stoves in a community. Two areas were selected to determine the increase in organic particulates emitted by these stoves. In one area wood burning stoves were used as an alternate heat source for some of the houses but not in the other area. A sign test was used to determine whether there was a statistical difference between the two areas in terms of toluene extractables. There was approximately a 21% increase in toluene extractables in the wood burning area.

Lao, Y.J.

1983-11-01

369

A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-print Network

of the enzyme activity can be solubilized from the particulate fraction with 100 mM sodium cholate. In the solubilized state this enzyme has been found to migrate in the same position on polyacrylamide gels as the already known soluble repressible alkaline... phosphatase and also shows lines of identity with this enzyme on Ouchterlony plates. This particulate enzyme exhibits an apparent Km of 0. 38 mM. with respect to n-naphthyl acid phosphate, 0. 25 mM with respect to o-nitrophenylphosphate and 1. 0 m...

Mitchell, James Kent

2012-06-07

370

Nano-particulate coating on cotton fabric through DBD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma polymerization of fluorocarbon was processed through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A thin hydrophobic film packed with nano-particulate structure was obtained on cotton fabric surface. The contact angle of the water and 1-bromonaphthalene on coated cotton fabric was 133° and 124° separately. The surface morphology of the coating was observed through SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope). It was found that cotton fabric surface was tightly adhered to a thin film packed by nano-particles from 10nm to 200nm. This process showed potential applications in continuous coating of textiles with functional nano-particulate polymers, but without changing their softness performance.

Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jinzhou; Zhou, Rongming; Yu, Jianyong

2008-02-01

371

ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT 4  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an extensive program to study the small combustion sources of indoor fine particulate matter (PM), candles with lead-core wicks were burned in a 46-L glass flow- through chamber. The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters ...

372

DETERMINATION OF BENZIDINE, RELATED CONGENERS, AND PIGMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for the determination of benzidine, related congeners, and pigments in atmospheric particulate matter, based on high performance liquid chromatography, are described. The methods are evaluated using National Bureau of Standards atmospheric particulate matter, as well as f...

373

Particulate Matter: What is it and Why does it Matter to Agriculture?  

E-print Network

Particulate matter is the dust and other small particles that are suspended in the air. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates particulate matter because it can cause health problems when inhaled. This publication explains the two types...

Mukhtar, Saqib; McGee, Russell

2009-04-16

374

40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96...Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. Section...

2010-07-01

375

Trends in atmospheric ammonia and particulate ammonium concentrations in Sweden and its causes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily average air concentrations of ammonia plus particulate ammonium, nitric acid plus particulate nitrate, sulphur dioxide and particulate sulphate have been measured at four EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) sites in Sweden since 1986. From 1993 sampling was made with a filter pack that separates the gaseous and particulate forms. The separation is not perfect, but fairly good when compared to a denuder. The same filter pack was used for monthly measurements at four high altitude sites in the Swedish mountain areas. The concentration of particulate ammonium decreases more rapidly than the ammonia emissions in Sweden and neighbouring countries while the ammonia concentration increases. Particulate ammonium is mainly long-range transported from the continent to the southern parts of Sweden, while gaseous ammonia comes from all directions. The particulate ammonium concentrations are charged balanced with particulate sulphate and nitrate concentrations and the long-range transport is therefore limited by the availability of these anions.

Ferm, Martin; Hellsten, Sofie

2012-12-01

376

COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

377

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128...limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What...matter that may be emitted from certain wood products industry sources operating...

2010-07-01

378

The effect of lubricant derived ash on the catalytic activity of diesel particulate filters  

E-print Network

A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an aftertreatment device used to remove hazardous particulate matter (PM) from diesel engine exhaust. Modem emission restrictions have limited the acceptable amount of PM output by ...

Murray, Timothy Quinn

2014-01-01

379

INSTRUMENTATION FOR MONITORING THE OPACITY OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTAINING CONDENSED WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

On-stack instrumentation and methodology were developed to monitor the opacity of particulate pollutants in stationary source emissions containing condensed water. The instrument continuously extracts and measures the opacity of representative samples of particulate effluent. It ...

380

77 FR 33002 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Health Standards for Diesel Particulate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...injuries in coal or other mines. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a probable...consists of tiny particles present in diesel engine exhaust that can readily penetrate...Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. Sec....

2012-06-04

381

Pulmonary particulate matter and systemic microvascular dysfunction.  

