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Sample records for particulate ecto-nucleotidase cd39

  1. High Expression of Ecto-Nucleotidases CD39 and CD73 in Human Endometrial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Aliagas, Elisabet; Vidal, August; Texidó, Laura; Ponce, Jordi; Condom, Enric; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies used by tumors to evade immunosurveillance is the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, which has immunosupressive and tumor promoting effects. The study of the mechanisms leading to adenosine formation at the tumor interstitium are therefore of great interest in oncology. The dominant pathway generating extracellular adenosine in tumors is the dephosphorylation of ATP by ecto-nucleotidases. Two of these enzymes acting sequentially, CD39 and CD73, efficiently hydrolyze extracellular ATP to adenosine. They have been found to play a crucial role in a variety of tumors, but there were no data concerning endometrial cancer, the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. The aim of the present work is to study the expression of CD39 and CD73 in human endometrial cancer. We have analyzed protein and gene expression, as well as enzyme activity, in type I endometrioid adenocarcinomas and type II serous adenocarcinomas and their nonpathological endometrial counterparts. High levels of both enzymes were found in tumor samples, with significantly increased expression of CD39 in type II serous tumors, which also coincided with the higher tumor grade. Our results reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system in cancer, emphasizing the relevance of ecto-nucleotidases as emerging therapeutic targets in oncology. PMID:24707115

  2. Beyond ecto-nucleotidase: CD39 defines human Th17 cells with CD161.

    PubMed

    Bai, Aiping; Robson, Simon

    2015-09-01

    CD39/ENTPD1 is a prototypic member of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ENTPDase) family on cell surface. CD39 has been reported to be a marker of regulatory immune cells and catalyzes extracellular hydrolysis of nucleotides to generate AMP and, in tandem with CD73, adenosine. We have recently found in addition that co-expression of CD39 and CD161 by human CD4(+) T cells may become a biomarker of human Th17 cells. CD39 and CD161 have direct interactions that are further linked with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Upon activation of CD39 and CD161, the molecular interactions boost ASM bio-activity, which generates cellular ceramide to further mediate downstream signals inclusive of STAT3 and mTOR. We suggest modulation of human Th17 responsiveness by CD39 and CD161 and describe novel molecular mechanisms integrating elements of both extracellular nucleotide and sphingolipid homeostasis that are pivotal in the control of human Th17 cells and which could have therapeutic potential. PMID:26059452

  3. Ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors: recent developments in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Baqi, Younis

    2015-01-01

    Ecto-nucleotidases are nucleotide metabolizing enzymes that are divided into four different families; nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT), nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), and alkaline phosphatases (APs). These enzymes are responsible for the hydrolysis of nucleotidases (nucleoside 5'-triphosphates, 5'-diphosphates and 5'-monophosphates). Ecto-nucleotidases modulate P1- and P2-receptor-mediated signaling. Alterations in extracellular nucleotide and adenosine level can increase or decrease P1 and P2 activity. Potent and selective ligands for certain ectonucleotidase are important as pharmacological tools to investigate the (patho)physiological roles of these enzymes. Furthermore, such ligands are required to study their potential as novel drugs, e.g., as immunomodulatory agents, for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular or central nervous system disorders. Hence, this review aims to provide an overview of ecto-nucleotidases inhibitors developed so far. PMID:25694081

  4. Polyoxometalates--potent and selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Fiene, Amelie; Li, Wenjin; Hanck, Theodor; Brylev, Konstantin A; Fedorov, Vladimir E; Lecka, Joanna; Haider, Ali; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Sévigny, Jean; Kortz, Ulrich; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-15

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic cluster metal complexes that possess versatile biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects. Their mechanisms of action at the molecular level are largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the inhibition of several enzyme families (e.g., phosphatases, protein kinases or ecto-nucleotidases) by POMs may contribute to their pharmacological properties. Ecto-nucleotidases are cell membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides thereby regulating purinergic (and pyrimidinergic) signaling. They comprise four distinct families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), alkaline phosphatases (APs) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of a series of polyoxometalates as well as chalcogenide hexarhenium cluster complexes at a broad range of ecto-nucleotidases. [Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2](10-) (5, PSB-POM142) was discovered to be the most potent inhibitor of human NTPDase1 described so far (Ki: 3.88 nM). Other investigated POMs selectively inhibited human NPP1, [TiW11CoO40](8-) (4, PSB-POM141, Ki: 1.46 nM) and [NaSb9W21O86](18-) (6, PSB-POM143, Ki: 4.98 nM) representing the most potent and selective human NPP1 inhibitors described to date. [NaP5W30O110](14-) (8, PSB-POM144) strongly inhibited NTPDase1-3 and NPP1 and may therefore be used as a pan-inhibitor to block ATP hydrolysis. The polyoxoanionic compounds displayed a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition of NPPs and eN, but appeared to be competitive inhibitors of TNAP. Future in vivo studies with selected inhibitors identified in the current study are warranted. PMID:25449596

  5. Ecto-nucleotidases Activities in the Contents of Ovarian Endometriomas: Potential Biomarkers of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Texidó, Laura; Romero, Claudia; García-Valero, José; Fernández Montoli, M. Eulalia; Baixeras, Núria; Condom, Enric; Ponce, Jordi; García-Tejedor, Amparo; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a common gynecologic condition affecting millions of women worldwide. It is an inflammatory, estrogen-dependent complex disorder, with broad symptomatic variability, pelvic pain, and infertility being the main characteristics. Ovarian endometriomas are frequently developed in women with endometriosis. Late diagnosis is one of the main problems of endometriosis; thus, it is important to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the ecto-nucleotidases activities in the contents of endometriomas. These enzymes, through the regulation of extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, are key enzymes in inflammatory processes, and their expression has been previously characterized in human endometrium. To achieve our objective, the echo-guided aspirated fluids of endometriomas were analyzed by evaluating the ecto-nucleotidases activities and compared with simple cysts. Our results show that enzyme activities are quantifiable in the ovarian cysts aspirates and that endometriomas show significantly higher ecto-nucleotidases activities than simple cysts (5.5-fold increase for ATPase and 20-fold for ADPase), thus being possible candidates for new endometriosis biomarkers. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of ecto-nucleotidases bearing exosomes in these fluids. These results add up to the knowledge of the physiopathologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis and, open up a promising new field of study. PMID:25276049

  6. Ecto-nucleotidase activities in the fat body of Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Entringer, Petter F; Gondim, Katia C; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we describe the ability of intact fat body of an insect, Rhodnius prolixus, to hydrolyze extracellular ATP. In these fat bodies, the ATP hydrolysis was low in the absence of any divalent metal, and was stimulated by MgCl(2). Both activities (in the absence or presence of MgCl(2)) were linear with time for at least 30 min. In order to confirm the observed nucleotidase activities as ecto-nucleotidases, we used an impermeant inhibitor, DIDS (4, 4'-diisothiocyanostylbene 2'-2'-disulfonic acid). This reagent inhibited both nucleotidase activities and its inhibitory effect was suppressed by ATP. Both ecto-nucleotidase activities were insensitive to inhibitors of other ATPase and phosphatase activities, such as oligomycin, sodium azide, bafilomycin, ouabain, vanadate, molybdate, sodium fluoride, levamizole, tartrate, p-NPP, sodium phosphate, and suramin. Concanavalin A, activator of some ecto-ATPases, was able to stimulate the Mg(2+)-independent nucleotidase activity, but not the Mg(2+)-dependent one. The Mg(2+)-independent nucleotidase activity was enhanced with increases in the pH in the range between 6.4-8.0, but the Mg(2+)-dependent nucleotidase activity was not affected. Besides MgCl(2) , the ecto-ATPase activity was also stimulated by CaCl(2),() MnCl(2), and SrCl(2), but not by ZnCl(2). ATP, ADP, and AMP were the best substrates for the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-nucleotidase activity, and CTP, GTP, and UTP produced very low reaction rates. However, the Mg(2+)-independent nucleotidase activity recognized all these nucleotides producing similar reaction rates, but GTP was a less efficient substrate. The possible role of the two ecto-nucleotidase activities present on the cell surface of fat body of Rhodnius prolixus, which are distinguished by their substrate specificity and their response to Mg(2+), is discussed. PMID:16380977

  7. Reduced striatal ecto-nucleotidase activity in schizophrenia patients supports the "adenosine hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Aliagas, Elisabet; Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Sévigny, Jean; Roca, Mercedes; Romeu, Miriam; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Barrachina, Marta

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a major chronic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a hyperdopaminergic state. The hypoadenosinergic hypothesis proposes that reduced extracellular adenosine levels contribute to dopamine D2 receptor hyperactivity. ATP, through the action of ecto-nucleotidases, constitutes a main source of extracellular adenosine. In the present study, we examined the activity of ecto-nucleotidases (NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and alkaline phosphatase) in the postmortem putamen of SZ patients (n = 13) compared with aged-matched controls (n = 10). We firstly demonstrated, by means of artificial postmortem delay experiments, that ecto-nucleotidase activity in human brains was stable up to 24 h, indicating the reliability of this tissue for these enzyme determinations. Remarkably, NTPDase-attributable activity (both ATPase and ADPase) was found to be reduced in SZ patients, while ecto-5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphatase activity remained unchanged. In the present study, we also describe the localization of these ecto-enzymes in human putamen control samples, showing differential expression in blood vessels, neurons, and glial cells. In conclusion, reduced striatal NTPDase activity may contribute to the pathophysiology of SZ, and it represents a potential mechanism of adenosine signalling impairment in this illness. PMID:23771238

  8. Exercise training prevents ecto-nucleotidases alterations in platelets of hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Martins, Caroline Curry; Abdalla, Fátima Hussein; Zanini, Daniela; Schmatz, Roberta; Gutierres, Jessié; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Thomé, Gustavo; Leal, Claudio Alberto Martins; Vieira, Juliano Marchi; Stefanello, Naiara; da Silva Fiorin, Fernando; Baldissareli, Jucimara; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Klein, Adriane Bello; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of 6 weeks of swimming training on the ecto-nucleotidase activities and platelet aggregation from rats that developed hypertension in response to oral administration of L-NAME. The rats were divided into four groups: control (n = 10), exercise (n = 10), L-NAME (n = 10), and exercise L-NAME (n = 10). The animals were trained five times per week in an adapted swimming system for 60 min with a gradual increase of the workload up to 5 % of animal's body weight. The results showed an increase in ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine hydrolysis, indicating an augment in NTPDase (from 35.3 ± 8.1 to 53.0 ± 15.1 nmol Pi/min/mg protein for ATP; and from 21.7 ± 7.0 to 46.4 ± 15.6 nmol Pi/min/mg protein for ADP as substrate), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (from 8.0 ± 5.7 to 28.1 ± 6.9 nmol Pi/min/mg protein), and ADA (from 0.8 ± 0.5 to 3.9 ± 0.8 U/L) activities in platelets from L-NAME-treated rats when compared to other groups (p < 0.05). A significant augment on platelet aggregation in L-NAME group was also observed. Exercise training was efficient in preventing these alterations in the exercise L-NAME group, besides showing a significant hypotensive effect. In conclusion, our results clearly indicated a protector action of moderate intensity exercise on nucleotides and nucleoside hydrolysis and on platelet aggregation, which highlights the exercise training effect to avoid hypertension complications related to ecto-nucleotidase activities. PMID:22915168

  9. ACIDOSIS IS A KEY REGULATIOR OF OSTEOBLAST ECTO-NUCLEOTIDASE PYROPHOSPHATASE/PHOSPHODIESTERASE 1 (NPP1) EXPRESSION AND ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark OR; Millán, José Luis; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi, a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1–6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 > alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (p<0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, p<0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. PMID:26033523

  10. Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luís C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important factor in determining the clinical outcome of leishmaniasis. PMID:23071853

  11. CD39 Expression Identifies Terminally Exhausted CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Yates, Kathleen; Pauken, Kristen E.; Cosgrove, Cormac; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.; Wherry, E. John; Alter, Galit; Goulder, Philip J. R.; Klenerman, Paul; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Lauer, Georg M.; Haining, W. Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Exhausted T cells express multiple co-inhibitory molecules that impair their function and limit immunity to chronic viral infection. Defining novel markers of exhaustion is important both for identifying and potentially reversing T cell exhaustion. Herein, we show that the ectonucleotidse CD39 is a marker of exhausted CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells specific for HCV or HIV express high levels of CD39, but those specific for EBV and CMV do not. CD39 expressed by CD8+ T cells in chronic infection is enzymatically active, co-expressed with PD-1, marks cells with a transcriptional signature of T cell exhaustion and correlates with viral load in HIV and HCV. In the mouse model of chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells contain a population of CD39high CD8+ T cells that is absent in functional memory cells elicited by acute infection. This CD39high CD8+ T cell population is enriched for cells with the phenotypic and functional profile of terminal exhaustion. These findings provide a new marker of T cell exhaustion, and implicate the purinergic pathway in the regulation of T cell exhaustion. PMID:26485519

  12. CD39 improves survival in microbial sepsis by attenuating systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Csóka, Balázs; Németh, Zoltán H; Törő, Gábor; Koscsó, Balázs; Kókai, Endre; Robson, Simon C; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Erdélyi, Katalin; Pacher, Pál; Haskó, György

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Excessive inflammation is a major cause of organ failure and mortality in sepsis. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, ENTPDase1 (CD39) is a cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, which degrades the extracellular purines ATP and ADP, thereby regulating purinergic receptor signaling. Although the role of purinergic receptor signaling in regulating inflammation and sepsis has been addressed previously, the role of CD39 in regulating the host's response to sepsis is unknown. We found that the CD39 mimic apyrase (250 U/kg) decreased and knockout or pharmacologic blockade with sodium polyoxotungstate (5 mg/kg; IC50 ≈ 10 μM) of CD39 increased mortality of mice with polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. CD39 decreased inflammation, organ damage, immune cell apoptosis, and bacterial load. Use of bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CD39 expression on myeloid cells decreases inflammation in septic mice. CD39 expression is upregulated during sepsis in mice, as well as in both murine and human macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli. Moreover, E. coli increases CD39 promoter activity in macrophages. Altogether, these data indicate CD39 as an evolutionarily conserved inducible protective pathway during sepsis. We propose CD39 as a novel therapeutic target in the management of sepsis. PMID:25318479

  13. Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Directly Promotes Tumor Cell Growth by Scavenging Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate12

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5′-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X7 receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X7 expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

  14. Increased CD39 Nucleotidase Activity on Microparticles from Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Visovatti, Scott H.; Hyman, Matthew C.; Bouis, Diane; Neubig, Richard; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Pinsky, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a devastating disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates, and in situ thrombosis. Circulating intravascular ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine activate purinergic cell signaling pathways and appear to induce many of the same pathologic processes that underlie IPAH. Extracellular dephosphorylation of ATP to ADP and AMP occurs primarily via CD39 (ENTPD1), an ectonucleotidase found on the surface of leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells [1]. Microparticles are micron-sized phospholipid vesicles formed from the membranes of platelets and endothelial cells. Objectives: Studies here examine whether CD39 is an important microparticle surface nucleotidase, and whether patients with IPAH have altered microparticle-bound CD39 activity that may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. Methodology/ Principal Findings Kinetic parameters, inhibitor blocking experiments, and immunogold labeling with electron microscopy support the role of CD39 as a major nucleotidase on the surface of microparticles. Comparison of microparticle surface CD39 expression and nucleotidase activity in 10 patients with advanced IPAH and 10 healthy controls using flow cytometry and thin layer chromatograph demonstrate the following: 1) circulating platelet (CD39+CD31+CD42b+) and endothelial (CD39+CD31+CD42b−) microparticle subpopulations in patients with IPAH show increased CD39 expression; 2) microparticle ATPase and ADPase activity in patients with IPAH is increased. Conclusions/ Significance We demonstrate for the first time increased CD39 expression and function on circulating microparticles in patients with IPAH. Further research is needed to elucidate whether these findings identify an important trigger for the development of the disease, or reflect a physiologic response to IPAH. PMID:22792409

  15. Vascular stasis, intestinal hemorrhage, and heightened vascular permeability complicate acute portal hypertension in cd39-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Crdenas, Andrs; Wu, Yan; Enjyoji, Keichi; Robson, Simon C

    2009-08-01

    Vasoactive factors that regulate splanchnic hemodynamics include nitric oxide, catecholamines, and possibly extracellular nucleosides/nucleotides (adenosine, ATP). CD39/ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1) is the major vascular ectonucleotidase that hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides. CD39 activity may be modulated by vascular injury, inflammation, and altered oxygen tension. Altered Cd39 expression by the murine hepatosplanchnic vasculature may impact hemodynamics and portal hypertension (PHT) in vivo. We noted that basal portal pressures (PPs) were comparable in wild-type and Cd39-null mice (n = 9). ATP infusions resulted in increments in PP in wild-type mice, but, in contrast, this significantly decreased in Cd39-null mice (n = 9) post-ATP in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. We then studied Cd39/NTPDase1 deletion in the regulation of portal hemodynamics, vascular integrity, and intestinal permeability in a murine model of PHT. Partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) was performed in Cd39-null (n = 44) and wild-type (n = 23) mice. Sequential measurements obtained after PPVL were indicative of comparable levels of PHT (ranges 14-29 mmHg) in both groups. There was one death in the wild-type group and eight in the Cd39-null group from intestinal bleeding (P = 0.024). Circulatory stasis in the absence of overt portal vein thrombosis, portal congestion, intestinal hemorrhage, and increased permeability were evident in all surviving Cd39-null mice. Deletion of Cd39 results in deleterious outcomes post-PPVL that are associated with significant microcirculatory derangements and major intestinal congestion with hemorrhage mimicking acute mesenteric occlusion. Absent Cd39/NTPDase1 and decreased generation of adenosine in the splanchnic circulation cause heightened vascular permeability and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in PPVL. PMID:19520738

  16. Defective renal water handling in transgenic mice over-expressing human CD39/NTPDase1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Morris, Kaiya L.; Sparrow, Shannon K.; Dwyer, Karen M.; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP. Previously, we showed that CD39 is expressed at several sites within the kidney and thus may impact the availability of type 2 purinergic receptor (P2-R) ligands. Because P2-Rs appear to regulate urinary concentrating ability, we have evaluated renal water handling in transgenic mice (TG) globally overexpressing hCD39. Under basal conditions, TG mice exhibited significantly impaired urinary concentration and decreased protein abundance of AQP2 in the kidney compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Urinary excretion of total nitrates/nitrites was significantly higher in TG mice, but the excretion of AVP or PGE2 was equivalent to control WT mice. There were no significant differences in electrolyte-free water clearance or fractional excretion of sodium. Under stable hydrated conditions (gelled diet feeding), the differences between the WT and TG mice were negated, but the decrease in urine osmolality persisted. When water deprived, TG mice failed to adequately concentrate urine and exhibited impaired AVP responses. However, the increases in urinary osmolalities in response to subacute dDAVP or chronic AVP treatment were similar in TG and WT mice. These observations suggest that TG mice have impaired urinary concentrating ability despite normal AVP levels. We also note impaired AVP release in response to water deprivation but that TG kidneys are responsive to exogenous dDAVP or AVP. We infer that heightened nucleotide scavenging by increased levels of CD39 altered the release of endogenous AVP in response to dehydration. We propose that ectonucleotidases and modulated purinergic signaling impact urinary concentration and indicate potential utility of targeted therapy for the treatment of water balance disorders. PMID:22622462

