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Sample records for particulate ecto-nucleotidase cd39

  1. Ecto-nucleotidases distribution in human cyclic and postmenopausic endometrium.

    PubMed

    Aliagas, Elisabet; Vidal, August; Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamín; Taco, Maria del Rosario; Ponce, Jordi; de Aranda, Inmaculada Gómez; Sévigny, Jean; Condom, Enric; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2013-06-01

    Extracellular ATP and its hydrolysis product, adenosine, acting through specific receptors collectively named purinergic receptors, regulate female fertility by influencing the endometrial fluid microenvironment. There are four major groups of ecto-nucleotidases that control the levels of extracellular ATP and adenosine and thus their availability at purinergic receptors: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phospho-diesterases (E-NPPs), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5'NT), and alkaline phosphatases (APs). The aim of the present work is to characterize the expression and distribution of ecto-nucleotidases in human endometrium along the menstrual cycle and after menopause, to evaluate their potential utility as fertility markers. We examined proliferative, secretory and atrophic endometria from women without endometrial pathology undergoing hysterectomy. We show that the ecto-nucleotidases are mainly present at endometrial epithelia, both luminal and glandular, and that their expression fluctuates along the cycle and also changes after menopause. An important result was identifying NPP3 as a new biological marker of tubal metaplasia. Our results emphasize the relevance of the study of purinergic signaling in human fertility. PMID:23225236

  2. Polyoxometalates--potent and selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Fiene, Amelie; Li, Wenjin; Hanck, Theodor; Brylev, Konstantin A; Fedorov, Vladimir E; Lecka, Joanna; Haider, Ali; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Sévigny, Jean; Kortz, Ulrich; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-15

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic cluster metal complexes that possess versatile biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects. Their mechanisms of action at the molecular level are largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the inhibition of several enzyme families (e.g., phosphatases, protein kinases or ecto-nucleotidases) by POMs may contribute to their pharmacological properties. Ecto-nucleotidases are cell membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides thereby regulating purinergic (and pyrimidinergic) signaling. They comprise four distinct families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), alkaline phosphatases (APs) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of a series of polyoxometalates as well as chalcogenide hexarhenium cluster complexes at a broad range of ecto-nucleotidases. [Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2](10-) (5, PSB-POM142) was discovered to be the most potent inhibitor of human NTPDase1 described so far (Ki: 3.88 nM). Other investigated POMs selectively inhibited human NPP1, [TiW11CoO40](8-) (4, PSB-POM141, Ki: 1.46 nM) and [NaSb9W21O86](18-) (6, PSB-POM143, Ki: 4.98 nM) representing the most potent and selective human NPP1 inhibitors described to date. [NaP5W30O110](14-) (8, PSB-POM144) strongly inhibited NTPDase1-3 and NPP1 and may therefore be used as a pan-inhibitor to block ATP hydrolysis. The polyoxoanionic compounds displayed a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition of NPPs and eN, but appeared to be competitive inhibitors of TNAP. Future in vivo studies with selected inhibitors identified in the current study are warranted. PMID:25449596

  3. Acidosis is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto-nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Millán, José L; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi ) to pyrophosphate (PPi ) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi , a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1-6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 >?NTPdase 5 >? alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 >?NTPdase 1 >?NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 >?NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P < 0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, P < 0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. PMID:26033523

  4. ACIDOSIS IS A KEY REGULATIOR OF OSTEOBLAST ECTO-NUCLEOTIDASE PYROPHOSPHATASE/PHOSPHODIESTERASE 1 (NPP1) EXPRESSION AND ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark OR; Millán, José Luis; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi, a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1–6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 > alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (p<0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, p<0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. PMID:26033523

  5. CD39 Expression Identifies Terminally Exhausted CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Yates, Kathleen; Pauken, Kristen E.; Cosgrove, Cormac; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.; Wherry, E. John; Alter, Galit; Goulder, Philip J. R.; Klenerman, Paul; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Lauer, Georg M.; Haining, W. Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Exhausted T cells express multiple co-inhibitory molecules that impair their function and limit immunity to chronic viral infection. Defining novel markers of exhaustion is important both for identifying and potentially reversing T cell exhaustion. Herein, we show that the ectonucleotidse CD39 is a marker of exhausted CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells specific for HCV or HIV express high levels of CD39, but those specific for EBV and CMV do not. CD39 expressed by CD8+ T cells in chronic infection is enzymatically active, co-expressed with PD-1, marks cells with a transcriptional signature of T cell exhaustion and correlates with viral load in HIV and HCV. In the mouse model of chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells contain a population of CD39high CD8+ T cells that is absent in functional memory cells elicited by acute infection. This CD39high CD8+ T cell population is enriched for cells with the phenotypic and functional profile of terminal exhaustion. These findings provide a new marker of T cell exhaustion, and implicate the purinergic pathway in the regulation of T cell exhaustion. PMID:26485519

  6. CD39 is a promising therapeutic antibody target for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Gregory M; Cairns, Belinda; Levashova, Zoia; Chinn, Lawrence; Perez, Myra; Theunissen, Jan-Willem; Liao-Chan, Sindy; Bermudez, Abel; Flory, Mark R; Schweighofer, Karl J; H van der Horst, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a heterogenous tumor arising from the embryonic mesoderm represented by approximately 50 histological subtypes. Effective therapeutic intervention is lacking for recurrent, late stage and metastatic disease. CD39, a cell-surface ectonucleotidase, has previously been shown to be upregulated in hematological malignancies and various epithelial tumors, but not in STS. Here, we show by mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry that CD39 is highly expressed in primary patient sarcoma samples. Moreover, CD39 nucleotidase activity is enhanced in fibrosarcoma compared with normal control cells. We demonstrate that an inhibitory monoclonal anti-CD39 antibody, abrogates CD39 enzymatic activity significantly and prolongs survival in a lethal metastatic patient-derived sarcoma model. Taken together, the data suggest CD39 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of STS. PMID:26279761

  7. Role of CD39 (NTPDase-1) in thromboregulation, cerebroprotection, and cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Aaron J; Broekman, M Johan; Drosopoulos, Joan H F; Olson, Kim E; Islam, Naziba; Pinsky, David J; Levi, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    Blood platelets maintain vascular integrity and promote primary and secondary hemostasis following interruption of vessel continuity. Biochemical or physical damage to coronary, carotid, or peripheral arteries promotes excessive platelet activation and recruitment culminating in vascular occlusion and tissue ischemia. Currently, inadequate therapeutic approaches to stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) are a public health issue. Following our demonstration of neutrophil leukotriene production from arachidonate released from activated aspirin-treated platelets, we studied interactions among platelets and other blood cells. This led to concepts of transcellular metabolism and thromboregulation. Thrombosis has a proinflammatory component whereby biologically active substances are synthesized by different cell types that could not individually synthesize the metabolite(s). Endothelium controls platelet reactivity via at least three biochemical systems: autacoids leading to production of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial ecto-adenosine phosphatase (ADPase)/CD39/nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase-1). The autacoids are fluid phase reactants, not produced by tissues in the basal state, but are only synthesized intracellularly and released upon interactions of cells with an agonist. When released, they exert fleeting actions in the immediate milieu and are rapidly inactivated. CD39 is an integral component of the endothelial cell (EC) surface and is substrate activated. It maintains vascular fluidity in the complete absence of prostacyclin and NO, indicating that the latter are ancillary components of hemostasis. Therapeutic implications for the autacoids have not been compelling because of their transient and local action and limited potency. Conversely, CD39, acting solely on the platelet releasate, is efficacious in animal models. It metabolically neutralizes a prothrombotic releasate via deletion of ADP-the major recruiting agent responsible for formation of an occlusive thrombus. In addition, solCD39 reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and ischemia-induced norepinephrine release in the heart. This action can prevent fatal arrhythmia. Moreover, solCD39 ameliorated the sequelae of stroke in cd39 null mice. Thus, CD39 represents the next generation of cardioprotective and cerebroprotective molecules. This article focuses on our interpretations of recent data and their implications for therapeutics. PMID:15852226

  8. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8+ T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Serena Longhi, Maria; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN?)-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8+ T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFN? production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8+ T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NF?B signalling with decreases in both IFN? levels and CD39 expression. CD39+CD8+ T cells substantially inhibit IFN? production by CD39?CD8+ T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39+CD8+ T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFN? responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease. PMID:26549640

  9. CD39 expression on Treg and Th17 cells is associated with metabolic factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Cortés-Garcia, Juan Diego; Martínez-Leija, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Rivera, Jose Guillermo; Barajas-López, Carlos; González-Amaro, Roberto; Portales-Pérez, Diana Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases such as type two diabetes (T2D). CD39(+) Treg cells have been implicated as responsible for suppressing Th17 cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number and function of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD39(+) Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from T2D patients and healthy control subjects. The Th17 cells were detected in PBMC under culture with human anti-CD3/CD28 and PMA/ionomycin and the levels of IL-17 were assessed by ELISA and qPCR. The T2D patients with obesity showed significantly lower percentages of CD39(+) Treg cells. A negative correlation between CD39(+) Treg cells and weight, and body mass index was detected. In contrast, the low levels of CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells in overweight and obese T2D patients showed a positive correlation with glucose and HbA1c. Additionally, we found a subpopulation of Th17 cells that express CD39 and were correlated with glucose and HbA1c. Our findings suggest that the expression of CD39 on Treg cells and also in CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells from T2D patients is related to hyperglycemia as well as to overweight and obesity and therefore may participate as a modulator of the effector capacity of Th17 cells. PMID:26386144

  10. Low expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells as a biomarker for resistance to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Raphael Sanches; Liew, Foo Y.; Talbot, Jhimmy; Carregaro, Vanessa; Oliveira, Rene D.; Almeida, Sergio L.; França, Rafael F. O.; Donate, Paula B.; Pinto, Larissa G.; Ferreira, Flavia I. S.; Costa, Diego L.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Lopes, Norberto P.; Queiroz, Regina Helena C.; Silva, Joao Santana; Figueiredo, Florencio; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Cunha, Thiago M.; Ferreira, Sérgio H.; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Cunha, Fernando Q.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by joint destruction and severe morbidity. Methotrexate (MTX) is the standard first-line therapy of RA. However, about 40% of RA patients are unresponsive to MTX treatment. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) are thought to play an important role in attenuating RA. To investigate the role of Tregs in MTX resistance, we recruited 122 RA patients (53 responsive, R-MTX; 69 unresponsive, UR-MTX) and 33 healthy controls. Three months after MTX treatment, R-MTX but not UR-MTX showed higher frequency of peripheral blood CD39+CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs than the healthy controls. Tregs produce adenosine (ADO) through ATP degradation by sequential actions of two cell surface ectonucleotidases: CD39 and CD73. Tregs from UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39, produced less ADO, and had reduced suppressive activity than Tregs from R-MTX. In a prospective study, before MTX treatment, UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39 on Tregs than those of R-MTX or control (P < 0.01). In a murine model of arthritis, CD39 blockade reversed the antiarthritic effects of MTX treatment. Our results demonstrate that MTX unresponsiveness in RA is associated with low expression of CD39 on Tregs and the decreased suppressive activity of these cells through reduced ADO production. Our findings thus provide hitherto unrecognized mechanism of immune regulation in RA and on mode of action of MTX. Furthermore, our data suggest that low expression of CD39 on Tregs could be a noninvasive biomarker for identifying MTX-resistant RA patients. PMID:25675517

  11. CD73 and CD39 ectonucleotidases in T cell differentiation: Beyond immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Bono, María Rosa; Fernández, Dominique; Flores-Santibáñez, Felipe; Rosemblatt, Mario; Sauma, Daniela

    2015-11-14

    Extracellular ATP is a danger signal released by dying and damaged cells, and it functions as an immunostimulatory signal that promotes inflammation. However, extracellular adenosine acts as an immunoregulatory signal that modulates the function of several cellular components of the adaptive and innate immune response. Consequently, the balance between ATP and adenosine concentration is crucial in immune homeostasis. CD39 and CD73 are two ectonucleotidases that cooperate in the generation of extracellular adenosine through ATP hydrolysis, thus tilting the balance towards immunosuppressive microenvironments. Extracellular adenosine can prevent activation, proliferation, cytokine production and cytotoxicity in T cells through the stimulation of the A2A receptor; however, recent evidence has shown that adenosine may also affect other processes in T-cell biology. In this review, we discuss evidence that supports a role of CD73 and CD39 ectonucleotidases in controlling naive T-cell homeostasis and memory cell survival through adenosine production. Finally, we propose a novel hypothesis of a possible role of these ectonucleotidases and autocrine adenosine signaling in controlling T-cell differentiation. PMID:26226423

  12. In vitro Study of a Novel Stent Coating Using Modified CD39 Messenger RNA to Potentially Reduce Stent Angioplasty-Associated Complications

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Meike-Kristin; Nolte, Andrea; Reus, Rebekka; Behring, Andreas; Zengerle, Diane; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Hohmann, Jan David; Peter, Karlheinz; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Krajewski, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Stent angioplasty provides a minimally invasive treatment for atherosclerotic vessels. However, no treatment option for atherosclerosis-associated endothelial dysfunction, which is accompanied by a loss of CD39, is available, and hence, adverse effects like thromboembolism and restenosis may occur. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapy represents a novel strategy, whereby de novo synthesis of a desired protein is achieved after delivery of a modified mRNA to the target cells. Methods and Findings Our study aimed to develop an innovative bioactive stent coating that induces overexpression of CD39 in the atherosclerotic vessel. Therefore, a modified CD39-encoding mRNA was produced by in vitro transcription. Different endothelial cells (ECs) were transfected with the mRNA, and CD39 expression and functionality were analyzed using various assays. Furthermore, CD39 mRNA was immobilized using poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA), and the transfection efficiency in ECs was analyzed. Our data show that ECs successfully translate in vitro-generated CD39 mRNA after transfection. The overexpressed CD39 protein is highly functional in hydrolyzing ADP and in preventing platelet activation. Furthermore, PLGA-immobilized CD39 mRNA can be delivered to ECs without losing its functionality. Summary In summary, we present a novel and promising concept for a stent coating for the treatment of atherosclerotic blood vessels, whereby patients could be protected against angioplasty-associated complications. PMID:26381750

