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Sample records for particulate ecto-nucleotidase cd39

  1. High Expression of Ecto-Nucleotidases CD39 and CD73 in Human Endometrial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Aliagas, Elisabet; Vidal, August; Texidó, Laura; Ponce, Jordi; Condom, Enric; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies used by tumors to evade immunosurveillance is the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, which has immunosupressive and tumor promoting effects. The study of the mechanisms leading to adenosine formation at the tumor interstitium are therefore of great interest in oncology. The dominant pathway generating extracellular adenosine in tumors is the dephosphorylation of ATP by ecto-nucleotidases. Two of these enzymes acting sequentially, CD39 and CD73, efficiently hydrolyze extracellular ATP to adenosine. They have been found to play a crucial role in a variety of tumors, but there were no data concerning endometrial cancer, the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. The aim of the present work is to study the expression of CD39 and CD73 in human endometrial cancer. We have analyzed protein and gene expression, as well as enzyme activity, in type I endometrioid adenocarcinomas and type II serous adenocarcinomas and their nonpathological endometrial counterparts. High levels of both enzymes were found in tumor samples, with significantly increased expression of CD39 in type II serous tumors, which also coincided with the higher tumor grade. Our results reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system in cancer, emphasizing the relevance of ecto-nucleotidases as emerging therapeutic targets in oncology. PMID:24707115

  2. Beyond ecto-nucleotidase: CD39 defines human Th17 cells with CD161.

    PubMed

    Bai, Aiping; Robson, Simon

    2015-09-01

    CD39/ENTPD1 is a prototypic member of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ENTPDase) family on cell surface. CD39 has been reported to be a marker of regulatory immune cells and catalyzes extracellular hydrolysis of nucleotides to generate AMP and, in tandem with CD73, adenosine. We have recently found in addition that co-expression of CD39 and CD161 by human CD4(+) T cells may become a biomarker of human Th17 cells. CD39 and CD161 have direct interactions that are further linked with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Upon activation of CD39 and CD161, the molecular interactions boost ASM bio-activity, which generates cellular ceramide to further mediate downstream signals inclusive of STAT3 and mTOR. We suggest modulation of human Th17 responsiveness by CD39 and CD161 and describe novel molecular mechanisms integrating elements of both extracellular nucleotide and sphingolipid homeostasis that are pivotal in the control of human Th17 cells and which could have therapeutic potential. PMID:26059452

  3. Polyoxometalates--potent and selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Fiene, Amelie; Li, Wenjin; Hanck, Theodor; Brylev, Konstantin A; Fedorov, Vladimir E; Lecka, Joanna; Haider, Ali; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Sévigny, Jean; Kortz, Ulrich; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-15

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic cluster metal complexes that possess versatile biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects. Their mechanisms of action at the molecular level are largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the inhibition of several enzyme families (e.g., phosphatases, protein kinases or ecto-nucleotidases) by POMs may contribute to their pharmacological properties. Ecto-nucleotidases are cell membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides thereby regulating purinergic (and pyrimidinergic) signaling. They comprise four distinct families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), alkaline phosphatases (APs) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of a series of polyoxometalates as well as chalcogenide hexarhenium cluster complexes at a broad range of ecto-nucleotidases. [Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2](10-) (5, PSB-POM142) was discovered to be the most potent inhibitor of human NTPDase1 described so far (Ki: 3.88 nM). Other investigated POMs selectively inhibited human NPP1, [TiW11CoO40](8-) (4, PSB-POM141, Ki: 1.46 nM) and [NaSb9W21O86](18-) (6, PSB-POM143, Ki: 4.98 nM) representing the most potent and selective human NPP1 inhibitors described to date. [NaP5W30O110](14-) (8, PSB-POM144) strongly inhibited NTPDase1-3 and NPP1 and may therefore be used as a pan-inhibitor to block ATP hydrolysis. The polyoxoanionic compounds displayed a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition of NPPs and eN, but appeared to be competitive inhibitors of TNAP. Future in vivo studies with selected inhibitors identified in the current study are warranted. PMID:25449596

  4. Trafficking and intracellular ATPase activity of human ecto-nucleotidase NTPDase3 and the effect of ER-targeted NTPDase3 on protein folding.

    PubMed

    Ivanenkov, Vasily V; Svigny, Jean; Kirley, Terence L

    2008-09-01

    Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases, NTPDase1 (CD39) and NTPDase3, are integral plasma membrane proteins that hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides, thereby modulating the function of purinergic receptors. During processing in the secretory pathway, the active sites of ecto-nucleotidases are located in the lumen of vesicular compartments, thus raising the question whether the ecto-nucleotidases affect the ATP-dependent processes in these compartments, including protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It has been reported (J. Biol. Chem. (2001) 276, 41518-41525) that CD39 is not active until it reaches the plasma membrane, suggesting that terminal glycosylation in Golgi is critical for its activity. To investigate the subcellular location and the mechanism of ecto-nucleotidase activation, we expressed human NTPDase3 in COS-1 cells and blocked the secretory transport with monensin or brefeldin A, or by targeting to ER with a signal peptide. Cell surface biotinylation, sensitivity to glycosidases, and fluorescence microscopy analyses suggest that, in contrast to the previous report on CD39, NTPDase3 becomes catalytically active in the ER or in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, and that terminal glycosylation in Golgi is not essential for activity. Moreover, ER-targeted NTPDase3, but not wild-type NTPDase3 or ER-targeted inactive G221A mutant, significantly diminished the folding efficiency and the transport to the plasma membrane of coexpressed CD39 used as a reporter protein. These data suggest that ER-targeted NTPDase3 significantly depletes ATP in ER, whereas wild-type NTPDase3 is likely to acquire ATPase activity in a post-ER, but pre-Golgi, compartment, thus avoiding unproductive ATP hydrolysis and interference with protein folding in the ER. ER-targeted NTPDase3 may be a useful experimental tool to study the effects of ER ATP depletion on ER function under normal and stress conditions. PMID:18693757

  5. Ecto-nucleotidases activities in the contents of ovarian endometriomas: potential biomarkers of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Texid, Laura; Romero, Claudia; Vidal, August; Garca-Valero, Jos; Fernndez Montoli, M Eulalia; Baixeras, Nria; Condom, Enric; Ponce, Jordi; Garca-Tejedor, Amparo; Martn-Satu, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a common gynecologic condition affecting millions of women worldwide. It is an inflammatory, estrogen-dependent complex disorder, with broad symptomatic variability, pelvic pain, and infertility being the main characteristics. Ovarian endometriomas are frequently developed in women with endometriosis. Late diagnosis is one of the main problems of endometriosis; thus, it is important to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the ecto-nucleotidases activities in the contents of endometriomas. These enzymes, through the regulation of extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, are key enzymes in inflammatory processes, and their expression has been previously characterized in human endometrium. To achieve our objective, the echo-guided aspirated fluids of endometriomas were analyzed by evaluating the ecto-nucleotidases activities and compared with simple cysts. Our results show that enzyme activities are quantifiable in the ovarian cysts aspirates and that endometriomas show significantly higher ecto-nucleotidases activities than simple cysts (5.5-fold increase for ATPase and 20-fold for ADPase), thus being possible candidates for new endometriosis biomarkers. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of ecto-nucleotidases bearing exosomes in these fluids. These results add up to the knowledge of the physiopathologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis and, open up a promising new field of study. PMID:25276049

  6. ACIDOSIS IS A KEY REGULATIOR OF OSTEOBLAST ECTO-NUCLEOTIDASE PYROPHOSPHATASE/PHOSPHODIESTERASE 1 (NPP1) EXPRESSION AND ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark OR; Milln, Jos Luis; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi, a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 16 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 > alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (p<0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, p<0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. PMID:26033523

  7. Stem cell characteristics in glioblastoma are maintained by the ecto-nucleotidase E-NPP1

    PubMed Central

    Bageritz, J; Puccio, L; Piro, R M; Hovestadt, V; Phillips, E; Pankert, T; Lohr, J; Herold-Mende, C; Lichter, P; Goidts, V

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly aggressive brain tumours and are characterised by substantial cellular heterogeneity within a single tumour. A sub-population of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) that shares properties with neural precursor cells has been described, exhibiting resistance to therapy and therefore being considered responsible for the high recurrence rate in glioblastoma. To elucidate the underlying cellular processes we investigated the role of phosphatases in the GSC phenotype, using an in vitro phosphatome-wide RNA interference screen. We identified a set of genes, the knockdown of which induces a significant decrease in the glioma stem cell marker CD133, indicating a role in the glioblastoma stem-like phenotype. Among these genes, the ecto-nucleotidase ENPP1 (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1) was found to be highly expressed in GSCs compared with normal brain and neural stem cells. Knockdown of ENPP1 in cultured GSCs resulted in an overall downregulation of stem cell-associated genes, induction of differentiation into astrocytic cell lineage, impairment of sphere formation, in addition to increased cell death, accumulation of cells in G1/G0 cell cycle phase and sensitisation to chemotherapeutic treatment. Genome-wide gene expression analysis and nucleoside and nucleotide profiling revealed that knockdown of ENPP1 affects purine and pyrimidine metabolism, suggesting a link between ENPP1 expression and a balanced nucleosidenucleotide pool in GSCs. The phenotypic changes in E-NPP1-deficient GSCs are assumed to be a consequence of decreased transcriptional function of E2F1. Together, these results reveal that E-NPP1, by acting upstream of E2F1, is indispensable for the maintenance of GSCs in vitro and hence required to keep GSCs in an undifferentiated, proliferative state. PMID:24531536

  8. Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luís C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important factor in determining the clinical outcome of leishmaniasis. PMID:23071853

  9. CD39/Adenosine Pathway Is Involved in AIDS Progression

    PubMed Central

    Limou, Sophie; Younas, Mehwish; Kk, Ayrin; Hu, Sophie; Seddiki, Nabila; Hulin, Anne; Delaneau, Olivier; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Herbeck, Joshua T.; Mullins, James I.; Muhtarova, Maria; Bensussan, Armand; Zagury, Jean-Franois; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Lvy, Yves

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by a chronic activation of the immune system and suppressed function of T lymphocytes. Regulatory CD4+ CD25high FoxP3+CD127low T cells (Treg) play a key role in both conditions. Here, we show that HIV-1 positive patients have a significant increase of Treg-associated expression of CD39/ENTPD1, an ectoenzyme which in concert with CD73 generates adenosine. We show in vitro that the CD39/adenosine axis is involved in Treg suppression in HIV infection. Treg inhibitory effects are relieved by CD39 down modulation and are reproduced by an adenosine-agonist in accordance with a higher expression of the adenosine A2A receptor on patients' T cells. Notably, the expansion of the Treg CD39+ correlates with the level of immune activation and lower CD4+ counts in HIV-1 infected patients. Finally, in a genetic association study performed in three different cohorts, we identified a CD39 gene polymorphism that was associated with down-modulated CD39 expression and a slower progression to AIDS. PMID:21750674

  10. Overexpression of CD39 and high tumoral CD39+/CD8+ ratio are associated with adverse prognosis in resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Xue-Fei; Li, Jun; Dong, Jiang-Nan; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Li, Neng-Ping; Yun, Bei; Xia, Rong-Long

    2015-01-01

    CD39/ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (ENTPD1) is a cell surface-located, rate-limiting enzyme in the generation of adenosine, and plays a crucial role in tumor development. We examined co-expression of CD39 and CD8in gastric cancer (GC) and showed that the expression of CD39 and CD8 increased significantly in tumor tissues compared to paired peritumor tissues. The expression of tumoral CD39 (tCD39), but not tumoral CD8 (tCD8), was related to overall survival. Furthermore, the CD39+/CD8+ ratio was associated with poor prognosis in resected GC patients. Taken together, our data indicate that highCD39 expression and high tCD39+/CD8+ ratio in GC is a predictor of poor prognosis for GC patients after radical resection. Moreover, CD39 could serve as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26823801

  11. CD39 Expression Identifies Terminally Exhausted CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Yates, Kathleen; Pauken, Kristen E.; Cosgrove, Cormac; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.; Wherry, E. John; Alter, Galit; Goulder, Philip J. R.; Klenerman, Paul; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Lauer, Georg M.; Haining, W. Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Exhausted T cells express multiple co-inhibitory molecules that impair their function and limit immunity to chronic viral infection. Defining novel markers of exhaustion is important both for identifying and potentially reversing T cell exhaustion. Herein, we show that the ectonucleotidse CD39 is a marker of exhausted CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells specific for HCV or HIV express high levels of CD39, but those specific for EBV and CMV do not. CD39 expressed by CD8+ T cells in chronic infection is enzymatically active, co-expressed with PD-1, marks cells with a transcriptional signature of T cell exhaustion and correlates with viral load in HIV and HCV. In the mouse model of chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells contain a population of CD39high CD8+ T cells that is absent in functional memory cells elicited by acute infection. This CD39high CD8+ T cell population is enriched for cells with the phenotypic and functional profile of terminal exhaustion. These findings provide a new marker of T cell exhaustion, and implicate the purinergic pathway in the regulation of T cell exhaustion. PMID:26485519

  12. CD39 and CD73 in immunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Luca; Pacher, Pl; Vizi, E. Sylvester; Hask, Gyrgy

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic activities of CD39 and CD73 play strategic roles in calibrating the duration, magnitude, and chemical nature of purinergic signals delivered to immune cells through the conversion of ADP/ATP to AMP and AMP to adenosine, respectively. This drives a shift from an ATP-driven proinflammatory environment to an anti-inflammatory milieu induced by adenosine. The CD39/CD73 pathway changes dynamically with the pathophysiological context in which it is embedded. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that altering this catabolic machinery can change the course or dictate the outcome of several pathophysiological events, such as AIDS, autoimmune diseases, infections, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer, suggesting these ecto-enzymes are novel therapeutic targets for managing a variety of disorders. PMID:23601906

  13. NTPDase1/CD39 and aberrant purinergic signalling in the pathogenesis of COPD.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Zsofia; Mllner, Nina; Lucattelli, Monica; Ayata, Cemil Korcan; Cicko, Sanja; Yegutkin, Gennady G; De Cunto, Giovanna; Mller, Tobias; Meyer, Anja; Hossfeld, Madelon; Sorichter, Stephan; Horvath, Ildiko; Virchow, Christian J; Robson, Simon C; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Idzko, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic receptor activation via extracellular ATP is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1/CD39 hydrolyses extracellular ATP and modulates P2 receptor signalling.We aimed to investigate the expression and function of CD39 in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation in patients and preclinical mouse models. CD39 expression and soluble ATPase activity were quantified in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells in nonsmokers, smokers and COPD patients or mice with cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation. In mice, pulmonary ATP and cytokine concentrations, inflammation and emphysema were analysed in the presence or absence of CD39.Following acute cigarette smoke exposure CD39 was upregulated in BALF cells in smokers with further increases in COPD patients. Acute cigarette smoke exposure induced CD39 upregulation in murine lungs and BALF cells, and ATP degradation was accelerated in airway fluids. CD39 inhibition and deficiency led to augmented lung inflammation; treatment with ATPase during cigarette smoke exposure prevented emphysema.Pulmonary CD39 expression and activity are increased in COPD. CD39 deficiency leads to enhanced emphysema in mice, while external administration of a functional CD39 analogue partially rescues the phenotype. The compensatory upregulation of pulmonary CD39 might serve as a protective mechanism in cigarette smoke-induced lung damage. PMID:26541524

  14. CD39 improves survival in microbial sepsis by attenuating systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Csóka, Balázs; Németh, Zoltán H; Törő, Gábor; Koscsó, Balázs; Kókai, Endre; Robson, Simon C; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Erdélyi, Katalin; Pacher, Pál; Haskó, György

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Excessive inflammation is a major cause of organ failure and mortality in sepsis. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, ENTPDase1 (CD39) is a cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, which degrades the extracellular purines ATP and ADP, thereby regulating purinergic receptor signaling. Although the role of purinergic receptor signaling in regulating inflammation and sepsis has been addressed previously, the role of CD39 in regulating the host's response to sepsis is unknown. We found that the CD39 mimic apyrase (250 U/kg) decreased and knockout or pharmacologic blockade with sodium polyoxotungstate (5 mg/kg; IC50 ≈ 10 μM) of CD39 increased mortality of mice with polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. CD39 decreased inflammation, organ damage, immune cell apoptosis, and bacterial load. Use of bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CD39 expression on myeloid cells decreases inflammation in septic mice. CD39 expression is upregulated during sepsis in mice, as well as in both murine and human macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli. Moreover, E. coli increases CD39 promoter activity in macrophages. Altogether, these data indicate CD39 as an evolutionarily conserved inducible protective pathway during sepsis. We propose CD39 as a novel therapeutic target in the management of sepsis. PMID:25318479

  15. CD39 is a promising therapeutic antibody target for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Gregory M; Cairns, Belinda; Levashova, Zoia; Chinn, Lawrence; Perez, Myra; Theunissen, Jan-Willem; Liao-Chan, Sindy; Bermudez, Abel; Flory, Mark R; Schweighofer, Karl J; H van der Horst, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a heterogenous tumor arising from the embryonic mesoderm represented by approximately 50 histological subtypes. Effective therapeutic intervention is lacking for recurrent, late stage and metastatic disease. CD39, a cell-surface ectonucleotidase, has previously been shown to be upregulated in hematological malignancies and various epithelial tumors, but not in STS. Here, we show by mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry that CD39 is highly expressed in primary patient sarcoma samples. Moreover, CD39 nucleotidase activity is enhanced in fibrosarcoma compared with normal control cells. We demonstrate that an inhibitory monoclonal anti-CD39 antibody, abrogates CD39 enzymatic activity significantly and prolongs survival in a lethal metastatic patient-derived sarcoma model. Taken together, the data suggest CD39 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of STS. PMID:26279761

  16. Overexpression of CD39 in mouse airways promotes bacteria-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Thtre, Emilie; Frederix, Kim; Guilmain, William; Delierneux, Cline; Lecut, Christelle; Bettendorff, Lucien; Bours, Vincent; Oury, Ccile

    2012-08-15

    In airways, the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase CD39 plays a central role in the regulation of physiological mucosal nucleotide concentrations and likely contributes to the control of inflammation because accelerated ATP metabolism occurs in chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We sought to determine whether constant elevated CD39 activity in lung epithelia is sufficient to cause inflammation and whether this affects the response to acute LPS or Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposure. We generated transgenic mice overexpressing human CD39 under the control of the airway-specific Clara cell 10-kDa protein gene promoter. Transgenic mice did not develop any spontaneous lung inflammation. However, intratracheal instillation of LPS resulted in accelerated recruitment of neutrophils to the airways of transgenic mice. Macrophage clearance was delayed, and the amounts of CD8(+) T and B cells were augmented. Increased levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant, IL-6, and RANTES were produced in transgenic lungs. Similarly, higher numbers of neutrophils and macrophages were found in the lungs of transgenic mice infected with P. aeruginosa, which correlated with improved bacteria clearance. The transgenic phenotype was partially and differentially restored by coinstillation of P2X(1) or P2X(7) receptor antagonists or of caffeine with LPS. Thus, a chronic increase of epithelial CD39 expression and activity promotes airway inflammation in response to bacterial challenge by enhancing P1 and P2 receptor activation. PMID:22802412