  17. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8(+) T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Longhi, Maria Serena; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G; Robson, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8(+) T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFNγ production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8(+) T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NFκB signalling with decreases in both IFNγ levels and CD39 expression. CD39(+)CD8(+) T cells substantially inhibit IFNγ production by CD39(-)CD8(+) T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39(+)CD8(+) T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFNγ responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease. PMID:26549640

  18. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8+ T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Serena Longhi, Maria; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8+ T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFNγ production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8+ T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NFκB signalling with decreases in both IFNγ levels and CD39 expression. CD39+CD8+ T cells substantially inhibit IFNγ production by CD39−CD8+ T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39+CD8+ T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFNγ responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease. PMID:26549640

  19. CD73 and CD39 ectonucleotidases in T cell differentiation: Beyond immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Bono, María Rosa; Fernández, Dominique; Flores-Santibáñez, Felipe; Rosemblatt, Mario; Sauma, Daniela

    2015-11-14

    Extracellular ATP is a danger signal released by dying and damaged cells, and it functions as an immunostimulatory signal that promotes inflammation. However, extracellular adenosine acts as an immunoregulatory signal that modulates the function of several cellular components of the adaptive and innate immune response. Consequently, the balance between ATP and adenosine concentration is crucial in immune homeostasis. CD39 and CD73 are two ectonucleotidases that cooperate in the generation of extracellular adenosine through ATP hydrolysis, thus tilting the balance towards immunosuppressive microenvironments. Extracellular adenosine can prevent activation, proliferation, cytokine production and cytotoxicity in T cells through the stimulation of the A2A receptor; however, recent evidence has shown that adenosine may also affect other processes in T-cell biology. In this review, we discuss evidence that supports a role of CD73 and CD39 ectonucleotidases in controlling naive T-cell homeostasis and memory cell survival through adenosine production. Finally, we propose a novel hypothesis of a possible role of these ectonucleotidases and autocrine adenosine signaling in controlling T-cell differentiation. PMID:26226423

  20. Low expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells as a biomarker for resistance to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Raphael Sanches; Liew, Foo Y.; Talbot, Jhimmy; Carregaro, Vanessa; Oliveira, Rene D.; Almeida, Sergio L.; França, Rafael F. O.; Donate, Paula B.; Pinto, Larissa G.; Ferreira, Flavia I. S.; Costa, Diego L.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Lopes, Norberto P.; Queiroz, Regina Helena C.; Silva, Joao Santana; Figueiredo, Florencio; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Cunha, Thiago M.; Ferreira, Sérgio H.; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Cunha, Fernando Q.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by joint destruction and severe morbidity. Methotrexate (MTX) is the standard first-line therapy of RA. However, about 40% of RA patients are unresponsive to MTX treatment. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) are thought to play an important role in attenuating RA. To investigate the role of Tregs in MTX resistance, we recruited 122 RA patients (53 responsive, R-MTX; 69 unresponsive, UR-MTX) and 33 healthy controls. Three months after MTX treatment, R-MTX but not UR-MTX showed higher frequency of peripheral blood CD39+CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs than the healthy controls. Tregs produce adenosine (ADO) through ATP degradation by sequential actions of two cell surface ectonucleotidases: CD39 and CD73. Tregs from UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39, produced less ADO, and had reduced suppressive activity than Tregs from R-MTX. In a prospective study, before MTX treatment, UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39 on Tregs than those of R-MTX or control (P < 0.01). In a murine model of arthritis, CD39 blockade reversed the antiarthritic effects of MTX treatment. Our results demonstrate that MTX unresponsiveness in RA is associated with low expression of CD39 on Tregs and the decreased suppressive activity of these cells through reduced ADO production. Our findings thus provide hitherto unrecognized mechanism of immune regulation in RA and on mode of action of MTX. Furthermore, our data suggest that low expression of CD39 on Tregs could be a noninvasive biomarker for identifying MTX-resistant RA patients. PMID:25675517

  1. Inhibition of Neutrophils by Hypertonic Saline Involves Pannexin-1, CD39, CD73, and Other Ectonucleotidases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Bao, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Woehrle, Tobias; Sumi, Yuka; Ledderose, Stephan; Li, Xiaoou; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G

    2015-09-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation has been studied as a possible strategy to reduce polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation and tissue damage in trauma patients. Hypertonic saline blocks PMNs by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors. Here, we studied the underlying mechanisms in search of possible reasons for the inconsistent results of recent clinical trials with HS resuscitation. Purified human PMNs or PMNs in whole blood were treated with HS to simulate hypertonicity levels found after HS resuscitation (40 mmol/L beyond isotonic levels). Adenosine triphosphate release was measured with a luciferase assay. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation was assessed by measuring oxidative burst. The pannexin-1 (panx1) inhibitor panx1 and the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) blocked ATP release from PMNs in purified and whole blood preparations, indicating that HS releases ATP via panx1 and gap junction channels. Hypertonic saline blocked N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced PMN activation by 40% in purified PMN preparations and by 60% in whole blood. These inhibitory effects were abolished by panx1 but only partially reduced by CBX, which indicates that panx1 has a central role in the immunomodulatory effects of HS. Inhibition of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 abolished the suppressive effect of HS on purified PMN cultures but only partially reduced the effect of HS in whole blood. These findings suggest redundant mechanisms in whole blood that may strengthen the immunomodulatory effect of HS in vivo. We conclude that HS resuscitation exerts anti-inflammatory effects that involve panx1, CD39, CD73, and other ectonucleotidases, which produce the adenosine that blocks PMNs by stimulating their A2a receptors. Our findings shed new light on the immunomodulatory mechanisms of HS and suggest possible new strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of hypertonic resuscitation. PMID:26009814

  2. Isolation of functional human regulatory T cells (Treg) from the peripheral blood based on the CD39 expression

    PubMed Central

    Mandapathil, Magis; Lang, Stephan; Gorelik, Elieser; Whiteside, Theresa L.

    2009-01-01

    Human regulatory T cells (Treg) have been variously defined as CD4+CD25+, CD4+CD25high or CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cells which are responsible for maintaining peripheral tolerance. Their isolation from human peripheral blood or tissues depends on the expression level of CD25(IL-2Rα) - a surface marker which is also expressed on activated effector helper T cells. CD39, a cell surface associated ectonucleotidase, can be used to purify Treg with strong suppressor functions. The CD4+CD39+ T cells catalyze cleavage of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which is then further cleaved to adenosine. CD4+CD39+ T cells largely overlap with CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ but not CD4+CD25+ T-cell subset, and mediate equally potent immune suppression. Thus, CD39 surface marker can be successfully used for routine isolation of functionally-active human Treg from the peripheral blood of healthy donors or patients with cancer for studies of their role in health and disease. PMID:19450601

  3. In vitro Study of a Novel Stent Coating Using Modified CD39 Messenger RNA to Potentially Reduce Stent Angioplasty-Associated Complications

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Meike-Kristin; Nolte, Andrea; Reus, Rebekka; Behring, Andreas; Zengerle, Diane; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Hohmann, Jan David; Peter, Karlheinz; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Krajewski, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Stent angioplasty provides a minimally invasive treatment for atherosclerotic vessels. However, no treatment option for atherosclerosis-associated endothelial dysfunction, which is accompanied by a loss of CD39, is available, and hence, adverse effects like thromboembolism and restenosis may occur. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapy represents a novel strategy, whereby de novo synthesis of a desired protein is achieved after delivery of a modified mRNA to the target cells. Methods and Findings Our study aimed to develop an innovative bioactive stent coating that induces overexpression of CD39 in the atherosclerotic vessel. Therefore, a modified CD39-encoding mRNA was produced by in vitro transcription. Different endothelial cells (ECs) were transfected with the mRNA, and CD39 expression and functionality were analyzed using various assays. Furthermore, CD39 mRNA was immobilized using poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA), and the transfection efficiency in ECs was analyzed. Our data show that ECs successfully translate in vitro-generated CD39 mRNA after transfection. The overexpressed CD39 protein is highly functional in hydrolyzing ADP and in preventing platelet activation. Furthermore, PLGA-immobilized CD39 mRNA can be delivered to ECs without losing its functionality. Summary In summary, we present a novel and promising concept for a stent coating for the treatment of atherosclerotic blood vessels, whereby patients could be protected against angioplasty-associated complications. PMID:26381750

  4. Altered E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and CD39 expression in platelets of sickle cell anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Lívia G; Doleski, Pedro H; Adefegha, Stephen A; Becker, Lara V; Ruchel, Jader B; Leal, Daniela B R

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolysis and vaso-occlusions caused by rigidly distorted red blood cells. Sickle cell crisis is associated with extracellular release of nucleotides and platelets, which are critical mediators of hemostasis participating actively in purinergic thromboregulatory enzymes system.This study aimed to investigate the activities of purinergic system ecto-enzymes present on the platelet surface as well as CD39 and CD73 expressions on platelets of SCA treated patients. Fifteen SCA treated patients and 30 health subjects (control group) were selected. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E-5'-NT) and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activities were measured in platelets isolated from these individuals. Results demonstrated an increase of 41 % in the E-NTPDase for ATP hydrolysis, 52% for ADP hydrolysis and 60 % in the E-ADA activity in SCA patients (P<0.05); however, a two folds decrease in the CD39 expression in platelets was observed in the same group (P<0.01). The increased E-NTPDase activity could be a compensatory mechanism associated with the low expression of CD39 in platelets. Besides, alteration of these enzymes activities suggests that the purinergic system could be involved in the thromboregulatory process in SCA patients. PMID:27044834

  5. A commensal symbiotic factor derived from Bacteroides fragilis promotes human CD39(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and Treg function.

    PubMed

    Telesford, Kiel M; Yan, Wang; Ochoa-Reparaz, Javier; Pant, Anudeep; Kircher, Christopher; Christy, Marc A; Begum-Haque, Sakhina; Kasper, Dennis L; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2015-07-01

    Polysaccharide A (PSA) derived from the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis is a symbiosis factor that stimulates immunologic development within mammalian hosts. PSA rebalances skewed systemic T helper responses and promotes T regulatory cells (Tregs). However, PSA-mediated induction of Foxp3 in humans has not been reported. In mice, PSA-generated Foxp3(+) Tregs dampen Th17 activity thereby facilitating bacterial intestinal colonization while the increased presence and function of these regulatory cells may guard against pathological organ-specific inflammation in hosts. We herein demonstrate that PSA induces expression of Foxp3 along with CD39 among naïve CD4 T cells in vitro while promoting IL-10 secretion. PSA-activated dendritic cells are essential for the mediation of this regulatory response. When cultured with isolated Foxp3(+) Tregs, PSA enriched Foxp3 expression, enhanced the frequency of CD39(+)HLA-DR(+) cells, and increased suppressive function as measured by decreased TNFα expression by LPS-stimulated monocytes. Our findings are the first to demonstrate in vitro induction of human CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhanced suppressive function of circulating Foxp3(+) Tregs by a human commensal bacterial symbiotic factor. Use of PSA for the treatment of human autoimmune diseases, in particular multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease, may represent a new paradigm in the approach to treating autoimmune disease. PMID:26230152

  6. A commensal bacterial product elicits and modulates migratory capacity of CD39(+) CD4 T regulatory subsets in the suppression of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Begum-Haque, Sakhina; Telesford, Kiel M; Ochoa-Repraz, Javier; Christy, Marc; Kasper, Eli J; Kasper, Dennis L; Robson, Simon C; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2014-07-01

    Tolerance established by host-commensal interactions regulates host immunity at both local mucosal and systemic levels. The intestinal commensal strain Bacteroides fragilis elicits immune tolerance, at least in part, via the expression capsular polysaccharide A (PSA). How such niche-specific commensal microbial elements regulate extra-intestinal immune responses, as in the brain, remains largely unknown. We have recently shown that oral treatment with PSA suppresses neuro-inflammation elicited during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis. This protection is dependent upon the expansion of immune-regulatory CD4 T cells (Treg) expressing CD39, an ectonucleotidase. Here, we further show that CD39 modulation of purinergic signals enhances migratory phenotypes of both total CD4 T cells and Foxp3(+) CD4 Tregs at central nervous system (CNS) lymphoid-draining sites in EAE in vivo and promotes their migration in vitro. These changes are noted during PSA treatment, which leads to heightened accumulation of CD39(+) CD4 Tregs in the CNS. Deficiency of CD39 abrogates accumulation of Treg during EAE, and is accompanied by elevated Th1/Th17 signals in the CNS and in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Our results demonstrate that immune-modulatory commensal bacterial products impact the migratory patterns of CD4 Treg during CNS autoimmunity via the regulation of CD39. These observations provide clues as to how intestinal commensal microbiome is able to modulate Treg functions and impact host immunity in the distal site. PMID:25006655

  7. T Lymphocyte Inhibition by Tumor-Infiltrating Dendritic Cells Involves Ectonucleotidase CD39 but Not Arginase-1

    PubMed Central

    Trad, Malika; Gautheron, Alexandrine; Fraszczak, Jennifer; Alizadeh, Darya; Larmonier, Claire; LaCasse, Collin J.; Centuori, Sara; Audia, Sylvain; Samson, Maxime; Ciudad, Marion; Bonnefoy, Francis; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Perruche, Sylvain; Saas, Philippe; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    T lymphocytes activated by dendritic cells (DC) which present tumor antigens play a key role in the antitumor immune response. However, in patients suffering from active cancer, DC are not efficient at initiating and supporting immune responses as they participate to T lymphocyte inhibition. DC in the tumor environment are functionally defective and exhibit a characteristic of immature phenotype, different to that of DC present in nonpathological conditions. The mechanistic bases underlying DC dysfunction in cancer responsible for the modulation of T-cell responses and tumor immune escape are still being investigated. Using two different mouse tumor models, we showed that tumor-infiltrating DC (TIDC) are constitutively immunosuppressive, exhibit a semimature phenotype, and impair responder T lymphocyte proliferation and activation by a mechanism involving CD39 ectoenzyme. PMID:26491691

  8. CD39/NTPDase-1 expression and activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells are differentially regulated by leaf extracts from Rubus caesius and Rubus idaeus.

    PubMed

    Dudzinska, Dominika; Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Podsedek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

    2014-09-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated the favorable biological activities of plants belonging to the genus Rubus, but little is known of the role of Rubus leaf extracts in the modulation of the surface membrane expression and activity of endothelial apyrase. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 1-15 ?g/ml Rubus extracts on CD39 expression and enzymatic activity, and on the activation (ICAM-1 expression) and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The polyphenolic contents and antioxidative capacities of extracts from dewberry (R. caesius L.) and raspberry (R. idaeus L.) leaves were also investigated. The techniques applied were flow cytometry (endothelial surface membrane expression of ICAM-1 and CD39), malachite green assay (CD39 activity), HPLC-DAD (quantitative analysis of polyphenolic extract), ABTS, DPPH and FRAP spectrometric assays (antioxidant capacity), and the MTT test (cell viability). Significantly increased CD39 expressions and significantly decreased ATPDase activities were found in the cells treated with 15 ?g/ml of either extract compared to the results for the controls. Neither of the extracts affected cell proliferation, but both significantly augmented endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression. The overall antioxidant capacities of the examined extracts remained relatively high and corresponded well to the determined total polyphenol contents. Overall, the results indicate that under in vitro conditions dewberry and raspberry leaf extracts have unfavorable impact on endothelial cells. PMID:25034034

  9. Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Jofra Hernandez, Raisa; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L.; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)–mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA–treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA−/− Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA–treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA–treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID. Trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00598481/NCT00599781. PMID:22184407

  10. Xenotransplantation of galactosyl-transferase knockout, CD55, CD59, CD39, and fucosyl-transferase transgenic pig kidneys into baboons.

    PubMed

    Le Bas-Bernardet, S; Tillou, X; Poirier, N; Dilek, N; Chatelais, M; Devallière, J; Charreau, B; Minault, D; Hervouet, J; Renaudin, K; Crossan, C; Scobie, L; Cowan, P J; d'Apice, A J F; Galli, C; Cozzi, E; Soulillou, J P; Vanhove, B; Blancho, G

    2011-11-01

    Galactosyl-transferase knockout (GT-KO) pigs represent the latest major progress to reduce immune reactions in xenotransplantation. However, their organs are still subject to rapid humoral rejection involving complement activation requiring the ongoing development of further genetic modifications in the pig. In a pig-to-baboon renal transplantation setting, we have used donor pigs that are not only GT-KO, but also transgenic for human CD55 (hCD55), hCD59, hCD39, and fucosyl-transferase (hHT). We studied kidney xenograft survival, physiological and immunologic parameters, xenogeneic rejection characteristics, as well as viral transmission aspects among two groups of baboons: control animals (n = 2), versus those (n = 4) treated with a cocktail of cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, steroids, and a recombinant human C1 inhibitor. Whereas control animals showed clear acute humoral rejection at around day 4, the treated animals showed moderately improved graft survival with rejection at around 2 weeks posttransplantation. Biopsies showed signs of acute vascular rejection (interstitial hemorrhage, glomerular thrombi, and acute tubular necrosis) as well as immunoglobulin (Ig)M and complement deposition in the glomerular and peritubular capillaries. The low level of preformed non-Gal-α1.3Gal IgM detected prior to transplantation increased at 6 days posttransplantation, whereas induced IgG appeared after day 6. No porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) transmission was detected in any transplanted baboon. Thus, surprisingly, organs from the GT-KO, hCD55, hCD59, hCD39, and hHT transgenic donors did not appear to convey significant protection against baboon anti-pig antibodies and complement activation, which obviously continue to be significant factors under a suboptimal immunosuppression regimen. The association, timing, and doses of immunosuppressive drugs remain critical. They will have to be optimized to achieve longer graft survivals. PMID:22099813

  11. Anti-CD39 and anti-CD73 antibodies A1 and 7G2 improve targeted therapy in ovarian cancer by blocking adenosine-dependent immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Sebastian Fm; Del Barrio, Itsaso Montalbán; Diessner, Joachim; Stein, Roland G; Strohschein, Jenny; Hönig, Arnd; Dietl, Johannes; Wischhusen, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 degrade ATP to adenosine which inhibits immune responses via the A2A adenosine receptor (ADORA2A) on T and NK cells. The current study investigates the potential therapeutic use of the specific anti CD39- and anti CD73-antibodies A1 (CD39) and 7G2 (CD73) as these two ectonucleotidases are overexpressed in ovarian cancer (OvCA). As expected, NK cell cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell lines OAW-42 or SK-OV-3 was significantly increased in the presence of A1 or 7G2 antibody. While this might partly be due to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a luciferase-dependent assay for quantifying biologically active adenosine further showed that A1 and 7G2 can inhibit CD39 and CD73-dependent adenosine-generation. In turn, the reduction in adenosine levels achieved by addition of A1 and 7G2 to OAW-42 or SK-OV-3 cells was found to de-inhibit the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells in coculture with OvCA cells. Likewise, blocking of CD39 and CD73 on OvCA cells via A1 and 7G2 led to an increased cytotoxicity of alloreactive primed T cells. Thus, antibodies like A1 and 7G2 could improve targeted therapy in ovarian cancer not only by specifically labeling overexpressed antigens but also by blocking adenosine-dependent immune evasion in this immunogenic malignancy. PMID:24489992

  12. Milk-Based Nutraceutical for Treating Autoimmune Arthritis via the Stimulation of IL-10- and TGF-β-producing CD39+ Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maddaloni, Massimo; Kochetkova, Irina; Jun, SangMu; Callis, Gayle; Thornburg, Theresa; Pascual, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases arise from the loss of tolerance to self, and because the etiologies of such diseases are largely unknown, symptomatic treatments rely on anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Tolerogenic treatments that can reverse disease are preferred, but again, often thwarted by not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags). Hence, a viable alternative to stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) is to induce bystander tolerance. Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) has been shown to evoke bystander immunity and to hasten Ag-specific Treg development independent of auto-Ag. To translate in treating human autoimmune diseases, the food-based Lactococcus was engineered to express CFA/I fimbriae, and Lactococcus-CFA/I fermented milk fed to arthritic mice proved highly efficacious. Protection occurred via CD39+ Tregs producing TGF-β and IL-10 to potently suppress TNF-α production and neutrophil influx into the joints. Thus, these data demonstrate the feasibility of oral nutraceuticals for treating arthritis, and potency of protection against arthritis was improved relative to that obtained with Salmonella-CFA/I. PMID:25629976

  13. Particulate Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... A-Z Index Advanced Search What are you looking for? Learn the Issues Science & Technology Laws & Regulations About EPA Contact Us Particulate Matter (PM) You are here: EPA Home Air & Radiation Six Common Pollutants Particulate Matter Announcements ...

