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1

Exercise training prevents ecto-nucleotidases alterations in platelets of hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the effect of 6 weeks of swimming training on the ecto-nucleotidase activities and platelet aggregation from rats that developed hypertension in response to oral administration of L-NAME. The rats were divided into four groups: control (n = 10), exercise (n = 10), L-NAME (n = 10), and exercise L-NAME (n = 10). The animals were trained five times per week in an adapted swimming system for 60 min with a gradual increase of the workload up to 5 % of animal's body weight. The results showed an increase in ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine hydrolysis, indicating an augment in NTPDase (from 35.3 ± 8.1 to 53.0 ± 15.1 nmol Pi/min/mg protein for ATP; and from 21.7 ± 7.0 to 46.4 ± 15.6 nmol Pi/min/mg protein for ADP as substrate), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (from 8.0 ± 5.7 to 28.1 ± 6.9 nmol Pi/min/mg protein), and ADA (from 0.8 ± 0.5 to 3.9 ± 0.8 U/L) activities in platelets from L-NAME-treated rats when compared to other groups (p < 0.05). A significant augment on platelet aggregation in L-NAME group was also observed. Exercise training was efficient in preventing these alterations in the exercise L-NAME group, besides showing a significant hypotensive effect. In conclusion, our results clearly indicated a protector action of moderate intensity exercise on nucleotides and nucleoside hydrolysis and on platelet aggregation, which highlights the exercise training effect to avoid hypertension complications related to ecto-nucleotidase activities. PMID:22915168

Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Martins, Caroline Curry; Abdalla, Fátima Hussein; Zanini, Daniela; Schmatz, Roberta; Gutierres, Jessié; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Thomé, Gustavo; Leal, Claudio Alberto Martins; Vieira, Juliano Marchi; Stefanello, Naiara; da Silva Fiorin, Fernando; Baldissareli, Jucimara; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Klein, Adriane Bello; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

2012-08-23

2

Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important factor in determining the clinical outcome of leishmaniasis.

Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fatima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luis C. C.

2012-01-01

3

Variable Impact of CD39 in Experimental Murine Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Dysregulation of immune responses in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) results in intestinal inflammation and vascular injury\\u000a while exacerbating systemic disease. CD39 is an ectonucleotidase, expressed by T regulatory cells and dendritic cells, that\\u000a hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides to modify those cellular immune responses implicated in IBD. Genetic polymorphisms of\\u000a CD39 have been linked to Crohn’s disease while gene deletion in mice

Beat M. Künzli; Pascal O. Berberat; Karen Dwyer; Silvia Deaglio; Eva Csizmadia; Peter Cowan; Anthony d’Apice; Gregory Moore; Keiichi Enjyoji; Helmut Friess; Simon C. Robson

2011-01-01

4

CD39/Adenosine Pathway Is Involved in AIDS Progression  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 infection is characterized by a chronic activation of the immune system and suppressed function of T lymphocytes. Regulatory CD4+ CD25high FoxP3+CD127low T cells (Treg) play a key role in both conditions. Here, we show that HIV-1 positive patients have a significant increase of Treg-associated expression of CD39/ENTPD1, an ectoenzyme which in concert with CD73 generates adenosine. We show in vitro that the CD39/adenosine axis is involved in Treg suppression in HIV infection. Treg inhibitory effects are relieved by CD39 down modulation and are reproduced by an adenosine-agonist in accordance with a higher expression of the adenosine A2A receptor on patients' T cells. Notably, the expansion of the Treg CD39+ correlates with the level of immune activation and lower CD4+ counts in HIV-1 infected patients. Finally, in a genetic association study performed in three different cohorts, we identified a CD39 gene polymorphism that was associated with down-modulated CD39 expression and a slower progression to AIDS.

Limou, Sophie; Younas, Mehwish; Kok, Ayrin; Hue, Sophie; Seddiki, Nabila; Hulin, Anne; Delaneau, Olivier; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Herbeck, Joshua T.; Mullins, James I.; Muhtarova, Maria; Bensussan, Armand; Zagury, Jean-Francois; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Levy, Yves

2011-01-01

5

CD39/adenosine pathway is involved in AIDS progression.  

PubMed

HIV-1 infection is characterized by a chronic activation of the immune system and suppressed function of T lymphocytes. Regulatory CD4+ CD25(high) FoxP3+CD127(low) T cells (Treg) play a key role in both conditions. Here, we show that HIV-1 positive patients have a significant increase of Treg-associated expression of CD39/ENTPD1, an ectoenzyme which in concert with CD73 generates adenosine. We show in vitro that the CD39/adenosine axis is involved in Treg suppression in HIV infection. Treg inhibitory effects are relieved by CD39 down modulation and are reproduced by an adenosine-agonist in accordance with a higher expression of the adenosine A2A receptor on patients' T cells. Notably, the expansion of the Treg CD39+ correlates with the level of immune activation and lower CD4+ counts in HIV-1 infected patients. Finally, in a genetic association study performed in three different cohorts, we identified a CD39 gene polymorphism that was associated with down-modulated CD39 expression and a slower progression to AIDS. PMID:21750674

Nikolova, Maria; Carriere, Matthieu; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Limou, Sophie; Younas, Mehwish; Kök, Ayrin; Huë, Sophie; Seddiki, Nabila; Hulin, Anne; Delaneau, Olivier; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Herbeck, Joshua T; Mullins, James I; Muhtarova, Maria; Bensussan, Armand; Zagury, Jean-François; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Lévy, Yves

2011-07-07

6

Transgenic overexpression of CD39 protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion and transplant vascular injury.  

PubMed

The vascular ectonucleotidases CD39[ENTPD1 (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1), EC 3.6.1.5] and CD73[EC 3.1.3.5] generate adenosine from extracellular nucleotides. CD39 activity is critical in determining the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and CD39 null mice exhibit heightened sensitivity to renal IRI. Adenosine has multiple mechanisms of action in the vasculature including direct endothelial protection, antiinflammatory and antithrombotic effects and is protective in several models of IRI. Mice transgenic for human CD39 (hCD39) have increased capacity to generate adenosine. We therefore hypothesized that hCD39 transgenic mice would be protected from renal IRI. The overexpression of hCD39 conferred protection in a model of warm renal IRI, with reduced histological injury, less apoptosis and preserved serum creatinine and urea levels. Benefit was abrogated by pretreatment with an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. Adoptive transfer experiments showed that expression of hCD39 on either the vasculature or circulating cells mitigated IRI. Furthermore, hCD39 transgenic kidneys transplanted into syngeneic recipients after prolonged cold storage performed significantly better and exhibited less histological injury than wild-type control grafts. Thus, systemic or local strategies to promote adenosine generation and signaling may have beneficial effects on warm and cold renal IRI, with implications for therapeutic application in clinical renal transplantation. PMID:20840479

Crikis, S; Lu, B; Murray-Segal, L M; Selan, C; Robson, S C; D'Apice, A J F; Nandurkar, H H; Cowan, P J; Dwyer, K M

2010-09-14

7

Regulation of ecto-apyrase CD39 (ENTPD1) expression by phosphodiesterase III (PDE3).  

PubMed

The ectoenzyme CD39 suppresses thrombosis and inflammation by suppressing ATP and ADP to AMP. However, mechanisms of CD39 transcriptional and post-translational regulation are not well known. Here we show that CD39 levels are modulated by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3). RAW macrophages and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with the PDE3 inhibitors cilostazol and milrinone, then analyzed using qRT-PCR, immunoprecipitation/Western blot, immunofluorescent staining, radio-thin-layer chromatography, a malachite green assay, and ELISA. HUVECs expressed elevated CD39 protein (2-fold [P<0.05] for cilostazol and 2.5-fold [P<0.01] for milrinone), while macrophage CD39 mRNA and protein were both elevated after PDE3 inhibition. HUVEC ATPase activity increased by 25% with cilostazol and milrinone treatment (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), as did ADPase activity (47% and 61%, P<0.001). There was also a dose-dependent elevation of soluble CD39 after treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, with maximal elevation of 60% more CD39 present compared to controls (1 mM, P<0.001). Protein harvested after 8-Br-cAMP treatment showed that ubiquitination of CD39 was decreased by 43% compared to controls. A DMSO or PBS vehicle control was included for each experiment based on solubility of cilostazol, milrinone, and 8-Br-cAMP. These results indicate that PDE3 inhibition regulates endothelial CD39 at a post-translational level.-Baek, A. E., Kanthi, Y., Sutton, N. R., Liao, H., Pinsky, D. J. Regulation of ecto-apyrase CD39 (ENTPD1) expression by phosphodiesterase III (PDE3). PMID:23901069

Baek, Amy E; Kanthi, Yogendra; Sutton, Nadia R; Liao, Hui; Pinsky, David J

2013-07-30

8

Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Directly Promotes Tumor Cell Growth by Scavenging Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate12  

PubMed Central

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5?-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X7 receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X7 expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management.

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

2011-01-01

9

Increased CD39 Nucleotidase Activity on Microparticles from Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a devastating disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates, and in situ thrombosis. Circulating intravascular ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine activate purinergic cell signaling pathways and appear to induce many of the same pathologic processes that underlie IPAH. Extracellular dephosphorylation of ATP to ADP and AMP occurs primarily via CD39 (ENTPD1), an ectonucleotidase found on the surface of leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells [1]. Microparticles are micron-sized phospholipid vesicles formed from the membranes of platelets and endothelial cells. Objectives: Studies here examine whether CD39 is an important microparticle surface nucleotidase, and whether patients with IPAH have altered microparticle-bound CD39 activity that may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. Methodology/ Principal Findings Kinetic parameters, inhibitor blocking experiments, and immunogold labeling with electron microscopy support the role of CD39 as a major nucleotidase on the surface of microparticles. Comparison of microparticle surface CD39 expression and nucleotidase activity in 10 patients with advanced IPAH and 10 healthy controls using flow cytometry and thin layer chromatograph demonstrate the following: 1) circulating platelet (CD39+CD31+CD42b+) and endothelial (CD39+CD31+CD42b?) microparticle subpopulations in patients with IPAH show increased CD39 expression; 2) microparticle ATPase and ADPase activity in patients with IPAH is increased. Conclusions/ Significance We demonstrate for the first time increased CD39 expression and function on circulating microparticles in patients with IPAH. Further research is needed to elucidate whether these findings identify an important trigger for the development of the disease, or reflect a physiologic response to IPAH.

Visovatti, Scott H.; Hyman, Matthew C.; Bouis, Diane; Neubig, Richard; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Pinsky, David J.

2012-01-01

10

Transgenic swine: expression of human CD39 protects against myocardial injury  

PubMed Central

CD39 (Ectonucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-1; ENTPD-1) rapidly hydrolyzes ATP and ADP to AMP; AMP is hydrolyzed by ecto-5?-nucleotidase (CD73) to adenosine, an anti-thrombotic and cardiovascular protective mediator. While expression of human CD39 in a murine model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury confers cardiac protection, the translational therapeutic potential of these findings require further testing in a large animal model. To determine if transgenic expression of CD39 reduces infarct size in a swine model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Transgenic pigs expressing human CD39 (hCD39) were generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer and characterized. Expression of hC39 in cardiac tissue was confirmed by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. Myocardial I/R injury was induced by intracoronary balloon inflation in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for 60 min followed by three hours of reperfusion. The ischemic area was delineated by perfusion with 5% Phthalo Blue and the myocardial infarct size was determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. During ischemia, the rate-pressure product was significantly lower in control versus hCD39-Tg swine. Following reperfusion, compared to littermate control swine, hCD39-Tg animals displayed a significant reduction in infarct size (hCD39-Tg: 17.2 ± 4.3 % vs. Control: 44.7 ± 5.2 %, P=0.0025). Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the findings in transgenic mouse models translate to large animal transgenic models and validate the potential to translate CD39 into the clinical arena to attenuate human myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Wheeler, Debra G.; Joseph, Matthew E.; Mahamud, Shouvik D.; Aurand, William L.; Mohler, Peter J.; Pompili, Vincent J.; Dwyer, Karen M.; Nottle, Mark B.; Harrison, Sharon J.; d'Apice, Anthony JF; Robson, Simon C.; Cowan, Peter J.; Gumina, Richard J.

2012-01-01

11

Deletion of Cd39/Entpd1 Results in Hepatic Insulin Resistance  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Extracellular nucleotides are important mediators of inflammatory responses and could also impact metabolic homeostasis. Type 2 purinergic (P2) receptors bind extracellular nucleotides and are expressed by major peripheral tissues responsible for glucose homeostasis. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant vascular and immune cell ectoenzyme that hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides to regulate purinergic signaling. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We have studied Cd39/Entpd1-null mice to determine whether any associated changes in extracellular nucleotide concentrations influence glucose homeostasis. RESULTS—Cd39/Entpd1-null mice have impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin sensitivity with significantly higher plasma insulin levels. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies indicate altered hepatic glucose metabolism. These effects are mimicked in vivo by injection into wild-type mice of either exogenous ATP or an ecto-ATPase inhibitor, ARL-67156, and by exposure of hepatocytes to extracellular nucleotides in vitro. Increased serum interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, interferon-?, and tumor necrosis factor-? levels are observed in Cd39/Entpd1-null mice in keeping with a proinflammatory phenotype. Impaired insulin sensitivity is accompanied by increased activation of hepatic c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase in Cd39/Entpd1 mice after injection of ATP in vivo. This results in decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-2 with impeded insulin signaling. CONCLUSIONS—CD39/Entpd1 is a modulator of extracellular nucleotide signaling and also influences metabolism. Deletion of Cd39/Entpd1 both directly and indirectly impacts insulin regulation and hepatic glucose metabolism. Extracellular nucleotides serve as “metabolokines,” indicating further links between inflammation and associated metabolic derangements.

Enjyoji, Keiichi; Kotani, Ko; Thukral, Chandrashekar; Blumel, Benjamin; Sun, Xiaofeng; Wu, Yan; Imai, Masato; Friedman, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Bleibel, Wissam; Kahn, Barbara B.; Robson, Simon C.

2008-01-01

12

The protective effects of CD39 overexpression in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.  

PubMed

Islet allograft survival limits the long-term success of islet transplantation as a potential curative therapy for type 1 diabetes. A number of factors compromise islet survival, including recurrent diabetes. We investigated whether CD39, an ectonucleotidase that promotes the generation of extracellular adenosine, would mitigate diabetes in the T cell-mediated multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS) model. Mice null for CD39 (CD39KO), wild-type mice (WT), and mice overexpressing CD39 (CD39TG) were subjected to MLDS. Adoptive transfer experiments were performed to delineate the efficacy of tissue-restricted overexpression of CD39. The role of adenosine signaling was examined using mutant mice and pharmacological inhibition. The susceptibility to MLDS-induced diabetes was influenced by the level of expression of CD39. CD39KO mice developed diabetes more rapidly and with higher frequency than WT mice. In contrast, CD39TG mice were protected. CD39 overexpression conferred protection through the activation of adenosine 2A receptor and adenosine 2B receptor. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that tissue-restricted overexpression of CD39 conferred robust protection, suggesting that this may be a useful strategy to protect islet grafts from T cell-mediated injury. PMID:23364452

Chia, Joanne S J; McRae, Jennifer L; Thomas, Helen E; Fynch, Stacey; Elkerbout, Lorraine; Hill, Prue; Murray-Segal, Lisa; Robson, Simon C; Chen, Jiang-Fan; d'Apice, Anthony J F; Cowan, Peter J; Dwyer, Karen M

2013-01-30

13

TLR stimulation initiates a CD39-based autoregulatory mechanism that limits macrophage inflammatory responses.  

PubMed

Sepsis is a highly fatal disease caused by an initial hyperinflammatory response followed by a state of profound immunosuppression. Although it is well appreciated that the initial production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages accompanies the onset of sepsis, it remains unclear what causes the transition to an immunosuppressive state. In this study, we reveal that macrophages themselves are key regulators of this transition and that the surface enzyme CD39 plays a critical role in self-limiting the activation process. We demonstrate that Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated macrophages modulate their activation state by increasing the synthesis and secretion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This endogenous ATP is paradoxically immunosuppressive due to its rapid catabolism into adenosine by CD39. Macrophages lacking CD39 are unable to transition to a regulatory state and consequently continue to produce inflammatory cytokines. The importance of this transition is demonstrated in a mouse model of sepsis, where small numbers of CD39-deficient macrophages were sufficient to induce lethal endotoxic shock. Thus, these data implicate CD39 as a key "molecular switch" that allows macrophages to self-limit their activation state. We propose that therapeutics targeting the release and hydrolysis of ATP by macrophages may represent new ways to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:23908469

Cohen, Heather B; Briggs, Katharine T; Marino, John P; Ravid, Katya; Robson, Simon C; Mosser, David M

2013-08-01

14

CD39, NTPDase 1, is attached to the plasma membrane by two transmembrane domains. Why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the identification of CD39 and other members of the e-NTPDase (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) family\\u000a as the primary enzymes responsible for cell surface nucleotide hydrolysis, one of their most intriguing features has been\\u000a their unusual topology. The active site lies in the large extracellular region, but instead of being anchored in the membrane\\u000a by a single transmembrane domain or lipid

Alison Grinthal; Guido Guidotti

2006-01-01

15

CD39 is highly involved in mediating the suppression activity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T regulatory lymphocytes.  

PubMed

CD39 is an ectoenzyme, present on different immune cell subsets, which mediates immunosuppressive functions catalyzing ATP degradation. It is not known whether CD39 is expressed and implicated in the activity of CD8+ regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg). In this study, CD39 expression and function was analyzed in both CD8+ and CD4+CD25(hi) Treg from the peripheral blood of healthy donors as well as from tumor specimens. CD39 was found expressed by both CD8+ (from the majority of healthy donors and tumor patients) and CD4+CD25(hi) Treg, and CD39 expression correlated with suppression activity mediated by CD8+ Treg. Importantly, CD39 counteraction remarkably inhibited the suppression activity of CD8+ Treg (both from peripheral blood and tumor microenvironment) suggesting that CD39-mediated inhibition constitutes a prevalent hallmark of their function. Collectively, these findings, unveiling a new mechanism of action for CD8+ Treg, provide new knowledge on intratumoral molecular pathways related to tumor immune escape, which could be exploited in the future for designing new biological tools for anticancer immune intervention. PMID:23359087

Parodi, Alessia; Battaglia, Florinda; Kalli, Francesca; Ferrera, Francesca; Conteduca, Giuseppina; Tardito, Samuele; Stringara, Silvia; Ivaldi, Federico; Negrini, Simone; Borgonovo, Giacomo; Simonato, Alchiede; Traverso, Paolo; Carmignani, Giorgio; Fenoglio, Daniela; Filaci, Gilberto

2013-01-29

16

Early Temporal Changes in Ecto-Nucleotidase Activity after Cortical Stab Injury in Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a variety of insults to the brain adenine nucleotides are released in large quantities from damaged cells, triggering\\u000a multiple cellular responses to injury. Here, we evaluated changes in extracellular ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis at different\\u000a times (0–24 hours) after unilateral cortical stab injury (CSI) in adult rats. Results demonstrated that 24 hours following\\u000a CSI, ATP and ADP hydrolyzing activities were

Nadezda Nedeljkovic; Ivana Bjelobaba; Irena Lavrnja; Danijela Stojkov; Sanja Pekovic; Ljubisav Rakic; Mirjana Stojiljkovic

2008-01-01

17

Adenosine generation catalyzed by CD39 and CD73 expressed on regulatory T cells mediates immune suppression  

PubMed Central

The study of T regulatory cells (T reg cells) has been limited by the lack of specific surface markers and an inability to define mechanisms of suppression. We show that the expression of CD39/ENTPD1 in concert with CD73/ecto-5?-nucleotidase distinguishes CD4+/CD25+/Foxp3+ T reg cells from other T cells. These ectoenzymes generate pericellular adenosine from extracellular nucleotides. The coordinated expression of CD39/CD73 on T reg cells and the adenosine A2A receptor on activated T effector cells generates immunosuppressive loops, indicating roles in the inhibitory function of T reg cells. Consequently, T reg cells from Cd39-null mice show impaired suppressive properties in vitro and fail to block allograft rejection in vivo. We conclude that CD39 and CD73 are surface markers of T reg cells that impart a specific biochemical signature characterized by adenosine generation that has functional relevance for cellular immunoregulation.

Deaglio, Silvia; Dwyer, Karen M.; Gao, Wenda; Friedman, David; Usheva, Anny; Erat, Anna; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Enjyoji, Keiichii; Linden, Joel; Oukka, Mohamed; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Strom, Terry B.; Robson, Simon C.

2007-01-01

18

CD39/CD73 and the imbalance of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells in allergic asthma.  

PubMed

In the immune system, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain self?tolerance and Th17 cells mediate inflammatory responses. CD39 is expressed on the surface of a subset of naturally occurring human Tregs that are important in constraining pathogenic Th17 cells. Additional studies have shown that Tregs differentiate into interleukin?17 (IL?17)+Foxp3+ T cells. Our previous study indicated an imbalance of Th17 and Tregs in allergic asthma; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), CD39 and CD73 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the proportion of IL?17+Foxp3+ T cells, and CD39 and CD73 expressed by CD4+ T cells and Tregs in the peripheral blood of the subjects. The results of the present study demonstrated an increased frequency of CD4+Foxp3+IL?17+ T cells in moderate to severe asthma. A deficiency in CD39 expressed on the surface of CD4+ T cells and Tregs was observed in asthma patients. The expression of CD39 and CD73 on the surface of CD4+ T cells and Tregs was negatively correlated with the number of Th17 cells. These results indicated that the plasticity of Tregs transforming to IL?17+Foxp3+CD4+ T cells, the reduced frequency of CD39+ Tregs and less effective suppression of IL?17 production by residual CD39+ Tregs leads to an imbalance of Th17 and Tregs in asthma. Therefore, enhanced CD39 activity is hypothesized to prevent the progression of asthma. PMID:24065069

Wang, Lin-Lin; Tang, Hua-Ping; Shi, Guo-Chao; Wan, Huan-Ying; Tang, Wei; Hou, Xiao-Xia; Pan, Li-Na; Shi, Bao-Yu; Tao, Lian-Qin

2013-09-18

19

Delayed targeting of CD39 to activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa via a single-chain antibody: breaking the link between antithrombotic potency and bleeding?  

PubMed

The ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase CD39 represents a promising antithrombotic therapeutic. It degrades adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), a main platelet activating/recruiting agent. We hypothesized that delayed enrichment of CD39 on developing thrombi will allow for a low and safe systemic concentration and thus avoid bleeding. We use a single-chain antibody (scFv, specific for activated GPIIb/IIIa) for targeting CD39. This should allow delayed enrichment on growing thrombi but not on the initial sealing layer of platelets, which do not yet express activated GPIIb/IIIa. CD39 was recombinantly fused to an activated GPIIb/IIIa-specific scFv (targ-CD39) and a nonfunctional scFv (non-targ-CD39). Targ-CD39 was more effective at preventing ADP-induced platelet activation than non-targ-CD39. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, non-targ-CD39, although protective against vessel occlusion, was associated with significant bleeding on tail transection. In contrast, targ-CD39 concentrated at the thrombus site; hence, a dose ?10 times less of CD39 prevented vessel occlusion to a similar extent as high-dose non-targ-CD39, without prolonged bleeding time. An equimolar dose of non-targ-CD39 at this low concentration was ineffective at preventing vessel occlusion. Thus, delayed targeting of CD39 via scFv to activated platelets provides strong antithrombotic potency and yet prevents bleeding and thereby promotes CD39 toward clinical use. PMID:23380744

Hohmann, Jan David; Wang, Xiaowei; Krajewski, Stefanie; Selan, Carly; Haller, Carolyn A; Straub, Andreas; Chaikof, Elliot L; Nandurkar, Harshal H; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; Peter, Karlheinz

2013-02-04

20

Regulatory T cells negatively affect IL-2 production of effector T cells through CD39/adenosine pathway in HIV infection.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which Regulatory T cells suppress IL-2 production of effector CD4+ T cells in pathological conditions are unclear. A subpopulation of human Treg expresses the ectoenzyme CD39, which in association with CD73 converts ATP/ADP/AMP to adenosine. We show here that Treg/CD39+ suppress IL-2 expression of activated CD4+ T-cells more efficiently than Treg/CD39-. This inhibition is due to the demethylation of an essential CpG site of the il-2 gene promoter, which was reversed by an anti-CD39 mAb. By recapitulating the events downstream CD39/adenosine receptor (A2AR) axis, we show that A2AR agonist and soluble cAMP inhibit CpG site demethylation of the il-2 gene promoter. A high frequency of Treg/CD39+ is associated with a low clinical outcome in HIV infection. We show here that CD4+ T-cells from HIV-1 infected individuals express high levels of A2AR and intracellular cAMP. Following in vitro stimulation, these cells exhibit a lower degree of demethylation of il-2 gene promoter associated with a lower expression of IL-2, compared to healthy individuals. These results extend previous data on the role of Treg in HIV infection by filling the gap between expansion of Treg/CD39+ in HIV infection and the suppression of CD4+ T-cell function through inhibition of IL-2 production. PMID:23658513

Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Seddiki, Nabila; Yatim, Ahmad; Carriere, Matthieu; Hulin, Anne; Younas, Mehwish; Ghadimi, Elnaz; Kök, Ayrin; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Alain; Sévigny, Jean; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Levy, Yves

2013-04-25

21

Cancer exosomes express CD39 and CD73, which suppress T cells through adenosine production.  

PubMed

Extracellular adenosine is elevated in cancer tissue, and it negatively regulates local immune responses. Adenosine production from extracellular ATP has attracted attention as a mechanism of regulatory T cell-mediated immune regulation. In this study, we examined whether small vesicles secreted by cancer cells, called exosomes, contribute to extracellular adenosine production and hence modulate immune effector cells indirectly. We found exosomes from diverse cancer cell types exhibit potent ATP- and 5'AMP-phosphohydrolytic activity, partly attributed to exosomally expressed CD39 and CD73, respectively. Comparable levels of activity were seen with exosomes from pleural effusions of mesothelioma patients. In such fluids, exosomes accounted for 20% of the total ATP-hydrolytic activity. Exosomes can perform both hydrolytic steps sequentially to form adenosine from ATP. This exosome-generated adenosine can trigger a cAMP response in adenosine A(2A) receptor-positive but not A(2A) receptor-negative cells. Similarly, significantly elevated cAMP was also triggered in Jurkat cells by adding exosomes with ATP but not by adding exosomes or ATP alone. A proportion of healthy donor T cells constitutively express CD39 and/or CD73. Activation of T cells by CD3/CD28 cross-linking could be inhibited by exogenously added 5'AMP in a CD73-dependent manner. However, 5'AMP converted to adenosine by exosomes inhibits T cell activation independently of T cell CD73 expression. This T cell inhibition was mediated through the adenosine A(2A) receptor. In summary, the data highlight exosome enzymic activity in the production of extracellular adenosine, and this may play a contributory role in negative modulation of T cells in the tumor environment. PMID:21677139

Clayton, Aled; Al-Taei, Saly; Webber, Jason; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

2011-06-15

22

Characterization of regulatory T cells identified as CD4+CD25highCD39+ in patients with active tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) is a transcription factor whose expression characterizes regulatory T cells (Treg), but it is also present on activated T cells, thus hindering correct Treg identification. Using classical markers for Treg recognition, discordant results were found in terms of Treg expansion during active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Recently CD39 has been shown to be an accurate marker for Treg detection. The objectives of this study were: (i) to identify Treg expressing CD39 in patients with TB and to compare the results with those obtained by the standard phenotypic markers; (ii) to evaluate if Treg are expanded in vitro by exogenous interleukin (IL)-2 or by antigen-specific stimulation; and (iii) to characterize Treg function on the modulation of antigen-specific responses. We enrolled 13 patients with pulmonary TB and 12 healthy controls. Treg were evaluated by flow cytometry ex vivo and after antigen-specific in vitro stimulation using CD25, FoxP3, CD127 and CD39 markers. Results indicate that CD39+ cells within the CD4+CD25high cells have Treg properties (absence of interferon-? production and transforming growth factor-?1 release upon stimulation). Ex vivo analysis did not show significant differences between TB patients and controls of Treg by classical or novel markers. In contrast, a significantly higher percentage of Treg was found in TB patients after antigen-specific stimulation both in the presence or absence of IL-2. Depletion of CD39+ Treg increased RD1-specific responses significantly. In conclusion, CD39 is an appropriate marker for Treg identification in TB. These results can be useful for future studies to monitor Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific response during TB.