  17. Role of CD39 (NTPDase-1) in thromboregulation, cerebroprotection, and cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Aaron J; Broekman, M Johan; Drosopoulos, Joan H F; Olson, Kim E; Islam, Naziba; Pinsky, David J; Levi, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    Blood platelets maintain vascular integrity and promote primary and secondary hemostasis following interruption of vessel continuity. Biochemical or physical damage to coronary, carotid, or peripheral arteries promotes excessive platelet activation and recruitment culminating in vascular occlusion and tissue ischemia. Currently, inadequate therapeutic approaches to stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD) are a public health issue. Following our demonstration of neutrophil leukotriene production from arachidonate released from activated aspirin-treated platelets, we studied interactions among platelets and other blood cells. This led to concepts of transcellular metabolism and thromboregulation. Thrombosis has a proinflammatory component whereby biologically active substances are synthesized by different cell types that could not individually synthesize the metabolite(s). Endothelium controls platelet reactivity via at least three biochemical systems: autacoids leading to production of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial ecto-adenosine phosphatase (ADPase)/CD39/nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase-1). The autacoids are fluid phase reactants, not produced by tissues in the basal state, but are only synthesized intracellularly and released upon interactions of cells with an agonist. When released, they exert fleeting actions in the immediate milieu and are rapidly inactivated. CD39 is an integral component of the endothelial cell (EC) surface and is substrate activated. It maintains vascular fluidity in the complete absence of prostacyclin and NO, indicating that the latter are ancillary components of hemostasis. Therapeutic implications for the autacoids have not been compelling because of their transient and local action and limited potency. Conversely, CD39, acting solely on the platelet releasate, is efficacious in animal models. It metabolically neutralizes a prothrombotic releasate via deletion of ADP-the major recruiting agent responsible for formation of an occlusive thrombus. In addition, solCD39 reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and ischemia-induced norepinephrine release in the heart. This action can prevent fatal arrhythmia. Moreover, solCD39 ameliorated the sequelae of stroke in cd39 null mice. Thus, CD39 represents the next generation of cardioprotective and cerebroprotective molecules. This article focuses on our interpretations of recent data and their implications for therapeutics. PMID:15852226

  18. Vascular stasis, intestinal hemorrhage, and heightened vascular permeability complicate acute portal hypertension in cd39-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Crdenas, Andrs; Wu, Yan; Enjyoji, Keichi; Robson, Simon C

    2009-08-01

    Vasoactive factors that regulate splanchnic hemodynamics include nitric oxide, catecholamines, and possibly extracellular nucleosides/nucleotides (adenosine, ATP). CD39/ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1) is the major vascular ectonucleotidase that hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides. CD39 activity may be modulated by vascular injury, inflammation, and altered oxygen tension. Altered Cd39 expression by the murine hepatosplanchnic vasculature may impact hemodynamics and portal hypertension (PHT) in vivo. We noted that basal portal pressures (PPs) were comparable in wild-type and Cd39-null mice (n = 9). ATP infusions resulted in increments in PP in wild-type mice, but, in contrast, this significantly decreased in Cd39-null mice (n = 9) post-ATP in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. We then studied Cd39/NTPDase1 deletion in the regulation of portal hemodynamics, vascular integrity, and intestinal permeability in a murine model of PHT. Partial portal vein ligation (PPVL) was performed in Cd39-null (n = 44) and wild-type (n = 23) mice. Sequential measurements obtained after PPVL were indicative of comparable levels of PHT (ranges 14-29 mmHg) in both groups. There was one death in the wild-type group and eight in the Cd39-null group from intestinal bleeding (P = 0.024). Circulatory stasis in the absence of overt portal vein thrombosis, portal congestion, intestinal hemorrhage, and increased permeability were evident in all surviving Cd39-null mice. Deletion of Cd39 results in deleterious outcomes post-PPVL that are associated with significant microcirculatory derangements and major intestinal congestion with hemorrhage mimicking acute mesenteric occlusion. Absent Cd39/NTPDase1 and decreased generation of adenosine in the splanchnic circulation cause heightened vascular permeability and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in PPVL. PMID:19520738

  19. Defective renal water handling in transgenic mice over-expressing human CD39/NTPDase1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Morris, Kaiya L; Sparrow, Shannon K; Dwyer, Karen M; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2012-08-01

    Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP. Previously, we showed that CD39 is expressed at several sites within the kidney and thus may impact the availability of type 2 purinergic receptor (P2-R) ligands. Because P2-Rs appear to regulate urinary concentrating ability, we have evaluated renal water handling in transgenic mice (TG) globally overexpressing hCD39. Under basal conditions, TG mice exhibited significantly impaired urinary concentration and decreased protein abundance of AQP2 in the kidney compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Urinary excretion of total nitrates/nitrites was significantly higher in TG mice, but the excretion of AVP or PGE(2) was equivalent to control WT mice. There were no significant differences in electrolyte-free water clearance or fractional excretion of sodium. Under stable hydrated conditions (gelled diet feeding), the differences between the WT and TG mice were negated, but the decrease in urine osmolality persisted. When water deprived, TG mice failed to adequately concentrate urine and exhibited impaired AVP responses. However, the increases in urinary osmolalities in response to subacute dDAVP or chronic AVP treatment were similar in TG and WT mice. These observations suggest that TG mice have impaired urinary concentrating ability despite normal AVP levels. We also note impaired AVP release in response to water deprivation but that TG kidneys are responsive to exogenous dDAVP or AVP. We infer that heightened nucleotide scavenging by increased levels of CD39 altered the release of endogenous AVP in response to dehydration. We propose that ectonucleotidases and modulated purinergic signaling impact urinary concentration and indicate potential utility of targeted therapy for the treatment of water balance disorders. PMID:22622462

  20. CD39 expression on Treg and Th17 cells is associated with metabolic factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Espinosa, Nancy; Corts-Garcia, Juan Diego; Martnez-Leija, Ernesto; Rodrguez-Rivera, Jose Guillermo; Barajas-Lpez, Carlos; Gonzlez-Amaro, Roberto; Portales-Prez, Diana Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Th17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases such as type two diabetes (T2D). CD39(+) Treg cells have been implicated as responsible for suppressing Th17 cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number and function of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD39(+) Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from T2D patients and healthy control subjects. The Th17 cells were detected in PBMC under culture with human anti-CD3/CD28 and PMA/ionomycin and the levels of IL-17 were assessed by ELISA and qPCR. The T2D patients with obesity showed significantly lower percentages of CD39(+) Treg cells. A negative correlation between CD39(+) Treg cells and weight, and body mass index was detected. In contrast, the low levels of CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells in overweight and obese T2D patients showed a positive correlation with glucose and HbA1c. Additionally, we found a subpopulation of Th17 cells that express CD39 and were correlated with glucose and HbA1c. Our findings suggest that the expression of CD39 on Treg cells and also in CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells from T2D patients is related to hyperglycemia as well as to overweight and obesity and therefore may participate as a modulator of the effector capacity of Th17 cells. PMID:26386144

  1. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8+ T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Serena Longhi, Maria; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN?)-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8+ T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFN? production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8+ T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NF?B signalling with decreases in both IFN? levels and CD39 expression. CD39+CD8+ T cells substantially inhibit IFN? production by CD39?CD8+ T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39+CD8+ T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFN? responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease. PMID:26549640

  2. Genetic analysis of an allergic rhinitis cohort reveals an intercellular epistasis between FAM134B and CD39

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracellular ATP is a pro-inflammatory molecule released by damaged cells. Regulatory T cells (Treg) can suppress inflammation by hydrolysing this molecule via ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1), also termed as CD39. Multiple studies have reported differences in CD39+ Treg percentages in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Hepatitis B and HIV-1. In addition, CD39 polymorphisms have been implicated in immune-phenotypes such as susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and AIDS progression. However none of the studies published so far has linked disease-associated variants with differences in CD39 Treg surface expression. This study aims at identifying variants affecting CD39 expression on Treg and at evaluating their association with allergic rhinitis, a disease characterized by a strong Treg involvement. Methods Cohorts consisting of individuals of different ethnicities were employed to identify any association of CD39 variants to surface expression. Significant variant(s) were tested for disease association in a published GWAS cohort by one-locus and two-locus genetic analyses based on logistic models. Further functional characterization was performed using existing microarray data and quantitative RT-PCR on sorted cells. Results Our study shows that rs7071836, a promoter SNP in the CD39 gene region, affects the cell surface expression on Treg cells but not on other CD39+ leukocyte subsets. Epistasis analysis revealed that, in conjunction with a SNP upstream of the FAM134B gene (rs257174), it increased the risk of allergic rhinitis (P?=?1.98??10-6). As a promoter SNP, rs257174 controlled the expression of the gene in monocytes but, notably, not in Treg cells. Whole blood transcriptome data of three large cohorts indicated an inverse relation in the expression of the two proteins. While this observation was in line with the epistasis data, it also implied that a functional link must exist. Exposure of monocytes to extracellular ATP resulted in an up-regulation of FAM134B gene expression, suggesting that extracellular ATP released from damaged cells represents the connection for the biological interaction of CD39 on Treg cells with FAM134B on monocytes. Conclusions The interplay between promoter SNPs of CD39 and FAM134B results in an intercellular epistasis which influences the risk of a complex inflammatory disease. PMID:24970562

  3. CD73 and CD39 ectonucleotidases in T cell differentiation: Beyond immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Bono, María Rosa; Fernández, Dominique; Flores-Santibáñez, Felipe; Rosemblatt, Mario; Sauma, Daniela

    2015-11-14

    Extracellular ATP is a danger signal released by dying and damaged cells, and it functions as an immunostimulatory signal that promotes inflammation. However, extracellular adenosine acts as an immunoregulatory signal that modulates the function of several cellular components of the adaptive and innate immune response. Consequently, the balance between ATP and adenosine concentration is crucial in immune homeostasis. CD39 and CD73 are two ectonucleotidases that cooperate in the generation of extracellular adenosine through ATP hydrolysis, thus tilting the balance towards immunosuppressive microenvironments. Extracellular adenosine can prevent activation, proliferation, cytokine production and cytotoxicity in T cells through the stimulation of the A2A receptor; however, recent evidence has shown that adenosine may also affect other processes in T-cell biology. In this review, we discuss evidence that supports a role of CD73 and CD39 ectonucleotidases in controlling naive T-cell homeostasis and memory cell survival through adenosine production. Finally, we propose a novel hypothesis of a possible role of these ectonucleotidases and autocrine adenosine signaling in controlling T-cell differentiation. PMID:26226423

  4. Low expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells as a biomarker for resistance to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Raphael Sanches; Liew, Foo Y.; Talbot, Jhimmy; Carregaro, Vanessa; Oliveira, Rene D.; Almeida, Sergio L.; França, Rafael F. O.; Donate, Paula B.; Pinto, Larissa G.; Ferreira, Flavia I. S.; Costa, Diego L.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Lopes, Norberto P.; Queiroz, Regina Helena C.; Silva, Joao Santana; Figueiredo, Florencio; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Cunha, Thiago M.; Ferreira, Sérgio H.; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Cunha, Fernando Q.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by joint destruction and severe morbidity. Methotrexate (MTX) is the standard first-line therapy of RA. However, about 40% of RA patients are unresponsive to MTX treatment. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) are thought to play an important role in attenuating RA. To investigate the role of Tregs in MTX resistance, we recruited 122 RA patients (53 responsive, R-MTX; 69 unresponsive, UR-MTX) and 33 healthy controls. Three months after MTX treatment, R-MTX but not UR-MTX showed higher frequency of peripheral blood CD39+CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs than the healthy controls. Tregs produce adenosine (ADO) through ATP degradation by sequential actions of two cell surface ectonucleotidases: CD39 and CD73. Tregs from UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39, produced less ADO, and had reduced suppressive activity than Tregs from R-MTX. In a prospective study, before MTX treatment, UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39 on Tregs than those of R-MTX or control (P < 0.01). In a murine model of arthritis, CD39 blockade reversed the antiarthritic effects of MTX treatment. Our results demonstrate that MTX unresponsiveness in RA is associated with low expression of CD39 on Tregs and the decreased suppressive activity of these cells through reduced ADO production. Our findings thus provide hitherto unrecognized mechanism of immune regulation in RA and on mode of action of MTX. Furthermore, our data suggest that low expression of CD39 on Tregs could be a noninvasive biomarker for identifying MTX-resistant RA patients. PMID:25675517

  5. Regulatory T Cells Negatively Affect IL-2 Production of Effector T Cells through CD39/Adenosine Pathway in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Seddiki, Nabila; Yatim, Ahmad; Carriere, Matthieu; Hulin, Anne; Younas, Mehwish; Ghadimi, Elnaz; Kk, Ayrin; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Alain; Svigny, Jean; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Levy, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Regulatory T cells suppress IL-2 production of effector CD4+ T cells in pathological conditions are unclear. A subpopulation of human Treg expresses the ectoenzyme CD39, which in association with CD73 converts ATP/ADP/AMP to adenosine. We show here that Treg/CD39+ suppress IL-2 expression of activated CD4+ T-cells more efficiently than Treg/CD39?. This inhibition is due to the demethylation of an essential CpG site of the il-2 gene promoter, which was reversed by an anti-CD39 mAb. By recapitulating the events downstream CD39/adenosine receptor (A2AR) axis, we show that A2AR agonist and soluble cAMP inhibit CpG site demethylation of the il-2 gene promoter. A high frequency of Treg/CD39+ is associated with a low clinical outcome in HIV infection. We show here that CD4+ T-cells from HIV-1 infected individuals express high levels of A2AR and intracellular cAMP. Following in vitro stimulation, these cells exhibit a lower degree of demethylation of il-2 gene promoter associated with a lower expression of IL-2, compared to healthy individuals. These results extend previous data on the role of Treg in HIV infection by filling the gap between expansion of Treg/CD39+ in HIV infection and the suppression of CD4+ T-cell function through inhibition of IL-2 production. PMID:23658513

  6. Inhibition of Neutrophils by Hypertonic Saline Involves Pannexin-1, CD39, CD73, and Other Ectonucleotidases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Bao, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Woehrle, Tobias; Sumi, Yuka; Ledderose, Stephan; Li, Xiaoou; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G

    2015-09-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation has been studied as a possible strategy to reduce polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation and tissue damage in trauma patients. Hypertonic saline blocks PMNs by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors. Here, we studied the underlying mechanisms in search of possible reasons for the inconsistent results of recent clinical trials with HS resuscitation. Purified human PMNs or PMNs in whole blood were treated with HS to simulate hypertonicity levels found after HS resuscitation (40 mmol/L beyond isotonic levels). Adenosine triphosphate release was measured with a luciferase assay. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation was assessed by measuring oxidative burst. The pannexin-1 (panx1) inhibitor panx1 and the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) blocked ATP release from PMNs in purified and whole blood preparations, indicating that HS releases ATP via panx1 and gap junction channels. Hypertonic saline blocked N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced PMN activation by 40% in purified PMN preparations and by 60% in whole blood. These inhibitory effects were abolished by panx1 but only partially reduced by CBX, which indicates that panx1 has a central role in the immunomodulatory effects of HS. Inhibition of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 abolished the suppressive effect of HS on purified PMN cultures but only partially reduced the effect of HS in whole blood. These findings suggest redundant mechanisms in whole blood that may strengthen the immunomodulatory effect of HS in vivo. We conclude that HS resuscitation exerts anti-inflammatory effects that involve panx1, CD39, CD73, and other ectonucleotidases, which produce the adenosine that blocks PMNs by stimulating their A2a receptors. Our findings shed new light on the immunomodulatory mechanisms of HS and suggest possible new strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of hypertonic resuscitation. PMID:26009814

  7. Isolation of functional human regulatory T cells (Treg) from the peripheral blood based on the CD39 expression

    PubMed Central

    Mandapathil, Magis; Lang, Stephan; Gorelik, Elieser; Whiteside, Theresa L.

    2009-01-01

    Human regulatory T cells (Treg) have been variously defined as CD4+CD25+, CD4+CD25high or CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cells which are responsible for maintaining peripheral tolerance. Their isolation from human peripheral blood or tissues depends on the expression level of CD25(IL-2Rα) - a surface marker which is also expressed on activated effector helper T cells. CD39, a cell surface associated ectonucleotidase, can be used to purify Treg with strong suppressor functions. The CD4+CD39+ T cells catalyze cleavage of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which is then further cleaved to adenosine. CD4+CD39+ T cells largely overlap with CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ but not CD4+CD25+ T-cell subset, and mediate equally potent immune suppression. Thus, CD39 surface marker can be successfully used for routine isolation of functionally-active human Treg from the peripheral blood of healthy donors or patients with cancer for studies of their role in health and disease. PMID:19450601

  8. In vitro Study of a Novel Stent Coating Using Modified CD39 Messenger RNA to Potentially Reduce Stent Angioplasty-Associated Complications

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Meike-Kristin; Nolte, Andrea; Reus, Rebekka; Behring, Andreas; Zengerle, Diane; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Hohmann, Jan David; Peter, Karlheinz; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Krajewski, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Stent angioplasty provides a minimally invasive treatment for atherosclerotic vessels. However, no treatment option for atherosclerosis-associated endothelial dysfunction, which is accompanied by a loss of CD39, is available, and hence, adverse effects like thromboembolism and restenosis may occur. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapy represents a novel strategy, whereby de novo synthesis of a desired protein is achieved after delivery of a modified mRNA to the target cells. Methods and Findings Our study aimed to develop an innovative bioactive stent coating that induces overexpression of CD39 in the atherosclerotic vessel. Therefore, a modified CD39-encoding mRNA was produced by in vitro transcription. Different endothelial cells (ECs) were transfected with the mRNA, and CD39 expression and functionality were analyzed using various assays. Furthermore, CD39 mRNA was immobilized using poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA), and the transfection efficiency in ECs was analyzed. Our data show that ECs successfully translate in vitro-generated CD39 mRNA after transfection. The overexpressed CD39 protein is highly functional in hydrolyzing ADP and in preventing platelet activation. Furthermore, PLGA-immobilized CD39 mRNA can be delivered to ECs without losing its functionality. Summary In summary, we present a novel and promising concept for a stent coating for the treatment of atherosclerotic blood vessels, whereby patients could be protected against angioplasty-associated complications. PMID:26381750

  9. CD39 is a negative regulator of P2X7-mediated inflammatory cell death in mast cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells (MCs) are major contributors to an inflammatory milieu. One of the most potent drivers of inflammation is the cytokine IL-1?, which is produced in the cytoplasm in response to danger signals like LPS. Several controlling mechanisms have been reported which limit the release of IL-1?. Central to this regulation is the NLRP3 inflammasome, activation of which requires a second danger signal with the capacity to subvert the homeostasis of lysosomes and mitochondria. High concentrations of extracellular ATP have the capability to perturb the plasma membrane by activation of P2X7 channels and serve as such a danger signal. In this study we investigate the role of P2X7 channels and the ecto-5-nucleotidase CD39 in ATP-triggered release of IL-1? from LPS-treated mast cells. Results We report that in MCs CD39 sets an activation threshold for the P2X7-dependent inflammatory cell death and concomitant IL-1? release. Knock-out of CD39 or stimulation with non-hydrolysable ATP led to a lower activation threshold for P2X7-dependent responses. We found that stimulation of LPS-primed MCs with high doses of ATP readily induced inflammatory cell death. Yet, cell death-dependent release of IL-1? yielded only minute amounts of IL-1?. Intriguingly, stimulation with low ATP concentrations augmented the production of IL-1? in LPS-primed MCs in a P2X7-independent but caspase-1-dependent manner. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the fine-tuned interplay between ATP and different surface molecules recognizing or modifying ATP can control inflammatory and cell death decisions. PMID:25184735

  10. A commensal symbiotic factor derived from Bacteroides fragilis promotes human CD39(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and Treg function.