  14. Low expression of CD39(+) /CD45RA(+) on regulatory T cells (Treg ) cells in type 1 diabetic children in contrast to high expression of CD101(+) /CD129(+) on Treg cells in children with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Åkesson, K; Tompa, A; Rydén, A; Faresjö, M

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coeliac disease are both characterized by an autoimmune feature. As T1D and coeliac disease share the same risk genes, patients risk subsequently developing the other disease. This study aimed to investigate the expression of T helper (Th), T cytotoxic (Tc) and regulatory T cells (Treg ) in T1D and/or coeliac disease children in comparison to healthy children. Subgroups of T cells (Th : CD4(+) or Tc : CD8(+) ); naive (CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(+) CCR7(+) ), central memory (CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(-) CCR7(+) ), effector memory (early differentiated; CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) and late differentiated; CD27(-) CD28(-) CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) ), terminally differentiated effector cells (TEMRA; CD27(-) CD28(-) CD45RA(+) CCR7(-) ) and Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) CD127(-) ) cells, and their expression of CD39, CD45RA, CD101 and CD129, were studied by flow cytometry in T1D and/or coeliac disease children or without any of these diseases (reference group). Children diagnosed with both T1D and coeliac disease showed a higher percentage of TEMRA CD4(+) cells (P < 0·05), but lower percentages of both early and late effector memory CD8(+) cells (P < 0·05) compared to references. Children with exclusively T1D had lower median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) (P < 0·05) and also a lower percentage of CD39(+) and CD45RA(+) within the Treg population (CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) CD127(-) ) (P < 0·05). Children with exclusively coeliac disease had a higher MFI of CD101 (P < 0·01), as well as a higher percentage of CD129(+) (P < 0·05), in the CD4(+) CD25(hi) lymphocyte population, compared to references. In conclusion, children with combined T1D and coeliac disease have a higher percentage of differentiated CD4(+) cells compared to CD8(+) cells. T1D children show signs of low CD39(+) /CD45RA(+) Treg cells that may indicate loss of suppressive function. Conversely, children with coeliac disease show signs of CD101(+) /CD129(+) Treg cells that may indicate suppressor activity. PMID:25421756

  15. Enrichment of Inflammatory IL-17 and TNF-α Secreting CD4+ T Cells within Colorectal Tumors despite the Presence of Elevated CD39+ T Regulatory Cells and Increased Expression of the Immune Checkpoint Molecule, PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Margaret R.; Ryan, Ciara; Nolan, Bláthnaid; Tosetto, Miriam; Geraghty, Robert; Winter, Des C.; O’Connell, P. Ronan; Hyland, John M.; Doherty, Glen A.; Sheahan, Kieran; Ryan, Elizabeth J.; Fletcher, Jean M.

    2016-01-01

    T cell infiltration into colorectal tumors has been shown to correlate with improved patient outcomes. However, more detailed information on the makeup and relationships between the infiltrating T cell subsets is lacking. We therefore correlated the extent of immune infiltration into colorectal tumors with the frequencies of various T cell subsets. We prospectively recruited 22 patients at the time of surgical resection for colorectal cancer. The Klintrup–Mäkinen (KM) score was used to estimate the extent of immune infiltration into colorectal tumors. The frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells that produced cytokines or expressed the inhibitory molecule programed cell death 1 (PD-1) were determined by flow cytometry in colorectal tumor and matched uninvolved colonic tissue. In addition, the frequency of CD4 regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets was determined. An increased frequency of CD4 T cells producing IL-17 (Th17 cells) was observed in colorectal tumor tissue compared with adjacent uninvolved tissue. These Th17 cells mostly coproduced TNF-α, but not IFN-γ. IL-17 expression correlated positively with TNF-α and IL-10. Increased expression of the immune checkpoint molecule PD-1 was found in colorectal tumors compared with adjacent uninvolved tissue. There was a negative correlation between expression of PD-1 and IFN-γ, but not IL-17, for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. CD4+CD25+CD127lo and CD4+CD25+CD127loFoxP3+CD39+ Treg cells were enriched in colorectal tumors. A positive correlation between KM score and percentage CD4+CD25+CD127lo Treg cells was observed in tumors, suggesting that increased immune infiltration is associated with an increased proportion of Treg cells. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127lo Treg cells and the expression of IFN-γ and IL-2, but not IL-17, in tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that both PD-1 expressing T cells and Treg cells within the tumor may have a suppressive effect on T cells secreting IFN-γ, IL-2, or TNF-α, but not Th17 cells. PMID:27014625

  16. Enrichment of Inflammatory IL-17 and TNF-α Secreting CD4(+) T Cells within Colorectal Tumors despite the Presence of Elevated CD39(+) T Regulatory Cells and Increased Expression of the Immune Checkpoint Molecule, PD-1.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Margaret R; Ryan, Ciara; Nolan, Bláthnaid; Tosetto, Miriam; Geraghty, Robert; Winter, Des C; O'Connell, P Ronan; Hyland, John M; Doherty, Glen A; Sheahan, Kieran; Ryan, Elizabeth J; Fletcher, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    T cell infiltration into colorectal tumors has been shown to correlate with improved patient outcomes. However, more detailed information on the makeup and relationships between the infiltrating T cell subsets is lacking. We therefore correlated the extent of immune infiltration into colorectal tumors with the frequencies of various T cell subsets. We prospectively recruited 22 patients at the time of surgical resection for colorectal cancer. The Klintrup-Mäkinen (KM) score was used to estimate the extent of immune infiltration into colorectal tumors. The frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells that produced cytokines or expressed the inhibitory molecule programed cell death 1 (PD-1) were determined by flow cytometry in colorectal tumor and matched uninvolved colonic tissue. In addition, the frequency of CD4 regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets was determined. An increased frequency of CD4 T cells producing IL-17 (Th17 cells) was observed in colorectal tumor tissue compared with adjacent uninvolved tissue. These Th17 cells mostly coproduced TNF-α, but not IFN-γ. IL-17 expression correlated positively with TNF-α and IL-10. Increased expression of the immune checkpoint molecule PD-1 was found in colorectal tumors compared with adjacent uninvolved tissue. There was a negative correlation between expression of PD-1 and IFN-γ, but not IL-17, for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)FoxP3(+)CD39(+) Treg cells were enriched in colorectal tumors. A positive correlation between KM score and percentage CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo) Treg cells was observed in tumors, suggesting that increased immune infiltration is associated with an increased proportion of Treg cells. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo) Treg cells and the expression of IFN-γ and IL-2, but not IL-17, in tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that both PD-1 expressing T cells and Treg cells within the tumor may have a suppressive effect on T cells secreting IFN-γ, IL-2, or TNF-α, but not Th17 cells. PMID:27014625

  17. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  18. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS OF PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a semi-technical overview of the contribution of particulate matter to the overall U.S. air pollution problem. It also discusses contributions of the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory at Research Triangle Park, N....

  19. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  20. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  1. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  2. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  3. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph

    1998-11-13

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Schelkoph; Stanley J. Miller

    1999-07-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

  5. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph

    1999-04-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

  6. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  7. Fine particulate capture device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. S.; Siewert, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    To capture fine particulate matter in a gas such as air, a dielectric fluid is directed to the center of whichever face of a rotating disc is exposed to the air flow. The disc is comprised of two or more segments which bear opposite electrostatic potentials. As the dielectric fluid is centrifuged towards the periphery of the rotating disc, the fluid becomes charged to the same potential as the segment over which it is passing. Particulate matter is attracted to the charged segment and is captured by the fluid. The fluid then carries the captured particulate matter to a collection device such as a toroidal container disposed around the periphery of the disc. A grounded electrically-conductive ring may be disposed at the outer periphery of the disc to neutralize the captured particles and the fluid before they enter the container.

  8. PARTICULATE MATTER OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the EPA Administrator issued new Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) that added PM2.5 (PM less than 2.5 micrometers in size). The new standard was developed largely on the basis of epidemiological studies that found relatively con...

  9. PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In promulgating the new PM2.5 NAAQS (July 1997), Congress recognized scientific uncertainties associated with fine particulate matter to include composition, source-receptor relationships, and health and exposure effects. As a result, Congress provided EPA with dire...

  10. Instructions for Sampling Particulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Frank

    This technical report presents detailed instructions for sampling particulates. The table of contents includes sections on Introduction, Volume Determinations, Apparatus - Assembly and Operation, Sampling Techniques, and Acknowledgment. Six charts, 24 graphs, and one diagram are appended to facilitate sampling, as well as sections on Isokinetic…

  11. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Golden, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  12. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  13. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

    1983-09-26

    Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

  14. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  15. Particulate solids dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Reay, D.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is interwoven with the fruits of recent scientific research aimed at modeling the phenomena occurring in dryers. Partial Contents: Preliminary Material and Energy Balance Calculations; Drying Kinetics; Introduction to Mathematical Modeling of Continuous Dryers; Fluid Bed Dryers; Pneumatic Conveying Dryers; Rotary Dryers; Spray Dryers; Band Dryers; Contact Dryers; Less Common Particulate Solid Dryers; Energy Conservation Techniques; Fire and Explosion Precautions; Instrumentation and Control; Materials Handling Problems; Selection of an Appropriate Drying System.

  16. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  18. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  19. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  20. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  1. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  2. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

  3. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  4. PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR FUGITIVE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of particulate control for fugitive dust. Study results indicate that many Air Quality Control Regions (AQCRs) do not meet ambient air standards for particulates. In a majority of these ACQRs, the emissions from fugitive dust sources are higher...

  5. Spacecraft particulate sizing spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Henry A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation prototype device is described, together with conclusions and several recommendations for follow-on flight hardware. The device detects individual particles crossing an external sensing zone, and produces a histogram displaying the size distribution of particles sensed, over the nominal range of 5 to 50 microns. The output is totally independent of the particle refractive index, and is also largely unaffected by particle shape. The reported diameters are in terms of the equivalent sphere, as judged by the scattered light intercepted by the receiving channels, which develop signals whenever a particle crosses the beam of illumination in the sensing zone. Supporting evidence for the latter assertion is discussed on the basis of experimental test data for non-spherical particulates. Also included is a technical appendix which presents theoretical arguments that provide a firm foundation for this assertion.

  6. Particulate erosion mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate damage and erosion of ductile metals are today plaguing design and field engineers in diverse fields of engineering and technology. It was found that too many models and theories were proposed leading to much speculation from debris analysis and failure mechanism postulations. Most theories of solid particle erosion are based on material removal models which do not fully represent the actual physical processes of material removal. The various mechanisms proposed thus far are: melting, low-cycle fatigue, extrusion, delamination, shear localization, adhesive material transfer, etc. The experimental data on different materials highlighting the observed failure modes of the deformation and cutting wear processes using optical and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The most important mechanisms proved from the experimental observations of the specimens exposed to both spherical and angular particles are addressed, and the validity of the earlier theories discussed. Both the initial stages of damage and advanced stages of erosion were studied to gain a fundamental understanding of the process.

  7. Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    1996-01-01

    A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

  8. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Subsequently, extensive theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale investigations were completed to find an approach to prevent bag damage without compromising AHPC performance. Results showed that the best bag protection and AHPC performance were achieved by using a perforated plate installed between the discharge electrodes and bags. This perforated-plate design was then installed in the 2.5-MW AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant in Big Stone City, South Dakota, and the AHPC was operated from March to June 2001. Results showed that the perforated-plate design solved the bag damage problem and offered even better AHPC performance than the previous design. All of the AHPC performance goals were met, including ultrahigh collection efficiency, high air-to-cloth ratio, reasonable pressure drop, and long bag-cleaning interval.

  9. Measurement of vehicle particulate emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Beltzer, M

    1975-01-01

    A constant volume sampler (CVS) compatible auto exhaust particulate sampling system has been built which samples exhaust isokinetically at constant temperature. This system yields internally consistent results and is capable of frequent and convenient operation. PMID:50931

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  11. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  12. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  13. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  14. NONFERROUS INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the nonferrous industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from nonferrous plants, the data were summarized and ...

  15. EXTERNAL COMBUSTION PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for external combustion sources. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from external combustion sources, the data were s...

  16. PAVED ROAD PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of extensive field tests to develop emission factors for particulate emissions generated by traffic entrainment of paved road surface particulate matter. Using roadway surface silt loading as the basis, predictive emission factor equations for each partic...

  17. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  18. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  19. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  20. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  1. MODELING PARTICULATE CHARGING IN ESPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In electrostatic precipitators there is a strong interaction between the particulate space charge and the operating voltage and current of an electrical section. Calculating either the space charge or the operating point when the other is fixed is not difficult, but calculating b...

  2. Process for particulate removal from coal liquids

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Gerald C.

    1983-01-01

    Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

  3. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  4. Downregulation of CD73 in 4T1 breast cancer cells through siRNA-loaded chitosan-lactate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Rastegari, Ali; Mollarazi, Esmail; Kiani, Melika; Razavi, Alireza; Yousefi, Mehdi; Kheshtchin, Nasim; Hassannia, Hadi; Hadjati, Jamshid; Shokri, Fazel

    2016-06-01

    The immunosuppressive factors in tumor microenvironment enhance tumor growth and suppress anti-tumor immune responses. Adenosine is an important immunosuppressive factor which can be secreted by both tumor and immune cells trough action of two cell surface ecto-nucleotidase molecules CD39 and CD73. Blocking the adenosine generating molecules has emerged as an effective immunotherapeutic approach for treatment of cancer. In this study, CD73-siRNA encapsulated into chitosan-lactate (ChLa) nanoparticles (NPs) was employed to suppress the expression of CD73 molecule on 4T1 breast tumor cells, in vitro. ChLa NPs were generated through ionic gelation of ChLa by tripolyphosphate (TPP). Small interfering RNA (SiRNA)-loaded NPs had about 100 nm size with a polydispersive index below 0.3 and a zeta potential about 13. Our results showed that ChLa NPs with Ch 50 kDa exhibit the best physicochemical features with the high siRNA encapsulation capacity. Synthesized NPs were able to fully bind with siRNA, protect them against serum and heparin degradation, and promote the transfection process. While the NPs exhibited low toxicity during 72 h cell culture, the transfection of Ch-plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein (pEGFP) NPs was efficient in 4T1 cells with a transfection rate of 53.6 % as detected by flow cytometry. In addition, CD73-siRNA-loaded ChLa NPs could efficiently suppress the expression of CD73 as assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. As a conclusion, CD73-siRNA-loaded ChLa NPs may be considered as a promising therapeutic tool for cancer therapy; however, further in vivo investigations are necessary. PMID:26733167

  5. Influence of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase Activity on Trypanosoma cruzi Infectivity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ramon F.; Pôssa, Marcela A. S.; Bastos, Matheus S.; Guedes, Paulo M. M.; Almeida, Márcia R.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Bahia, Maria T.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. There are no vaccines or effective treatment, especially in the chronic phase when most patients are diagnosed. There is a clear necessity to develop new drugs and strategies for the control and treatment of Chagas disease. Recent papers have suggested the ecto-nucleotidases (from CD39 family) from pathogenic agents as important virulence factors. In this study we evaluated the influence of Ecto-Nucleoside-Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase (Ecto-NTPDase) activity on infectivity and virulence of T. cruzi using both in vivo and in vitro models. Methodology/Principal Findings We followed Ecto-NTPDase activities of Y strain infective forms (trypomastigotes) obtained during sequential sub-cultivation in mammalian cells. ATPase/ADPase activity ratios of cell-derived trypomastigotes decreased 3- to 6-fold and infectivity was substantially reduced during sequential sub-cultivation. Surprisingly, at third to fourth passages most of the cell-derived trypomastigotes could not penetrate mammalian cells and had differentiated into amastigote-like parasites that exhibited 3- to 4-fold lower levels of Ecto-NTPDase activities. To evidence the participation of T. cruzi Ecto-NTPDase1 in the infective process, we evaluated the effect of known Ecto-ATPDase inhibitors (ARL 67156, Gadolinium and Suramin), or anti-NTPDase-1 polyclonal antiserum on ATPase and ADPase hydrolytic activities in recombinant T. cruzi NTPDase-1 and in live trypomastigotes. All tests showed a partial inhibition of Ecto-ATPDase activities and a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes infectivity. Mice infections with Ecto-NTPDase-inhibited trypomastigotes produced lower levels of parasitemia and higher host survival than with non-inhibited control parasites. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Ecto-ATPDases act as facilitators of infection and virulence in vitro and in vivo and emerge as target candidates in chemotherapy of Chagas disease. PMID:19255624

  6. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  7. Improved particulate-sampling filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Schneider, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Small surface indentations entrain larger and more representative sampling than conventional petri-dish smeared with smooth layer adhesive. Filter is assembled from perforated disk and flat backing plate with sticky surface. Due to design-created currents, particulates come in contact with surface for longer time and have greater probability of being trapped. Filter is useful in air-quality monitoring at industrial sites, in mines, and in and around nuclear power plants.

  8. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  9. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  10. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  11. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  12. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  13. Measurement of Particulate Pollutants in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ckuan, Raymond L.

    1971-01-01

    Representative measurements of the mass concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere are presented, to demonstrate the application of a new type of instrument evolved from aerospace research to various types of particulate pollution and their dynamics. The instrument employs aerodynamic impaction of particles onto an adhesive-coated piezo-electric crystal whose resonant frequency decreases with mass accretion on its surface, with a resulting particulate mass resolution of 10(exp -11) gram. Applications include air basin with aerial measurement of particulate mass concentration, jet aircraft wake, stationary industrial sources, direct on-line measurement of automobile exhaust, and techniques for source detection.