  13. CD39 is a negative regulator of P2X7-mediated inflammatory cell death in mast cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells (MCs) are major contributors to an inflammatory milieu. One of the most potent drivers of inflammation is the cytokine IL-1?, which is produced in the cytoplasm in response to danger signals like LPS. Several controlling mechanisms have been reported which limit the release of IL-1?. Central to this regulation is the NLRP3 inflammasome, activation of which requires a second danger signal with the capacity to subvert the homeostasis of lysosomes and mitochondria. High concentrations of extracellular ATP have the capability to perturb the plasma membrane by activation of P2X7 channels and serve as such a danger signal. In this study we investigate the role of P2X7 channels and the ecto-5´-nucleotidase CD39 in ATP-triggered release of IL-1? from LPS-treated mast cells. Results We report that in MCs CD39 sets an activation threshold for the P2X7-dependent inflammatory cell death and concomitant IL-1? release. Knock-out of CD39 or stimulation with non-hydrolysable ATP led to a lower activation threshold for P2X7-dependent responses. We found that stimulation of LPS-primed MCs with high doses of ATP readily induced inflammatory cell death. Yet, cell death-dependent release of IL-1? yielded only minute amounts of IL-1?. Intriguingly, stimulation with low ATP concentrations augmented the production of IL-1? in LPS-primed MCs in a P2X7-independent but caspase-1-dependent manner. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the fine-tuned interplay between ATP and different surface molecules recognizing or modifying ATP can control inflammatory and cell death decisions. PMID:25184735

  14. Disordered purinergic signaling and abnormal cellular metabolism are associated with development of liver cancer in Cd39/Entpd1 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Han, Lihui; Seth, Pankaj; Bian, Shu; Li, Linglin; Csizmadia, Eva; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Schmelzle, Moritz; Usheva, Anny; Tapper, Elliot B.; Baffy, Gyorgy; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Wu, Yan; Robson, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Liver cancer is associated with chronic inflammation, which is linked to immune dysregulation, disordered metabolism and aberrant cell proliferation. CD39/ENTPD1 is an ectonucleotidase that regulates extracellular nucleotide/nucleoside concentrations by scavenging nucleotides to ultimately generate adenosine. These properties inhibit anti tumor immune responses and promote angiogenesis, being permissive for the growth of transplanted tumors. Here, we show Cd39 deletion promotes development of both induced and spontaneous autochthonous liver cancer in mice. Loss of Cd39 results in higher concentrations of extracellular nucleotides, which stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes, abrogate autophagy and disrupt glycolytic metabolism. Constitutive activation of Ras-MAPK and mTOR-S6K1 pathways occurs in both quiescent Cd39 null hepatocytes in vitro and liver tissues in vivo. Exogenous ATP boosts these signaling pathways, while rapamycin inhibits such aberrant responses in hepatocytes. Conclusions Deletion of Cd39 and resulting changes in disordered purinergic signaling perturb hepatocellular metabolic/proliferative responses, paradoxically resulting in malignant transformation. These findings might impact adjunctive therapies for cancer. Lastly, our studies indicate that the biology of autochthonous and transplanted tumors is quite distinct. PMID:22859060

  15. T Lymphocyte Inhibition by Tumor-Infiltrating Dendritic Cells Involves Ectonucleotidase CD39 but Not Arginase-1

    PubMed Central

    Trad, Malika; Gautheron, Alexandrine; Fraszczak, Jennifer; Alizadeh, Darya; Larmonier, Claire; LaCasse, Collin J.; Centuori, Sara; Audia, Sylvain; Samson, Maxime; Ciudad, Marion; Bonnefoy, Francis; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Perruche, Sylvain; Saas, Philippe; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    T lymphocytes activated by dendritic cells (DC) which present tumor antigens play a key role in the antitumor immune response. However, in patients suffering from active cancer, DC are not efficient at initiating and supporting immune responses as they participate to T lymphocyte inhibition. DC in the tumor environment are functionally defective and exhibit a characteristic of immature phenotype, different to that of DC present in nonpathological conditions. The mechanistic bases underlying DC dysfunction in cancer responsible for the modulation of T-cell responses and tumor immune escape are still being investigated. Using two different mouse tumor models, we showed that tumor-infiltrating DC (TIDC) are constitutively immunosuppressive, exhibit a semimature phenotype, and impair responder T lymphocyte proliferation and activation by a mechanism involving CD39 ectoenzyme. PMID:26491691

  16. CD39/NTPDase-1 expression and activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells are differentially regulated by leaf extracts from Rubus caesius and Rubus idaeus.

    PubMed

    Dudzinska, Dominika; Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Podsedek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

    2014-09-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated the favorable biological activities of plants belonging to the genus Rubus, but little is known of the role of Rubus leaf extracts in the modulation of the surface membrane expression and activity of endothelial apyrase. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 1-15 ?g/ml Rubus extracts on CD39 expression and enzymatic activity, and on the activation (ICAM-1 expression) and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The polyphenolic contents and antioxidative capacities of extracts from dewberry (R. caesius L.) and raspberry (R. idaeus L.) leaves were also investigated. The techniques applied were flow cytometry (endothelial surface membrane expression of ICAM-1 and CD39), malachite green assay (CD39 activity), HPLC-DAD (quantitative analysis of polyphenolic extract), ABTS, DPPH and FRAP spectrometric assays (antioxidant capacity), and the MTT test (cell viability). Significantly increased CD39 expressions and significantly decreased ATPDase activities were found in the cells treated with 15 ?g/ml of either extract compared to the results for the controls. Neither of the extracts affected cell proliferation, but both significantly augmented endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression. The overall antioxidant capacities of the examined extracts remained relatively high and corresponded well to the determined total polyphenol contents. Overall, the results indicate that under in vitro conditions dewberry and raspberry leaf extracts have unfavorable impact on endothelial cells. PMID:25034034

  17. P2X1 receptor inhibition and soluble CD39 administration as novel approaches to widen the cardiovascular therapeutic window

    PubMed Central

    Fung, C.Y. Eleanor; Marcus, Aaron J.; Broekman, M. Johan; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P.

    2010-01-01

    Thrombus formation at sites of disrupted atherosclerotic plaques is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although the platelet is now recognized to be a central regulator of thrombus formation, development of antiplatelet reagents that selectively target thrombosis over hemostasis represents a challenge. Existing prophylactic antiplatelet therapies are centered on the use of aspirin, an irreversible cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and a thienopyridine such as clopidogrel (Plavix), which inactivates the ADP-stimulated P2Y12 receptor. Whilst these compounds are widely used and have beneficial effects for patients, their antithrombotic benefit is complicated by an elevated bleeding risk and substantial or partial “resistance”. Moreover, combination therapy with these two drugs increases the hemorrhagic risk even further. This review explores the possibility of inhibiting the platelet-surface ionotropic P2X1 receptor and/or elevating CD39/NTPDase1 activity as new therapeutic approaches to reduce overall platelet reactivity and recruitment of surrounding platelets at pro-thrombotic locations. Since both proteins affect platelet activation at an early stage in the events leading to thrombosis, but are less crucial in hemostasis, they provide new strategies to widen the cardiovascular therapeutic window without compromising safety. PMID:19467446

  18. Impaired natriuretic response to high-NaCl diet plus aldosterone infusion in mice overexpressing human CD39, an ectonucleotidase (NTPDase1).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Robson, Simon C; Morris, Kaiya L; Heiney, Kristina M; Dwyer, Karen M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M

    2015-06-15

    Extracellular nucleotides acting through P2 receptors facilitate natriuresis. To define how purinergic mechanisms are involved in sodium homeostasis, we used transgenic (TG) mice that globally overexpress human CD39 (hCD39, NTPDase1), an ectonucleotidase that hydrolyzes extracellular ATP/ADP to AMP, resulting in an altered extracellular purine profile. On a high-sodium diet (HSD, 3.5% Na(+)), urine volume and serum sodium were significantly higher in TG mice but sodium excretion was unaltered. Furthermore, TG mice showed an attenuated fall in urine aldosterone with HSD. Western blot analysis revealed significantly lower densities (?40%) of the ?-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in medulla, and the major band (85-kDa) of ?-ENaC in TG mice cortex. To evaluate aldosterone-independent differences, in a second experiment, aldosterone was clamped by osmotic minipump at 20 ?g/day, and mice were fed either an HSD or a low-sodium diet (LSD, 0.03% Na(+)). Here, no differences in urine volume or osmolality, or serum aldosterone were found, but TG mice showed a modest, yet significant impairment in late natriuresis (days 3 and 4). Several major sodium transporters or channel subunits were differentially expressed between the genotypes. HSD caused a downregulation of Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) in both genotypes; and had higher cortical levels of NCC, Na-K-ATPase (?-1 subunit), and ?- and ?-ENaC. The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) was downregulated by HSD in wild-type mice, but it increased in TG mice. In summary, our data support the concept that extracellular nucleotides facilitate natriuresis; they also reveal an aldosterone-independent downregulation of major renal sodium transporters and channel subunits by purinergic signaling. PMID:25877509

  19. The evidence for two opposite, ATP-generating and ATP-consuming, extracellular pathways on endothelial and lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Henttinen, Tiina; Samburski, Sergei S; Spychala, Jozef; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2002-01-01

    Extracellular purines are important signalling molecules in the vasculature that are regulated by a network of cell surface ectoenzymes. By using human endothelial cells and normal and leukaemic lymphocytes as enzyme sources, we identified the following purine-converting ectoenzymes: (1) ecto-nucleotidases, NTP diphosphohydrolase/CD39 (EC 3.6.1.5) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 (EC 3.1.3.5); (2) ecto-nucleotide kinases, adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC 2.7.4.6); (3) ecto-adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4). Evidence for this was obtained by using enzyme assays with (3)H-labelled nucleotides and adenosine as substrates, direct evaluation of gamma-phosphate transfer from [gamma-(32)P]ATP to AMP/NDP, and bioluminescent measurement of extracellular ATP synthesis. In addition, incorporation of radioactivity into an approx. 20 kDa surface protein was observed following incubation of Namalwa B cells with [gamma-(32)P]ATP. Thus two opposite, ATP-generating and ATP-consuming, pathways coexist on the cell surface, where basal ATP release, re-synthesis of high-energy phosphoryls, and selective ecto-protein phosphorylation are counteracted by stepwise nucleotide breakdown with subsequent adenosine inactivation. The comparative measurements of enzymic activities indicated the predominance of the nucleotide-inactivating pathway via ecto-nucleotidase reactions on the endothelial cells. The lymphocytes are characterized by counteracting ATP-regenerating/adenosine-eliminating phenotypes, thus allowing them to avoid the lymphotoxic effects of adenosine and maintain surrounding ATP at a steady-state level. These results are in agreement with divergent effects of ATP and adenosine on endothelial function and haemostasis, and provide a novel regulatory mechanism of local agonist availability for nucleotide- or nucleoside-selective receptors within the vasculature. PMID:12099890

  20. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  1. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  2. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  3. Particulate fracture during deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, J.; Martin, A.; Ruiz, J.; Elices, M.

    1993-07-01

    The mechanisms of deformation and failure in a 2618 Al alloy reinforced with 15 vol pct SiC particilates were studied and compared with those of the unreinforced alloy, processed by spray forming as well. Tensile and fracture toughness tests were carried out on naturally aged and peak-aged specimens. The broken specimens were sliced through the middle, and the geometric features of fractured and intact particulates were measured. The experimental observations led to the conclusion that failure took place by the progressive fracture of the particulates until a critical volume fraction was reached. An influence of the particulate size and aspect ratio on the probability of fracture was found, the large and elongated particulates being more prone to fail, and the fracture stress in the particulates seemed to obey the Weibull statistics. The dif- ferences in ductility found between the naturally aged and peak-aged composites were explained in terms of the number of broken particulates as a function of the applied strain. Numerical simulations of the deformation process indicated that the stresses acting on the particulates are higher in the peak-aged material, precipitating the specimen failure. Moreover, the compressive residual stresses induced on the SiC during water quenching delayed the onset of particulate breakage in the naturally aged material.

  4. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  5. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS OF PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a semi-technical overview of the contribution of particulate matter to the overall U.S. air pollution problem. It also discusses contributions of the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory at Research Triangle Park, N....

  6. South African Particulates

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. ... 2000 - Airborne particulates over South Africa. project:  MISR category:  gallery date:  ...

  7. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Karplus, Henry B. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1985-01-01

    Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

  8. Spacecraft particulate contaminant redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klavins, A.; Lee, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes analyses that were performed in support of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)) particulate contamination control effort. The specific problems addressed include extension of available particle removal data to launch acoustic and random vibration conditions, development of an engineering model for transport of suspended particulates by airflow and in the presence of vehicle acceleration, turbulent diffusion, and migration of particulates over vibrating surfaces, and integration of the various models into a code that could be used to generate contamination level estimates for the HST primary mirror and other critical surfaces for the HST mission phases. The overall redistribution calculations were made assuming a specified initial contaminant distribution in terms of MIL STD 1246A levels, and using predicted vibration data for the various HST surfaces and mission phases. As expected, the effects of airflow were found to be significant, particularly for the larger particles. Particles smaller than about 20 microns did not participate appreciably in the redistribution.