    PubMed

    Telesford, Kiel M; Yan, Wang; Ochoa-Reparaz, Javier; Pant, Anudeep; Kircher, Christopher; Christy, Marc A; Begum-Haque, Sakhina; Kasper, Dennis L; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2015-07-01

    Polysaccharide A (PSA) derived from the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis is a symbiosis factor that stimulates immunologic development within mammalian hosts. PSA rebalances skewed systemic T helper responses and promotes T regulatory cells (Tregs). However, PSA-mediated induction of Foxp3 in humans has not been reported. In mice, PSA-generated Foxp3(+) Tregs dampen Th17 activity thereby facilitating bacterial intestinal colonization while the increased presence and function of these regulatory cells may guard against pathological organ-specific inflammation in hosts. We herein demonstrate that PSA induces expression of Foxp3 along with CD39 among naïve CD4 T cells in vitro while promoting IL-10 secretion. PSA-activated dendritic cells are essential for the mediation of this regulatory response. When cultured with isolated Foxp3(+) Tregs, PSA enriched Foxp3 expression, enhanced the frequency of CD39(+)HLA-DR(+) cells, and increased suppressive function as measured by decreased TNFα expression by LPS-stimulated monocytes. Our findings are the first to demonstrate in vitro induction of human CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhanced suppressive function of circulating Foxp3(+) Tregs by a human commensal bacterial symbiotic factor. Use of PSA for the treatment of human autoimmune diseases, in particular multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease, may represent a new paradigm in the approach to treating autoimmune disease. PMID:26230152

  11. A commensal bacterial product elicits and modulates migratory capacity of CD39(+) CD4 T regulatory subsets in the suppression of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Begum-Haque, Sakhina; Telesford, Kiel M; Ochoa-Repraz, Javier; Christy, Marc; Kasper, Eli J; Kasper, Dennis L; Robson, Simon C; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2014-07-01

    Tolerance established by host-commensal interactions regulates host immunity at both local mucosal and systemic levels. The intestinal commensal strain Bacteroides fragilis elicits immune tolerance, at least in part, via the expression capsular polysaccharide A (PSA). How such niche-specific commensal microbial elements regulate extra-intestinal immune responses, as in the brain, remains largely unknown. We have recently shown that oral treatment with PSA suppresses neuro-inflammation elicited during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis. This protection is dependent upon the expansion of immune-regulatory CD4 T cells (Treg) expressing CD39, an ectonucleotidase. Here, we further show that CD39 modulation of purinergic signals enhances migratory phenotypes of both total CD4 T cells and Foxp3(+) CD4 Tregs at central nervous system (CNS) lymphoid-draining sites in EAE in vivo and promotes their migration in vitro. These changes are noted during PSA treatment, which leads to heightened accumulation of CD39(+) CD4 Tregs in the CNS. Deficiency of CD39 abrogates accumulation of Treg during EAE, and is accompanied by elevated Th1/Th17 signals in the CNS and in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Our results demonstrate that immune-modulatory commensal bacterial products impact the migratory patterns of CD4 Treg during CNS autoimmunity via the regulation of CD39. These observations provide clues as to how intestinal commensal microbiome is able to modulate Treg functions and impact host immunity in the distal site. PMID:25006655

  12. T Lymphocyte Inhibition by Tumor-Infiltrating Dendritic Cells Involves Ectonucleotidase CD39 but Not Arginase-1

    PubMed Central

    Trad, Malika; Gautheron, Alexandrine; Fraszczak, Jennifer; Alizadeh, Darya; Larmonier, Claire; LaCasse, Collin J.; Centuori, Sara; Audia, Sylvain; Samson, Maxime; Ciudad, Marion; Bonnefoy, Francis; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Perruche, Sylvain; Saas, Philippe; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    T lymphocytes activated by dendritic cells (DC) which present tumor antigens play a key role in the antitumor immune response. However, in patients suffering from active cancer, DC are not efficient at initiating and supporting immune responses as they participate to T lymphocyte inhibition. DC in the tumor environment are functionally defective and exhibit a characteristic of immature phenotype, different to that of DC present in nonpathological conditions. The mechanistic bases underlying DC dysfunction in cancer responsible for the modulation of T-cell responses and tumor immune escape are still being investigated. Using two different mouse tumor models, we showed that tumor-infiltrating DC (TIDC) are constitutively immunosuppressive, exhibit a semimature phenotype, and impair responder T lymphocyte proliferation and activation by a mechanism involving CD39 ectoenzyme. PMID:26491691

  13. CD39/NTPDase-1 expression and activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells are differentially regulated by leaf extracts from Rubus caesius and Rubus idaeus.

    PubMed

    Dudzinska, Dominika; Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Podsedek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

    2014-09-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated the favorable biological activities of plants belonging to the genus Rubus, but little is known of the role of Rubus leaf extracts in the modulation of the surface membrane expression and activity of endothelial apyrase. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 1-15 ?g/ml Rubus extracts on CD39 expression and enzymatic activity, and on the activation (ICAM-1 expression) and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The polyphenolic contents and antioxidative capacities of extracts from dewberry (R. caesius L.) and raspberry (R. idaeus L.) leaves were also investigated. The techniques applied were flow cytometry (endothelial surface membrane expression of ICAM-1 and CD39), malachite green assay (CD39 activity), HPLC-DAD (quantitative analysis of polyphenolic extract), ABTS, DPPH and FRAP spectrometric assays (antioxidant capacity), and the MTT test (cell viability). Significantly increased CD39 expressions and significantly decreased ATPDase activities were found in the cells treated with 15 ?g/ml of either extract compared to the results for the controls. Neither of the extracts affected cell proliferation, but both significantly augmented endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression. The overall antioxidant capacities of the examined extracts remained relatively high and corresponded well to the determined total polyphenol contents. Overall, the results indicate that under in vitro conditions dewberry and raspberry leaf extracts have unfavorable impact on endothelial cells. PMID:25034034

  14. P2X1 receptor inhibition and soluble CD39 administration as novel approaches to widen the cardiovascular therapeutic window

    PubMed Central

    Fung, C.Y. Eleanor; Marcus, Aaron J.; Broekman, M. Johan; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P.

    2010-01-01

    Thrombus formation at sites of disrupted atherosclerotic plaques is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although the platelet is now recognized to be a central regulator of thrombus formation, development of antiplatelet reagents that selectively target thrombosis over hemostasis represents a challenge. Existing prophylactic antiplatelet therapies are centered on the use of aspirin, an irreversible cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and a thienopyridine such as clopidogrel (Plavix), which inactivates the ADP-stimulated P2Y12 receptor. Whilst these compounds are widely used and have beneficial effects for patients, their antithrombotic benefit is complicated by an elevated bleeding risk and substantial or partial resistance. Moreover, combination therapy with these two drugs increases the hemorrhagic risk even further. This review explores the possibility of inhibiting the platelet-surface ionotropic P2X1 receptor and/or elevating CD39/NTPDase1 activity as new therapeutic approaches to reduce overall platelet reactivity and recruitment of surrounding platelets at pro-thrombotic locations. Since both proteins affect platelet activation at an early stage in the events leading to thrombosis, but are less crucial in hemostasis, they provide new strategies to widen the cardiovascular therapeutic window without compromising safety. PMID:19467446

  15. Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Aisha V; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2012-02-01

    Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)-mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA(-/-) Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA-treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID. PMID:22184407

  16. Impaired natriuretic response to high-NaCl diet plus aldosterone infusion in mice overexpressing human CD39, an ectonucleotidase (NTPDase1).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Robson, Simon C; Morris, Kaiya L; Heiney, Kristina M; Dwyer, Karen M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M

    2015-06-15

    Extracellular nucleotides acting through P2 receptors facilitate natriuresis. To define how purinergic mechanisms are involved in sodium homeostasis, we used transgenic (TG) mice that globally overexpress human CD39 (hCD39, NTPDase1), an ectonucleotidase that hydrolyzes extracellular ATP/ADP to AMP, resulting in an altered extracellular purine profile. On a high-sodium diet (HSD, 3.5% Na(+)), urine volume and serum sodium were significantly higher in TG mice but sodium excretion was unaltered. Furthermore, TG mice showed an attenuated fall in urine aldosterone with HSD. Western blot analysis revealed significantly lower densities (?40%) of the ?-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in medulla, and the major band (85-kDa) of ?-ENaC in TG mice cortex. To evaluate aldosterone-independent differences, in a second experiment, aldosterone was clamped by osmotic minipump at 20 ?g/day, and mice were fed either an HSD or a low-sodium diet (LSD, 0.03% Na(+)). Here, no differences in urine volume or osmolality, or serum aldosterone were found, but TG mice showed a modest, yet significant impairment in late natriuresis (days 3 and 4). Several major sodium transporters or channel subunits were differentially expressed between the genotypes. HSD caused a downregulation of Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) in both genotypes; and had higher cortical levels of NCC, Na-K-ATPase (?-1 subunit), and ?- and ?-ENaC. The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) was downregulated by HSD in wild-type mice, but it increased in TG mice. In summary, our data support the concept that extracellular nucleotides facilitate natriuresis; they also reveal an aldosterone-independent downregulation of major renal sodium transporters and channel subunits by purinergic signaling. PMID:25877509

  17. Anti-CD39 and anti-CD73 antibodies A1 and 7G2 improve targeted therapy in ovarian cancer by blocking adenosine-dependent immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Sebastian Fm; Del Barrio, Itsaso Montalbán; Diessner, Joachim; Stein, Roland G; Strohschein, Jenny; Hönig, Arnd; Dietl, Johannes; Wischhusen, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 degrade ATP to adenosine which inhibits immune responses via the A2A adenosine receptor (ADORA2A) on T and NK cells. The current study investigates the potential therapeutic use of the specific anti CD39- and anti CD73-antibodies A1 (CD39) and 7G2 (CD73) as these two ectonucleotidases are overexpressed in ovarian cancer (OvCA). As expected, NK cell cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell lines OAW-42 or SK-OV-3 was significantly increased in the presence of A1 or 7G2 antibody. While this might partly be due to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a luciferase-dependent assay for quantifying biologically active adenosine further showed that A1 and 7G2 can inhibit CD39 and CD73-dependent adenosine-generation. In turn, the reduction in adenosine levels achieved by addition of A1 and 7G2 to OAW-42 or SK-OV-3 cells was found to de-inhibit the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells in coculture with OvCA cells. Likewise, blocking of CD39 and CD73 on OvCA cells via A1 and 7G2 led to an increased cytotoxicity of alloreactive primed T cells. Thus, antibodies like A1 and 7G2 could improve targeted therapy in ovarian cancer not only by specifically labeling overexpressed antigens but also by blocking adenosine-dependent immune evasion in this immunogenic malignancy. PMID:24489992

  18. Milk-Based Nutraceutical for Treating Autoimmune Arthritis via the Stimulation of IL-10- and TGF-?-producing CD39+ Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maddaloni, Massimo; Kochetkova, Irina; Jun, SangMu; Callis, Gayle; Thornburg, Theresa; Pascual, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases arise from the loss of tolerance to self, and because the etiologies of such diseases are largely unknown, symptomatic treatments rely on anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Tolerogenic treatments that can reverse disease are preferred, but again, often thwarted by not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags). Hence, a viable alternative to stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) is to induce bystander tolerance. Colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) has been shown to evoke bystander immunity and to hasten Ag-specific Treg development independent of auto-Ag. To translate in treating human autoimmune diseases, the food-based Lactococcus was engineered to express CFA/I fimbriae, and Lactococcus-CFA/I fermented milk fed to arthritic mice proved highly efficacious. Protection occurred via CD39+ Tregs producing TGF-? and IL-10 to potently suppress TNF-? production and neutrophil influx into the joints. Thus, these data demonstrate the feasibility of oral nutraceuticals for treating arthritis, and potency of protection against arthritis was improved relative to that obtained with Salmonella-CFA/I. PMID:25629976

  19. Particulate Matter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Technology Laws & Regulations About EPA Contact Us Particulate Matter (PM) You are here: EPA Home Air & Radiation Six Common Pollutants Particulate Matter Announcements March 13, 2013 - An updated “Strategies ...

  20. The evidence for two opposite, ATP-generating and ATP-consuming, extracellular pathways on endothelial and lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Henttinen, Tiina; Samburski, Sergei S; Spychala, Jozef; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2002-01-01

    Extracellular purines are important signalling molecules in the vasculature that are regulated by a network of cell surface ectoenzymes. By using human endothelial cells and normal and leukaemic lymphocytes as enzyme sources, we identified the following purine-converting ectoenzymes: (1) ecto-nucleotidases, NTP diphosphohydrolase/CD39 (EC 3.6.1.5) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 (EC 3.1.3.5); (2) ecto-nucleotide kinases, adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC 2.7.4.6); (3) ecto-adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4). Evidence for this was obtained by using enzyme assays with (3)H-labelled nucleotides and adenosine as substrates, direct evaluation of gamma-phosphate transfer from [gamma-(32)P]ATP to AMP/NDP, and bioluminescent measurement of extracellular ATP synthesis. In addition, incorporation of radioactivity into an approx. 20 kDa surface protein was observed following incubation of Namalwa B cells with [gamma-(32)P]ATP. Thus two opposite, ATP-generating and ATP-consuming, pathways coexist on the cell surface, where basal ATP release, re-synthesis of high-energy phosphoryls, and selective ecto-protein phosphorylation are counteracted by stepwise nucleotide breakdown with subsequent adenosine inactivation. The comparative measurements of enzymic activities indicated the predominance of the nucleotide-inactivating pathway via ecto-nucleotidase reactions on the endothelial cells. The lymphocytes are characterized by counteracting ATP-regenerating/adenosine-eliminating phenotypes, thus allowing them to avoid the lymphotoxic effects of adenosine and maintain surrounding ATP at a steady-state level. These results are in agreement with divergent effects of ATP and adenosine on endothelial function and haemostasis, and provide a novel regulatory mechanism of local agonist availability for nucleotide- or nucleoside-selective receptors within the vasculature. PMID:12099890

  1. Enrichment of Inflammatory IL-17 and TNF-α Secreting CD4+ T Cells within Colorectal Tumors despite the Presence of Elevated CD39+ T Regulatory Cells and Increased Expression of the Immune Checkpoint Molecule, PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Margaret R.; Ryan, Ciara; Nolan, Bláthnaid; Tosetto, Miriam; Geraghty, Robert; Winter, Des C.; O’Connell, P. Ronan; Hyland, John M.; Doherty, Glen A.; Sheahan, Kieran; Ryan, Elizabeth J.; Fletcher, Jean M.

    2016-01-01

    T cell infiltration into colorectal tumors has been shown to correlate with improved patient outcomes. However, more detailed information on the makeup and relationships between the infiltrating T cell subsets is lacking. We therefore correlated the extent of immune infiltration into colorectal tumors with the frequencies of various T cell subsets. We prospectively recruited 22 patients at the time of surgical resection for colorectal cancer. The Klintrup–Mäkinen (KM) score was used to estimate the extent of immune infiltration into colorectal tumors. The frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells that produced cytokines or expressed the inhibitory molecule programed cell death 1 (PD-1) were determined by flow cytometry in colorectal tumor and matched uninvolved colonic tissue. In addition, the frequency of CD4 regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets was determined. An increased frequency of CD4 T cells producing IL-17 (Th17 cells) was observed in colorectal tumor tissue compared with adjacent uninvolved tissue. These Th17 cells mostly coproduced TNF-α, but not IFN-γ. IL-17 expression correlated positively with TNF-α and IL-10. Increased expression of the immune checkpoint molecule PD-1 was found in colorectal tumors compared with adjacent uninvolved tissue. There was a negative correlation between expression of PD-1 and IFN-γ, but not IL-17, for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. CD4+CD25+CD127lo and CD4+CD25+CD127loFoxP3+CD39+ Treg cells were enriched in colorectal tumors. A positive correlation between KM score and percentage CD4+CD25+CD127lo Treg cells was observed in tumors, suggesting that increased immune infiltration is associated with an increased proportion of Treg cells. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127lo Treg cells and the expression of IFN-γ and IL-2, but not IL-17, in tumors. Taken together, these data suggest that both PD-1 expressing T cells and Treg cells within the tumor may have a suppressive effect on T cells secreting IFN-γ, IL-2, or TNF-α, but not Th17 cells. PMID:27014625

  2. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  3. Sulfate Aerosol Particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Robert W.

    1987-09-01

    The condensation of SO3 vapor to detrimental acid-mist occurs only after substantial flue gas cooling, usually downstream from electrostatic precipitators. This condensation is an equilibrium process depending on gas temperature and water vapor pressure. Smelter plume opacity is related to acidmist and other sulfate aerosol particulate concentration through Mie particulate scattering theory. It is possible to estimate the amounts of sulfate particulate emissions and plume opacity, particularly those resulting from anticipated changes in smelter operations and flue gas treatment. These estimates can be used to determine compliance with current or anticipated regulations on smelter particulate emissions or plume opacity.

  4. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  5. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  6. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS OF PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a semi-technical overview of the contribution of particulate matter to the overall U.S. air pollution problem. It also discusses contributions of the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory at Research Triangle Park, N....

  7. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  8. Spacecraft particulate contaminant redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klavins, A.; Lee, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes analyses that were performed in support of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)) particulate contamination control effort. The specific problems addressed include extension of available particle removal data to launch acoustic and random vibration conditions, development of an engineering model for transport of suspended particulates by airflow and in the presence of vehicle acceleration, turbulent diffusion, and migration of particulates over vibrating surfaces, and integration of the various models into a code that could be used to generate contamination level estimates for the HST primary mirror and other critical surfaces for the HST mission phases. The overall redistribution calculations were made assuming a specified initial contaminant distribution in terms of MIL STD 1246A levels, and using predicted vibration data for the various HST surfaces and mission phases. As expected, the effects of airflow were found to be significant, particularly for the larger particles. Particles smaller than about 20 microns did not participate appreciably in the redistribution.