  14. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  15. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  16. Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

  17. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  18. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  19. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  20. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  1. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  2. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  3. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  4. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  5. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  6. Testing Students' Use of the Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie; Huffman, Jason; Peck, Larry

    2004-01-01

    High School students' understanding about the particulate theory of matter and their use of particulate terminology is investigated. The Physical Changes Concepts Test (PCCT) was administered in two forms, an applied version and a theoretical version, to determine whether students scientifically understood the concepts well enough to apply them to

  7. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  8. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  9. Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Cites studies related to students' misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter. Stresses that a good understanding of these concepts is fundamental to the study of chemistry itself. Reports on a study of preservice elementary teachers views of the particulate nature of matter before instruction on the topic. (TW)

  10. Testing Students' Use of the Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie; Huffman, Jason; Peck, Larry

    2004-01-01

    High School students' understanding about the particulate theory of matter and their use of particulate terminology is investigated. The Physical Changes Concepts Test (PCCT) was administered in two forms, an applied version and a theoretical version, to determine whether students scientifically understood the concepts well enough to apply them to…

  11. Triboelectric technology for particulate emission measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Averdieck, W.J. )

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses how triboelectric technology (monitoring of particulate emission by sensing impacting particle charge transfer) has enabled a new generation of particulate emission detectors to be developed. They are providing to be much more suitable than traditional opacity methods. The reason for this is that they require little or no maintenance.

  12. METAL TRANSPORT AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will assist in identifying mechanisms of toxocity for particulate matter (PM) constituents. The hypothesis to be tested is that disequilibrium in metal transport in the lung follows exposure to particulate matter. This results in an oxidative stress, cell signaling...

  13. Ultrasonic detecting and identifying of particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Abts, L.R.

    1983-05-03

    A method of detecting and identifying particulates in the recirculating fluid flow for an oil recovery system by counting the number of ultrasonic pulses reflected from the particulates and comparing the number counted with the amount of attenuation of ultrasonic energy across the flow.

  14. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and sunflower hulls for the biomass material to be carbonized. The ability to remove mercury from a bituminous coal's derived flue gas was low. Removals of only 15% were attained while injecting 6 lb/Macf of activated carbon upstream of an electrostatic precipitator. Poisoning of sites on the activated carbon by SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} contributed to the poor mercury capture performance.

  15. Particulate detection technologies for preventive maintenance applications

    SciTech Connect

    Craney, B.

    1997-09-01

    The use of continuous monitoring to ensure ongoing compliance with particulate emissions standards is common practice in most parts of the world. Recently proposed standards by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are intended to use particulate monitoring as a surrogate technique for the compliance monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). This approach is based on the lack of available technologies for measuring HAPs, as well as the availability of cost-effective, reliable, low maintenance particulate monitors available today. Many types of particulate monitoring instruments are now available, but to date, all have been based on two basic measurement principles--optical or light attenuation (opacity) and contact electrification (triboelectric). Long-term exposure to problems with these methods led BHA engineers to refine a variation of the optical light attenuation method for their CPM continuous particulate monitoring product line. This technique of monitoring is known as received light modulation or scintillation.

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  17. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  18. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  19. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  20. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  1. New ESP additive controls particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

    1997-06-01

    This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

  2. Some problems in particulate acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvak, M.

    The presence of particulates on silicon wafers is a serious problem in ion implantation and a lot of attention is paid to the problem of generation, charging and transport of particles in an ion implanter [1-3]. Attention is concentrated mainly on nonconducting particles with a diameter around 1 μm and smaller residing on the wafers during implantation and acting as an unwanted mask of the implant. The particles and wafers under ion bombardment are ionized and the electric field can eventually repel the particle from the surface. A conducting particle which gets in touch with a high potential electrode can be effectively charged by contact charging and accelerated to high velocities. When impacting on the target the particle creates a crater which is bigger in diameter than the diameter of the impacting particle [4-6]. This effect can be used for laboratory simulation of micrometeorites which bombard the surfaces of equipment on the outside of space satellites. A 250 keV injector of particles was built for micrometeorites simulation [7].

  3. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  4. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  5. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  6. PARTICULATE DATA REDUCTION SYSTEM (PADRE) USER GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, a user guide, describes the capabilities and use of the Particulate Data Reduction (PADRE) system, an interactive computer program that facilitates entry, reduction, and analysis of cascade impactor data for particle size distributions. Example sessions are provided t...

  7. PARTICULATE SAMPLING SUPPORT: 1977 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities supporting the particulate sampling efforts of EPA/IERL-RTP during FY 1977. Twenty technical directives were issued in seven categories: cascade impactors (7), cyclones (5), sampling electrostatic precipitators (1), guidelines and manuals (3), ...

  8. PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract, cascade impactors were...

  9. Differential Spectroscopic Imaging of Particulate Explosives Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    We present experimental results showing transmission and reflection imaging of approximately 100 microgram quantities of particulate explosives residue using a commercial uncooled microbolometer infrared camera and CO2 laser differential wavelength illumination.

  10. FILTER MEDIA FOR COLLECTING DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE membrane filters, glass fibe...

  11. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  12. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Particulate Matter The Basics We’ve ...

  13. GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

  14. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  15. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  16. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  17. Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

  18. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  19. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. 84.125 Section 84.125 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks...

  20. Particulate characterization for PFBC filter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1993-09-01

    Southern Research Institute is participating, as a subcontractor to Southern Company Services (SCS), in METC`s project to establish a Power Systems Development Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. This plant will serve as a facility for the development and testing of advanced systems for coal-based power generation. An important part of the program will be to test and evaluate various kinds of particulate control devices and systems for operation at high temperatures and high pressures. The hot gas cleanup technology is a critical factor in achieving the highest levels of energy efficiency in the advanced power systems. In connection with evaluation of particulate control devices to be installed at this facility, SRI has the responsibility for developing methods and equipment to characterize the particulate material suspended in the hot gas streams. Our objectives are to design systems for sampling and monitoring particulate mass loadings and size distributions at appropriate locations in the plant and to develop methods for operating these systems. We will assist SCS in the preparation of test plans for the operation of the plant, and we will participate in carrying out the particulate measurements.

  1. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  2. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  3. Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.; Evans, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A unique polar nephelometer was designed and constructed for the measurement of atmospheric particulate characteristics. The nephelometer produces visible light from a self-contained laser to irradiate an air sample drawn into the instrument. The light scattered from the particulates and molecules in the sample is detected as a function of scattering angle for each of four different incident light polarizations. These measurements are used to determine the particulate scattering matrix which is a function of the size, shape, and index of refraction of the particles. The region of sensitivity for the measurements corresponds to the size range of particles that strongly affects visible radiative transfer in the atmosphere, which is the primary application for the derived information.

  4. Contribution of organic particulates to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Matanoski, G; Fishbein, L; Redmond, C; Rosenkranz, H; Wallace, L

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents some of the issues that remain to be resolved in order to assess the risk of cancer related to exposure to organic particulates. Most reviews of the effects of organic particulates from the outdoor environment on the risk of lung cancer show that this source seems to play a minor role. However, as fuel use and chemical composition of air pollutants change, the contribution of outdoor pollution as a cause of cancer may also change. Indoor air pollution is a more important source of exposure to organic particulates than is outdoor exposure. Although there is clear evidence that in occupational settings organic particulates cause human cancer, there has been almost no study of exposure to these types of particulates within indoor settings. Previous research has focused on cigarette smoke as the major indoor pollutant, but more specific characterization of contaminants in both the workplace and the home is required. The health effects of the higher levels of some of these contaminants in the workplace should be evaluated and the results extrapolated to populations exposed to lower levels in the home. Extensive research is needed to characterize organic particulate mixtures appropriately and test them for carcinogenicity. Studies on the health risks of nitropolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are reviewed, but their contribution to the overall burden of respiratory cancer in humans cannot be estimated at this time. Characterization of mixtures, assessment of exposures, and linkage of exposures to health effects are the objectives of the recommendations proposed for further research. PMID:3830112

  5. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  6. Modeling of Particulate Behavior in Pinhole Breaches

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2014-04-01

    A model is presented for calculating depressurization time for and particulate release from used nuclear fuel dry storage containers that have developed a pinhole breach. Particular attention is given to particulate deposition and transmission within the breach pathway. The model is modular in nature and is developed in a way that allows for more advanced treatments of internal temperature, internal component geometry, or aerosol flow to be readily incorporated. The model can be treated as a basis for addressing concerns associated with monitoring and verification efforts during long-term dry cask storage

  7. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  8. Much ado about dioxides and particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, F.P.

    1980-02-01

    Technical feature: The effect of carbon dioxide on climate is uncertain, and recent high CO2 levels may not persist. Worldwide warming trends since 1840 are outlined. There is no conclusive evidence that increased burning of fossil fuels has had or will have any ill effect on the climate. While there has been a slight increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere, the oxidation of humus and bogs rather than fossil fuels seems to be the main source of increased atmospheric CO2 and particulates. Increased plant growth and adsorption of CO2 and particulates by the oceans will maintain an even balance in the atmosphere. (17 references, 2 tables)

  9. Measurements of particulate semi-volatile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yanbo

    2000-10-01

    A new innovative sampling system, PC-BOSS, was developed by the combination of particle concentrator and BOSS denuder techniques in response to the new EPA PM2.5 standard and to meet top research priorities for particulate matter that were identified by the National Research Council. The PC-BOSS (P_article C_oncentrator- B_righam Young University O_rganic S_ampling S_ystem) can accurately determine not only PM2.5 stable mass and species such as sulfate, but also particulate semi- volatile material. Several field comparison studies of the PC-BOSS with the EPA PM2.5 reference method and state-of-the-art fine particle measurement methods confirm the capability of the PC-BOSS to accurately determine particulate semi-volatile material, especially organic compounds. This is the first routine sampling system for the determination of both particulate semi-volatile inorganic and organic material. Two other denuder system samplers for the determination of PM2.5 total mass including semi-volatile material were also developed for PM2.5 research and exposure monitoring. Results of studies around the United States indicate that the EPA PM2.5 FRM (Federal Reference Method) under- measured PM2.5 mass by 20-30% compared to PC-BOSS results due to the loss of particulate nitrate and semi-volatile organic compounds during sampling. Organic material is mostly responsible for this under- measurement by the FRM. Using our new sampling system in epidemiological and exposure studies will be essential to providing answers to some top research priorities for particulate matter and promote a better PM2.5 standard for the protection of human health because some fractions of particulate semi-volatile organic compounds are toxic and are possibly responsible for health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter. The atmospheric chemistry of organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere is still largely unknown because of the lack of detailed organic aerosol information. The importance of organic aerosols might also be underestimated because current data on organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere were mostly obtained by traditional methods, like the FRM method. Using PC-BOSS to study organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere will provide not only more but also more accurate information about organic aerosols, and significantly improve the understanding of the role of aerosols in global warming, ozone depletion, and atmospheric heterogenous chemistry.

  10. METALLURGICAL COKE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the metallurgical coke industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from metallurgical coke plants, the data were...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM NON-FERROUS SMELTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical composition and particle size data for particulate emissions for stationary sources are required for environmental health effect assessments, air chemistry studies, and air quality modelling Investigations such as source apportionment. n this study, particulate emissions...

  12. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral...

  13. ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives the status of the most promising high-temperature/high-pressure (HTP) particulate control devices being developed. Data are presented and anticipated performance and development problems are discussed. HTP particulate control offers efficiency and potential econo...

  14. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  15. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  16. HIGH TEMPERATURE PARTICULATE CONTROL WITH CERAMIC FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of using ceramic materials as filters for fine particulate removal at high temperatures. The program was in two phases. Phase I, directed toward the development of a porous alumina membrane filter, had limited success because of the fragi...

  17. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  18. PARTICULATE DATA REDUCTION (PADRE) SYSTEM REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes how to access and use the Particulate Data Reduction (PADRE) System, an interactive computer program that facilitates entry, reduction, and analysis of cascade impactor data for particle size distributions. It also summarizes its logic and capabilities. The p...

  19. Atmospheric particulate measurements in Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, R. W., Jr.; Sentell, R. J.; Woods, D. C.; Smith, J. R.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Characterization of atmospheric particulates was conducted at a site near the center of Norfolk, Virginia. Air quality was measured in terms of atmospheric mass loading, particle size distribution, and particulate elemental composition for a period of 2 weeks. The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a mean level of air quality and deviations about this mean, (2) to ascertain diurnal changes or special events in air quality, and (3) to evaluate instrumentation and sampling schedules. Simultaneous measurements were made with the following instruments: a quartz crystal microbalance particulate monitor, a light-scattering multirange particle counter, a high-volume air sampler, and polycarbonate membrane filters. To assess the impact of meteorological conditions on air quality variations, continuous data on temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction were recorded. Particulate elemental composition was obtained from neutron activation and scanning electron microscopy analyses of polycarbonate membrane filter samples. The measured average mass loading agrees reasonably well with the mass loadings determined by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board. There are consistent diurnal increases in atmospheric mass loading in the early morning and a sample time resolution of 1/2 hour seems necessary to detect most of the significant events.

  20. Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

  1. STUDIES OF PARTICULATE REMOVAL FROM DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of the collection of particulate emissions from diesel exhaust by several different methods, using 5.7 liter GM diesel engines (as sources) and such controls as fiber and gravel bed filters, trap/cyclones, and ESPs. Overall and fract...

  2. PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

  3. EVALUATIONS OF NOVEL PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of four novel particulate control devices. Three were wet scrubbers: an Aronetics (Chemico) Two-Phase Jet Scrubber, an Entoleter Centrifield Scrubber, and a CEA Variable-Throat Venturi Scrubber. The fourth w...

  4. PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

  5. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  6. PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

  7. Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

    2005-01-01

    During the past year several accomplishments were made for both the Particulate Matter Characterization and Measurement System, (PMCMS) and PAGEMS projects. The PAGEMS focus is to measure particulate emissions as a function of combustor parameters such as inlet temperature, inlet pressure and fuel air ratio. These measurements are used to evaluate combustor performance in hopes of correlating particulate emissions with engine conditions. These measurements have taken place at in-house NASA combustor facilities and off-site facilities. Ths work is unique because particulate measurements at high- pressure conditions are not commonly made. Some calibration of the PAGEMS instrumentation was done as well as minor modifications to the PAGEMS plumbing setup. These led to measurement improvements. The instrumentation and measurement process for PAGEMS was assessed and new instruments such as a thermodenuder, thermal mass flow meters and a cyclone separator were purchased to improve the PAGEMS instrumentation and measurement process. A worksheet was created to simulate varying inlet conditions to the DMA. This worksheet allows the user to assess the error in the measurements when certain conditions exist. Two technical papers were written with the PAGEMS team for the EXCAVATE field project. A paper was also reviewed for an in house publication. Also data was processed and analyzed for another field project (PAX) and will be part of a third PAGEMS paper. Accomplishments were also made with the PMCMS project. The calibration of the radial differential mobility analyzer, (RDMA) in the particle sizing system in the PMCMS was completed and provided satisfactory results. The voltages used for the RDMA depending on the particle of interest were corrected. The measurement capability of the PMCMS was increased by replacing the MetOne CPC with a TSI CPC. Lastly, assistance was provided to three college summer students with calibration of their particulate equipment and Monica Rivera shared her understanding of the aerosol technology with them. She also provided input for their end of the summer presentations. And attended the Aviation and Particle Emissions workshop. This workshop brought together experts in the aircraft particulate emissions field. As a result Ms. Rivera made two significant contacts with academia (UMR) and government (WPAFB) which could lead to future collaboration. She also attended the Aerosol and Particle Measurement Class held at the University of Minnesota. This class refreshed her particulate knowledge and introduced her to new aerosol applications and technology. Furthermore at the class contacts were made with private industry (TSI) and government (WPAFB). Ms. Rivera also enhanced her education by taking an in-house class on aircraft design and operation.

  8. Measurements Of Scattered Light From Asbestos Particulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riis, P.; Ballik, E. A.

    1987-09-01

    Light-scattering techniques are potentially very important for the low-level detection and identification of particulate species such as asbestos in aerosol and liquid suspensions. Low-level detection is essential because asbestos is a known carcinogen, even at very-low exposure levels. At present, most asbestos particulate monitoring is used on optical microscopy. If detailed analysis is required, then electron microscopy is employed. Both of these methods are labour intensive. Furthermore, the optical microscopy method is not very reliable. Although the light-scattering techniques described here have general applicability, the emphasis is on asbestos measurements. Ordinary measurements of Mie scattering from asbestos suspensions can provide only limited information on asbestos content. owever, a more sophisticated technique can be employed which relies on the fact that asbestos particulate is fibrous rather than spherical in shape, and that the fibres align in a strong magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T). Particulate other than asbestos is generally non-fibrous in shape. Measurements have been carried out on liquid suspensions of asbestos contained in a small cell placed between the poles of a rotating magnet. The aligned fibres, which rotate about their centre of mass as they follow the field, are illuminated using a laser source. The Mie-scattering intensity is measured as a function of rotation angle, and the resulting data is then analysed with the aid of a microcomputer. Intensity maxima and minima provide reliable information on asbestos concentration, even in the presence of strong scattering from other particulate. In addition, the angular location of the intensity peaks provides information on the type of asbestos present. Each type has a characteristic alignment behaviour in a strong magnetic field. Using relatively-simple equipment, chrysotile asbestos (the most commonly-used type) has been detected at levels below 30 ng/l.

  9. Particulate bioluininescence in dinoflagellates: dissociation and partial reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C W; Kreiss, P; Seliger, H H

    1972-09-01

    With the same extraction conditions used for Gonyaulax polyedra, soluble and particulate bioluminescence can be isolated from two additional species, Pyrodinium bahamense and Pyrocystis lunula. We have been able, for all three species, to dissociate soluble luciferin and luciferase from the particulate system. Luciferin can be incorporated into both reacted and unreacted particulate systems. PMID:17780988

  10. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... further defined in § 86.144. (3) P e = mass of particulate per test on the exhaust filter(s), grams. (4) Pb = mass of particulate on the “background” filter, grams. (i) The background particulate level, Pb, inside the dilution air filter box at EPA is very low. Pb will be assumed = 0, and background...

  11. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  12. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  13. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  14. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  15. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  16. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  18. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate emissions data are presented from a group of 19 in-use diesel automobiles. Five driving cycles and three fuel/lubricating oil combinations have been used to obtain particulate emissions data and also to collect particulate samples for chemical and bioassay characteriz...

  20. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  1. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  2. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  3. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  4. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  5. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  7. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  8. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  9. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  10. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  11. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  12. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  13. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  14. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  15. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  16. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  17. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  18. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  19. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Approval—On August 1, 2013, the State of Wisconsin submitted a revision to their Particulate Matter State... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR...

  5. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  6. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  7. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  8. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  10. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  11. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  12. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  13. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  14. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  15. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  16. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  17. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  18. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  19. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  20. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  1. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  2. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  3. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  4. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  6. SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLGOY (3RD): VOLUME III. PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the Third Symposium on the Transfer and Utilization of Particulate Control Technology, in Orlando, FL, March 9-13, 1981, sponsored by the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The ...

  7. Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and, except for the first and last day (where there was experimental error), recorded values seem to meet EPA standards. We conclude that the high particulate matter levels we observed were due to heavy crowding and traffic jams near street corners during the time of the festival. We also conclude that particulate pollution levels in the Chinatown neighborhood are generally acceptable, except during festivities that generate heavy congestion. We intend conduct further investigations, particularly at next year's street festival, to confirm observations made thus far.

