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1

High Expression of Ecto-Nucleotidases CD39 and CD73 in Human Endometrial Tumors  

PubMed Central

One of the strategies used by tumors to evade immunosurveillance is the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, which has immunosupressive and tumor promoting effects. The study of the mechanisms leading to adenosine formation at the tumor interstitium are therefore of great interest in oncology. The dominant pathway generating extracellular adenosine in tumors is the dephosphorylation of ATP by ecto-nucleotidases. Two of these enzymes acting sequentially, CD39 and CD73, efficiently hydrolyze extracellular ATP to adenosine. They have been found to play a crucial role in a variety of tumors, but there were no data concerning endometrial cancer, the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. The aim of the present work is to study the expression of CD39 and CD73 in human endometrial cancer. We have analyzed protein and gene expression, as well as enzyme activity, in type I endometrioid adenocarcinomas and type II serous adenocarcinomas and their nonpathological endometrial counterparts. High levels of both enzymes were found in tumor samples, with significantly increased expression of CD39 in type II serous tumors, which also coincided with the higher tumor grade. Our results reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system in cancer, emphasizing the relevance of ecto-nucleotidases as emerging therapeutic targets in oncology. PMID:24707115

Aliagas, Elisabet; Vidal, August; Texidó, Laura; Ponce, Jordi; Condom, Enric; Martín-Satué, Mireia

2014-01-01

2

Ecto-nucleotidases distribution in human cyclic and postmenopausic endometrium.  

PubMed

Extracellular ATP and its hydrolysis product, adenosine, acting through specific receptors collectively named purinergic receptors, regulate female fertility by influencing the endometrial fluid microenvironment. There are four major groups of ecto-nucleotidases that control the levels of extracellular ATP and adenosine and thus their availability at purinergic receptors: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phospho-diesterases (E-NPPs), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5'NT), and alkaline phosphatases (APs). The aim of the present work is to characterize the expression and distribution of ecto-nucleotidases in human endometrium along the menstrual cycle and after menopause, to evaluate their potential utility as fertility markers. We examined proliferative, secretory and atrophic endometria from women without endometrial pathology undergoing hysterectomy. We show that the ecto-nucleotidases are mainly present at endometrial epithelia, both luminal and glandular, and that their expression fluctuates along the cycle and also changes after menopause. An important result was identifying NPP3 as a new biological marker of tubal metaplasia. Our results emphasize the relevance of the study of purinergic signaling in human fertility. PMID:23225236

Aliagas, Elisabet; Vidal, August; Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamín; Taco, Maria del Rosario; Ponce, Jordi; de Aranda, Inmaculada Gómez; Sévigny, Jean; Condom, Enric; Martín-Satué, Mireia

2013-06-01

3

Polyoxometalates--potent and selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic cluster metal complexes that possess versatile biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects. Their mechanisms of action at the molecular level are largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the inhibition of several enzyme families (e.g., phosphatases, protein kinases or ecto-nucleotidases) by POMs may contribute to their pharmacological properties. Ecto-nucleotidases are cell membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides thereby regulating purinergic (and pyrimidinergic) signaling. They comprise four distinct families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), alkaline phosphatases (APs) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of a series of polyoxometalates as well as chalcogenide hexarhenium cluster complexes at a broad range of ecto-nucleotidases. [Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2](10-) (5, PSB-POM142) was discovered to be the most potent inhibitor of human NTPDase1 described so far (Ki: 3.88 nM). Other investigated POMs selectively inhibited human NPP1, [TiW11CoO40](8-) (4, PSB-POM141, Ki: 1.46 nM) and [NaSb9W21O86](18-) (6, PSB-POM143, Ki: 4.98 nM) representing the most potent and selective human NPP1 inhibitors described to date. [NaP5W30O110](14-) (8, PSB-POM144) strongly inhibited NTPDase1-3 and NPP1 and may therefore be used as a pan-inhibitor to block ATP hydrolysis. The polyoxoanionic compounds displayed a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition of NPPs and eN, but appeared to be competitive inhibitors of TNAP. Future in vivo studies with selected inhibitors identified in the current study are warranted. PMID:25449596