PubMed

Pulmonary particulate matter (PM) exposure has been epidemiologically associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanistic foundations for this association are unclear. Exposure to certain types of PM causes changes in the vascular reactivity of several macrovascular segments. However, no studies have focused upon the systemic microcirculation, which is the primary site for the development of peripheral resistance and, typically, the site of origin for numerous pathologies. Ultrafine PM--also referred to as nanoparticles, which are defined as ambient and engineered particles with at least one physical dimension less than 100 nm (Oberdorster et al. 2005)--has been suggested to be more toxic than its larger counterparts by virtue of a larger surface area per unit mass. The purpose of this study was fourfold: (1) determine whether particle size affects the severity of postexposure microvascular dysfunction; (2) characterize alterations in microvascular nitric oxide (NO) production after PM exposure; (3) determine whether alterations in microvascular oxidative stress are associated with NO production, arteriolar dysfunction, or both; and (4) determine whether circulating inflammatory mediators, leukocytes, neurologic mechanisms, or a combination of these play a fundamental role in mediating pulmonary PM exposure and peripheral microvascular dysfunction. To achieve these goals, we created an inhalation chamber that generates stable titanium dioxide (TiO2) aerosols at concentrations up to 20 mg/m3. TiO2 is a well-characterized particle devoid of soluble metals. Sprague Dawley and Fischer 344 (F-344) rats were exposed to fine or nano-TiO2 PM (primary count modes of approximately 710 nm and approximately 100 nm in diameter, respectively) at concentrations of 1.5 to 16 mg/m3 for 4 to 12 hours to produce pulmonary loads of 7 to 150 microg in each rat. Twenty-four hours after pulmonary exposure, the following procedures were performed: the spinotrapezius muscle was prepared for in vivo microscopy, blood samples were taken from an arterial line, and various tissues were harvested for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Some rats received a bolus dose of cyclophosphamide 3 days prior to PM exposure to deplete circulating neutrophils and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in separate groups of rats exposed to identical TiO2 loads. No significant differences in BAL fluid composition based on PM size or load were found in these rats. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-18, IL-13, and growth-related oncogene (GRO) (also known as keratinocyte-derived-chemokine [KC]) were altered after PM exposure. In rats exposed to fine TiO2, endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation was significantly decreased, and this dysfunction was robustly augmented in rats exposed to nano-TiO2. This effect was not related to an altered smooth-muscle responsiveness to NO because arterioles in both groups dilated comparably in response to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Endogenous microvascular NO production was similarly decreased after inhalation of either fine or nano-TiO2 in a dose-dependent manner. Microvascular oxidative stress was significantly increased among both exposure groups. Furthermore, treatment with antioxidants (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine-N-oxyl [TEMPOL] plus catalase), the myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic hydrazide (ABAH), or the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) inhibitor apocynin partially restored NO production and normalized arteriolar function in both groups. Neutrophil depletion restored dilation in PM-exposed rats by as much as 42%. Coincubation of the spinotrapezius muscle with the fast sodium (Na+) channel antagonist tetrodotoxin (TTX) restored arteriolar dilation by as much as 54%, suggesting that sympathetic neural input may be affected by PM exposure. The results of these experiments indicate that (1) the size of inhaled PM dictates the intensity of systemic microvascular dysfunction; (2) this arteriolar dysfuncti

Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Porter, Dale W; Hubbs, Ann F; Stone, Samuel; Moseley, Amy M; Cumpston, Jared L; Goodwill, Adam G; Frisbee, Stephanie J; Perrotta, Peter L; Brock, Robert W; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Boegehold, Matthew A; Frazer, David G; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent

2011-12-01

382

PII S0016-7037(99)00361-0 Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments  

E-print Network

PII S0016-7037(99)00361-0 Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments D) Abstract--Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates were examined in contrasting Chesapeake Bay (estuarine) and mid-Atlantic shelf/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) rep

Burdige, David

383

40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

2013-07-01

384

40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

2012-07-01

385

40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

2014-07-01

386

40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

2011-07-01

387

40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate...particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

2010-07-01

388

Atmospheric ammonia measurements and implications for particulate matter formation in Houston, TX  

E-print Network

Atmospheric ammonia measurements and implications for particulate matter formation in Houston, TX;1 Atmospheric ammonia measurements and1 implications for particulate matter formation in2 Houston, TX3 Longwen importance of NH3 with respect to particle20 number concentration.21 Key words: ammonia, particulate matter

389

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2011-07-01

390

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2014-07-01

391

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2012-07-01

392

40 CFR 60.282a - Standard for filterable particulate matter.  

... Standard for filterable particulate matter. 60.282a Section 60.282a Protection... Standard for filterable particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... (i) Contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.10 gram per dry...

2014-07-01

393

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2010-07-01

394

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

395

30 CFR 7.89 - Test to determine the particulate index.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the particulate index. 7.89 Section... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...the particulate index. The test shall...the sampling and measurement devices specified...during which the measurements are being taken...The particulate index for the mass...

2010-07-01

396

Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter  

E-print Network

Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Lawrence H which provides the Center's primary funding. #12;1 STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION relevant to the study of air pollution involving particulate matter and to setting particulate matter air

Washington at Seattle, University of

397

42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.181 Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter...

2013-10-01

398

42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.181 Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter...

2011-10-01

399

42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.181 Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter...

2012-10-01

400

42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.181 Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter...

2014-10-01

401

FEASIBILITY OF PLASMA AFTERTREATMENT FOR SIMULTANEOUS CONTROL OF NOX AND PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NOx converter. Particulate trapping in a plasma reactor can be accomplished by electrostatic precipitation. The soluble organic fraction of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the hydrocarbon-enhanced oxidat...

402

Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project are to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern fine particulate formation in pulverized coal flames, and develop procedures to predict the levels of emission of fine particles from pulverized coal combustors. (VC)

Clark, W.D.; Chen, S.L.; Kramlich, J.C.; Newton, G.H.; Seeker, W.R. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States)); Samuelsen, G.S. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States))

1988-11-01

403

BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL MODELING OF PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the US EPA's 1998 Baltimore Epidemiology-Exposure Panel Study, a group of 21 residents of a single building retirement community wore personal monitors recording personal fine particulate air pollution concentrations (PM2.5) for 27 days, while other monitors recorde...

404

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this article we present results from a 2-year comprehensive exposure assessment study that examined the particulate matter (PM) exposures and health effects in 108 individuals with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and as...

405

ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER.  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the acute mortality effects of high concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM), documented in historic air pollution episodes, may also be occurring at the low to moderate concentrations of ambient PM found in mod...

406

Computational micromagnetic study of particulate media hysteresis and recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the micromagnetic theory, algorithms, computer software and computer hardware built and used to study particulate media particles, hysteresis and recording is first provided. This includes a derivation and analysis of the modified version of the Fast Multipole Method used in this dissertation. Results will then be presented on particulate media particle nucleation field dependence on particle shape, particle aspect ratio, ferromagnetic exchange energy and external magnetic field angle. Results on the discretization necessary to accurately model a particle will also be provided. The reversal mode of a particle will be simulated and analyzed. Simulated longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops will be presented. Results will also be presented on particulate media coercivity and squareness dependence on volumetric packing fraction. Simulated recorded transition results will be given as well as total power spectra results for AC and DC erased particulate media. Numerical results will be compared to experimental data and analytical theories. Advice is provided on how to build a personal supercomputer like the one used in the numerical experiments of this dissertation.