  9. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  10. Catalyzed diesel particulate filter modeling

    E-print Network

    Koltsakis, Grigorios; Haralampous, Onoufrios; Depcik, Christopher; Ragone, J. Colter

    2013-02-01

    An increasing environmental concern for diesel particulate emissions has led to the development of efficient and robust diesel particulate filters (DPF). Although the main function of a DPF is to filter solid particles, the beneficial effects...

  11. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Golden, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  12. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  13. PARTICULATE MATTER OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the EPA Administrator issued new Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) that added PM2.5 (PM less than 2.5 micrometers in size). The new standard was developed largely on the basis of epidemiological studies that found relatively con...

  14. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. 84.125 ...tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  15. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

    1983-09-26

    Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

  16. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  17. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, James E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  18. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  19. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

  20. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  1. Particulate erosion mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate damage and erosion of ductile metals are today plaguing design and field engineers in diverse fields of engineering and technology. It was found that too many models and theories were proposed leading to much speculation from debris analysis and failure mechanism postulations. Most theories of solid particle erosion are based on material removal models which do not fully represent the actual physical processes of material removal. The various mechanisms proposed thus far are: melting, low-cycle fatigue, extrusion, delamination, shear localization, adhesive material transfer, etc. The experimental data on different materials highlighting the observed failure modes of the deformation and cutting wear processes using optical and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The most important mechanisms proved from the experimental observations of the specimens exposed to both spherical and angular particles are addressed, and the validity of the earlier theories discussed. Both the initial stages of damage and advanced stages of erosion were studied to gain a fundamental understanding of the process.

  2. Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    1996-01-01

    A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Subsequently, extensive theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale investigations were completed to find an approach to prevent bag damage without compromising AHPC performance. Results showed that the best bag protection and AHPC performance were achieved by using a perforated plate installed between the discharge electrodes and bags. This perforated-plate design was then installed in the 2.5-MW AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant in Big Stone City, South Dakota, and the AHPC was operated from March to June 2001. Results showed that the perforated-plate design solved the bag damage problem and offered even better AHPC performance than the previous design. All of the AHPC performance goals were met, including ultrahigh collection efficiency, high air-to-cloth ratio, reasonable pressure drop, and long bag-cleaning interval.

  5. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  6. Particulate fuel bed tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, F. L.; Powell, J. R.; Savino, J. M.

    Gas-cooled reactors using packed beds of small-diameter, coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. To test the thermal-hydraulic performance of the particulate reactor fuel under simulated reactor conditions, a bed of 800-micrometer diameter particles was heated by its electrical resistance current and cooled by flowing helium gas. The specific resistance of the bed composed of pyrocarbon-coated particles was measured at several temperatures, and found to be 0.09 ohm-cm at 1273 K and 0.06 ohm-cm at 1600 K. The maximum bed power density reached was 1500 W/cu cm at 1500 K. The pressure drop followed the packed-bed correlation, typically 100,000 Pa/cm. The various frit materials used to contain the bed were also tested to 2000 K in helium and hydrogen to determine their properties and reactions with the fuel. Rhenium metal, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide appeared to be the best candidate materials, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost mass and strength.

  7. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  8. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  9. NONFERROUS INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the nonferrous industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from nonferrous plants, the data were summarized and ...

  10. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  11. MODELING PARTICULATE CHARGING IN ESPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In electrostatic precipitators there is a strong interaction between the particulate space charge and the operating voltage and current of an electrical section. Calculating either the space charge or the operating point when the other is fixed is not difficult, but calculating b...

  12. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  13. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  14. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  15. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  16. Improved particulate-sampling filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Schneider, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Small surface indentations entrain larger and more representative sampling than conventional petri-dish smeared with smooth layer adhesive. Filter is assembled from perforated disk and flat backing plate with sticky surface. Due to design-created currents, particulates come in contact with surface for longer time and have greater probability of being trapped. Filter is useful in air-quality monitoring at industrial sites, in mines, and in and around nuclear power plants.

  17. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  18. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-04-01

    This is the second quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER MODULES OF PARTICULATE PROCESSES FOR REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an aerosol model for inclusion in the EPA Regional Particulate Model is described. Existing computer modules of particulate processes developed under EPA contract by Professors Brock, Seinfeld, and Whitby are compared to determine efficient and accurate methods...

  20. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  1. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  2. Measurement of Particulate Pollutants in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ckuan, Raymond L.

    1971-01-01

    Representative measurements of the mass concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere are presented, to demonstrate the application of a new type of instrument evolved from aerospace research to various types of particulate pollution and their dynamics. The instrument employs aerodynamic impaction of particles onto an adhesive-coated piezo-electric crystal whose resonant frequency decreases with mass accretion on its surface, with a resulting particulate mass resolution of 10(exp -11) gram. Applications include air basin with aerial measurement of particulate mass concentration, jet aircraft wake, stationary industrial sources, direct on-line measurement of automobile exhaust, and techniques for source detection.

  3. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  4. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Particulate ...

  5. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  6. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  7. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  8. Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

  9. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... filters; minimum requirements. 84.125 Section 84.125 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  10. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... filters; minimum requirements. 84.125 Section 84.125 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  11. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... filters; minimum requirements. 84.125 Section 84.125 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  12. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... filters; minimum requirements. 84.125 Section 84.125 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  13. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... filters; minimum requirements. 84.125 Section 84.125 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  14. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  15. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  16. Photoacoustic detection of particulate carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.A.; Patty, R.R.

    1981-08-01

    A photoacoustic technique for the mass monitoring of carbonaceous aerosols deposited on filter substrates has been developed. The technique involves the use of a specially designed photoacoustic cell. Photoacoustic response is calibrated as a function of elemental carbon loading using laboratory-generated elemental carbon standards. The nature of the photoacoustic response is examined at several chopping frequencies using these calibration standards, and the physical principles necessary for an adequate interpretation of the experimental results is presented in detail. Practical considerations concerning ambient carbon monitoring are outlined; in particular, the perturbation due to the presence of scattering particulates is examined and limited experimental quantification of this perturbation is reported.

  17. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  18. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval...standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain...and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval...standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain...and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval...standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain...and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1476 Section 52.1476 Protection...1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada...

  2. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per...

  3. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  4. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  5. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  6. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  7. METAL TRANSPORT AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will assist in identifying mechanisms of toxocity for particulate matter (PM) constituents. The hypothesis to be tested is that disequilibrium in metal transport in the lung follows exposure to particulate matter. This results in an oxidative stress, cell signaling...

  8. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  9. RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

  10. Kuwaiti oil fires—Particulate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Tahir; Amin, Mohamed B.

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) matters using a high-volume sampler and inhalable particulate matters using PM-10 samplers were collected at various locations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia during and after the Kuwaiti oil fires. The collected samples were analysed for toxic metals and oil hydrocarbon concentrations including some carcinogenic organic compounds in addition to gravimetric analysis. The concentration values of particulate matters were determined on a daily basis at Dhahran. Abqaiq, Rahima, Tanajib and Jubail locations. The analyses of the filters show a high concentration of the inhalable particulate at various locations, especially when north or northwest winds were blowing. It was found that the inhalable particulate concentration exceeded the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA) permissible limit of 340 ?g m- 3 at most of these locations during May-October 1991. A trend between the total suspended particulate and inhalable particulate measured concurrently at the same locations was observed and a regression equation was developed to correlate PM-10 data with the total suspended particulate data.

  11. Testing Students' Use of the Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie; Huffman, Jason; Peck, Larry

    2004-01-01

    High School students' understanding about the particulate theory of matter and their use of particulate terminology is investigated. The Physical Changes Concepts Test (PCCT) was administered in two forms, an applied version and a theoretical version, to determine whether students scientifically understood the concepts well enough to apply them to…

  12. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and sunflower hulls for the biomass material to be carbonized. The ability to remove mercury from a bituminous coal's derived flue gas was low. Removals of only 15% were attained while injecting 6 lb/Macf of activated carbon upstream of an electrostatic precipitator. Poisoning of sites on the activated carbon by SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} contributed to the poor mercury capture performance.

  13. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  14. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  15. Time Scales in Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duan

    2013-06-01

    While there are many interests of studying interactions of individual particles, macroscopic collective behavior of particles are our main interest in many practical applications. In this talk, I will give a brief overview of the multiscale methods connecting the physics at individual particles to macroscopic quantities and averaged equations. The emphasis will be on dense dissipative particulate systems, such as powders. Unlike conservative particle systems, such as molecular systems, in a dissipative particle system the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium is not very useful unless in very special cases, because the only true thermodynamically equilibrium state in these systems is the state in which nothing moves. Other than idealized simple systems, mesoscale structures are common and important in many practical systems, especially in dissipative systems. Spatial correlations of these mesoscale structures, such as force chains in dense granular system, particle clusters and streamers in fluidized beds have received some recent attentions, partly because they can be visualized. This talk will emphasize the effects of time correlations related to the mesoscale structures. To consider time correlations and history information of the system, I will introduce the mathematical foundation of the Liouville equation, its applicability and limitations. I will derive the generalized Liouville equations for particulate systems with and without interstitial fluids, and then use them to study averaged transport equations and related closures. Interactions among the time scale of particle interactions, the time scale of the mesocale structures, and the time scale of the physical problem as represented by strain rate will be discussed. The effect of these interactions on the closure relations will be illustrated. I will also discuss possible numerical methods of solving the averaged equations, and multiscale numerical algorithms bridging the particle level calculations to continuum level calculations. This work was sponsored by Stockpile Safety and Surety Program, the Joint DOD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program, and National Nuclear Security Administrations Science Campaign 2.

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  17. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  18. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  19. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  20. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  1. Particulate matter in the south Atlantic Ocean 

    E-print Network

    Wood, Megan Maria

    1993-01-01

    The particulate matter (PM) distribution in the south Atlantic Ocean and its relationship to water masses and currents were determined from optical and hydrographic data. Attenuation coefficients were obtained by interfacing ...

  2. PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract, cascade impactors were...

  3. PARTICULATE SAMPLING SUPPORT: 1977 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities supporting the particulate sampling efforts of EPA/IERL-RTP during FY 1977. Twenty technical directives were issued in seven categories: cascade impactors (7), cyclones (5), sampling electrostatic precipitators (1), guidelines and manuals (3), ...

  4. Differential Spectroscopic Imaging of Particulate Explosives Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    We present experimental results showing transmission and reflection imaging of approximately 100 microgram quantities of particulate explosives residue using a commercial uncooled microbolometer infrared camera and CO2 laser differential wavelength illumination.

  5. FILTER MEDIA FOR COLLECTING DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE membrane filters, glass fibe...

  6. GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

  7. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  8. An improved visualization of diesel particulate filter/

    E-print Network

    Boehm, Kevin (Kevin W.)

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of diesel particulate filters (DPF) is increasing as emissions standards worldwide evolve to match current technologies. Since the first application of DPFs in the 1980's, PM trapping effectiveness has ...

  9. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  10. Characterisation of carbonaceous particulate matter in Edinburgh 

    E-print Network

    Hammonds, Mark David

    2012-06-22

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has important harmful effects on human health, as well as a number of other important atmospheric effects. Although progress has been made in understanding the sources and effects of PM, ...

  11. Apparatus for combustion of solid particulate fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, O.J.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes an apparatus for the combustion of solid particulate fuel. It comprises: a stationary grate including a perforated plate for receiving the solid particulate fuel; displaceable means positioned in a plane above the grate, movement of the displaceable means displacing spent solid particulate fuel from the stationary grate. The displaceable means including a rotatable member; and a burning cap positioned over the stationary grate, the burning cap defining a combustion chamber above the stationary grate. The burning cap including a battle that divided the combustion chamber into a primary half and a secondary half, the burning cap also including an aperture for allowing the particulate fuel to be introduced into the primary half.

  12. Contribution of organic particulates to respiratory cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Matanoski, G.; Fishbein, L.; Redmond, C.; Rosenkranz, H.; Wallace, L.

    1986-12-01

    This paper presents some of the issues that remain to be resolved in order to assess the risk of cancer related to exposure to organic particulates. Most reviews of the effects of organic particulates from the outdoor environment on the risk of lung cancer show that this source seems to play a minor role. However, as fuel use and chemical composition of air pollutants change, the contribution of outdoor pollution as a cause of cancer may also change. Indoor air pollution is a more important source of exposure to organic particulates than is outdoor exposure. Although there is clear evidence that in occupational settings organic particulates cause human cancer, there has been almost no study of exposure to these types of particulates within indoor settings. Previous research has focused on cigarette smoke as the major indoor pollutant, but more specific characterization of contaminants in both the workplace and the home is required. The health effects of the higher levels of some of these contaminants in the workplace should be evaluated and the results extrapolated to populations exposed to lower levels in the home. Extensive research is needed to characterize organic particulate mixtures appropriately and test them for carcinogenicity. Studies on the health risks of nitropolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are reviewed, but their contribution to the overall burden of respiratory cancer in humans cannot be estimated at this time. Characterization of mixtures, assessment of exposures, and linkage of exposures to health effects are the objectives of the recommendations proposed for further research.

  13. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  14. New ESP additive controls particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

    1997-06-01

    This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

  15. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  16. 42 CFR 84.206 - Particulate tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Particulate tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general. 84... Particulate tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general. ...containing, or having attached to them, filters for protection against particulates...