Chiacchio, T; Casetti, R; Butera, O; Vanini, V; Carrara, S; Girardi, E; Di Mitri, D; Battistini, L; Martini, F; Borsellino, G; Goletti, D

2009-01-01

23

The Expression Level of Ecto-NTP Diphosphohydrolase1/CD39 Modulates Exocytotic and Ischemic Release of Neurotransmitters in a Cellular Model of Sympathetic Neurons  

PubMed Central

Once released, norepinephrine is removed from cardiac synapses via reuptake into sympathetic nerves, whereas transmitter ATP is catabolized by ecto-NTP diphosphohydrolase 1 (E-NTPDase1)/CD39, an ecto-ATPase. Because ATP is known to modulate neurotransmitter release at prejunctional sites, we questioned whether this action may be ultimately controlled by the expression of E-NTPDase1/CD39 at sympathetic nerve terminals. Accordingly, we silenced E-NTPDase1/CD39 expression in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells, a cellular model of sympathetic neuron, in which dopamine is the predominant catecholamine. We report that E-NTPDase1/CD39 deletion markedly increases depolarization-induced exocytosis of ATP and dopamine and increases ATP-induced dopamine release. Moreover, overexpression of E-NTPDase1/CD39 resulted in enhanced removal of exogenous ATP, a marked decrease in exocytosis of ATP and dopamine, and a large decrease in ATP-induced dopamine release. Administration of a recombinant form of E-NTPDase1/CD39 reproduced the effects of E-NTPDase1/CD39 overexpression. Exposure of PC12 cells to simulated ischemia elicited a release of ATP and dopamine that was markedly increased in E-NTPDase1/CD39-silenced cells and decreased in E-NTPDase1/CD39-overexpressing cells. Therefore, transmitter ATP acts in an autocrine manner to promote its own release and that of dopamine, an action that is controlled by the level of E-NTPDase1/CD39 expression. Because ATP availability greatly increases in myocardial ischemia, recombinant E-NTPDase1/CD39 therapeutically used may offer a novel approach to reduce cardiac dysfunctions caused by excessive catecholamine release.

Corti, Federico; Olson, Kim E.; Marcus, Aaron J.

2011-01-01

24

Effects of SolCD39, a Novel Inhibitor of Platelet Aggregation, on Platelet Deposition and Aggregation after PTCA in a Porcine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: This study evaluated CD39 in a porcine model of balloon angioplasty and in plasma of patients undergoing percutaneous intervention. CD39 (E-NTPDase1), is the endothelial ecto-ADPase inhibiting platelet function via hydrolysis of released platelet ADP.

John M. Buergler; Charles R. Maliszewski; M. Johan Broekman; Grzegorz L. Kaluza; Daryl G. Schulz; Aaron J. Marcus; Albert E. Raizner; Neal S. Kleiman; Nadir M. Ali

2005-01-01

25

?-Thalassaemia Major in a Spanish Patient due to a Compound Heterozygosity for CD39 C -> T/-28 A -> C  

PubMed Central

A Spanish male patient with ?-thalassaemia major was studied. Compound heterozygosity was found for one of the most common ?-globin gene mutations in the Spanish population (codon 39 C ? T) and for a mutation in the TATA box element of the ?-globin gene promoter (?28 A ? C mutation). To our knowledge this is the first report of a CD39 C ? T and ?28 A ? C change association and the first report of the ?28 A ? C substitution in a Spanish patient.

Gamarra, Soledad; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Monteserin, Carmen; Lopez-Villar, Isabel; Gilsanz, Florinda; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin

2009-01-01

26

Reactive red 2: a P2y-selective purinoceptor antagonist and an inhibitor of ecto-nucleotidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of reactive red 2 and its parent compound acid red 33 were studied in rat vas deferens and guinea-pig taenia coli. In rat vas deferens, reactive red 2 (1 to 10 µM) shifted the concentration-response curve for the PZx-purinoceptor-mediated contraction effect of a, \\\\-methylene ATP slightly to the right and progressively decreased the maximum (apparent antagonist Kd value 0.42

Ralph Bültmann; Klaus Starke

1995-01-01

27

Distribution of Ecto-nucleotidases In Mouse Sensory Circuits Suggests Roles For NTPDase3 in Nociception and Mechanoreception  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide-activated P2X channels and P2Y metabotropic receptors participate in nociceptive signaling. Agonist availability is regulated by nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase) -1, -2, -3 and -8, a family of enzymes that hydrolyze extracellular ATP to generate adenosine diphosphate (ADP, a P2Y agonist) and monophosphate (AMP). They provide a major source of extracellular AMP, the substrate for adenosine production by ecto-5?-nucleotidase (NT5E), and thereby regulate adenosine (P1) receptor signaling. NTPDases vary in their efficiency of tri- and di-phosphate hydrolysis; therefore which family members are expressed impacts nucleotide availability and half-life. This study employed enzyme activity histochemistry to examine the distribution of ATPase activity and immunohistochemistry for NTPDase1, -2, -3 and -8 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord. Nucleotidase activity was robust in spinal dorsal horn, confirming that nociceptive pathways are a major site of nucleotide transmission. In DRG, extensive staining revealed ATPase activity in a subset of neurons and in non-neuronal cells. mRNA for NTPDase1-3, but not NTPDase8, was detected in lumbar DRG and spinal cord. Immunoreactivity for NTPDase3 closely matched the distribution of ATPase activity, labeling DRG central projections in the dorsal root and superficial dorsal horn, as well as intrinsic spinal neurons concentrated in lamina II. In DRG, NTPDase3 co-localized with markers of nociceptors and with NT5E. In addition, labeling of a subset of larger-diameter neurons in DRG was consistent with intense staining of Meissner corpuscle afferents in glabrous skin. Merkel cells and terminal Schwann cells of hair follicle afferents were also labeled, but the axons themselves were negative. We propose that NTPDase3 is a key regulator of nociceptive signaling that also makes an unexpected contribution to innocuous tactile sensation.

Vongtau, Habiba O.; Lavoie, Elise G.; Sevigny, Jean; Molliver, Derek C.

2011-01-01

28

Ectonucleotide Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39) Mediates Resistance to Occlusive Arterial Thrombus Formation after Vascular Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Modulation of purinergic signaling, which is critical for vascular homeostasis and the response to vascular injury, is regulated by hydrolysis of proinflammatory ATP and/or ADP by ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD-1; CD39) to AMP, which then is hydrolyzed by ecto-5?-nucleotidase (CD73) to adenosine. We report here that compared with littermate controls (wild type), transgenic mice expressing human ENTPDase-1 were resistant to the formation of an occlusive thrombus after FeCl3-induced carotid artery injury. Treatment of mice with the nonhydrolyzable ADP analog, adenosine-5?-0-(2-thiodiphosphate) trilithium salt, Ado-5?-PP[S], negated the protection from thrombosis, consistent with a role for ADP in platelet recruitment and thrombus formation. ENTPD-1 expression decreased whole-blood aggregation after stimulation by ADP, an effect negated by adenosine-5?-0-(2-thiodiphosphate) trilithium salt, Ado-5?-PP[S] stimulation, and limited the ability to maintain the platelet fibrinogen receptor, glycoprotein ?IIb/?3, in a fully activated state, which is critical for thrombus formation. In vivo treatment with a CD73 antagonist, a nonselective adenosine-receptor antagonist, or a selective A2A or A2B adenosine-receptor antagonist, negated the resistance to thrombosis in transgenic mice expressing human ENTPD-1, suggesting a role for adenosine generation and engagement of adenosine receptors in conferring in vivo resistance to occlusive thrombosis in this model. In summary, our findings identify ENTPDase-1 modulation of purinergic signaling as a key determinant of the formation of an occlusive thrombus after vascular injury.

Huttinger, Zachary M.; Milks, Michael W.; Nickoli, Michael S.; Aurand, William L.; Long, Lawrence C.; Wheeler, Debra G.; Dwyer, Karen M.; d'Apice, Anthony J.F.; Robson, Simon C.; Cowan, Peter J.; Gumina, Richard J.

2013-01-01

29

Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID.  

PubMed

Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)-mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA(-/-) Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA-treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID. PMID:22184407

Sauer, Aisha V; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna; Aiuti, Alessandro

2011-12-19

30

P2-receptor antagonists: IV. Blockade of P2-receptor subtypes and ecto-nucleotidases by compounds related to reactive blue 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of reactive blue 2 and twelve structurally related compounds were studied on contractions of the rat vas deferens\\u000a elicited by ?,?-methylene ATP (?,?-MeATP; mediated by P2X-receptors), relaxations of the carbachol-precontracted guinea-pig\\u000a taenia coli elicited by adenosine 5?-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADP?S; mediated by P2Y-receptors), and the degradation of ATP\\u000a by rat vas deferens tissue.\\u000a \\u000a All compounds, except acid blue 41 and acid

Florin Tuluc; Ralph Bültmann; Markus Glänzel; August Wilhelm Frahm; Klaus Starke

1998-01-01

31

Ecto-Nucleotidases and Nucleoside Transporters Mediate Activation of Adenosine Receptors on Hippocampal Mossy Fibers by P2X7 Receptor Agonist 2'-3'-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)ATP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionotropic and cytolytic P2X7 receptor is typically found on immune cells, where it is involved in the release of cytokines. Recently, P2X7 receptors were reported to be localized to presynaptic nerve terminals and to modulate transmitter release. In the present study, we reassessed this unexpected role of P2X7 receptors at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. In agreement with previous findings,

Maria Kukley; Pia Stausberg; Giselind Adelmann; Iain P. Chessell; Dirk Dietrich

2004-01-01

32

Particulate residence times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of suspended particulate concentration data from a year-long, regional air-quality study of a portion of the Great Lakes area revealed that depletion of particulates occurred during extended periods of travel over water surfaces. Based on particulate concentrations and meteorological measurements, residence times of background regional particulate matter were found to be between 5 and 16 h in the region.

D. M. Whelpdale

1974-01-01

33

Retort Water Particulates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Particulates were collected from 11 retort waters and their chemical composition and morphology studied using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This work indicates that the particulate fraction of retort ...

J. P. Fox

1979-01-01

34

Cometary Particulate Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A concept for determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates was evaluated. The technique utilizes a short, high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted fr...

D. J. Miller J. F. Friichtenicht N. G. Utterback

1979-01-01

35

30 CFR Particulate - Underground Only  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Only Particulate Diesel Particulate Matter Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57...Apr. 3, 2006] Diesel Particulate MatterâUnderground Only Source: 66...

2010-07-01

36

Diesel particulate control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute

Bertelsen

1988-01-01

37

Pitch based foam with particulate  

DOEpatents

A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

38

Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)|

Murphy, James E.

1973-01-01

39

Airborne particulate discriminator  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-08-11

40

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

2001-01-01

41

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph

1998-11-13

42

Void/particulate detector  

DOEpatents

Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Karplus, Henry B. (Hinsdale, IL)

1985-01-01

43

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

1999-11-01

44

CD39 Modulates IL1 Release from Activated Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation of endothelial cells (EC) and monocyte–macrophages (M?) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered an important element of the vascular injury observed in endotoxemia. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) ? release from M? in response to LPS, appears to be mediated by the autocrine\\/paracrine release of ATP via P2X7 receptor activation. In EC, similar nucleotide-mediated signaling pathways may be influenced by high levels

Masato Imai; Christian Goepfert; Elizbieta Kaczmarek; Simon C. Robson

2000-01-01

45

Void/particulate detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

1983-09-26

46

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

2000-12-01

47

Particulate Matter: a closer look  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate\\u000aMatter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands\\u000aEnvironmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety\\u000aDivision of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment\\u000a(RIVM), has been designed to present the facts on particulate matter in a\\u000acoherent framework. Current knowledge on particulate

Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K

2007-01-01

48

Dust particulate-phonon interaction  

SciTech Connect

Collective behavior of dust particulates placed in a plasma sheath in the presence of ion acoustic wave is studied. The interaction between dust particulates and ion acoustic wave is treated as a scattering process between dust particulates and phonons (quasi-particles of ion acoustic wave). It is shown that when the streaming of ions becomes supersonic, the system is stable and the ordered structure of plasma crystal is expected to form in the potential of shock-like wake. When the streaming velocity becomes subsonic, the system becomes unstable and the dust particulates are expected to experience phase transition and to show disordered structure.

Ishihara, Osamu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-3102 (United States)

1998-10-21

49

Toxicity of Brass Particulate to Daphnia magna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aquatic toxicity of a brass particulate was examined. Acute, 48-hour bioassays were performed using the water flea, Daphnia magna. Tests were conducted with uniform suspensions of uncoated brass particulate, brass particulate coated with a Teflon solu...

D. W. Johnson M. V. Haley G. S. Hart W. T. Muse W. G. Landis

1985-01-01

50

Magnetic characterization of airborne particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning fossil fuels from vehicles, domestics, industries and power plants in the large urban or industrial areas emit significant quantity of anthropogenic particulates which become a potential threat to human health. Here, we present temporal variability of particulate pollution associated with compositional differences, using magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations. Six different grain-sizes of airborne particulates have been collected by filtering from 10 precipitation events in Seoul, Korea from February 2009 to June 2009. Magnetic concentration proxies show relatively better (R2 >0.6) and poorer correlations (R2 <0.3) with the masses of samples filtered by >0.45 ?m and <0.45 ?m sizes, respectively, suggesting the usefulness of magnetic characterization for the >0.45 ?m particulates. Temporally, magnetic concentrations are higher in the cold season than the warm season. In particular, a significant increase of magnetic concentration is observed in 3 ?m and 1 ?m filters after the Chinese wind-blown dust events, indicating additional influx of fine-grained anthropogenic particulates into Seoul. Microscopic observations identify that increase of magnetic concentration is highly linked with the frequent occurrence of combustion derived particulates (i.e., carbon and/or sulfur mixed particles) than natural alumino-silicates. Overall, the present study demonstrates that magnetic measurements efficiently reflect the concentration of particulates produced from fossil-fuel combustion among the airborne particles from various sources.

Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Yu, Y.

2010-12-01

51

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Subsequently, extensive theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale investigations were completed to find an approach to prevent bag damage without compromising AHPC performance. Results showed that the best bag protection and AHPC performance were achieved by using a perforated plate installed between the discharge electrodes and bags. This perforated-plate design was then installed in the 2.5-MW AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant in Big Stone City, South Dakota, and the AHPC was operated from March to June 2001. Results showed that the perforated-plate design solved the bag damage problem and offered even better AHPC performance than the previous design. All of the AHPC performance goals were met, including ultrahigh collection efficiency, high air-to-cloth ratio, reasonable pressure drop, and long bag-cleaning interval.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

2001-12-01

52

Measurement of vehicle particulate emissions.  

PubMed Central

A constant volume sampler (CVS) compatible auto exhaust particulate sampling system has been built which samples exhaust isokinetically at constant temperature. This system yields internally consistent results and is capable of frequent and convenient operation.

Beltzer, M

1975-01-01

53

Particulates in aluminum sputtering discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma-generated particulates are receiving increasing attention as a possible source of device yield reduction in plasma-assisted etching and deposition processes. We have investigated aluminum sputtering in argon discharges between parallel-plate aluminum electrodes under both direct current and radio frequency excitation. Pulsed laser-induced fluorescence experiments indicate that particulates containing aluminum form in these discharges under conditions in which aluminum sputtering takes

G. M. Jellum; D. B. Graves

1990-01-01

54

Environmental Pollution: Air Pollution - Particulate Matters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains citations of reports dealing with air pollution - particulate matters; analysis of atmospheric aerosols and particulate matters, specifically particle size, measurement, distribution and identification of pollutants; atmos;heric...

1977-01-01

55

PAVED ROAD PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of extensive field tests to develop emission factors for particulate emissions generated by traffic entrainment of paved road surface particulate matter. Using roadway surface silt loading as the basis, predictive emission factor equations for each partic...

56

PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

57

Process for particulate removal from coal liquids  

DOEpatents

Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01

58

Nonlinear effects in particulate processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonlinear effects in various particulate processes are analyzed within the context of population balance modeling. Our main objective is to indicate the origin of the nonlinear effects and to categorize them in a systematic manner. To illustrate the importance of the nonlinear effects, a continuous milling process is considered, which has been analyzed in the literature with linear population

E. Bilgili; B. Scarlett

2005-01-01

59

Turbine Engine Particulate Emission Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Particulate emissions from the TF-30, JT8D, and JT9D aircraft turbine engines were characterized for mass emission rate, particle size distribution, particle shape, and elemental composition as a function of engine type, fuel type, and power setting. Samp...

D. L. Fenton E. H. Luebcke J. D. Stockham P. B. Campbell R. H. Johnson

1979-01-01

60

Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized by research in exposure, epidemiology, and toxicology of atmospheric PM. This paper provides a background on the

W. E. Wilson; Judith C. Chow; Candis Claiborn; Wei Fusheng; Johann Engelbrecht; John G. Watson

2002-01-01

61

Source Testing for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

DeVorkin, Howard

62

MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER OUTDOORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized b...

63

Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO and SO gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source

Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A. M. Rokanuzzaman

2007-01-01

64

Particulate Matter — What is the Standard?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentrated effort to examine and lower the amount of emissions of particulate matter into the atmosphere is occur- ring. It is important to consider how to best address this area. An examination of ongoing work and its relationship to particulate requirements is the focus of this paper. The studies are dependent on the definition of particulate matter. A focus

A. M. Hartstein; F. D. Sutterfield; D. Gurney

1998-01-01

65

Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

66

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER MODULES OF PARTICULATE PROCESSES FOR REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of an aerosol model for inclusion in the EPA Regional Particulate Model is described. Existing computer modules of particulate processes developed under EPA contract by Professors Brock, Seinfeld, and Whitby are compared to determine efficient and accurate methods...

67

Particulate Air Pollution and Morbidity in the California Central Valley: A High Particulate Pollution Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between particulate air pollution and morbidity among the Kaiser Permanente (KP) membership who reside in the Central Valley (CV) of California. Daily augmented particulate matter (PM) monitoring ...

S. K. Van Den Eeden C. P. Quesenberry J. Shan F. Lurmann

2002-01-01

68

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

SciTech Connect

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05

69

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16

70

Measuring Particulate Emissions from Autos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science or biology students connect a real-world problem to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts; the lesson specifically focuses on particulate emissions from automobiles and their impact on air pollution. The activity should take about one class period to complete (plus time for students to complete analysis outside of class), and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-03-10

71

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOEpatents

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-01-26

72

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOEpatents

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-11-08

73

Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project  

SciTech Connect

This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

Ashley Williamson

2003-05-31

74

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

2013-07-01

75

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section 52.275... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following rules...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is no...

2013-07-01

76

40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2059 Section 52.2059 Protection...2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed...Controlling Nontraditional Particulate Matter Emissions Task Completion date...

2013-07-01

77

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Control Strategy Analysis for Particulates, from the Nevada Control...the emission limitation on particulate matter. (1) Clark County District Board of Health, Table 27.1, (Particulate Matter from Process...

2009-07-01

78

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Control Strategy Analysis for Particulates, from the Nevada Control...the emission limitation on particulate matter. (1) Clark County District Board of Health, Table 27.1, (Particulate Matter from Process...

2010-07-01

79

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part DâDisapproval...standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain...and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic...

2013-07-01

80

METAL TRANSPORT AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research will assist in identifying mechanisms of toxocity for particulate matter (PM) constituents. The hypothesis to be tested is that disequilibrium in metal transport in the lung follows exposure to particulate matter. This results in an oxidative stress, cell signaling...

81

Triboelectric technology for particulate emission measurement  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how triboelectric technology (monitoring of particulate emission by sensing impacting particle charge transfer) has enabled a new generation of particulate emission detectors to be developed. They are providing to be much more suitable than traditional opacity methods. The reason for this is that they require little or no maintenance.

Averdieck, W.J. (Auburn International, Inc., Danvers, MA (USA))

1987-01-01

82

Planck blackbody emissive power in particulate media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications of the Planck blackbody intensity and emissive power are proposed due to the modifications of the photon energy transport velocity and the density of states in particulate media. These modifications result from the multiple scattering of photons. These modifications affect the heat flux and temperature predictions in particulate media. Results show that current methods of predicting heat flux and

Ravi Prasher

2005-01-01

83

Machining of particulate metal matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate metal matrix composites (PMMCs) are being widely used in the aerospace and automotive industry due to their favourable properties, mainly high specific strength and wear resistance. However, machining of particulate metal matrix composites presents a great challenge to the industry as the reinforcing particles easily abrade most of the common cutting tool materials. Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools appear to

Mariam S El-Gallab

1999-01-01

84

Latex allergen in respirable particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Urban air samples contain numerous irregular respirable black particles, which may be airborne tire fragments. A major component of tires is natural latex. Proteins of natural latex can act as adjuvants and as antigens capable of eliciting immediate hypersensitivity, making their presence in particulate air pollution an important clinical issue. Methods: Particulate air pollutants were collected by volumetric sampling

P. Brock Williams; Martin P. Buhr; Richard W. Weber; Micheal A. Volz; Jerald W. Koepke; John C. Selner

1995-01-01

85

Airborne Particulates in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to identify seasonal and source effects on the par-ticulate contaminants of the New York City atmosphere and ultimately to relate the concentrations of these contaminants to the tissue concentrations in residents of New York City. Continual weekly samples of particulates have been collected at three stations in the New York area on 8 by 10 in.

Theo. J. Kneip; Merril Eisenbud; Clifford D. Strehlow; Peter C. Freudenthal

1970-01-01

86

Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an

N. G. Utterback

1981-01-01

87

Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cites studies related to students' misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter. Stresses that a good understanding of these concepts is fundamental to the study of chemistry itself. Reports on a study of preservice elementary teachers views of the particulate nature of matter before instruction on the topic. (TW)|

Gabel, Dorothy L.; And Others

1987-01-01

88

MONITORING AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MASS BY BETA ABSORPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype airborne particulate mass monitor, using the principle of beta radiation absorption, has been fabricated and evaluated on airborne particulate matter. A detection sensitivity of 80 microgram/sq cm was attained. A series of samples were collected, and a comparison was ...

89

Diesel particulate emission control without engine modifications  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an ashless, fuel supplement which was found to typically reduce diesel particulate emissions by over 30% while significantly improving fuel economy and power output without any modifications to existing diesel engines or fuels. The treating cost is an order of magnitude less than the estimated cost of reducing aromatic content at the refinery to achieve particulate reductions. The particulate reduction is virtually all from the carbon (soot) fraction. The reduced soot formation translates into less abrasives and less soot-loading stress on the engine oil. Diesel tests conducted are also discussed.

Filowitz, M.S.; Vataru, M.

1989-01-01

90

Influence of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase Activity on Trypanosoma cruzi Infectivity and Virulence  

PubMed Central

Background The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. There are no vaccines or effective treatment, especially in the chronic phase when most patients are diagnosed. There is a clear necessity to develop new drugs and strategies for the control and treatment of Chagas disease. Recent papers have suggested the ecto-nucleotidases (from CD39 family) from pathogenic agents as important virulence factors. In this study we evaluated the influence of Ecto-Nucleoside-Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase (Ecto-NTPDase) activity on infectivity and virulence of T. cruzi using both in vivo and in vitro models. Methodology/Principal Findings We followed Ecto-NTPDase activities of Y strain infective forms (trypomastigotes) obtained during sequential sub-cultivation in mammalian cells. ATPase/ADPase activity ratios of cell-derived trypomastigotes decreased 3- to 6-fold and infectivity was substantially reduced during sequential sub-cultivation. Surprisingly, at third to fourth passages most of the cell-derived trypomastigotes could not penetrate mammalian cells and had differentiated into amastigote-like parasites that exhibited 3- to 4-fold lower levels of Ecto-NTPDase activities. To evidence the participation of T. cruzi Ecto-NTPDase1 in the infective process, we evaluated the effect of known Ecto-ATPDase inhibitors (ARL 67156, Gadolinium and Suramin), or anti-NTPDase-1 polyclonal antiserum on ATPase and ADPase hydrolytic activities in recombinant T. cruzi NTPDase-1 and in live trypomastigotes. All tests showed a partial inhibition of Ecto-ATPDase activities and a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes infectivity. Mice infections with Ecto-NTPDase-inhibited trypomastigotes produced lower levels of parasitemia and higher host survival than with non-inhibited control parasites. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Ecto-ATPDases act as facilitators of infection and virulence in vitro and in vivo and emerge as target candidates in chemotherapy of Chagas disease.

Santos, Ramon F.; Possa, Marcela A. S.; Bastos, Matheus S.; Guedes, Paulo M. M.; Almeida, Marcia R.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Bahia, Maria T.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.

2009-01-01

91

Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

92

Differential Spectroscopic Imaging of Particulate Explosives Residue  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results showing transmission and reflection imaging of approximately 100 microgram quantities of particulate explosives residue using a commercial uncooled microbolometer infrared camera and CO2 laser differential wavelength illumination.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas

2008-04-01

93

Filter Media for Collecting Diesel Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE mem...

F. Black L. Doberstein

1981-01-01

94

Central Carolina Vehicle Particulate Emissions Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies on light-duty motor vehicle exhaust particles have been conducted on vehicle fleet in the western United States. Particulate emissions data from vehicle fleets in the southeastern United States were needed for comparison and for determini...

K. T. Knapp S. B. Tejada S. H. Cadle D. R. Lawson R. Snow B. Zielinska J. C. Sagebiel J. McDonald

2000-01-01

95

Visible particulates in the final container  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Zemaira The PI states: “Parenteral drug preparations should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

96

The future of particulate rigid disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a strong movement away from the traditional Co-modified iron oxide particulate media and toward thin film metallic media used in small rigid disk systems. The main reason for this change is due-to the fact that these traditional particulate media cannot satisfy the requirements for high density recording because of recording and self-demagnetization losses resulting

Dennis E. Speliotis

1991-01-01

97

Condensation cleaning of particulate laden gases  

SciTech Connect

Particulate laden gas, especially those gases carrying particulates having a size in the micron or submicron range, are removed by humidifying the gas with water and thereafter subjecting the gas to indirect contact heat exchange sufficient to provide an energy transfer for water vapor condensation of at least 5 horsepower per 1000 cfm. Heat exchange is accomlished by passing the gas downwardly through an exchange element having smooth and vertical gas passages of a relatively large dimension.

Devries, E.

1981-08-18

98

Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral dependency of the particulate backscattering ratio is relevant in the fields of ocean color inversion, light field modeling, and inferring particle properties from optical measurements. Aside from theoretical predictions for spherical, homogeneous particles, we have very limited knowledge of the actual in situ spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio. This work presents results from five research cruises that were conducted over a three-year period. Water column profiles of physical and optical properties were conducted across diverse aquatic environments that offered a wide range of particle populations. The main objective of this research was to examine the behavior of the spectral particulate backscattering ratio in situ, both in terms of its absolute magnitude and its variability across visible wavelengths, using over nine thousand 1-meter binned data points for each of five wavelengths of the spectral particulate backscattering ratio. Our analysis reveals no spectral dependence of the particulate backscattering ratio within our measurement certainty, and a geometric mean value of 0.013 for this dataset. This is lower than the commonly used value of 0.0183 from Petzold’s integrated volume scattering data. Within the first optical depth of the water column, the mean particulate backscattering ratio was 0.010.

Whitmire, A. L.; Boss, E.; Cowles, T. J.; Pegau, W. S.

2007-05-01

99

Evaluation of the NIOSH MWF Total Particulate Matter: Thoracic Particulate Matter Conversion Factor in a Machining Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worker exposures to metalworking fluids were characterized at a plant that produced air compressors. Full-shift, side-by-side air samples (n = 147) were collected and analyzed for total particulate matter, extractable total particulate matter, thoracic particulate matter, and extractable thoracic particulate matter. The thoracic particulate matter geometric mean of 0.32 m\\/mwas below the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

Beth Donovan Reh; Joshua M. Harney; Robert E. McCleery; Charles A. Mueller

2005-01-01

100

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

Miller, S.J.

1995-11-01

101

Reversejet scrubber for control of fine particulates  

SciTech Connect

Reports that the pressure drop of this reversing jet spray system, which removes particulates from hot process and exhaust gas streams, is half of the gas-phase pressure drop of conventional wet scrubbers. The Reverse jet scrubber uses multiple reversing scrub liquor sprays to achieve the gasliquid interfacial area, residence time, and high differential velocities required for efficient heat and mass transfer, and particulate collection. Analysis of pilot-scale particulate removal data, obtained with the air-water-dioctyl phthalate (DOP) mist system at ambient conditions, permits a generalized Reversejet design procedure to be developed. This design procedure, verified with field tests involving cleanup of hot exhaust gases from oil-fired burners, provides a sound basis for the specification of commercial-scale equipment. The scrubber is compact, and nonfouling due to its open structure design. Half of the scrubber power input is applied to the gas phase, and half to the liquid phase. Describes a particulate collection model, based on single-spray droplet collection efficiencies. Relevant parameters in this model are: the maximum stable spray droplet size; the relative velocity between the spray droplets and the gas; the size of particulate to be removed; the jet turnaround length; and the effective, volumetric gas-liquid contact area. The pilot-plant scrubber on oil-fired combustion gases obtained removal efficiencies of up to 78%. Proposes a preliminary design for cleanup of hot fuel gas from a fluidized-bed-type coal gasifier.