Lee, Sang-Yong; Fiene, Amelie; Li, Wenjin; Hanck, Theodor; Brylev, Konstantin A; Fedorov, Vladimir E; Lecka, Joanna; Haider, Ali; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Sévigny, Jean; Kortz, Ulrich; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E

2015-01-15

4

Ecto-nucleotidases Activities in the Contents of Ovarian Endometriomas: Potential Biomarkers of Endometriosis  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis, defined as the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, is a common gynecologic condition affecting millions of women worldwide. It is an inflammatory, estrogen-dependent complex disorder, with broad symptomatic variability, pelvic pain, and infertility being the main characteristics. Ovarian endometriomas are frequently developed in women with endometriosis. Late diagnosis is one of the main problems of endometriosis; thus, it is important to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the ecto-nucleotidases activities in the contents of endometriomas. These enzymes, through the regulation of extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, are key enzymes in inflammatory processes, and their expression has been previously characterized in human endometrium. To achieve our objective, the echo-guided aspirated fluids of endometriomas were analyzed by evaluating the ecto-nucleotidases activities and compared with simple cysts. Our results show that enzyme activities are quantifiable in the ovarian cysts aspirates and that endometriomas show significantly higher ecto-nucleotidases activities than simple cysts (5.5-fold increase for ATPase and 20-fold for ADPase), thus being possible candidates for new endometriosis biomarkers. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of ecto-nucleotidases bearing exosomes in these fluids. These results add up to the knowledge of the physiopathologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis and, open up a promising new field of study. PMID:25276049

Texidó, Laura; Romero, Claudia; García-Valero, José; Fernández Montoli, M. Eulalia; Baixeras, Núria; Condom, Enric; Ponce, Jordi; García-Tejedor, Amparo; Martín-Satué, Mireia

2014-01-01

5

Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important factor in determining the clinical outcome of leishmaniasis. PMID:23071853

Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luís C. C.

2012-01-01

6

CD39: Interface between vascular thrombosis and inflammation.  

PubMed

Extracellular nucleotides play a critical role in vascular thrombosis and inflammation. Alterations in purinergic extracellular nucleotide concentrations activate pathways that result in platelet degranulation and aggregation, and endothelial and leukocyte activation and recruitment. CD39, the dominant vascular nucleotidase, hydrolyzes ATP and ADP to provide the substrate for generation of the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic mediator adenosine. The purinergic signaling system, with CD39 at its center, plays an important role in modulating vascular homeostasis and the response to vascular injury, as seen in clinically relevant diseases such as stroke, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and pulmonary hypertension. A growing body of knowledge of the purinergic signaling pathway implicates CD39 as a critical modulator of vascular thrombosis and inflammation. Therapeutic strategies targeting CD39 offer promising opportunities in the management of vascular thromboinflammatory diseases. PMID:24838375

Kanthi, Yogendra M; Sutton, Nadia R; Pinsky, David J

2014-07-01

7

Inhibition of CD39 Enzymatic Function at the Surface of Tumor Cells Alleviates Their Immunosuppressive Activity.  