Seberino, Christian

2000-11-01

407

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2012-07-01

408

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2010-07-01

410

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2014-07-01

411

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter...three million up to but not including ten million Btu per hour Maine 100.3.1(b) 3/29/73 (b) The revision...

2011-07-01

412

REMARQUES SUR LES PARTICULES DE PARCOURS ANORMALEMENT LONG  

E-print Network

émulsions sont irradiées à un flux de neutrons de 14 MeV et à une source de polonium recouverte de 10 y de polonium., Tandis que les traces de particules oc sont rectilignes à grains jointifs, difficilement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

APTI Course 450, Source Sampling for Particulate Pollutants. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual covers a four and one half day laboratory course in source sampling for particulates. The course presents principles and techniques necessary for performing isokinetic source sampling procedures. Lectures cover formulas dealing with basic fluid mechanics appropriate to the techniques employed. Laboratory exercises are intended to…

Aldina, G. J.; And Others

414

EVALUATION OF FOUR NOVEL FINE PARTICULATE COLLECTION DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an experimental performance evaluation of four novel fine particulate control devices: the Johns-Manville Cleanable High-Efficiency Air Filtration (CHEAF) System, the APS Electrostatic Scrubber, the APS Electrotube, and the TRW Charged Droplet Scrubber...

415

EFFECTS OF SELECTED WATERBORNE PARTICULATES ON CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PARAMETERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Embryonic cultures were used to compare the effects of six particulate samples, some filtered directly from drinking water on a cellular, biochemical and molecular basis. Cytotoxicity was exhibited in human cells for all agents tested at the highest concentration used (10 mg/ml)....

416

EVALUATION OF PARTICULATE MASS MONITORS USING THE BETA GAUGE TECHNIQUE  

EPA Science Inventory

A field study was conducted to evaluate two commercially available beta gauge instruments for measuring particulate mass concentrations in stationary source emissions. Performance of the instruments was compared with a manual method of measurement at a ferrite rotary-kiln calcine...

417

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

DOEpatents

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29

418

COLLECTION, CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION, AND MUTAGENICITY BIOASSAY OF AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of industrialization and consequent increased concentration of urban particulate matter on the incidence of cancer has long been a concern. The first bioassays used to evaluate complex ambient air samples were whole-animal carcinogenesis bioassays. In these studies,...

419

Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs  

DOEpatents

A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Ament, Frank (Troy, MI)

2012-02-21

420

On-orbit transport of molecular and particulate contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an orbital environment, outgassed, offgassed, ambient, and vented molecular species can cause spacecraft performance degradation by direct impingement or by scattering with each other in the gas phase before and after reemitting from the spacecraft surfaces. This can cause detrimental conditions for the spacecraft surfaces and sensors who view through this cloud. Likewise particulates released by the spacecraft, or nearby systems, can deposit on surfaces, intercept optical lines-of-sight or recontact the vehicle later on in the mission, causing surface damage. This paper presents two models that have improved capability over previous similar models. The integrated spacecraft environments model (ISEM) can be used to predict the transport of spacecraft generated molecular species as they collisionally interact with each other and the ambient molecular environment. An ISEM analysis produces a three dimensional mapping of molecular density and velocity by molecular species, within a modeling volume defined by the user. This model is the next generation of the SPACE and Molflux contamination models and was developed through NASA funding. The orbital particulate trajectory model (OPT) can be used to predict the particulate locations of released particulates as a function of time relative to the spacecraft coordinate system as well as an Earth coordinate system. In this paper the capabilities, applications, validation, and availability of the (ISEM) and the (OPT) model are discussed.

Rantanen, Raymond; Gordon, Tim

1996-11-01

421

Influences on the Particle Size Distribution of Diesel Particulate Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulates give great concern for mankind health. Especially the nano size particles are under discussion. Therefore, the particle size distribution from the combustion chamber to tail pipe emissions are of great interest. With the aim of scanning mobility particle sizer the number weighted particle size distributions were measured in the combustion chamber as well as in the exhaust gas up

Gerhard Lepperhoff

2001-01-01

422

Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

423

Lidar Based Particulate Flux Measurements of Agricultural Field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system was developed to derive information on particulate spatial aerosol distribution over remote distances. The lidar system and retrieval approach has been tested during several field campaigns measuring agricultural emissions from a swine feeding operat...

424

Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

425

Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) and aerosols have became a critical pollutant and object of several research applications, due to their increasing levels, especially in urban areas, causing air pollution problems and thus effects on human health. The main purpose of this study is to perform a first long-term air quality assessment for Portugal, regarding aerosols and PM pollution. The CHIMERE chemistry-transport

A. Monteiro; A. I. Miranda; C. Borrego; R. Vautard; J. Ferreira; A. T. Perez

2007-01-01

426

CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

427

SAMPLING AND DATA HANDLING METHODS FOR INHALABLE PARTICULATE SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews the objectives of a research program on sampling and measuring particles in the inhalable particulate (IP) size range in emissions from stationary sources, and describes methods and equipment required. A computer technique was developed to analyze data on parti...

428

BALLOON-BORNE PARTICULATE SAMPLING FOR MONITORING POWER PLANT EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a lightweight remote-controlled sampler, carried aloft by a tethered balloon, that has been developed to collect particulates from the plumes of fossil-fueled power plants at various downwind distances. The airborne sampler is controlled from the ground by a ...