  9. Fine particulate capture device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. S.; Siewert, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    To capture fine particulate matter in a gas such as air, a dielectric fluid is directed to the center of whichever face of a rotating disc is exposed to the air flow. The disc is comprised of two or more segments which bear opposite electrostatic potentials. As the dielectric fluid is centrifuged towards the periphery of the rotating disc, the fluid becomes charged to the same potential as the segment over which it is passing. Particulate matter is attracted to the charged segment and is captured by the fluid. The fluid then carries the captured particulate matter to a collection device such as a toroidal container disposed around the periphery of the disc. A grounded electrically-conductive ring may be disposed at the outer periphery of the disc to neutralize the captured particles and the fluid before they enter the container.

  10. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph

    1998-11-13

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

  11. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Schelkoph; Stanley J. Miller

    1999-07-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

  12. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  13. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph

    1999-04-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of the dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses.

  14. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Golden, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  15. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  16. Instructions for Sampling Particulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Frank

    This technical report presents detailed instructions for sampling particulates. The table of contents includes sections on Introduction, Volume Determinations, Apparatus - Assembly and Operation, Sampling Techniques, and Acknowledgment. Six charts, 24 graphs, and one diagram are appended to facilitate sampling, as well as sections on Isokinetic

  17. PARTICULATE MATTER OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the EPA Administrator issued new Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) that added PM2.5 (PM less than 2.5 micrometers in size). The new standard was developed largely on the basis of epidemiological studies that found relatively con...

  18. PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In promulgating the new PM2.5 NAAQS (July 1997), Congress recognized scientific uncertainties associated with fine particulate matter to include composition, source-receptor relationships, and health and exposure effects. As a result, Congress provided EPA with dire...

  19. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  20. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

    1983-09-26

    Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

  1. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, James E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  2. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  3. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  4. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  5. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  6. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  7. 42 CFR 84.125 - Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks 84.125 Particulate tests; canisters containing particulate filters; minimum requirements. Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against particulates...

  8. Space station particulate contamination environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

  9. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

  10. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  11. Ambient Concentrations of Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents nationwide trends in ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from 1988 to 2009. Particulate matter pollution, such as PM10 and PM2.5, consists of solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in air, which can cause r...

  12. Particulate erosion mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate damage and erosion of ductile metals are today plaguing design and field engineers in diverse fields of engineering and technology. It was found that too many models and theories were proposed leading to much speculation from debris analysis and failure mechanism postulations. Most theories of solid particle erosion are based on material removal models which do not fully represent the actual physical processes of material removal. The various mechanisms proposed thus far are: melting, low-cycle fatigue, extrusion, delamination, shear localization, adhesive material transfer, etc. The experimental data on different materials highlighting the observed failure modes of the deformation and cutting wear processes using optical and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The most important mechanisms proved from the experimental observations of the specimens exposed to both spherical and angular particles are addressed, and the validity of the earlier theories discussed. Both the initial stages of damage and advanced stages of erosion were studied to gain a fundamental understanding of the process.

  13. Spacecraft particulate sizing spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Henry A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation prototype device is described, together with conclusions and several recommendations for follow-on flight hardware. The device detects individual particles crossing an external sensing zone, and produces a histogram displaying the size distribution of particles sensed, over the nominal range of 5 to 50 microns. The output is totally independent of the particle refractive index, and is also largely unaffected by particle shape. The reported diameters are in terms of the equivalent sphere, as judged by the scattered light intercepted by the receiving channels, which develop signals whenever a particle crosses the beam of illumination in the sensing zone. Supporting evidence for the latter assertion is discussed on the basis of experimental test data for non-spherical particulates. Also included is a technical appendix which presents theoretical arguments that provide a firm foundation for this assertion.

  14. Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    1996-01-01

    A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

  15. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Subsequently, extensive theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale investigations were completed to find an approach to prevent bag damage without compromising AHPC performance. Results showed that the best bag protection and AHPC performance were achieved by using a perforated plate installed between the discharge electrodes and bags. This perforated-plate design was then installed in the 2.5-MW AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant in Big Stone City, South Dakota, and the AHPC was operated from March to June 2001. Results showed that the perforated-plate design solved the bag damage problem and offered even better AHPC performance than the previous design. All of the AHPC performance goals were met, including ultrahigh collection efficiency, high air-to-cloth ratio, reasonable pressure drop, and long bag-cleaning interval.

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  17. Measurement of vehicle particulate emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Beltzer, M

    1975-01-01

    A constant volume sampler (CVS) compatible auto exhaust particulate sampling system has been built which samples exhaust isokinetically at constant temperature. This system yields internally consistent results and is capable of frequent and convenient operation. PMID:50931

  18. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  19. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  20. EXTERNAL COMBUSTION PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for external combustion sources. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from external combustion sources, the data were s...

  1. NONFERROUS INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the nonferrous industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from nonferrous plants, the data were summarized and ...

  2. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  3. MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER OUTDOORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized b...

  4. MODELING PARTICULATE CHARGING IN ESPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In electrostatic precipitators there is a strong interaction between the particulate space charge and the operating voltage and current of an electrical section. Calculating either the space charge or the operating point when the other is fixed is not difficult, but calculating b...

  5. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  6. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

  7. Source Testing for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVorkin, Howard

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)

  8. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  9. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  10. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2002-01-31

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October--December, 2001 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The persistent daily trends described in the previous quarterly report are seen in the fall particulate data, superimposed on the seasonal trend toward lower concentrations in the cooler months. Some instrumental issues were noted with the APS and the sulfate monitoring instruments, as described in the main report.

  11. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  12. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  13. Quasicrystalline particulate reinforced aluminum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Unal, O.

    1997-07-01

    Particulate reinforced aluminum and aluminum alloy composites are rapidly emerging as new commercial materials for aerospace, automotive, electronic packaging and other high performance applications. However, their low processing ductility and difficulty in recyclability have been the key concern. In this study, two composite systems having the same aluminum alloy matrix, one reinforced with quasicrystals and the other reinforced with the conventional SiC reinforcements were produced with identical processing routes. Their processing characteristics and tensile mechanical properties were compared.

  14. Improved particulate-sampling filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Schneider, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Small surface indentations entrain larger and more representative sampling than conventional petri-dish smeared with smooth layer adhesive. Filter is assembled from perforated disk and flat backing plate with sticky surface. Due to design-created currents, particulates come in contact with surface for longer time and have greater probability of being trapped. Filter is useful in air-quality monitoring at industrial sites, in mines, and in and around nuclear power plants.

  15. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  16. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER MODULES OF PARTICULATE PROCESSES FOR REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an aerosol model for inclusion in the EPA Regional Particulate Model is described. Existing computer modules of particulate processes developed under EPA contract by Professors Brock, Seinfeld, and Whitby are compared to determine efficient and accurate methods...

  18. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  20. Measurement of Particulate Pollutants in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ckuan, Raymond L.

    1971-01-01

    Representative measurements of the mass concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere are presented, to demonstrate the application of a new type of instrument evolved from aerospace research to various types of particulate pollution and their dynamics. The instrument employs aerodynamic impaction of particles onto an adhesive-coated piezo-electric crystal whose resonant frequency decreases with mass accretion on its surface, with a resulting particulate mass resolution of 10(exp -11) gram. Applications include air basin with aerial measurement of particulate mass concentration, jet aircraft wake, stationary industrial sources, direct on-line measurement of automobile exhaust, and techniques for source detection.

  1. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  2. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  3. Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

  4. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  5. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  6. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  7. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  8. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  9. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  10. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  11. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel particulate records. 57.5075 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter...

  12. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  13. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-10-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham study site during the July-September, 2000 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S sulfate monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The report also presents some initial notes on our operating experience with the 8400S sulfate analyzer. As described in the previous quarterly report, some persistent daily trends are seen in the particulate data, superimposed on a seasonal trend toward higher concentrations in warmer months. The sulfate mass fraction shows a markedly different time of day pattern from the balance of the particle mass, confirming the independent origin of this major mass fraction. The time variability of the major mass-bearing size fractions, and of the light-scattering potential, do not allow for a clean separation of independent size fractions. However, when the particle number averages are examined, the stronger time of day dependence of the smaller size fractions becomes more apparent, consistent with periods of higher formation of sub-100nm particles in early morning and in afternoon-evening periods.

  14. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  15. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  16. EMISSION CONTROL: CONTROL OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the results of fine particulate control technology tests by the Particulate Technology Branch (PATB) of EPA's IERL-RTP over the last 3 years. The review covers characterization of conventional control equipment, assessment of the collectability of dusts, and ne...

  17. METAL TRANSPORT AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will assist in identifying mechanisms of toxocity for particulate matter (PM) constituents. The hypothesis to be tested is that disequilibrium in metal transport in the lung follows exposure to particulate matter. This results in an oxidative stress, cell signaling...

  18. Testing Students' Use of the Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie; Huffman, Jason; Peck, Larry

    2004-01-01

    High School students' understanding about the particulate theory of matter and their use of particulate terminology is investigated. The Physical Changes Concepts Test (PCCT) was administered in two forms, an applied version and a theoretical version, to determine whether students scientifically understood the concepts well enough to apply them to

  19. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results of visits to Japan to assess research and development of new particulate control technology, and to evaluate the applicability of the Aut-Ainer particulate control device to diesel engines. New technology observed includes hooding systems for coke ove...

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

  1. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  2. Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Cites studies related to students' misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter. Stresses that a good understanding of these concepts is fundamental to the study of chemistry itself. Reports on a study of preservice elementary teachers views of the particulate nature of matter before instruction on the topic. (TW)

  3. Testing Students' Use of the Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie; Huffman, Jason; Peck, Larry

    2004-01-01

    High School students' understanding about the particulate theory of matter and their use of particulate terminology is investigated. The Physical Changes Concepts Test (PCCT) was administered in two forms, an applied version and a theoretical version, to determine whether students scientifically understood the concepts well enough to apply them to…

  4. Global developments in diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the following subject titles: Diesel particulate control around the world; Electric heating regeneration of large wall-flow type DPF; On-line measurement of diesel particle loading in ceramic filters; Evaluation of a self-cleaning particulate control system for diesel engines.

  5. Triboelectric technology for particulate emission measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Averdieck, W.J. )

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses how triboelectric technology (monitoring of particulate emission by sensing impacting particle charge transfer) has enabled a new generation of particulate emission detectors to be developed. They are providing to be much more suitable than traditional opacity methods. The reason for this is that they require little or no maintenance.

  6. Kuwaiti oil firesParticulate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Tahir; Amin, Mohamed B.

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) matters using a high-volume sampler and inhalable particulate matters using PM-10 samplers were collected at various locations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia during and after the Kuwaiti oil fires. The collected samples were analysed for toxic metals and oil hydrocarbon concentrations including some carcinogenic organic compounds in addition to gravimetric analysis. The concentration values of particulate matters were determined on a daily basis at Dhahran. Abqaiq, Rahima, Tanajib and Jubail locations. The analyses of the filters show a high concentration of the inhalable particulate at various locations, especially when north or northwest winds were blowing. It was found that the inhalable particulate concentration exceeded the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA) permissible limit of 340 ?g m- 3 at most of these locations during May-October 1991. A trend between the total suspended particulate and inhalable particulate measured concurrently at the same locations was observed and a regression equation was developed to correlate PM-10 data with the total suspended particulate data.

  7. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and sunflower hulls for the biomass material to be carbonized. The ability to remove mercury from a bituminous coal's derived flue gas was low. Removals of only 15% were attained while injecting 6 lb/Macf of activated carbon upstream of an electrostatic precipitator. Poisoning of sites on the activated carbon by SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} contributed to the poor mercury capture performance.

  8. Particulate detection technologies for preventive maintenance applications

    SciTech Connect

    Craney, B.

    1997-09-01

    The use of continuous monitoring to ensure ongoing compliance with particulate emissions standards is common practice in most parts of the world. Recently proposed standards by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are intended to use particulate monitoring as a surrogate technique for the compliance monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). This approach is based on the lack of available technologies for measuring HAPs, as well as the availability of cost-effective, reliable, low maintenance particulate monitors available today. Many types of particulate monitoring instruments are now available, but to date, all have been based on two basic measurement principles--optical or light attenuation (opacity) and contact electrification (triboelectric). Long-term exposure to problems with these methods led BHA engineers to refine a variation of the optical light attenuation method for their CPM continuous particulate monitoring product line. This technique of monitoring is known as received light modulation or scintillation.

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  10. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  11. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  12. Time Scales in Particulate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duan

    2013-06-01

    While there are many interests of studying interactions of individual particles, macroscopic collective behavior of particles are our main interest in many practical applications. In this talk, I will give a brief overview of the multiscale methods connecting the physics at individual particles to macroscopic quantities and averaged equations. The emphasis will be on dense dissipative particulate systems, such as powders. Unlike conservative particle systems, such as molecular systems, in a dissipative particle system the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium is not very useful unless in very special cases, because the only true thermodynamically equilibrium state in these systems is the state in which nothing moves. Other than idealized simple systems, mesoscale structures are common and important in many practical systems, especially in dissipative systems. Spatial correlations of these mesoscale structures, such as force chains in dense granular system, particle clusters and streamers in fluidized beds have received some recent attentions, partly because they can be visualized. This talk will emphasize the effects of time correlations related to the mesoscale structures. To consider time correlations and history information of the system, I will introduce the mathematical foundation of the Liouville equation, its applicability and limitations. I will derive the generalized Liouville equations for particulate systems with and without interstitial fluids, and then use them to study averaged transport equations and related closures. Interactions among the time scale of particle interactions, the time scale of the mesocale structures, and the time scale of the physical problem as represented by strain rate will be discussed. The effect of these interactions on the closure relations will be illustrated. I will also discuss possible numerical methods of solving the averaged equations, and multiscale numerical algorithms bridging the particle level calculations to continuum level calculations. This work was sponsored by Stockpile Safety and Surety Program, the Joint DOD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program, and National Nuclear Security Administrations Science Campaign 2.

  13. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  14. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  15. Macrophage-mediated endothelial inflammatory responses to airborne particulates: impact of particulate physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Kristovich, Robert; Knight, Deborah A; Long, John F; Williams, Marshall V; Dutta, Prabir K; Waldman, W James

    2004-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated a role for airborne particulates of <2.5 microm diameter in the development/exacerbation of chronic cardiopulmonary disease; however, specific pathogenic mechanisms and the etiological significance of particle physicochemical properties remain unresolved. Using a microporous aluminosilicate zeolite Y as a manifold, we have synthesized 1 microm particulates of pure carbon (C), carbon-iron (C/Fe), and carbon-iron/fluoro-aluminum silicate (C-Fe/F-Al-Si). We have used these particulates, as well as coal fly ash (CFA) and diesel exhaust particulates (DEP), to test the hypotheses that human macrophages treated with particulates elaborate proinflammatory cytokines in quantities sufficient to induce endothelial adhesion molecule expression and that macrophage responses to particulate exposure vary as a function of particulate physicochemical properties. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (M) were exposed for 24 h to sublethal concentrations of particulates, at which time phagocytosis was evident from optical microscopy. Human arterial, microvascular, or venous endothelial cells (EC) were treated with clarified supernatants recovered from M cultures, stained with fluorescein-conjugated mononclonal antibodies specific for endothelial adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, or E-selectin, and assayed by fluorescence flow cytometry. Data generated by these experiments demonstrate that while supernatants of M exposed to CFA and C particulates are relatively ineffective, supernatants from DEP, C/Fe, or C-Fe/F-Al-Si strongly induced adhesion molecule expression on EC, responses which were completely attenuated by antibody with blocking specificity for tumor necrosis factor alpha. Because the only difference between C and C/Fe particulates is the presence of surface iron on C/Fe, these findings suggest particulate-induced oxidative stress as a contributing factor in M activation and implicate redox active iron as a major determinant of particulate bioreactivity. PMID:15487890

  16. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  17. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  18. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  19. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  20. OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

  1. FILTER MEDIA FOR COLLECTING DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certification of particulate emissions from diesel motor vehicles involves filtration of measured aliquots of the total air diluted exhaust. Seven commercially available filter media were examined for this purpose. The media included a variety of PTFE membrane filters, glass fibe...

  2. PARTICULATE DATA REDUCTION SYSTEM (PADRE) USER GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, a user guide, describes the capabilities and use of the Particulate Data Reduction (PADRE) system, an interactive computer program that facilitates entry, reduction, and analysis of cascade impactor data for particle size distributions. Example sessions are provided t...

  3. PARTICULATE SAMPLING SUPPORT: 1977 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities supporting the particulate sampling efforts of EPA/IERL-RTP during FY 1977. Twenty technical directives were issued in seven categories: cascade impactors (7), cyclones (5), sampling electrostatic precipitators (1), guidelines and manuals (3), ...

  4. PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract, cascade impactors were...

  5. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  6. GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

  7. Atmospheric particulate mercury in Changchun City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengman; Wang, Qichao; Liu, Ruhai; Ma, Zhuangwei; Hao, Qingju

    From July 1999 to January 2000, the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the atmosphere collected by high-volume sampler was used to determine the particulate Hg of four function districts and one contrast district in the City of Changchun,China. The study results indicated that the value of the volume-based concentration and the mass-based concentration of each district during the heating period are higher than those of the nonheating period. The volume-based concentration of the urban districts is higher than that of the contrast district. Atmospheric Hg concentrations varied temporally and spatially. TSP is the critical factor of particulate Hg concentration; precipitation is the main meteorological factor affecting Hg (p) concentration in the atmosphere; coal combustion and wind-blown soil material are the important sources of atmospheric particulate Hg. During heating period, the coal combustion makes a greater contribution to Hg(p) than that of wind-blown soil materials.

  8. Differential Spectroscopic Imaging of Particulate Explosives Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    We present experimental results showing transmission and reflection imaging of approximately 100 microgram quantities of particulate explosives residue using a commercial uncooled microbolometer infrared camera and CO2 laser differential wavelength illumination.

  9. Apparatus for combustion of solid particulate fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, O.J.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes an apparatus for the combustion of solid particulate fuel. It comprises: a stationary grate including a perforated plate for receiving the solid particulate fuel; displaceable means positioned in a plane above the grate, movement of the displaceable means displacing spent solid particulate fuel from the stationary grate. The displaceable means including a rotatable member; and a burning cap positioned over the stationary grate, the burning cap defining a combustion chamber above the stationary grate. The burning cap including a battle that divided the combustion chamber into a primary half and a secondary half, the burning cap also including an aperture for allowing the particulate fuel to be introduced into the primary half.

  10. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  11. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N.; Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H.; Loth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  12. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the January-March, 2002 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. Some instrumental issues were noted with the upgrade of the APS model 3320 are described in the report, as well as preliminary performance indications for the upgraded instrument. During the quarter preliminary data analysis and modeling studies were conducted to test the potential of the North Birmingham site data for source attribution analyses. Our initial assessment has continued to be optimistic in this regard due to the location of the site relative to several important classes of local and midrange emission sources. We anticipate that these analyses will provide good separations of the effects of major source classes and spatial source clusters, and will provide useful information relevant to PM{sub 2.5} implementation strategies.

  13. Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

  14. Contribution of wastewater discharges to ocean surface particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Bracewell, L.W.; Selleck, R.E.; Carter, R.