  8. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  9. Sensor Technologies for Particulate Detection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    Planned Lunar missions have resulted in renewed attention to problems attributable to fine particulates. While the difficulties experienced during the sequence of Apollo missions did not prove critical in all cases, the comparatively long duration of impending missions may present a different situation. This situation creates the need for a spectrum of particulate sensing technologies. From a fundamental perspective, an improved understanding of the properties of the dust fraction is required. Described here is laboratory-based reference instrumentation for the measurement of fundamental particle size distribution (PSD) functions from 2.5 nanometers to 20 micrometers. Concomitant efforts for separating samples into fractional size bins are also presented. A requirement also exists for developing mission compatible sensors. Examples include provisions for air quality monitoring in spacecraft and remote habitation modules. Required sensor attributes such as low mass, volume, and power consumption, autonomy of operation, and extended reliability cannot be accommodated by existing technologies.

  10. Particulate contaminant relocation during shuttle ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The dislodgement, venting, and redeposition of particles on a surface in the shuttle bay by the vibroacoustic, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces present during shuttle ascent have been investigated. The particles of different sizes which are displaced, vented, and redistributed have been calculated; and an estimate of the increased number of particles on certain surfaces and the decrease on others has been indicated. The average sizes, velocities, and length of time for certain particles to leave the bay following initial shuttle doors opening and thermal tests have been calculated based on indirect data obtained during several shuttle flights. Suggestions for future measurements and observations to characterize the particulate environment and the techniques to limit the in-orbit particulate contamination of surfaces and environment have been offered.

  11. Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2009-02-01

    Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

  12. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  13. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  14. Shock Wave Structure in Particulate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauls, Michael; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2015-06-01

    Shock wave experiments are conducted on a particulate composite consisting of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix reinforced by glass beads. Such a composite with an impedance mismatch of 4.3 closely mimics heterogeneous solids of interest such as concrete and energetic materials. The composite samples are prepared using a compression molding process. The structure and particle velocity rise times of the shocks are examined using forward ballistic experiments. Reverse ballistic experiments are used to track how the interface density influences velocity overshoot above the steady state particle velocity. The effects of particle size (0.1 to 1 mm) and volume fraction of glass beads (30-40%) on the structure of the leading shock wave are investigated. It is observed that the rise time increases with increasing particle size and scales linearly for the range of particle sizes considered here. Results from numerical simulations using CTH are compared with experimental results to gain insights into wave propagation in heterogeneous particulate composites.

  15. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distribution. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  16. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  17. Continuous measurement of diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, S.; Black, F.; King, F.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of emerging diesel-particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity or light extinction properties of elemental carbon are described. The instrumentation provided adequate time resolution to observe the transient concentrations associated with typical automobile driving patterns. Accuracy and precision are evaluated by comparing integrated average results to measurements, using classical gravimetric filtration techniques. Emissions from two diesel passenger cars with substantially different chemical compositions are examined. Mass-specific extinction coefficients are developed using the Beer-Lambert Law and a simplified linear model that proved adequate for particulate concentrations typical of diluted passenger-car exhaust.

  18. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  19. Self-Cleaning Particulate Prefilter Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Olivia; Lalwani, San-jiv; Sharma, Anjal

    2012-01-01

    A long-term space mission requires efficient air revitalization performance to sustain the crew. Prefilter and particulate air filter media are susceptible to rapid fouling that adversely affects their performance and can lead to catastrophic failure of the air revitalization system, which may result in mission failure. For a long-term voyage, it is impractical to carry replacement particulate prefilter and filter modules due to the usual limitations in size, volume, and weight. The only solution to this problem is to reagentlessly regenerate prefilter and filter media in place. A method was developed to modify the particulate prefilter media to allow them to regenerate reagentlessly, and in place, by the application of modest thermocycled transverse or reversed airflows. The innovation may allow NASA to close the breathing air loop more efficiently, thereby sustaining the vision for manned space exploration missions of the future. A novel, self-cleaning coatings technology was developed for air filter media surfaces that allows reagentless in-place regeneration of the surface. The technology grafts thermoresponsive and nonspecific adhesion minimizing polymer nanolayer brush coatings from the prefilter media. These polymer nanolayer brush architectures can be triggered to contract and expand to generate a "pushing-off" force by the simple application of modestly thermocycled (i.e. cycling from ambient cabin temperature to 40 C) air streams. The nonspecific adhesion-minimizing properties of the coatings do not allow the particulate foulants to adhere strongly to the filter media, and thermocycled air streams applied to the media allow easy detachment and in-place regeneration of the media with minimal impact in system downtime or astronaut involvement in overseeing the process.

  20. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  1. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2000-10-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

  2. Clustering Instabilities in Homogeneously Cooling Particulate Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrano, Peter; Dahl, Steven; Zenk, John; Ewasko, Christopher; Hrenya, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Particulate flow instabilities, such as particle clustering, are commonly observed in industrial applications (e.g., gasifiers and fluidized beds). The particle dynamics associated with such instabilities have been studied through experiment, theory, and discrete-particle simulation. However, most previous theoretical analysis has been limited to linear stability analyses, and no quantitative predictions about instabilities have been obtained via numerical simulations of hydrodynamic models or via direct simulation Monte Carlo. In this work, we use a combination of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, linear stability analyses, and discrete-particle simulations to quantitatively assess the ability of hydrodynamics to describe instabilities in particulate flows. We find excellent agreement between discrete-particle simulations and hydrodynamic simulations for the onset of particle clustering. Such agreement demonstrates the aptitude of the Enskog equation in describing particulate flows and (since velocity gradients exist) the versatility of the small-Knudsen-number expansion. A systematic under prediction of clustering onset by linear analyses exemplifies the importance of nonlinear mechanisms (e.g., viscous heating) in cluster formation.

  3. Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utterback, N. G.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. A prototype analyzer system was designed, constructed, and tested. Results show that: (1) energy-time focus performs as predicted in improving resolution; (2) power densities sufficient to produce usable ionization efficiencies can be obtained; (3) complex alloys such as stainless steel can be analyzed; and (4) a tiny, simple and reliable laser used in the demonstration easily meets spacecraft power and mass limitations. A mass resolution of 150 was experimentally demonstrated at mass 108, and an analytical extrapolation predicts a resolution sufficient to separate masses 250 and 251.

  4. Recent developments in particulate-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Bramwell, Vincent W; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines remain a key tool in the defence against major diseases. However, in the development of vaccines a trade off between safety and efficacy is required with newer vaccines, based on sub-unit proteins and peptides, displaying improved safety profiles yet suffering from low efficacy. Adjuvants can be employed to improve their potency, but currently there are only a limited number of adjuvant systems licensed for clinical use. Of the new adjuvants being investigated, particulate systems offer several advantages including: passive targeting to the antigen-presenting cells within the immune system, protection against adjuvant degradation, and ability for sustained antigen release. There has been a range of particulate vaccine delivery systems outlined in recent patents including polymer-based microspheres (which are generally more focused on the use of synthetic polymers, in particular the polyesters) and surfactant-based vesicles. Within these formulations, several patented systems are exploiting the use of cationic lipids which, despite their limitations in gene therapy, clearly offer strong potential as adjuvants. Within this review, the current range of particulate system technologies being investigated as potential adjuvants are discussed with regard to both their respective advantages and the potential hurdles which must be overcome for such systems to be converted into successful pharmaceutical products. PMID:19075879

  5. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings

    2000-05-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is planned to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

  6. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-04-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power plant. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power plant is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

  7. Camellia sinensis Mediated Enhancement of Humoral Immunity to Particulate and Non-particulate Antigens.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan; Ali, Nafisa Hassan; Santercole, Viviana; Paglietti, Bianca; Rubino, Salvatore; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Farooqui, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The most common drinking beverage in large portion of the world is Camellia sinensis (green tea). In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of green tea and tea polyphenols to particulate and non-particulate antigens. BALB/c mice were immunized with particulate and non-particulate antigens. Modulation of immunoglobulin-secreting splenocytes, IgG-mediated and IgM-mediated immunity, was evaluated by hemolytic plaque assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Dose-dependent response of tea polyphenols was also assayed. Phenolic content was measured in crude preparations of green tea. We observed a stimulatory effect of green tea preparations on humoral immune response mediated by the increased number of antibody-secreted cells in spleen. A significant increase in IgM-mediated and IgG-mediated immune response to non-particulate antigen was also observed in green tea-treated animals. A dose-dependent adjuvant effect was seen in the case of tea polyphenols for a longer period of time compared with crude tea preparations. This study indicates polyphenols as major constituents responsible for the enhanced and sustained adjuvant activity of green tea. We suggest that tea polyphenols might be considered for real-life evaluation during adjuvant-mediated vaccination trial programs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26478000

  8. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

  9. Leishmania infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-2 is an Apyrase Involved in Macrophage Infection and Expressed in Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos, Raphael De Souza; Mariotini-Moura, Christiane; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Serafim, Tiago Donatelli; Firmino, Rafaela de Cássia; Silva e Bastos, Matheus; de Castro, Felipe Freitas; de Oliveira, Claudia Miranda; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; de Souza, Anna Cláudia Alves; de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Gómez, Gabriel Andres Tafur; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Silva-Júnior, Abelardo; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; Afonso, Luís Carlos Crocco; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is an important tropical disease, and Leishmania infantum chagasi (synonym of Leishmania infantum) is the main pathogenic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Recently, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) were identified as enablers of infection and virulence factors in many pathogens. Two putative E-NTPDases (∼70 kDa and ∼45 kDa) have been found in the L. infantum genome. Here, we studied the ∼45 kDa E-NTPDase from L. infantum chagasi to describe its natural occurrence, biochemical characteristics and influence on macrophage infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We used live L. infantum chagasi to demonstrate its natural ecto-nucleotidase activity. We then isolated, cloned and expressed recombinant rLicNTPDase-2 in bacterial system. The recombinant rLicNTPDase-2 hydrolyzed a wide variety of triphosphate and diphosphate nucleotides (GTP> GDP  =  UDP> ADP> UTP  =  ATP) in the presence of calcium or magnesium. In addition, rLicNTPDase-2 showed stable activity over a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and was partially inhibited by ARL67156 and suramin. Microscopic analyses revealed the presence of this protein on cell surfaces, vesicles, flagellae, flagellar pockets, kinetoplasts, mitochondria and nuclei. The blockade of E-NTPDases using antibodies and competition led to lower levels of parasite adhesion and infection of macrophages. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed the expression of E-NTPDases in amastigotes in the lymph nodes of naturally infected dogs from an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance In this work, we cloned, expressed and characterized the NTPDase-2 from L. infantum chagasi and demonstrated that it functions as a genuine enzyme from the E-NTPDase/CD39 family. We showed that E-NTPDases are present on the surface of promastigotes and in other intracellular locations. We showed, for the first time, the broad expression of LicNTPDases in naturally infected dogs. Additionally, the blockade of NTPDases led to lower levels of in vitro adhesion and infection, suggesting that these proteins are possible targets for rational drug design. PMID:25393008

  10. Adenosine receptor signaling: a key to opening the blood-brain door.

    PubMed

    Bynoe, Margaret S; Viret, Christophe; Yan, Angela; Kim, Do-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to outline evidence that adenosine receptor (AR) activation can modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the implications for disease states and drug delivery. Barriers of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute a protective and regulatory interface between the CNS and the rest of the organism. Such barriers allow for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the CNS milieu. Among them, the BBB is a highly efficient permeability barrier that separates the brain micro-environment from the circulating blood. It is made up of tight junction-connected endothelial cells with specialized transporters to selectively control the passage of nutrients required for neural homeostasis and function, while preventing the entry of neurotoxic factors. The identification of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development and function of CNS barriers is required for a better understanding of CNS homeostasis in both physiological and pathological settings. It has long been recognized that the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine is a potent modulator of a large number of neurological functions. More recently, experimental studies conducted with human/mouse brain primary endothelial cells as well as with mouse models, indicate that adenosine markedly regulates BBB permeability. Extracellular adenosine, which is efficiently generated through the catabolism of ATP via the CD39/CD73 ecto-nucleotidase axis, promotes BBB permeability by signaling through A1 and A2A ARs expressed on BBB cells. In line with this hypothesis, induction of AR signaling by selective agonists efficiently augments BBB permeability in a transient manner and promotes the entry of macromolecules into the CNS. Conversely, antagonism of AR signaling blocks the entry of inflammatory cells and soluble factors into the brain. Thus, AR modulation of the BBB appears as a system susceptible to tighten as well as to permeabilize the BBB. Collectively, these findings point to AR manipulation as a pertinent avenue of research for novel strategies aiming at efficiently delivering therapeutic drugs/cells into the CNS, or at restricting the entry of inflammatory immune cells into the brain in some diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26330053

  11. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  12. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  13. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  14. Particulate fraction in amniotic fluid at second trimester.

    PubMed

    Jalanko, H; Rapola, J; Lehtonen, E

    1985-09-01

    Amniotic fluid at 15-20 weeks contains high concentrations of microvillar enzymes which serve as markers for the prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. We found that these enzymes were mostly bound to amniotic fluid particulate fraction which eluted in the void volume on Sepharose 6B chromatography and precipitated in ultracentrifugation at 100,000g. Electron microscopy showed that the particulate fraction comprised membrane fragments and small vesicles. It represented less than 1% of the total protein in cell free amniotic fluid. Sorbitol gradient centrifugation showed heterogeneity in the particulate fraction. The enzyme patterns of amniotic fluid and meconium particulate fractions resembled each other. Antiserum against particulate fraction in amniotic fluid strongly reacted with early meconium and fetal small intestine in immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassay, and staining with immunoperoxidase. The results suggest that most of the enzyme rich particulate fraction in early amniotic fluid originates in the fetal intestine. PMID:2864355

  15. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  16. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  17. Dynamical constraint on particulate sizes for Saturn's B ring spokes

    SciTech Connect

    Eplee, R.E. Jr.; Smith, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    The exponential charge decay time for particulates constituting the spokes in Saturn's B ring is presently proposed as a dynamical time scale for their evolution. Mean particulate radius is determined to be 0.01 + or - 0.03 microns, on the basis of a consideration of solar UV photoemission as the charge decay mechanism which leads to the determination of a dynamical constraint that can be placed on the particulate sizes. 15 references.

  18. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  19. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  20. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  1. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  2. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  3. Particulate NMR contrast agents for gastrointestinal application

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Clanton, J.A.

    1986-10-07

    A contrast medium composition is described for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the gastrointestinal system, comprising an orally or rectally administrable aqueous suspension of particles of an NMR contrast agent the suspension containing wetting and/or suspending agents to maintain the contrast agent particles in a dispersed suspended condition. The particles comprise a substantially water-insoluble compound of a paramagnetic metal, the particles being sized below 10 microns diameter and being capable of passing through the stomach while remaining in particulate form.

  4. Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

  5. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  6. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.

  7. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  8. Particulate filtration for sorbent-based H2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; Karra, Jagadeswara R.

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for sizing the particulate filter that can be used inside a sorption-based onboard hydrogen storage system for light-duty vehicles. The method is based on a trade-off between the pressure drop across the particulate filter (during the fill of the H2 storage tank or during its discharge while driving) and the effect of this pressure drop on the usable amount of H2 gas from the H2 storage system. The permeability and filtration efficiency of the particulate filters (in the absence and presence of MOF-5 particulates) was quantified in this study, with an emphasis on meeting DOE's H2 purity requirements.

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  10. The Effect of Viewing Order of Macroscopic and Particulate Visualizations on Students' Particulate Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie M.; Lane, Sarah M.; Gilbreath, Travis; Tasker, Roy; Ashkenazi, Guy; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    A prior study showed that students best make predictions about the outcome of opening a valve between two flasks containing a fluid or vacuum when they view both a demonstration video and a particulate animation, but the study showed no influence from the order in which these visualizations were used. The purpose of this current research was to

  11. The Effect of Viewing Order of Macroscopic and Particulate Visualizations on Students' Particulate Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie M.; Lane, Sarah M.; Gilbreath, Travis; Tasker, Roy; Ashkenazi, Guy; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    A prior study showed that students best make predictions about the outcome of opening a valve between two flasks containing a fluid or vacuum when they view both a demonstration video and a particulate animation, but the study showed no influence from the order in which these visualizations were used. The purpose of this current research was to…

  12. MODELING FINE PARTICULATE MASS AND VISIBILITY USING THE EPA REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter in the atmosphere can adversely impact air quality and human health, as well as significantly affect the environment. articles in the submicrometer size range, when inhaled, may pose certain health hazards. articles in this size range also scatter light, causin...

  13. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  14. Mutagenic activity in diesel exhaust particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtman, J.P.; Xiao-bai, X.; Rappaport, S.M.; Talcott, R.E.; Wei, E.T.

    1981-10-01

    Chloroform eluates of diesel exhaust particulate extracts were mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of approximately 480 revertants/100 ..mu..g of extract/plate did not require liver enzymes for its expression. The addition of liver enzymes decreased mutagenic activity, an effect which has previously been shown to be non-specific binding of the mutagen to liver proteins. After reduction of the diesel exhaust extract with sodium borohydride, the S-9 independent activity was greatly diminished. Addition of S-9 to the reduced sample revealed the presence of S-9 dependent mutagenic activity. These results, although not conclusive, provide additional evidence for the presence of nitronarene mutagens in diesel exhaust particulates. If, for example, the samples contained nitrofluorene, nitronaphthalene or nitropyrene, the reduction reaction would have formed aminofluorene, aminonaphthalene, and aminopyrene, compounds which are mutagens requiring liver enzyme activation in the Ames test. Attempts to isolate the amine by acidic extraction were not successful, however, because of the weak mutagenic activity in the sample.

  15. Instability and Turbulence of Propagating Particulate Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Propagation of particle-laden fluid into an ambient is a common fluid mechanical process that can be observed in many industrial and environmental applications. Sedimentation fronts, volcanic plumes, dust storms, powder snow avalanches, submarine turbidity currents, explosive powder dispersal and supernovae offer fascinating examples of advancing particulate fronts. The propagating interface can undergo Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and double-diffusive instabilities and result in the formation of lobes and clefts, spikes and bubbles, and particulate fingers. The interplay between suspended particles and turbulence is often complex due to interaction of competing mechanisms. In problems such as turbidity currents, turbulence controls sediment concentration through resuspension and settling of particles at the bed. Also, turbulent entrainment at the propagating front is observed to be influenced by the sediments. Stable stratification due to suspended sediment concentration can damp and even kill turbulence. This complex turbulence-sediment interaction offers possible explanation for massive sediment deposits observed in nature. The talk will also address challenges and recent advancements in the modeling and simulation of such particle-laden turbulent flows.

  16. Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, N.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

  17. Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, James Edward; Plohr, Bradley J

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.

  18. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  19. Method for inhibiting corrosion in particulate zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.; Meitav, A,; Lezion, R.; Kravitz, M.

    1993-08-03

    A method is described for the inhibition of corrosion in particulate zinc, which comprises the step of subjecting said zinc in the form of an alkaline slurry to treatment by a corrosion inhibiting effective amount of a corrosion inhibitor which is at least one oxide selected from the group consisting of oxides of antimony, bismuth, cadmium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium and tin, wherein zinc has been obtained by an electrolytic process for regeneration of zinc in an at least partially spent slurry for use in metal-air batteries which slurry comprises an admixture of at least components (a) and (b), of the following components (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) and (g): (a) zinc which has been at least partly oxidized to an oxidation product selected from zinc oxide and zincates; (b) an aqueous solution of at least one Group 1a metal comprising anions selected from the group consisting of hydroxide and zincate; (c) an inorganic inhibitor ingredient effective to inhibit an interaction of zinc and at least one Group 1a metal hydroxide in the aqueous solution, which would otherwise result in an evolution of hydrogen gas; (d) a gelling agent; (e) a filler selected from the group consisting of particulate and fibrous fillers; (f) a labelling agent; (g) a dissolved electrolyte extender.