Holmes, T.L.; DeGarmo, J.L.; Meyer, C.F.

1983-02-01

102

Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer  

DOEpatents

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

O' Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1988-01-01

103

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

SciTech Connect

The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

1999-09-30

104

Particulate matter and human health focus issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three years ago, Environmental Science & Technology’s\\u000aEditor-in-Chief, Jerry Schnoor, wrote\\u000aan editorial “Carol Browner’s Legacy: PM2.5”\\u000adetailing her decision as EPA administrator to move\\u000aforward to regulate fine particulate matter, or PM2.5\\u000a(particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 ?m) in spite\\u000aof the many uncertainties. That editorial noted that\\u000athe evidence at that time strongly suggested that she\\u000agot

B. Brunekreef; Armistead G. Russell

2009-01-01

105

NTPDase1 (CD39) controls nucleotide-dependent vasoconstriction in mouse  

PubMed Central

Aims Extracellular nucleotides are vasoactive molecules. The concentrations of these molecules are regulated by ectonucleotidases. In this study, we investigated the role of the blood vessel ectonucleotidase NTPDase1, in the vasoconstrictor effect of nucleotides using Entpd1?/? mice. Methods and results Immunofluorescence, enzyme histochemistry, and HPLC analysis were used to evaluate both NTPDase expression and activity in arteries and isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Vascular reactivity was evaluated in vitro and mean arterial blood pressure was recorded in anesthetized mice after nucleotide i.v. infusion. Expression of nucleotide receptors in VSMCs was determined by RT–PCR. Entpd1?/? mice displayed a dramatic deficit of nucleotidase activity in blood vessel wall in situ and in VSMCs in comparison to control mice. In aortic rings from Entpd1?/? mice, UDP and UTP induced a potent and long-lasting constriction contrasting with the weak response obtained in wild-type rings. This constriction occurred through activation of P2Y6 receptor and was independent of other uracil nucleotide-responding receptors (P2Y2 and P2Y4). UDP infusion in vivo increased blood pressure and this effect was potentiated in Entpd1?/? mice. In addition, pressurized mesenteric arteries from Entpd1?/? mice displayed an enhanced myogenic response, consistent with higher local concentrations of endogenously released nucleotides. This effect was inhibited by the P2 receptor antagonist RB-2. Conclusion NTPDase1 is the major enzyme regulating nucleotide metabolism at the surface of VSMCs and thus contributes to the local regulation of vascular tone by nucleotides.

Kauffenstein, Gilles; Drouin, Annick; Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Bachelard, Helene; Robaye, Bernard; D'Orleans-Juste, Pedro; Marceau, Francois; Thorin, Eric; Sevigny, Jean

2013-01-01

106

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOURCES--] [Subpart M - Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze] [Sec. 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter...STATIONARY SOURCES-- Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Sec. 60.132 Standard for particulate...

2009-07-01

107

Viral Penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters (PREPRINT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are the primary technology used for particulate removal in individual and collective protection applications. HEPA filters are commonly thought to be impenetrable, but in fact they are only 99.97% efficient a...

B. K. Helmbuch C. Y. Wu J. D. Wander

2009-01-01

108

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL...Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate...

2010-07-01

109

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL...Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate...

2009-07-01

110

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL...Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate...

2013-07-01

111

Toughening of a Particulate-Reinforced/Ceramic-Matrix Composite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The toughening mechanism of particulate-reinforced/ceramic-matrix composites was attributed to the thermal residual stress field induced by the differential thermal expansions of the matrix and the particulate when the composite is cooled from the process...

A. S. Kobayashi H. S. Yoon M. Taya S. Hayashi

1989-01-01

112

CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM NON-FERROUS SMELTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical composition and particle size data for particulate emissions for stationary sources are required for environmental health effect assessments, air chemistry studies, and air quality modelling Investigations such as source apportionment. n this study, particulate emissions...

113

40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of control measures for particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group...ApprovalâOn January 13, 1993, the State of Indiana submitted a particulate matter State Implementation Plan revision for...

2013-07-01

114

40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...submitted a request to redesignate the Lyons Township (McCook), Cook County particulate matter nonattainment area to attainment...request to redesignate the Lake Calumet (Southeast Chicago), Cook County particulate matter nonattainment area to...

2013-07-01

115

Size and structure-dependent toxicity of silica particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano- and micro-particulates firmly attach with the surface of various biological systems. In some chronic pulmonary disease such as asbestosis and silicosis, causative particulates will induce chronic inflammatory disorder, followed by poor prognosis diseases. However, nano- and micro-scale specific toxicity of silica particulates is not well examined enough to recognize the risk of nano- and micro-particulates from the clinical aspect.

Sanshiro Hanada; Kenichi Miyaoi; Akiyoshi Hoshino; Susumu Inasawa; Yukio Yamaguchi; Kenji Yamamoto

2011-01-01

116

PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

117

Fluctuations in Rayleigh breakup induced by particulates.  

PubMed

A jet of liquid is intrinsically unstable to radial perturbations and will spontaneously break to form a series of droplets. This well known instability, the Rayleigh-Plateau instability, is controlled and used commercially in continuous inkjet printing. In this application it is important that fluctuations in drop velocity are minimised. However, the addition of particulates to the liquid is observed to strongly increase these fluctuations. The particulates are usually in the form of pigment particles of size O(100 nm) and at a concentration where they may hydrodynamically interact, particularly in the strong shear field within the nozzle (O(10(7) s(-1))). The boundary layer thickness within the nozzle is O(1 ?m) and therefore the particulate size is a significant fraction. We therefore expect that the particles are capable of perturbing the boundary layer and hence the jet. Measurement of jet breakup fluctuation leads to a description of particulates interacting within and with the shear field associated with the boundary layer at the nozzle wall. PMID:19846049

Clarke, A; Rieubland, S

2009-10-06

118

Ceramic Composite for Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engine is the most efficient power plant among all known types of internal combustion engines. The Diesel Engine is major candidate to become the power plant of the future. Environmental benefits of Diesel such as low green house gas emissions are balanced by growing concern with emission of Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Diesel Particulates (PM). The concern over Diesel

N. V. Deshpande; S. C. Kongre; P. N. Deshpande

119

Pollutant Associations with Particulates in Stormwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have identified metals in urban runoff as a maj or contributor to the degradation of urban streams and rivers. Metals of most concern are copper, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and zinc. Metals in urban runoff can occur as dissolved, colloidal and particulate-bound species. There fore, it is important to measure all forms of heavy metals, especially the parti

R. Morquecho; R. Pitt; S. E. Clark

120

Characterization of exhaust particulates from diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was set out to characterize particulate emissions from a mid-sized diesel engine in terms of metals, benzene soluble fraction, elemental and organic carbon. For this study, the exhaust particulates from Mahindra direct injection transportation diesel engine (40 hp) were collected at four different engine operating conditions, namely idle, 40%, 70% and full load for the above parameters. It was found that as the load increased from idling to full load, the metal content in particulates gradually decreased. The metal content in exhaust particulates was correlated with that of metal content in diesel. Benzene soluble fraction, which is a marker for carcinogenicity, also showed decrease in its level with increasing load. It was found that at idling, 67% of mass was soluble in benzene while at full load it was only about 24%. Elemental carbon content increased with increase in load showing a maximum of 48% at 70% load and a minimum of 25% at idling. The trend of organic carbon was quite opposite; it showed 35% organic carbon at idling, which decreased gradually with increase in load. This research has suggested that composition of diesel exhaust particles varies significantly with varying engine load conditions.

Sharma, Mukesh; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Bharathi, K. V. L.

121

Process for regenerating fluidizable particulate cracking catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus for regenerating fluidizable particulate cracking catalysts wherein a mixture of spent catalyst particles contaminated with carbonaceous deposits from a catalytic cracker and sufficient hot regenerated catalyst particles to bring the temperature of the mixture to the minimum temperature at which rapid oxidation of the carbonaceous deposits will be induced, are entrained in a high velocity gas

Mayes

1981-01-01

122

TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

123

Magnetic resonance studies of dissolving particulate solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance methods have been used to elucidate the internal pore structure of particulate solids, in particular detergent tablets. Such information is essential to a comprehensive understanding of the dissolution characteristics of these materials and how this property is related to processing conditions during tablet formation. In particular 3-D images of porosity are produced and 2-D self-diffusion maps are acquired

M. L. Johns; L. F. Gladden

2003-01-01

124

Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland.

Hucko

1997-01-01

125

Pulse combustion drying apparatus for particulate materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a pulse jet combustion apparatus for the drying of particulate material of the type having: a combustion chamber having an air entry end, an exhaust end and a common longitudinal axis therebetween, an air inlet conduit coaxially connected to the air entry and thereof, a primary exhaust gas conduit coaxially connected to the exhaust end thereof and,

R. R. Gray; V. M. Marguth

1987-01-01

126

SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

127

SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

A new national monitoring network for tbe measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards,...

128

DESIGN OF A LABORATORY FOR PARTICULATE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects on human health resulting from asbestos exposure in various environments are a subject of national concern and debate. In recognition of the need for a 'state-of-the-art' laboratory for particulates analysis, with emphasis on asbestos, the Environmental Protection Age...

129

Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

130

PARTICULATE DATA REDUCTION (PADRE) SYSTEM REFERENCE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes how to access and use the Particulate Data Reduction (PADRE) System, an interactive computer program that facilitates entry, reduction, and analysis of cascade impactor data for particle size distributions. It also summarizes its logic and capabilities. The p...

131

Health Effects Information Relating to Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) met on December 16-17, 1985 to hold a preliminary discussion with EPA staff and members of the public on health effects information relating to particulate matter that has become available since the Comm...

1986-01-01

132

Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 mum (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks

J. Moenster; M. Glasius; O. J. Nielsen; M. Bilde; F. P. Jensen

2005-01-01

133

Central Carolina Vehicle Particulated Emission Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vehicle emission study was carried out in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina to determine the PM (particulate matter) emission rates and emissions profiles of the fleet of in-use vehicles in central California. The NERL (National Exposure...

K. T. Knapp S. B. Tejada S. H. Cadle D. R. Lawson R. Snow

2000-01-01

134

HIGH TEMPERATURE PARTICULATE CONTROL WITH CERAMIC FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of using ceramic materials as filters for fine particulate removal at high temperatures. The program was in two phases. Phase I, directed toward the development of a porous alumina membrane filter, had limited success because of the fragi...

135

FOREIGN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH IN FINE PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents unpublished fine particulate measurement and control information and information not readily available to the researcher, generated during the period 1971-76 in Australia, Canada, Japan, and the USSR. The information is used as a basis for identifying new conc...

136

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

137

Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and

Carlos Alberto Leon-Patino

2001-01-01

138

40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262 Section 60.262 Protection... § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45 kg/MW-hr...

2013-07-01

139

40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm...

2013-07-01

140

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

2013-07-01

141

40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142 Section 60.142 Protection... § 60.142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under...gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

2013-07-01

142

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

2013-07-01

143

40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402 Section 60.402 Protection... § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...gases which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per...

2013-07-01

144

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

2013-07-01

145

Science and technology of catalytic diesel particulate filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few decades, concerns have grown on the negative effects that diesel particulate matter has on health. Because of this, particulate emissions were subjected to restrictions and various emission-reduction technologies were developed. It is ironic that some of these technologies led to reductions in the legislated total particulate mass while neglecting the number of particles. Focusing on the

Barry A. A. L. van Setten; Michiel Makkee; Jacob A. Moulijn

2001-01-01

146

Multipollutant Exposures and Health Responses to Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological methods provide opportunities to study interactions of pollutants in complex environments. During the study of health and the environment and the evaluation of particulate matter in Tucson, we found that type, location, and temporality of particulate matter exposures were critical with respect to the various interactions that related to health effects. Indoor particulate matter interacted with other components of

Michael D. Lebowitz; James J. Quackenboss; Michal Krzyzanowski; Mary Kay ORourke; Carl Hayes

1992-01-01

147

40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...depending on which phase the mass of particulate is being determined...Total dilute exhaust volume in cubic meters per...144. (3) P e = mass of particulate per test...equation for particulate mass emissions then reduces... (6) Vep = total volume of sample pulled...

2011-07-01

148

Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined

2000-01-01

149

Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined

1999-01-01

150

Particulate bioluininescence in dinoflagellates: dissociation and partial reconstitution.  

PubMed

With the same extraction conditions used for Gonyaulax polyedra, soluble and particulate bioluminescence can be isolated from two additional species, Pyrodinium bahamense and Pyrocystis lunula. We have been able, for all three species, to dissociate soluble luciferin and luciferase from the particulate system. Luciferin can be incorporated into both reacted and unreacted particulate systems. PMID:17780988

Fuller, C W; Kreiss, P; Seliger, H H

1972-09-01

151

The relationship between particulate uranium and thorium-complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thorium-complexing capacity (ThCC), which is defined as the amount of thorium adsorption onto particulate matter (PM) in 0.1 mol l?1 HCl solution by complexation, has been introduced as a new oceanographic parameter. The ThCC implies the concentration of a strong organic ligand in PM. To specify chemically the strong ligand in PM, we compared the ThCC in PM with particulate

Katsumi Hirose

1995-01-01

152

Effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) on immune responses: contributions of particulate versus organic soluble components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure on innate, cellular and humoral pulmonary immunity was studied using high-dose, acute-exposure rat, mouse, and cell culture models. DEP consists of a complex mixture of petrochemical-derived organics adsorbed onto elemental carbon particles. DEP is a major component of particulate urban air pollution and a health concern in both urban and occupational environments.

Paul D. Siegel; Rajiv K. Saxena; Q. B. Saxena; Joseph K. H. Ma; Jane Y. C. Ma; Xue-Jun Yin; Vincent Castranova; Nabil Al-Humadi; Daniel M. Lewis

2004-01-01

153

Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol\\/L HC1 solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 24 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional

Katsumi Hirose; Eiichiro Tanoue

1994-01-01

154

Depth Profiles of Particulate Matter and Elements in Particulate Matter in Xi'an, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth profiles of particulate matter and elements in particulate matter collected from two typical resident buildings of a 7-storey building (B1) and a 24-storey building (B2) in the city of Xi'an, China were investigated. Physical characterization and chemical analysis of the settled dusts collected at different heights of B1 and B2 in April 2009 showed that (1) the volume percent

Longhao Zeng; Zongze Cao; Jie Yue; Julia Lu; Chengxiao Zhang

2011-01-01

155

Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and, except for the first and last day (where there was experimental error), recorded values seem to meet EPA standards. We conclude that the high particulate matter levels we observed were due to heavy crowding and traffic jams near street corners during the time of the festival. We also conclude that particulate pollution levels in the Chinatown neighborhood are generally acceptable, except during festivities that generate heavy congestion. We intend conduct further investigations, particularly at next year's street festival, to confirm observations made thus far.

Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

2007-12-01

156

NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

SciTech Connect

A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

2003-10-01

157

Characterization of iron in airborne particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area.

Tavares, F. V. F.; Ardisson, J. D.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.; Brito, W.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Jacomino, V. M. F.

2013-02-01

158

Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

2009-02-01

159

Particulates and iron cyanide complex removal  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for scrubbing a synthesis gas stream containing residual amounts of iron containing particulate solids and minor amounts of HCN comprising (a) contacting the synthesis gas stream with water in a contact zone and removing the particulate solids from the synthesis gas stream, producing an aqueous mixture containing solids and iron cyanide complex or complexes; (b) contacting mixture from step (a) with a member selected from ammonium polysulfide, sodium polysulfide, and mixtures thereof. The mixture is contacted at a temperature of from 110/sup 0/C. to 180/sup 0/C., in a contacting zone and converting iron cyanide complex or complexes in the mixture and producing a mixture having a substantially reduced iron cyanide complex or complexes content.

Baker, D.C.

1986-11-25

160

Particulate Debris Osteolysis Simulating Malignant Tumor  

PubMed Central

Osteolysis induced by particulate debris from total joint implants is typically confined to bone and benign in radiographic appearance even when extensive. However, they can extend well beyond bone in which case they can simulate malignancies owing either to mass effects and pressure on adjacent tissues or owing to the radiographic appearance. We report two cases which presented as possible malignancy, and review the literature on extensive osteolysis. Recognition of this possibility may aid in interpretation of the clinical presentation and imaging studies.

Brand, Richard A; Marsh, J Lawrence

2004-01-01

161

Hand calculator programs for stack particulate tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those familiar with particulate stack testing understand that a great deal of number-crunching is necessary to generate end results. Two hand calculator programs, one designed for a Texas Instruments Programmable 57 and the other for a Hewlett-Packard 33E, have been developed to ease this workload and provide quick turnaround when results are required in a hurry. These two programs calculate

W. A. Fay; B. J. Jones

1983-01-01

162

Particulate fouling in plate heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Particulate fouling in an Alfa-Laval P20 plate heat exchanger was investigated using a suspension of aluminum oxide particles in heptane. Process parameters such as flow velocity, heat flux, and particle concentration were varied over a considerable range. In this paper, the influence of the above parameters on the asymptotic fouling resistance is discussed. Measured values of fouling resistance are compared with results for a double-pipe heat exchanger and with the prediction of a fouling model from the literature.

Muller-Steinhagen; Middis, J. (Univ. of Auckland, Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Auckland (NZ))

1989-01-01

163

Fatigue crack propagation testing of particulate MMCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the existing data in the literature for long crack fatigue propagation rates in particulate reinforced metal matrix composites is presented. Crack growth rates are found to fall within a relatively narrow scatter band with thresholds in the range 2.5-4.7 MPa sq rt m at R = 0.1. In general, standard fatigue testing techniques, as applied to

D. M. Knowles; J. E. King

1991-01-01

164

Downdraft channel gasifier operation and particulate emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary and secondary air flows, temperatures, gasification rates, and particulate emissions were monitored over the full operating range of a corncobfueled, downdraft, channel gasifier. The maximum capacity of the unit was about 787,000 Btu\\/hr, with a turndown ratio of almost 3:1. Test results revealed that (1) the primary airflow was a major factor in controlling the gasification rate and

L. J. Kutz; J. R. Barrett; C. B. Richey; R. B. Jacko

2009-01-01

165

Current Perspectives on Particulate Induced Pulmonary Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Chronic exposure to insoluble particulates can lead to the development of pulmonary tumours. These have been classified as broncho-alveolar or squamous\\/epidermoid according to their histopathological characteristics and have been reported in inhalation studies in rats of materials ranging from diesel exhaust and silica to titanium dioxide.2 The sequence of changes within the rat lung leading to tumours has been

P. M. Hext

1994-01-01

166

Particulate Emissions from On-Road Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The short term standard defined by the European Union (Directive 2008\\/50\\/EC) (European Parliament, Council of the European\\u000a Union 2008) for particulate matter smaller than 10 ?m (PM10) is violated in many European cities (Querol et al. 2004; Van Dingenen et al. 2004), therefore the current air quality status of PM10 is under investigation in many countries, in particular to understand the

Andreas Limbeck; Christoph Puls

167

Elemental analysis of airborne particulates in Chile.  

PubMed

Aerosol samples collected in three characteristic Chilean cities-including urban and remote zones-have been analyzed by the PIXE spectroscopic technique. Elemental composition, total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particle size distribution, and the peculiar geographic and meteorological parameters have been included in this study. Santiago--the polluted capital of Chile--registered high TSP indexes and important amounts of hazardous elements in air such as S, V, Cr, Zn, Br and Pb. The atmosphere of Antofagasta city showed marine and mineral activity influence. Results from Chillán city are similar to those from rural environments. Protons and deuterons-provided by the isochronous cyclotron of the University of Chile-were used to excite X-ray radiation from the sample. Signals were processed by an energy dispersive detection system, including a cryogenic Si(Li) detector, electronic for pulse amplification and an analog to digital converter. The absolute elemental concentration of the particulate matter in air was obtained through a fundamental parameter equation. Samples consist of particulate material collected directly on Nuclepore filters or deposited over Kapton foils. Typical elements analyzed were Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb. PMID:15092200

Romo-Kröger, C M

1990-01-01

168

Hand calculator programs for stack particulate tests  

SciTech Connect

Those familiar with particulate stack testing understand that a great deal of number-crunching is necessary to generate end results. Two hand calculator programs, one designed for a Texas Instruments Programmable 57 and the other for a Hewlett-Packard 33E, have been developed to ease this workload and provide quick turnaround when results are required in a hurry. These two programs calculate all the variables surrounding a stack test except isokinetics. As such these programs are intended to be used as a supplement to, and not a replacement of, more advanced computer programs that calculate all the variables and provide hard copy documentation of raw data and end results. Each calculator program has been divided into two parts. The first part uses the equations presented in EPA's Reference Method 5-Determination of Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources to calculate particulate concentration, dry and wet gas volumes and moisture content. The second part uses the results of the first part and equations presented in EPA Reference Method 2-Determination of Stack Gas Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate to calculate volumetric flow rate, emission rate and velocity.

Fay, W.A.; Jones, B.J.

1983-01-01

169

Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. A prototype analyzer system was designed, constructed, and tested. Results show that: (1) energy-time focus performs as predicted in improving resolution; (2) power densities sufficient to produce usable ionization efficiencies can be obtained; (3) complex alloys such as stainless steel can be analyzed; and (4) a tiny, simple and reliable laser used in the demonstration easily meets spacecraft power and mass limitations. A mass resolution of 150 was experimentally demonstrated at mass 108, and an analytical extrapolation predicts a resolution sufficient to separate masses 250 and 251.

Utterback, N. G.

1981-01-01

170

Prediction of particulate contamination on aperture window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis to predict the effects of light scattering by surface particles on the sensor window of a missile during ascent flight. The particulate contaminant distribution on the window is calculated by tallying the number of particles in a set of size ranges. The particulate contamination at the end of the mission is predicted by adding the contributions from the events of ground and flight operations. The surface particle redistributions caused by vibroacoustically induced surface acceleration was found to contribute the most of the particulate surface contamination. The analytical surface obscuration calculation with a set of particle counts was compared to the results of image analyzer measurement. The analytical results, which were calculated with a given function of particle shape depending on the size, were more conservative than the measurement. A scattering calculation using a verified BSDF model showed that the scattering was less than 0.001 at 20 off the direction of the incident light in the mid IR wavelength when the surfaces were at Level 300 initially.

Lee, Aleck L.; Fong, Michael C.

1994-11-01

171

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is planned to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings

2000-05-01

172

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power plant. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power plant is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

2001-04-01

173

Activity of diesel engine emission particulates on the interferon system  

SciTech Connect

When mammalian (LLC-MK/sub 2/) cell monolayers were pretreated with diesel engine emission particulates of respirable size, viral induction of interferon was depressed by approximately 60%. However, the presence of particulates did not impair the ability of interferon to confer antiviral cellular resistance. When either diesel emission particulates or cell monolayers were pretreated with the nonionic polymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide), the inhibitory activity of particulates on interferon induction was significantly diminished or abolished. Influenza virus growth in cell monolayers pretreated with diesel emission particulates attained a two- to threefold higher level than that noted in normal cell monolayers or those containing polymer-pretreated particulates. This was related to suppression of viral interferon induction by diesel emission particulates. Removal of cell membrane-bound sialic acid by neuraminidase or pretreatment of diesel emission particulates with sialic acid abolished the adverse activity of particulates on viral interferon induction. These findings suggest that the receptivity for and interaction of cell membrane-bound sialic acid with diesel emission particulates are involved in the described altered cellular behavior in response to viral induction of interferon.

Hahon, N.; Booth, J.A.; Wheeler, R.

1982-08-01

174

MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

2005-05-01

175

Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks  

SciTech Connect

High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

SLOUGHTER, J.P.

1999-02-25

176

Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)  

SciTech Connect

High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

SLOUGHTER, J.P.

2000-02-16

177

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter emissions of filterable particulate matter (FPM), condensible PM (CPM), PM10, and PM2.5 at FGD inlet and stack in a coal-fired power plant were measured by EPA method 201A and method 202. The results indicated that emissions of total particulate matter (TPM) are 40.99mg\\/m3 and 120.58mg\\/m3, and the filterable PMs are the highest emissions at both sampling locations which

Ping Lu; Jiang Wu; Wei-Ping Pan

2010-01-01

178

Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been

M. Sayuti; S. Sulaiman; B. T. H. T. Baharudin; M. K. A. Arifin; S. Suraya; T. R. Vijayaram

2011-01-01

179

Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates were examined in contrasting Chesapeake Bay (estuarine) and mid-Atlantic shelf\\/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) represented ?5–9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared to be a similar fraction of total sediment carbon oxidation (or Cox). When these results are compared with results from other coastal sediments and a

D. J. BURDIGE; A Skoog; K. GARDNER

2000-01-01

180

X-Ray Absorption Characterization of Diesel Exhaust Particulates  

SciTech Connect

We have characterized particulates from a 1993 11.1 Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine with electronic unit injectors operated using fuels with and without methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and overbased calcium sulfonate added. X-ray photoabsorption (XAS) spectroscopy was used to characterize the diesel particulates. Results reveal a mixture of primarily Mn-phosphate with some Mn-oxide, and Ca-sulfate on the surface of the filtered particulates from the diesel engine.

Nelson, A J; Ferreira, J L; Reynolds, J G; Roos, J W

1999-11-18

181

Information Alert on Particulate Matter in Blood Bags  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... ARC has implemented additional and specialized visual inspection procedures for examining liquid blood components for particulate matter. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability

182

Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M. (Center for Environmental Research and Technology College of Engineering, University of California - Riverside, California)

1998-11-19

183

Toughening of a Particulate-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composite by Thermal Residual Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE primary toughening mechanisms of particulate- T reinforced ceramics have been attributed to (i) interaction between the crack front and particulates (crack front bowing model),'*' (ii) crack deflection by the particulates ahead of a propagating crack (crack deflection model); and (iii) crack bridging by ductile particulates (particulate bridging model).4 Other secondary mechanisms which contribute to the tough- ening of ceramic

Minoru Taya; S. Hayashi; Albert S. Kobayashi; H. S. Yoon

1990-01-01

184

Spectral properties of ice-particulate mixtures and implications for remote sensing. I - Intimate mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

From laboratory spectra of many ice-particulate mixtures with high, medium, and low albedo particulates, the band depths, continuum reflectance, and ratio of band depth to continuum reflectance are derived as a function of the logarithm of thef particulate weight fraction in the sample. Ice band depths are dependent on the particulate albedo, and increase with smaller weight fractions of particulates

R. N. Clark; P. G. Lucey

1984-01-01

185

Trichomonas vaginalis nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase and ecto-5?-nucleotidase activities are inhibited by lycorine and candimine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug discovery from plants plays an important role in the pharmaceutical therapy field and the alkaloids lycorine and candimine are candidates for this purpose. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite that infects the human urogenital tract and causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease. Ecto-nucleotidases including nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) members, which hydrolyses extracellular ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and ADP

Raquel B. Giordani; Marina Weizenmann; Denis Broock Rosemberg; Geraldo Attilio De Carli; Mauricio Reis Bogo; José Angelo S. Zuanazzi; Tiana Tasca

2010-01-01

186

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2009-07-01

187

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2009-07-01

188

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2010-07-01

189

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2010-07-01

190

Dynamic compaction of particulate composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the mechanical alloying + dynamic compaction flowchart for producing composites with particulate reinforcements. The combinations of components tested included aluminum silicon carbide, aluminum boron carbide, copper silicon carbide, and copper silica. Mechanical alloying produced granules of composite with reinforcements uniformly distributed in the matrix material. Dynamic compaction of mechanically alloyed granules was shown to produce high quality composite materials with crack-free structure. As the standard methods for explosive treatment lead to crack formation in bulk composites, this work included the development of a tool for treating composite materials.

Popov, V. A.; Staudhammer, K. P.; Goulbin, V. N.

2006-08-01

191

MODELING FINE PARTICULATE MASS AND VISIBILITY USING THE EPA REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter in the atmosphere can adversely impact air quality and human health, as well as significantly affect the environment. articles in the submicrometer size range, when inhaled, may pose certain health hazards. articles in this size range also scatter light, causin...

192

Reduction of particulate matter and gaseous emission from marine diesel engines using a catalyzed particulate filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engines are used widely as the power sources of coastal ships and international vessels primarily due to their high thermal efficiency, high fuel economy and durable performance. However, the gaseous and solid substances exhausted from diesel engines during the combustion process cause air pollution, in particular around harbor regions. In order to effectively reduce particulate matter and gaseous pollution

Cherng-Yuan Lin

2002-01-01

193

Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport  

SciTech Connect

The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.