  17. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  18. Health effects of particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Douglas W

    2009-04-01

    In the 1980's it was generally felt that particulate air pollution concentrations in the United States were not a hazard to the public health. However, in the early 1990's the application of econometric time-series studies and prospective cohort studies suggested increased mortality associated with acute (daily) and chronic (decades) exposures to particulate air pollution commonly observed in the developed world. The epidemiologic evidence was not supported by evidence of causal associations from other disciplines. Nevertheless, the EPA moved to tighten controls on fine particulate air pollution. The debate over the science was played out in public hearings and the courts. The experience provides lessons on the use of epidemiologic data in setting public policy. PMID:19344865

  19. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  20. Contribution of organic particulates to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Matanoski, G; Fishbein, L; Redmond, C; Rosenkranz, H; Wallace, L

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents some of the issues that remain to be resolved in order to assess the risk of cancer related to exposure to organic particulates. Most reviews of the effects of organic particulates from the outdoor environment on the risk of lung cancer show that this source seems to play a minor role. However, as fuel use and chemical composition of air pollutants change, the contribution of outdoor pollution as a cause of cancer may also change. Indoor air pollution is a more important source of exposure to organic particulates than is outdoor exposure. Although there is clear evidence that in occupational settings organic particulates cause human cancer, there has been almost no study of exposure to these types of particulates within indoor settings. Previous research has focused on cigarette smoke as the major indoor pollutant, but more specific characterization of contaminants in both the workplace and the home is required. The health effects of the higher levels of some of these contaminants in the workplace should be evaluated and the results extrapolated to populations exposed to lower levels in the home. Extensive research is needed to characterize organic particulate mixtures appropriately and test them for carcinogenicity. Studies on the health risks of nitropolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are reviewed, but their contribution to the overall burden of respiratory cancer in humans cannot be estimated at this time. Characterization of mixtures, assessment of exposures, and linkage of exposures to health effects are the objectives of the recommendations proposed for further research. PMID:3830112

  1. 75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...made to the particulate matter standards by adding...standards and revoking the state's course particulate...revised its particulate matter standards in October...5 standards to the state rules. Particulate matter interferes with...

  2. Modeling of Particulate Behavior in Pinhole Breaches

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2014-04-01

    A model is presented for calculating depressurization time for and particulate release from used nuclear fuel dry storage containers that have developed a pinhole breach. Particular attention is given to particulate deposition and transmission within the breach pathway. The model is modular in nature and is developed in a way that allows for more advanced treatments of internal temperature, internal component geometry, or aerosol flow to be readily incorporated. The model can be treated as a basis for addressing concerns associated with monitoring and verification efforts during long-term dry cask storage

  3. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  4. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  5. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  6. Measurements of particulate semi-volatile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yanbo

    2000-10-01

    A new innovative sampling system, PC-BOSS, was developed by the combination of particle concentrator and BOSS denuder techniques in response to the new EPA PM2.5 standard and to meet top research priorities for particulate matter that were identified by the National Research Council. The PC-BOSS (P_article C_oncentrator- B_righam Young University O_rganic S_ampling S_ystem) can accurately determine not only PM2.5 stable mass and species such as sulfate, but also particulate semi- volatile material. Several field comparison studies of the PC-BOSS with the EPA PM2.5 reference method and state-of-the-art fine particle measurement methods confirm the capability of the PC-BOSS to accurately determine particulate semi-volatile material, especially organic compounds. This is the first routine sampling system for the determination of both particulate semi-volatile inorganic and organic material. Two other denuder system samplers for the determination of PM2.5 total mass including semi-volatile material were also developed for PM2.5 research and exposure monitoring. Results of studies around the United States indicate that the EPA PM2.5 FRM (Federal Reference Method) under- measured PM2.5 mass by 20-30% compared to PC-BOSS results due to the loss of particulate nitrate and semi-volatile organic compounds during sampling. Organic material is mostly responsible for this under- measurement by the FRM. Using our new sampling system in epidemiological and exposure studies will be essential to providing answers to some top research priorities for particulate matter and promote a better PM2.5 standard for the protection of human health because some fractions of particulate semi-volatile organic compounds are toxic and are possibly responsible for health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter. The atmospheric chemistry of organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere is still largely unknown because of the lack of detailed organic aerosol information. The importance of organic aerosols might also be underestimated because current data on organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere were mostly obtained by traditional methods, like the FRM method. Using PC-BOSS to study organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere will provide not only more but also more accurate information about organic aerosols, and significantly improve the understanding of the role of aerosols in global warming, ozone depletion, and atmospheric heterogenous chemistry.

  7. Much ado about dioxides and particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, F.P.

    1980-02-01

    Technical feature: The effect of carbon dioxide on climate is uncertain, and recent high CO2 levels may not persist. Worldwide warming trends since 1840 are outlined. There is no conclusive evidence that increased burning of fossil fuels has had or will have any ill effect on the climate. While there has been a slight increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere, the oxidation of humus and bogs rather than fossil fuels seems to be the main source of increased atmospheric CO2 and particulates. Increased plant growth and adsorption of CO2 and particulates by the oceans will maintain an even balance in the atmosphere. (17 references, 2 tables)

  8. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted...committal SIPs for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter...August 1, 2013, the State of Wisconsin submitted...revision to their Particulate Matter State Implementation...

  9. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...of control measures for particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group...Approval—On January 13, 1993, the State of Indiana submitted a particulate matter State Implementation Plan revision for...

  10. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...of control measures for particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group...Approval—On January 13, 1993, the State of Indiana submitted a particulate matter State Implementation Plan revision for...

  11. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...of control measures for particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group...Approval—On January 13, 1993, the State of Indiana submitted a particulate matter State Implementation Plan revision for...

  12. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of control measures for particulate matter (PM) already in its State Implementation Plan as a Group...Approval—On January 13, 1993, the State of Indiana submitted a particulate matter State Implementation Plan revision for...

  13. ASPHALTIC CONCRETE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the asphaltic concrete industry. After review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from asphalt concrete plants, the data were summarized...

  14. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter...

  15. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter...

  16. ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives the status of the most promising high-temperature/high-pressure (HTP) particulate control devices being developed. Data are presented and anticipated performance and development problems are discussed. HTP particulate control offers efficiency and potential econo...

  17. METALLURGICAL COKE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the metallurgical coke industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from metallurgical coke plants, the data were...

  18. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

  19. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60.472 Protection...60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04...

  1. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection...60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60.102 Protection... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  5. Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V

    2012-01-31

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

  6. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  7. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  8. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  9. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  10. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  11. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  12. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  13. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  14. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  15. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  16. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  17. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  18. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  19. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  20. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  1. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  3. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  4. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  5. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  6. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  7. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  8. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  10. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  11. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  12. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  13. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  14. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  15. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  16. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  17. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  18. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  19. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  2. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  3. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  4. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  5. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  6. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  8. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  9. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  10. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  11. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  13. Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores

    E-print Network

    Beauboeuf, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

  14. PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

  15. STUDIES OF PARTICULATE REMOVAL FROM DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of the collection of particulate emissions from diesel exhaust by several different methods, using 5.7 liter GM diesel engines (as sources) and such controls as fiber and gravel bed filters, trap/cyclones, and ESPs. Overall and fract...

  16. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  17. Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

  18. Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    /2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems ÅA424514/2014 Example: sprinkler hose In drier regions, large central pivot sprinkler systems are used to irrigate large areas. Consider the simplified schematic of a portion of such a sprinkler (shown below). Water at 10 °C is pumped through the spray arm that is constructed of 2.5-cm

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality

    E-print Network

    Dominici, Francesca

    landmark cohort studies for estimating the chronic effects of fine particulate air pollution (PM2 that the Medicare files can be used to construct on-going cohorts for tracking the risk of air pollution over time- tory diseases, and also with increased mortality.1­6 Chronic effects of air pollution potentially

  20. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  1. EVALUATIONS OF NOVEL PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of four novel particulate control devices. Three were wet scrubbers: an Aronetics (Chemico) Two-Phase Jet Scrubber, an Entoleter Centrifield Scrubber, and a CEA Variable-Throat Venturi Scrubber. The fourth w...

  2. Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Strömningsteknik Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Åbo / Turku Finland RoNz 2 9.1 Basic principles #12;Fluid size distribution (CSD) and quality #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid: saturated; 1 1.2: meta -stable (large crystals grow, small ones dissolve); 1.2

  3. HIGH TEMPERATURE PARTICULATE CONTROL WITH CERAMIC FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of using ceramic materials as filters for fine particulate removal at high temperatures. The program was in two phases. Phase I, directed toward the development of a porous alumina membrane filter, had limited success because of the fragi...

  4. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  5. Uraninite and Fullerene in Atmospheric Particulates

    E-print Network

    Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    Research Uraninite and Fullerene in Atmospheric Particulates S A T O S H I U T S U N O M I Y A , K in carbonaceous matter (e50 nm) similar to fullerene. We have also identified, for the first time, closely. In this study, we have completed mass spectrometry analysis to detect the presence of fullerene and also

  6. PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

  7. PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

  8. DESIGN OF A LABORATORY FOR PARTICULATE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects on human health resulting from asbestos exposure in various environments are a subject of national concern and debate. In recognition of the need for a 'state-of-the-art' laboratory for particulates analysis, with emphasis on asbestos, the Environmental Protection Age...

  9. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  10. FOREIGN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH IN FINE PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents unpublished fine particulate measurement and control information and information not readily available to the researcher, generated during the period 1971-76 in Australia, Canada, Japan, and the USSR. The information is used as a basis for identifying new conc...

  11. Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

    2005-01-01

    During the past year several accomplishments were made for both the Particulate Matter Characterization and Measurement System, (PMCMS) and PAGEMS projects. The PAGEMS focus is to measure particulate emissions as a function of combustor parameters such as inlet temperature, inlet pressure and fuel air ratio. These measurements are used to evaluate combustor performance in hopes of correlating particulate emissions with engine conditions. These measurements have taken place at in-house NASA combustor facilities and off-site facilities. Ths work is unique because particulate measurements at high- pressure conditions are not commonly made. Some calibration of the PAGEMS instrumentation was done as well as minor modifications to the PAGEMS plumbing setup. These led to measurement improvements. The instrumentation and measurement process for PAGEMS was assessed and new instruments such as a thermodenuder, thermal mass flow meters and a cyclone separator were purchased to improve the PAGEMS instrumentation and measurement process. A worksheet was created to simulate varying inlet conditions to the DMA. This worksheet allows the user to assess the error in the measurements when certain conditions exist. Two technical papers were written with the PAGEMS team for the EXCAVATE field project. A paper was also reviewed for an in house publication. Also data was processed and analyzed for another field project (PAX) and will be part of a third PAGEMS paper. Accomplishments were also made with the PMCMS project. The calibration of the radial differential mobility analyzer, (RDMA) in the particle sizing system in the PMCMS was completed and provided satisfactory results. The voltages used for the RDMA depending on the particle of interest were corrected. The measurement capability of the PMCMS was increased by replacing the MetOne CPC with a TSI CPC. Lastly, assistance was provided to three college summer students with calibration of their particulate equipment and Monica Rivera shared her understanding of the aerosol technology with them. She also provided input for their end of the summer presentations. And attended the Aviation and Particle Emissions workshop. This workshop brought together experts in the aircraft particulate emissions field. As a result Ms. Rivera made two significant contacts with academia (UMR) and government (WPAFB) which could lead to future collaboration. She also attended the Aerosol and Particle Measurement Class held at the University of Minnesota. This class refreshed her particulate knowledge and introduced her to new aerosol applications and technology. Furthermore at the class contacts were made with private industry (TSI) and government (WPAFB). Ms. Rivera also enhanced her education by taking an in-house class on aircraft design and operation.

  12. Adenosine receptor signaling: a key to opening the blood-brain door.

    PubMed

    Bynoe, Margaret S; Viret, Christophe; Yan, Angela; Kim, Do-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to outline evidence that adenosine receptor (AR) activation can modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the implications for disease states and drug delivery. Barriers of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute a protective and regulatory interface between the CNS and the rest of the organism. Such barriers allow for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the CNS milieu. Among them, the BBB is a highly efficient permeability barrier that separates the brain micro-environment from the circulating blood. It is made up of tight junction-connected endothelial cells with specialized transporters to selectively control the passage of nutrients required for neural homeostasis and function, while preventing the entry of neurotoxic factors. The identification of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development and function of CNS barriers is required for a better understanding of CNS homeostasis in both physiological and pathological settings. It has long been recognized that the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine is a potent modulator of a large number of neurological functions. More recently, experimental studies conducted with human/mouse brain primary endothelial cells as well as with mouse models, indicate that adenosine markedly regulates BBB permeability. Extracellular adenosine, which is efficiently generated through the catabolism of ATP via the CD39/CD73 ecto-nucleotidase axis, promotes BBB permeability by signaling through A1 and A2A ARs expressed on BBB cells. In line with this hypothesis, induction of AR signaling by selective agonists efficiently augments BBB permeability in a transient manner and promotes the entry of macromolecules into the CNS. Conversely, antagonism of AR signaling blocks the entry of inflammatory cells and soluble factors into the brain. Thus, AR modulation of the BBB appears as a system susceptible to tighten as well as to permeabilize the BBB. Collectively, these findings point to AR manipulation as a pertinent avenue of research for novel strategies aiming at efficiently delivering therapeutic drugs/cells into the CNS, or at restricting the entry of inflammatory immune cells into the brain in some diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26330053

  13. Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

  14. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  15. Uraninite and fullerene in atmospheric particulates.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Jensen, Keld A; Keeler, Gerald J; Ewing, Rodney C

    2002-12-01

    Particulates emitted from coal-burning power plants typically contain very small amounts of uranium (<10 ppm). Because of the extremely low concentrations, the form of the uranium has been unknown. Using a variety of advanced electron microscopy techniques, we have identified for the first time nanocrystals of uraninite, UO2+x, encapsulated in carbonaceous matter (< or = 50 nm) similar to fullerene. We have also identified, for the first time, closely associated fullerenes, C60. The "carbon-caged" nanocrystals of uraninite are protected from the immediate oxidation that would lead to increased mobility of uranium in the environment. Still, the presence of uranium in the very fine fraction of atmospheric particulates provides another pathway for radiation exposure. PMID:12523404

  16. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  17. Particulate contaminant relocation during shuttle ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The dislodgement, venting, and redeposition of particles on a surface in the shuttle bay by the vibroacoustic, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces present during shuttle ascent have been investigated. The particles of different sizes which are displaced, vented, and redistributed have been calculated; and an estimate of the increased number of particles on certain surfaces and the decrease on others has been indicated. The average sizes, velocities, and length of time for certain particles to leave the bay following initial shuttle doors opening and thermal tests have been calculated based on indirect data obtained during several shuttle flights. Suggestions for future measurements and observations to characterize the particulate environment and the techniques to limit the in-orbit particulate contamination of surfaces and environment have been offered.