  20. The Relocation of Particulate Contamination During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, J.; Edgars, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer simulation program to model the redistribution of particulate contaminants on a spacecraft after launch is developed. The component models for particulate adhesion, meteoroid impact, and electrostatic forces are described and intermediate results are presented. The results of a sample calculation show that the recontamination process is important.

  1. CONTROL OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN THE PRIMARY NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the symposium on 'Control of Particulate Emissions in the Primary Nonferrous Metals Industries' was to provide a forum for the exchange of knowledge and new ideas on particulate control technology with emphasis on industrial applications of environmental particulat...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... strategy are disapproved since they do not provide the degree of control needed to attain and maintain...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  5. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2059 Section 52.2059 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.1173 Section 52.1173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates. (a) Part...

  10. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills § 60.282 Standard for particulate...

  11. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills § 60.282 Standard for particulate...

  12. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE CONTROL: DIRECT AND CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the technology and potential for disposal of diesel particulate by oxidation. Relevant properties of typical diesel particulate are given; note is taken of the small size (on the order of 0.1 micrometer diameter) and the presence of a portion extractable with...

  14. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

  15. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH LOW FLOW PERSONAL SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory and the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) have conducted a particulate matter (PM) personal exposure study in Research Triangle Park, NC. Particulate carbon was sampled with pre-fired quartz filters using low flow PM2.5 samplers (2 L...

  16. GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  19. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... strategy are disapproved since they do not provide the degree of control needed to attain and maintain...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  4. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  5. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  6. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  7. Production of particulate matter from the combustion of wood pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papučík, Štefan; Jandačka, Jozef; Chabadová, Jana; Pialát, Peter

    2015-05-01

    For production of particulate matters affect more aspects. One of the biggest affect is combustion air volume and iťs deviding on primary and secondary part. In this article is described experimental device, on which was investigated affect of combustion air volume on production particulate matters, measuring method, measured and analysed achieved results.

  8. DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

  9. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

  10. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  11. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each...

  12. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an... particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC 1-3-2, its air... matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment area....

  13. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an... particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC 1-3-2, its air... matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment area....

  14. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March 30... state to EPA Region 1 dated July 12, 2012. (d) Disapproval—Submittal from the Massachusetts...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  17. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  18. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  20. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  1. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measures for particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC... submitted a particulate matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment... accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these areas to submit an...

  2. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an... particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC 1-3-2, its air... matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment area....

  3. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  6. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and July 17, 1989, the State of Indiana submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an... particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group III Plan: 326 IAC 1-3-2, its air... matter State Implementation Plan revision for the Vermillion County nonattainment area....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  9. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to... cited are air pollution control regulations of the State unless otherwise noted. (See § 52.1023...

  11. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March 30... state to EPA Region 1 dated July 12, 2012. (d) Disapproval—Submittal from the Massachusetts...

  13. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.302 Standard for particulate...

  14. 40 CFR 92.128 - Particulate handling and weighing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Particulate handling and weighing. 92.128 Section 92.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.128 Particulate handling and weighing. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  16. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  17. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  19. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  20. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  3. CONTROLLING PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a semi-technical overview of the contribution of particulate matter to the overall U.S. air pollution problem. It also discusses contributions of the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory at Research Triangle Park, NC...

  4. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  5. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep testing of two Refractron 326 specimens is now in progress. Among the tasks expected to be completed this quarter are analysis of the creep data obtained thus far, microstructural analysis of Refractron 326 and Schumacher FT20, definition of bending loads on candle filters, and characterization of additional candle filters from Karhula.

  6. Health effects costs of particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Zmirou, D; Deloraine, A; Balducci, F; Boudet, C; Dechenaux, J

    1999-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in December 1994 in three metropolitan areas of the Rhone-Alpes region in France (Lyon, Grenoble, and Chambéry; total number of inhabitants = 970,000) to assess the medical costs resulting from exposure to particulate air pollution. Probability samples of the general population (508 families, 1265 subjects) and of the physicians (395) and 13 hospital respiratory care and emergency units in the study area provided data on the prevalence of respiratory disorders and on medical care usage. Measurements from air-quality monitoring networks were used to ascribe a fraction of the respiratory morbidity to the ambient air particle concentrations present during the study period, on the basis of attributable risk estimates drawn from recent meta-analyses. The medical care usage and absenteeism related to respiratory disorders were converted into direct and indirect medical and social costs by use of a "cost of illness" approach. These costs were extrapolated to annual costs of disease attributable to particulate pollution in 1994, using daily values of air pollution. The average particulate concentrations during the study period were moderate (39, 41, and 10 micrograms/m3 in the three cities), yielding attributable fractions that ranged between 0.6% and 13.8% according to the health condition and to the city. Three hundred ninety-five subjects reported respiratory symptoms (prevalence, 31.2%) during the study period; 1182 patients visited a doctor and 158 used hospital services. The extrapolated annual estimates of the attributable cost of respiratory diseases for a population of 1 million range between 79 and 135 million French francs (FF) (20th and 80th percentiles of the cost distribution, after a Monte Carlo simulation, respectively; 50th percentile, 107 x 10(6) FF [16.3 x 10(6) Euros]). Over-the counter drug consumption represents the largest cost item (approximately 44% of total costs), followed by wage losses (38%). Hospital expenditures amount to a low percentage of total costs (about 5%) because most respiratory disorders do not require hospital care. Mortality was not considered in this study. Most of these costs occur at relatively low levels of air pollution (67% of the total annual costs are incurred during days with particle concentrations lower than 50 micrograms/m3). Such substantial figures are useful for assessing the social impacts of air pollution and for evaluating the cost efficiency of abatement policies. PMID:10529940

  7. [Distribution characteristics of particulate mercury in aerosol in coastal city].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Wang; Zhao, Jin-Ping; Chen, Jin-Sheng; Xu, Ya

    2010-10-01

    Particulate mercury, which is bound with aerosol in atmosphere, has a negative impact on human health and the environment, also plays an important role in the biogeochemical process of mercury. In this paper, taking southeast coastal city of Xiamen as research object, the PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were collected in residential, tourism, industrial area and background, respectively, during four seasons (October 2008-September 2009). RA-915 + mercury analyzer was employed to determinate mercury concentration in different size particle matters based on zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of particulate mercury in different size of aerosol during Winter, Spring were obviously higher than that of Summer, Autumn; the concentrations of particulate mercury in fine particle during Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter were (51.46 +/- 19.28), (42.41 +/- 12.74), (38.38 +/- 6.08) and (127.23 +/- 33.70) pg/m3, respectively. The experimental data showed that the particulate mercury were mainly distributed in fine particles (PM2.5), which covered 42.48%-67.87%, and it can be concluded that the rate of particulate mercury enrichment in coarse particle was much lower than that of fine particle. The sequence of atmospheric particulate mercury concentration in different functional areas was: background < resident < tourism < industrial area < suburban; which showed characteristics of spatial distribution of particulate mercury was affected by the sampling location. On the whole, Xiamen had a low level of atmospheric particulate mercury; the enrichment of PM2.5 to particulate mercury was significantly higher than that of PM10 and TSP, and showed that fine particle pollution should be tightly controlled to reduce particulate mercury. PMID:21229731

  8. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 ; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 ; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

  9. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  10. Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

  11. Quasi-specular reflection from particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, Antti

    2013-12-01

    Specular reflection is known to play an important role in many fields of scattering applications, e.g., in remote sensing, computer graphics, optimization of visual appearance of industrial products. Usually it can be assumed that the object has a solid surface and that the properties of the surface will dictate the behavior of the specular component. In this study I will show that media consisting of wavelength-sized particles can also have a quasi-specular reflection in cases where there are ordered structure in the media. I will also show that the quasi-specular reflection in particulate media is more than just a surface effect, and planar particle arrangement below the very surface can give rise to quasi-specular reflection. This study shows that the quasi-specular reflection may contribute in some cases in the backscattering direction, together with coherent backscattering and shadow-hiding effects.

  12. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  13. Interaction of electromagnetic signals with particulate clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauda, Jose Mario

    1990-05-01

    A particulate cloud affects the ability of an electronic detector to receive an electromagnetic signal in two ways: by scattering light from the sun into the detector, thereby masking the signal, and by attenuating the signal itself. These effects are well studied in the Mie theory, which is summarized. The effect of the particle distribution in the cloud and the shape of the cloud on scattering and absorption problems is then analyzed. The results of this analysis and of the Mie theory are incorporated into a computer program which is included in the appendix. The graphs generated with the program can be used (in conjunction with information about the sunlight intensity and the detector's discriminating ability) to determine the effect of scattered light on the detection of the signal. We conclude the attenuation of the signal plays a relatively minor role in the ability of a detector to receive a signal affected by a cloud of particles.

  14. The collisional dynamics of particulate disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, F. H.; Stewart, G. R.

    1985-06-01

    It is shown that the use of the Krook equation greatly simplifies the discussion of the collisional dynamics of particulate disks. Collisions are assumed to be inelastic from the outset. A simple heuristic argument is used to compute the effective collision rate in a disk of spherical particles with a power-law distribution of sizes. For Saturn's rings, the effective collision rate for momentum transport is substantially lower than that conventionally estimated on the basis of an observed optical depth at visual wavelengths. The closure of the vertically integrated set of moment equations without discarding the third-order moments at the outset is discussed, allowing for the possibility of a bent disk. In the limit that the collision frequency is much larger than the orbit frequency, the usual Navier-Stokes equations of viscous hydrodynamics for a thin disk are recovered with an explicit expression for the shear viscosity. The method is generalized to include the effects of gravitational scattering.

  15. Linkage: from particulate to interactive genetics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Genetics was established on a strict particulate conception of heredity. Genetic linkage, the deviation from independent segregation of Mendelian factors, was conceived as a function of the material allocation of the factors to the chromosomes, rather than to the multiple effects (pleiotropy) of discrete factors. Although linkage maps were abstractions they provided strong support for the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Direct Cytogenetic evidence was scarce until X-ray induced major chromosomal rearrangements allowed direct correlation of genetic and cytological rearrangements. Only with the discovery of the polytenic giant chromosomes in Drosophila larvae in the 1930s were the virtual maps backed up by physical maps of the genetic loci. Genetic linkage became a pivotal experimental tool for the examination of the integration of genetic functions in development and in evolution. Genetic mapping has remained a hallmark of genetic analysis. The location of genes in DNA is a modern extension of the notion of genetic linkage. PMID:12778899

  16. Fatigue crack propagation testing of particulate MMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, D. M.; King, J. E.

    A brief review of the existing data in the literature for long crack fatigue propagation rates in particulate reinforced metal matrix composites is presented. Crack growth rates are found to fall within a relatively narrow scatter band with thresholds in the range 2.5-4.7 MPa sq rt m at R = 0.1. In general, standard fatigue testing techniques, as applied to monolithic aluminum alloys, are applicable. One major problem which can occur is due to large macroscopic residual quenching stresses which prevent the development of straight crack fronts and subsequent quantitative analysis of test results. This problem is exacerbated by the low fracture toughness of these composites which limits the R-ratio/Delta-K range combinations which can be used. Straighter cracks may be obtained by such methods as: stretching, quenching as large plate, sidegrooving in combination with higher R-ratios, constant K(max) threshold tests, and compression initiation.

  17. Infrared spectral behavior of fine particulate solids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Transmission and emission spectra of clouds and layers of fine particulate samples of quartz, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide in the 6.5-35-??m wavelength range are presented. They demonstrate that the behavior of layers of particles constitutes a good analogue for a cloud of particles; that individual micrometer-sized particles emit most where they absorb most; that as the size of the particle is increased, the emission features reverse polarity and the spectrum approaches that of one obtained from a polished plate; and that as the particle layer-thickness increases, radiative interaction becomes increasingly important so that the emission maximum shifts from the strongest to weaker features, or produces a maximum at the Christiansen wavelength.

  18. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  19. The vega particulate shell: comets or asteroids?

    PubMed

    Weissman, P R

    1984-06-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) science team has discovered a shell of particulate material around the star Vega. At the mean distance and temperature of the shell, the expected condensation products from a protostellar nebula would be dominated by frozen volatiles, in particular water ice. It is not possible to discriminate between dirty ice and silicate materials in the Vega shell on the basis of the IRAS data. The Vega shell is probably a ring of cometary bodies with an estimated minimum mass of 15 earth masses, analogous to one that has been hypothesized for the solar system. A possible hot inner shell around Vega may be an asteroid-like belt of material a few astronomical units from the star. PMID:17731997

  20. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  1. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  2. Assessment of Internal Fabric of Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibi, Khalid A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle arrangement and distribution within a soil matrix has long been recognized as having significant influence on the mechanical behavior of cohesionless soils. It is well known that two soil specimens having the same grain type (e.g., quartz, feldspar, etc.), same grain size distribution and relative density (or void ratio) can display completely different mechanical behavior. Because of the different fabric configurations in the otherwise similar specimens, they are likely to have different mechanical properties such as stress-strain response, anisotropy, dilatancy, etc. Soil Fabric is defined as the arrangement of particles, particle groups and associated pore space. In the literature, fabric analysis techniques are mainly classified as destructive (e.g., specimen stabilization, thin-sectioning, and microscopy), and nondestructive techniques (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonic testing, x-ray radiography, and computed tomography). Quantifying the void ratio and its distribution is the main parameter used to describe the fabric of particulate materials. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of fabric analysis techniques applied to particulate materials. In addition, the results of a comprehensive investigation to quantify void ratio of sand specimens will be presented and discussed. The sand used in the experiments in a natural, uniform rounded to sub-rounded silica sand known as F-75 banding sand with mean particle size of 0.22 mm. Uniform specimens and specimens subjected to different axial-strain levels tested under triaxial and biaxial conditions are examined to evaluate void ratio evolution and its distribution using destructive thin-sectioning and nondestructive Computed Tomography (CT) techniques. Details of a new innovative polygon generation technique called Voronoi tessellation used to quantify void ratio of microscopic images of sand grains will be presented and compared to classical Oda's method. Finally, frequency distribution of void ratio calculated using CT analysis will be presented and discussed.

  3. Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J; Walker, Larry R; Yapaulo, Renato A; Orita, Tetsuo; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai; Foster, David; Akard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

  4. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  5. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  6. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. PMID:17195488

  7. Repair of tegmen defect using cranial particulate bone graft.

    PubMed

    Greene, Arin K; Poe, Dennis S

    2015-01-01

    Bone paté is used to repair cranial bone defects. This material contains bone-dust collected during the high-speed burring of the cranium. Clinical and experimental studies of bone dust, however, have shown that it does not have biological activity and is resorbed. We describe the use of bone paté using particulate bone graft. Particulate graft is harvested with a hand-driven brace and 16mm bit; it is not subjected to thermal injury and its large size resists resorption. Bone paté containing particulate graft is much more likely than bone dust to contain viable osteoblasts capable of producing new bone. PMID:25465655

  8. Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitimirova, M.; Katkevics, J.; Baumane, L.; Bakis, E.; Viksna, A.

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  9. Discontinuous deformation analysis of particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Patricia Ann

    Many geotechnical engineering problems involve the localization of deformations along distinct shear planes, such as the response of a layer of soil to displacement along an underlying bedrock fault. Understanding the process of deformation localization and the propagation of shear zones to the surface would aid in the siting of structures near faults, and in developing mitigation techniques. Discrete numerical methods are especially suited to this type of problem, because the discontinuous nature of soil and the kinematics of soil deformation are modeled directly. This research involves the development and validation of Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA), a type of discrete numerical method, as a tool capable of modeling realistic soil behavior, thus providing the foundation for its application to complex soil mechanics problems, such as earthquake fault rupture propagation. First, a review of the two primary types of discrete numerical modeling, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) and DDA is presented along with a discussion of the key aspects of modeling particulate materials with these methods. Next, several extensions to the numerical program Discontinuous Deformation Analysis for Disks (DDAD), implemented during the process of developing DDAD as a tool for modeling particulate materials, were implemented. A flexible, stress-controlled boundary was incorporated, allows simulation of geotechnical biaxial shear tests that are commonly performed on specimens of granular soils. Using this boundary, the stress-strain and volumetric responses of simulated assemblies of particles were investigated. A new type of particle, the disk cluster, was developed and implemented. A disk cluster is a group of circular disks permanently attached to form a single particle. Disk clusters more accurately represent the nonspherical shape of particulate materials, minimize the problem of excessive rotation that occurs with perfectly circular elements, and retain the simplicity of the original contact search routine. A measure of strain for discrete numerical methods was investigated, as the concept of strain defined for a continuum does not apply directly to an assembly of particles with voids that can open and close during deformation. Previous measures of strain were examined and a new approach, the Triangulation Method, is presented. The Triangulation Method calculates strain for a finite element-type mesh overlay that uses the centers of the particles as nodes within the mesh. Nodes are connected with constant strain triangles using a finite strain formulation. The results of a laboratory testing program using glass rods and glass balls are presented. These tests provide valuable insight into the differences in response to mechanical loading of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) particles, as most discrete numerical models are currently 2D. In addition, the tests on glass rods are used to further validate DDAD. Lastly, the results of a preliminary study of boundary deformation problems using DDAD are presented. Comparison with previous physical and numerical modeling results demonstrate the usefulness of DDAD for this type of geotechnical engineering problem.

  10. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at Karhula. Key test results showed that property degradation occurred during service at Karhula but less degradation than was seen in Schumacher F40 and Pall 442T. Creep continues to be observed in tests at 1600 `F and above and was observed at 1562 `F in service at Karhula. Microstructural evaluations of FT20 and 326 materials have shown that the behavior of these materials is controlled by the ceramic binders and that the binders are still glass limited. These results were presented in a poster session and a paper written for the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference.

  11. Achieving low particulate emissions with electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Mastropietro, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    A great deal of literature has been published in recent years maligning electrostatic precipitators (ESP) as not being effective in achieving low emissions, or as being less effective than fabric filters in collecting fine particulate. This observation is not valid, provided the ESP is properly sized. The misconception comes from comparing modern high efficiency fabric filters, with 1950-1970`s vintage ESP`s. ESP`s were sized much smaller in that era, basically just for {open_quotes}good-neighbor{close_quotes} policies. Figure 1 shows the historical sizing practices for coal-fired utility boilers. From this, it can be seen that ESP`s from the 50`s through the early 1970`s were only about one-fourth to one-half the size of modern ESP`s. These undersized ESP`s, often in the presence of a coal switch to low sulfur coal, sometimes perform poorly. When replaced with a fabric filter, the claim is made that the ESP did not work and that a fabric filter does work properly. Had the ESP been increased in size to modern standards, it too would work properly.