Hammerberg, James Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plohr, Bradley J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

194

Jammed particulate systems are inherently nonharmonic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal mode analysis in the harmonic approximation underlies most of solid-state physics and applies well to both ordered and dis- ordered systems. Naturally, researches apply this analysis to jammed particulate systems, such as granular media, colloids, and foams, that interact via one-sided interactions, which are nonzero only when particles overlap. However, we find that systems with one-sided repulsive interactions possess no linear, harmonic response regime for large systems (N->?) at finite pressures P, and for all N near jamming onset P->0. We perform simulations on 2D frictionless bidisperse mechanically stable disk packings over a range of packing fractions ??= ?-?J above jamming onset ?J. We apply perturbations with amplitude ? to the packings along each eigen-direction from the dynamical matrix and determine whether the response of the system evolving at constant energy remains in the original eigenmode of the perturbation. For ?> ?c, a single contact breaks and fluctuations abruptly spread to all discrete harmonic modes. As ? increases further all harmonic modes disappear into a continuous frequency band. We find that ?c˜??/N, and thus jammed particulate systems are inherently nonharmonic with no linear vibrational response regime as N->? over the full range of ??, and as ??->0 at any N. This breakdown of harmonic behavior dramatically affects all aspects of system response including heat capacity, density of states, elastic moduli, and energy propagation.

Shattuck, Mark D.

2011-03-01

195

Theoretical solutions for particulate scintillation monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical analysis for recently developed particulate scintillation monitoring technique is presented. The technique makes use of a light beam passing through a stack to the opposite detector. The detector measures not only the average light intensity, but also the temporal variation in the light intensity, which is different from conventional opacity systems. The significant advantage of scintillation monitors is their insensitivity to lens contamination. However, until now theories relevant to the technique have not been found in the literature. In this article, it is first assumed that the number of particles in a light beam passing through stack airflow is a Poisson random variable. Then, by use of Mie's theory and stochastic process theory, a mathematical model for output light intensity, the mathematical expectation and the variance of output light intensity are derived. Finally, an equation for calculating particulate mass concentration is obtained. Theoretical analysis shows that scintillation monitors are insensitive to lens contamination but dependent on particle size distribution. Experiments verified the theoretical results.

Chen, Anshi; Hao, Jiming; Zhou, Zhongping; Zu, Jing

1999-08-01

196

Method for inhibiting corrosion in particulate zinc  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the inhibition of corrosion in particulate zinc, which comprises the step of subjecting said zinc in the form of an alkaline slurry to treatment by a corrosion inhibiting effective amount of a corrosion inhibitor which is at least one oxide selected from the group consisting of oxides of antimony, bismuth, cadmium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium and tin, wherein zinc has been obtained by an electrolytic process for regeneration of zinc in an at least partially spent slurry for use in metal-air batteries which slurry comprises an admixture of at least components (a) and (b), of the following components (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g): (a) zinc which has been at least partly oxidized to an oxidation product selected from zinc oxide and zincates; (b) an aqueous solution of at least one Group 1a metal comprising anions selected from the group consisting of hydroxide and zincate; (c) an inorganic inhibitor ingredient effective to inhibit an interaction of zinc and at least one Group 1a metal hydroxide in the aqueous solution, which would otherwise result in an evolution of hydrogen gas; (d) a gelling agent; (e) a filler selected from the group consisting of particulate and fibrous fillers; (f) a labelling agent; (g) a dissolved electrolyte extender.

Goldstein, J.; Meitav, A,; Lezion, R.; Kravitz, M.

1993-08-03

197

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate...

2013-07-01

198

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2013-07-01

199

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

200

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles...

2013-07-01

201

40 CFR 63.1357 - Temporary, conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. 63.1357 ...conditioned exemption from particulate matter and opacity standards. (a) Subject...condition; (2) The target particulate matter emission level for each test...

2013-07-01

202

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227 Section...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) The requirements...particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (b) The...

2009-07-01

203

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227 Section...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) The requirements...particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (b) The...

2010-07-01

204

40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material...227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material...separation of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of the...

2009-07-01

205

40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material...227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material...separation of liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of the...

2010-07-01

206

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2010-07-01

207

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral Resources...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on...

2009-07-01

208

Chemical speciation of thorium in marine biogenic particulate matter.  

PubMed

Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL) and uranium in particulate matter (PM). The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10(-12) M), and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in surface PM was examined. The result reveals that particulate Th in surface PM was well correlated with the SOL concentration in PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface water were linearly related to those of particulate U. Mass balance analysis suggests that the dominant chemical form of Th(IV), as well as of U, in surface PM is a surface complex with the SOL in PM. Our findings suggest that the SOL in PM is a nonmetal-specific chelator originating from the cell surface of microorganisms. PMID:15004320

Hirose, Katsumi

2004-02-26

209

Particulate barium fluxes and their relationships to biological productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand better the processes that control the transport of particulate barium through the water column and its preservation in marine sediments, we measured particulate barium fluxes along an equatorial transect at 140°W using moored sediment traps. The fluxes of barium correlate strongly with the fluxes of organic carbon; however, this relationship is non-linear—higher carbon fluxes have proportionately less associated

Jack Dymond; Robert Collier

1996-01-01

210

Gaseous and particulate air pollution in the Lanzhou Valley, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous and particulate matter measurements were performed from January 1999 to December 2001 to assess seasonal and diurnal patterns of air pollutions in the Lanzhou Valley, China. The objectives are the determination of the temporal variability of total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and PM10 levels, and their relationship with the SO2 and NOx emissions and desert dust intrusions from the

Wanquan Ta; Tao Wang; Honglang Xiao; Xueyi Zhu; Zhen Xiao

2004-01-01

211

Underwater acoustic scattering from spherical particulates and bubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency underwater acoustic scattering from spherical particulates is examined theoretically for purposes of comparison with available data to develop conclusions on the types and magnitudes of scattering in various geographical regions. The simplifying assumptions of an ideal fluid sphere and isotropic medium conditions are employed in the derivation of the theoretical particulate scattering model. This theory is detailed here

K. B. Sullivan-Silva

1989-01-01

212

Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This is EPAâ??s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The developmen...

213

Metals in Particulate Pollutants Affect Peak Expiratory Flow of Schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The contribution of the metal components of particulate pollutants to acute respiratory effects has not been adequately evaluated. Moreover, little is known about the effects of genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolism on pulmonary function. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess lung function decrement associated with metal components in particulate pollutants and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and

Yun-Chul Hong; Seung-Sik Hwang; Jin Hee Kim; Kyoung-Ho Lee; Hyun-Jung Lee; Kwan-Hee Lee; Seung-Do Yu; Dae-Seon Kim

2006-01-01

214

Particulate deposition in direct fired MHD air preheaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model for the deposition of particulates on a tube wall in turbulent flow was developed. The model considered as transport mechanisms the turbulent diffusion of the particles in the radial direction and the bulk transport by the mean flow in the axial direction. An approximation of the turbulent diffusion coefficients of the particulates was made and includes the

C. K. Sande; H. W. Townes; T. C. Reihman

1977-01-01

215

Integration of Suspended Particulate Matter and Oil Transportation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the oil and suspended-particulate-matter interaction program is to describe and model the fate of oil in the water column when the presence of suspended particulate matter is considered. Oil exists in the water column as discrete droplets...

B. E. Kirstein C. Clary D. McNabb J. R. Clayton J. R. Payne

1985-01-01

216

Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize particulate emissions on the basis of chemical, physical, and optical properties from commercial vessels. Observations during the Texas Air Quality Study\\/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study 2006 field campaign provide chemical and physical characteristics including sulfate (SO42?) mass, organic matter (OM) mass, black carbon (BC) mass, particulate matter (PM) mass, number concentrations (condensation nuclei (CN) >

Daniel A. Lack; James J. Corbett; Timothy Onasch; Brian Lerner; Paola Massoli; Patricia K. Quinn; Timothy S. Bates; Derek Coffman; Berko Sierau; Scott Herndon; James Allan; Tahllee Baynard; Edward Lovejoy; A. R. Ravishankara; Eric Williams

2009-01-01

217

IMPACT OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATES ON PCB VOLATILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to experimentally quantify the mass of PCBs that can be transported from PCB-contaminated suspended particulate to the air phase under various conditions as a means of evaluating the mechanism and importance of suspended particulates in volatili...

218

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

219

The effect of spinal instrumentation particulate wear debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: The current study was undertaken to determine if the presence of spinal instrumentation wear particulate debris deleteriously influences early osseointegration of posterolateral bone graft or disrupts an established posterolateral fusion mass.Objectives: Using an in vivo animal model, the first phase (basic science) of this study was to evaluate the effect(s) of titanium wear particulate on a posterolateral spinal

Bryan W Cunningham; Carlos M Orbegoso; Anton E Dmitriev; Nadim J Hallab; John C Sefter; Paul Asdourian; Paul C McAfee

2003-01-01

220

The effect of spinal instrumentation particulate wear debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: The current study was undertaken to determine if the presence of spinal instrumentation wear particulate debris deleteriously influences early osseointegration of posterolateral bone graft or disrupts an established posterolateral fusion mass.Objectives: Using an in vivo animal model, the first phase (basic science) of this study was to evaluate the effect(s) of titanium wear particulate on a posterolateral spinal

Bryan W. Cunningham; Carlos M. Orbegoso; Anton E. Dmitriev; Nadim J. Hallab; John C. Sefter; Paul Asdourian; Paul C. McAfee

2002-01-01

221

Development of a particulate sulfate analyzer. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method of routinely measuring atmospheric particulate sulfates would not only promote a better understanding of a relationship between gaseous and particulate sulfur compound emissions and ambient sulfates, but would also provide a cost-effective means of monitoring compliance with air quality standards for sulfates. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop an analyzer that would be suitable for routine

P. K. Mueller; J. F. Collins

1980-01-01

222

Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

223

CONTROL OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN THE PRIMARY NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the symposium on 'Control of Particulate Emissions in the Primary Nonferrous Metals Industries' was to provide a forum for the exchange of knowledge and new ideas on particulate control technology with emphasis on industrial applications of environmental particulat...

224

Removal of SOx, NOx, and particulate from combusted carbonaceous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is a method for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate from the products of combusted carbonaceous fuels. Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate are currently discharged to the atmosphere as flue gas in quantities highly detrimental to the environment. Potassium compounds, as are found in agricultural grade potash, are dispersed throughout the combustion products at the exit

Dayen

1985-01-01

225

MULTIPLE SERIES CYCLONES FOR HIGH PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

226

Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of

Makiko Nakata; Tomio Nakano; Takaaki Okuhara; Itaru Sano; Sonoyo Mukai

2011-01-01

227

Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor  

DOEpatents

In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

Carl, Daniel E. (Orchard Park, NY)

1997-01-01

228

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

229

Protein particulate detection issues in biotherapeutics development--current status.  

PubMed

Formation of aggregates and particulates in biopharmaceutical formulation continues to be one of the major quality concerns in biotherapeutics development. The presence of large quantities of aggregates is believed to be one of the causes of unwanted immunogenic responses. Protein particulates can form in a wide range of sizes and shapes. Therefore, a comprehensive characterization of particulates in biologics formulation continues to be challenging. The quantity of small size aggregates (e.g., dimer) in a stable biologics formulation is well controlled using precision analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography). Particulate in clinical and commercial formulations is monitored using visual inspection and subvisible particulate counting assays. While visual inspection (by human eye or automated systems) is intended to detect particulates (intrinsic and extrinsic) of ~100 ?m or larger, the subvisible counting methods cover smaller size ranges down to 10 ?m. It is well recognized that research of particulates in the submicron (<1 ?m) and low-micron (1-10 ?m) ranges may provide important clues to understand the mechanism of particulate formation. The recent years have seen a significant increase in the development of newer technologies for more comprehensive characterization of particulates. This is attributed to increased awareness in this field of research over the past 5 years, stimulated by scholarly articles, commentaries, and robust discussions in various forums. This article provides an overview of emerging detection technologies that provide complementary characterization data encompassing a wider size range of particulates. It also discusses their advantages and limitations in the context of applications in biotherapeutics development. PMID:22566174

Das, Tapan K

2012-05-08

230

Toughening in ceramic particulate and whisker composites  

SciTech Connect

Composite strength and toughness data of nontransformation-toughened ceramic particulate composites (CPCs) are discussed and compared to the existing transformation-toughened composites. The ratio of strength (sigma) to fracture toughness (KIc) expressed as a function of the volume percent dispersed phase of the composite is of specific interest. The nontransformation-toughened CPCs show either crack pinning or microcrack generation or crack branching, with a corresponding inhibition of flaw generation from machining. Some whisker composites have a machining-flaw size mechanism similar to that of CPC. However, the indicated increase in KIc with the increase of the whisker diameter is contrary to the behavior of CPC and consistent with the crack-bridging mechanism. 79 refs.

Rice, R.W.

1990-08-01

231

Magnetic resonance studies of dissolving particulate solids.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance methods have been used to elucidate the internal pore structure of particulate solids, in particular detergent tablets. Such information is essential to a comprehensive understanding of the dissolution characteristics of these materials and how this property is related to processing conditions during tablet formation. In particular 3-D images of porosity are produced and 2-D self-diffusion maps are acquired as a function of observation time, which enables pore size to be quantified as a function of position via the extracted surface-to-volume ratio of the pore space. These properties are determined as a function of processing parameters, in particular the compression force used in tablet formation. PMID:12850743

Johns, M L; Gladden, L F

232

Infrared spectral behavior of fine particulate solids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transmission and emission spectra of clouds and layers of fine particulate samples of quartz, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide in the 6.5-35-??m wavelength range are presented. They demonstrate that the behavior of layers of particles constitutes a good analogue for a cloud of particles; that individual micrometer-sized particles emit most where they absorb most; that as the size of the particle is increased, the emission features reverse polarity and the spectrum approaches that of one obtained from a polished plate; and that as the particle layer-thickness increases, radiative interaction becomes increasingly important so that the emission maximum shifts from the strongest to weaker features, or produces a maximum at the Christiansen wavelength.

Hunt, G. R.

1976-01-01

233

Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses  

SciTech Connect

Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. the large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

NONE

1998-09-14

234

Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses  

SciTech Connect

Environmental cleanup and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

NONE

1998-09-14

235

Health effects of atmospheric particulates: a medical geology perspective.  

PubMed

In this review, atmospheric particulates as composite airborne earth materials often containing both natural and anthropogenic components were examined in the context of medical geology. Despite a vast number of both experimental and epidemiological studies confirming the direct and indirect links between atmospheric particulates and human health, the exact nature of mechanisms affecting the particulate-induced pathogenesis largely remains unexplored. Future in depth research on these areas would be most successful if potential mechanisms are examined with reference to the physical (e.g., size, shape and surface), chemical, mineralogical and source characteristics of particulate matters. The underlying goal of this review was to present the relevant terminology and processes proposed in the literature to explain the interfaces and interactions between atmospheric particles and human body within the framework of "atmospheric particle cycles." The complexities of the interactions were demonstrated through case studies focusing on particulate matter air pollution and malignant mesothelioma occurrences due to environmental exposure to erionite-a fibrous zeolite mineral. There is an urgent need for a standard protocol or speciation methods applicable to earth-materials to guide and streamline studies on etiology of mineral-induced diseases. This protocol or speciation methods should provide relevant procedures to determine the level and extent of physical, chemical and mineralogical heterogeneity of particulate matters as well as quantitative in-situ particulate characteristics. PMID:18322866

Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S

236

[Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].  

PubMed

Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1) varying regionally and seasonally due to the changes in specific composition, light and nutrient conditions. PMID:21428080

Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

2011-01-01

237

Propellant inefficiency due to particulates in a Pulsed Plasma Thruster  

SciTech Connect

Propellant inefficiency resulting from the ejection of propellant material in particulate form is characterized in a Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT). Exhaust deposits are collected and analyzed using a combination of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX), and microscopic imaging. Teflon particulates are observed with sizes ranging from over 100 {mu}m down to less than 1 {mu}m. Estimates of the mass entrained in this form show that the particulates may account for up to 30% of the total propellant mass used, indicating that methods of ameliorating this loss mechanism would result in significant improvements in the PPT thrust efficiency.

Spanjers, Gregory G.; Lotspeich, Jason S.; McFall, Keith A.; Spores, Ronald A. [Hughes STX Corporation Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Propulsion Directorate, OL-AC Phillips Laboratory Edwards AFB California 93524 (United States)

1997-01-10

238

Ultra fined-grained atmospheric particulate studied by magnetic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the result of an investigation on the presence of ultrafine atmospheric particulate in the urban area of Turin by magnetic methods. Magnetic minerals are a common component of atmospheric particulate, mostly arising from a number of anthropogenic activities. Atmospheric particulate is well known to represent a serious health problem in urban area and recently the attention focused especially on fine (< 2.5 ?m) and ultrafine (< 0.1 m) particulates which are proven to be particularly dangerous because if inhaled they penetrate deep and reach lungs alveoli. In the last few years number studies took advantage of magnetic techniques to successfully identify atmospheric particulate matter through the magnetic analysis, however they did not draw much attention to the grain size problem. Indeed magnetic techniques have the ability to distinguish very fine-grained material by using the thermal relaxation effect and thus they potentially constitute a useful analysis tool to recognize ultrafine fractions of atmospheric particulate. We have performed low and room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and hysteresis loop measurements on atmospheric particulate samples in order to estimate the concentration of fine and ultrafine particles. Magnetic mineralogy was studied using IRM at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Low temperature hysteresis and thermomagnetic curves were used study the grain size distribution that showed the presence of a mixture of low-coercivity particles, magnetite-like, and a variable grain-size populations. Samples were taken from filters collecting particulates matter with diameter < 10 µm (PM10) in different city areas, the particulate mass on the filter was also measured. Results confirm the general correlation between magnetization and concentration of particulate in air. The comparison between suburban and high-traffic area also support the previous finding that anthropogenic particulate has a large concentration of magnetic minerals compared to natural sources. Moreover the low temperature measurements have shown the presence of a relevant amount of ultrafine particles which are superparamagnetic at room temperature, their concentration increase in areas of high traffic and also appear to be related to anthropogenic sources. The magnetization carried by of ultrafine particles is site dependent but always larger than room temperature magnetization suggesting that about 60-70% of the particulate matter in urban area is made of ultrafine particles of nanometric size (< 30 nm). At given environmental conditions (site) the ratio between superparamagnetic and stable single domain magnetizations was found to remain fairly constant over time, thus allowing effortless predictions.

Saragnese, F.; Lanci, L.; Lanza, R.

2009-04-01

239

Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these units in the U.S. and Europe. Ecolnstal, a leading supplier of environmental equipment in Poland, is licensed to sell the Core Separator, and will support LSR as a subcontractor. The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), located in Katowice, is a consulting organization with extensive expertise in the Polish economy and natural environment. FEWE is also a subcontractor to LSR. This project will be divided into three major phases. Phase 1 is called `Infrastructure Studies` and will includes business planning, and site-selection of a full- scale Core Separator Demonstration Unit. Phase 2, called `Commercial Development,` includes the first Demonstration Unit in a local boilerhouse, followed by several Core Separator installations collecting flyash from different Polish coals. Also, a manufacturing facility is to be equipped to accommodate the projected sales volume. If the goals of this project are met and the Core Separator can be successfully marketed, there is a potential to significantly reduce particulate emissions in Krakow.

Hucko, R.E.

1997-01-20

240

Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these units in the U.S. and Europe. Ecolnstal, a leading supplier of environmental equipment in Poland, is licensed to sell the Core Separator, and will support LSR as a subcontractor. The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), located in Katowice, is a consulting organization with extensive expertise in the Polish economy and natural environment. FEWE is also be a subcontractor to LSR. This project will be divided into three major phases. Phase 1 is called `Infrastructure Studies` and includes business planning, and site-selection of a full-scale Core Separator Demonstration Unit. Phase 2, called `Commercial Development,` includes the first Demonstration Unit in a local boilerhouse, followed by several Core Separator installations collecting flyash from different Polish coals. Also, a manufacturing facility is to be equipped to accommodate the projected sales volume. If the goals of this project are met and the Core Separator can be successfully marketed, there is a potential to significantly reduce particulate emissions in Krakow.

Hucko, R.E.

1997-04-30

241

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

SciTech Connect

This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at Karhula. Key test results showed that property degradation occurred during service at Karhula but less degradation than was seen in Schumacher F40 and Pall 442T. Creep continues to be observed in tests at 1600 `F and above and was observed at 1562 `F in service at Karhula. Microstructural evaluations of FT20 and 326 materials have shown that the behavior of these materials is controlled by the ceramic binders and that the binders are still glass limited. These results were presented in a poster session and a paper written for the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference.

NONE

1998-09-01

242

Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of entrained particles generated by advanced coal conversion technologies and the harsh flue gas environments from which these particles must be removed challenge current ceramic barrier filtration systems. Measurements have shown that the size distribution, morphology, and chemical composition of particles generated by pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification processes differ significantly from the corresponding characteristics of conventional pulverized-coal ash particles. The entrained particulate matter from these advanced conversion technologies often comprise fine size distributions, irregular particle morphologies, high specific surface areas, and significant proportions of added sorbent material. These characteristics can create high ash cohesivity and high pressure losses through the filter cakes. In addition, the distributions of chemical constituents among the collected particles provide local, highly concentrated chemical species that promote reactions between adjacent particles that ultimately cause strong, nodular deposits to form in the filter vessel. These deposits can lead directly to bridging and filter element failure. This project is designed to address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic filter elements. The activities conducted under Task 1, Assessment of Ash Characteristics, are discussed in this paper. Activities conducted under Task 2, Testing and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters, are discussed in a separate paper included in the proceedings of the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference. The specific objectives of Task I include the generation of a data base of the key characteristics of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and the identification of relationships between HGCU ash properties and the operation and performance of APFS. During the past year, particulate samples have been characterized from the DOE/FETC Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR), the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC), the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), and gasification studies conducted by Herman Research Pty. Ltd. (HRL) of Melbourne, Australia. This paper discusses these analyses and also presents a coherent mechanism describing how and why consolidated ash deposits form in PFBC filter vessels. This description is based on site observations made at the Tidd PFBC, field and laboratory analyses of ashes and nodules collected from Grimethorpe, Tidd and Karhula, and a review of literature describing eutectic formation, sintering, and consolidation of boiler tube deposits.

Potius, D.; Snyder, T.

1997-07-01

243

Certification of a Diesel Particulate Related Standard Reference Material (SRM 1975) for PAHs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) are Certified Reference Materials issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Three of these materials, SRMs 1975 (Diesel Particulate Extract), 2975 (Diesel Particulate Matter, Industrial Forklift), and 1650 (Diesel Particulate Matter) are diesel particulate-related materials that are well characterized for PAH isomer distributions. SRM 1975 is a methylene chloride extract of industrial forklift

Dianne L. Poster; Maria J. Lopez de alda; Michele M. Schantz; Mark G. Vangel; Stephen A. Wise

1999-01-01

244

Spectral Properties of Ice-Particulate Mixtures and Implications for Remote Sensing 1. Intimate Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral properties of water ice-particulate mixtures are studied for the purpose of deriving the ice and particulate abundances from remotely obtained spectra (particulates referring to nonicy materials in the form of grains). Reflectance levels and ice absorption band depths are a complex function of the single scattering albedo of the particulates embedded in the ice. The ice absorption band

Roger N. Clark; Paul G. Lucey

1984-01-01

245

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Copper Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2013-07-01

246

Comparison of Methods for Measuring Concentrations of Semivolatile Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a s...

J. Jetter Z. Guo J. McBrian M. Flynn

2002-01-01

247

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter. (a)...

2013-07-01

248

Respiratory Disease in Children Exposed to Sulfur Oxides and Particulates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acute lower respiratory disease was surveyed by questionnaire among parents of 10,000 children aged 1 to 12 years in two Southeastern communities representing intermediate and high exposures to particulates and low sulfur dioxide levels. Morbidity reporti...

D. I. Hammer

1977-01-01

249

40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1081 Control strategy: Particulate...determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Maryland portion of the Metropolitan Washington...5 nonattainment area of Baltimore, Maryland has attained the 1997 annual...

2013-07-01

250

CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of emerging diesel particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity o...

251

INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

252

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Secondary Brass and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which...

2010-07-01

253

Effect of Industrial Particulate Samples on Alveolar Macrophages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Toxic ranking of the <3 micrometer size fraction of particulate samples by in vitro rabbit alveolar macrophage assay showed generally low to intermediate cytotoxicity for samples obtained from a steel foundry, an electric arc furnace steel plant and from ...

C. Aranyi

1981-01-01

254

JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

Stanley Miller

2008-10-31

255

Mechanisms of Particulate Toxicity: Health Effects in Susceptible Humans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Particulate air pollution is an issue of global health importance, being a major component of air pollution, and having been associated with increased human cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. Individuals with asthma could be particularly susceptib...

C. Solomon J. R. Balmes K. Power L. Miller

2004-01-01

256

40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

2013-07-01

257

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2013-07-01

258

40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...discharge into the atmosphere from a reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or...

2013-07-01

259

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2013-07-01

260

CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

261

40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy: Total suspended particulates... (2) The proposed regulations will be published in the Colorado Register by March 10, 1981. (3) Public hearing will...

2013-07-01

262

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed below. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I - EP...

263

Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1.

Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

1995-01-01

264

AIRWAY EPITHELIAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS: ROLE OF METAL INTERACTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated positive associations with particulate matter (PM) air pollution and daily respiratory morbidity - including exacerbations of asthma. Data are needed to elucidate which PM subcomponents may be mediating disease exacerbation in ind...

265

Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

266

40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Hot Mix Asphalt Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance...

2013-07-01

267

40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sampled by background particulate sampler, cubic feet. (ii) Pib = Pressure elevation above ambient measured at the inlet...most gas meters or flow instruments with unrestricted discharge, Pib is negligible and can be assumed = 0.) (iii) Tib...

2009-07-01

268

40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sampled by background particulate sampler, cubic feet. (ii) Pib = Pressure elevation above ambient measured at the inlet...most gas meters or flow instruments with unrestricted discharge, Pib is negligible and can be assumed = 0.) (iii) Tib...

2010-07-01

269

An Investigation of Corrosion in Particulate Control Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the results of an investigation of corrosion problems in particulate control equipment. During the investigation, corrosion problems in 38 fabric filters, wet scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators were observed and 7 control equ...

T. E. Mappes R. D. Tems

1981-01-01

270

Impact of Stone Quarry Operations on Particulate Levels and Comments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) has performed dispersion modeling analyses that have indicated that fugitive dust emissions from quarries contribute to violations of particulate standards in several nonattainment areas throughout the s...

W. Zyznieuski

1983-01-01

271

High Efficiency Particulate Removal with Sintered Metal Filters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Tran...

B. E. Kirstein W. J. Paplawsky D. T. Pence T. G. Hedahl

1981-01-01

272

PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives highlights of a major EPA research program on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology, directed toward improving the performance of ESPs in controlling industrial particulate emissions, notably fly ash from coal combustion in electric power plants. Relationsh...

273

Combined PIXE, RBS and NRA analysis of aerosol particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some new results obtained at CISE which show the application of PIXE to environmental studies are described. The use of complementary PIXE, RBS and NRA techniques for a complete characterization of particulate matter is discussed.

Boni, C.; Marcazzan, G. M. Braga; Caruso, E.; Cereda, E.; Redaelli, P.

1986-04-01

274

PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

275

40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: Particulate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1341 Control strategy: Particulate. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

2013-07-01

276

40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Delaware § 52.427 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of...

2013-07-01

277

Response of Particulate Optical Properties to Coastal Mixing Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our long term goals are to develop a better understanding of the relationships between upper ocean optical properties and particulate and dissolved seawater constituents, and to determine how these relationships are influenced by physical processes. Speci...

H. M. Sosik R. J. Olson

1998-01-01

278

Novel optical scattering collection system for particulate monitoring applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Light collecting systems often require radically different optical surfaces than those commonly found in optical imaging systems. An optical particulate monitor must probe a volume in emission stacks to obtain a good statistical distribution of suspended ...

B. E. Bernacki A. C. Miller R. J. Nuspliger

1996-01-01

279

Control Technologies for Particulate and Tar Emissions from Coal Converters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce t...

C. Chen C. Koralek L. Breitstein

1979-01-01

280

Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

2011-01-01

281

FIELD EVALUATION OF AN AUTOISOKINETIC STACK PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...

282

Fine particulate matter measurements during the Houston Fine Particulate Matter Supersite Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf Coast Aerosol Research and Characterization Program (GC-ARCH) was established in southeast Texas as one of USEPA's fine particulate matter supersite programs. This 16-month program started in August 2000 (in parallel with the Texas Air Quality Study) and added several monitoring sites for particulate matter to the existing network in Texas. There are 62 sites statewide that have measured total PM2.5 mass (19 in southeast Texas) according to the federal reference methods (FRM) since 1999. Samples from 13 sites (8 in southeast Texas) have also been subject to chemical speciation to determine the composition of fine particulate matter in the state. In addition to FRM monitoring, several continuous TEOM monitors continuously measure PM2.5 mass in the state. This paper presents an overview of the FRM PM2.5 data, the chemical speciation PM2.5 data and the TEOM data in Texas. This analysis complements data from a 1997-1998 PM2.5 study performed by the Houston Regional Monitoring Network and PM2.5 chemical composition data by other researchers from GC-ARCH. The findings are the first step in establishing a conceptual model for PM2.5 formation in Texas. There are strong diurnal patterns observed in PM2.5 mass at sites in southeast Texas that may not be reflected in the 24-hour average FRM data. The predominant chemical components of PM2.5 throughout the state are sulfates and organic carbon. Ozone season PM2.5 levels tend to be higher in total mass but also in the major components: sulfates and organic carbon. This suggests that the secondary components of PM2.5 are important contributors to elevated PM2.5 levels. Both the FRM data and TEOM also reflect strong primary source influences when biomass burning is known to occur in the region.