  18. Sensor Technologies for Particulate Detection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    Planned Lunar missions have resulted in renewed attention to problems attributable to fine particulates. While the difficulties experienced during the sequence of Apollo missions did not prove critical in all cases, the comparatively long duration of impending missions may present a different situation. This situation creates the need for a spectrum of particulate sensing technologies. From a fundamental perspective, an improved understanding of the properties of the dust fraction is required. Described here is laboratory-based reference instrumentation for the measurement of fundamental particle size distribution (PSD) functions from 2.5 nanometers to 20 micrometers. Concomitant efforts for separating samples into fractional size bins are also presented. A requirement also exists for developing mission compatible sensors. Examples include provisions for air quality monitoring in spacecraft and remote habitation modules. Required sensor attributes such as low mass, volume, and power consumption, autonomy of operation, and extended reliability cannot be accommodated by existing technologies.

  19. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  20. Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2009-02-01

    Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

  1. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  2. Self-Cleaning Particulate Prefilter Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Olivia; Lalwani, San-jiv; Sharma, Anjal

    2012-01-01

    A long-term space mission requires efficient air revitalization performance to sustain the crew. Prefilter and particulate air filter media are susceptible to rapid fouling that adversely affects their performance and can lead to catastrophic failure of the air revitalization system, which may result in mission failure. For a long-term voyage, it is impractical to carry replacement particulate prefilter and filter modules due to the usual limitations in size, volume, and weight. The only solution to this problem is to reagentlessly regenerate prefilter and filter media in place. A method was developed to modify the particulate prefilter media to allow them to regenerate reagentlessly, and in place, by the application of modest thermocycled transverse or reversed airflows. The innovation may allow NASA to close the breathing air loop more efficiently, thereby sustaining the vision for manned space exploration missions of the future. A novel, self-cleaning coatings technology was developed for air filter media surfaces that allows reagentless in-place regeneration of the surface. The technology grafts thermoresponsive and nonspecific adhesion minimizing polymer nanolayer brush coatings from the prefilter media. These polymer nanolayer brush architectures can be triggered to contract and expand to generate a "pushing-off" force by the simple application of modestly thermocycled (i.e. cycling from ambient cabin temperature to 40 C) air streams. The nonspecific adhesion-minimizing properties of the coatings do not allow the particulate foulants to adhere strongly to the filter media, and thermocycled air streams applied to the media allow easy detachment and in-place regeneration of the media with minimal impact in system downtime or astronaut involvement in overseeing the process.

  3. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-04-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power plant. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power plant is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

  5. Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utterback, N. G.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. A prototype analyzer system was designed, constructed, and tested. Results show that: (1) energy-time focus performs as predicted in improving resolution; (2) power densities sufficient to produce usable ionization efficiencies can be obtained; (3) complex alloys such as stainless steel can be analyzed; and (4) a tiny, simple and reliable laser used in the demonstration easily meets spacecraft power and mass limitations. A mass resolution of 150 was experimentally demonstrated at mass 108, and an analytical extrapolation predicts a resolution sufficient to separate masses 250 and 251.

  6. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

  7. Mécanismes d'éjection de particules par laser impulsionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grojo, D.; Cros, A.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Dubus, H.; Mionetto, R.

    2006-12-01

    L'enlèvement de particules de dimensions nanométriques est l'un des principaux challenges à relever pour atteindre les futurs objectifs de l'industrie microélectronique. Les procédés laser présentent, dans certains cas, des performances très intéressantes, mais les mécanismes d'éjection des particules polluant la surface restent cependant fort mal connus. L'étude de la dynamique d'éjection des particules, par une technique optique, a mis en évidence l'existence de deux mécanismes dont l'importance relative dépend de la fluence d'irradiation. A forte fluence l'ablation locale du substrat sous la particule prédomine, alors que pour les fluences plus faibles le mécanisme semble être lié à l'enlèvement de l'humidité résiduelle à l'interface particule substrat. Contrairement aux modèles précédemment proposés, la contribution de la force d'inertie s'exerçant sur la particule lors de l'expansion thermique rapide des matériaux est négligeable.

  8. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  9. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  10. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  11. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  13. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  15. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  17. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  18. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  20. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  1. Exhaust gas filter apparatus capable of regeneration of a particulate filter and method

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Amanda C; Kirby, Kevin W; Gregoire, Daniel

    2009-04-07

    An exhaust gas filter apparatus includes a particulate filter for collecting a particulate from an exhaust gas. The exhaust gas filter also includes a electromagnetic radiation resonator to heat a portion of the particulate to ignite the particulate and regenerate the particulate filter.

  2. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  3. Dynamical constraint on particulate sizes for Saturn's B ring spokes

    SciTech Connect

    Eplee, R.E. Jr.; Smith, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    The exponential charge decay time for particulates constituting the spokes in Saturn's B ring is presently proposed as a dynamical time scale for their evolution. Mean particulate radius is determined to be 0.01 + or - 0.03 microns, on the basis of a consideration of solar UV photoemission as the charge decay mechanism which leads to the determination of a dynamical constraint that can be placed on the particulate sizes. 15 references.

  4. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  5. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  6. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  7. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  8. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  9. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  10. Process for agglomerating particulate wood material and products obtained thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, J.R.; Pelletier, M.P.; Tremblay, G.B.

    1980-10-28

    The disclosure describes a process for agglomerating particulate wood material such as saw dust, wood shavings, fines, bark, tree needles, wood chips, wood dust, newspaper and cardboard material, impurities normally encountered therein and mixtures thereof. The process comprises providing a particulate wood material with a moisture content of between about 10 to 40 percent by weight calculated on a dry basis. Then, the moisture containing particulate wood material is dry mixed with dry powdered lignosulfonate to form a substantially homogeneous mixture which is compressed under a pressure of at least about 400 lbs/inch2 until the particulate wood material is agglomerated. The product obtained is resilient, easily ignitable and combustible.

  11. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2059 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake...Allegheny County submitted by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental...

  15. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  16. Alveolar macrophage interaction with air pollution particulates.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, C A; Frevert, C; Imrich, A; Sioutas, C; Kobzik, L

    1997-01-01

    We applied flow cytometric analysis to characterize the in vitro response of alveolar macrophages (AM) to air pollution particulates. Normal hamster AM were incubated with varying concentrations of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or concentrated ambient air particulates (CAP). We found a dose-dependent increase in AM-associated right angle light scatter (RAS) after uptake of ROFA (e.g., mean channel number 149.4 +/- 6.5, 102.5 +/- 4.1, 75.8 +/- 3.5, and 61.0 +/- 4.6 at 200, 100, 50, and 25 mg/ml, respectively) or CAP. A role for scavenger-type receptors (SR) in AM uptake of components of ROFA and CAP was identified by marked inhibition of RAS increases in AM pretreated with the specific SR inhibitor polyinosinic acid. We combined measurement of particle uptake (RAS) with flow cytometric analysis of intracellular oxidation of dichlorofluorescin. Both ROFA and CAP caused a dose-related intracellular oxidant stress within AM, comparable to that seen with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (e.g., fold increase over control, 6.6 +/- 0.4, 3.6 +/- 0.4, 4.6 +/- 0.5, 200 mg/ml ROFA, 100 mg/ml ROFA, and 10(-7) M PMA, respectively). We conclude that flow cytometry of RAS increases provides a useful relative measurement of AM uptake of complex particulates within ROFA and CAP. Both ROFA and CAP cause substantial intracellular oxidant stress within AM, which may contribute to subsequent cell activation and production of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:9400722

  17. The Effect of Viewing Order of Macroscopic and Particulate Visualizations on Students' Particulate Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie M.; Lane, Sarah M.; Gilbreath, Travis; Tasker, Roy; Ashkenazi, Guy; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    A prior study showed that students best make predictions about the outcome of opening a valve between two flasks containing a fluid or vacuum when they view both a demonstration video and a particulate animation, but the study showed no influence from the order in which these visualizations were used. The purpose of this current research was to…

  18. MODELING FINE PARTICULATE MASS AND VISIBILITY USING THE EPA REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter in the atmosphere can adversely impact air quality and human health, as well as significantly affect the environment. articles in the submicrometer size range, when inhaled, may pose certain health hazards. articles in this size range also scatter light, causin...

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  20. Preliminary study of contaminant particulates around Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerman, D. W.; Weinberg, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques originally developed for the Skylab T025 contamination experiment were applied to S052 white-light coronagraph data in a preliminary study to investigate particulates around Skylab. Periods were selected which contained some contamination, even though there were no apparent dumps or vents during these periods. Velocity and size distributions were determined from optical data for particles within 200 meters of the spacecraft. Both photographic (61 particle tracks) and video (34 particles) observations yield an upper limit on particle radius of 100 micrometers. Selected photometric data from the S073 zodiacal light experiment during mission SL-2 were also examined for evidence of contamination.

  1. Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

  2. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  3. 78 FR 19128 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental...provisions of the Ohio state implementation plan...approve revised particulate matter (PM) rules on February...revisions contain particulate matter restriction for industrial sources in the State of Ohio necessary...

  4. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

  5. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section 49...Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is the purpose...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain...

  6. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52.126 Protection...strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa, Pima,...

  7. 40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227...regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a...for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region....

  8. 40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227...regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a...for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region....

  9. Modeling and interpreting the observed effects of ash on diesel particulate filter performance and regeneration

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yujun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are devices that physically capture diesel particulates to prevent their release to the atmosphere. Diesel particulate filters have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as ...

  10. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate...particulates from the ambient air. They are designed for use as respiratory protection against atmospheres with particulate...

  11. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate...particulates from the ambient air. They are designed for use as respiratory protection against atmospheres with particulate...

  12. 40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52...Georgia> § 52.578 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. Link...follows: § 52.578 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter....

  13. 42 CFR 84.1157 - Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Chemical cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general...cartridge respirators with particulate filters; performance requirements; general...cartridge respirators with particulate filters and the individual components of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following...for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial...

  15. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following...for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial...

  16. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following...for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial...

  17. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following...for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial...

  18. 40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. 52.228 Section...Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (a) The following...for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert Intrastate Region. (1) Imperial...

  19. Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea

    E-print Network

    Murray, James W.

    Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea Ouz Keywords: Black Sea Geochemistry Biogeochemistry Biogeochemical cycle Trace metals Trace elements Tracers Particulates Suspended particulate matter Biogenic matter Biogenic material Plankton Planktonic metal

  20. Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, James Edward; Plohr, Bradley J

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.

  1. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  2. Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, N.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

  3. Particulate structure of phytoglycogen studied using ?-amylolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Narsimhan, Ganesan; Yao, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Phytoglycogen (PG), a dendrimer-like glucan particulate, has a much higher dispersed molecular density than amylopectin (AP). In this study, ?-amylase was used to investigate the effect of high molecular density of PG on its susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis. AP and PG reached the limit of ?-amylolysis at 20 and 480 min, respectively, suggesting a much higher resistance of PG to ?-amylase. The majority of PG ?-amylolysis occurred in the initial 2 min, followed by a slow progression that implied low accessibility of internal particulate portion to enzyme. The chain length profile of PG ?-limit dextrin showed only one population of long chains, indicating the absence of branch clusters with PG. At the limit of ?-amylolysis, a substantial decrease in the molar mass was observed for both PG and AP, whereas only a slight reduction in the Z-average root mean square radius was observed for PG (from 24.5 to 23.1 nm) compared to that of AP (from 91.1 to 69.6 nm). PMID:26256385

  4. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1880 Section 52.1880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1880 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 52.776 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.776 Section 52.776 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.776 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills § 60.282 Standard for particulate...

  7. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  8. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The developmen...

  9. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH LOW FLOW PERSONAL SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory and the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) have conducted a particulate matter (PM) personal exposure study in Research Triangle Park, NC. Particulate carbon was sampled with pre-fired quartz filters using low flow PM2.5 samplers (2 L...

  10. Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Method for Particulate Flows with Collisions

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    1 Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Method for Particulate Flows with Collisions P. Singh* Department-1982 Phone: (973)596-3326, Fax: (973)642-4282 singhp@njit.edu T.I. Hesla and D.D. Joseph Department, MN 55455 joseph@aem.umn.edu Keywords: Particulate Flows, finite element method, direct numerical

  11. MULTIPLE SERIES CYCLONES FOR HIGH PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

  12. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.1173 Section 52.1173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates. (a) Part...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.1173 Section 52.1173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates. (a) Part...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.1173 Section 52.1173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates. (a) Part...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.1173 Section 52.1173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control strategy: Particulates. (a) Part...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  1. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  3. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and rules: Particulates. 52.1230 Section 52.1230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D—(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  12. GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

  13. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  14. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  15. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  16. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  17. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  18. Experiments to investigate particulate materials in reduced gravity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M.; Eden, H. F.; Felsenthal, P.; Glaser, P. E.; Wechsler, A. E.

    1967-01-01

    Study investigates agglomeration and macroscopic behavior in reduced gravity fields of particles of known properties by measuring and correlating thermal and acoustical properties of particulate materials. Experiment evaluations provide a basis for a particle behavior theory and measure bulk properties of particulate materials in reduced gravity.