    1980-08-01

    The results of a survey in the Southern California Bight indicated that much of the floatable particulates in the vicinity of primary treatment outfalls originated in wastewater. Most of the particulates of this origin were composed of grease and wax. These particulates also contained appreciable concentrations of coliform bacteria. The particulates from primary effluents had large proportions of unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids, whereas secondary effluent particulates resembled open-ocean particulates in proportions of fatty acids. Larger particulates were quickly dispersed. Surface concentrations of 3-mg hexane-extractable matter/m/sup 2/ or less probably are aesthetically acceptable.

  15. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  16. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  17. Aggregation in dense particulate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Dan James

    The aim of this work is to bridge the gap between two extreme limits of aggregating systems: the dilute limit and percolation. We present a broad description of aggregation for particulate systems that start out in a dilute state and, because of their fractal nature, evolve to a dense state. This work is a simulation study that uses an off lattice monte carlo algorithm to model the cluster-cluster aggregation process. We have studied the aggregation kinetics, aggregate structure, and aggregate shape as the system evolves for diffusion-limited, ballistic-limited, and reaction-limited aggregation classes. These results are complemented by simulations of site percolation, the Hierarchial model, and particle-cluster aggregation. Irreversible aggregation kinetics at early times when dilute are in agreement with the mean-field Smoluchowski equation. Since the aggregates are fractal in structure, they increasingly occupy the physical volume and the system becomes increasingly dense. This crowding between aggregates modifies the aggregation kernel functionality by modifying the kernel homogeneity constant. Remarkably, this new and evolving kernel homogeneity, folds back into the mean-field Smoluchowski equation, retaining the meanfield description despite the crowding. At low occupied cluster volume fraction, aggregate shape is self-preserving, with one characteristic axis approximately three times longer than the other two in three dimensions (3d). Once the system has evolved to an occupied cluster volume fraction roughly equal to the site percolation threshold, two things happen. First, a new aggregate structure develops, marked by a crossover length scale. Aggregates retain their dilute-limit structure across length scales less than the crossover length. However, at larger length scales, the aggregates resemble the backbone structure of site percolation. Second, aggregate shape anisotropy begins to decrease, until at the gel point it reaches a value consistent with site percolation clusters. Monte carlo results of aggregation with random bond fragmentation are in agreement with the mean-field predictions for liquid drops. However, because random bond breaking can happen over any length scale of the cluster, we find that the structural crossover length is washed out.

  18. Comparison of particulate verification techniques study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Rachel

    2006-08-01

    The efficacy of five particulate verification techniques on four types of materials was studied. Statistical Analysis Software/JMP 6.0 was used to create a statistically valid design of experiments. In doing so, 35 witness coupons consisting of the four types of materials being studied, were intentionally contaminated with particulate fallout. Image Analysis was used to characterize the extent of particulate fallout on the coupons and was used to establish a baseline, or basis of comparison, against the five techniques that were studied. The five particulate verification techniques were the Tapelift, the Particulate Solvent Rinse, the GelPak lift, an in-line vacuum filtration probe, and the Infinity Focusing Microscope (IFM). The four types of materials consisted of magnesium flouride (MgF II) coated mirrors, composite coated silver aluminum (CCAg), Z93 and NS43G coated aluminum, and silicon (si) wafers. The vacuum probe was determined to be most effective for Z93, the tapelift or vacuum probe for MgF2, and the GelPak Lift for CCAg and si substrates. A margin of error for each technique, based on experimental data from two experiments, for si wafer substrates, yielded the following: Tapelift - 67%, Solvent Rinse - 58%, GelPak- 26%, Vacuum Probe - 93%, IFM-to be determined.

  19. Particulate characterization for PFBC filter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1993-09-01

    Southern Research Institute is participating, as a subcontractor to Southern Company Services (SCS), in METC`s project to establish a Power Systems Development Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. This plant will serve as a facility for the development and testing of advanced systems for coal-based power generation. An important part of the program will be to test and evaluate various kinds of particulate control devices and systems for operation at high temperatures and high pressures. The hot gas cleanup technology is a critical factor in achieving the highest levels of energy efficiency in the advanced power systems. In connection with evaluation of particulate control devices to be installed at this facility, SRI has the responsibility for developing methods and equipment to characterize the particulate material suspended in the hot gas streams. Our objectives are to design systems for sampling and monitoring particulate mass loadings and size distributions at appropriate locations in the plant and to develop methods for operating these systems. We will assist SCS in the preparation of test plans for the operation of the plant, and we will participate in carrying out the particulate measurements.

  20. Particulate matter pollution in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Vega R, E.; Mora P, V.; Mugica A, V.

    1998-12-31

    The levels of particulate matter are of concern since they may induce severe effects on public health and is the second atmospheric pollution problem in Mexico City. Another noticeable effect in large cities attributable to particulate matter, is the deterioration of visibility. In this paper the analysis of the data of TSP and PM10 during 1988 to 1996 is presented. The seasonal variation of particulate matter, the typical ratios of PM10/TSP and relationships of the two variables were determined. It was found that PM10 concentrations show an important tendency to decrease during this period, due to some control strategies, although this is not the case for TSP. The monthly trend exhibits a clear relationship with the dry (October through April) and wet (May through September) seasons. The particulate matter concentrations are lower during the wet season. The hourly behavior shows that the highest concentrations are correlated with the traffic rush hours. The most TSP polluted area was the northeast, meanwhile the southeast is the most PM10 polluted area. There is a clear evidence of the particulate matter transportation from these areas to other sites of the City.

  1. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  2. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  3. Contribution of organic particulates to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Matanoski, G; Fishbein, L; Redmond, C; Rosenkranz, H; Wallace, L

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents some of the issues that remain to be resolved in order to assess the risk of cancer related to exposure to organic particulates. Most reviews of the effects of organic particulates from the outdoor environment on the risk of lung cancer show that this source seems to play a minor role. However, as fuel use and chemical composition of air pollutants change, the contribution of outdoor pollution as a cause of cancer may also change. Indoor air pollution is a more important source of exposure to organic particulates than is outdoor exposure. Although there is clear evidence that in occupational settings organic particulates cause human cancer, there has been almost no study of exposure to these types of particulates within indoor settings. Previous research has focused on cigarette smoke as the major indoor pollutant, but more specific characterization of contaminants in both the workplace and the home is required. The health effects of the higher levels of some of these contaminants in the workplace should be evaluated and the results extrapolated to populations exposed to lower levels in the home. Extensive research is needed to characterize organic particulate mixtures appropriately and test them for carcinogenicity. Studies on the health risks of nitropolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are reviewed, but their contribution to the overall burden of respiratory cancer in humans cannot be estimated at this time. Characterization of mixtures, assessment of exposures, and linkage of exposures to health effects are the objectives of the recommendations proposed for further research. PMID:3830112

  4. Modeling of Particulate Behavior in Pinhole Breaches

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2014-04-01

    A model is presented for calculating depressurization time for and particulate release from used nuclear fuel dry storage containers that have developed a pinhole breach. Particular attention is given to particulate deposition and transmission within the breach pathway. The model is modular in nature and is developed in a way that allows for more advanced treatments of internal temperature, internal component geometry, or aerosol flow to be readily incorporated. The model can be treated as a basis for addressing concerns associated with monitoring and verification efforts during long-term dry cask storage

  5. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  6. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  7. Particulate delivery systems for biodefense subunit vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Vincent W; Eyles, Jim E; Oya Alpar, H

    2005-06-17

    Expanding identification of potentially protective subunit antigens and correlates of protection has provided a basis for the introduction of safer vaccines. Despite encouraging results in animal models, the significant potential of particulate delivery systems in vaccine design has not yet translated into effective vaccines available for use in humans. This review article will focus on the current status of the development of particulate vaccines, mainly liposomes and bio-degradable polymers, against potential agents for biowarfare: plague, anthrax, botulinum, and smallpox; and filoviruses: Marburg and Ebola. PMID:15935873

  8. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  9. Much ado about dioxides and particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, F.P.

    1980-02-01

    Technical feature: The effect of carbon dioxide on climate is uncertain, and recent high CO2 levels may not persist. Worldwide warming trends since 1840 are outlined. There is no conclusive evidence that increased burning of fossil fuels has had or will have any ill effect on the climate. While there has been a slight increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere, the oxidation of humus and bogs rather than fossil fuels seems to be the main source of increased atmospheric CO2 and particulates. Increased plant growth and adsorption of CO2 and particulates by the oceans will maintain an even balance in the atmosphere. (17 references, 2 tables)

  10. Measurements of particulate semi-volatile material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yanbo

    2000-10-01

    A new innovative sampling system, PC-BOSS, was developed by the combination of particle concentrator and BOSS denuder techniques in response to the new EPA PM2.5 standard and to meet top research priorities for particulate matter that were identified by the National Research Council. The PC-BOSS (P_article C_oncentrator- B_righam Young University O_rganic S_ampling S_ystem) can accurately determine not only PM2.5 stable mass and species such as sulfate, but also particulate semi- volatile material. Several field comparison studies of the PC-BOSS with the EPA PM2.5 reference method and state-of-the-art fine particle measurement methods confirm the capability of the PC-BOSS to accurately determine particulate semi-volatile material, especially organic compounds. This is the first routine sampling system for the determination of both particulate semi-volatile inorganic and organic material. Two other denuder system samplers for the determination of PM2.5 total mass including semi-volatile material were also developed for PM2.5 research and exposure monitoring. Results of studies around the United States indicate that the EPA PM2.5 FRM (Federal Reference Method) under- measured PM2.5 mass by 20-30% compared to PC-BOSS results due to the loss of particulate nitrate and semi-volatile organic compounds during sampling. Organic material is mostly responsible for this under- measurement by the FRM. Using our new sampling system in epidemiological and exposure studies will be essential to providing answers to some top research priorities for particulate matter and promote a better PM2.5 standard for the protection of human health because some fractions of particulate semi-volatile organic compounds are toxic and are possibly responsible for health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter. The atmospheric chemistry of organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere is still largely unknown because of the lack of detailed organic aerosol information. The importance of organic aerosols might also be underestimated because current data on organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere were mostly obtained by traditional methods, like the FRM method. Using PC-BOSS to study organic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere will provide not only more but also more accurate information about organic aerosols, and significantly improve the understanding of the role of aerosols in global warming, ozone depletion, and atmospheric heterogenous chemistry.

  11. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral...

  12. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral...

  13. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral...

  14. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral...

  15. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral...

  16. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF OLDER ADULTS TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors that influence the amount of particulate matter that potentially susceptible elderly Americans are exposed to is an issue of concern. This presentation and abstract investigates these factors using data obtained from three longitudinal particulate matter panel studies...

  17. ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives the status of the most promising high-temperature/high-pressure (HTP) particulate control devices being developed. Data are presented and anticipated performance and development problems are discussed. HTP particulate control offers efficiency and potential econo...

  18. METALLURGICAL COKE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the metallurgical coke industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from metallurgical coke plants, the data were...

  19. ASPHALTIC CONCRETE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the asphaltic concrete industry. After review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from asphalt concrete plants, the data were summarized...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... submitted a committal SIP for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10... nonattainment area to attainment of the NAAQS for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 micrometers (PM10) for... area to attainment of the NAAQS for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... submitted a committal SIP for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10... nonattainment area to attainment of the NAAQS for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submitted a committal SIP for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10... nonattainment area to attainment of the NAAQS for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM NON-FERROUS SMELTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical composition and particle size data for particulate emissions for stationary sources are required for environmental health effect assessments, air chemistry studies, and air quality modelling Investigations such as source apportionment. n this study, particulate emissions...

  5. Atmospheric particulate measurements in Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, R. W., Jr.; Sentell, R. J.; Woods, D. C.; Smith, J. R.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Characterization of atmospheric particulates was conducted at a site near the center of Norfolk, Virginia. Air quality was measured in terms of atmospheric mass loading, particle size distribution, and particulate elemental composition for a period of 2 weeks. The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a mean level of air quality and deviations about this mean, (2) to ascertain diurnal changes or special events in air quality, and (3) to evaluate instrumentation and sampling schedules. Simultaneous measurements were made with the following instruments: a quartz crystal microbalance particulate monitor, a light-scattering multirange particle counter, a high-volume air sampler, and polycarbonate membrane filters. To assess the impact of meteorological conditions on air quality variations, continuous data on temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction were recorded. Particulate elemental composition was obtained from neutron activation and scanning electron microscopy analyses of polycarbonate membrane filter samples. The measured average mass loading agrees reasonably well with the mass loadings determined by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board. There are consistent diurnal increases in atmospheric mass loading in the early morning and a sample time resolution of 1/2 hour seems necessary to detect most of the significant events.

  6. PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

  7. PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

  8. HIGH TEMPERATURE PARTICULATE CONTROL WITH CERAMIC FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of using ceramic materials as filters for fine particulate removal at high temperatures. The program was in two phases. Phase I, directed toward the development of a porous alumina membrane filter, had limited success because of the fragi...

  9. TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

  10. PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

  11. Nonlinear elastic properties of particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chao; Jiang, Xiaohu

    1993-07-01

    A METHOD of computing effective elastic moduli of isotropic nonlinear composites is developed by using a perturbation scheme. It is demonstrated that only solutions from linear elasticity are needed in computing higher order moduli. As an application of the method, particulate composites of nonlinear elastic materials are analysed.

  12. Particulate matter sampling strategies for agricultural operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies for sampling particulate matter (PM) from agricultural sources vary depending on the type of source, the objective of sampling the particular source, and the PM characteristics. Agricultural point or area sources may require different categories of samplers, stack or ambient, and those ca...

  13. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  14. FERROALLOY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of all available data characterizing particulate emissions from ferroalloy-producing electric arc furnaces. The data were summarized and rated in terms of reliability. Total and size specific emission factors were developed for the ferroalloy ...

  15. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  16. PARTICULATE DATA REDUCTION (PADRE) SYSTEM REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes how to access and use the Particulate Data Reduction (PADRE) System, an interactive computer program that facilitates entry, reduction, and analysis of cascade impactor data for particle size distributions. It also summarizes its logic and capabilities. The p...

  17. Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

  18. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  19. STUDIES OF PARTICULATE REMOVAL FROM DIESEL EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of the collection of particulate emissions from diesel exhaust by several different methods, using 5.7 liter GM diesel engines (as sources) and such controls as fiber and gravel bed filters, trap/cyclones, and ESPs. Overall and fract...

  20. FOREIGN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH IN FINE PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents unpublished fine particulate measurement and control information and information not readily available to the researcher, generated during the period 1971-76 in Australia, Canada, Japan, and the USSR. The information is used as a basis for identifying new conc...

  1. REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  2. EVALUATIONS OF NOVEL PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of four novel particulate control devices. Three were wet scrubbers: an Aronetics (Chemico) Two-Phase Jet Scrubber, an Entoleter Centrifield Scrubber, and a CEA Variable-Throat Venturi Scrubber. The fourth w...

  3. Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

    2005-01-01

    During the past year several accomplishments were made for both the Particulate Matter Characterization and Measurement System, (PMCMS) and PAGEMS projects. The PAGEMS focus is to measure particulate emissions as a function of combustor parameters such as inlet temperature, inlet pressure and fuel air ratio. These measurements are used to evaluate combustor performance in hopes of correlating particulate emissions with engine conditions. These measurements have taken place at in-house NASA combustor facilities and off-site facilities. Ths work is unique because particulate measurements at high- pressure conditions are not commonly made. Some calibration of the PAGEMS instrumentation was done as well as minor modifications to the PAGEMS plumbing setup. These led to measurement improvements. The instrumentation and measurement process for PAGEMS was assessed and new instruments such as a thermodenuder, thermal mass flow meters and a cyclone separator were purchased to improve the PAGEMS instrumentation and measurement process. A worksheet was created to simulate varying inlet conditions to the DMA. This worksheet allows the user to assess the error in the measurements when certain conditions exist. Two technical papers were written with the PAGEMS team for the EXCAVATE field project. A paper was also reviewed for an in house publication. Also data was processed and analyzed for another field project (PAX) and will be part of a third PAGEMS paper. Accomplishments were also made with the PMCMS project. The calibration of the radial differential mobility analyzer, (RDMA) in the particle sizing system in the PMCMS was completed and provided satisfactory results. The voltages used for the RDMA depending on the particle of interest were corrected. The measurement capability of the PMCMS was increased by replacing the MetOne CPC with a TSI CPC. Lastly, assistance was provided to three college summer students with calibration of their particulate equipment and Monica Rivera shared her understanding of the aerosol technology with them. She also provided input for their end of the summer presentations. And attended the Aviation and Particle Emissions workshop. This workshop brought together experts in the aircraft particulate emissions field. As a result Ms. Rivera made two significant contacts with academia (UMR) and government (WPAFB) which could lead to future collaboration. She also attended the Aerosol and Particle Measurement Class held at the University of Minnesota. This class refreshed her particulate knowledge and introduced her to new aerosol applications and technology. Furthermore at the class contacts were made with private industry (TSI) and government (WPAFB). Ms. Rivera also enhanced her education by taking an in-house class on aircraft design and operation.

  4. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  6. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  7. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  8. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  9. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  10. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  11. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  12. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  13. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  14. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  15. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  16. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  17. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  18. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  19. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  20. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  1. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  3. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  4. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  5. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  6. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  7. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  8. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  9. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  11. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  12. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  13. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  14. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  15. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  16. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  18. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  19. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  20. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  1. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  2. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  3. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  5. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  6. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  7. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  8. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  9. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  10. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  11. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  12. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  13. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  14. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  15. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

  16. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  18. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  19. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  20. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  1. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  2. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  3. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  4. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  6. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  7. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  8. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  9. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  10. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  11. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  12. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  13. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  15. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  16. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  17. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  18. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  20. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  1. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  3. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  4. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  5. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  6. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  7. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  9. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  10. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate emissions data are presented from a group of 19 in-use diesel automobiles. Five driving cycles and three fuel/lubricating oil combinations have been used to obtain particulate emissions data and also to collect particulate samples for chemical and bioassay characteriz...

  12. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  13. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  14. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  15. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  16. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  17. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  19. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  1. 40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM... Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected facilities... particulate matter to a control device. (b) Affected facilities must meet the fugitive emission limits...

  2. Particulate bioluininescence in dinoflagellates: dissociation and partial reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C W; Kreiss, P; Seliger, H H

    1972-09-01

    With the same extraction conditions used for Gonyaulax polyedra, soluble and particulate bioluminescence can be isolated from two additional species, Pyrodinium bahamense and Pyrocystis lunula. We have been able, for all three species, to dissociate soluble luciferin and luciferase from the particulate system. Luciferin can be incorporated into both reacted and unreacted particulate systems. PMID:17780988

  3. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... further defined in § 86.144. (3) P e = mass of particulate per test on the exhaust filter(s), grams. (4) Pb = mass of particulate on the “background” filter, grams. (i) The background particulate level, Pb, inside the dilution air filter box at EPA is very low. Pb will be assumed = 0, and background...