Allen, D. T.; Russell, M.

2002-05-01

283

Applying CVD Diamond and Particulate Nanodiamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanometer scale diamond tip emitters for cold cathodes are being developed as (a) vertical and (b) lateral diamond vacuum field emission devices. These diamond field emission devices, diode and triode, were fabricated with a self-aligning gate formation technique from silicon-on-insulator wafers using variations of silicon micropatterning techniques. High emission current, > 0.1A was achieved from the vertical diamond field emission diode with an indented anode design. The gated diamond triode in vertical configuration displayed excellent transistor characteristics with high DC gain of ˜ 800 and large AC output voltage of ˜ 100 V p-p. Lateral diamond field emission diodes with cathode-anode spacing less than 2 ?m were fabricated. The lateral diamond emitter exhibited a low turn-on voltage of ˜ 5 V and a high emission current of 6 ?A. The low turn-on voltage (field ˜ 3 V/?m) and high emission characteristics are the best of reported lateral field emitter structures. We are also examining particulate nanodiamond for thermal conductivity enhancement of dielectric oils. We have observed that a dispersion of nanodiamond (particle size circa < 5 nm) can increase the overall thermal conductivity of cooling oils such as used in power transformers by over 25%.

Davidson, J. L.; Kang, W. P.

284

Polymer particulates control fluid loss during well completions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its Gulf of Mexico operations, Chevron U.S.A. Production Co. has effectively controlled completion fluid loss to the formation by including nondamaging, soluble particulates (NSP) in the fluid. In seven Chevron wells recently completed in the Gulf of Mexico, fluid loss dropped to very low levels or zero with NSP included in the completion fluid. Conventional particulate-based, fluid-loss control methods

S. A. Ali; P. D. Nguyen; J. D. Weaver

1997-01-01

285

Environmental occurrence of nitrotriphenylene observed in airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

1- and 2-Nitrotriphenylenes were found in the airborne particulate matter extracts collected in central Tokyo between the winter of 1998 and the winter of 1999. In particular, we have identified and quantified nitrotriphenylenes in the airborne particulate matter extracts collected over four consecutive 6-h periods on 2 December 1999. The concentrations of 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene ranged from 0.04 to 0.44

Satoko Ishii; Yoshiharu Hisamatsu; Koji Inazu; Ken-ichi Aika

2001-01-01

286

K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior  

SciTech Connect

This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

DUNCAN, D.R.

1999-02-25

287

Low-particulate IDI diesel uses ceramic swirl chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing demands have been placed on emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks using diesel engines. In the U.S., an 0.2 g\\/mile particulate emission standard is mandatory starting with the 1987 model year. Two approaches to meeting this requirement are: filtration methods which trap engine-out particulate, and engine modification techniques which improve combustion and reduce such emissions. The filtration (and

S. Sakurai; T. Matsuoka; Y. Tsukawaki; K. Shimono; M. Shigetsu; M. Takatoo; Y. Ogawa; T. Ogasawara

1986-01-01

288

Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology  

PubMed Central

Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels.

Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

2011-01-01

289

Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Gas-particulate Flow around Breathing Human and Particulate Inhalation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to predict the environment around the breathing human because inhalation of virus (avian influenza, SARS) is recently severe worldwide problem, and air pollution caused by diesel emission particle (DEP) and asbestos attract a great deal of attention. In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to predict unsteady flows around a breathing human and how suspended particulate matter (SPM, diameter~1 ?m) reaches the human nose in inhalation and exhalation. In the calculation, we find out smaller breathing angle and the closer distance between the human nose and pollutant region are effective in the inhalation of SPM.

Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

2006-05-01

290

Size- and structure-dependent toxicity of silica particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano- and micro-particulates firmly attach with the surface of various biological systems. In some chronic pulmonary disease such as asbestosis and silicosis, causative particulates will induce chronic inflammatory disorder, followed by poor prognosis diseases. However, nano- and micro-scale specific toxicity of silica particulates is not well examined enough to recognize the risk of nano- and micro-particulates from the clinical aspect. To clarify the effect of the size and structure of silica particulates on the cellular damage and the biological response, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the various kinds of silica particles including amorphous and crystalline silica, in mouse alveolar macrophage culture, focusing on the fibrotic and inflammatory response. Our study showed that the cytotoxicity, which depends on the particle size and surface area, is correlated with their inflammatory response. By contrast, production of TGF-?, which is one of the fibrotic agents in lung, by addition of crystal silica was much higher than that of amorphous silica. We conclude that fibrosis and inflammation are induced at different phases and that the size- and structure-differences of silica particulates affect the both biological responses, caused by surface activity, radical species, and so on.

Hanada, Sanshiro; Miyaoi, Kenichi; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kenji

2011-02-01

291

Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-10-01

292

Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

2006-12-15

293

PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

294

Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130–270?m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15–30nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal

Anthi Liati; Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler

2010-01-01

295

Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively

Anthi Liati; Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler

2010-01-01

296

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter  

SciTech Connect

Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2001-03-05

297

Major components of China's anthropogenic primary particulate emissions.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the first comprehensive estimates of particulate emissions in China by size distribution and major components. Using a technology-based emission inventory approach, we are able to classify particulate emissions into three size ranges, TSP, PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, and identify the contributions of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), Ca and Mg. Total particulate emissions are estimated to be 27.4 Tg for the year 2001, of which 17.8 Tg are PM{sub 10} and 12.7 Tg are PM{sub 2.5}. Industrial processes are the major sources of particles over all three size ranges, but residential biofuel use and transportation sources become increasingly important for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}. The industrialized coastal provinces, such as Shandong, Jiangsu and Hebei, are the major sources of particulate emissions. The industrialized and developing regions show different characteristic emission ratios of PM{sub 2.5}/TSP, (BC+OC)/PM{sub 2.5} and (Ca+Mg)/TSP. In the future, we can expect significant reductions in primary particulate emissions and major changes in the patterns of size and species.

Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; He, K.; Klimont, Z.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis

2007-10-01

298

Particulates from PTFE degradation in terrestrial and microgravity.  

PubMed

It has recently been discovered that the ultrafine particles generated during polymer thermodegradation are a major health hazard, owing to their unique pathway of processing in the lung. This hazard in manned spacecraft is poorly understood because the particulate products of polymer thermodegradation are generated under low gravity conditions. Particulates generated from the degradation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), insulation coating for 20 AWG copper wire (representative of spacecraft application) under intense current overload, were studied in terrestrial gravity and microgravity. Microgravity tests were done in a 1.2-s drop tower at the Colorado School of Mines. Thermophoretic sampling was used for particulate collection. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the smoke particulates. The pigmentation of PTFE insulation seems to have an overwhelming effect on size, shape and morphology of the particulate. Nanometer-sized particles were found in all cases, but their extent of aggregation and size distribution were dependent on both PTFE pigmentation and gravity; higher aggregation occurred in low gravity. Four different color insulations (viz. white, black, red and yellow) were studied. PMID:10332948

Srivastava, R; McKinnon, J T; Todd, P

1999-05-01

299

Photochemical reactions of particulate organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon contained in suspended, coastal marine sediments photochemically dissolves under high doses of artificial sunlight in the laboratory, suggesting that sunlight might induce large changes in the form and fate of organic matter present in suspended particles along turbid, low-latitude coastlines. The primary goal of the work presented here was to develop a quantitative method of predicting the particulate organic carbon (POC) "photodissolution" rate in the coastal waters of Louisiana near the deltas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Pursuit of this objective required measurements of the reaction rate and apparent quantum yield, determination of sediment light absorption properties, and development of a novel method to retrieve the optical properties of coastal water from remotely-sensed reflectance measurements. This dissertation first describes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) production and oxygen consumption accompanying photodissolution. The ratio of DIC production to O2 consumption was lower for POC than in previously-described reactions of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), suggesting greater photochemical incorporation of oxygen into organic matter. Particle light absorption properties control, in part, the rate of photodissolution. Absorption coefficients of suspended sediment samples from the study region are a weak function of organic carbon content but a strong function of reducible iron content. Photodissolution rate measurements and radiative transfer modeling were used to determine the wavelength-dependent apparent quantum yield for the reaction and to constrain the temperature dependence and sample composition-induced variability in the rate. Initial photodissolution rates scaled linearly with the reducible iron content of sediments but the rate was independent of composition over longer periods. High spatial-resolution optical properties of study region waters were obtained from a novel satellite reflectance inversion calibrated using the local mass-normalized optical properties of suspended sediments. Lab-based photodissolution rate measurements were scaled to match field optical conditions determined from available satellite observations. Empirical relationships between local weather and the satellite-based photodissolution predictions allowed estimates of rates on days without satellite imagery. Annually-integrated rates were small relative to river POC inputs, but results suggested photodissolution rates similar in magnitude to CDOM photoreactions.

Estapa, Margaret L.

300

On-road particulate emission measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere has harmful health effects, contributes to visibility impairment, and affects atmospheric radiative transfer, thereby contributing to global change. Vehicles contribute substantially to the ambient PM concentration in urban areas, yet the fraction of ambient PM originating from vehicle emissions is poorly characterized because suitable measurement methods have not been available. This dissertation describes the development and the use of a new vehicle emission remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of PM emission factors for vehicles. The PM VERSS measures PM by ultraviolet backscattering and transmission. PM backscattering and transmission mass efficiencies have been calculated from Mie theory based on an homogeneous spherical model for gasoline particles and on a two-layers, spherical model for diesel particles. The VERSS was used in a large-scale study in Las Vegas, NV. A commercial gaseous VERSS was used for the measurement of gaseous emission factors (i.e., carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide). Speed and acceleration were also measured for each vehicle. A video image of each vehicle's rear license plate was acquired and license plate numbers were matched with the Clark County department of motor vehicle database to retrieve vehicle information such as model year, vehicle weight category and engine ignition type. PM VERSS has precisely estimated PM fleet average emission factors and clearly shown the dependence of PM emission factors on vehicle model year. Under mostly hot-stabilized operation, diesel vehicle PM emission factors are about 25 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles. Furthermore, the fleet frequency distributions of PM emission factors are highly skewed, meaning that most of the fleet emission factor is accounted for by a small portion of the fleet. The PM VERSS can measure PM emission factors for these high emitting vehicles on an individual basis. PM emission factors measured during this study are comparable to results of previous studies. Gaseous emissions in Las Vegas are similar to those in other urban areas in the United States. For individual vehicles, the pollutants do not correlate well with each other, however averaged data clearly show functional relationships.

Mazzoleni, Claudio

301

Source and occurrence of particulate lead in tap water.  

PubMed

Lead samples were collected at the tap from homes with lead service lines (LSLs) in a full-scale utility using both random daytime (RDT) and particulate stimulation sampling (PSS) protocols. Analysis of the results revealed two sources and occurrences of particulate lead. A first source is due to corrosion of lead-bearing elements in the premise plumbing (PP) and occurs mostly at low to moderate concentrations < 3 microg/L, with some sporadic higher concentrations (4-12 microg/L). These spikes were consistently observed and considerably increased using PSS, showing that current sampling protocols may miss a significant portion of particulate lead. The second source results from the adsorption of dissolved lead onto iron deposits in LSL/PP, and is continuously present at low to moderate concentrations. Statistical analyses were validated by physical analyses of: (i) lead scales from LSLs; and (ii) lead particles from tap aerators. PMID:20546838

Deshommes, Elise; Laroche, Laurent; Nour, Shokoufeh; Cartier, Clément; Prévost, Michèle

2010-04-24

302

Effective thermal conductivity of particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is introduced for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of arbitrary particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance in terms of an effective medium approach combined with the essential concept of Kapitza thermal contact resistance. Results of the present model are compared to existing models and available experimental results. The proposed approach rediscovers the existing theoretical results for simple limiting cases. The comparisons between the predicted and experimental results of particulate diamond reinforced ZnS matrix and cordierite matrix composites and the particulate SiC reinforced Al matrix composite show good agreement. Numerical calculations of these different sets of composites show very interesting predictions concerning the effects of the particle shape and size and the interfacial thermal resistance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Nan, C.; Birringer, R. [FB 10.3 Technische Physik, Universtaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Clarke, D.R. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Gleiter, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, D-76021 (Germany)

1997-05-01

303

Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a) arrangement and movement of particles in a solid, liquid and gas and (b) application of particulate ideas to explain phase changes. In addition to questionnaires, semi-structured interviews were carried out with pupils. Results indicated that many pupils, even older ones, had difficulties in applying the particulate theory to explain phase changes despite science teaching. The study has several implications for both teachers and curriculum designers.

Boz, Yezdan

2006-04-01

304

Metals in Particulate Pollutants Affect Peak Expiratory Flow of Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of the metal components of particulate pollutants to acute respiratory effects has not been adequately evaluated. Moreover, little is known about the effects of genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolism on pulmonary function. Objectives This study was conducted to assess lung function decrement associated with metal components in particulate pollutants and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1. Methods We studied 43 schoolchildren who were in the 3rd to 6th grades. Each student measured peak expiratory flow rate three times a day for 42 days. Particulate air concentrations were monitored every day, and the concentrations of iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and aluminum in the particles were measured. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms were determined using DNA extracted from participant buccal washings. We used a mixed linear regression model to estimate the association between peak expiratory flow rate and particulate air pollutants. Results We found significant reduction in the peak expiratory flow rate after the children’s exposure to particulate pollutants. The effect was shown most significantly 1 day after exposure to the ambient particles. Manganese and lead in the particles also reduced the peak expiratory flow rate. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 did not significantly affect peak expiratory flow rate. Conclusions This study demonstrated that particulate pollutants and metals such as manganese and lead in the particles are associated with a decrement of peak expiratory flow rate. These effects were robust even with consideration of genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase.

Hong, Yun-Chul; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Dae-Seon

2007-01-01

305

IMPACT OF ENGINE OIL CONSUMPTION ON PARTICULATE EMISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

By October 2005, Euro 4 emission limits will be introduced in Europe for on-road trucks, reducing the particulate emissions from 0.10 g\\/kW-hr to 0.02\\/0.03 g\\/kW-hr, as measured over the European ESC\\/ETC cycles. By 2007, the US EPA 2007 emission limits will be introduced in the States for on-road trucks, reducing the particulate emissions from 0.10 g\\/bhp-hr to 0.01 g\\/bhp-hr, as

Kent Froelund; Ertan Yilmaz

306

Research priorities for airborne particulates matter in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial progress in reducing air pollution over the past 30 years, particulates remain a poorly understood health concern that requires further study. The article provides a brief overview of the work of an independent National Research Council (NRC) Committee on particulate matter (PM). It highlights the committee's process for developing during its deliberations. It reflects on the committee as a potential model to provide guidance on a broad research area in which findings may have significant policy implications. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Samet, J.; Wassle, R.; Holmes, K.J.; Abt, E.; Bakshi, K. [John Hopkins University (US). Bloomberg School of Public Health

2005-07-15

307

Nano-particulate coating on cotton fabric through DBD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma polymerization of fluorocarbon was processed through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A thin hydrophobic film packed with nano-particulate structure was obtained on cotton fabric surface. The contact angle of the water and 1-bromonaphthalene on coated cotton fabric was 133° and 124° separately. The surface morphology of the coating was observed through SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope). It was found that cotton fabric surface was tightly adhered to a thin film packed by nano-particles from 10nm to 200nm. This process showed potential applications in continuous coating of textiles with functional nano-particulate polymers, but without changing their softness performance.

Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jinzhou; Zhou, Rongming; Yu, Jianyong

2008-03-01

308

Toxicological Assessment of Particulate Emissions from the Exhaust of Old and New Model Heavy- and Light-Duty Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this project is to develop an improved understanding of the factors affecting the toxicology of particulate exhaust emissions. Diesel particulate matter is a known carcinogen, and particulate exhaust emissions from both light-duty...

A. Polidori C. Sioutas K. Moore

2011-01-01

309

40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...secondary standards, particulate matter is measured in the ambient air...comparisons with the particulate matter standards, all data produced by State and Local Air Monitoring Stations...violation of the particulate matter standards....

2013-07-01

310

CONVERSATION OF DISSOLVED MANGANESE TO PARTICULATE MANGANESE DURING DIATOM BLOOM: EFFECTS ON THE MANGANESE CYCLE IN THE MERL MICROCOSMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Conversion of dissolved manganese to particulate manganese occurred during a minor diatom bloom during August and September 1978 in the MERL microcosms. Correlations between chlorophyll a and particulate manganese suggest that 29 moles Mn were transferred to the particulate phase...

311

Characterization of Particulate Aluminas and Use in Evaluating Sintering Characteristics and Theory of the Initial Stage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports the use of the methods developed for complete morphological particulate characterization on a series of alumina powders with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). An attempt is made at correlating the appropriate particulate character...

L. Tarhay W. R. Buessem E. W. White

1975-01-01

312

DETERMINATION OF BENZIDINE, RELATED CONGENERS, AND PIGMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods for the determination of benzidine, related congeners, and pigments in atmospheric particulate matter, based on high performance liquid chromatography, are described. The methods are evaluated using National Bureau of Standards atmospheric particulate matter, as well as f...

313

42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...elements (filters) to remove particulates from the ambient air. They are designed for use as respiratory protection against atmospheres with particulate contaminants (e.g., dusts, fumes, mists) that are not immediately dangerous to life or health...

2011-10-01

314

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for particulate matter from glass melting furnace] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes. (a) An owner or operator of a glass melting furnaces with modified-...

2009-07-01

315

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES ON COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of fine particulate from coal-fired utility boilers, using electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. It provides guidelines to utility personnel, responsible for selecting fine particulate control equipment, on signifi...

316

Effect of Particulates on Ozone Disinfection of Bacteria and Viruses in Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research was initiated in order to determine the effect of particulates on ozone disinfection of enteric bacteria and viruses adsorbed to or incorporated into particulate materials such as fecal material, HEp-2 cells, aluminum oxide floc and bentonite...

O. J. Sproul C. E. Buck M. A. Emerson D. Boyce D. Walsh

1979-01-01

317

77 FR 50378 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY...fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of...RFP) plan, contingency measures, a 2002 base year emissions inventory and...

2012-08-21

318

A Review of Particulate Matter and Health: Focus on Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden of ill human health attributable to particulate air pollution is a critical problem of growing concern. In developing countries it is not uncommon to experience today the same particulate matter levels that characterized the devastating \\

Lily Panyacosit

2000-01-01

319

40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.62 Section 52.62...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated May 29, 1987, the Alabama Department of Health and Environmental...

2013-07-01

320

40 CFR 52.2130 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.2130 Section 52...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In letters dated May 7...South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control...

2013-07-01

321

40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638 Section 52.1638 ...particulate matter (PM10 ) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988...for Bernalillo County that contained commitments, from the Director of the...

2013-07-01

322

Trends in atmospheric ammonia and particulate ammonium concentrations in Sweden and its causes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily average air concentrations of ammonia plus particulate ammonium, nitric acid plus particulate nitrate, sulphur dioxide and particulate sulphate have been measured at four EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) sites in Sweden since 1986. From 1993 sampling was made with a filter pack that separates the gaseous and particulate forms. The separation is not perfect, but fairly good when compared to a denuder. The same filter pack was used for monthly measurements at four high altitude sites in the Swedish mountain areas. The concentration of particulate ammonium decreases more rapidly than the ammonia emissions in Sweden and neighbouring countries while the ammonia concentration increases. Particulate ammonium is mainly long-range transported from the continent to the southern parts of Sweden, while gaseous ammonia comes from all directions. The particulate ammonium concentrations are charged balanced with particulate sulphate and nitrate concentrations and the long-range transport is therefore limited by the availability of these anions.

Ferm, Martin; Hellsten, Sofie

2012-12-01

323

Worker exposure to chemical agents in the manufacture of rubber tires and tubes: particulates  

SciTech Connect

The Occupational Health Studies Group industrial hygiene studies at a group of 14 tire and tube manufacturing plants chosen to represent a cross-section of the industry include numerous evaluations of potential exposure to airborne particulate matter. Results of these environmental particulate sampling studies are reported by plant and by occupational groups within plants. High volume, open face and cyclone samplers were employed to evaluate both personnel and area particulate concentrations. The concentrations of particulates yielded by high volume and open face total particulate samplers are compared with those of comparison samples of respirable material. Personnel samples of particulates are compared with general air samples taken in the same work area. An overall review and comparison is given of particulate exposures to workers in various occupational title groups where particulate materials are released to the air from processes or operations.

Williams, T.M.; Harris, R.L.; Arp, E.W.; Symons, M.J.; Van Ert, M.D.

1980-03-01

324

Estimates of Particulate Mass for an MCO Containing Mark 1A Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High, best estimate, and low values are given for particulate inventories within an MCO basket containing freshly cleaned Mark 1A fuel. The findings are compared with the estimates of particulate inventories for an MCO basket containing freshly cleaned Ma...

H. A. Wyman

1999-01-01

325

Determination of Methyl-Substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Particulate-Related Standard Reference Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of methyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three diesel particulate-related Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been determined using multiple methods of analysis. These three SRMs--SRM 1650a, Diesel Particulate Matter; SRM 2975, Diesel Particulate Matter (Industrial Forklift); and SRM 1975, Diesel Particulate Extract--were recently issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Each material has certified and reference

Dianne L. Poster; Bruce A. Benner Jr; Michele M. Schantz; Stephen A. Wise; Mark G. Vangel

2003-01-01

326

Urban aerosol particulates on Hong Kong roadsides: size distribution and concentration levels with time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study on particulate matter from vehicle emission was carried out at roadsides in Hong Kong downtown area. The\\u000a study aims to explore the variations of particulate matter at roadsides in morning and afternoon. Data of concentrations of\\u000a different size groups of particulate matter were collected and analyzed. It was found that the particulate levels generally\\u000a vary periodically with

He Hong-di; Lu Wei-Zhen

327

HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL REQUIREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews and evaluates high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup requirements of existing and proposed energy processes. The study's aims are to define specific high-temperature and high-pressure particle removal problems, to indicate potential solutions, a...

328

Twenty years of experience with particulate silicone in plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of particulate silicone in plastic surgery involves the introduction of solid silicone into the body. The silicone is in small pieces in order for it to adapt to the shape of the defect. This way large quantities can be introduced through small incisions. It is also possible to distribute the silicone particles from outside the skin to make

Jaime Planas; Carlos del Cacho

1992-01-01

329

COLLECTION, CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION, AND MUTAGENICITY BIOASSAY OF AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of industrialization and consequent increased concentration of urban particulate matter on the incidence of cancer has long been a concern. The first bioassays used to evaluate complex ambient air samples were whole-animal carcinogenesis bioassays. In these studies,...

330

Effective thermal conductivity of particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is introduced for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of arbitrary particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance in terms of an effective medium approach combined with the essential concept of Kapitza thermal contact resistance. Results of the present model are compared to existing models and available experimental results. The proposed approach rediscovers the existing theoretical results for simple limiting

Ce-Wen Nan; R. Birringer; David R. Clarke; H. Gleiter

1997-01-01

331

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s particulate cleanup program  

SciTech Connect

The development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) power systems has made it possible to use coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems significantly reduce the pollutants associated with coal-fired plants built before the 1970s. This superior environmental performance and related high system efficiency is possible, in part, because particulate gas-stream cleanup is conducted at high-temperature and high-pressure process conditions. A main objective of the Particulate Cleanup Program at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to ensure the success of the CCT demonstration projects. METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program supports research, development, and demonstration in three areas: (1) filter-system development, (2) barrier-filter component development, and (3) ash and char characterization. The support is through contracted research, cooperative agreements, Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs), and METC`s own in-house research. This paper describes METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program.

Dennis, R.A.

1995-12-01

332

Coupled Particulate and Continuum Model for Nanoparticle Targeted Delivery.  

PubMed

Prediction of nanoparticle (NP) distribution in a vasculature involves transport phenomena at various scales and is crucial for the evaluation of NP delivery efficiency. A combined particulate and continuum model is developed to model NP transport and delivery processes. In the particulate model ligand-receptor binding kinetics is coupled with Brownian dynamics to study NP binding on a microscale. An analytical formula is derived to link molecular level binding parameters to particulate level adhesion and detachment rates. The obtained NP adhesion rates are then coupled with a convection-diffusion-reaction model to study NP transport and delivery at macroscale. The binding results of the continuum model agree well with those from the particulate model. The effects of shear rate, particle size and vascular geometry on NP adhesion are investigated. Attachment rates predicted by the analytical formula also agree reasonably well with the experimental data reported in literature. The developed coupled model that links ligand-receptor binding dynamics to NP adhesion rate along with macroscale transport and delivery processes may serve as a faster evaluation and prediction tool to determine NP distribution in complex vascular networks. PMID:23729869

Tan, Jifu; Wang, Shunqiang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yaling

2013-06-01

333

DIII-D Dust Particulate Characterization (June 1998 Vent)  

SciTech Connect

Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, we present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divertor tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented.

Carmack, William Jonathan

1999-01-01

334

DIII-D dust particulate characterization (June 1998 Vent)  

SciTech Connect

Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, the authors present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divert or tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented.

Carmack, W.J.

1999-01-01

335

Electrostatic reduction of particulates for laser resistant hafnia coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reduced by 50% particulate defect density of hafnia coatings deposited onto silicon substrates through the use of electric fields, physical barriers and deposition rates. In an effort to reduce the number of hafnia particulates deposited onto silicon wafers, parallel plate electrodes were placed on either side of the evaporant plume. The particulate level was determined as the deposition rate was varied from 0.75 angstroms/sec to 12 angstroms/sec. Then, parallel plate electrodes were placed on either side of the plume as a way of electrostatically deflecting hafnia particulates away from the substrates. Later a single plate electrode was used in conjunction with a physical barrier placed over the hearth. The results of our study indicate that minimal defects occur when a parallel plate electric field is applied in conjunction with a fast deposition rate. Using a screen as a physical barrier, and/or a single electrode had little or no effect. This data may be useful in the manufacture of multilayer optical coatings with high laser damage thresholds.

Miller, Mark; Chow, Robert; Loomis, Gary E.

1994-07-01

336

Mutagenicity of particulates from the laboratory combustion of plastics.  