  12. Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1996-09-01

    As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

  13. Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), which is now an all-pervading element of modern-day society, is associated with heightened cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Not only can short-term PM(2.5) exposure trigger acute cardiovascular events, but longer-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent. One biological mechanism capable of explaining this observation is that chronic exposure may promote the progression and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Indeed, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between ambient PM(2.5) exposure and the presence or extent of atherosclerosis in humans. Several animal experiments have provided corroborating evidence that chronic exposures in fact do enhance the progression and perhaps vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions. Due to the billions of people continually exposed to PM(2.5), the long-term pro-atherosclerotic effects of this ubiquitous air pollutant are likely to be of enormous and growing global public health importance. PMID:20617466

  14. Immersed boundary methods for viscoelastic particulate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelastic particulate suspensions play key roles in many energy applications. Our goal is to develop a simulation-based tool for engineering such suspensions. This study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all flow scales associated with the particle motion are resolved. The present effort is based on Immersed Boundary methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry. In this approach, the conservation of momentum equations, which include both Newtonian and non-Newtonian stresses, are solved over the entire domain including the region occupied by the particles. The particles are defined on a separate Lagrangian mesh that is free to move over an underlying Eulerian grid. The development of an immersed boundary forcing technique for moving bodies within an unstructured-mesh, massively parallel, non-Newtonian flow solver is thus developed and described. The presentation will focus on the numerical algorithm and measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. Several validation test cases will be presented including sedimentation under orthogonal shear - a key flow in drilling muds and fracking fluids.

  15. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  16. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, Steven R. . E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  18. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  19. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

  20. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  1. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  2. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  3. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF AN AUTOISOKINETIC STACK PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...

  5. EFFECTIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM ATYPICAL STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling techniques for measuring particulate emissions from four 'atypical' stationary source categories were developed and evaluated. The categories include low effluent velocity streams, extended dimensions, partially or totally unconfined flow, and saturated gas streams or ga...

  6. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  7. Particulated articular cartilage for symptomatic chondral defects of the knee.

    PubMed

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Cole, Brian J; Farr, Jack

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of focal cartilage defects in the knee remains a challenging clinical problem. One relatively new unique treatment option is particulated articular cartilage, which includes autograft and off-the-shelf allogeneic juvenile grafts. The use of particulated cartilage has the advantage of being a single-stage procedure. In the case of autograft, it is cost efficient, while in the juvenile allograft form, it may have increased proliferative and restorative potentials. Laboratory and clinical data are limited for particulated cartilage grafts; however, there are promising histologic and clinical outcomes. This review provides a summary of the indications, surgical technique, and most up-to-date research on particulated cartilage for the repair of symptomatic chondral defects in the knee. PMID:26371073

  8. AIRWAY EPITHELIAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS: ROLE OF METAL INTERACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated positive associations with particulate matter (PM) air pollution and daily respiratory morbidity - including exacerbations of asthma. Data are needed to elucidate which PM subcomponents may be mediating disease exacerbation in ind...

  9. JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller

    2008-10-31

    The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

  10. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  11. A REAL-TIME MEASURING DEVICE FOR DENSE PARTICULATE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design and performance of an instrument, based on the concept of instantaneous intensity ratio, for measuring particle size distributions of dense particulate matter. The method involves simultaneously measuring the intensity of light scattered by a parti...

  12. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which...

  13. INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

  14. PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period of the contract. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract cascade...

  15. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  16. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  17. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  18. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of a major EPA research program on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology, directed toward improving the performance of ESPs in controlling industrial particulate emissions, notably fly ash from coal combustion in electric power plants. Relationsh...

  19. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  20. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  1. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of emerging diesel particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity o...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A measurement methodology to evaluate fugitive particulate emissions was developed and demonstrated. The project focused on the application of the lidar (laser radar) technique under field conditions, but in circumstances that simplified and controlled the variables of the genera...

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  4. MULTIWAVELENGTH TRANSMISSOMETER FOR MEASURING MASS CONCENTRATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiwavelength transmissometer potentially capable of making near-real-time measurements of particulate mass concentration in industrial stacks was developed. A computer program is employed to interpret the transmissometer data and translate the results into mass concentration...

  5. The LEO Particulate Environment as Determined by LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Hoerz, Friedrick; Bernhard, P.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Foster, Tammy R.; Kinard, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group has been studying the low-Earth orbit particulate environment by examining and documenting impact craters that occurred on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) during its 5.7 year stay in orbit.

  6. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  7. Settling Efficiency of Urban Particulate Matter Transported by Stormwater Runoff.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Penna, Nadia; Piro, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of control measures in urban areas is to retain particulate matter washed out by stormwater over impermeable surfaces. In stormwater control measures, particulate matter removal typically occurs via sedimentation. Settling column tests were performed to examine the settling efficiency of such units using monodisperse and heterodisperse particulate matter (for which the particle size distributions were measured and modelled by the cumulative gamma distribution). To investigate the dependence of settling efficiency from the particulate matter, a variant of the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), a Microsoft Excel function based on multi-objective EPR technique (EPR-MOGA), called EPR MOGA XL, was used as a data-mining strategy. The results from this study have shown that settling efficiency is a function of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) concentration and of the median diameter (d50 index), obtained from the particle size distributions (PSDs) of the samples. PMID:26961472

  8. EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

  9. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Gas-particulate Flow around Breathing Human and Particulate Inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    2006-05-01

    It is important to predict the environment around the breathing human because inhalation of virus (avian influenza, SARS) is recently severe worldwide problem, and air pollution caused by diesel emission particle (DEP) and asbestos attract a great deal of attention. In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to predict unsteady flows around a breathing human and how suspended particulate matter (SPM, diameter˜1 μm) reaches the human nose in inhalation and exhalation. In the calculation, we find out smaller breathing angle and the closer distance between the human nose and pollutant region are effective in the inhalation of SPM.

  10. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  11. Interaction of non-ideal surfaces in particulate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Joshua John

    2001-12-01

    Adhesion between surfaces plays a critical role in the macroscopic behavior of particulate systems such as the flow of cohesive powders, the removal of particulates from substrates, and the formation of particulate coating on host surfaces. Similarly, the repulsive force profile between two particles in suspension influences properties such as rheological behavior and polishing efficiency. The majority of theoretical predictions of surface forces assume that the interface between the particle and surrounding media is ideal. Namely, that there is an atomically sharp demarcation between the properties of the bulk material and the properties of the medium. Furthermore, the interface is often considered perfectly monotonic. While this assumption is likely valid at larger separation distances, significant deviation from theory is expected when two particles are in a contact or near-contact configuration, as they are in adhesion processes or high force operations. This study explores the impact of the non-ideality of surfaces on the adhesion between particulates in dry and humid atmospheres as well as in solution. Specifically, the influence of nanoscale roughness in the range of 0.2 to 20 nm RMS has been investigated on the van der Waals, polar, and capillary forces that bind particulates together or prevent particulate removal from surfaces. Additionally, the influence of transition layers, consisting of chemically modified layers of nanoscale thickness at the interface, on the interaction of particulates in suspension has been delineated. For each of these cases, theoretical predictions are developed and validated through direct measurement of surface forces. The presence of non-ideal interfaces is determined to have a significant impact on the magnitude of the surface force that govern the ensemble behavior of many particulate systems.

  12. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W.; Goodstine, Stephen L.

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  13. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  14. Size- and structure-dependent toxicity of silica particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Sanshiro; Miyaoi, Kenichi; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Nano- and micro-particulates firmly attach with the surface of various biological systems. In some chronic pulmonary disease such as asbestosis and silicosis, causative particulates will induce chronic inflammatory disorder, followed by poor prognosis diseases. However, nano- and micro-scale specific toxicity of silica particulates is not well examined enough to recognize the risk of nano- and micro-particulates from the clinical aspect. To clarify the effect of the size and structure of silica particulates on the cellular damage and the biological response, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the various kinds of silica particles including amorphous and crystalline silica, in mouse alveolar macrophage culture, focusing on the fibrotic and inflammatory response. Our study showed that the cytotoxicity, which depends on the particle size and surface area, is correlated with their inflammatory response. By contrast, production of TGF-β, which is one of the fibrotic agents in lung, by addition of crystal silica was much higher than that of amorphous silica. We conclude that fibrosis and inflammation are induced at different phases and that the size- and structure-differences of silica particulates affect the both biological responses, caused by surface activity, radical species, and so on.

  15. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

  17. Inhibition of Ecto-Apyrase and Ecto-ATPase by Pyridoxal Phosphate-Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Carsten; Heine, Petra; Pradel, Gabi; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Studies of nucleotide receptors (P2-receptors) in cells and tissues are complicated by cleavage of phosphate groups from nucleotide agonist ligands by ecto-nucleotidases. Some P2 receptor antagonists may also inhibit ecto-nucleotidases, making these studies even more complex. In order to systematically approach this problem, we investigated structure–activity relationships of pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,4-disulfonate (PPADS) and 14 derivatives, many potent as antagonists at P2 receptors, as inhibitors of ecto-nucleotidases. The compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit enzymatic nucleotide breakdown by CHO cells stably transfected with plasmids containing the cDNA for rat ecto-apyrase (NTPDase1) and rat ecto-ATPase (NTPDase2). All inhibitors were tested at a concentration of 100 µM and ATP hydrolysis was quantified by HPLC. Maximal inhibition obtained for ecto-apyrase and ecto-ATPase was 60% and 35%, respectively. Most PPADS analogs were better inhibitors of ecto-apyrase than of ecto-ATPase. Compound 8, a phosphate derivative, inhibited ecto-apyrase with no inhibition evident at ecto-ATPase. Comparison of pharmacological data of PPADS analogs at P2 receptors as previously determined showed that four PPADS analogs exhibited selectivity for P2X nucleotide receptors. None of these compounds inhibited ecto-ATPase, while two inhibited the ecto-apyrase. Compound 14, a bisphosphate derivative, inhibited ecto-ATPase without inhibition of ecto-apyrase. This compound only weakly antagonized P2X1 receptors and was inactive at P2X2 and P2Y1 receptors, thus bearing some selectivity for ecto-ATPase. Compound 7, a 5-methylphosphonate derivative, a potent antagonist of P2X1 receptors, was inactive at ecto-apyrase and only weakly inhibitory at ecto-ATPase. Thus, PPADS modifications that enhance selectivity among ecto-nucleotidases and P2 receptors have been identified.

  18. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Weldon S.; Gonze, Eugene V.

    2008-12-30

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  19. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME 2. BAGHOUSES AND PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. (overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furna...

  20. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 2. BAGHOUSES AND PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. Overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furnac...

  1. Characterization of marine particulate material by ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenison Falkner, Kelly

    The viability of inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPMS) as an analytical tool was first demonstrated in the late 1970's [Douglas and Houk, 1985; Horlick et al., 1987]. Realization of its potential awaited the development of a practical interface for sampling ions from an ICP, which operates under atmospheric pressure at extremely high temperatures (≈10,000° K), and a quadrupole mass analyzer requiring high vacuum conditions [Douglas and Houk, 1985; Horlick et al., 1987]. This was achieved by 1984 at which time the first commercial instruments became available. Since its introduction, ICPMS has been successfully applied to a wide variety of fields of study including mineral exploration, medicine, metallurgy, marine biology and geochemistry [for examples of the latter, see Beauchemin et al., 1988; Falkner, 1990; Garbarino and Taylor, 1987; Klinkhammer and Chan, 1990; Lichte et al., 1987; McLaren et al., 1985]. Its enthusiastic acceptance by the analytical community stems from its very high sensitivity, multi-element and high throughput capabilities. As specialized sample introduction methods, such as direct insertion, electrothermal ionization and laser ablation, are being implemented, the capabilities of ICPMS are being broadened considerably [i.e. Gray, 1985; Hall et al., 1988; Park et al., 1987a,b; Sing and Salin, 1989]. The following discussion focuses on the use of ICPMS in the marine sciences, beginning with a general introduction to the technique. Its capabilities and limitations are presented based on the experience of the author with VG instrumentation. The discussion is concluded with a brief survey of alternative sample introduction methods and how they might be expected to contribute to the study of marine particulate matter.

  2. The Manhattan community based particulate study

    SciTech Connect

    Tropp, R.; Mustafa, M.; Werner, R.

    1998-12-31

    This study examines PM10 concentrations in two communities in northern Manhattan over a period of approximately 80 days during July through September 1996. The study was conducted to address community concerns that particulate levels in the neighborhoods caused by diesel bus and truck traffic might be higher than in other parts of Manhattan and cause the higher levels of asthma observed in the two communities. Community representatives were active participants throughout the study, including selecting monitoring sites. Sampling was conducted in two phases with saturation samplers, first, at eight street level locations in the Harlem community and then at seven locations in the Washington Heights community plus one continuing site in Harlem. During both phases, the samplers were located at sites in midtown and downtown Manhattan at which New York State operated dichotomous samplers. In addition, saturation samplers were used at a subset of sites to collect PM2.5 samples and, during Phase 2, samples for analysis of elemental and organic carbon. Community site samples were collected every day and reference site samples about once every three days. Temporal variability for PM10 was greater than spatial variability. Community sites generally had lower PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations than either of the two reference sites, averaging two-thirds to three-fourths the levels at the reference sites. Only the two reference samplers recorded PM10 concentrations that would indicate a likelihood of exceeding the annual PM10 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Based on the PM2.5/PM10 ratio measured at reference and community sites, estimates of PM2.5 from PM10 measurements indicated that most community sites might not meet the annual PM2.5 NAAQS and a few sites might fail to meet the 24-hour NAAQS.

  3. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, Richard D.; Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  4. Spatial correlativity of atmospheric particulate components simultaneously collected in Japan.

    PubMed

    Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Oku, Yuichiro; Kishikawa, Naoya; Deguchi, Yuya; Sera, Nobuyuki; Seiyama, Tetsurou; Horasaki, Kazunori; Arashidani, Keiichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takako; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Inaba, Yohei; Tonokura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kokunai, Osamu; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-02-01

    The simultaneous sampling of total suspended particles was performed at 14 sites in Japan during July 2008-June 2009. The spatial correlativity of each particulate composition toward Osaka was obtained for nine selected sites to overview the chemical composition and geographical distribution of particulate components across a wide range of areas nationwide. The spatial correlatives of atmospheric particulate components were extended to an even wider range of areas up to 950 km distance (meso-alpha scale region, >200 km) for a far-reaching distance analysis unique in the literature. Overall, the spatial correlations of ionic species and both organic and elemental carbons were significant, suggesting their shared advections, including their long-range transport from East Asia. Although sulfate ions are widely dispersed across Japan, such is not necessarily correlated with organic and elemental carbon, possibly indicating that the sulfate emission source, including long-range transport, differs from that of carbonaceous particulates. By contrast, the characteristics of spatial correlatives of metallic constituents vary; for example, particulate Pb and Cd show a significantly wide range of spatial correlatives to Osaka, while Mn-though limited to cities neighboring Osaka-shows significant spatial correlations. Other metallic constituents showed no significant spatial correlatives, indicating the effects of local pollutants. Moreover, the extent of the spatial dispersion of the particulate components and the relationships among chemical components were analyzed via factor analysis to highlight the effects of long-range inflow and local original emissions. In this treatment, 13 particulate components among the 19 measured were implicated in long-range transport. PMID:26753629

  5. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 μg/m(3) and 60 μg/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 μg/m(3), 38.1μg/m(3) and 52.5 μg/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ≤ 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality. PMID:24561289

  6. Multiple scattering in particulate planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muinonen, Karri; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Videen, Gorden

    2015-08-01

    There are two ubiquitous phenomena observed at small solar phase angles (the Sun-Object-Observer angle) from, for example, asteroids and transneptunian objects. First, a nonlinear increase of brightness is observed toward the zero phase angle in the magnitude scale that is commonly called the opposition effect. Second, the scattered light is observed to be partially linearly polarized parallel to the Sun-Object-Observer plane that iscommonly called the negative polarization surge.The observations can be interpreted using a radiative-transfer coherent-backscattering Monte Carlo method (RT-CB, Muinonen 2004) that makes use of a so-called phenomenological fundamental single scatterer (Muinonen and Videen 2012). For the validity of RT-CB, see Muinonen et al. (2012). The method can allow us to put constraints on the size, shape, and refractive index of the fundamental scatterers.In the present work, we extend the RT-CB method for the specific case of a macroscopic medium of electric dipole scatterers. For the computation of the interactions, the far-field approximation inherent in the RT-CB method is replaced by an exact treatment, allowing us to account for, e.g., the so-called near-field effects. The present method constitutes the first milestone in the development of a multiple-scattering method, where the so-called ladder and maximally crossed cyclical diagrams of the multiple electromagnetic interactions are rigorously computed. We expect to utilize the new methods in the spectroscopic, photometric, and polarimetric studies of asteroids, as well as in the interpretation of radar echoes from small Solar System bodies.Acknowledgments. The research is funded by the ERC Advanced Grant No 320773 entitled Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media (SAEMPL).K. Muinonen, Waves in Random Media 14, 365 (2004).K. Muinonen, K., and G. Videen, JQSRT 113, 2385 (2012).K. Muinonen, M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, E. Zubko, A. Penttilä,and G. Videen, ApJ 760, 118 (2012).

  7. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-31

    This is the fifteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data bank of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on May 18 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) and a particulate sample collected in the Westinghouse filter at Sierra Pacific Power Company�s Piñon Pine Power Project. Analysis of this Piñon Pine sample is ongoing: however, this report contains the results of analyses completed to date. Significant accomplishments were achieved on the HGCU data bank during this reporting quarter. The data bank was prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems �98 Conference scheduled for July, 1998. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of testing two Dupont PRD-66C candle filters, one McDermott ceramic composite candle filter, one Blasch 4-270 candle filter, and one Specific Surface cordierite candle filter. Tensile and thermal expansion testing is complete and the rest of the testing is in progress. Also, some 20-inch long Dupont PRD-66C, McDermott ceramic composite, and Westinghouse Techniweave candle filters have been received for testing after their exposure to the gasification environment. One as-manufactured and one exposed element was received of each material and specimens are currently being machined from these candles.

  8. Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.E.

    2000-08-20

    Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration in plasma - catalyst hybrid schemes for the removal of NOx employing an NO2 selective catalyst, as the oxidation of PM may deplete the key radicals necessary for NO to NO2 conversion. It was also suggested that where simultaneous NOx and PM removal are required, alternative catalyst formulations may be needed which may be selective to NO rather than NO2.

  9. Data quality in airborne particulate matter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, Nicole Marie

    Environmental measurements are complicated by uncontrollable natural variations in the environment, which cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. These variations affect the measurement uncertainty and detection capabilities -- two measures of data quality. Variations in a measurement series that arise from uncertainty in the measurements should not be interpreted as variations in the environment. Accurate estimates of measurement uncertainty are thus important inputs to data analyses. Collocated (duplicate) measurements are the most direct approach to characterizing uncertainty and detection capabilities because the observed differences reflect the actual measurement performance under the natural environmental variability. This dissertation uses collocated measurements of airborne particulate matter chemical speciation collected by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) to explore data quality issues. In addition to the complications introduced by uncontrollable environmental factors, the concepts of measurement precision and detection capabilities are often complicated by incomplete and inconsistent definitions. In this dissertation, collocated IMPROVE data are used to illustrate different formulations for precision and their ability to fit the observed differences. Collocated IMPROVE data are also used to show that measurement precision is typically better at concentrations well above the detection limit, when the analysis is performed on the whole filter instead of just a fraction of the filter, and for species predominantly in the smaller size fractions. For most species, the collocated differences are worse than the differences predicted by the current uncertainty model, suggesting that some sources of uncertainty are not accounted for or have been underestimated in the model. In addition, collocated measurement differences are shown to be correlated among several species. In both IMPROVE and STN, obvious correlations exist among differences in elements associated with soil dust, which are dominated by particles with diameters > 1 mum. These correlations suggest the current model is missing significant sampling errors associated with the size discrimination operation. Measurement uncertainty generally increases as concentrations approach the detection limit. This dissertation introduces an empirical approach for estimating detection limits using collocated IMPROVE and STN data that accounts for the natural variations in the environment.