PubMed

The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 hydrolyze extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to generate adenosine, which binds to adenosine receptors and inhibits T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell responses, thereby suppressing the immune system. The generation of adenosine via the CD39/CD73 pathway is recognized as a major mechanism of regulatory T cell (Treg) immunosuppressive function. The number of CD39(+) Tregs is increased in some human cancers, and the importance of CD39(+) Tregs in promoting tumor growth and metastasis has been demonstrated using several in vivo models. Here, we addressed whether CD39 is expressed by tumor cells and whether CD39(+) tumor cells mediate immunosuppression via the adenosine pathway. Immunohistochemical staining of normal and tumor tissues revealed that CD39 expression is significantly higher in several types of human cancer than in normal tissues. In cancer specimens, CD39 is expressed by infiltrating lymphocytes, the tumor stroma, and tumor cells. Furthermore, the expression of CD39 at the cell surface of tumor cells was directly demonstrated via flow cytometry of human cancer cell lines. CD39 in cancer cells displays ATPase activity and, together with CD73, generates adenosine. CD39(+)CD73(+) cancer cells inhibited the proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells and the generation of cytotoxic effector CD8 T cells (CTL) in a CD39- and adenosine-dependent manner. Treatment with a CD39 inhibitor or blocking antibody alleviated the tumor-induced inhibition of CD4 and CD8 T-cell proliferation and increased CTL- and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In conclusion, interfering with the CD39-adenosine pathway may represent a novel immunotherapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumor cell-mediated immunosuppression. Cancer Immunol Res; 3(3); 254-65. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25403716

Bastid, Jeremy; Regairaz, Anne; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Déjou, Cécile; Giustiniani, Jérôme; Laheurte, Caroline; Cochaud, Stéphanie; Laprevotte, Emilie; Funck-Brentano, Elisa; Hemon, Patrice; Gros, Laurent; Bec, Nicole; Larroque, Christian; Alberici, Gilles; Bensussan, Armand; Eliaou, Jean-François

2015-03-01

8

CD39 improves survival in microbial sepsis by attenuating systemic inflammation.  

PubMed

Sepsis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Excessive inflammation is a major cause of organ failure and mortality in sepsis. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, ENTPDase1 (CD39) is a cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, which degrades the extracellular purines ATP and ADP, thereby regulating purinergic receptor signaling. Although the role of purinergic receptor signaling in regulating inflammation and sepsis has been addressed previously, the role of CD39 in regulating the host's response to sepsis is unknown. We found that the CD39 mimic apyrase (250 U/kg) decreased and knockout or pharmacologic blockade with sodium polyoxotungstate (5 mg/kg; IC50 ? 10 ?M) of CD39 increased mortality of mice with polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. CD39 decreased inflammation, organ damage, immune cell apoptosis, and bacterial load. Use of bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CD39 expression on myeloid cells decreases inflammation in septic mice. CD39 expression is upregulated during sepsis in mice, as well as in both murine and human macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli. Moreover, E. coli increases CD39 promoter activity in macrophages. Altogether, these data indicate CD39 as an evolutionarily conserved inducible protective pathway during sepsis. We propose CD39 as a novel therapeutic target in the management of sepsis. PMID:25318479

Csóka, Balázs; Németh, Zoltán H; Tör?, Gábor; Koscsó, Balázs; Kókai, Endre; Robson, Simon C; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Erdélyi, Katalin; Pacher, Pál; Haskó, György

2015-01-01

9

The expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells is genetically driven and further upregulated at sites of inflammation.  

PubMed

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) use different mechanisms to exert their suppressive function, among them the conversion of ATP to adenosine initiated by the ectonucleotidase CD39. In humans, the expression of CD39 on Tregs shows a high interindividual variation, and is especially high at sites of inflammation, like the synovia of patients with arthritis. How CD39 expression is regulated, and the functional consequences of different levels of CD39 expression is not known. We show here that stimulation of CD39(-) Tregs results in a modest upregulation of CD39, which cannot explain the high levels observed in many donors. Moreover, CD39(+) Tregs are present in naïve compartments such as cord blood and thymus, and the individual frequency of CD39(+) Tregs remains stable over time, suggesting inherent regulation of CD39 expression. Indeed, we show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD39 gene determines expression levels in Tregs. CD39(+) Tregs suppress T cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production more efficiently than CD39(-) Tregs. Accordingly, Tregs from donors with the GG (high CD39) genotype have a higher capacity to suppress IFN-? and IL-17 production by effector cells than Tregs from AA (low CD39) donors. Our study demonstrates that the expression of CD39 in Tregs is primarily genetically driven, and this may determine interindividual differences in the control of inflammatory responses. PMID:25640206