  4. Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

  5. SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLGOY (3RD): VOLUME III. PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the Third Symposium on the Transfer and Utilization of Particulate Control Technology, in Orlando, FL, March 9-13, 1981, sponsored by the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The ...

  6. Measurements Of Scattered Light From Asbestos Particulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riis, P.; Ballik, E. A.

    1987-09-01

    Light-scattering techniques are potentially very important for the low-level detection and identification of particulate species such as asbestos in aerosol and liquid suspensions. Low-level detection is essential because asbestos is a known carcinogen, even at very-low exposure levels. At present, most asbestos particulate monitoring is used on optical microscopy. If detailed analysis is required, then electron microscopy is employed. Both of these methods are labour intensive. Furthermore, the optical microscopy method is not very reliable. Although the light-scattering techniques described here have general applicability, the emphasis is on asbestos measurements. Ordinary measurements of Mie scattering from asbestos suspensions can provide only limited information on asbestos content. owever, a more sophisticated technique can be employed which relies on the fact that asbestos particulate is fibrous rather than spherical in shape, and that the fibres align in a strong magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T). Particulate other than asbestos is generally non-fibrous in shape. Measurements have been carried out on liquid suspensions of asbestos contained in a small cell placed between the poles of a rotating magnet. The aligned fibres, which rotate about their centre of mass as they follow the field, are illuminated using a laser source. The Mie-scattering intensity is measured as a function of rotation angle, and the resulting data is then analysed with the aid of a microcomputer. Intensity maxima and minima provide reliable information on asbestos concentration, even in the presence of strong scattering from other particulate. In addition, the angular location of the intensity peaks provides information on the type of asbestos present. Each type has a characteristic alignment behaviour in a strong magnetic field. Using relatively-simple equipment, chrysotile asbestos (the most commonly-used type) has been detected at levels below 30 ng/l.

  7. crantage d'un flux de particules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiniou, Bertrand

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect on a particle flux of shadowing by the restricted geometry of an opaque structure. We will demonstrate a general method for deriving angular distribution functions in the neighborhood of the opaque structure, given the incoming particle velocity distribution function. This method will be specifically applied to particles transported through a cylindrical tubular aperture, and we will obtain the particle angular distribution functions in and at the exit of the cylindrical tube, given the velocity distribution function at the entrance of the tube, in the particle gas. This simple case models well a great number of physical systems ranging from plasma-produced ions etching a well or via-hole in a semiconductor surface, to metal atoms exiting a Knudsen cell, and including the expansion of a molecular gas through a cylindrical aperture. L'objet de cet article est l'valuation de l'effet d'cran apport par la gomtrie restreinte d'un obstacle opaque sur un flux de particules. Nous exploiterons une mthode gnrale pour l'obtention des fonctions de distribution angulaire au voisinage de la structure opaque, tant donne la distribution des vitesses des particules incidentes. Cette mthode sera applique au cas de particules transportes au travers d'une ouverture cylindrique, i.e. un tube, et nous calculerons la fonction de distribution angulaire pour les particules l'intrieur et au sortir du tube, tant donne la distribution des vitesses l'entre du tube, dans le gaz de particules. Ce dernier cas reprsente un bon modle pour un grand nombre de systmes physiques : depuis le cas d'ions gnrs par un plasma et gravant un puits dans une surface de semi-conducteur jusqu'au cas d'atomes mtalliques sortant d'un four de type Knudsen, en passant par l'effusion d'un gaz molculaire au travers d'une fine ouverture cylindrique.

  8. Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and, except for the first and last day (where there was experimental error), recorded values seem to meet EPA standards. We conclude that the high particulate matter levels we observed were due to heavy crowding and traffic jams near street corners during the time of the festival. We also conclude that particulate pollution levels in the Chinatown neighborhood are generally acceptable, except during festivities that generate heavy congestion. We intend conduct further investigations, particularly at next year's street festival, to confirm observations made thus far.

  9. Innovations in high-temperature particulate filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.

    1997-05-01

    Fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification expose sensitive equipment, such as high-speed turbines, to hot combustion offgases. In order to prevent erosion, corrosion, and other damage to sensitive equipment, such systems now incorporate high-temperature particulate filters. One device often considered for such applications uses a design similar to a baghouse (i.e., multiple banks of porous filter bags that remove particulate from gas streams). In this case, however, instead of polyester or teflon fabric, the filter elements are made of rigid ceramic or similar materials. These devices are sometimes called `candle filters,` and the individual ceramic filter elements are frequently called `candles.` Three high-temperature applications of candle filters are described here. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  11. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  12. Particulate contaminant relocation during shuttle ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The dislodgement, venting, and redeposition of particles on a surface in the shuttle bay by the vibroacoustic, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces present during shuttle ascent have been investigated. The particles of different sizes which are displaced, vented, and redistributed have been calculated; and an estimate of the increased number of particles on certain surfaces and the decrease on others has been indicated. The average sizes, velocities, and length of time for certain particles to leave the bay following initial shuttle doors opening and thermal tests have been calculated based on indirect data obtained during several shuttle flights. Suggestions for future measurements and observations to characterize the particulate environment and the techniques to limit the in-orbit particulate contamination of surfaces and environment have been offered.

  13. Effects of particulate air pollution on asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.B.; Chai, H.; Dickey, D.W.; Jones, R.H.; Kinsman, R.A.; Morrill, C.G.; Spector, S.L.; Weiser, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four asthmatic subjects in Denver were followed from January through March 1979, a three-month period in which Denver air pollution levels are generally high and variable. Dichotomous, virtual impactor samplers provided daily measurements (micrograms/m3) of inhaled particulate matter (total mass, sulfates, and nitrates) for coarse (2.5--15 micrograms in aerodynamic diameter) and fine fractions (less than 2.5 micrometers). Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, temperature, and barometric pressure were also measured. Twice daily measurements of each subject's peak expiratory flow rates, use of as-needed aerosolized bronchodilators, and report of airways obstruction symptoms characteristic of asthma were tested for relationships to air pollutants using a random effects model across subjects. During the time actually observed, there were very few days in which high levels of suspended particulates were recorded. Of the environmental variables studied, only fine nitrates were associated with increased symptom reports and increased aerosolized bronchodilator usage.

  14. Continuous measurement of diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, S.; Black, F.; King, F.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of emerging diesel-particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity or light extinction properties of elemental carbon are described. The instrumentation provided adequate time resolution to observe the transient concentrations associated with typical automobile driving patterns. Accuracy and precision are evaluated by comparing integrated average results to measurements, using classical gravimetric filtration techniques. Emissions from two diesel passenger cars with substantially different chemical compositions are examined. Mass-specific extinction coefficients are developed using the Beer-Lambert Law and a simplified linear model that proved adequate for particulate concentrations typical of diluted passenger-car exhaust.

  15. Toxicity of inhaled traffic related particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Campbell, Arezoo; Miller, Mark R.; Newby, David E.; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2009-02-01

    Traffic generated ultrafine particulates may play a major role in the development of adverse health effects. However, little is known about harmful effects caused by recurring exposure. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to particulate matter results in adverse pulmonary and systemic toxic effects. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust resulted in signs of oxidative stress in the lung, impaired coagulation, and changes in the immune system. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were decreased in some regions of the brain but increased in the striatum implying that exposure to diesel engine exhaust may selectively aggravate neurological impairment. Data from these three studies suggest that exposure to traffic related PM can mediate changes in the vasculature and brain of healthy rats. To what extent these changes may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative or vascular diseases is at present unclear.

  16. Shock Wave Structure in Particulate Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauls, Michael; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2015-06-01

    Shock wave experiments are conducted on a particulate composite consisting of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix reinforced by glass beads. Such a composite with an impedance mismatch of 4.3 closely mimics heterogeneous solids of interest such as concrete and energetic materials. The composite samples are prepared using a compression molding process. The structure and particle velocity rise times of the shocks are examined using forward ballistic experiments. Reverse ballistic experiments are used to track how the interface density influences velocity overshoot above the steady state particle velocity. The effects of particle size (0.1 to 1 mm) and volume fraction of glass beads (30-40%) on the structure of the leading shock wave are investigated. It is observed that the rise time increases with increasing particle size and scales linearly for the range of particle sizes considered here. Results from numerical simulations using CTH are compared with experimental results to gain insights into wave propagation in heterogeneous particulate composites.

  17. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  18. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  19. Particulate contaminant relocation during shuttle ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The dislodgement, venting, and redeposition of particles on a surface in the shuttle bay by the vibroacoustic, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces present during shuttle ascent have been investigated. The particles of different sizes which are displaced, vented, and redistributed have been calculated; and an estimate of the increased number of particles on certain surfaces and the decrease on others has been indicated. The average sizes, velocities, and length of time for certain particles to leave the bay following initial shuttle doors opening and thermal tests have been calculated based on indirect data obtained during several shuttle flights. Suggestions for future measurements and observations to characterize the particulate environment and the techniques to limit the in-orbit particulate contamination of surfaces and environment have been offered.

  20. Sensor Technologies for Particulate Detection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    Planned Lunar missions have resulted in renewed attention to problems attributable to fine particulates. While the difficulties experienced during the sequence of Apollo missions did not prove critical in all cases, the comparatively long duration of impending missions may present a different situation. This situation creates the need for a spectrum of particulate sensing technologies. From a fundamental perspective, an improved understanding of the properties of the dust fraction is required. Described here is laboratory-based reference instrumentation for the measurement of fundamental particle size distribution (PSD) functions from 2.5 nanometers to 20 micrometers. Concomitant efforts for separating samples into fractional size bins are also presented. A requirement also exists for developing mission compatible sensors. Examples include provisions for air quality monitoring in spacecraft and remote habitation modules. Required sensor attributes such as low mass, volume, and power consumption, autonomy of operation, and extended reliability cannot be accommodated by existing technologies.

  1. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distribution. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  2. Self-Cleaning Particulate Prefilter Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Olivia; Lalwani, San-jiv; Sharma, Anjal

    2012-01-01

    A long-term space mission requires efficient air revitalization performance to sustain the crew. Prefilter and particulate air filter media are susceptible to rapid fouling that adversely affects their performance and can lead to catastrophic failure of the air revitalization system, which may result in mission failure. For a long-term voyage, it is impractical to carry replacement particulate prefilter and filter modules due to the usual limitations in size, volume, and weight. The only solution to this problem is to reagentlessly regenerate prefilter and filter media in place. A method was developed to modify the particulate prefilter media to allow them to regenerate reagentlessly, and in place, by the application of modest thermocycled transverse or reversed airflows. The innovation may allow NASA to close the breathing air loop more efficiently, thereby sustaining the vision for manned space exploration missions of the future. A novel, self-cleaning coatings technology was developed for air filter media surfaces that allows reagentless in-place regeneration of the surface. The technology grafts thermoresponsive and nonspecific adhesion minimizing polymer nanolayer brush coatings from the prefilter media. These polymer nanolayer brush architectures can be triggered to contract and expand to generate a "pushing-off" force by the simple application of modestly thermocycled (i.e. cycling from ambient cabin temperature to 40 C) air streams. The nonspecific adhesion-minimizing properties of the coatings do not allow the particulate foulants to adhere strongly to the filter media, and thermocycled air streams applied to the media allow easy detachment and in-place regeneration of the media with minimal impact in system downtime or astronaut involvement in overseeing the process.

  3. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2000-10-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

  5. Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utterback, N. G.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. A prototype analyzer system was designed, constructed, and tested. Results show that: (1) energy-time focus performs as predicted in improving resolution; (2) power densities sufficient to produce usable ionization efficiencies can be obtained; (3) complex alloys such as stainless steel can be analyzed; and (4) a tiny, simple and reliable laser used in the demonstration easily meets spacecraft power and mass limitations. A mass resolution of 150 was experimentally demonstrated at mass 108, and an analytical extrapolation predicts a resolution sufficient to separate masses 250 and 251.

  6. A lattice type model for particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhu, Muniram; Ramakrishnan, S.; Frantziskonis, George

    1999-06-01

    In this paper, a lattice-type model to simulate the micro-mechanical behaviour of particulate/granular media is presented. In this numerical model, a particulate assembly is simulated as a lattice/truss. Nodes located at contacts between a particle and its neighbours are linked by bars to each other. Each particle is represented by a lattice within its microstructure and particle interact through load transfer at the nodes. Constraints are prescribed at the nodes to describe active, deactivated and reactivated contacts. When a particulate assembly develops into a mechanism (deformation with zero incremental load), further deformation is simulated through a framework that describes the kinematics of the particles (sliding, rolling and rotation of particles). This framework is formed by introducing nodes at the particle centroids and linking them with bars. Bars-linking particles with a non-sliding contact are assigned large stiffnesses relative to bars linking particles with a sliding contact. Numerical tests are conducted on two-dimensional assemblies of disks, arranged as very loose and very dense packing under simple shear loading conditions. The results concord with the results of numerical tests conducted using the discrete element method and with photoelastic experiments. Additionally, the model is applied to study the effects of initial imperfections caused by particles with low elastic modulus.

  7. Fouling and particulate deposition in practical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. K.; Jackson, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Soot and particulates are formed in virtually all types of practical combustion systems. The physical problem associated with these contaminants, that is expected to be aggravated with the use of future low grade fuels with high levels of C/H ratio, aromatics, sulfur, and nitrogen, is that deposition occurs on heat transfer surfaces which in turn causes a degradation in their effectiveness and efficiency. This paper closely examines the deposition of condensables and particulates on immersed surfaces in particulate laden hot flows streams. The importance of the effects such as thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Dufour, Soret eddy impaction, viscous dissipation, wall blowing and re-entrainment are discussed. Theoretical considerations reveal that despite the significant progress in this area the existing prediction capability still does not make it possible to foretell the amount of deposition onto a surface with any degree of confidence at all ranges of operational parameters and practices. The prediction capability is even weaker under conditions when the re-entrainment effects dominate and also that take into account nonisothermal wall curvatures and surface roughness in turbulent boundary layers. Future areas of research are outlined that will assist our knowledge of the overall deposition process and the interactions of the different deposition mechanisms under various conditions including low and high temperatures differences between the flowing stream and immersed surfaces.

  8. Camellia sinensis Mediated Enhancement of Humoral Immunity to Particulate and Non-particulate Antigens.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan; Ali, Nafisa Hassan; Santercole, Viviana; Paglietti, Bianca; Rubino, Salvatore; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Farooqui, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The most common drinking beverage in large portion of the world is Camellia sinensis (green tea). In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of green tea and tea polyphenols to particulate and non-particulate antigens. BALB/c mice were immunized with particulate and non-particulate antigens. Modulation of immunoglobulin-secreting splenocytes, IgG-mediated and IgM-mediated immunity, was evaluated by hemolytic plaque assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Dose-dependent response of tea polyphenols was also assayed. Phenolic content was measured in crude preparations of green tea. We observed a stimulatory effect of green tea preparations on humoral immune response mediated by the increased number of antibody-secreted cells in spleen. A significant increase in IgM-mediated and IgG-mediated immune response to non-particulate antigen was also observed in green tea-treated animals. A dose-dependent adjuvant effect was seen in the case of tea polyphenols for a longer period of time compared with crude tea preparations. This study indicates polyphenols as major constituents responsible for the enhanced and sustained adjuvant activity of green tea. We suggest that tea polyphenols might be considered for real-life evaluation during adjuvant-mediated vaccination trial programs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26478000

  9. Adenosine receptor signaling: a key to opening the blood-brain door.

    PubMed

    Bynoe, Margaret S; Viret, Christophe; Yan, Angela; Kim, Do-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to outline evidence that adenosine receptor (AR) activation can modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the implications for disease states and drug delivery. Barriers of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute a protective and regulatory interface between the CNS and the rest of the organism. Such barriers allow for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the CNS milieu. Among them, the BBB is a highly efficient permeability barrier that separates the brain micro-environment from the circulating blood. It is made up of tight junction-connected endothelial cells with specialized transporters to selectively control the passage of nutrients required for neural homeostasis and function, while preventing the entry of neurotoxic factors. The identification of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development and function of CNS barriers is required for a better understanding of CNS homeostasis in both physiological and pathological settings. It has long been recognized that the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine is a potent modulator of a large number of neurological functions. More recently, experimental studies conducted with human/mouse brain primary endothelial cells as well as with mouse models, indicate that adenosine markedly regulates BBB permeability. Extracellular adenosine, which is efficiently generated through the catabolism of ATP via the CD39/CD73 ecto-nucleotidase axis, promotes BBB permeability by signaling through A1 and A2A ARs expressed on BBB cells. In line with this hypothesis, induction of AR signaling by selective agonists efficiently augments BBB permeability in a transient manner and promotes the entry of macromolecules into the CNS. Conversely, antagonism of AR signaling blocks the entry of inflammatory cells and soluble factors into the brain. Thus, AR modulation of the BBB appears as a system susceptible to tighten as well as to permeabilize the BBB. Collectively, these findings point to AR manipulation as a pertinent avenue of research for novel strategies aiming at efficiently delivering therapeutic drugs/cells into the CNS, or at restricting the entry of inflammatory immune cells into the brain in some diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26330053

  10. Leishmania infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-2 is an Apyrase Involved in Macrophage Infection and Expressed in Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos, Raphael De Souza; Mariotini-Moura, Christiane; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Serafim, Tiago Donatelli; Firmino, Rafaela de Cássia; Silva e Bastos, Matheus; de Castro, Felipe Freitas; de Oliveira, Claudia Miranda; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; de Souza, Anna Cláudia Alves; de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Gómez, Gabriel Andres Tafur; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Silva-Júnior, Abelardo; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; Afonso, Luís Carlos Crocco; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is an important tropical disease, and Leishmania infantum chagasi (synonym of Leishmania infantum) is the main pathogenic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Recently, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) were identified as enablers of infection and virulence factors in many pathogens. Two putative E-NTPDases (∼70 kDa and ∼45 kDa) have been found in the L. infantum genome. Here, we studied the ∼45 kDa E-NTPDase from L. infantum chagasi to describe its natural occurrence, biochemical characteristics and influence on macrophage infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We used live L. infantum chagasi to demonstrate its natural ecto-nucleotidase activity. We then isolated, cloned and expressed recombinant rLicNTPDase-2 in bacterial system. The recombinant rLicNTPDase-2 hydrolyzed a wide variety of triphosphate and diphosphate nucleotides (GTP> GDP  =  UDP> ADP> UTP  =  ATP) in the presence of calcium or magnesium. In addition, rLicNTPDase-2 showed stable activity over a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and was partially inhibited by ARL67156 and suramin. Microscopic analyses revealed the presence of this protein on cell surfaces, vesicles, flagellae, flagellar pockets, kinetoplasts, mitochondria and nuclei. The blockade of E-NTPDases using antibodies and competition led to lower levels of parasite adhesion and infection of macrophages. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed the expression of E-NTPDases in amastigotes in the lymph nodes of naturally infected dogs from an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance In this work, we cloned, expressed and characterized the NTPDase-2 from L. infantum chagasi and demonstrated that it functions as a genuine enzyme from the E-NTPDase/CD39 family. We showed that E-NTPDases are present on the surface of promastigotes and in other intracellular locations. We showed, for the first time, the broad expression of LicNTPDases in naturally infected dogs. Additionally, the blockade of NTPDases led to lower levels of in vitro adhesion and infection, suggesting that these proteins are possible targets for rational drug design. PMID:25393008

  11. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

  12. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  13. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  14. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  15. Mcanismes d'jection de particules par laser impulsionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grojo, D.; Cros, A.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Dubus, H.; Mionetto, R.