429

Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to understand and mitigate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have a rich and interesting history. This review focuses on six substantial lines of research that have been pursued since 1997 that have helped elucidate our understanding about the effects of PM on human health. There has been substantial progress in the evaluation of PM health

C. Arden Pope III; Douglas W. Dockery; Joe L. Mauderly; Daniel L. Costa; Ronald E. Wyzga; Sverre Vedal; George M. Hidy; Sam L. Altshuler; David Marrack; Jon M. Heuss; George T. Wolff

2006-01-01

430

Increased Particulate Air Pollution and the Triggering of Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Elevated concentrations of ambient particulate air pollution have been associated with increased hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. Whether high concentrations of ambient particles can trigger the onset of acute myocardial infarction (MI), however, remains unknown. Methods and Results—We interviewed 772 patients with MI in the greater Boston area between January 1995 and May 1996 as part of the Determinants of

Annette Peters; Douglas W. Dockery; James E. Muller; Murray A. Mittleman

2001-01-01

431

Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media  

DOEpatents

A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

2014-11-11

432

Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in detroit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased mortality during episodes of high pollution concentrations. The relationship at lower concentrations has been more controversial, as has the relative role of particles and sulfur dioxide. Replication has been difficult because suspended particle concentrations are usually measured only every sixth day in the U.S. This study used concurrent measurements of total suspended

J. Schwartz

1991-01-01

433

DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION OF A FINE PARTICULATE MEASURING DEVICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design, development, and testing of a fine particulate source monitoring instrument for real-time measurement of mass concentration as a function of aerodynamic particle size. It includes a literature review and selection of the operating principle on whi...

434

AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTEIN MASS OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison of ambient particulate matter mass concentrations with the total protein mass concentration has not been performed previously for North Carolina and was the goal of this study. The analysis of total protein mass was used as an all inclusive indicator of biologically ...

435

Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

436

MEASUREMENTS AND PARAMETERIZATION OF PARTICULATE SULFUR DRY DEPOSITION OVER GRASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Eddy-correlation measurements of particulate sulfur fluxes at the 1981 and 1982 Dry Deposition Intercomparison Experiments indicate a strong diurnal variation in deposition velocity (downward flux divided by concentration) at a height near 6 m. Values are considerably greater tha...

437

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

438

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

439

DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE SAMPLE COLLECTOR OF RESPIRABLE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype sampler designed to collect particulate matter from air in sized fractions has been designed and tested. The sampler excludes particles above 20 micrometers in diameter and collects fractions centered at 3.5 micrometers and 1.7 micrometers on impaction plates and smal...

440

PARTICULATE CONTROL IN ENERGY PROCESSES: A STATUS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the significant findings of the 22 papers delivered at the Particulate Control in Energy Processes Symposium, held in San Francisco on May 12-14, 1976. Topics of discussion included use of low sulfur coals, electrostatic precipitators for low sulfur coal, bagh...

441

CEC-500-2010-FS-017 Volatility of Ultrafine Particulate  

E-print Network

. Limited research has been done to characterize compressed natural gas mass emissions and practically-volatile and semi-volatile fractions of ultrafine particulate matter emissions from compressed natural gas vehicles compressed natural gas, and emission control technologies that will best protect human health

442

HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL REQUIREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews and evaluates high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup requirements of existing and proposed energy processes. The study's aims are to define specific high-temperature and high-pressure particle removal problems, to indicate potential solutions, a...

443

Particulate control mobile test units: first year's operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes the first year of operation of EPA-owned mobile test units that are being used in the field to study the applicability of different control methods to the control of fine particulate emitted from a wide variety of sources. Two mobile units are described: a fabric filter (baghouse) and a wet scrubber. The latter includes two types: venturi

Opferkuch

1976-01-01

444

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...charged to the still when a catalyst is added to the still and...still during blowing without a catalyst; and (4) Particulate...still during blowing without a catalyst and when No. 6 fuel oil is...after achieving the maximum production rate at which the...

2010-07-01

445

ASSESSMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE CONTROL: FILTERS, SCRUBBERS, AND PRECIPITATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses an investigation of three types of devices that might be used for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust to lower particulate emissions from light-duty vehicles. The devices are filters, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), and wet scrubbers. The conclusions rea...

446

Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage by particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The mechanisms of PM-induced health effects are believed to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated by PM may arise from direct generation of reactive oxygen species from the surface of particles, soluble compounds such as transition metals or organic compounds, altered

Lotte Risom; Peter Møller; Steffen Loft

2005-01-01

447

ENHANCED ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN ANIMALS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have found an association between elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and increased medication use and hospital visits by asthmatics. While it is known that asthmatics are generally more sensitive to airborne contaminants such as sulfur dioxide and tobacco smoke, it is difé cult to test which components of air pollution may also contribute to the

2000-01-01

448

INVESTIGATING THE PREFERENTIAL DISSOLUTION OF LEAD FROM SOLDER PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

During a building corrosion control study, bottles containing acid-preserved water samples with high levels of lead often had particulate material on the bottom. Scanning electron microscope analysis of the particles showed the presence of tin and the absence of lead, indicating ...

449

SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 ¿m or less (PM-2.5) has been implicated in adverse health effects, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 has been promulgated (July 1997) by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. A national network of ambie...

450

SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

451

Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily

Amy E. Gildemeister; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim

2007-01-01

452

Mineralogical characterization of airborne individual particulates in Beijing PM10.  

PubMed

This work mainly focuses on the mineralogical study of particulate matter (PM10) in Beijing. Samples were collected on polycarbonate filter from April, 2002 to March, 2003 in Beijing urban area. Scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) was used to investigate individual mineral particles in Beijing PM10. 1454 individual mineral particulates from 48 samples were analysed by SEM/EDX. The results revealed that mineral particulates were complex and heterogeneous. 38 kinds of minerals in PM10 were identified. The clay minerals, of annual average percentage of 30.1%, were the main composition among the identified minerals, and illite/smectite was the main composition in clay minerals, reaching up to 35%. Annual average percentage of quartz, calcite, compound particulates, carbonates were 13.5%, 10.9%, 11.95%, 10.31%, respectively. Annual average percentage less than 10% were gypsum, feldspar, dolomite, and so on. Fluorite, apatite, halite, barite and chloridize zinc (ZnCl2) were firstly identified in Beijing PM10. Sulfurization was found on surface of mineral particles, suggested extensive atmospheric reaction in air during summer. PMID:20050554

Lu, Sen-Lin; Shao, Long-Yi; Wu, Ming-Hong; Jiao, Zheng

2006-01-01

453

INVESTIGATING PREFERENTIAL DISSOLUTION OF LEAD FROM SOLDER PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Water samples taken in a building corrosion control study having high lead levels often contained particulate material at the bottom of the acid-preserved sample bottles. canning electron microscope analysis of the particles revealed the presence of tin and absence of lead, indic...