  10. Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles. PMID:22393811

  11. The effects of particulate metals on cell viability of osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatuji; Takeda, Shoji; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2002-06-01

    Effects of fifteen particulate objects, fourteen metals and one non-metal on cell viability of osteoblast-like cells were studied in vitro, to determine whether an adverse effect on cells could be induced by the particulate form or soluble ions. The Al, Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and Fe particulates depressed cell viability at higher particulate concentrations, but their extracts yielded no effect on cells except for Mo. On the other hand, little difference in cell viability between particulates and extracts was observed for Cu, Si, V, W, and Co. However, Mn and Ni yielded more adverse effects on cells in the case of the particulates than the extracts. These findings suggested that the effects of particulates on cells depended upon the direct effects of contact between particulates and cells, the indirect effects of dissolved ions and the kinds of particulate elements. PMID:12238782

  12. Particulates from PTFE degradation in terrestrial and microgravity.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R; McKinnon, J T; Todd, P

    1999-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that the ultrafine particles generated during polymer thermodegradation are a major health hazard, owing to their unique pathway of processing in the lung. This hazard in manned spacecraft is poorly understood because the particulate products of polymer thermodegradation are generated under low gravity conditions. Particulates generated from the degradation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), insulation coating for 20 AWG copper wire (representative of spacecraft application) under intense current overload, were studied in terrestrial gravity and microgravity. Microgravity tests were done in a 1.2-s drop tower at the Colorado School of Mines. Thermophoretic sampling was used for particulate collection. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the smoke particulates. The pigmentation of PTFE insulation seems to have an overwhelming effect on size, shape and morphology of the particulate. Nanometer-sized particles were found in all cases, but their extent of aggregation and size distribution were dependent on both PTFE pigmentation and gravity; higher aggregation occurred in low gravity. Four different color insulations (viz. white, black, red and yellow) were studied. PMID:10332948

  13. Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.L.

    1992-11-01

    The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an ``air to cloth ratio``) for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

  14. Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2003-07-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's (UW) Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the free troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna fire emissions averaged 130 μg m-3. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous material.

  15. [Inhalable particulate matter and fine particulate matter: their basic characteristics, monitoring methods, and forest regulation functions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Lu, Shao-Wei; Li, Shao-Ning; Pan, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yu-ping

    2013-03-01

    Both inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are not only one of the main causes of air pollution, but also the primary pollutants in most cities. Based on the analysis of the impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 on the environment and human health, this paper summarized the components, sources, and mass concentration variations of PM10 and PM2.5 and related affecting factors, and introduced the network layout of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring and its principles and features. The research methods on the removal of PM10 and PM2.5 by forests, the removal rates of PM10 and PM2.5 by different forests, and the related affecting mechanisms were summed up at regional and individual scales, and the existed problems in this research field were discussed. Due to the lack of the comparable observation studies on the atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 along different gradients and in background areas, the joint effects of multiple factors on the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are not revealed. It was suggested that to make a rational network layout of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring, to correctly select proper monitoring methods, and to compare and calibrate the observed results from classical manual methods would be the bases to guarantee the validity of PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring data. At present, there are few reports about the PM2.5 removal by forests, and it's not clear about the physiological processes and ecological mechanisms of PM10 and PM2.5 removal at cell, tissue, organ, and individual level. PMID:23755507

  16. Small volume particulate and non-particulate sample collection for fluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Brandon H.

    2013-12-01

    In fluidic systems, it is often desirable to collect samples in the hydrated state at one location. Most methods devised to do this are often complex. In this work, we present a method that uses a simple squeeze flow. We demonstrate its use in the collection of cells (algal cells), particulates (microbeads and fluorescent nanobeads) and non-particulates (EGFP). This fluidic system is amenable for high content microscopy. An assumption often made is that objects being observed are fixed spatially and are sufficiently populated. Without the ability to collect, this can lead to the need for searching through multiple field of views (FOVs). We report that the generation of a squeeze flow by the circular coverslip onto a liquid sample allows for objects to be acquired at the rim regions of the circular coverslip. By using a coverslip of 13 mm diameter and sample volumes between 2 μL and 4 μL, the coverslip was completely filled without any excess flow beyond its outer rim. Furthermore, sample compression speeds between 100 μm/s and 1000 μm/s did not change the effect of the object collection outcome. A comparison was made between manually placing the coverslip on the liquid sample by hand and using a motorised translator to generate the squeeze flow and in both cases, similar outcomes were obtained. Quantitative measurements and image analysis confirmed that all the objects investigated had been displaced and relocated at the rim regions of the coverslip at a very high degree and ready to be collected. Also by using a metal cylinder and probe tip, pre-concentration of material was achieved.

  17. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  18. The electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churches, David K.

    The research work explores the Electromagnetic and Acoustic Properties of Smoke Particulates from real fires, and the initial development of an alternative method of smoke detection based on the study work. The research was entirely self-funded including the purchase of the experimental apparatus, test equipment and calibration to international standards. The study includes the properties of solid and liquid post combustion particulates in air suspension forming smoke plumes, and the associated fluid flow dynamics. As part of the study the electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates, a somewhat unique detection method described as the ``Double Matrix Board System'' was developed and used. It was initially developed to assist in the electromagnetic study work, and was later modified to examine the acoustic properties. The published results of the research on the ``Double Matrix Board System'' and the details of the patent application for the device are included in the Appendices to the Thesis document.

  19. Magnetoelectric effects of laminated structures with particulate composite layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Shin, F. G.

    2008-07-01

    We have investigated the magnetoelectric (ME) properties of laminated structures with piezoelectric and magnetostrictive particulate composite layers. Simple explicit expressions for the ME coefficients α33 and α31 of a bilayer comprising uniform piezoelectric and magnetostrictive lamina are first derived. They are then combined with our previously developed models for piezoelectricity (Wong et al 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 90 4690) and magnetostriction (Zhou and Shin 2005 IEEE Trans. Magn. 41 2071) of particulate composites, to obtain expressions for the ME effects of the final 'laminated particulate composites'. Theoretical calculations are discussed in relation to the published experimental data. Effects of the longitudinal and transverse magnetostrictions of the particles of the magnetostrictive layer on the ME responses of the overall structure are also examined.

  20. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  1. Cometary particulate analyzer. [mass spectrometry of laser plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Miller, D. J.; Utterback, N. G.

    1979-01-01

    A concept for determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates was evaluated. The technique utilizes a short, high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. Critical aspects of the development of this system are determining the ionization efficiencies for various atomic species and achieving adequate mass resolution. A technique called energy-time focus, which utilizes static electric fields to alter the length of the ion flight path in proportion to the ion initial energy, was used which results in a corresponding compression to the range of ion flight times which effectively improves the inherent resolution. Sufficient data were acquired to develop preliminary specifications for a flight experiment.

  2. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  3. Portable instruments for measuring tailpipe diesel particulate in underground mines

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.; Volkwein, J.; Janisko, S.; Patts, L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for direct tailpipe sampling of diesel vehicles in mines in order to determine the effects of an emissions-based maintenance program, evaluate control technologies such as diesel particulate filters and identify the worst diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitters in a fleet of vehicles. Therefore, this study examined the performance of three portable instruments: a personal dust monitor (PDM) manufactured by Thermo Scientific, a prototype elemental carbon monitor (Airtec) manufactured by FLIR and a prototype AE91 instrument from Magee Scientific. These instruments were evaluated on the basis of their ability to provide direct reading tailpipe analysis for DPM. It was determined that the average bias of the tailpipe results from the PDM and the Airtec were 3±12% and 4±20%, respectively, when compared to the standard method of determining tailpipe particulate concentrations from a diluted exhaust. It was also determined that the AE91 instrument correlated with the standard method. PMID:26190861

  4. Materials in particulate form for tissue engineering. 1. Basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Silva, G A; Ducheyne, P; Reis, R L

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, materials small in size are growing in importance. In an era where 'nano' is the new trend, micro- and nano-materials are in the forefront of developments. Materials in the particulate form aim to designate systems with a reduced size, such as micro- and nanoparticles. These systems can be produced starting from a diversity of materials, of which polymers are the most used. Similarly, a multitude of methods are used to produce particulate systems, and both materials and methods are critically reviewed here. Among the varied applications that materials in the particulate form can have, drug delivery systems are probably the most prominent, as these have been in the forefront of interest for biomedical applications. The basic concepts pertaining to drug delivery are summarized, and the role of polymers as drug delivery systems conclude this review. PMID:18038388

  5. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  6. Beta Absorption Mass Monitoring of Particulates - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienfeld, Pedro

    1971-01-01

    The theory and application of beta-radiation absorption for the measurement and monitoring of airborne particulates are discussed. The use of this technique, both for source testing and for ambient air quality monitoring is reviewed. Various particle collection methods used in conjunction with beta absorption sensing configurations are considered. State of the art and current developments of instrumentation approaches for the automated measurement of mass concentration and size distribution of aerosols by beta absorption are discussed. Methods for electronic signal processing and recording are presented. The Beta absorption technique appears as a powerful tool for the unattended measurement of the mass of particulate pollution, compatible with telemetry and central data processing methods.

  7. CONVERSATION OF DISSOLVED MANGANESE TO PARTICULATE MANGANESE DURING DIATOM BLOOM: EFFECTS ON THE MANGANESE CYCLE IN THE MERL MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion of dissolved manganese to particulate manganese occurred during a minor diatom bloom during August and September 1978 in the MERL microcosms. Correlations between chlorophyll a and particulate manganese suggest that 29 moles Mn were transferred to the particulate phase...

  8. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  9. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively. PMID:27130091

  10. Daily variability of suspended particulate concentrations and yields and their effect on river particulates chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meybeck, M.; Moatar, F.

    2015-03-01

    Daily total suspended solids concentrations (TSS, mg L-1), yields (Y, kg day-1 km-2) and runoff (q, L s-1 km-2) in world rivers are described by the median (C50), the upper percentile (C99), the discharge-weighted average concentrations (C*), and by their corresponding yields (Y50, Y99, Y*) and runoff (q*, q50, q99). These intra-station descriptors range over two to six orders of magnitude at a given station. Inter-station variability is considered through three sets of dimensionless metrics: (i) q*/q50, C*/C50 and Y*/Y50, defining the general temporal variability indicators, and q99/q50, C99/C50 and Y99/Y50, defining the extreme variability indicators; (ii) river flow duration (W2) and flux duration (M2) in 2% of time; and (iii) the truncated rating curve exponent (b50sup) of the C vs q relationship for the upper flows. The TSS and Y variability, measured on US, French and world rivers, are first explained by hydrological variability through the b50sup metric, the variability amplifier, then by basin size, erodibility, relief and lake occurrence. Yield variability is the product of runoff variability × TSS variability. All metrics are considerably modified after river damming. The control of river particulate matter (RPM) composition by TSS or yields depends on the targeted component. For major elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, Ca, Mg, Na, K), the average RPM chemistry is not dependent on C* and Y* in most world hydroregions, except in the tropical hydrobelt where it is controlled by basin relief. By contrast, the particulate organic carbon content (POC, as a percentage of RPM) is inversely correlated to TSS concentrations for (i) intra-station measurements in any hydroregion, and (ii) inter-station average POC and TSS figures in world rivers. TSS controls heavy metal content (ppm) in highly contaminated basins (e.g. Cd in the Seine vs the Rhone), and total metal concentration (ng/L) in all cases. Relations between RPM composition and TSS should be taken into account when assessing riverine fluxes, as ignoring them could lead to overestimation.

  11. INSTRUMENTATION FOR MONITORING THE OPACITY OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTAINING CONDENSED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-stack instrumentation and methodology were developed to monitor the opacity of particulate pollutants in stationary source emissions containing condensed water. The instrument continuously extracts and measures the opacity of representative samples of particulate effluent. It ...

  12. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  13. DETERMINATION OF BENZIDINE, RELATED CONGENERS, AND PIGMENTS IN ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for the determination of benzidine, related congeners, and pigments in atmospheric particulate matter, based on high performance liquid chromatography, are described. The methods are evaluated using National Bureau of Standards atmospheric particulate matter, as well as f...

  14. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER TO AMBIENT SUSPENDED FINE PARTICLE MASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scope: The periodic (5 years) review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and the subsequent determination by EPA and NAS of particulate matter research needs have identified areas of uncertainty including exposure measurement th...

  15. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 1. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. Overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furnac...

  16. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME 1. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. (overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furna...

  17. SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (3RD): VOLUME II. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the Third Symposium on the Transfer and Utilization of Particulate Control Technology, in Orlando, FL, March 9-13, 1981, sponsored by the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The ...

  18. SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (3RD): VOLUME IV. ATYPICAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the Third Symposium on the Transfer and Utilization of Particulate Control Technology, in Orlando, FL, March 9-13, 1981, sponsored by the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The ...

  19. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by correlation with 1h data from a Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) beta-attenuation data, prototype instruments performed as well as commercially available equipment costing considerably more, and as well as another reference instrument under similar conditions at the same timescale (R2 = 0.6). Correlations were stronger when 24 h integrating times were used instead (R2 = 0.72). Chapter 4 replicates and extends the results of Chapter 3, showing that similar calibrations may be reasonably exchangeable between near-roadway and background monitoring sites. Chapter 4 also employs triplicate sensors to obtain data consistent with near-field (< 50 m) observations of plumes from a major highway (I-880). At 1 minute timescales, maximum PM2.5 concentrations on the order of 100 mug m-3 to 200 mug m-3 were observed, commensurate with the magnitude of plumes from wildfires on longer timescales, as well as the magnitude of plumes that might be expected near other major highways on the same timescale. Finally, Chapter 4 quantifies variance among calibration parameters for a large sample of the sensors, as well as the error associated with the remote transfer of calibrations between two sufficiently large sets (+/- 10 % for n = 12). These findings suggest that datasets generated with similar sensors could also improve upstream scientific understandings of fluxes resulting from indoor and outdoor emissions, atmospheric transformations, and transport, and may also facilitate timely and empirical verification of interventions to reduce emissions and exposures, in many important contexts (e.g., the provision of improved cookstoves; congestion pricing; mitigation policies attached to infill development; etc.). They also demonstrate that calibrations against continuous reference monitoring equipment could be remotely transferred, within practical tolerances, to reasonably sized and adequately resourced participatory monitoring campaigns, with minimal risk of disruption to existing monitoring infrastructure (i.e., established monitoring sites). Given a collaborator with a short window of access to a reference monitoring site, this would overcome a nominally important barrier associated with non-gravimetric, in-situ calibration of continuous PM2.5 monitors. Progressive and disruptive prospects linked to a proliferation of comparable sensing technologies based on commodity hardware are discussed in Chapter 5.

  20. Lidar Based Particulate Flux Measurements of Agricultural Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system was developed to derive information on particulate spatial aerosol distribution over remote distances. The lidar system and retrieval approach has been tested during several field campaigns measuring agricultural emissions from a swine feeding operat...

  1. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    SciTech Connect

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  2. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  3. Workshop on Health Risks of Particulate Matter (PM) Indoors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) is gaining attention as a potential source of adverse health effects. The Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has been tasked by EPA to convene a workshop that will explore the latest re...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied the... provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of Minnesota submitted a committal...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1230 Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... alternative test method provision of Rule 7005.2910. (b) Approval—On May 31, 1988, the State of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain...

  10. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

  11. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  12. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s particulate cleanup program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) power systems has made it possible to use coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems significantly reduce the pollutants associated with coal-fired plants built before the 1970s. This superior environmental performance and related high system efficiency is possible, in part, because particulate gas-stream cleanup is conducted at high-temperature and high-pressure process conditions. A main objective of the Particulate Cleanup Program at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to ensure the success of the CCT demonstration projects. METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program supports research, development, and demonstration in three areas: (1) filter-system development, (2) barrier-filter component development, and (3) ash and char characterization. The support is through contracted research, cooperative agreements, Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs), and METC`s own in-house research. This paper describes METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program.

  13. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62 Section 60.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland...

  14. Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling of Cardiac Response to Particulate Matter Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudin...

  15. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  16. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary...

  17. TECHNIQUE FOR IN SITU CALIBRATION OF PARTICULATE MASS MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of aerosol generators, the Riker Laboratories metered spray can and the Mistogen EN145 ultrasonic nebulizer, were evaluated by laboratory measurements for application to the in situ calibration of particulate mass monitors for stationary sources. The metered spray can d...

  18. HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews and evaluates high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup requirements of existing and proposed energy processes. The study's aims are to define specific high-temperature and high-pressure particle removal problems, to indicate potential solutions, a...

  19. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  20. 40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to submit an... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.725... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.725 Control...

  1. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  3. Update - characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for PM2.5, particulate matter whose effective diameter is less than 2.5 microns. PM2.5 is listed as a criteria pollutant in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). All cotton gins across the cotton belt will be impacted by this standar...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... SIPs related to attainment of the standard for as long as the area continues to attain the 1997 PM2.5... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... SIPs related to attainment of the standard for as long as the area continues to attain the 1997 PM2.5... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... SIPs related to attainment of the standard for as long as the area continues to attain the 1997 PM2.5... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  7. 40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to submit an... NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area... submitted requests to redesignate the Granite City Particulate Matter (PM) nonattainment area to...

  8. 40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to submit an... NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area... submitted requests to redesignate the Granite City Particulate Matter (PM) nonattainment area to...

  9. REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL - 1. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gas-phase chemistry and transport mechanisms of the Regional Acid Deposition Model have been modified to create the Regional Particulate Model, a three-dimensional Eulerian model that simulates the chemistry, transport, and dynamics of sulfuric acid aerosol resulting from pri...

  10. APTI Course 450, Source Sampling for Particulate Pollutants. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup Services, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This workbook is intended to provide practice problems and exercises for the technical student of particulate pollution sampling. Arranged to accompany each of 18 lectures, the chapters deal with aspects of isokinetic air pollution source sampling. Each chapter precedes the exercises by a list of lesson objectives. Three appendices supplement the…

  11. 40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nonattainment or maintenance areas at the State or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.1173... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... nonattainment areas have clean data for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  13. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.102 Standard for...

  14. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682 Section 60.682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants §...

  15. Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan E.; Tal, Revital; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2003-01-01

    The particulate nature of matter is identified in science education standards as one of the fundamental concepts that students should understand at the middle school level. However, science education research in indicates that secondary school students have difficulties understanding the structure of matter. The purpose of the study is to describe…

  16. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section 60.672 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants §...

  17. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60.732 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries §...

  18. Dewatering aids for coal and other mineral particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, W.J.

    1984-05-08

    A composition for altering the water function characteristics of a wet, particulate mineral mass combines a surfactant material having an HLB number of from about 6.0 to about 12.0 with a surfactant adsorption inhibitory amount of a coupling agent or hydrotrope. Urea may be added to the composition for the prevention of freezing.

  19. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate... required to be conducted by § 60.8 is completed, no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject... of ammonium sulfate produced (0.30 pound of particulate per ton of ammonium sulfate produced)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate... required to be conducted by § 60.8 is completed, no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject... of ammonium sulfate produced (0.30 pound of particulate per ton of ammonium sulfate produced)...