  19. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

  20. NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cytotoxicity induced by particulate adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Marie; Hearnden, Claire H A; Oleszycka, Ewa; Lavelle, Ed C

    2013-01-01

    The ability of particulate materials to provoke inflammatory immune responses has been well documented. In the case of endogenous and environmental particulates, these effects can often lead to pathological disorders. In contrast, particulate adjuvants incorporated into vaccines promote immune responses, which in turn provide efficient protection against infectious diseases. In recent years, studies have revealed that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a key role in particulate-driven inflammation and its associated cytotoxicity. Hence, this chapter covers protocols useful to (1) assess NLRP3 inflammasome activation triggered by particulate adjuvants or materials in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDCs) differentiated cultures, and (2) measure particle-induced cytotoxicity. More specifically, protocols are described for the preparation and differentiation of BMDCs, their priming and stimulation using particulate NLRP3 agonists such as monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) and the vaccine adjuvant alum. We then detail protocols to assess particulate-driven cytotoxicity via flow cytometry using annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) and novel dye LIVE/DEAD(®) aqua stain. General considerations are provided that warn against the use of endotoxin-contaminated particles and emphasize the use of experimental controls. Suggestions are also outlined for further assessment of the immunomodulatory effects of particulate materials in vivo using the mouse peritonitis model. PMID:23852596

  1. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  2. DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

  3. IMPACT OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATES ON PCB VOLATILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to experimentally quantify the mass of PCBs that can be transported from PCB-contaminated suspended particulate to the air phase under various conditions as a means of evaluating the mechanism and importance of suspended particulates in volatili...

  4. Production of particulate matter from the combustion of wood pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papu?ík, Štefan; Janda?ka, Jozef; Chabadová, Jana; Pialát, Peter

    2015-05-01

    For production of particulate matters affect more aspects. One of the biggest affect is combustion air volume and i?s deviding on primary and secondary part. In this article is described experimental device, on which was investigated affect of combustion air volume on production particulate matters, measuring method, measured and analysed achieved results.

  5. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  6. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  7. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., inside the dilution air filter box at EPA is very low. Pb will be assumed = 0, and background particulate.... 86.145-82 Section 86.145-82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... further defined in § 86.144. (3) P e = mass of particulate per test on the exhaust filter(s), grams....

  8. FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

  9. The Relocation of Particulate Contamination During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, J.; Edgars, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer simulation program to model the redistribution of particulate contaminants on a spacecraft after launch is developed. The component models for particulate adhesion, meteoroid impact, and electrostatic forces are described and intermediate results are presented. The results of a sample calculation show that the recontamination process is important.

  10. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Particulate Mass and Visibility

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 ­ Spring 2014 Problem 18 Particulate Mass and Visibility In the polluted urban-phase mixing ratio of the precursor necessary to produce that amount of particulate. Recall that pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOx are often present at ~100 parts per billion in a polluted atmosphere. We

  11. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  12. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  14. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  16. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  20. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  4. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  5. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  10. Analysis of characteristic of microwave regeneration for diesel particulate filter

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Zhi; Zhang Guanglong; Lu Yong; Liu Junmin; Gao Xiyan; Liang Iunhui; Chen Jiahua

    1995-12-31

    The mathematical model for the microwave regeneration of diesel particulate filter is proposed according to the characteristic of microwave regeneration process. The model is used to calculate the temperature field, distribution of particulate and density field of oxygen in the filter during the process of regeneration with typical ceramic foam particulate filter data. The parametric study demonstrates how some of the main parameters, such as microwave attenuation constant of the filter, filter particulate loading, the power and distribution of microwave energy and so on, affect the efficiency of regeneration, the maximum filter temperature and regeneration duration. The results show that it is possible to regenerate the diesel particulate filters in certain conditions by using microwave energy. This paper can give one a whole understanding to several main factors that have effects on the process of microwave regeneration and provide a theoretical basis for the optimal design of the microwave regeneration system.

  11. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 ; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 ; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ? Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ? Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ? Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ? Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

  12. Health effects costs of particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Zmirou, D; Deloraine, A; Balducci, F; Boudet, C; Dechenaux, J

    1999-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in December 1994 in three metropolitan areas of the Rhone-Alpes region in France (Lyon, Grenoble, and Chambéry; total number of inhabitants = 970,000) to assess the medical costs resulting from exposure to particulate air pollution. Probability samples of the general population (508 families, 1265 subjects) and of the physicians (395) and 13 hospital respiratory care and emergency units in the study area provided data on the prevalence of respiratory disorders and on medical care usage. Measurements from air-quality monitoring networks were used to ascribe a fraction of the respiratory morbidity to the ambient air particle concentrations present during the study period, on the basis of attributable risk estimates drawn from recent meta-analyses. The medical care usage and absenteeism related to respiratory disorders were converted into direct and indirect medical and social costs by use of a "cost of illness" approach. These costs were extrapolated to annual costs of disease attributable to particulate pollution in 1994, using daily values of air pollution. The average particulate concentrations during the study period were moderate (39, 41, and 10 micrograms/m3 in the three cities), yielding attributable fractions that ranged between 0.6% and 13.8% according to the health condition and to the city. Three hundred ninety-five subjects reported respiratory symptoms (prevalence, 31.2%) during the study period; 1182 patients visited a doctor and 158 used hospital services. The extrapolated annual estimates of the attributable cost of respiratory diseases for a population of 1 million range between 79 and 135 million French francs (FF) (20th and 80th percentiles of the cost distribution, after a Monte Carlo simulation, respectively; 50th percentile, 107 x 10(6) FF [16.3 x 10(6) Euros]). Over-the counter drug consumption represents the largest cost item (approximately 44% of total costs), followed by wage losses (38%). Hospital expenditures amount to a low percentage of total costs (about 5%) because most respiratory disorders do not require hospital care. Mortality was not considered in this study. Most of these costs occur at relatively low levels of air pollution (67% of the total annual costs are incurred during days with particle concentrations lower than 50 micrograms/m3). Such substantial figures are useful for assessing the social impacts of air pollution and for evaluating the cost efficiency of abatement policies. PMID:10529940

  13. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Richland, WA); Hirth, John P. (Viola, ID)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  14. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  15. Laser induced thermophoresis and particulate deposition efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cipolla, J.; Morse, T.F.; Wang, C.Y.

    1983-07-01

    The interaction of laser radiation and an absorbing aerosol in a tube flow has been considered. The aerosol is produced by external heating of reactants as in the MCVD (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) process to produce submicron size particles in the manufacture of optical fiber preforms. These are subsequently deposited by thermophoretic forces on the inner wall of the tube as they are convected by a Poiseuille velocity profile. Axial laser radiation in the tube interacts with the absorbing particles, and the laser heating of the gas induces additional thermophoretic forces that markedly increase the efficiency of particulate deposition. A particle concentration dependent absorption coefficient that appears in the energy equation couples the energy equation to the equation of particle conservation, so that a non-linear set of coupled partial integrodifferential equations must be solved. Numerical solutions for aerosol particle trajectories, and thus deposition efficiencies, have been obtained. It is shown that laser enhanced thermophoresis markedly improves the deposition efficiency.

  16. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  17. Assessment of Internal Fabric of Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibi, Khalid A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle arrangement and distribution within a soil matrix has long been recognized as having significant influence on the mechanical behavior of cohesionless soils. It is well known that two soil specimens having the same grain type (e.g., quartz, feldspar, etc.), same grain size distribution and relative density (or void ratio) can display completely different mechanical behavior. Because of the different fabric configurations in the otherwise similar specimens, they are likely to have different mechanical properties such as stress-strain response, anisotropy, dilatancy, etc. Soil Fabric is defined as the arrangement of particles, particle groups and associated pore space. In the literature, fabric analysis techniques are mainly classified as destructive (e.g., specimen stabilization, thin-sectioning, and microscopy), and nondestructive techniques (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonic testing, x-ray radiography, and computed tomography). Quantifying the void ratio and its distribution is the main parameter used to describe the fabric of particulate materials. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of fabric analysis techniques applied to particulate materials. In addition, the results of a comprehensive investigation to quantify void ratio of sand specimens will be presented and discussed. The sand used in the experiments in a natural, uniform rounded to sub-rounded silica sand known as F-75 banding sand with mean particle size of 0.22 mm. Uniform specimens and specimens subjected to different axial-strain levels tested under triaxial and biaxial conditions are examined to evaluate void ratio evolution and its distribution using destructive thin-sectioning and nondestructive Computed Tomography (CT) techniques. Details of a new innovative polygon generation technique called Voronoi tessellation used to quantify void ratio of microscopic images of sand grains will be presented and compared to classical Oda's method. Finally, frequency distribution of void ratio calculated using CT analysis will be presented and discussed.

  18. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  19. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  20. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Steubenville, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    1992-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with daily mortality in London, England, both in the smog episodes of the 1950s and at the lower pollution levels of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Replicating these findings in the United States has been difficult, because particulates are usually sampled every sixth day. Replication, particularly with a gravimetric measure of particulates, is important in assessing the causality of the relation. Daily measurements of total suspended particulates by high volume gravimetric sampler are available for the Steubenville, Ohio, metropolitan area. These were matched to daily mortality counts from the detail mortality tapes of the National Center for Health Statistics. Deaths of residents which occurred outside the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were excluded. Because of the much smaller population, the average total number of deaths per day in the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area over the 11-year period 1974-1984 was about 1% of the deaths in a typical London winter. Despite this reduced statistical power, total suspended particulate count was significantly associated with increased daily mortality in Poisson regression analyses controlling for season and temperature. An increase in particulates of 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a 4% increase in mortality on the succeeding day. Associations with sulfur dioxide were not significant after adjustment for particulates. The relation appeared to continue at levels well below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard. PMID:1736656

  1. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Steubenville, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with daily mortality in London, England, both in the smog episodes of the 1950s and at the lower pollution levels of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Replicating these findings in the United States has been difficult, because particulates are usually sampled every sixth day. Replication, particularly with a gravimetric measure of particulates, is important in assessing the causality of the relation. Daily measurements of total suspended particulates by high volume gravimetric sampler are available for the Steubenville, Ohio, metropolitan area. These were matched to daily mortality counts from the detail mortality tapes of the National Center for Health Statistics. Deaths of residents which occurred outside the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were excluded. Because of the much smaller population, the average total number of deaths per day in the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area over the 11-year period 1974-1984 was about 1% of the deaths in a typical London winter. Despite this reduced statistical power, total suspended particulate count was significantly associated with increased daily mortality in Poisson regression analyses controlling for season and temperature. An increase in particulates of 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a 4% increase in mortality on the succeeding day. Associations with sulfur dioxide were not significant after adjustment for particulates. The relation appeared to continue at levels well below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

  2. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. PMID:17195488

  3. Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kramlich, J.C.; Newton, G.H.; Socha, R.G.; Clark, W.D.

    1989-02-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern fine particulate formation in pulverized coal flames. This understanding is to be used to develop a model (or models) which will predict the yield and size distribution of fine particulates as a function of coal type, coal processing, and combustion conditions. The goal of the model is to provide an engineering tool that will enable the practitioner to estimate the consequences of design decisions and fuel selection on the fine particulate yield. The practitioner can then make rational decisions regarding the required technology and costs associated with effluent cleanup while still in the design phase.

  4. Li2O Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Li2O Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 9-1 CHAPTER 9: Li2O PARTICULATE FLOW CONCEPT ­ APPLE DESIGN Contributors Lead Author: Dai Kai Sze Dai Kai Sze, Zhanhe Wang (ANL Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 9-2 9. LI2O PARTICULATE FLOW CONCEPT

  5. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  6. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-05-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. PMID:7656877

  7. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of emerging diesel particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity o...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...Act applicable to the Follansbee, West Virginia PM10 nonattainment area. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...Act applicable to the Follansbee, West Virginia PM10 nonattainment area. (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...Act applicable to the Follansbee, West Virginia PM10 nonattainment area. (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...Act applicable to the Follansbee, West Virginia PM10 nonattainment area. (b)...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. ...Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Virginia portion of the Metropolitan Washington, DC-MD-VA...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. ...Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Virginia portion of the Metropolitan Washington, DC-MD-VA...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. ...Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12, 2009, the Virginia portion of the Metropolitan Washington, DC-MD-VA...

  15. MULTIWAVELENGTH TRANSMISSOMETER FOR MEASURING MASS CONCENTRATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiwavelength transmissometer potentially capable of making near-real-time measurements of particulate mass concentration in industrial stacks was developed. A computer program is employed to interpret the transmissometer data and translate the results into mass concentration...

  16. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF AN AUTOISOKINETIC STACK PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...

  18. Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses 

    E-print Network

    Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations, ammonia (NH?) concentrations, and ventilation rates were measured in four commercial, tunnel ventilated broiler houses in June through December of 2000 in Brazos County, Texas. Particle size...

  19. 40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...b) The following regulations are disapproved because they relax the control on particulate matter emissions without any accompanying...c) The following regulations are disapproved because they relax the control on visible emissions without any...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the Nevada Control Strategy, submitted on October 7, 1976. (c) The following rules are disapproved because they relax the emission limitation on particulate matter. (1) Clark County District Board of Health, Table 27.1,...

  1. CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

  2. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of a major EPA research program on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology, directed toward improving the performance of ESPs in controlling industrial particulate emissions, notably fly ash from coal combustion in electric power plants. Relationsh...

  3. PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period of the contract. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract cascade...

  4. JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller

    2008-10-31

    The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

  5. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

  6. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the...

  9. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the...

  10. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the...

  11. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter Recordkeeping Requirements” lists the records the operator must maintain pursuant to §§ 57.5060 through 57.5071, and the duration for which particular records need to be retained. Table...

  12. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

  13. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  14. INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1778-99 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1778-99 Calculations; particulate emissions. The...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1778-99 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1778-99 Calculations; particulate emissions. The...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1778-99 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1778-99 Calculations; particulate emissions. The...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1778-99 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1778-99 Calculations; particulate emissions. The...

  19. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  20. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  1. 40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to submit an...) which regulate the control of particulate matter from specific sources within the iron and...