454

Catalytic oxidation of diesel particulates with base metal oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of emissions from diesel engines using novel flow-through oxidation catalysts containing base metal oxides has been demonstrated. The soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulates can be converted and gas phase hydrocarbons can be removed via the proper choice of oxides. Low levels of platinum on the catalysts also compliment HC and CO conversion without leading to “sulfate-make”. Catalyst

K. E. Voss; J. K. Lampert; R. J. Farrauto; G. W. Rice; A. Punke; R. Krohn

1995-01-01

455

PROTON SCATTERING ANALYSIS FOR LIGHT ELEMENTS IN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Proton scattering analysis has been developed to provide light element analyses as a complementary method to x-ray analysis. Samples of air particulate matter from both filter and impaction devices have been analyzed and time sequence and particle size information obtained. In co...

456

A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

457

Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort  

EPA Science Inventory

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

458

METHOD FOR ESTIMATING FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control techniques are reviewed for applicability to fugitive particulate emissions from hazardous waste sites. Techniques judged applicable include chemical stabilization (40 to 100 percent efficiency, $520/acre-yr to $2,720/acre-yr), wet suppression (25 to 90 percent efficiency...

459

The Role of Particulate Matter in Exacerbation of Atopic Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence shows that elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) can exacerbate existing asthma, while evidence that PM can promote the induction of asthma is limited. PM in ambient air has been associated with increased emergency room visits and medication use by asthmatics. Controlled human exposure studies of acid aerosols suggest increased responses among adolescent asthmatics. Increased ambient and indoor

Stephen H. Gavett; Hillel S. Koren

2001-01-01

460

PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN MODEL FOR SCRUBBERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a capsule summary of the best available design models for wet scrubbers and their application to fine particulate control. Details of the models are reported in the Scrubber Handbook and other EPA publications listed in the bibliography. When EPA initiated its We...

461

40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...particulates in the water column for varying lengths of time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the primary productivity of an aquatic area if they last long enough. Sight-dependent species may suffer reduced...

2013-07-01

462

40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...particulates in the water column for varying lengths of time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the primary productivity of an aquatic area if they last long enough. Sight-dependent species may suffer reduced...

2012-07-01

463

40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...particulates in the water column for varying lengths of time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the primary productivity of an aquatic area if they last long enough. Sight-dependent species may suffer reduced...

2011-07-01

464

40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.  

...particulates in the water column for varying lengths of time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the primary productivity of an aquatic area if they last long enough. Sight-dependent species may suffer reduced...

2014-07-01

465

Fluid and particulate Vrme-och strmningsteknik systems (FPS) 424514  

E-print Network

1 of 3 Fluid and particulate Värme- och strömningsteknik systems (FPS) 424514 Thermal and flow to expansion ). (6 p.) b) Repeat the calculation for a) if the density of the fertilizer liquid F = 1100 kg/m3 with one or more of these pumps, plus valves, that allows for the transport of the suspensions

Zevenhoven, Ron

466

Behavior features of soot combustion in diesel particulate filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infra-red measuremnts of the combustion of particular matter (PM) deposited on the surface of a single layer diesel particulate filter (DPF) showed that it may proceed in three different modes: either by a moving hot zone emanating from a single ignition point, or hot zones generated at several different ignition points or uniform combustion all over the surface. The velocity

K. S. Martirosyan; K. Chen; D. Luss

2010-01-01

467

ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Particulate Mass and Visibility  

E-print Network

to condense and form small particles (particulate matter, or PM). As we have seen in previous homeworks in this problem). Assume that the average mass of the organic molecule that condenses is 100 g mole-1 . How much was much higher than your calculation. Say there was 100 g m-3 (note that m-3 refers to air, in this case

Toohey, Darin W.

468

ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Particulate Mass and Visibility  

E-print Network

to condense and form small particles (particulate matter, or PM). As we have seen in previous homeworks in this problem). Assume that the average mass of the organic molecule that condenses is 100 g mole-1 . How much calculation. Say there was 100 g m-3 (note that m-3 refers to air, in this case). Assuming

Toohey, Darin W.

469

Chemical characterization of particulate emissions from diesel engines: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the chemical properties of particulate matter (PM) in diesel vehicle exhaust at a time when emission regulations, diesel technology development, and particle characterization techniques are all undergoing rapid change. The aim is to explore how changes in each of these areas impact the others. Particle composition is of central interest to the practical issues of health effects,

M. Matti Maricq

2007-01-01

470

REVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING FINAL REPORT  

E-print Network

of Mechanical Engineering Center for Diesel Research Minneapolis, MN January 14, 1999 #12;01/14/99 Page 2 TABLE ................................................................................................................5 DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY AND EMISSION REGULATIONS .............................7 PHYSICALREVIEW OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLING METHODS FINAL REPORT Prepared by David B. Kittelson

Minnesota, University of

471

Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

472

REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL - 1. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The gas-phase chemistry and transport mechanisms of the Regional Acid Deposition Model have been modified to create the Regional Particulate Model, a three-dimensional Eulerian model that simulates the chemistry, transport, and dynamics of sulfuric acid aerosol resulting from pri...

473

A thermodynamics based damage mechanics model for particulate composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micro-mechanical damage model is proposed to predict the overall viscoplastic behavior and damage evolution in a particle filled polymer matrix composite. Particulate composite consists of polymer matrix, particle fillers, and an interfacial transition interphase around the filler particles. Yet the composite is treated as a two distinct phase material, namely the matrix and the equivalent particle-interface assembly. The CTE

Cemal Basaran; Shihua Nie

2007-01-01

474

OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury. Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC. Epidemiol...