PubMed

Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) have been identified in airborne particulate organic matter extracts. The pollutant sources were generally contributed by motor vehicles and industrial activity. Massive quantities of urban solid wastes, containing plastic materials such as PVC, PET, PS, and PE, burnt in the open air in local garbage dumps are frequently found in developing countries. In this study, the smog particulates from the combustion of these synthetic polymers were produced in a laboratory combustion chamber. The mutagenicity of acetone extracts from the smog particulates was evaluated with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Four samples in TA98 exhibited higher mutagenicity than those in TA100. The greatest mutagenicity was observed from the extracts of particulates from combustion of PVC followed by that of PS, PET, and PE. To determine the major mutagenic compounds in these samples, mutagens were partially purified through TLC and their mutagenicity was monitored with TA98. 1-NP and DNPs in the above samples were also determined by HPLC. The amounts of 1-NP and DNPs generally corresponded with their mutagenicity. Higher levels of 1-NP and DNPs were generated from the combustion of PVC, PET, and PS. The combustion of synthetic polymer wastes might be responsible for the presence of high levels of 1-NP and DNPs in Taiwan urban air. PMID:7700277

Lee, H; Wang, L; Shih, J F

1995-03-01

337

Chemical characterization of particulate emissions from diesel engines: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the chemical properties of particulate matter (PM) in diesel vehicle exhaust at a time when emission regulations, diesel technology development, and particle characterization techniques are all undergoing rapid change. The aim is to explore how changes in each of these areas impact the others. Particle composition is of central interest to the practical issues of health effects,

M. Matti Maricq

2007-01-01

338

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Particulates in a Diesel Exhaust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particulate phase of emissions from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine was sampled 4 inches from the exhaust valve by a variety of methods, including oscillating thermal precipitator and membrane filter. The engine was operated and studied at three conditions: idle speed, no load, moderate temperature; intermediate speed, no load, high temperature; and half load, resultant speed and temperature. The

John W. Frey; Morton Corn

1967-01-01

339

On the generation of aerosol for diesel particulate filtration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three different ways for the generation of carbon particulate aerosols were considered to simulate the exhaust gases of the latest-generation Common-Rail Diesel engines for vehicle application: a small Diesel engine for electric power generation modules, an acetylene burner, and an ad hoc designed ‘fluidised bed’ pilot plant. The final goal of this work is to develop a simple and

Michele Ambrogio; Guido Saracco; Vito Specchia; Coen van Gulijk; Michiel Makkee; J. A. Moulijn

2002-01-01

340

Interaction effects in particulate recording media studied by ferromagnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Stoner–Wohlfarth theory, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments along minor loops of the hysteresis should deliver the same microwave absorption loss for vanishing applied field independent of the remanence state of a polycrystalline sample. In the present work, deviations from that prediction in particulate recording media are presented, and a strong connection of zero-field absorption and remanence magnetization of

K. A. Hempel

1996-01-01

341

Mutagenicity of particulates from the laboratory combustion of plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) have been identified in airborne particulate organic matter extracts. The pollutant sources were generally contributed by motor vehicles and industrial activity. Massive quantities of urban solid wastes, containing plastic materials such as PVC, PET, PS, and PE, burnt in the open air in local garbage dumps are frequently found in

Huei Lee; Lee Wang; Jung-Feng Shih

1995-01-01

342

Method for treating a particulate nuclear fuel material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for treating a particulate uranium oxide composition containing ammonium diuranate precursors such as uranyl fluoride and uranyl nitrate, along with possible impurities, is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of (A) contacting the composition with a sufficient amount of an ammonium hydroxide solution to convert the ammonium diuranate precursors to ammonium diuranate, and (B) heating the composition under

Dehollander

1980-01-01

343

Moisture insensitive microwave mass flow detector for particulate solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel moisture insensitive mass flow detector based on a mass flow sensor with open an cylindrical resonator is presented in this paper. The mass flow sensor consists of two MicroStrip Patch couplers integrated in a Composite Right-\\/Lefthanded Transmission line resonator. The design of a particulate mass flow detector based on this sensor is given and the algorithm to detect

Andreas Penirschke; A. Angelovski; R. Jakoby

2010-01-01

344

Determination of PAHs in particulate air by micellar liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

An acetonitrile/0.20M SDS mobile phase was used to determine PAHs by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Because the peak area is greater the method is more sensitive than using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The method was applied to determine PAHs in particulate air samples and the results are in good agreement with those found by GC.

Kayali, M.N.; Rubio-Barroso, S.; Polo-Diez, L.M. (Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

1994-01-01

345

Low cycle fatigue behaviour of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low cycle fatigue (LCF) resistance of two different 6061 Al\\/20 vol% alumina particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs) in a peaked-aged condition has been evaluated under fully reversed strain control testing. Test results were combined with scanning electron and optical microscopy investigations to determine the effects of reinforcement particles and strain amplitude on the LCF behaviour of these MMCs. Both

M. J. Hadianfard; Yiu-Wing Mai

2000-01-01

346

RESEARCH FOR PARTICULATE CONTROL. EPA'S MOBILE TEST VANS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses EPA's mobile vans and their use in on-site aerosol monitoring. It contains a complete explanation of what is involved in hosting a mobile particulate control van at a plant, including specifications for installation and operation of the equipment....

347

40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...particulates in the water column for varying lengths of time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the primary productivity of an aquatic area if they last long enough. Sight-dependent species may suffer reduced...

2009-07-01

348

40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...particulates in the water column for varying lengths of time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the primary productivity of an aquatic area if they last long enough. Sight-dependent species may suffer reduced...

2010-07-01

349

Numerical Solution for Projectile Penetration into Particulate Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is a report on the development of numerical procedures for the solution of the system of differential equations governing the penetration of a projectile into a target having the form of a particulate half-space. Specifically the work proposed c...

A. Cetiner G. N. Reeves

1968-01-01

350

Characterization of Particulate Matter for Three Sites in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown strong associations between particulate matter (PM) levels and a variety of health outcomes, leading to changes in air quality standards in many regions, especially the United States and Europe. Kuwait, a desert country located on the Persian Gulf, has a large petroleum industry with associated industrial and urban land uses. It was marked by environmental destruction

Kathleen Ward Brown; Walid Bouhamra; Denise P. Lamoureux; John S. Evans; Petros Koutrakis; David Grantz; James Winebrake; James Corbett; Aaron Falzarano; J. Hawker; Karl Korfmacher; Sai Ketha; Steve Zilora; Ove Bergersen; Ketil Haarstad; Serap Erdal; Laurel Berman; Daniel Hryhorczuk; Saeed Abolhasani; H. Frey; Kangwook Kim; William Rasdorf; Phil Lewis; Shih-Hao Pang; Allan Chambers; Melvin Strosher; Tony Wootton; Jan Moncrieff; Philip McCready; Litao Wang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Shuxiao Wang; Junhua Li; Qiang Zhang; David Streets; Joshua Fu; Carey Jang; Hideto Takekawa; Satoru Chatani; Stephanie Konopa; James Mulholland; Matthew Realff; Paul Lemieux; Jaehyun Lim; Liya Yu; Yu. Kostetski; Cheolsoo Lim; Jungho Ryu; Jongchoon Kim; Christian Hogrefe; Kevin Civerolo; Winston Hao; Jia-Yeong Ku; Eric Zalewsky; Gopal Sistla; Ram Hashmonay

2008-01-01

351

Evaluation of particulate trace species in southwest desert atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sampling program using high-volume filter samples for studying the concentration and composition of particulate matter in the arid southwest (in and near Tucson, Ariz.) was established in January 1974. Through the use of statistical techniques and examination of enrichment factors, it is possible to make a number of suggestions regarding the sources for and the cycle of various species

J. L. Moyers; L. E. Ranweiler; S. B. Hopf; N. E. Kofte

1977-01-01

352

Particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in residences in Antwerp, Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive study, a first in Flanders, Belgium, aimed at characterizing the residential indoor air quality of subgroups that took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I—1991 and ECHRS II—1996) questionnaire-based asthma and related illnesses studies. This pilot study aimed at the evaluation of particulate matter and various inorganic gaseous compounds in residences in Antwerp. In addition

M. Stranger; S. S. Potgieter-Vermaak; R. Van Grieken

2009-01-01

353

PARTICULATE CONTROL IN ENERGY PROCESSES: A STATUS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the significant findings of the 22 papers delivered at the Particulate Control in Energy Processes Symposium, held in San Francisco on May 12-14, 1976. Topics of discussion included use of low sulfur coals, electrostatic precipitators for low sulfur coal, bagh...

354

Computational micromagnetic study of particulate media hysteresis and recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the micromagnetic theory, algorithms, computer software and computer hardware built and used to study particulate media particles, hysteresis and recording is first provided. This includes a derivation and analysis of the modified version of the Fast Multipole Method used in this dissertation. Results will then be presented on particulate media particle nucleation field dependence on particle shape, particle aspect ratio, ferromagnetic exchange energy and external magnetic field angle. Results on the discretization necessary to accurately model a particle will also be provided. The reversal mode of a particle will be simulated and analyzed. Simulated longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops will be presented. Results will also be presented on particulate media coercivity and squareness dependence on volumetric packing fraction. Simulated recorded transition results will be given as well as total power spectra results for AC and DC erased particulate media. Numerical results will be compared to experimental data and analytical theories. Advice is provided on how to build a personal supercomputer like the one used in the numerical experiments of this dissertation.

Seberino, Christian

2000-11-01

355

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER (Final Report, Oct 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has completed the process of updating and revising, where appropriate, its Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter (PM) as issued in 1996 (usually referred to as the Criteria Document). Sections 108 and 109 of the Clean Air Act require that EPA carry out a periodic revi...

356

Storm effects on particulate food resources on an intertidal sandflat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of storms on particulate food resources on an intertidal sandflat (Cape Henlopen, Delaware, USA) was investigated by contrasting measurements taken during calm conditions and storm conditions. Storms exhibited elevated fluid velocities dominated by an oscillatory component, doubled seston concentrations increasing toward the bed and increased sediment transport rates. We also measured the concentration of sedimentary protein and chlorophyll

Michael J. Bock; Douglas C. Miller

1995-01-01

357

Penetration of particulated shaped-charge jet into water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash radiographic and high speed photographic observations have been made on the particulated shaped charge jets penetrating into water. As a foregoing jet particle impacted water and delivered its kinetic energy to water, the water expanded radially to produce a bubble around the penetrating jet particle and a shock wave ahead of the bubble. This kind of penetration process was

Eun S. Lee; Kyoung H. Oh; So Y. Song

1995-01-01

358

PROTON SCATTERING ANALYSIS FOR LIGHT ELEMENTS IN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Proton scattering analysis has been developed to provide light element analyses as a complementary method to x-ray analysis. Samples of air particulate matter from both filter and impaction devices have been analyzed and time sequence and particle size information obtained. In co...

359

SIMPLEX OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIELEMENT ULTRASONIC EXTRACTION OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

A Simplex search was used to locate an optimum for an ultrasonic extraction of trace elements from atmospheric particulates collected on glass fiber high-volume sampler filters. The optimized procedure produced quantitative results for 13 elements with precisions of 10% or less, ...

360

In-Stack Condensible Particulate Matter Measurements and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate matter (PM) emitted from fossil fuel-fired units can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM typically is not measured because federal and most state regulations do not require sources to do so. To determine the magnitude of condensible PM emissions relative to filterable PM emissions and to better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and

Louis A. Corio; John Sherwell

2000-01-01

361

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

DOEpatents

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29

362

Particulate matter and human health in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using epidemiological meta studies for the health impacts of small particulate matter — PM10 — it is possible to predict the number of premature deaths and some morbidity impacts in the UK from prevailing ambient concentrations. The analysis suggests that as many as 12 000 deaths might be attributed to total concentrations, or perhaps 7000 deaths if only ‘anthropogenic’ PM10

Tom Crowards

1996-01-01

363

Stability of Metal Particle and Metal Particulate Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metal particulate (MP) video tape was launched for 8 mm video tape in 1985. Since then MP tapes have been applied to several consumer formats and instrumental formats because of its superior electrical performance. Recently data storage media, such as DDS...

K. Okamoto

1992-01-01

364

Stability of metal particle and metal particulate media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal particulate (MP) video tape was launched for 8 mm video tape in 1985. Since then MP tapes have been applied to several consumer formats and instrumental formats because of its superior electrical performance. Recently data storage media, such as DDS and D-8, have started employing MP tape. However, there are serious concerns with archival stability of MP tape particularly

Kazuhiro Okamoto

1992-01-01

365

Provisional Assessment of Recent Studies on Particulate Matter (2006)  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) is currently underway. The Criteria Document was completed in October 2004, and a proposed decision to revise the PM NAAQS was published in January 2006. The final decision is to be signe...

366

EVALUATION OF FOUR NOVEL FINE PARTICULATE COLLECTION DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an experimental performance evaluation of four novel fine particulate control devices: the Johns-Manville Cleanable High-Efficiency Air Filtration (CHEAF) System, the APS Electrostatic Scrubber, the APS Electrotube, and the TRW Charged Droplet Scrubber...

367

Self-healing of damaged particulate materials through sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate materials loaded under uniaxial compression and tension are studied using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Self-healing of the damaged samples is activated through sintering, a process that effectively increases the contact adhesion (i.e., the tensile strength) between particles. The initial sample is prepared from spherical particles by applying high (isotropic) pressure, where particles in contact deform plastically and adhere

S. Luding; A. S. J. Suiker

2008-01-01

368

40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.332 Control strategy: Particulate...On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10 nonattainment...and December 9, 1993, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

2013-07-01

369

Magnetic properties and heavy metal contents of automobile emission particulates*  

PubMed Central

Measurements of the magnetic properties and total contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in 30 automobile emission particulate samples indicated the presence of magnetic particles in them. The values of frequency dependent susceptibility (? fd) showed the absence of superparamagnetic (SP) grains in the samples. The IRM20 mT (isothermal remanent magnetization at 20 mT) being linearly proportional to SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) (R 2=0.901), suggested that ferrimagnetic minerals were responsible for the magnetic properties of automobile emission particulates. The average contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in automobile emission particulates were 95.83, 22.14, 30.58 and 34727.31 mg/kg, respectively. Significant positive correlations exist between the magnetic parameters and the contents of Pb, Cu and Fe. The magnetic parameters of automobile emission particulates reflecting concentration of magnetic particles increased linearly with increase of Pb and Cu content, showed that the magnetic measurement could be used as a preliminary index for detection of Pb and Cu pollution.

Lu, Sheng-gao; Bai, Shi-qiang; Cai, Jing-bo; Xu, Chang

2005-01-01

370

Instability and segregation in bounded particulate shear flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for processing particulate materials, ranging from nanoparticles to pharmaceutical tablets, remain largely empirical and unreliable. Non-uniformity and segregation threaten product quality and consistency. We tackle these problems using fundamental, mesoscale approaches widespread in analysis of fluids. In paradigmatic gravity and Couette geometries, we examine the high-shear flow regime representative of many mixing and transport operations and characterize their unstable

Stephen L. Conway

2004-01-01

371

CHARACTERIZAITON OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate emissions from a group of municipal sludge incinerators with multiple-hearth furnaces, one with a fluidized-bed furnace were characterized. Three plants operated at or near autogenous burning conditions. Chemical element composition was determined for total and sized ...

372

MEASUREMENTS AND PARAMETERIZATION OF PARTICULATE SULFUR DRY DEPOSITION OVER GRASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Eddy-correlation measurements of particulate sulfur fluxes at the 1981 and 1982 Dry Deposition Intercomparison Experiments indicate a strong diurnal variation in deposition velocity (downward flux divided by concentration) at a height near 6 m. Values are considerably greater tha...

373

Comparison of Particulate Collection in Probes and on Filters  

SciTech Connect

Major radionuclide emissions from the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex are nuclides of uranium which are emitted as a particulate. The radionuclide NESHAP regulation requires stack sampling to be conducted in accordance with ANST Standard N13.1, 1969. Appendix B of this standard requires in every case where sampling delivery lines are used that an evaluation should be made of deposition in these lines. A number of Y-12 Complex stacks are fitted with continuous samplers which draw particulate laden air through a probe and across a sample filter. One approach to evaluate line loss as required by the ANSI standard is to establish a representative factor that is used for all subsequent sampling efforts. Another approach is to conduct a routine probe wash procedure on an ongoing basis to account for line losses. In 1991, Y-12 National Security Complex personnel began routine probe washes as part of their sample collection procedure. Since then, 50-80 stacks have been sampled on a near continuous basis and probe washes have been conducted quarterly. Particulate collection in probes versus particulate collection on filters is recorded as a probe factor and probe factor trends for a 10-year period are available.

Eaton, J.M.; Humphreys, M.P.

2001-06-14

374

An assemblage model for cation binding by natural particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCAMP (Surface Chemistry Assemblage Model for Particles) describes the equilibrium adsorption of protons and metals by natural particulate matter using a combination of submodels for individual binding phases. Interactions with natural organic matter are described with Humic Ion-Binding Model V, and adsorption by oxides with a surface complexation model that allows for site heterogeneity. An idealized cation exchanger is also

Stephen Lofts; Edward Tipping

1998-01-01

375

Helping children to understand particulate nature of matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever I taught about the particulate nature of matter in solids, liquids and gases, I often had difficulty explaining this abstract concept to my students. The students, in turn, had much difficulty conceptualizing the structure and behavior of the particles, which ultimately led to difficulties in understanding the complex configuration of particles in matter at various levels. This article focuses

Muhammad Riaz

2004-01-01

376

Turkish Pupils' Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils' views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a)…

Boz, Yezdan

2006-01-01

377

Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The particulate nature of matter is identified in science education standards as one of the fundamental concepts that students should understand at the middle school level. However, science education research in indicates that secondary school students have difficulties understanding the structure of matter. The purpose of the study is to…

Singer, Jonathan E.; Tal, Revital; Wu, Hsin-Kai

2003-01-01

378

Turkish Pupils’ Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research study is to explore year 6, 8 & 11 (13, 15 and 17 years old respectively) Turkish pupils’ views about the particulate nature of matter within the context of phase changes. About 300 pupils participated in the study. Questionnaires distributed to year 6, 8 and 11 pupils included 6-item open-ended questions about (a) arrangement and movement

Yezdan Boz

2006-01-01

379

Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling of Cardiac Response to Particulate Matter Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudin...

380

Airborne Particulate Matter and Human Health: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of recent research show that particulate matter (PM) composition and size vary widely with both space and time. Despite the variability in PM characteristics, which are believed to influence human health risks, the observed relative health risk estimates per unit PM mass falls within a narrow range of values. Furthermore, no single chemical species appears to dominate health effects;

Cliff I. Davidson; Robert F. Phalen; Paul A. Solomon

2005-01-01

381

PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE LEVELS AT UNMONITORED LOCATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

In November and December of 1999, air concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particulate matter were measured at two intensive sites in El Paso, Texas. The intensive sites included collocated measurements of NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air from both...

382

Atmospheric Input of Particulate Matter In The Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have shown that aerosols in the Arctic are of importance for atmo- spheric chemistry and climate. But up to now atmospheric input of particulate matter in the Arctic Ocean is studied insufficiently. We began aerosol research in the Arctic marine boundary layer in 1991. In this presentation we summarized data on parti- cle size and composition of aerosols

V. P. Shevchenko; A. A. Klyuvitkin; M. Kriews; A. P. Lisitzin; E.-M. Nothig; A. N. Novigatsky; V. V. Smirnov; R. Stein; A. A. Vinogradova

2002-01-01

383

Urban development and particulate air pollution in Coimbatore city, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haphazard urbanization and unprecedented vehicular growth that exacerbate air quality are prevalent features in India. Coimbatore, an important industrial city ranking 15th in terms of principal urban agglomerations of India, was classified as a moderately polluted area in National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring survey in 1997. The current study (March 1999–February 2001) was undertaken to assess suspended particulate matter (SPM)

R. MOHANRAJ; P. A. AZEEZ

2005-01-01

384

Regeneration process of ceramic foam diesel-particulate traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic regeneration of the diesel particulate trap is essential to maintain the collection efficiency and exhaust gas back pressure at acceptable levels. The objectives of this study are to describe the phenomenology of ceramic foam filter regeneration process and to present its mathematical model. Further simulation study is carried out to estimate the effects of various factors including fuel additive

K. Takama; T. Inove; K. Kobashi; T. Kogiso; K. Oishi

1984-01-01

385

RECEPTOR MODELS RELATING AMBIENT SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER TO SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the use of receptor models to determine the source contributions to ambient particulate matter loadings at sampling sites, based on common properties between sources and receptors. (This is in contrast to using source models which start with emission rates an...

386

Remarks on the detection of phenols in airborne particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of suspended particulate matter collected in Duisburg were investigated for phenolic compounds. The loaded filters were extracted with dichloromethane for 10 hours in a soxhlet apparatus. The concentrated extract was resolved in cyclohexane and separated into a non polar and a polar fraction on alumina. The polar fraction was taken up in dichloromethane and steam-distilled. The distillate was extracted

R. Tomingas; W. Mönch; U. Matthiesen

1986-01-01

387

High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off gas treatment system for a proposed transuranic waste treatment facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed

B. E. Kirstein; W. J. Paplawsky; D. T. Pence; T. G. Hedahl

1981-01-01

388

SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELING OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies indicate that even short-term exposure to high concentrations of fine atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) can lead to long-term health effects. In this paper, we propose a random effects model for PM2.5 concentrations. In particular, we anticipa...

389

Investigating the Preferential Dissolution of Lead From Solder Particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a building corrosion control study, bottles containing acid-preserved water samples with high levels of lead often had particulate material on the bottom. Scanning electron microscope analysis of the particles showed the presence of tin and the absence of lead, indicating the probable source of lead to be lead-tin solder. A leaching study was done to investígate the effectiveness of

Darren A. Lytle; Michael R. Schock; Nick R. Dues; Patrick J. Clark

1993-01-01

390

Personal Coarse Particulate Matter Exposures in an Adult Cohort  

EPA Science Inventory

Volunteers associated with the North Carolina Adult Asthma and Environment Study (NCAAES) participated in an investigation of personal daily exposures to coarse and fine particulate matter size fractions (PM10-2.5, PM2.5). Data from these personal measuremen...

391

PARTICULATE MATTER ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This task is primarily concerned with the elemental characterization, by X-ray fluorescence analysis, of particulate matter (PM) collected during active or passive sampling of ambient air. The NERL X-ray fluorescence laboratory is an in-house research facility dedicated to quant...

392

Soluble and Particulate Metals in the Adige River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 10 metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were monitored over a 1-year period in the waters of the lower Adige River. Concentrations in the dissolved and particulate phases were measured, thus constructing a database on metal variability. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb in these water samples are

A. Bortoli; E. Dell'Andrea; M. Gerotto; M. Marchiori; M. Palonta; A. Troncon

1998-01-01

393

Dissolution behavior of metals from particulate matter emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is linked to numerous health effects. In order to improve the understanding of the role of its metallic components, their solubility was examined by using serial short-contact dissolutions totalling 1?h and additional sequential contact periods of 1, 4, and 8 days. The dissolution experiments were performed in solutions containing the main biological electrolytes. ICPMS

Denis Bérubé

2007-01-01

394

Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulates and Associated Organic Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this phase of the CAPE-24 program was to develop and validate an analytical method for the analysis of PNA in diesel exhaust particulate. The first year of work included construction of a test engine facility, development of an analytical...

B. A. Petersen C. C. Chuang G. W. Kinzer P. W. Meehan R. M. Riggin

1980-01-01

395

Electrostatic reduction of particulates for laser resistant hafnia coatings  

SciTech Connect

The authors have reduced by 50% particulate defect density of hafnia coatings deposited onto silicon substrates through the use of electric fields, physical barriers and deposition rate. In an effort to reduce the number of hafnia (HfO{sub 2}) particulates deposited onto silicon wafers, parallel plate electrodes were placed on either side of the evaporant plume. The particulate level was determined as the deposition rate was varied from 0.75 {angstrom}/sec to 12 {angstrom}/sec. Then, parallel plate electrodes were placed on either side of the plume as a way of electrostatically deflecting hafnia particulates away from the substrates. Later a single plate electrode was used in conjunction with a physical barrier placed over the hearth. The results of the study indicate that minimal defects occur when a parallel plate electric field is applied in conjunction with a fast deposition rate. Using a screen as a physical barrier, and/or a single electrode had little or no effect. This data may be useful in the manufacture of multilayer optical coatings with high laser damage thresholds.

Miller, M.D.; Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.

1993-12-01

396

40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...particulates in the water column for varying lengths of time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the primary productivity of an aquatic area if they last long enough. Sight-dependent species may suffer reduced...

2013-07-01

397

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SOURCES AND HEALTH EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Associations are well established between particulate matter (PM) and increased human mortality and morbidity. The toxicity of PM may differ depending on the type of PM source, and health impacts may vary by location depending on the mix of PM sources impacting each location. The...

398

Influence of fuel sulfur on diesel particulate emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the contribution of fuel sulfur to brake specific particulate emissions. Three diesel engines - typical for medium and heavy duty truck applications - were tested in four transient cycles of various average loading factors. Three experimental fuels were used having the same basic characteristics, but a sulfur content of 0.05%, 0.19%, and 0.29%,

Baranescu

1988-01-01

399

Using electrostatic precipitation to control diesel exhaust particulate emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of miners, construction workers, and truck drivers are exposed to diesel exhaust particles. Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) is a probable human carcinogen and stringent occupational and environmental standards have been established or are planned worldwide. Modifications in fuels and diesel engine designs have reduced emissions, but may not be enough to comply with the tightest standards. Post-combustion aftertreatment devices

A. Farnoud; C. Huang; A. J. Armendariz

2008-01-01

400

CAPSULE REPORT: BAHCO FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND PARTICULATE REMOVAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

This capsule report describes a Research-Cottrell/Bahco scrubber module for sulfur dioxide and particulate emission control located at the central heat plant of Rickenbacker Air Force Base. he report also describes flue gas desulfurization technology using any fuel, including hig...

401

CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

402

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION ON ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While much remains to be understood, individuals with respiratory disease appear to be affected by high levels of air pollution as indicated by subjective reports, clinic and hospital visits, and morbidity. Suspended particulates make up a substantial part of urban air pollution,...

403

PROGRESS OF THE NRMRL'S PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Particulate Matter research program has a goal of producing the scientific research data needed to enhance the development of public policy that protects the public health and the environment from harmful effects due to airborne ...

404

Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories

M Rossbach; R Jayasekera; G Kniewald; Nguyen Huu Thang

1999-01-01

405

TECHNIQUE FOR IN SITU CALIBRATION OF PARTICULATE MASS MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two types of aerosol generators, the Riker Laboratories metered spray can and the Mistogen EN145 ultrasonic nebulizer, were evaluated by laboratory measurements for application to the in situ calibration of particulate mass monitors for stationary sources. The metered spray can d...

406

LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the data analysis of two extensive field studies on urban particulate matter, the 1974-77 St. Louis (RAPS) and the July/August 1982 Philadelphia (PAFS) studies. The major conclusion of the study is that in both cities the majority (more than 50%) of the tota...

407

Tensile properties of particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature tensile tests have been carried out on MMCs, all based on the Al alloy 7075 and on monolithic material. The particulate reinforcements used were SiC in three nominal sizes, 5, 13 and 60 ?m. Three matrix ageing conditions were studied, peak aged and equivalent underaged and overaged matrix conditions, based on microhardness measurements. The effects of ageing condition

T. J. A. Doel; P. Bowen

1996-01-01

408

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

409

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49.125 Protection...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose of this...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

2013-07-01

410

CFD MODELING OF THE REGENERATION PROCESS IN DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER USING FLUENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel engine particulate filters every year are becoming more popular. The new EURO 5 standard is very restrictive for particulates and this will force the use of particulate filter in every engine. Filters operate very good when they are loaded with small quantity of soot particles and they must be cleaned from time to time by burning out soot inside

A. Janiszewski; A. Teodorczyk

411

An update of the advanced hybrid particulate collector, a new concept for fine-particle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC uniquely employs electrostatics and filtration in the same compartment, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. By effective

S. Miller; G. L. Schelkoph; K. D. Walker; H. V. Krigmont; T. J. Feeley

1999-01-01

412

Gas?particulate phase distribution and decay rates of constituents in ageing environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase distribution and decay rates of ETS components were determined for an experimental room. Solanesol and protonated nicotine behave like particulate matter (UV?PM). Free nicotine evaporates from the particulate phase during the 5 minute sampling time and decays rapidly from the gaseous phase. Neophytadiene leaves the particulate phase faster than predicted by deposition. Limonene, 3?ethenylpyridine, and naphthalene are present only

Georg B. Neurath; Sylvia Petersen; Michael Dunger; Dorothea Orth; F. Gerhard Pein

1991-01-01

413

Comparison of MODIS-based models for retrieving suspended particulate matter concentrations in Poyang Lake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MODIS-based models for retrieving suspended particulate matter concentrations in Poyang Lake of China were compared.The exponential and cubic models of red band got unbiased suspended particulate matter concentration estimation.The exponential model of red minus infrared band obtained the best stable suspended particulate matter concentration estimation.

Wu, Guofeng; Cui, Lijuan; He, Junjun; Duan, Hongtao; Fei, Teng; Liu, Yaolin

2013-10-01

414

FEASIBILITY OF PLASMA AFTERTREATMENT FOR SIMULTANEOUS CONTROL OF NOX AND PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NOx converter. Particulate trapping in a plasma reactor can be accomplished by electrostatic precipitation. The soluble organic fraction of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the hydrocarbon-enhanced oxidat...

415

Energetic Cost of Suspension Feeding versus Particulate Feeding by Juvenile Sacramento Blackfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

All species of suspension-feeding teleost fishes switch from particulate feeding to suspension feeding at a standard length of about 2–5 cm. Although this ontogenetic shift in feeding mode is suggestive of an energetic or biophysical constraint that restricts small fishes to particulate feeding, there have been no comparisons of the energetic costs of pump suspension feeding and particulate feeding based

S. Laurie Sanderson; Joseph J. Cech Jr

1992-01-01

416

Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Airborne and Automobile Exhaust Particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) in airborne particulates collected simultaneously at downtown and suburban sites and in exhaust particulates from diesel and gasoline engine vehicles were determined. The mean concentrations of all compounds in the atmosphere were lower at the suburban site. The differences between the two sites were smaller in airborne particulates than in the

Kazuichi Hayakawa; Tsuyoshi Murahashi; Kazuhiko Akutsu; Tetsuo Kanda; Ning Tang; Hitoshi Kakimoto; Akira Toriba; Ryoichi Kizu

2000-01-01

417

Particulation in jets from free-form hemispherical shaped charges with copper liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulation in free-form hemispherical shaped charge jets is considerably different from that in conical shaped charge jets. From the analysis of the particulation data for 23 experiments covering ten free-form hemi designs with copper liners, it is concluded that jets with higher convergence pressures have delayed particulation, sometimes by as much as a factor of two. Breakup is also found

S. C. Simonson; L. C. Jr. Haselman; R. D. Breithaupt

1995-01-01

418

Exposure assessment of particulates of diesel and natural gas fuelled buses in silico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung deposition estimates of particulate emissions of diesel and natural gas (CNG) fuelled vehicles were studied by using in silico methodology. Particulate emissions and particulate number size distributions of two Euro 2 petroleum based diesel buses and one Euro 3 gas bus were measured. One of the petroleum based diesel buses used in the study was equipped with an oxidation

Mari Pietikäinen; Kati Oravisjärvi; Arja Rautio; Arto Voutilainen; Juhani Ruuskanen; Riitta L. Keiski

2009-01-01

419

Diesel engine particulate emissions: A comparison of mobility and microscopy size measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-micron particulates emitted from diesel engines have serious negative effects on human health and environment. Accurate characterizations of such particulate matter based on independent diagnostic techniques are necessary to monitor, regulate, and model atmospheric pollution levels. The relevant sizes, in addition to mass, are of special interest as they determine the transport, toxic, optical, chemical, and deposition properties of particulates.