  2. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A measurement methodology to evaluate fugitive particulate emissions was developed and demonstrated. The project focused on the application of the lidar (laser radar) technique under field conditions, but in circumstances that simplified and controlled the variables of the genera...

  4. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter...Reserved] (d) Truck dumping of nonmetallic minerals into any screening operation, feed hopper, or...

  5. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the...

  6. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter...Reserved] (d) Truck dumping of nonmetallic minerals into any screening operation, feed hopper, or...

  9. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter...Reserved] (d) Truck dumping of nonmetallic minerals into any screening operation, feed hopper, or...

  10. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter...Reserved] (d) Truck dumping of nonmetallic minerals into any screening operation, feed hopper, or...

  11. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the...

  12. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter...Reserved] (d) Truck dumping of nonmetallic minerals into any screening operation, feed hopper, or...

  13. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Metallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the...

  14. Ultrasonic wave propagation in random and periodic particulate composites 

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Benjamin Kyle

    1996-01-01

    Current theoretical models are insufficient to predict the dynamic behavior of particulate composites under ultrasonic loading. To facilitate the creation of more accurate models, ultrasonic tests have been performed to ...

  15. Particulated articular cartilage for symptomatic chondral defects of the knee.

    PubMed

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Cole, Brian J; Farr, Jack

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of focal cartilage defects in the knee remains a challenging clinical problem. One relatively new unique treatment option is particulated articular cartilage, which includes autograft and off-the-shelf allogeneic juvenile grafts. The use of particulated cartilage has the advantage of being a single-stage procedure. In the case of autograft, it is cost efficient, while in the juvenile allograft form, it may have increased proliferative and restorative potentials. Laboratory and clinical data are limited for particulated cartilage grafts; however, there are promising histologic and clinical outcomes. This review provides a summary of the indications, surgical technique, and most up-to-date research on particulated cartilage for the repair of symptomatic chondral defects in the knee. PMID:26371073

  16. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

  17. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...discharge into the atmosphere from a reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or...

  18. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...discharge into the atmosphere from a reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...discharge into the atmosphere from a reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  1. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...discharge into the atmosphere from a reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or...

  2. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  3. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

  4. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  5. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

  6. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  7. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

  8. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate...the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity...

  9. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  10. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  11. EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

  12. The effects of secondary air injection on particulate matter emissions

    E-print Network

    Pritchard, Joseph James

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on particulate matter (PM) emissions. SAI was developed to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and has been shown to be effective ...

  13. EFFECTIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM ATYPICAL STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling techniques for measuring particulate emissions from four 'atypical' stationary source categories were developed and evaluated. The categories include low effluent velocity streams, extended dimensions, partially or totally unconfined flow, and saturated gas streams or ga...

  14. Modeling of Particulate Matter Emissions from Agricultural Operations 

    E-print Network

    Bairy, Jnana 1988-

    2013-01-02

    State Air Pollution Regulation Agencies (SAPRAs) issue and enforce permits that limit particulate matter emissions from all sources including layer and broiler facilities, cattle feedyards, dairies, cotton gins, and grain elevators...

  15. SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE NITRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental conditions that affect atmospheric particulate nitrate sampling were identified, and improved sampling and analytical procedures were developed. Evaluation of potential sources of error in high volume nitrate sampling showed that artifact nitrate formation on common...

  16. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter. (a)...

  1. Particulate oxidative burden associated with firework activity.

    PubMed

    Godri, Krystal J; Green, David C; Fuller, Gary W; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Mudway, Ian S

    2010-11-01

    Firework events are capable of inducing particulate matter (PM) episodes that lead to exceedances of regulatory limit values. As short-term peaks in ambient PM concentration have been associated with negative impacts on respiratory and cardiovascular health, we performed a detailed study of the consequences of firework events in London on ambient air quality and PM composition. These changes were further related to the oxidative activity of daily PM samples by assessing their capacity to drive the oxidation of physiologically important lung antioxidants including ascorbate, glutathione and urate (oxidative potential, OP). Twenty-four hour ambient PM samples were collected at the Marylebone Road sampling site in Central London over a three week period, including two major festivals celebrated with pyrotechnic events: Guy Fawkes Night and Diwali. Pyrotechnic combustion events were characterized by increased gas phase pollutants levels (NO(x) and SO(2)), elevated PM mass concentrations, and trace metal concentrations (specifically Sr, Mg, K, Ba, and Pb). Relationships between NO(x), benzene, and PM(10) were used to apportion firework and traffic source fractions. A positive significant relationship was found between PM oxidative burden and individual trace metals associated with each of these apportioned source fractions. The level of exposure to each source fraction was significantly associated with the total OP. The firework contribution to PM total OP, on a unit mass basis, was greater than that associated with traffic sources: a 1 ?g elevation in firework and traffic PM fraction concentration was associated with a 6.5 ± 1.5 OP(T) ?g(-1) and 5.2 ± 1.4 OP(T) ?g(-1) increase, respectively. In the case of glutathione depletion, firework particulate OP (3.5 ± 0.8 OP(GSH) ?g(-1)) considerably exceeded that due to traffic particles (2.2 ± 0.8 OP(GSH) ?g(-1)). Therefore, in light of the elevated PM concentrations caused by firework activity and the increased oxidative activity of this PM source, there is value in examining if firework derived PM is related to acute respiratory outcomes. PMID:20886897

  2. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Weldon S. (Malibu, CA); Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI)

    2008-12-30

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  3. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  4. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W. (Somers, CT); Goodstine, Stephen L. (Windsor, CT)

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  5. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  6. The Ohmic heating of particulates in a lossless medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wilkin; Bosman, Herman; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2005-06-01

    This paper provides a general theory on the Ohmic dissipation of electromagnetic energy by a spherical particulate that is embedded in a lossless medium. The particulate may possess an arbitrary electrical conductivity, and both the medium and the particulate may assume general values of permittivity and permeability. Under the assumption that the wavelength of the electromagnetic field in the medium is large compared with the particulate size, we provide an accurate account of the degree of Ohmic heating by the radio frequency (rf) electric field and by the rf magnetic field of the electromagnetic field. It is found that, in general, heating by the rf magnetic field is dominant whenever ? particulate. Analytic scaling laws in the various regimes are derived, from the static case to very high frequency, and for ratios of ? /a ranging from zero to infinity. The calculation is extended to a transient electromagnetic pulse. Also constructed is the loss tangent of the medium, resulting from a distribution of particulates.

  7. Size- and structure-dependent toxicity of silica particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Sanshiro; Miyaoi, Kenichi; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Nano- and micro-particulates firmly attach with the surface of various biological systems. In some chronic pulmonary disease such as asbestosis and silicosis, causative particulates will induce chronic inflammatory disorder, followed by poor prognosis diseases. However, nano- and micro-scale specific toxicity of silica particulates is not well examined enough to recognize the risk of nano- and micro-particulates from the clinical aspect. To clarify the effect of the size and structure of silica particulates on the cellular damage and the biological response, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the various kinds of silica particles including amorphous and crystalline silica, in mouse alveolar macrophage culture, focusing on the fibrotic and inflammatory response. Our study showed that the cytotoxicity, which depends on the particle size and surface area, is correlated with their inflammatory response. By contrast, production of TGF-?, which is one of the fibrotic agents in lung, by addition of crystal silica was much higher than that of amorphous silica. We conclude that fibrosis and inflammation are induced at different phases and that the size- and structure-differences of silica particulates affect the both biological responses, caused by surface activity, radical species, and so on.

  8. Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. )

    1993-10-01

    During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

  9. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME 2. BAGHOUSES AND PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. (overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furna...

  11. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 2. BAGHOUSES AND PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. Overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furnac...

  12. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Gas-particulate Flow around Breathing Human and Particulate Inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    2006-05-01

    It is important to predict the environment around the breathing human because inhalation of virus (avian influenza, SARS) is recently severe worldwide problem, and air pollution caused by diesel emission particle (DEP) and asbestos attract a great deal of attention. In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to predict unsteady flows around a breathing human and how suspended particulate matter (SPM, diameter˜1 ?m) reaches the human nose in inhalation and exhalation. In the calculation, we find out smaller breathing angle and the closer distance between the human nose and pollutant region are effective in the inhalation of SPM.

  13. Mucoadhesive vs. mucopenetrating particulate drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Netsomboon, Kesinee; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Mucus layer is a hydrophilic absorption barrier found in various regions of the body. The use of particulate delivery systems showed potential in drug delivery to mucosal membranes by either prolonging drug residence time at the absorption or target membrane or promoting permeation of particles across mucus gel layer to directly reach underlying epithelium. Mucoadhesive particles (MAP) are advantageous for delivering drug molecules to various mucosal membranes including eyes, oral cavity, bladder and vagina by prolonging drug residence time on those membranes. In contrast, a broader particle distribution and deeper penetration of the mucus gel layer are accomplished by mucopenetrating particles (MPP) especially in the gastrointestinal tract. Based on the available literature in particular dealing with in vivo results none of both systems (MAP and MPP) seems to be advantageous over the other. The choice of system primarily depends on the therapeutic target and peculiar properties of the target mucosa including thickness of the mucus gel layer, mucus turnover rate and water movement within the mucus. Future trends are heading in the direction of combining both systems to one i.e. mucoadhesive and mucopenetrating properties on the same particles. PMID:26598207

  14. Lanthanoid geochemistry of urban atmospheric particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Minguillón, Maria Cruz; Pérez, Noemi; Bernabé, Rosa M; Blanco, Salvador; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Gibbons, Wes

    2008-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the lanthanoid element (La to Lu) chemistry of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM). PM samples collected during an air sampling campaign in the Mexico City area contain lanthanoid concentrations of mostly 1-10 ng m(-3), increasing with mass where resuspension of crustal PM is important (low PM2.5/PM10), but not where fine emissions from traffic and industry dominate (high PM2.5/ PM10). Samples show anthropogenic enrichment of lighter over heavier lanthanoids, and Ce enrichment relative to La and Sm occurs in the city center (especially PM10) possibly due to PM from road vehicle catalytic converters. La is especially enriched, although many samples show low La/V values (< 0.11), suggesting the dominating influence of fuel oil combustion sources rather than refinery emissions. We use La/Sm v La/ Ce, LaCeSm, and LaCeV plots to compare Mexico City aerosols with PM from other cities. Lanthanoid aerosol geochemistry can be used not only to identify refinery pollution events, but also as a marker for different hydrocarbon combustion emissions (e.g., oil or coal power stations) on urban background atmospheric PM. PMID:18800521

  15. Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1996-09-01

    As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

  16. State emissions limitations for boilers: particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This document summarizes regulations applicable to boilers as reflected in current state and local air regulations. Not all of these regulations are officially part of Federally-approved State Implementation Plans (SIPs). Several regulations have only recently been adopted by the State and are now undergoing EPA review for incorporation into the SIP. Each summary also contains local regulations more stringent than the State rules. Most local regulations in this handbook are included in the State Implementation Plan. Site-specific emission limits (variances from State limits or limits more stringent than State limits) are not included in these summaries. Appendix A contains maps showing the location of Air Quality Control Regions or other districts by which several States regulate emissions. Appendix B contains a summary of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, which States are required to meet as a minimum. Appendix C contains a description and summary of Federal New Source Performance Standards. Appendix D contains formulas for conversion of emmissions limits expressed in one set of units to the most common units - No. PM/MMBtu. Appendix E contains Figure 2 of ASME APS-1, used for determining particulate emissions limits in some States.

  17. Adverse Health Effects of Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Peng, Roger D.; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Background The short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) on mortality and morbidity differ by geographic location and season. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this variation, including different exposures with air conditioning (AC) versus open windows. Methods Bayesian hierarchical modeling was used to explore whether AC prevalence modified day-to-day associations between PM10 and mortality, and between PM2.5 and cardiovascular or respiratory hospitalizations, for those 65 years and older. We considered yearly, summer-only, and winter-only effect estimates and 2 types of AC (central and window units). Results Communities with higher AC prevalence had lower PM effects. Associations were observed for cardiovascular hospitalizations and central AC. Each additional 20% of households with central AC was associated with a 43% decrease in PM2.5 effects on cardiovascular hospitalization. Central AC prevalence explained 17% of between-community variability in PM2.5 effect estimates for cardiovascular hospitalizations. Conclusions Higher AC prevalence was associated with lower health effect estimates for PM. PMID:19535984

  18. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, Steven R. . E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

  19. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates.

    PubMed

    Balducci, C; Nervegna, G; Cecinato, A

    2009-05-01

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm(-3) of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat. PMID:19393371

  20. PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION ON PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE, AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to epidemiological studies published over twenty years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source - atmospheric accumulation/receptor - exposu...

  1. The Manhattan community based particulate study

    SciTech Connect

    Tropp, R.; Mustafa, M.; Werner, R.

    1998-12-31

    This study examines PM10 concentrations in two communities in northern Manhattan over a period of approximately 80 days during July through September 1996. The study was conducted to address community concerns that particulate levels in the neighborhoods caused by diesel bus and truck traffic might be higher than in other parts of Manhattan and cause the higher levels of asthma observed in the two communities. Community representatives were active participants throughout the study, including selecting monitoring sites. Sampling was conducted in two phases with saturation samplers, first, at eight street level locations in the Harlem community and then at seven locations in the Washington Heights community plus one continuing site in Harlem. During both phases, the samplers were located at sites in midtown and downtown Manhattan at which New York State operated dichotomous samplers. In addition, saturation samplers were used at a subset of sites to collect PM2.5 samples and, during Phase 2, samples for analysis of elemental and organic carbon. Community site samples were collected every day and reference site samples about once every three days. Temporal variability for PM10 was greater than spatial variability. Community sites generally had lower PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations than either of the two reference sites, averaging two-thirds to three-fourths the levels at the reference sites. Only the two reference samplers recorded PM10 concentrations that would indicate a likelihood of exceeding the annual PM10 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Based on the PM2.5/PM10 ratio measured at reference and community sites, estimates of PM2.5 from PM10 measurements indicated that most community sites might not meet the annual PM2.5 NAAQS and a few sites might fail to meet the 24-hour NAAQS.