475

Mechanics of particulate composites with glassy polymer binders in compression.  

PubMed

Whether used as structural components in design or matrix materials for composites, the mechanical properties of polymers are increasingly important. The compressive response of extruded polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rod with aligned polymer chains and Al-Ni-PMMA particulate composites are investigated across a range of strain rates and temperatures. The particulate composites were prepared using an injection-moulding technique resulting in highly anisotropic microstructures. The mechanics of these materials are discussed in the light of theories of deformation for glassy polymers. The experimental data from this study are compared with PMMA results from the literature as well as epoxy-based composites with identical particulates. The PMMA exhibited the expected strain rate and temperature dependence and brittle failure was observed at the highest strain rates and lowest temperatures. The Al-Ni-PMMA composites were found to have similar stress-strain response to the PMMA with reduced strain softening after yield. Increasing volume fraction of particulates in the composite resulted in decreased strength. PMID:24711495

Jordan, J L; Spowart, J E; Kendall, M J; Woodworth, B; Siviour, C R

2014-05-13

476

Direct-energy-regenerated particulate trap technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this CRADA between Lockheed Martin and Cummins Engine Company was to develop fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) composite materials for use as diesel engine particulate traps. Chemical vapor deposition techniques were used to partially densify and rigidize a thin fibrous substrate and produce the porous SiC- based filter. Microwave energy was used to directly couple to the deposited SiC to uniformly heat the filter and oxidize the collected carbon particulates. For commercial usage particulate traps must: (1) filter carbon particulates from a high temperature diesel exhaust at an acceptably low backpressure, (2) survive thousands of thermal transients due to regeneration or cleaning of the filter by oxidizing the collected carbon, (3) be durable and reliable over the expected life of the filter (300,000 miles or 10,000 hours), and (4) provide a low overall operating cost which is competitive with other filtering techniques. The development efforts performed as part of this CRADA have resulted in a very promising new technology for Cummins Engine Company. Ceramic fiber based filter papers were developed at Fleetguard, Inc., (a Cummins Subsidiary) and used to produce the spiral wound, corrugated filter cartridges. Optimized SiC coatings were developed at Lockheed Martin which couple with 2.45 GHz microwaves. Prototype particulate filter cartridges fabricated at Fleetguard and rigidized at Lockheed Martin performed well in single cylinder engine tests at Cummins. These prototype filters obtained filtering efficiencies greater than 80% at acceptably low backpressures and could be successfully headed and regenerated using a conventional in-home microwave oven.

Stinton, D.P.; Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C. [Fleetguard, Inc. (United States)

1996-12-01

477

Theoretical study of the impact of particulate matter gravitational settling on ambient coarse particulate matter monitoring for agricultural emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The particle size distributions (PSD) of particulate matter (PM) in the downwind plume from simulated sources were analyzed to determine the impact of PM settling on PM monitoring. The PSD of PM in a plume varies as a function of gravitational settling.Gravitational settling has a greater impact on ...

478

HUMAL ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSES TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICULATES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSOLUBLE OCMPONENTS OF COARSE MATERIAL, INCLUDING PARTICULATE ENDOTOXIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM...

479

PRELIMINARY RESULTS: MODELING FINE PARTICULATE MASS FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES USING THE EPA REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

PM-10, particulate matter less than 10um, is one of several criteria air pollutants for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect human wealth and welfare. ecently, attention has been...

480

Particulate matter < 10 ?m (PM 10) and total suspended particulates (TSP) in urban, rural and alpine air in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient concentrations of particulate matter of less than 10 ?m aerodynamic diameter were measured in Switzerland for a 1 yr period in 1993 at a dozen urban, rural and alpine sites. PM10 concentrations ranged between 10 ?g m?3 (alpine) and 33 ?g m?3 (urban). Highest concentrations were found at Lugano, in the south of the Alps, and in urban sites

Ch. Monn; O. Braendli; G. Schaeppi; Ch. Schindler; U. Ackermann-Liebrich; Ph. Leuenberger

1995-01-01

481

Removal of Sulfur from Natural Gas to Reduce Particulate Matter Emission from a Turbine Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work investigates the effect of natural gas fuel sulfur on particulate emissions from stationary gas turbine engines used for electricity generation. Fuel sulfur from standard line gas was scrubbed using a system of fluidized reactor beds containing a specially designed activated carbon purpose built for sulfur absorption. A sulfur injection system using sonic orifices was designed and constructed to inject methyl mercaptan into the scrubbed gas stream at varying concentrations. Using these systems, particulate emissions created by various fuel sulfur levels between 0 and 8.3 ppmv were investigated. Particulate samples were collected from a Capstone C65 microturbine generator system using a Horiba MDLT-1302TA micro dilution tunnel and analyzed using a Horiba MEXA-1370PM particulate analyzer. In addition, ambient air samples were collected to determine incoming particulate levels in the combustion air. The Capstone C65 engine air filter was also tested for particulate removal efficiency by sampling downstream of the filter. To further differentiate the particulate entering the engine in the combustion air from particulate being emitted from the exhaust stack, two high efficiency HEPA filters were installed to eliminate a large portion of incoming particulate. Variable fuel sulfur testing showed that there was a strong correlation between total particulate emission factor and fuel sulfur concentration. Using eleven variable sulfur tests, it was determined that an increase of 1 ppmv fuel sulfur will produce an increase of approximately 3.2 microg/m3 total particulate. Also, the correlation also predicted that, for this particular engine, the total particulate emission factor for zero fuel sulfur was approximately 19.1 microg/m3. With the EC and OC data removed, the correlation became 3.1 microg/m3 of sulfur particulate produced for each ppmv of fuel sulfur. The correlation also predicted that with no fuel sulfur present, 6.6 microg/m3 of particulate will be produced by sulfur passing through the engine air filter.