Matthew F. Chandler; Yingwu Teng; Umit O. Koylu

2007-01-01

420

Particulate generation and control in the PREPP (Process Experimental Pilot Plant) incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate emissions in radioactive incineration systems using a wet scrubbing system are generally ultimately controlled by flowing the process offgas stream through a high-efficiency filter, such as a High Efficient Particulate Air (HEPA) filter. Because HEPA filters are capable of reducing particulate emissions over an order of magnitude below regulatory limits, they consequently are vulnerable to high loading rates. This

D. L. Stermer; L. G. Gale

1989-01-01

421

PARTICULATE EMISSIONS AND CONTROL IN FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION: MODELING AND PARAMETRIC PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a model, developed to describe the physical characteristics of the particulates emitted from fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems and to evaluate data on FBC particulate control systems. The model, which describes the particulate emissions profile from FBC,...

422

Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles  

DOEpatents

A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

2010-10-12

423

Africa as a regional and global source of atmospheric gases and particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the continent of Africa as a source of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere is investigated in this study. Sources of gases and particulates from Africa include fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide. This study represents the first comprehensive database of gaseous and particulate emissions developed for the continent of

Lawrence Mtetwa

1998-01-01

424

Size-resolved particulate matter composition in Beijing during pollution and dust events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each spring, Beijing, China, experiences dust storms which cause high particulate matter concentrations. Beijing also has many anthropogenic sources of particulate matter including the large Capitol Steel Company. On the basis of measured size segregated, speciated particulate matter concentrations, and calculated back trajectories, three types of pollution events occurred in Beijing from 22 March to 1 April 2001: dust storms,

Ann M. Dillner; James J. Schauer; Yuanhang Zhang; Limin Zeng; Glen R. Cass

2006-01-01

425

AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER INHIBITS ALVEOLAR FLUID REABSORPTION IN MICE VIA OXIDANT GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a signifi- cant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortal- ity in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveo- lar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambi- ent

Gökhan M. Mutlu; Colleen Snyder; Amy Bellmeyer; Helena Wang; Keenan Hawkins; Saul Soberanes; Lynn C. Welch; Andrew J. Ghio; Navdeep S. Chandel; David Kamp; Jacob I. Sznajder; G. R. Scott Budinger

2006-01-01

426

Particulate matter mass measurements for low emitting diesel powered vehicles: what's next?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation word-wide imposes stringent emission standards for particulate matter emitted by diesel engines, as an outcome of evidence associating emitted particulate with a series of adverse health effects. Such emission standards call for significant reductions in the particulate matter emission levels for small and large on-road diesel vehicles. In fact, emission levels adopted for the near future are so low

Elias Vouitsis; Leonidas Ntziachristos; Zissis Samaras

2003-01-01

427

Applicability of the Mass Concentration Standards for Particulate Matter in Alaskan Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

High particulate matter concentrations were measured in several communities in Alaska using high volume air samplers. Because of these measurements, Anchorage and Fairbanks have been classified Priority 1 for particulate matter. To define and better understand the meaning of particulate measurements in Alaska, the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, in conjunction with local agencies, collected and evaluated air quality data

Timothy M. Gilmore; Thomas R. Hanna

1975-01-01

428

Laser-particulate control for open-cycle, coal fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct coal-fired gas turbines need efficient high temperature particulate control in order to be an attractive option for the efficient conversion of coal to electrical energy. Particulates in the range of three to ten microns are very difficult to remove and it is, therefore, proposed that they be fragmented into particulates below the threshold size for turbine blade erosion using

T. E. Botts; J. R. Powell

1979-01-01

429

40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...strategy for particulate matter as contained in regulation...strategy for particulate matter as contained in revisions...emission limits in the State's plan are based on...plan for particulate matter entitled, âAn Act to Improve Air Quality in the State by Imposing Limits...

2013-07-01

430

Direct-energy-regenerated particulate trap technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this CRADA between Lockheed Martin and Cummins Engine Company was to develop fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) composite materials for use as diesel engine particulate traps. Chemical vapor deposition techniques were used to partially densify and rigidize a thin fibrous substrate and produce the porous SiC- based filter. Microwave energy was used to directly couple to the deposited SiC to uniformly heat the filter and oxidize the collected carbon particulates. For commercial usage particulate traps must: (1) filter carbon particulates from a high temperature diesel exhaust at an acceptably low backpressure, (2) survive thousands of thermal transients due to regeneration or cleaning of the filter by oxidizing the collected carbon, (3) be durable and reliable over the expected life of the filter (300,000 miles or 10,000 hours), and (4) provide a low overall operating cost which is competitive with other filtering techniques. The development efforts performed as part of this CRADA have resulted in a very promising new technology for Cummins Engine Company. Ceramic fiber based filter papers were developed at Fleetguard, Inc., (a Cummins Subsidiary) and used to produce the spiral wound, corrugated filter cartridges. Optimized SiC coatings were developed at Lockheed Martin which couple with 2.45 GHz microwaves. Prototype particulate filter cartridges fabricated at Fleetguard and rigidized at Lockheed Martin performed well in single cylinder engine tests at Cummins. These prototype filters obtained filtering efficiencies greater than 80% at acceptably low backpressures and could be successfully headed and regenerated using a conventional in-home microwave oven.

Stinton, D.P.; Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C. [Fleetguard, Inc. (United States)

1996-12-01

431

HUMAL ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSES TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICULATES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSOLUBLE OCMPONENTS OF COARSE MATERIAL, INCLUDING PARTICULATE ENDOTOXIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM...

432

Population Density, Particulate Emission Characterization, and Impact on the Particulate Inventory of Smoking Vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of high-particulate-emission vehicles on the total light-duty vehicle particulate emission inventory in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has been estimated by an analysis of the SCAQMD's CUT-SMOG database, a field survey of smoking vehicles, and particulate emissions testing of representative smoking vehicles. The field study, carried out at 61 sites throughout the SCAQMD, showed that

Thomas D. Durbin; Matthew R. Smith; Joseph M. Norbeck; Timothy J. Truex

1999-01-01

433

Comparison of Strategies for the Measurement of Mass Emissions from Diesel Engines Emitting Ultra-Low Levels of Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory methods for the measurement of particulate matter (PM) mass emissions have traditionally been gravimetric. Modern diesel engines equipped with aftertreatment systems, especially Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), however, emit much smaller amounts of particulate matter as compared to traditional diesel engines and emit particulate matter with variable compositions. These changes have led to difficulties in measuring PM emissions rates from

Z. Gerald Liu; Victoria N. Vasys; Melissa E. Dettmann; James J. Schauer; David B. Kittelson; Jacob Swanson

2009-01-01

434

Estimation of the Monthly Average Ratios of Organic Mass to Organic Carbon for Fine Particulate Matter at an Urban Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent methods are used to estimate the seasonality of the ratio of fine particulate organic matter (OM) to fine particulate organic carbon (OC) for atmospheric particulate matter collected at the St. Louis—Midwest Supersite. The first method assumes that all of the fine particulate matter mass that cannot be attributed to sulfate ion, nitrate ion, ammonium ion, elemental carbon and

Min-Suk Bae; James J. Schauer; Jay R. Turner

2006-01-01

435

High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter  

PubMed Central

Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 ?m). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

Frohlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Despres, Viviane R.; Poschl, Ulrich

2009-01-01

436

Analysis of particulate contamination during launch of the MMS mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) is an unmanned constellation of four identical spacecraft designed to investigate magnetic reconnection by obtaining detailed measurements of plasma properties in Earth's magnetopause and magnetotail. Each of the four identical satellites carries a suite of instruments which characterize the ambient ion and electron energy spectrum and composition. Some of these instruments utilize high-voltage microchannel plates and are sensitive to particulate contamination. In this paper, we analyze the transport of particulates during pre-launch, launch and ascent events, and use the analysis to obtain quantitative predictions of particle contamination on the instruments. Particle redistribution is calculated by considering the gravitational and aerodynamic forces acting on the particles.

Brieda, Lubos; Barrie, Alexander; Hughes, David; Errigo, Therese

2010-08-01

437

Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

Gupta, R.P.

1999-10-26

438

Solid-particle erosion of aluminum/particulate ceramic composites  

SciTech Connect

Impact erosion of 2014 aluminum, 2014 aluminum + 20 vol % particulate silicon carbide, and 2014 aluminum + 20 vol % particulate aluminum oxide has been studied at room temperature. The alloys were tested in the as-received and heat-treated conditions. Experiments were conducted with aluminum oxide abrasive in vacuum in a slinger-type apparatus over a range of abrasive size, velocity, and angle of impact. Erosion rates were influenced by reinforcement and heat treatment. Reduced ductility, both overall and local, attributed to reinforcement or heat treatment, caused, under most conditions, more rapid erosion of the composites. The data suggest that erosion rate can be minimized by proper microstructural control, involving reducing reinforcement segregation and the amount of intermetallic compounds. 37 refs., 7 figs.

Goretta, K.C.; Wu, W.; Routbort, J.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Rohatgi, P.K. (Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (USA))

1990-06-01

439

Spectral emission measurements from planar mixtures of gas and particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental system is developed that forms a hot layer of gas and particulates flowing through a test section with cooled walls. The test section forms a one-dimensional planar layer, allows intrusive probes to characterize the medium in terms of particle loading and temperature, and allows radiometric measurements of the normally directed spectral energy emitted from the medium. Gas flow, gas composition, and particle flow are controlled. An experimental investigation is undertaken yielding spectral normally directed emittance data obtained from a well-characterized layer containing gaseous constituents of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and solid particles of BNi-2, a boron nickel alloy. Emittance data are presented and exhibit the effects of particulate scattering, including the extension of the 4.3 microns carbon dioxide band wings. Emittance data are compared to analytical predictions.

Skocypec, R. D.; Walters, D. V.; Buckius, R. O.

1987-02-01

440

On-line measurement of stack gas particulate radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stack gases from nuclear facilities can contain both natural and man-made radionuclides. Interferences from natural radon daughters limit the detection capability of common radiation measurement methods. An improved system using on-line multichannel analyzers, alpha energy spectroscopy, gamma-ray analysis, radon-compensated gross beta counting, and automated data reduction is presented. This system provides accurate determination of certain stack effluent fine particulates as

F. S. Stong; G. L. Troyer; J. D. Jr. Criddle

1987-01-01

441

Direct-energy-regenerated particulate trap technology. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this CRADA between Lockheed Martin and Cummins Engine Company was to develop fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) composite materials for use as diesel engine particulate traps. Chemical vapor deposition techniques were used to partially densify and rigidize a thin fibrous substrate and produce the porous SiC- based filter. Microwave energy was used to directly couple to the deposited

D. P. Stinton; M. A. Janney; T. M. Yonushonis; A. C. McDonald; P. D. Wiczynski; W. C. Haberkamp

1996-01-01

442

On the Dynamics of Charged Electromagnetic Particulate Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses the modeling and simulation of charged particulate jets in the presence of electromagnetic fields. The\\u000a presentation is broken into two main parts: (1) the dynamics of charged streams of particles and their interaction with electromagnetic\\u000a fields and (2) the coupled thermal fields that arise within the jet. An overall model is built by assembling submodels of\\u000a the

T. I. Zohdi

2010-01-01

443

Journey-time exposure to particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journey-time exposures to particulate air pollution were investigated in Leicester, UK, between January and March 2005. Samples of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were simultaneously collected using light scattering devices whilst journeys were made by walking an in-car. Over a period of two months, 33 pairs of walking and in-car measurements were collected along two circular routes. Average exposures while

John Gulliver; David J. Briggs

2007-01-01

444

Characterization of particulate matter sources in an urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily time series measurements of elements or compounds are widely used to apportion the contribution of specific sources of particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere. We present results obtained for the urban area of Genoa (Italy) based on several hundred of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 daily samples collected in sites with different geo-morphological and urbanization characteristics. Elemental concentrations of Na

F. Mazzei; A. D'Alessandro; F. Lucarelli; S. Nava; P. Prati; G. Valli; R. Vecchi

2008-01-01

445

Micromechanics and effective properties of particulate composites and fluid suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that the addition to a homogeneous continuum of a second particulate material having different physical properties can greatly alter the effective properties of the resulting two-phase system. In general, the effective properties of the medium will depend on the physical properties of both constituent phases, as well as the volume fraction, geometry, shape, and spatial distribution of the dispersed particles. The term 'effective property' usually implies that a multi-phase system is being approximated as a macroscopically homogeneous continuum. This approximation is valid when a multi-phase system is viewed on a representative length scale, or more specifically the representative averaging domain, can only be defined on the basis of an assumption about the macroscopic homogeneity of a multi-phase system; that is, any volume-averaged property remains the same regardless of the spatial position of an averaging domain. In the first part of this study, attention is focused on the overall behavior of particulate composites. A general framework emanating from the eigenstrain concept introduced by Eshelby is presented for determining the effective elastic moduli of two-phase composites. Subsequently, a complete formulation of the many-particle interaction problem is given, and a new approach avoiding the problem of non-absolute convergence is also presented. Some existing models are then recovered from the far-field solution, in which the interaction between neighboring particles is neglected, due to mathematical analogy, the effective viscosity of fluid suspension is obtained from the results of particulate composites as the limiting case of an incompressible matrix containing either rigid spheres or spherical cavities. The present framework is further combined with phenomenological plastic analysis to investigate the overall elasto-(visco-)plastic behavior of particulate composites. Finally, an analogous framework for the determination of effective conductivities of random dispersions of rigid-spheres is presented.

Chen, Tsung-Muh

1993-01-01

446

Mobile Particulate Emission Studies of New York City Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from both diesel and gasoline powered motor vehicles are a significant source of urban particulate (PM2.5) and trace gas pollution. Emission characteriza- tions of motor vehicles are typically performed using a dynamometer. Few studies have been performed which characterize emissions from in-use vehicles using a mo- bile sampling platform. This work, which was part of the PM2.5 Technology Assess-

M. Canagaratna; J. Jayne; Q. Shi; C. E. Kolb; D. Worsnop

2002-01-01

447

Particulate Carbohydrate and Proteins in the Bay of Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and proteins (PP) of the offshore waters (depth >200m) were measured within the upper 150m water column along the six transects covering 36 stations perpendicular to the coast in the Bay of Bengal. Concentrations of PCHO and PP ranged from 31 to 158?gl?1and from 0·56 to 2·45?g atomic (at) Nl?1at the surface, and decreased to 7–58?gl?1and 0·43–1·62?g

R. A. Sreepada; C. U. Rivonkar; A. H. Parulekar

1996-01-01

448

Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation  

DOEpatents

A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND)

2003-04-08

449

Urban particulate matter activates Akt in human lung cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normally picturesque Cache Valley in northern Utah is frequently reported to have the worst particulate (PM) air pollution\\u000a in the United States. Numerous epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere have associated PM exposure to a variety of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases and early mortality. We have previously shown that Cache Valley PM (CVPM) is pro-inflammatory, through a variety\\u000a of mechanisms involving the release

Todd L. Watterson; Brett Hamilton; Randy S. Martin; Roger A. Coulombe

450

Occupational exposure to carbon black: a particulate sampling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the particulate exposure levels within carbon black production plants, a sampling survey involving workers from seven carbon black producers was initiated in late 1979. A total of 1,951 acceptable samples (1,564 total dust and 387 respirable dust) were collected from closed-face filter cassettes worn by carbon black workers performing normal work operations. A one-centimeter cyclone separator

RALPH G. SMITH; DAVID C. MUSCH

1982-01-01

451

Fractography of unfilled and particulate-filled epoxy resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to analyse and understand the types of fracture surface morphology found in unfilled and particulate-filled epoxy resins in the light of the thermomechanical history of the specimen (loading rate or duration of loading, temperature, strain at break). Short-term tensile tests and long-term creep tests were conducted at four different temperatures. The fracture surface features

W. J. Cantwell; A. C. Roulin-Moloney; T. Kaiser

1988-01-01

452

Measurement of fine particulate matter using electron microscopy techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient fine particulate matter, defined as material with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), comprises a broad range of primary and secondary particles that are dispersed through the atmosphere from a variety of sources. Attention has recently shifted to investigating ambient PM2.5 because fine particles are thought to have a greater influence on health effects.

Gary S Casuccio; Steven F Schlaegle; Traci L Lersch; Gerald P Huffman; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah

2004-01-01

453

Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of iron particulate matter in coal soot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recoilless resonant absorption of 14.4 keV gamma-rays from 57Co have been carried out on coal soot deposited on the chimneys of railway engines to identify and characterize the iron particulate matter constituting the air pollutants during coal combustion. The analysis shows the presence of hematite (?-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and Fe2+ and Fe3+ mullite/silicates/glasses.

Harchand, K. S.; Raj, D.

1993-04-01

454

Observed dissolved and particulate nitrogen concentrations in a mini flume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous measurements of the benthic nitrogen (N) flux from resuspended estuarine particles in the Thames Estuary appeared\\u000a to underestimate benthic inputs. This study attempted to address experimental limitations by using a mini-annular flume. The\\u000a flume has a 45 l capacity and was prepared in order to facilitate trace chemical analysis of N. Sediment (S1) and suspended\\u000a particulate material (SPM; S2) were

Simon J. Ussher; Andrew J. Manning; Alan D. Tappin; Mark F. Fitzsimons

2011-01-01

455

Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

2013-12-01

456

Gaseous and Particulate Iodine in the Marine Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty gaseous iodine samples collected from a 20-meter tower on the windward shore of Oahu, Hawaii, during the summer of 1969 showed that the concentration of gaseous iodine ranged from 5 to 20 ng\\/m a. Particulate samples collected simultaneously with the gaseous samples showed that the atmospheric concentrations of gaseous iodine in marine air are 2-4 times the concentration of

Jarvis L. Moyers; Robert A. Duce

1972-01-01

457

High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2009-04-01

458

Metal removal via particulate material in a lowland river system.  

PubMed

Twelve month surveys of acid-soluble and dissolved trace metal concentrations in the lower Waikato River (in 1998/9 and 2005/6) showed abnormally low particulate Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and mass flux in autumn, when the suspended particulate material (SPM) had a relatively high diatom and organic carbon content, and low Fe and Al content. Dissolved Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations also decreased in autumn, while dissolved Fe and Pb concentrations were unaffected. While SPM settlement under the low river flow conditions present in autumn can explain the removal of particulate metals, it does not explain dissolved metal removal. SPM-metal interaction was therefore investigated using seasonal monitoring data, experimental adsorption studies, sequential extraction and geochemical modelling. Pb binding to SPM occurred predominantly via Fe-oxide surfaces, and could be reliably predicted using surface complexation adsorption modelling. Dissolved Mn concentrations were controlled by the solubility of Mn oxide, but enhanced removal during autumn could be attributed to uptake by diatoms. Zn and Cu were also adsorbed on Fe-oxide in the SPM, but removal from the water column in autumn appeared augmented by Zn adsorption onto Mn-oxide, and Cu adsorption onto the organic extracellular surfaces of the diatoms. PMID:22864428

Webster-Brown, J G; Dee, T J; Hegan, A F

2012-01-01

459

Analysis of particulate emissions of stoker coal fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this paper includes the study of over 100 particulate emission rate compliance test reports collected by the American Boiler Manufacturers Association under a program entitled ''A Testing Program to Update Equipment Specifications and Design Criteria for Stoker-Fired Boilers'', and analysis of the results of selected tests. All of the 98 tests reported in this study were conducted in accordance with EPA Method 5, ''Determination of Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources'', and were observed by state and/or federal enforcement officials. A total of 45 small institutional and industrial multiple pass boilers in the size range of 10,000 to 77,000 lb/hr maximum steam output are represented in the test data. Stoker types include multiple and single retort underfeed, and traveling grate (chain and bar-key) and vibrating grate overfeed. Coals fired include Pennsylvania anthracite and bituminous, and Indiana bituminous. Sample locations for the particulate emission rate tests include boiler outlet, breeching, short stub stack downstream of mechanical collector, and tall masonry stack. The tests were conducted with boilers operating at normal conditions, and fired with coal from the normal source.

Owens, H.K.; Axtman, W.H.; Davis, J.W.

1983-06-01

460

Removal of SOx, NOx, and particulate from combusted carbonaceous fuels  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a method for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate from the products of combusted carbonaceous fuels. Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate are currently discharged to the atmosphere as flue gas in quantities highly detrimental to the environment. Potassium compounds, as are found in agricultural grade potash, are dispersed throughout the combustion products at the exit of the combustion zone of boilers. The potassium compounds decompose as a result of combustion temperatures in excess of their melting points. The potassium, as an ionic vapor, reacts with the sulfur and nitrogen oxide gases present, to form potassium sulfates, potassium nitrites and potassium nitrates. When the combined products stream, traversing the boiler equipment train, cool sufficiently, the potassium, present in excess, condenses as potassium oxide on the surfaces of the particles present. The larger particles are removed from the non-condensed vapor and gas by the centrifugal and gravitational forces exerted within cyclones. The smaller particles are removed from the non-chargable vapor and gases by the electrostatic charge and attraction created within the precipitator. The dry particles discharged from the cyclones and precipitator are ready for ultimate end use as potash fertilizer without further treatment. The flue gas atmospheric emissions contain only trace quantities of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate.

Dayen, W.R.

1985-09-10

461

Surface Analysis of Particulates from Laboratory Hood Exhaust Manifold  

SciTech Connect

Particulate samples collected from a laboratory ventilation manifold during routine maintenance were analyzed to determine if particulate composition had changed as a result of changes in the laboratory's atmosphere. This ventilation manifold exhausts more than 100 fume hoods. The particulate samples were analyzed using static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The negative SIMS spectra showed abundant Cl-, NO3-, and HSO4-, consistent with the use of mineral acids in the laboratory. Cluster anions containing primarily Zn (but also other transition metals) were detected, which signaled corrosion of the manifold's galvanized steel by the volatilized acids. The most abundant ions in the cation SIMS spectra were derived from cyclohexylamine (CHA), which had been used as an antiscaling agent in the facility's boiler. Steam from the boiler, which contained CHA, was used to humidify the building air; this practice stopped in 1997. The abundances of the CHA-derived ions were significantly lower in the samples collected in 2004 and 2006 than in the 1992 samples, indicating that the CHA is being slowly depleted. Changes in the relative abundances suggest exponential depletion from the manifold with rate constants that are on the order of 0.01 to 0.04 month-1.

Gary S. Groenewold; Marnie M. Cortez; Anita K. Gianotto; Gary L. Gresham; John E. Olson; Robert V. Fox; Byron M. White; William F. Bauer; R. Avci; M. Deliorman; E. Williams

2007-06-01

462

Characterization of chemical and particulate emissions from aircraft engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a series of measurements from four on-wing, commercial aircraft engines, including two newer CFM56-7 engines and two earlier CFM56-3 engines. Samples were collected from each engine using a probe positioned behind the exhaust nozzle of the aircraft, chocked on a concrete testing pad. The emission factors for particulate matter mass, elemental and organic carbon, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, dioxins, metals and ions are reported for four different engine power setting modes. The emissions indices of particulate matter, elemental and organic carbon are highly power dependent for these engines. Particulate matter emission indices (g kg -1 fuel) are found to increase from 1.1E-02 to 2.05E-01 with increase in power from idle to 85%. The elemental carbon to organic carbon varies from 0.5 to 3.8 with change in power from idle to 85%. The carbonyl emissions are dominated by formaldehyde. The emission index of formaldehyde ranges from 2.3E-01 to 4.8E-01 g kg -1 fuel. The distribution of metals depends on the difference in the various engines. The dioxin emissions from the aircraft engines are observed to be below detection limit.

Agrawal, Harshit; Sawant, Aniket A.; Jansen, Karel; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

463

Development of A Microwave Assisted Particulate Filter Regeneration System  

SciTech Connect

The need for active regeneration of diesel particulate filters and the advantages of microwave assisted regeneration are discussed. The current study has multiple objectives, which include developing a microwave assisted particulate filter regeneration system for future generation light-duty diesel applications, including PNGV type applications. A variable power 2.0 kW microwave system and a tuned waveguide were employed. Cavity geometry is being optimized with the aid of computational modeling and temperature measurements during microwave heating. A wall-flow ceramic-fiber filter with superior thermal shock resistance, high filtration efficiency, and high soot capacity was used. The microwave assisted particulate filter regeneration system has operated for more than 100 hours in an engine test-cell with a 5.9-liter diesel engine with automated split exhaust flow and by-pass flow capabilities. Filter regeneration was demonstrated using soot loads up to 10 g/liter and engine exhaust at idling flow rates as the oxygen source. A parametric study to determine the optimal combination of soot loading, oxidant flow rate, microwave power and heating time is underway. Preliminary experimental results are reported.

Popuri, Sriram

2001-08-05

464

Association of glycolytic enzymes with particulate fractions from nerve endings.  

PubMed

Several glycolytic enzymes were observed to have between 40-90% of their activities associated with the particulate fractions of lysed nerve endings. The enzymes showing high particulate activity in lysed nerve endings were hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1), aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13), glucosephosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9), phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11), glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) and lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.27). With the exception of phosphofructokinase, 80% or more of the particle associated activity of each enzyme was solubilized by salt treatment indicating the association with particles was ionic. Sub-fractionation of lysed nerve endings showed hexokinase and fumarase (EC 4.2.1.2) had the highest specific activity in the same fractions which is consistent with observations indicating that hexokinase is associated with mitochondria. The other glycolytic zymes having high particulate activity, aldolase, glucosephosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed enrichment in fractions containing synaptosomal membranes, i.e. the fractions having highest specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3). PMID:620035

Knull, H R

1978-01-12

465

Development of a national interregional transport matrix for respirable particulates  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) long-range transport model was used to produce monthly, average air concentrations of respirable particulates produced by 86 unit emission sources located at points on a grid spanning the continental United States. These monthly assessments were interpolated to provide monthly, average air concentrations resulting from a unit source located at the centroid of each of 238 Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR). The air concentration field from each emitter AQCR was averaged over each receptor AQCR to produce a population-weighted, average air concentration of respirable particulates. The final product is a matrix of the monthly, average air concentration of respirable particulates over each receptor AQCR resulting from the unit emission from each emitter AQCR. Matrices were generated using meteorological data from the months of January, April, July, and October 1974. The program was undertaken to develop a useful method of assessing the air quality impacts resulting from various predicted energy-technology use scenarios. The AQCR-to-AQCR matrix can be used with any siting scenario of energy technologies to predict the air quality impact on any AQCR of the projected emissions from other AQCRs by multiplying the matrix elements by the projected emissions and summing the products over the emitting AQCRs. The matrix approach will allow the ranking of the air quality impacts of various siting scenarios of energy technology use without rerunning the long-range transport model.

Eadie, W. J.; Davis, W. E.

1979-10-01

466

Effect of acute stress on NTPDase and 5?-nucleotidase activities in brain synaptosomes in different stages of development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute restraint stress on rat brain synaptosomal plasma membrane (SPM) ecto-nucleotidase activities at specific stages of postnatal development (15-, 30-, 60- and 90-day-old rats) by measuring the rates of ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis 1, 24 and 72h post-stress. At 1h after stress NTPDase and ecto-5?-nucleotidase activities were

Anica Horvat; Ivana Stanojevi?; Dunja Drakuli?; Nataša Veli?kovi?; Snježana Petrovi?; Maja Miloševi?

2010-01-01

467

Exposure assessment of particulates of diesel and natural gas fuelled buses in silico.  