    2006-12-01

    L'enlvement de particules de dimensions nanomtriques est l'un des principaux challenges relever pour atteindre les futurs objectifs de l'industrie microlectronique. Les procds laser prsentent, dans certains cas, des performances trs intressantes, mais les mcanismes d'jection des particules polluant la surface restent cependant fort mal connus. L'tude de la dynamique d'jection des particules, par une technique optique, a mis en vidence l'existence de deux mcanismes dont l'importance relative dpend de la fluence d'irradiation. A forte fluence l'ablation locale du substrat sous la particule prdomine, alors que pour les fluences plus faibles le mcanisme semble tre li l'enlvement de l'humidit rsiduelle l'interface particule substrat. Contrairement aux modles prcdemment proposs, la contribution de la force d'inertie s'exerant sur la particule lors de l'expansion thermique rapide des matriaux est ngligeable.

  16. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  17. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  18. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  20. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  1. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  2. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62... Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.15 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.30 lb per ton)....

  3. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  4. Dynamical constraint on particulate sizes for Saturn's B ring spokes

    SciTech Connect

    Eplee, R.E. Jr.; Smith, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    The exponential charge decay time for particulates constituting the spokes in Saturn's B ring is presently proposed as a dynamical time scale for their evolution. Mean particulate radius is determined to be 0.01 + or - 0.03 microns, on the basis of a consideration of solar UV photoemission as the charge decay mechanism which leads to the determination of a dynamical constraint that can be placed on the particulate sizes. 15 references.

  5. Particulate organic matter along the Northern Sea Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A. A.; Ponyaev, M. S.; Belyaev, N. A.; Romankevich, E. A.

    2015-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the content of particulate organic carbon (POC) in surface seawater along the Northern Sea Route from Norway to the East Siberian Sea (the southern track) during the summer seasons of 2004-2011 was carried out based on the authors' data. The content and distribution of organic component in particulate matter were estimated, as were the proportion of phytoplankton, detritus, and the mineral component in the composition of particulate matter.

  6. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  7. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  8. Particulate filtration for sorbent-based H2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; Karra, Jagadeswara R.

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for sizing the particulate filter that can be used inside a sorption-based onboard hydrogen storage system for light-duty vehicles. The method is based on a trade-off between the pressure drop across the particulate filter (during the fill of the H2 storage tank or during its discharge while driving) and the effect of this pressure drop on the usable amount of H2 gas from the H2 storage system. The permeability and filtration efficiency of the particulate filters (in the absence and presence of MOF-5 particulates) was quantified in this study, with an emphasis on meeting DOE's H2 purity requirements.

  9. Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

    2012-06-01

    A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

  10. Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    SciTech Connect

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  12. Particulate Debris Osteolysis Simulating Malignant Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Richard A; Marsh, J Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Osteolysis induced by particulate debris from total joint implants is typically confined to bone and benign in radiographic appearance even when extensive. However, they can extend well beyond bone in which case they can simulate malignancies owing either to mass effects and pressure on adjacent tissues or owing to the radiographic appearance. We report two cases which presented as possible malignancy, and review the literature on extensive osteolysis. Recognition of this possibility may aid in interpretation of the clinical presentation and imaging studies. PMID:15296216

  13. MODELING FINE PARTICULATE MASS AND VISIBILITY USING THE EPA REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter in the atmosphere can adversely impact air quality and human health, as well as significantly affect the environment. articles in the submicrometer size range, when inhaled, may pose certain health hazards. articles in this size range also scatter light, causin...

  14. The Effect of Viewing Order of Macroscopic and Particulate Visualizations on Students' Particulate Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vickie M.; Lane, Sarah M.; Gilbreath, Travis; Tasker, Roy; Ashkenazi, Guy; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    A prior study showed that students best make predictions about the outcome of opening a valve between two flasks containing a fluid or vacuum when they view both a demonstration video and a particulate animation, but the study showed no influence from the order in which these visualizations were used. The purpose of this current research was to

  15. Exhaust gas filter apparatus capable of regeneration of a particulate filter and method

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Amanda C; Kirby, Kevin W; Gregoire, Daniel

    2009-04-07

    An exhaust gas filter apparatus includes a particulate filter for collecting a particulate from an exhaust gas. The exhaust gas filter also includes a electromagnetic radiation resonator to heat a portion of the particulate to ignite the particulate and regenerate the particulate filter.

  16. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  17. Enhanced hydrophilicity of chlorided aluminum oxide particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III

    1978-01-01

    An enhancement of hydrophilicity for chlorided aluminas was demonstrated by the results obtained from gaseous H2O sorptions at 70-, 80-, and 86-percent relative humidity on alpha and gamma aluminum oxide particulates and on alpha and gamma aluminum oxide particulates with a chemisorbed surface chloride phase (produced by reactions of gaseous HCl + H2O on alumina). Continuous sorption histories for H2O on chlorided aluminas having specific surface areas that range from 7 to 227 sq m/g before chloriding indicated that initial sorption rates were directly linked to the extent of chemisorbed chlorided coverage and implied the same relationship for sorption capacities. The initial sorption rate on chlorided aluminas was found to be slower for the first exposure to H2O than for subsequent exposures (which reached equilibrated H2O coverages much faster), suggesting that slow chemical reactions between H2O and chlorided alumina may have been operative during initial exposures. Chlorided alumina particles were found to remain very hydrophilic (relative to nonchlorided analogs) for several H2O sorption/desorption cycles.

  18. Mutagenic activity in diesel exhaust particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtman, J.P.; Xiao-bai, X.; Rappaport, S.M.; Talcott, R.E.; Wei, E.T.

    1981-10-01

    Chloroform eluates of diesel exhaust particulate extracts were mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of approximately 480 revertants/100 ..mu..g of extract/plate did not require liver enzymes for its expression. The addition of liver enzymes decreased mutagenic activity, an effect which has previously been shown to be non-specific binding of the mutagen to liver proteins. After reduction of the diesel exhaust extract with sodium borohydride, the S-9 independent activity was greatly diminished. Addition of S-9 to the reduced sample revealed the presence of S-9 dependent mutagenic activity. These results, although not conclusive, provide additional evidence for the presence of nitronarene mutagens in diesel exhaust particulates. If, for example, the samples contained nitrofluorene, nitronaphthalene or nitropyrene, the reduction reaction would have formed aminofluorene, aminonaphthalene, and aminopyrene, compounds which are mutagens requiring liver enzyme activation in the Ames test. Attempts to isolate the amine by acidic extraction were not successful, however, because of the weak mutagenic activity in the sample.

  19. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  20. Electromechanics and electrical breakdown of particulate layers

    SciTech Connect

    Moslehi, B.G.R.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of the electromechanics and electrical breakdown of a current-carrying particulate layer is developed, which takes into account its inhomogeneous nature and mode of compaction. The theory treats the general case of combined surface and volume conduction and takes account of self-compression of the layer due to electrical forces. Electromechanical theory predicts existence of a remarkably large electrical cohesive stress in the layer due to a strong field enhancement in and around the contact regions. Furthermore, it shows a decrease in the apparent resistivity of the layer with increasing electric field as a result of self-compression. Analysis of electrical breakdown of current-carrying particulate layer predicts the onset of breakdown of the layer in the form of intermittent microsparks in the gap between the contacting particles when the electric field at the contact or in the surrounding gap exceeds the threshold breakdown value. An analysis of the behavior of the layer after breakdown in terms of a simplified equivalent lumped circuit predicts increases of sparking frequency and average current as the applied average field exceeds the threshold average field for the onset of breakdown.

  1. Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, James Edward; Plohr, Bradley J

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.

  2. Rheological properties of asphalts with particulate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, N.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave asphalt binder specifications are performance-based specifications for purchasing asphalt binders for the construction of roads. This means that the asphalt is characterized by fundamental material (rheological) properties that relate to the distress modes of the pavements. The distress modes addressed are primarily rutting, fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. For example, G*/sin({delta}) is designed to predict the rutting potential of pavements, where G* is the magnitude of the complex shear modulus and 6 is the phase angle. The binder for a road that is situated in a certain climatic zone requires the binder to have a minimum G*/sin({delta}) of 2200 Pa at the highest consecutive 7-day average pavement temperature the road had experienced. Implicit in such a performance based specification is that the fundamental property, G*/sin({delta}), of the binder correlates with rutting potential of the pavement regardless of the nature of the binder. In other words, the specification is transparent to the fact that the binder can simply be an asphalt, or an asphalt modified by polymers, particulates and other materials that can form a two-phase mixture. This paper discusses the asphalt-particulate system.

  3. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes summaries of analyses performed on particulate samples from Sierra Pacific Power Company's Pinon Pine Power Project. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, and plans for enhancing the data bank with interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  4. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Particulate Matter; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  5. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  12. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  14. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  15. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  16. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  18. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonattainment area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  1. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  6. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  7. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOEpatents

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  8. 40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area has attained the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 16, 2012, that based on 2007...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  11. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  12. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  19. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  20. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  2. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE CONTROL: DIRECT AND CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the technology and potential for disposal of diesel particulate by oxidation. Relevant properties of typical diesel particulate are given; note is taken of the small size (on the order of 0.1 micrometer diameter) and the presence of a portion extractable with...

  5. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  6. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.332, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter...: Particulate matter. (a) On April 9, 1992, the Governor of Colorado submitted the moderate PM-10...

  7. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

  8. DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

  9. GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

  10. MULTIPLE SERIES CYCLONES FOR HIGH PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are commonly used in the processing industry as primary particulate emissions abatement devices. A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of one, two, three, or four 1D3D cyclones, in series, on airstreams heavily loaded (236 g/m3) with fine particulate (mass median diameter <10...

  11. The Relocation of Particulate Contamination During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, J.; Edgars, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer simulation program to model the redistribution of particulate contaminants on a spacecraft after launch is developed. The component models for particulate adhesion, meteoroid impact, and electrostatic forces are described and intermediate results are presented. The results of a sample calculation show that the recontamination process is important.

  12. CONTROLLING PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a semi-technical overview of the contribution of particulate matter to the overall U.S. air pollution problem. It also discusses contributions of the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory at Research Triangle Park, NC...

  13. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per dry standard cubic meter (0.08 grains per dry... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner...

  14. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180 milligrams per dry standard cubic meter (0.08 grains per dry... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner...

  15. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.302 Standard for particulate...

  16. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40...

  17. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282 Section 60.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mills § 60.282 Standard for particulate...

  18. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Daniel E. (Orchard Park, NY)

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  19. CONTROL OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN THE PRIMARY NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the symposium on 'Control of Particulate Emissions in the Primary Nonferrous Metals Industries' was to provide a forum for the exchange of knowledge and new ideas on particulate control technology with emphasis on industrial applications of environmental particulat...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1230 - Control strategy and rules: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and rules... Control strategy and rules: Particulates. (a) Part D(1) Approval. The State of Minnesota has satisfied... submitted a committal SIP for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than...

  1. NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cytotoxicity induced by particulate adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Marie; Hearnden, Claire H A; Oleszycka, Ewa; Lavelle, Ed C

    2013-01-01

    The ability of particulate materials to provoke inflammatory immune responses has been well documented. In the case of endogenous and environmental particulates, these effects can often lead to pathological disorders. In contrast, particulate adjuvants incorporated into vaccines promote immune responses, which in turn provide efficient protection against infectious diseases. In recent years, studies have revealed that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a key role in particulate-driven inflammation and its associated cytotoxicity. Hence, this chapter covers protocols useful to (1) assess NLRP3 inflammasome activation triggered by particulate adjuvants or materials in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDCs) differentiated cultures, and (2) measure particle-induced cytotoxicity. More specifically, protocols are described for the preparation and differentiation of BMDCs, their priming and stimulation using particulate NLRP3 agonists such as monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) and the vaccine adjuvant alum. We then detail protocols to assess particulate-driven cytotoxicity via flow cytometry using annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) and novel dye LIVE/DEAD() aqua stain. General considerations are provided that warn against the use of endotoxin-contaminated particles and emphasize the use of experimental controls. Suggestions are also outlined for further assessment of the immunomodulatory effects of particulate materials in vivo using the mouse peritonitis model. PMID:23852596

  2. IMPACT OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATES ON PCB VOLATILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to experimentally quantify the mass of PCBs that can be transported from PCB-contaminated suspended particulate to the air phase under various conditions as a means of evaluating the mechanism and importance of suspended particulates in volatili...

  3. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH LOW FLOW PERSONAL SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory and the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) have conducted a particulate matter (PM) personal exposure study in Research Triangle Park, NC. Particulate carbon was sampled with pre-fired quartz filters using low flow PM2.5 samplers (2 L...

  4. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60.532 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each...

  5. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

  6. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This is EPAs latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The developmen...

  7. FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

  8. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

  9. KRAFT PULP INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the kraft pulp industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from kraft pulp mills, the data were summarized and r...

  10. [Distribution characteristics of particulate mercury in aerosol in coastal city].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Wang; Zhao, Jin-Ping; Chen, Jin-Sheng; Xu, Ya

    2010-10-01

    Particulate mercury, which is bound with aerosol in atmosphere, has a negative impact on human health and the environment, also plays an important role in the biogeochemical process of mercury. In this paper, taking southeast coastal city of Xiamen as research object, the PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were collected in residential, tourism, industrial area and background, respectively, during four seasons (October 2008-September 2009). RA-915 + mercury analyzer was employed to determinate mercury concentration in different size particle matters based on zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of particulate mercury in different size of aerosol during Winter, Spring were obviously higher than that of Summer, Autumn; the concentrations of particulate mercury in fine particle during Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter were (51.46 +/- 19.28), (42.41 +/- 12.74), (38.38 +/- 6.08) and (127.23 +/- 33.70) pg/m3, respectively. The experimental data showed that the particulate mercury were mainly distributed in fine particles (PM2.5), which covered 42.48%-67.87%, and it can be concluded that the rate of particulate mercury enrichment in coarse particle was much lower than that of fine particle. The sequence of atmospheric particulate mercury concentration in different functional areas was: background < resident < tourism < industrial area < suburban; which showed characteristics of spatial distribution of particulate mercury was affected by the sampling location. On the whole, Xiamen had a low level of atmospheric particulate mercury; the enrichment of PM2.5 to particulate mercury was significantly higher than that of PM10 and TSP, and showed that fine particle pollution should be tightly controlled to reduce particulate mercury. PMID:21229731

  11. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 ; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 ; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

  12. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  13. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Richland, WA); Hirth, John P. (Viola, ID)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  14. Policy uses of particulate exposure estimates.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Michael; Evans, John S; Florig, H Keith; Phonboon, Kanchanasak; Saksena, Sumeet; Song, Guojun

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews the uses of particulate exposure estimates for science and policy. We propose a set of normative factors to guide the selection and application of various approaches for exposure assessment. For exposure estimates intended for use in support of the development or air pollution regulations or selection of control strategies, the proposed criteria include--compatibility with policy scope and scale, cost-effectiveness, characterization of uncertainty, political and institutional feasibility, and sensitivity to framing. For exposure assessment in support of epidemiological research, key criteria are-compatability with the specific hypothesis being tested, and compatibility with the temporal and spatial scale of analysis. The various major approaches for estimation of exposure--direct and indirect measurement, empirical and physical modeling--are catalogued and compared with these proposed criteria. PMID:12492159

  15. The collisional dynamics of particulate disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, F. H.; Stewart, G. R.

    1985-06-01

    It is shown that the use of the Krook equation greatly simplifies the discussion of the collisional dynamics of particulate disks. Collisions are assumed to be inelastic from the outset. A simple heuristic argument is used to compute the effective collision rate in a disk of spherical particles with a power-law distribution of sizes. For Saturn's rings, the effective collision rate for momentum transport is substantially lower than that conventionally estimated on the basis of an observed optical depth at visual wavelengths. The closure of the vertically integrated set of moment equations without discarding the third-order moments at the outset is discussed, allowing for the possibility of a bent disk. In the limit that the collision frequency is much larger than the orbit frequency, the usual Navier-Stokes equations of viscous hydrodynamics for a thin disk are recovered with an explicit expression for the shear viscosity. The method is generalized to include the effects of gravitational scattering.

  16. Linkage: from particulate to interactive genetics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Genetics was established on a strict particulate conception of heredity. Genetic linkage, the deviation from independent segregation of Mendelian factors, was conceived as a function of the material allocation of the factors to the chromosomes, rather than to the multiple effects (pleiotropy) of discrete factors. Although linkage maps were abstractions they provided strong support for the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Direct Cytogenetic evidence was scarce until X-ray induced major chromosomal rearrangements allowed direct correlation of genetic and cytological rearrangements. Only with the discovery of the polytenic giant chromosomes in Drosophila larvae in the 1930s were the virtual maps backed up by physical maps of the genetic loci. Genetic linkage became a pivotal experimental tool for the examination of the integration of genetic functions in development and in evolution. Genetic mapping has remained a hallmark of genetic analysis. The location of genes in DNA is a modern extension of the notion of genetic linkage. PMID:12778899

  17. Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

  18. The vega particulate shell: comets or asteroids?

    PubMed

    Weissman, P R

    1984-06-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) science team has discovered a shell of particulate material around the star Vega. At the mean distance and temperature of the shell, the expected condensation products from a protostellar nebula would be dominated by frozen volatiles, in particular water ice. It is not possible to discriminate between dirty ice and silicate materials in the Vega shell on the basis of the IRAS data. The Vega shell is probably a ring of cometary bodies with an estimated minimum mass of 15 earth masses, analogous to one that has been hypothesized for the solar system. A possible hot inner shell around Vega may be an asteroid-like belt of material a few astronomical units from the star. PMID:17731997

  19. Ferritin as a bionano-particulate emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Syuji; Aichi, Atsushi; Muraoka, Masahiro; Kishimoto, Naoko; Iwahori, Kenji; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Ichiro

    2009-10-01

    Stable 'Pickering-type' emulsions were prepared using ferritin, a spherical protein, as a bionano-particulate emulsifier and n-dodecane, toluene, castor oil, olive oil or vegetable oil as an oil phase, in the absence of any surfactant molecules. All the emulsions prepared were of the oil-in-water type and an increase of ferritin concentration decreased the volume average droplet diameters. Transmission electron microscopy studies of the ferritin residues remaining after evaporation of oil and water from the emulsion revealed a broken capsule morphology, which is strong evidence for the attachment of ferritin at the oil-water interface thereby stabilizing the emulsion. The emulsion droplets could be elongated and made to pass through a glass capillary. PMID:19604513

  20. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  1. Particulate infiltration into a simulated space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, De-Ling; Luey, Kenneth T.