Spang, Brent Loren

482

Thermal diffusivity measurements of particulates using the differentiated line source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described in which thermal diffusivity measurements can be made on particulate materials using the identical instrumentation as described in previous papers for measuring thermal conductivity. The measurements for the two properties can be made simultaneously, thus eliminating the changes in conditions when they are made separately. This system has particular application for studies of simulated lunar, planetary, or asteroidal surfaces in which laboratory measurements can be correlated with astronomical observations of thermal inertia. A representative set of data is shown which gives thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity measurements on a particulate basalt in which the values for each temperature were taken simultaneously. A value for specific heat is calculated for measurements taken at each temperature.

West, E. A.; Fountain, J. A.

1975-01-01

483

Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

1998-12-01

484

Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same  

DOEpatents

The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC)

1999-01-01

485

Sinking velocity of particulate radiocesium in the northwestern North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

particles (SP) were collected by time series sediment traps at two depths in the northwestern Pacific before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and accident-derived particulate radiocesium was measured. Radiocesium (137Cs) was first detected at 500 m (4810 m) about 2 weeks (1 month) after the accident. 137Cs of SP collected over 1 year revealed that the time lag between two depths was larger than that for the first 137Cs detection (about 2 weeks). We estimated the transient sinking velocity (SV) from the cumulative temporal 137Cs flux and the time lags at the two depths. Although the SV of SP collected in very early period was large, the estimated SV of most particulate 137Cs (about 80%) was about 50 m d-1. Based on comparison of 137Cs concentration in total SP with that in SP without organic materials, we suspect that most of the 137Cs was likely incorporated into aluminosilicates.

Honda, Makio C.; Kawakami, Hajime

2014-06-01

486

Perspectives on Localized Corrosion in Thin Layers of Particulate  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion are reviewed, and the stability criteria for sustained localized corrosion are discussed. A conceptual framework is applied to a specific scenario of a hot metal surface covered by a thin layer of particulate containing dissolvable salts in the presence of air of limited humidity. A number of processes are demonstrated to affect the crevice corrosion propagation, stifling and arrest. Contributions of the particulate layer properties, the anode, cathode and coupled processes are identified, showing that any of these can control localized corrosion propagation. Whether stifling or arrest occur will depend upon the material and environmental conditions for a given case. The findings add to the technical basis for the analysis of localized corrosion by a decision tree methodology. (authors)

Payer, Joe H. [Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., 404 White Bldg., Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Kelly, Robert G. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 116 Engineer's Way, Materials Science Building 323, PO Box 400745, Charlottesville, VA, 22904-4745 (United States)

2007-07-01

487

Gaseous and particulate emissions from diesel locomotive engines  

SciTech Connect

In this paper steady-state gaseous and particulate emissions data are presented from two 12-cylinder diesel locomotive engines. The two laboratory engines, a EMD 645E3B and a GE 7FDL, are rated at 1860 kW (2500 hp) and are representative of the majority of the locomotive fleet in North America. Each engine was tested for total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate. Emissions were measured at all steady-state operating conditions that make up the eight discrete locomotive throttle notch positions, plus idle, low idle, and dynamic brake. Emissions are reported for each engine with two different diesel fuels: a baseline diesel fuel with a sulfur content of 0.33 weight percent, and a commercially available low-sulfur diesel fuel with a sulfur content of 0.01 weight percent.

Fritz, S.G. (Dept. of Emissions Research, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)); Cataldi, G.R. (Research and Test Dept., Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC (US))

1991-07-01

488

Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

Gupta, R.P.

1999-10-26

489

Stochastic modeling of fine particulate organic carbon dynamics in rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

majority of particulate organic matter standing stock in streams is < 1 mm in diameter, and the mobile phase is primarily very fine particles. Such fine particles transport downstream in a series of deposition and resuspension events mediated by interactions with coarser bed sediment, yielding fine particle retention over a wide range of time scales. This retention controls the opportunity for biogeochemical processing of particulate organic carbon in streams. We present a conceptual model of particulate organic carbon transport in rivers categorized in three cyclic processes: (i) migration of fine particles from the water column to the underlying and surrounding sediments, (ii) fine particle transport and retention within the bed sediments, and (iii) resuspension of fine particles back to the water column. We developed a stochastic model to describe the transport and retention of fine suspended particles in rivers, including advective delivery of particles to the streambed, transport through pore waters, and reversible filtration within the streambed. We then apply this model to observations of fine particle transport in two small streams, and show that the stochastic mobile-immobile model supports improved interpretation of particulate organic carbon dynamics under base flow conditions. Analysis of in-stream solute and particle data shows that particles engage in multiple deposition and resuspension events during downstream transport, and that long-term retention in the streambed produces extended slow releases to the stream even during base flow conditions. We also show how multiscale stochastic modeling can be used to incorporate local observations of particle retention in predictions of whole-stream particle dynamics.

Drummond, J. D.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Packman, A. I.

2014-05-01

490

Personal exposure to particulate air pollution in transport microenvironments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal measurements of exposure to particulate air pollution (PM10, PM2.5, PM1) were simultaneously made during walking and in-car journeys on two suburban routes in Northampton, UK, during the winter of 1999\\/2000. Comparisons were made between concentrations found in each transport mode by particle fraction, between different particle fractions by transport mode, and between transport microenvironments and a fixed-site monitor located

J. Gulliver; D. J. Briggs

2004-01-01

491

Lidar measurements of the variability of stratospheric particulates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser radar observations were made to provide information on the distribution of particulate material in the stratosphere between 33,000 feet and 98,000 feet. The observations are part of a program to assess the impact of climatic changes that may result from perturbation of the upper atmosphere by a world high-altitude aircraft fleet. Results are presented as vertical profiles of the scattering ratio and the aerosol backscattering ratio.

Russell, P. B.; Viezee, W.; Hake, R. D.