  2. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, Richard D.; Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  3. Composition, structure and size distribution of suspended particulates from the Rhine River.

    PubMed

    Lartiges, B S; Deneux-Mustin, S; Villemin, G; Mustin, C; Barrès, O; Chamerois, M; Gerard, B; Babut, M

    2001-03-01

    Fluvial suspended particulates collected from the Rhine River were investigated in terms of composition, structure and size distribution. Elemental analysis and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy reveal that most particulate organic matter is formed from material derived from microorganisms. Transmission Electron Microscopy observations on resin-embedded samples and structural characterization from break-up experiments, show that fluvial particulate matter should be viewed as fractal aggregates organized by bacterial exopolymeric substances. The shape of particulate size distribution suggests that the formation and dynamics of suspended particulate matter are controlled mainly by physical processes. Finally, particulate growth and structure are consistent with a cluster-cluster aggregation scheme. PMID:11228980

  4. Particulates from PTFE degradation in terrestrial and microgravity.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R; McKinnon, J T; Todd, P

    1999-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that the ultrafine particles generated during polymer thermodegradation are a major health hazard, owing to their unique pathway of processing in the lung. This hazard in manned spacecraft is poorly understood because the particulate products of polymer thermodegradation are generated under low gravity conditions. Particulates generated from the degradation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), insulation coating for 20 AWG copper wire (representative of spacecraft application) under intense current overload, were studied in terrestrial gravity and microgravity. Microgravity tests were done in a 1.2-s drop tower at the Colorado School of Mines. Thermophoretic sampling was used for particulate collection. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the smoke particulates. The pigmentation of PTFE insulation seems to have an overwhelming effect on size, shape and morphology of the particulate. Nanometer-sized particles were found in all cases, but their extent of aggregation and size distribution were dependent on both PTFE pigmentation and gravity; higher aggregation occurred in low gravity. Four different color insulations (viz. white, black, red and yellow) were studied. PMID:10332948

  5. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodse, Vishwas B.; Bhosle, Narayan B.; Gopalkrishna, V. V.

    2009-04-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) of surface seawaters was collected during December 2003 to October 2004 at 10 stations in the Bay of Bengal, and analyzed for particulate organic carbon (POC), total particulate nitrogen (TPN), total particulate carbohydrate (TPCHO) and total particulate uronic acids (TPURA). The concentrations of POC, TPCHO and TPURA varied from 4.80 to 29.12, 0.85 to 4.24, 0.09 to 0.91 µM C, respectively. The TPCHO-C and TPURA-C accounted for 6.6-32.5% and 0.87-3.65% of POC. The trends observed for the distribution of these compounds were generally similar to those recorded for the distribution of chlorophyll a (Chl a). The C/N ratios varied from 3.2 to 22.3 with most of the values being < 10. This suggests that the organic matter was mostly derived from phytoplankton and bacteria. Relatively low C/N ratios and high TPCHO yield imply that freshly derived organic matter was present during SWM and FIM. Our data suggest that the quality and quantity of organic matter varied spatially and seasonally.

  6. Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an air to cloth ratio'') for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

  7. Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.L.

    1992-11-01

    The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an ``air to cloth ratio``) for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

  8. Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2003-07-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's (UW) Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the free troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna fire emissions averaged 130 ?g m-3. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous material.

  9. Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.E.

    2000-08-20

    Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration in plasma - catalyst hybrid schemes for the removal of NOx employing an NO2 selective catalyst, as the oxidation of PM may deplete the key radicals necessary for NO to NO2 conversion. It was also suggested that where simultaneous NOx and PM removal are required, alternative catalyst formulations may be needed which may be selective to NO rather than NO2.

  10. Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles. PMID:22393811

  11. Multiple scattering in particulate planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muinonen, Karri; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Videen, Gorden

    2015-08-01

    There are two ubiquitous phenomena observed at small solar phase angles (the Sun-Object-Observer angle) from, for example, asteroids and transneptunian objects. First, a nonlinear increase of brightness is observed toward the zero phase angle in the magnitude scale that is commonly called the opposition effect. Second, the scattered light is observed to be partially linearly polarized parallel to the Sun-Object-Observer plane that iscommonly called the negative polarization surge.The observations can be interpreted using a radiative-transfer coherent-backscattering Monte Carlo method (RT-CB, Muinonen 2004) that makes use of a so-called phenomenological fundamental single scatterer (Muinonen and Videen 2012). For the validity of RT-CB, see Muinonen et al. (2012). The method can allow us to put constraints on the size, shape, and refractive index of the fundamental scatterers.In the present work, we extend the RT-CB method for the specific case of a macroscopic medium of electric dipole scatterers. For the computation of the interactions, the far-field approximation inherent in the RT-CB method is replaced by an exact treatment, allowing us to account for, e.g., the so-called near-field effects. The present method constitutes the first milestone in the development of a multiple-scattering method, where the so-called ladder and maximally crossed cyclical diagrams of the multiple electromagnetic interactions are rigorously computed. We expect to utilize the new methods in the spectroscopic, photometric, and polarimetric studies of asteroids, as well as in the interpretation of radar echoes from small Solar System bodies.Acknowledgments. The research is funded by the ERC Advanced Grant No 320773 entitled Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media (SAEMPL).K. Muinonen, Waves in Random Media 14, 365 (2004).K. Muinonen, K., and G. Videen, JQSRT 113, 2385 (2012).K. Muinonen, M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, E. Zubko, A. Penttilä,and G. Videen, ApJ 760, 118 (2012).

  12. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-31

    This is the fifteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data bank of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on May 18 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) and a particulate sample collected in the Westinghouse filter at Sierra Pacific Power Company?s Piñon Pine Power Project. Analysis of this Piñon Pine sample is ongoing: however, this report contains the results of analyses completed to date. Significant accomplishments were achieved on the HGCU data bank during this reporting quarter. The data bank was prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems ?98 Conference scheduled for July, 1998. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of testing two Dupont PRD-66C candle filters, one McDermott ceramic composite candle filter, one Blasch 4-270 candle filter, and one Specific Surface cordierite candle filter. Tensile and thermal expansion testing is complete and the rest of the testing is in progress. Also, some 20-inch long Dupont PRD-66C, McDermott ceramic composite, and Westinghouse Techniweave candle filters have been received for testing after their exposure to the gasification environment. One as-manufactured and one exposed element was received of each material and specimens are currently being machined from these candles.

  13. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 ?g/m(3) and 60 ?g/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 ?g/m(3), 38.1?g/m(3) and 52.5 ?g/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ? 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality. PMID:24561289

  14. Particulate control for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Touzel, R.McD.

    1993-12-31

    The power generating system in Victoria currently comprises a total capacity of 6650 MW. Eighty percent of this capacity consists of base load stations in the Latrobe Valley using brown coal. The Latrobe Valley brown coals have unique characteristics with high moisture content ranging from 58 percent to 70 percent and an ash content which is relatively low but very variable in nature. These and other factors associated with the coal have caused special problems in handling and combustion of the coal and the de-dusting of the boiler flue gases. In recent years, this has been the basis for the design parameters adopted for all the plants in the system. With respect to flue gas de-dusting, the SECV has carried out extensive laboratory studies to characterize the different ashes obtained from the Latrobe Valley brown coals, including precipitability and aerodynamic tests. It also carried out full-scale tests on operating plants and pilot tests have been conducted on inertial collectors, precipitators and bag filters. The Environmental Protection Authority of Victoria has established a particulate emission level of 0.150 grams/m{sup 3} n.t.p. dry for recent Latrobe Valley boilers. However, the mandated emission level takes into account wide variations in operating conditions, and the plants normally achieve much lower emission levels. The Latrobe Valley plants presently in operation include Yallourn W (2x350 MW + 2x375 MW), Morwell (170 MW total and briquette factory), Hazelwood (8x200 MW) and Loy Yang (4x500 MW). The Yalloum W boilers are supplied with coal from the Yalloum Open Cut, the Morwell and Hazelwood boilers from the Morwell Open Cut and Loy Yang boilers from the Loy Yang Open Cut. All boilers are pulverized coal fired (PCF) and incorporate special firing equipment to enable the as-mined wet coal to be fired directly into the furnaces. All boilers are fitted with electrostatic precipitators. The locations of the stations and open cuts are shown.

  15. CONVERSATION OF DISSOLVED MANGANESE TO PARTICULATE MANGANESE DURING DIATOM BLOOM: EFFECTS ON THE MANGANESE CYCLE IN THE MERL MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion of dissolved manganese to particulate manganese occurred during a minor diatom bloom during August and September 1978 in the MERL microcosms. Correlations between chlorophyll a and particulate manganese suggest that 29 moles Mn were transferred to the particulate phase...

  16. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  17. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  18. Portable instruments for measuring tailpipe diesel particulate in underground mines

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.; Volkwein, J.; Janisko, S.; Patts, L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for direct tailpipe sampling of diesel vehicles in mines in order to determine the effects of an emissions-based maintenance program, evaluate control technologies such as diesel particulate filters and identify the worst diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitters in a fleet of vehicles. Therefore, this study examined the performance of three portable instruments: a personal dust monitor (PDM) manufactured by Thermo Scientific, a prototype elemental carbon monitor (Airtec) manufactured by FLIR and a prototype AE91 instrument from Magee Scientific. These instruments were evaluated on the basis of their ability to provide direct reading tailpipe analysis for DPM. It was determined that the average bias of the tailpipe results from the PDM and the Airtec were 3±12% and 4±20%, respectively, when compared to the standard method of determining tailpipe particulate concentrations from a diluted exhaust. It was also determined that the AE91 instrument correlated with the standard method. PMID:26190861

  19. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  20. Particulate matter as an amplifier for astronomical light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ci??or, T.; Kubala, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we state that the main factor that influences seasonal changes in the brightness of the cloudless, moonless, light-polluted night sky is primarily particulate matter, emitted mainly from low-emission sources, especially in winter. This effect is particularly noticeable in Cracow and its surroundings, one of the places in Europe that is most polluted by particulate matter. Measurements taken over a period of one year have allowed us to show a linear relationship between the concentration of particulate matter and the brightness of the clear, cloudless night sky. We have also found similar correlations in other, industrialized areas of Poland, as well as at the Mount Suhora Astronomical Observatory. We believe that the factor described here should be taken into account when planning the construction of new astronomical observatories, especially those located near large urban areas.

  1. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  2. Apparatus and method for void/particulate detection

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA); Randall, Richard (Canoga Park, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting voids and particulates in a fluid within a containing vessel. A diffuse ultrasonic signal is coupled into the fluid by a first transducer and the portion of the ultrasonic signal transmitted through the fluid is detected by a second transducer. The received signal is analyzed by a processor to determine the void fraction of the fluid responsive to the attenuation of the received ultrasonic signal. In addition, voids and particulates are detected by evaluating the increase in side-band energy of the received signal.

  3. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  4. Nano-particulate coating on cotton fabric through DBD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jinzhou; Zhou, Rongming; Yu, Jianyong

    2008-02-01

    Plasma polymerization of fluorocarbon was processed through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A thin hydrophobic film packed with nano-particulate structure was obtained on cotton fabric surface. The contact angle of the water and 1-bromonaphthalene on coated cotton fabric was 133° and 124° separately. The surface morphology of the coating was observed through SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope). It was found that cotton fabric surface was tightly adhered to a thin film packed by nano-particles from 10nm to 200nm. This process showed potential applications in continuous coating of textiles with functional nano-particulate polymers, but without changing their softness performance.

  5. 77 FR 10350 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental...Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP...harmful levels of fine particle matter and ozone in downwind states. After the final rule was...

  6. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. ...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions....

  7. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. ...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions....

  8. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. ...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions....

  9. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. ...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions....

  10. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. ...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-94 Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions....

  11. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. ...Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions....

  12. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128...limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What...matter that may be emitted from certain wood products industry sources operating...

  13. The effect of lubricant derived ash on the catalytic activity of diesel particulate filters

    E-print Network

    Murray, Timothy Quinn

    2014-01-01

    A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an aftertreatment device used to remove hazardous particulate matter (PM) from diesel engine exhaust. Modem emission restrictions have limited the acceptable amount of PM output by ...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter... Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter...Dupont, Delisle Boilers 1 & 2; and International Paper, Vicksburg. [54 FR...

  15. 40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate...Alabama § 52.62 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate...Alabama River Pulp; Champion International Corporation; Container...Electric's Burkville Plant; International Paper; Scott Paper...

  16. The Effects of Albedo and Compaction on the Opposition Surge of Laboratory Particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, M. K.

    2010-03-01

    Using bidirectional reflectance data of laboratory particulates acquired with the Bloomsburg University Goniometer (B.U.G.) Laboratory, we investigate the role of optical albedo and particulate compaction on the opposition surge.

  17. Incorporation of particulates into accreted ice above subglacial Vostok lake, Antarctica 

    E-print Network

    Siegert, M. J.; Royston-Bishop, G.; Priscu, J. C.; Tranter, M.; Christner, B.; Lee, V.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of microscopic particulates in meteoric and accreted ice from the Vostok (Antarctica) ice core is assessed in conjunction with existing ice-core data to investigate the mechanism by which particulates are ...

  18. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...wearer's negative inhalation pressure to draw the ambient air through the air-purifying...

  19. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...wearer's negative inhalation pressure to draw the ambient air through the air-purifying...

  20. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Respirators § 84.170 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...description. (a) Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators...wearer's negative inhalation pressure to draw the ambient air through the air-purifying...