    2008-08-01

    To understand the dynamics of airborne particulate intrusion into a space telescope, a mechanistic model based on mass balance was developed to predict the extent to which ambient particles penetrate through vent holes and enter the interiors after the purge is off. This work describes the mathematical modeling analysis, supplementing with results from laboratory measurements using a cylindrical chamber as a simulated space telescope. It was found that the characteristic time for airborne particles to reach a saturation level, after the purge is off, can be characterized by the air exchange rate and particle deposition rate inside the confined space volume. The air exchange rate, measured using a tracer gas technique, is associated with the natural convection and air flow turbulence intensity adjacent to the chamber. During the purge outage, the steady-state airborne particle concentration inside the space telescope is governed by the ambient particle concentration, air exchange rate, and particle deposition rate.

  2. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  3. Assessment of Internal Fabric of Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibi, Khalid A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle arrangement and distribution within a soil matrix has long been recognized as having significant influence on the mechanical behavior of cohesionless soils. It is well known that two soil specimens having the same grain type (e.g., quartz, feldspar, etc.), same grain size distribution and relative density (or void ratio) can display completely different mechanical behavior. Because of the different fabric configurations in the otherwise similar specimens, they are likely to have different mechanical properties such as stress-strain response, anisotropy, dilatancy, etc. Soil Fabric is defined as the arrangement of particles, particle groups and associated pore space. In the literature, fabric analysis techniques are mainly classified as destructive (e.g., specimen stabilization, thin-sectioning, and microscopy), and nondestructive techniques (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonic testing, x-ray radiography, and computed tomography). Quantifying the void ratio and its distribution is the main parameter used to describe the fabric of particulate materials. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of fabric analysis techniques applied to particulate materials. In addition, the results of a comprehensive investigation to quantify void ratio of sand specimens will be presented and discussed. The sand used in the experiments in a natural, uniform rounded to sub-rounded silica sand known as F-75 banding sand with mean particle size of 0.22 mm. Uniform specimens and specimens subjected to different axial-strain levels tested under triaxial and biaxial conditions are examined to evaluate void ratio evolution and its distribution using destructive thin-sectioning and nondestructive Computed Tomography (CT) techniques. Details of a new innovative polygon generation technique called Voronoi tessellation used to quantify void ratio of microscopic images of sand grains will be presented and compared to classical Oda's method. Finally, frequency distribution of void ratio calculated using CT analysis will be presented and discussed.

  4. Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J; Walker, Larry R; Yapaulo, Renato A; Orita, Tetsuo; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai; Foster, David; Akard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

  5. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  6. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOEpatents

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  7. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Steubenville, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    1992-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with daily mortality in London, England, both in the smog episodes of the 1950s and at the lower pollution levels of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Replicating these findings in the United States has been difficult, because particulates are usually sampled every sixth day. Replication, particularly with a gravimetric measure of particulates, is important in assessing the causality of the relation. Daily measurements of total suspended particulates by high volume gravimetric sampler are available for the Steubenville, Ohio, metropolitan area. These were matched to daily mortality counts from the detail mortality tapes of the National Center for Health Statistics. Deaths of residents which occurred outside the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were excluded. Because of the much smaller population, the average total number of deaths per day in the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area over the 11-year period 1974-1984 was about 1% of the deaths in a typical London winter. Despite this reduced statistical power, total suspended particulate count was significantly associated with increased daily mortality in Poisson regression analyses controlling for season and temperature. An increase in particulates of 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a 4% increase in mortality on the succeeding day. Associations with sulfur dioxide were not significant after adjustment for particulates. The relation appeared to continue at levels well below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard. PMID:1736656

  8. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. PMID:17195488

  9. Modeling of particulate production in the SIRENS plasma disruption simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, J. P.; Merrill, B. J.; Petti, D. A.; Bourham, M. A.; Gilligan, J. G.

    2001-03-01

    Modeling of the complex interplay among plasma physics, fluid mechanics, and aerosol dynamics is critical to providing a detailed understanding of the mechanisms responsible for particulate production from plasma-surface interaction in fusion devices. Plasma/fluid and aerosol models developed for analysis of disruption simulation experiments in the SIRENS high heat flux facility integrate the necessary mechanisms of plasma-material interaction, plasma and fluid flow, and particulate generation and transport. The model successfully predicts the size distribution of primary particulate generated in SIRENS disruption-induced material mobilization experiments.

  10. Discontinuous deformation analysis of particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Patricia Ann

    Many geotechnical engineering problems involve the localization of deformations along distinct shear planes, such as the response of a layer of soil to displacement along an underlying bedrock fault. Understanding the process of deformation localization and the propagation of shear zones to the surface would aid in the siting of structures near faults, and in developing mitigation techniques. Discrete numerical methods are especially suited to this type of problem, because the discontinuous nature of soil and the kinematics of soil deformation are modeled directly. This research involves the development and validation of Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA), a type of discrete numerical method, as a tool capable of modeling realistic soil behavior, thus providing the foundation for its application to complex soil mechanics problems, such as earthquake fault rupture propagation. First, a review of the two primary types of discrete numerical modeling, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) and DDA is presented along with a discussion of the key aspects of modeling particulate materials with these methods. Next, several extensions to the numerical program Discontinuous Deformation Analysis for Disks (DDAD), implemented during the process of developing DDAD as a tool for modeling particulate materials, were implemented. A flexible, stress-controlled boundary was incorporated, allows simulation of geotechnical biaxial shear tests that are commonly performed on specimens of granular soils. Using this boundary, the stress-strain and volumetric responses of simulated assemblies of particles were investigated. A new type of particle, the disk cluster, was developed and implemented. A disk cluster is a group of circular disks permanently attached to form a single particle. Disk clusters more accurately represent the nonspherical shape of particulate materials, minimize the problem of excessive rotation that occurs with perfectly circular elements, and retain the simplicity of the original contact search routine. A measure of strain for discrete numerical methods was investigated, as the concept of strain defined for a continuum does not apply directly to an assembly of particles with voids that can open and close during deformation. Previous measures of strain were examined and a new approach, the Triangulation Method, is presented. The Triangulation Method calculates strain for a finite element-type mesh overlay that uses the centers of the particles as nodes within the mesh. Nodes are connected with constant strain triangles using a finite strain formulation. The results of a laboratory testing program using glass rods and glass balls are presented. These tests provide valuable insight into the differences in response to mechanical loading of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) particles, as most discrete numerical models are currently 2D. In addition, the tests on glass rods are used to further validate DDAD. Lastly, the results of a preliminary study of boundary deformation problems using DDAD are presented. Comparison with previous physical and numerical modeling results demonstrate the usefulness of DDAD for this type of geotechnical engineering problem.

  11. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-20

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these units in the U.S. and Europe. Ecolnstal, a leading supplier of environmental equipment in Poland, is licensed to sell the Core Separator, and will support LSR as a subcontractor. The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), located in Katowice, is a consulting organization with extensive expertise in the Polish economy and natural environment. FEWE is also a subcontractor to LSR. This project will be divided into three major phases. Phase 1 is called `Infrastructure Studies` and will includes business planning, and site-selection of a full- scale Core Separator Demonstration Unit. Phase 2, called `Commercial Development,` includes the first Demonstration Unit in a local boilerhouse, followed by several Core Separator installations collecting flyash from different Polish coals. Also, a manufacturing facility is to be equipped to accommodate the projected sales volume. If the goals of this project are met and the Core Separator can be successfully marketed, there is a potential to significantly reduce particulate emissions in Krakow.

  12. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses.

    SciTech Connect

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-04-30

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these units in the U.S. and Europe. Ecolnstal, a leading supplier of environmental equipment in Poland, is licensed to sell the Core Separator, and will support LSR as a subcontractor. The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), located in Katowice, is a consulting organization with extensive expertise in the Polish economy and natural environment. FEWE is also be a subcontractor to LSR. This project will be divided into three major phases. Phase 1 is called `Infrastructure Studies` and includes business planning, and site-selection of a full-scale Core Separator Demonstration Unit. Phase 2, called `Commercial Development,` includes the first Demonstration Unit in a local boilerhouse, followed by several Core Separator installations collecting flyash from different Polish coals. Also, a manufacturing facility is to be equipped to accommodate the projected sales volume. If the goals of this project are met and the Core Separator can be successfully marketed, there is a potential to significantly reduce particulate emissions in Krakow.

  13. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Potius, D.; Snyder, T.

    1997-07-01

    The characteristics of entrained particles generated by advanced coal conversion technologies and the harsh flue gas environments from which these particles must be removed challenge current ceramic barrier filtration systems. Measurements have shown that the size distribution, morphology, and chemical composition of particles generated by pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification processes differ significantly from the corresponding characteristics of conventional pulverized-coal ash particles. The entrained particulate matter from these advanced conversion technologies often comprise fine size distributions, irregular particle morphologies, high specific surface areas, and significant proportions of added sorbent material. These characteristics can create high ash cohesivity and high pressure losses through the filter cakes. In addition, the distributions of chemical constituents among the collected particles provide local, highly concentrated chemical species that promote reactions between adjacent particles that ultimately cause strong, nodular deposits to form in the filter vessel. These deposits can lead directly to bridging and filter element failure. This project is designed to address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic filter elements. The activities conducted under Task 1, Assessment of Ash Characteristics, are discussed in this paper. Activities conducted under Task 2, Testing and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters, are discussed in a separate paper included in the proceedings of the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference. The specific objectives of Task I include the generation of a data base of the key characteristics of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and the identification of relationships between HGCU ash properties and the operation and performance of APFS. During the past year, particulate samples have been characterized from the DOE/FETC Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR), the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC), the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), and gasification studies conducted by Herman Research Pty. Ltd. (HRL) of Melbourne, Australia. This paper discusses these analyses and also presents a coherent mechanism describing how and why consolidated ash deposits form in PFBC filter vessels. This description is based on site observations made at the Tidd PFBC, field and laboratory analyses of ashes and nodules collected from Grimethorpe, Tidd and Karhula, and a review of literature describing eutectic formation, sintering, and consolidation of boiler tube deposits.

  14. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at Karhula. Key test results showed that property degradation occurred during service at Karhula but less degradation than was seen in Schumacher F40 and Pall 442T. Creep continues to be observed in tests at 1600 `F and above and was observed at 1562 `F in service at Karhula. Microstructural evaluations of FT20 and 326 materials have shown that the behavior of these materials is controlled by the ceramic binders and that the binders are still glass limited. These results were presented in a poster session and a paper written for the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference.

  15. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators 84.171 Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (a) Each non-powered air-purifying particulate...

  16. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

  17. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

  18. EFFECTIVE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM ATYPICAL STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling techniques for measuring particulate emissions from four 'atypical' stationary source categories were developed and evaluated. The categories include low effluent velocity streams, extended dimensions, partially or totally unconfined flow, and saturated gas streams or ga...

  19. 40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to submit an...) which regulate the control of particulate matter from specific sources within the iron and...

  20. Pharmaceutical aspects of intranasal delivery of vaccines using particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sameer; Mukkur, T K S; Benson, Heather A E; Chen, Yan

    2009-03-01

    The nasal route offers a promising opportunity for the delivery of vaccines. This review analyses the opportunities and novel delivery strategies based on particulate systems for the nasal delivery of vaccines, including liposomes, proteosomes, virosomes, nano- and microparticulate systems, with and without adjuvants. The influence of pharmaceutical aspects of the particulate formulations on nasal delivery is analysed. Recently developed delivery devices for nasal vaccination are also described. Potential barriers to clinical and commercial success of some novel intranasal vaccines are critically evaluated. Although particulate systems may offer potential in the nasal delivery of vaccines by enhancing uptake by antigen-presenting cells, the real success in enhancement of vaccine delivery can only be achieved by careful design and manipulation of physicochemical properties of particulate vaccine delivery systems. PMID:18661544

  1. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  2. EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

  3. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF AN AUTOISOKINETIC STACK PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...

  5. Particulated articular cartilage for symptomatic chondral defects of the knee.

    PubMed

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Cole, Brian J; Farr, Jack

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of focal cartilage defects in the knee remains a challenging clinical problem. One relatively new unique treatment option is particulated articular cartilage, which includes autograft and off-the-shelf allogeneic juvenile grafts. The use of particulated cartilage has the advantage of being a single-stage procedure. In the case of autograft, it is cost efficient, while in the juvenile allograft form, it may have increased proliferative and restorative potentials. Laboratory and clinical data are limited for particulated cartilage grafts; however, there are promising histologic and clinical outcomes. This review provides a summary of the indications, surgical technique, and most up-to-date research on particulated cartilage for the repair of symptomatic chondral defects in the knee. PMID:26371073

  6. INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

  7. SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE NITRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental conditions that affect atmospheric particulate nitrate sampling were identified, and improved sampling and analytical procedures were developed. Evaluation of potential sources of error in high volume nitrate sampling showed that artifact nitrate formation on common...

  8. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  9. PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period of the contract. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract cascade...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A measurement methodology to evaluate fugitive particulate emissions was developed and demonstrated. The project focused on the application of the lidar (laser radar) technique under field conditions, but in circumstances that simplified and controlled the variables of the genera...

  11. A REAL-TIME MEASURING DEVICE FOR DENSE PARTICULATE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design and performance of an instrument, based on the concept of instantaneous intensity ratio, for measuring particle size distributions of dense particulate matter. The method involves simultaneously measuring the intensity of light scattered by a parti...

  12. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

  13. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  14. The LEO Particulate Environment as Determined by LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Hoerz, Friedrick; Bernhard, P.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Foster, Tammy R.; Kinard, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group has been studying the low-Earth orbit particulate environment by examining and documenting impact craters that occurred on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) during its 5.7 year stay in orbit.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayuti, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A.; Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  16. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  17. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  18. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  19. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  20. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stone feed. (2) Exhibit greater than 15 percent opacity when exiting from a dry emission control device....

  1. CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of emerging diesel particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity o...

  2. Settling Efficiency of Urban Particulate Matter Transported by Stormwater Runoff.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Penna, Nadia; Piro, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of control measures in urban areas is to retain particulate matter washed out by stormwater over impermeable surfaces. In stormwater control measures, particulate matter removal typically occurs via sedimentation. Settling column tests were performed to examine the settling efficiency of such units using monodisperse and heterodisperse particulate matter (for which the particle size distributions were measured and modelled by the cumulative gamma distribution). To investigate the dependence of settling efficiency from the particulate matter, a variant of the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), a Microsoft Excel function based on multi-objective EPR technique (EPR-MOGA), called EPR MOGA XL, was used as a data-mining strategy. The results from this study have shown that settling efficiency is a function of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) concentration and of the median diameter (d50 index), obtained from the particle size distributions (PSDs) of the samples. PMID:26961472

  3. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  4. CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

  5. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of a major EPA research program on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology, directed toward improving the performance of ESPs in controlling industrial particulate emissions, notably fly ash from coal combustion in electric power plants. Relationsh...

  6. JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller

    2008-10-31

    The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

  7. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determined from the following equation: er31au93.070 (1) Pmass = Mass of particulate emitted per test phase... (cubic meters) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determined from the following equation: er31au93.070 (1) Pmass = Mass of particulate emitted per test phase... (cubic meters) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determined from the following equation: er31au93.070 (1) Pmass = Mass of particulate emitted per test phase... (cubic meters) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the...

  11. MULTIWAVELENGTH TRANSMISSOMETER FOR MEASURING MASS CONCENTRATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiwavelength transmissometer potentially capable of making near-real-time measurements of particulate mass concentration in industrial stacks was developed. A computer program is employed to interpret the transmissometer data and translate the results into mass concentration...

  12. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    D.H. Pontius

    1999-08-30

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, including the interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank, and issuance of a comprehensive final report on activities conducted under Task 1. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  13. Mucoadhesive vs. mucopenetrating particulate drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Netsomboon, Kesinee; Bernkop-Schnrch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Mucus layer is a hydrophilic absorption barrier found in various regions of the body. The use of particulate delivery systems showed potential in drug delivery to mucosal membranes by either prolonging drug residence time at the absorption or target membrane or promoting permeation of particles across mucus gel layer to directly reach underlying epithelium. Mucoadhesive particles (MAP) are advantageous for delivering drug molecules to various mucosal membranes including eyes, oral cavity, bladder and vagina by prolonging drug residence time on those membranes. In contrast, a broader particle distribution and deeper penetration of the mucus gel layer are accomplished by mucopenetrating particles (MPP) especially in the gastrointestinal tract. Based on the available literature in particular dealing with in vivo results none of both systems (MAP and MPP) seems to be advantageous over the other. The choice of system primarily depends on the therapeutic target and peculiar properties of the target mucosa including thickness of the mucus gel layer, mucus turnover rate and water movement within the mucus. Future trends are heading in the direction of combining both systems to one i.e. mucoadhesive and mucopenetrating properties on the same particles. PMID:26598207

  14. Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1996-09-01

    As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

  15. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  16. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, Steven R. . E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

  17. Ozone removal by diesel particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metts, T. A.; Batterman, S. A.; Fernandes, G. I.; Kalliokoski, P.

    The most significant removal mechanisms for tropospheric ozone (O 3) include dry deposition, photolysis, and photochemical reactions. This study examines another mechanism potentially important in urban areas: sorption and removal on diesel particulate matter (DPM). Tests were performed to determine O 3 breakthrough and the amount of O 3 removed by the DPM generated by a heavy-duty diesel engine. Teflon filters loaded with 0.7-1.8 mg of DPM were exposed to a test atmosphere of humidified and ozonated air designed to represent realistic ambient air conditions. In addition, soot samples with the organic fraction removed were tested to determine whether the organic or elemental fraction contributed to O 3 removal. For comparison, activated carbon (AC) samples were also tested. The DPM-loaded filters removed 5.61.8 wt% of O 3. Considerably more ozone, 314 wt %, was removed by the DPM after removal of its soluble organic fraction. Removal capacities of DPM were small relative to AC, which removed >383 wt% of O 3. Of the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and Ritchie chemisorption models tested, the Ritchie model provided the best fit to the breakthrough data. Preliminary estimates drawn from laboratory results suggest that diesel soot present at typical urban levels will remove only a small portion of O 3 from urban or tropospheric air. In air cleaning applications, DPM-loaded filters are also expected to remove only a small portion of indoor O 3.

  18. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  19. Adverse Health Effects of Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Peng, Roger D.; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Background The short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) on mortality and morbidity differ by geographic location and season. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this variation, including different exposures with air conditioning (AC) versus open windows. Methods Bayesian hierarchical modeling was used to explore whether AC prevalence modified day-to-day associations between PM10 and mortality, and between PM2.5 and cardiovascular or respiratory hospitalizations, for those 65 years and older. We considered yearly, summer-only, and winter-only effect estimates and 2 types of AC (central and window units). Results Communities with higher AC prevalence had lower PM effects. Associations were observed for cardiovascular hospitalizations and central AC. Each additional 20% of households with central AC was associated with a 43% decrease in PM2.5 effects on cardiovascular hospitalization. Central AC prevalence explained 17% of between-community variability in PM2.5 effect estimates for cardiovascular hospitalizations. Conclusions Higher AC prevalence was associated with lower health effect estimates for PM. PMID:19535984

  20. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.