PubMed

Lung deposition estimates of particulate emissions of diesel and natural gas (CNG) fuelled vehicles were studied by using in silico methodology. Particulate emissions and particulate number size distributions of two Euro 2 petroleum based diesel buses and one Euro 3 gas bus were measured. One of the petroleum based diesel buses used in the study was equipped with an oxidation catalyst on the vehicle (DI-OC) while the second had a partial-DPF catalyst (DI-pDPF). The third bus used was the gas bus with an oxidation catalyst on the vehicle (CNG-OC). The measurements were done using a transient chassis dynamometer test cycle (Braunschweig cycle) and an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) with formed particulates in the size range of 7 nm to 10 microm. The total amounts of the emitted diesel particulates were 88-fold for DI-OC and 57-fold for DI-pDPF compared to the total amount of emitted CNG particulates. Estimates for the deposited particulates were computed with a lung deposition model ICRP 66 using in-house MATLAB scripts. The results were given as particulate numbers and percentages deposited in five different regions of the respiratory system. The percentages of particulates deposited in the respiratory system were 56% for DI-OC, 51% for DI-pDPF and 77% for CNG-OC of all the inhaled particulates. The result shows that under similar conditions the total lung dose of particulates originating from petroleum diesel fuelled engines DI-OC and DI-pDPF was more than 60-fold and 35-fold, respectively, compared to the lung dose of particulates originating from the CNG fuelled engine. The results also indicate that a majority (35-50%) of the inhaled particulates emitted from the tested petroleum diesel and CNG engines penetrate deep into the unciliated regions of the lung where gas-exchange occurs. PMID:19828175

Pietikäinen, Mari; Oravisjärvi, Kati; Rautio, Arja; Voutilainen, Arto; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Keiski, Riitta L

2009-10-13

468

Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to evaluate the mercury capture effectiveness of the AHPC when used with elemental mercury oxidation additives. This project, which is now in the final report phase, demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

2004-12-31

469

Mobile Particulate Emission Studies of New York City Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from both diesel and gasoline powered motor vehicles are a significant source of urban particulate (PM2.5) and trace gas pollution. Emission characteriza- tions of motor vehicles are typically performed using a dynamometer. Few studies have been performed which characterize emissions from in-use vehicles using a mo- bile sampling platform. This work, which was part of the PM2.5 Technology Assess- ment and Characterization Study in New York (PMTACS-NY), describes the applica- tion of new instrumentation for rapid (1-5 second) and real-time characterization of particulate emissions from in-use vehicles . An Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed on the Aerodyne Research (ARI) mobile laboratory designed to "chase" target vehicles in and around the New York City area and measure their emissions under actual driving conditions. The AMS provides quantitative particle size and composition information for volatile and semi- volatile matter (0.05-2.5 um). The AMS was operated in a fast acquisition mode de- signed to monitor particle emissions from the mobile sources. In this mode mass spec- tra (0-300 amu) and chemically speciated particle size distributions were recorded at 4 sec intervals. In addition to the AMS, the Mobile Laboratory was equipped with the ARI tunable diode laser (TILDAS) system which was configured to measure NO, NO2, CO, CH4, SO2 and formaldehyde, a global positioning system, a condensation particle counter, and a Licor CO2 instrument. The simultaneous measurement of particulate mass loading and plume CO2 enabled the calculation of emission indices for the targeted vehicles. Particulate matter emis- sion indices for a representative fraction of the NYC Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) bus fleet were determined in an effort to characterize new emission control technologies currently implemented by the NYC MTA. In addition to total particle emission indices, chemically speciated sulfate and organic mass loadings and size distributions were determined. Representative mass spectral signatures and size dis- tributions observed from the exhaust plume particles and correlations between the simultaneous gas and particulate measurements will be discussed. Differences in ob- served particle emission factors and compositions between buses using different fuels and technologies will also be presented.

Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Shi, Q.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D.

470

Bioavailability in vivo of benzo[a]pyrene adsorbed to diesel particulate.  

PubMed

To evaluate health risks associated with exposure to particulates in the environment, it is necessary to quantify the bioavailability of carcinogens associated with the particulates. Direct analysis of bioavailability in vivo is most readily accomplished by adsorbing a radiolabeled form of the carcinogen to the particulate. A sample of native diesel particulate collected from an Oldsmobile diesel engine that contained 1.03 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/g particulate was supplemented with exogenous [3H]-BaP to produce a particulate containing 2.62 micrograms BaP/g. To insure that elution of BaP from native and [3H]-BaP-supplemented particulate was similar, in vitro analyses were performed. When using phospholipid vesicles composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), 1.52% of total BaP was eluted from native particulate into the vesicles in 18 hrs; from [3H]-BaP supplemented particulate, 1.68% was eluted. Using toluene as eluent, 2.55% was eluted from native particulate, and 8.25% from supplemented particulate, in 6 hrs. Supplemented particulate was then instilled intratracheally into male Sprague-Dawley rats and distribution of radioactivity was analyzed at selected times over 3 days. About 50% of radioactivity remained in lungs at 3 days following instillation, with 30% being excreted into feces and the remainder distributed throughout the organs of the rats. To estimate the amount of radioactivity that entered feces through swallowing of a portion of the instilled dose, [3H]-BaP-supplemented particulate was instilled intratracheally into rats that had a cannula surgically implanted in the bile duct. Rate of elimination of radioactivity into bile was monitored; 10.6% of radioactivity was recovered in 6 hr, an amount slightly lower than the 12.8% excreted in 6 hrs into feces of animals with intact bile ducts. Our studies provide a quantitative description of the distribution of BaP and its metabolites following intratracheal instillation of diesel particulate. Because rates of elution of BaP in vitro are similar for native diesel particulate and particulate with supplemental [3H]-BaP, our results provide a reasonable estimate of the bioavailability in vivo of BaP associated with diesel particulate. PMID:1949055

Bevan, D R; Ruggio, D M

1991-05-01

471

Impact assessment of respirable suspended particulate matter from diesel generator sets used for pumping station.  

PubMed

Prediction of respirable suspended particulate matter impacts of diesel generator sets used for pumping station has been made using meteorological data, information on stack characteristics and emission rate, baseline ambient particulate matter and Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST-3) model. It is observed that particulate matter emission from pumping station-S workplace diesel generator sets ranged from 2.4 to 436.5 mg Nm?³ and while at pumping station-C, it ranged from 23.2 to 186.5 mg Nm?³. The predicted and ambient respirable suspended particulate matter concentrations are below the national air quality standard for respirable suspended particulate matter in a mixed industrial area. Metals contents in respirable suspended particulate matter indicate the origin of crustal and mobile sources. Therefore, the impact of diesel generator sets used for pumping of crude oil on local air quality would be acceptable. PMID:20700577

Talwar, B; Pipalatkar, P; Gajghate, D G; Nema, P

2010-08-11

472

Study on Dispersion Stability and Self-Repair Principle of Ultrafine-Tungsten Disulfide Particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work reports on dispersion stability enhancement and self-repair principle discussion of ultrafine-tungsten disulfide\\u000a in green lubricating oil. A new dispersion method that combines high strength ultrasonic treating and surface modification\\u000a is introduced: high strength ultrasonic was used to break up the particulates’ glomerations, and surface modifier was used\\u000a to modify the particulates’ surfaces, while particulates’ dispersion effect was evaluated

Shi Chen; Mao Daheng

473

Contribution of particulate nitrate to airborne measurements of total reactive nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous measurements of speciated, total reactive nitrogen (NOy) and particulate NO3- (particle diameter <1.3 mum) were made on board the NASA P-3B aircraft over the western Pacific in February-April 2001 during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment. Gas-phase and particulate NOy was measured using a gold tube catalytic converter. For the interpretation of particulate NOy, conversion

Y. Miyazaki; Y. Kondo; N. Takegawa; R. J. Weber; M. Koike; K. Kita; M. Fukuda; Y. Ma; A. D. Clarke; V. N. Kapustin; F. Flocke; A. J. Weinheimer; M. Zondlo; F. L. Eisele; D. R. Blake; B. Liley

2005-01-01

474

Contribution of particulate nitrate to airborne measurements of total reactive nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous measurements of speciated, total reactive nitrogen (NOy) and particulate NO3? (particle diameter <1.3 ?m) were made on board the NASA P-3B aircraft over the western Pacific in February–April 2001 during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment. Gas-phase and particulate NOy was measured using a gold tube catalytic converter. For the interpretation of particulate NOy, conversion

Y. Miyazaki; Y. Kondo; N. Takegawa; R. J. Weber; M. Koike; K. Kita; M. Fukuda; Y. Ma; A. D. Clarke; V. N. Kapustin; F. Flocke; A. J. Weinheimer; M. Zondlo; F. L. Eisele; D. R. Blake; B. Liley

2005-01-01

475

Microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steel reinforced with in situ TiC particulate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steel reinforced with 5vol.% TiC particulate was in situ synthesized by in situ reaction during melting process successfully and its microstructure, mechanical properties as well as oxidation behavior were investigated. Microstructure observations revealed that in situ TiC particulates with an average size of 2–10?m distributed uniformly in the matrix and the interface boundaries between TiC particulates and austenite

ZiFei Ni; YangShan Sun; Feng Xue; Jing Bai; YueJiao Lu

2011-01-01

476

Improved emission inventory of particulate matter for the Flemish region (Belgium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), department for Monitoring and Research, frequently observes high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5). The concentrations of fine particulate matter in the Flemish region are considered to be amongst the highest in Europe. As it can be transported long-range, natural and anthropogenic sources of fine particulate matter can be local as well as

V. Timmermans; V. Cornelis; C. Polders; F. Sleeuwaert; L. Schrooten; L. Janssen; E. Meynaerts

477

Analysis of manganese particulates from automotive decomposition of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulates have been collected and analyzed from automotive vehicles operating on fuel containing the organometallic antiknock additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to study and identify the manganese species present in these emitted particulates. Results show that respirable size particulates with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 ?m or

C. Colmenares; Steven Deutsch; Cheryl Evans; A. J. Nelson; Louis J. Terminello; John G. Reynolds; Joseph W. Roos; Isaac L. Smith

1999-01-01

478

Particulate monitoring for acid-deposition research at Sequoia National Park, California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project were: (1) to characterize the particulate composition of fine particles; (2) to determine what material is available for wet and dry deposition (3) to determine how particulate concentrations vary with time as the methodology changes; (4) to determine the extent of transport of particulate pollutants from the San Joaquin Valley; (5) to provide convenient time plots and other visual representations of particulate concentrations to concurrent projects on the effects of wet and dry deposition and to studies dealing with meteorology and gases.

Cahill, T.A.; Annegarn, H.J.; Ewell, D.; Feeney, P.J.

1986-05-01

479

Incorporation of particulates into accreted ice above subglacial Vostok lake, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of microscopic particulates in meteoric and accreted ice from the Vostok (Antarctica) ice core is assessed in conjunction with existing ice-core data to investigate the mechanism by which particulates are incorporated into refrozen lake water. Melted ice samples from a range of icecore depths were filtered through 0.2 ?m polycarbonate membranes, and secondary electron images were collected at ×500 magnification using a scanning electron microscope. Image analysis software was used to characterize the size and shape of particulates. Similar distributions of major-axis lengths, surface areas and shape factors (aspect ratio and compactness) for particulates in all accreted ice samples suggest that a single process may be responsible for incorporating the vast majority of particulates for all depths. Calculation of Stokes settling velocities for particulates of various sizes implies that 98% of particulates observed could 'float' to the ice water interface with upward water velocities of 0.0003 m s-1 where they could be incorporated by growing ice crystals, or by rising frazil ice crystals. The presence of particulates that are expected to sink in the water column (2%) and the uneven distribution of particulates in the ice core further implies that periodic perturbations to the lake's circulation, involving increased velocities, may have occurred in the past.

Royston-Bishop, George; Priscu, John C.; Tranter, Martyn; Christner, Brent; Siegert, Martin J.; Lee, Victoria

480

Modeling particulate matter emissions during mineral loading process under weak wind simulation.  

PubMed

The quantification of particulate matter emissions from mineral handling is an important problem for the quantification of global emissions on industrial sites. Mineral particulate matter emissions could adversely impact environmental quality in mining regions, transport regions, and even on a global scale. Mineral loading is an important process contributing to mineral particulate matter emissions, especially under weak wind conditions. Mathematical models are effective ways to evaluate particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process. The currently used empirical models based on the form of a power function do not predict particulate matter emissions accurately under weak wind conditions. At low particulate matter emissions, the models overestimated, and at high particulate matter emissions, the models underestimated emission factors. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to evaluate the particulate matter emission factors for the mineral loading process. A new approach based on the mathematical form of a logistical function was developed and tested. It provided a realistic depiction of the particulate matter emissions during the mineral loading process, accounting for fractions of fine mineral particles, dropping height, and wind velocity. PMID:23425793

Zhang, Xiaochun; Chen, Weiping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shuifen

2013-02-17

481

The potential for delivery of particulate matter through positive airway pressure devices (CPAP\\/BPAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Airborne particulate matter may induce health risk with inhalation. Special concerns exist for deployed military personnel\\u000a with inhaled particulate matter in desert environments. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) used in obstructive sleep\\u000a apnea may facilitate inhalation of particulate matter. We evaluated the ability of commercial CPAP filter systems to eliminate\\u000a inhalation of particulate matter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  An ultrasonic medical nebulizer (DeVilbliss Ultraneb,

David Kristo; Timothy Corcoran; Nina O’Connell; Kristina Thomas; Patrick Strollo

482

Development of a particulate sulfate analyzer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An improved method of routinely measuring atmospheric particulate sulfates would not only promote a better understanding of a relationship between gaseous and particulate sulfur compound emissions and ambient sulfates, but would also provide a cost-effective means of monitoring compliance with air quality standards for sulfates. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop an analyzer that would be suitable for routine ground-based monitoring. Two commercially available flame photometric sulfur gas analyzers were selected as candidates for modification: a Monitor Labs 8450 and a Meloy Labs 285. The Meloy Labs 285 Sulfur Gas Analyzer was modified into the MERT 285 particulate sulfate analyzer. In the MERT 285, sulfur gases are removed from the aerosol being sampled as they flow through a silver oxide-based diffusion denuder. The FPD signal is then integrated to provide readings down to 0.1 ..mu..gSO/sub 4/ /m/sup 3/. The response of the MERT 285 per sulfur atom is essentially equal for H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, MgSO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/. In ambient air tests, lower quantifiable limits of about 5 ..mu..gSO/sub 4//m/sup 3/ were achieved. The performance of the MERT 285 under air quality sampling conditions compares favorably with the performance of continuous sulfate analyzers concurrently being developed by other researchers. Three-hour averaged responses of the MERT 285 agreed with 3-hour filter-sampled sulfate values and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.97.

Mueller, P.K.; Collins, J.F.

1980-08-01

483

Particulate-Phase Carbonyls: Laboratory and Pacific 2001 Field Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aldehydes and ketones are important constituents of the gas phase. They are emitted from athropogenic and biogenic sources directly, but are also formed as secondary oxidation products of a variety of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Although their gas phase occurrence and chemistry is well known, the presence of these compounds in the particulate phase is not completely understood. A method has been developed to measure particulate phase carbonyls. Analysis was performed by a simultaneous extraction and derivatization of carbonyls by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The subsequent derivatives are pre-concentrated and injected onto an HPLC and detected by UV absorption. Laboratory studies of the extraction kinetics, suggest that partitioning of even highly volatile carbonyls may be possible. Also, experiments performed to determine the extent of positive artifacts on Teflon coated filters, indicate that measurements of these volatile carbonyls are likely not a result of gas-phase adsorption to the filter. These studies also indicate that sampling on quartz fiber filters may introduce significantly more uncertainty with respect to positive artifacts. The analytical method was used to analyze filters sampled during the Pacific 2001 field campaign. Particulate samples were collected on Teflon coated glass-fiber filters. Samples were collected at an urban site (Slocan Park,Vancouver), a rural site (Langley) and an elevated rural mountain site (Eagle Ridge, Sumas). Preliminary results show several carbonyls present in aerosols, at pg/m3 to ng/m3 levels. Detected carbonyls of possible anthropogenic origin include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Detected carbonyls of biogenic origin include pinonaldehyde and nopinone, known oxidation products of the biogenically emitted a-pinene and b-pinene. Possible mechanisms for carbonyl partitioning and implications for their contribution to aerosols in the Lower Fraser Valley will be presented.

Liggio, J.; McLaren, R.

2002-12-01

484

Estimation of Particulate Mass and Manganese Exposure Levels among Welders  

PubMed Central

Background: Welders are frequently exposed to Manganese (Mn), which may increase the risk of neurological impairment. Historical exposure estimates for welding-exposed workers are needed for epidemiological studies evaluating the relationship between welding and neurological or other health outcomes. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a multivariate model to estimate quantitative levels of welding fume exposures based on welding particulate mass and Mn concentrations reported in the published literature. Methods: Articles that described welding particulate and Mn exposures during field welding activities were identified through a comprehensive literature search. Summary measures of exposure and related determinants such as year of sampling, welding process performed, type of ventilation used, degree of enclosure, base metal, and location of sampling filter were extracted from each article. The natural log of the reported arithmetic mean exposure level was used as the dependent variable in model building, while the independent variables included the exposure determinants. Cross-validation was performed to aid in model selection and to evaluate the generalizability of the models. Results: A total of 33 particulate and 27 Mn means were included in the regression analysis. The final model explained 76% of the variability in the mean exposures and included welding process and degree of enclosure as predictors. There was very little change in the explained variability and root mean squared error between the final model and its cross-validation model indicating the final model is robust given the available data. Conclusions: This model may be improved with more detailed exposure determinants; however, the relatively large amount of variance explained by the final model along with the positive generalizability results of the cross-validation increases the confidence that the estimates derived from this model can be used for estimating welder exposures in absence of individual measurement data.

Hobson, Angela; Seixas, Noah; Sterling, David; Racette, Brad A.

2011-01-01

485

Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates were examined in contrasting Chesapeake Bay (estuarine) and mid-Atlantic shelf/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) represented ˜5-9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared to be a similar fraction of total sediment carbon oxidation (or C ox). When these results are compared with results from other coastal sediments and a pelagic turbidite, PCHO remineralization (as a percentage of C ox) did not vary by more than a factor of ˜2-3 over a 3-4 order of magnitude range in C ox values. The causes of this are not well understood, but may be related to specific effects associated with the remineralization of highly altered organic matter mixtures under aerobic conditions. Dissolved carbohydrates (DCHOs) in these sediment pore waters ranged from ˜30 to 400 ?M, increased with depth in a manner similar to total DOC, and represented ˜10 to 55% of pore water DOC. In Chesapeake Bay sediments this percentage decreased with sediment depth, while in these continental margin sediments it was constant (upper 30 cm). Of the DCHOs in these pore waters ˜30 to 50% could be identified as individual aldoses (monomeric neutral sugars), and total aldose yields (individual aldoses as a percentage of total DOC) were higher in these continental margin sediment pore waters (>9%) than they were in the estuarine sediment pore waters (<5%). A comparison of DCHO and PCHO concentrations in these sediments indicates that their concentrations are uncoupled, and that pore water DCHO concentrations are primarily controlled by sediment remineralization processes. Pore water DCHOs appeared to be preferentially found in the high molecular weight (HMW) DOC pool, and likely occur as some of the initial HMW intermediates produced and consumed during sediment POC remineralization. These results also support past suggestions about the differing controls on carbon remineralization processes in continental margin versus estuarine sediments.

Burdige, D. J.; Skoog, A.; Gardner, K.

2000-03-01

486

California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM10–2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 ?m to < 10 ?m; coarse ) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m; fine) concentrations greatly in excess of the air quality standards and among the highest values reported at these stations since data have been collected. Objectives These observations prompt a number of questions about the health impact of exposure to elevated levels of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 and about the specific toxicity of PM arising from wildfires in this region. Methods Toxicity of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Results Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. Conclusions We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season.

Wegesser, Teresa C.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Last, Jerold A.

2009-01-01

487

Gaseous and particulate air pollution in the Lanzhou Valley, China.  

PubMed

Gaseous and particulate matter measurements were performed from January 1999 to December 2001 to assess seasonal and diurnal patterns of air pollutions in the Lanzhou Valley, China. The objectives are the determination of the temporal variability of total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and PM10 levels, and their relationship with the SO2 and NOx emissions and desert dust intrusions from the dust sources in the Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province. The results showed that concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants undergo seasonal variations characterized by a winter maximum levels for SO2 (0.094-0.208 mg/m3) and NO2 (0.068-0.089 mg/m3) and a spring maximum levels for TSP (0.885-1.037 mg/m3). Linear regression analysis indicated that the diurnal mean TSP/PM10 ratio may approximate to 3.0, and that the annual NO2/NOx ratio was approximately 0.86, with its highest monthly average of 0.91 in June and its lowest monthly average of 0.788 in January. The origin of PM10 episodes was investigated by correlating the PM10 episodes in the Lanzhou Valley with the high wind speeds in Jinchang (dust sources) in the Hexi Corridor, and also, by comparing the PM10 levels with the SO2 and NOx concentrations. Most of the 'high PM10 episodes' (1-h mean maximum >1.0 mg/m3) were attributed to the desert dust intrusions from the Hexi Corridor. The influence of the industrial and domestic emissions in the PM10 levels was evidenced during most of the periods with the PM10 levels less than 1.0 mg/m3. PMID:15016505

Ta, Wanquan; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Honglang; Zhu, Xueyi; Xiao, Zhen

2004-03-29

488

Chemical composition of urban airborne particulate matter in Ulaanbaatar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pollution caused by airborne particulate matter in the winter season in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is a very serious problem. However, there is a complete lack of scientific observation data to define the situation prior to any remediation. PM10 and PM2.5 average monthly values obtained by continuous monitoring showed the concentrations of particles of both size categories exceeded 100 ?g m -3 during November to February (winter). PM10 particles were sampled with filters in January (i.e. during the heating period) and June (i.e.non-heating period) of 2008 in central Ulaanbaatar. To determine the composition of urban airborne particulate matter we analyzed a range of ionic components, multiple elements including heavy metals, and organic and inorganic carbon (soot). We also measured the stable carbon isotope ratio of the soot. Total carbon (sum of organic carbon and inorganic carbon) accounted for 47% of the mass of the PM10 during the heating period and 33% during the non-heating period, and was the largest component of urban airborne particulate matter in Ulaanbaatar. Stable isotope ratios (? 13 C) of soot generated during the heating period (-23.4 ± 0.2‰) approximated the ratios for coal used in Ulaanbaatar (-21.3 to -24.4‰), while the ratios during the non-heating period (-27.1 ± 0.4‰) were clearly different from the coal values. In the heating period, a very high correlation was observed between soot and organic carbon, SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , F - , Zn, As, and Pb, and we concluded that they were derived from coal combustion along with soot. In addition, the concentrations and their ratios relative to each other of Al, Fe, Ca, K, Na, Mg, and Mn hardly differed between the heating period and the non-heating period, and it was concluded that they were derived from soil dust.

Nishikawa, Masataka; Matsui, Ichiro; Batdorj, Dashdondog; Jugder, Dulam; Mori, Ikuko; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Katsuyuki

2011-10-01

489

Large-scale measurement of airborne particulate sulfur  

SciTech Connect

An aerosol sampling and analysis system is described that represents an integral approach to large-scale monitoring of airborne particulate matter. During our two-year period 34,000 size-fractionated samples were collected by automated dichotomous samplers characterized by a particle size cutpoint of 2.4 ..mu..m. The total mass of the particulate matter was measured by beta-particle attenuation, and the elemental composition, including sulfur, was determined by photon-excited x-ray fluorescence. The long-term performance of the system is reported. Potential systematic effects related to the sampling and analysis of sulfur particles are treated. Both the accuracy and precision of sulfur measurement are estimated to be 2 percent. While the x-ray attenuation correction required is typically only a few percent, a larger correction is required for a small fraction of the samples due to the migration of the sulfur into the filter. Laboratory and field experiments showed insignificant gaseous SO/sub 2/ conversion on the type of filters employed in the study. Preliminary data on the composition and the temporal and spatial distribution of the St. Louis aerosol are presented. The long-term (4 month average) sulfur data indicate that the background air masses arriving at St. Louis from the west and north were about 30 percent lower in particulate sulfur than those from the east and south. Short-term (6 hour average) data indicate that the effects of stationary SO/sub 2/ sources extend for long distances (at least 40 km), and are highly directional in character.

Loo, B.W.; French, W.R.; Gatti, R.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Llacer, J.; Thompson, A.C.

1977-08-01

490

Strainer assembly for removing solid particulates from oil  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a strainer assembly for removing solid particulates from a fluid. It comprises a housing formed as an elbow-shaped conduit having an inlet conduit section terminating in a forwardly extending flange, an enlarged intermediate section, and an outlet conduit section; an opening in a wall of the enlarged intermediate section spaced from and axially aligned with the forwardly extending flange of the inlet conduit section; a support member having a base secured in and sealing the opening; a screen disposed between the support member and the flange of the inlet conduit section.

Martin, R.J.

1992-08-18

491

ENGINEERED PARTICULATES FOR CO-FIRING OF DIVERSE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a novel methodology for the formation of engineered particulates of energy-relevant material. Specifically, we aim to control interparticle cohesion in such a way as to generate macro-particles or agglomerates of several differing types of primary particles in specific proportions such that they would be of utility for co-firing applications. In Phase I of this project, we used a combination of experimentation and simulation to validate theoretically derived mixing/segregation rules for cohesive granular materials in static systems, flowing systems, and gas-solid systems.

Joseph J. McCarthy; Kunal Jain; Hongming Li; Deliang Shi

2004-03-01

492

Indoor particulate matter in urban residences of Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

Indoor particulate matter samples were collected in 17 homes in an urban area in Alexandria during the summer season. During air measurement in all selected homes, parallel outdoor air samples were taken in the balconies of the domestic residences. It was found that the mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 and < or = 10 microm, respectively) concentrations were 53.5 +/- 15.2 and 77.2 +/- 15.1 microg/m3, respectively. The corresponding mean outdoor levels were 66.2 +/- 16.5 and 123.8 +/- 32.1 microg/m3, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations accounted, on average, for 68.8 +/- 12.8% of the total PM10 concentrations indoors, whereas PM2.5 contributed to 53.7 +/- 4.9% of the total outdoor PM10 concentrations. The median indoor/outdoor mass concentration (I/O) ratios were 0.81 (range: 0.43-1.45) and 0.65 (range: 0.4-1.07) for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Only four homes were found with I/O ratios above 1, indicating significant contribution from indoor sources. Poor correlation was seen between the indoor PM10 and PM2.5 levels and the corresponding outdoor concentrations. PM10 levels were significantly correlated with PM2.5 loadings indoors and outdoors and this might be related to PM10 and PM2.5 originating from similar particulate matter emission sources. Smoking, cooking using gas stoves, and cleaning were the major indoor sources contributed to elevated indoor levels of PM10 and PM2.5. Implications: The current study presents results of the first PM2.5 and PM10 study in homes located in the city of Alexandria, Egypt. Scarce data are available on indoor air quality in Egypt. Poor correlation was seen between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter concentrations. Indoor sources such as smoking, cooking, and cleaning were found to be the major contributors to elevated indoor levels of PM10 and PM2.5. PMID:24010376

Abdel-Salam, Mahmoud M M

2013-08-01

493

Interspecies Stress in Momentum Equations for Dense Binary Particulate Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two-species particulate systems, ensemble averaged continuity and momentum equations for each species are derived based on the Liouville equation of the system. The ensemble average used is species specific. It is found that the interaction between species results in not only the interspecies force but also a stress in the momentum equations. In the limit that particles of one of the species can be considered as a continuum, the existence of the interspecies stress enables us to reduce the derived equations to the familiar form for dispersed two-phase flows.

Zhang, D. Z.; Ma, X.; Rauenzahn, R. M.

2006-07-01

494

Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The overall Ni and Cu content increased from bottom to top of the samples due to dissolution of the metal film by the stream of liquid Al during infiltration. The strengths of the Al/Ni-SiC composites, measured by four-point bending, were 205 and 225 MPa for samples reinforced with 78 mum and 49 mum Ni-SiC, respectively. The mode of fracture was mainly controlled by SiC particle fracture.

Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

2001-07-01

495

Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.  

PubMed

We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 ?g m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 ?g m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 ?g m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 ?g m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate matter, which can contribute to increased short-term inhalation exposure of exercising children. PMID:21458792

Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Ji?í

2011-04-01

496

Photoelectrochemistry of semiconductor ZnO particulate films  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on thin films of ZnO semiconductor that have been prepared on electrode surfaces by coating them with quantized ZnO colloids. The photoelectrochemical properties of semiconductor particulate films have been evaluated with both steady-state and laser pulse excitations. The ZnO film behaves like an n-type semiconductor with a flatband potential of {minus}0.6 V vs. SCE. The incident-photon conversion efficiency at 320 nm is 15%. The generation of photovoltage at these electrodes has been time-resolved with coulostatic laser-flash-photolysis experiments.

Hotchandani, S. (Centre de Recherche en Photobiophysique, Univ. du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, G9A 5H7 (CA)); Kamat, P.V. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Radiation Lab.)

1992-06-01

497

MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

2001-11-01

498

MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

2003-08-01

499

MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

2002-11-01

500

MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in th