1973-01-01

492

Particulate Impact and Erosion in a Turbulent Serpentine Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surface roughness often arises in consequence of erosion by particulate impact. We have studied particle impact in turbulent\\u000a channel flow by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The channel is S-shaped, with periodicity between inlet and exit; hence,\\u000a it is an infinite serpentine. The bend is fairly tight: its diameter is equal to the channel width. There is a separation\\u000a bubble downstream

Paul Durbin; Xin Huang

493

Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation  

DOEpatents

A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND)

2003-04-08

494

Control system for diesel particulate trap regeneration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of regenerating an exhaust gas particulate trap in an exhaust system for an internal combustion engine. It comprises measuring the air\\/fuel ratio of the internal combustion engine, generating a signal representing a commanded value of the air\\/fuel ratio signal corresponding to an air\\/fuel ratio with sufficient excess air to burn the particles stored in the

P. M. Stiglic; B. C. Gabelman; J. A. Hardy

1991-01-01

495

Direct-energy-regenerated particulate trap technology. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this CRADA between Lockheed Martin and Cummins Engine Company was to develop fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) composite materials for use as diesel engine particulate traps. Chemical vapor deposition techniques were used to partially densify and rigidize a thin fibrous substrate and produce the porous SiC- based filter. Microwave energy was used to directly couple to the deposited

D. P. Stinton; M. A. Janney; T. M. Yonushonis; A. C. McDonald; P. D. Wiczynski; W. C. Haberkamp

1996-01-01

496

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials  

SciTech Connect

Work continued on heat transfer of particulate materials. In this quarter, we have been continuing with the dry granular shear cell experiments and have extended our previous results to different materials. We are also continuing with the development of a new particle pressure probe, but ran into drift problems in the calibration, which we hope have been resolved. Thermal conductivity measurements are described. 9 figs.

Campbell, C.S.

1990-10-01

497

Laser-particulate interactions in a dusty RF plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of particulates formed in an argon RF discharge containing 1-5% CCl2F2 admixture with a pulsed infrared laser (Nd:YAG, intensity ~109 W m-2, pulse duration ~10-4 s) has been studied in situ. The white light emitted during this process has been monitored as a function of time and wavelength using a fast photo diode and an optical multichannel analyser.

E. Stoffels; W. W. Stoffels; D. Vender; G. M. W. Kroesen; F. J. de Hoog

1994-01-01

498

Hyperspectral imaging applied to complex particulate solids systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software (HW&SW) platform embedding conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although HSI was originally developed for remote sensing, it has recently emerged as a powerful process analytical tool, for non-destructive analysis, in many research and industrial sectors. The possibility to apply on-line HSI based techniques in order to identify and quantify specific particulate solid systems characteristics is presented and critically evaluated. The originally developed HSI based logics can be profitably applied in order to develop fast, reliable and lowcost strategies for: i) quality control of particulate products that must comply with specific chemical, physical and biological constraints, ii) performance evaluation of manufacturing strategies related to processing chains and/or realtime tuning of operative variables and iii) classification-sorting actions addressed to recognize and separate different particulate solid products. Case studies, related to recent advances in the application of HSI to different industrial sectors, as agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals, solid waste handling and recycling, etc. and addressed to specific goals as contaminant detection, defect identification, constituent analysis and quality evaluation are described, according to authors' originally developed application.

Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

2008-04-01

499

The constitutive behaviour of strong cohesive particulate gels in compression  

E-print Network

A simple and popular constitutive model used to describe the compressional strength of a consolidating strongly cohesive particulate gel is tested further with new experimental data. Strong cohesive particulate gels have variously been described as being ratchet (poro) elastic, on the one hand, and as having a yield stress in compression, on the other, to the point where same groups of workers have used both descriptions at one time or another. The dichotomy is real though as such gels do show a hitherto somewhat puzzling elastic-plastic duality. This can be explained in part by the strong concentration dependence of the modulus since this leads to irreversible volumetric strain-hardening, in effect, the ratchet; but only in small part. The real problem seems to be that, until very recently, most work on consolidation has neglected what what Michaels and Bolger told us to do over 50 years ago, viz. to take into wall adhesion into account, most cohesive particulate gels being adhesive too. Since wall adhesive failure is plastic in character, the simplest non-linear elastic model of compressive strength can be combined with the simplest possible model of wall debonding to produce a approximate complete constitutive description. Examples of the use of such a description in detailed modelling of consolidation equilibrium can be found in refs 10-12. Consolidation dynamics with wall adhesion is a substantial modelling challenge remaining to be tackled.

A. A. Aziz; R. Buscall; R. de Kretzer; M. Kristjansson; P. J. Scales; A. D. Stickland; H-E Teo; S. P. Usher; K. Keiding

2015-02-15

500

Effects Of Particulate Contamination On Optical Solar Reflectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second surface mirrors (metallized fused silica), commonly used for critical spacecraft thermal control applications, require low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Particulate contamination on these surfaces increases the solar absorptance and consequently degrades the thermal performance of the spacecraft. Quantification of the effects of particulate contamination from manufacturing through deployment will permit an assessment of effects on mission performance. Aerojet ElectroSystems Company (AESC) has developed a theoretical model to predict second surface mirror optical degradation resulting from particulate contamination at coverages less than 1% obscuration. Experimental verification of the model has been performed using well characterized, uniformly monodispersed particles of 4-12 ?m size distribution. Both white latex spheres and nickel particles with solar absorptances in the range 0.1 to 0.5 were used to investigate the effects of opaque particles which are characteristic of typical spacecraft contaminants. The experimental data obtained in this study indicated that the Aerojet model serves as a valid means of quantitatively correlating second surface mirror optical properties with particle obscuration for small coverages. The quantitative prediction capability resulting from this investigation permits establishment of maximum permissible levels of particle accumulation with respect to mission performance impact. This, in turn, is useful for formulating contamination control strategies during prelaunch activities where particle fallout rates can be monitored and controlled.

Benninghoven, Kim A.

1987-01-01