Rissiek, Anne; Baumann, Isabell; Cuapio, Angelica; Mautner, Andrea; Kolster, Manuela; Arck, Petra C; Dodge-Khatami, Ali; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Haag, Friedrich; Tolosa, Eva

2015-04-01

10

Targeted disruption of cd39\\/ATP diphosphohydrolase results in disordered hemostasis and thromboregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD39, or vascular adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, has been considered an important inhibitor of platelet activation. Unexpectedly, cd39-deficient mice had prolonged bleeding times with minimally perturbed coagulation parameters. Platelet interactions with injured mesenteric vasculature were considerably reduced in vivo and purified mutant platelets failed to aggregate to standard agonists in vitro. This platelet hypofunction was reversible and associated with purinergic type

Keiichi Enjyoji; Jean Sévigny; Yuan Lin; Paul S. Frenette; Patricia D. Christie; Jan Schulte Am Esch; Masato Imai; Jay M. Edelberg; Helen Rayburn; Miroslaw Lech; David L. Beeler; Eva Csizmadia; Denisa D. Wagner; Simon C. Robson; Robert D. Rosenberg

1999-01-01

11

Regulation of ecto-apyrase CD39 (ENTPD1) expression by phosphodiesterase III (PDE3)  

PubMed Central

The ectoenzyme CD39 suppresses thrombosis and inflammation by suppressing ATP and ADP to AMP. However, mechanisms of CD39 transcriptional and post-translational regulation are not well known. Here we show that CD39 levels are modulated by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3). RAW macrophages and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with the PDE3 inhibitors cilostazol and milrinone, then analyzed using qRT-PCR, immunoprecipitation/Western blot, immunofluorescent staining, radio-thin-layer chromatography, a malachite green assay, and ELISA. HUVECs expressed elevated CD39 protein (2-fold [P<0.05] for cilostazol and 2.5-fold [P<0.01] for milrinone), while macrophage CD39 mRNA and protein were both elevated after PDE3 inhibition. HUVEC ATPase activity increased by 25% with cilostazol and milrinone treatment (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), as did ADPase activity (47% and 61%, P<0.001). There was also a dose-dependent elevation of soluble CD39 after treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, with maximal elevation of 60% more CD39 present compared to controls (1 mM, P<0.001). Protein harvested after 8-Br-cAMP treatment showed that ubiquitination of CD39 was decreased by 43% compared to controls. A DMSO or PBS vehicle control was included for each experiment based on solubility of cilostazol, milrinone, and 8-Br-cAMP. These results indicate that PDE3 inhibition regulates endothelial CD39 at a post-translational level.—Baek, A. E., Kanthi, Y., Sutton, N. R., Liao, H., Pinsky, D. J. Regulation of ecto-apyrase CD39 (ENTPD1) expression by phosphodiesterase III (PDE3). PMID:23901069

Baek, Amy E.; Kanthi, Yogendra; Sutton, Nadia R.; Liao, Hui; Pinsky, David J.

2013-01-01

12

Rapamycin Regulates iTreg Function through CD39 and Runx1 Pathways  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that rapamycin is able to significantly increase the expression of FoxP3 and suppress activity in induced Treg (iTreg) cells in vivo and in vitro. CD39 is a newly determined Treg marker that relates to cell suppression. Runx1, a regulator of FoxP3, controls the expression of adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene, which is found recently in the downstream of CD39 pathway in trophoblast cells. Whether rapamycin would influence CD39 pathway and regulate the expression of Runx1 remains to be determined. The addition of rapamycin to human CD4+ naïve cells in the presence of IL-2, TGF-? promotes the expression of FoxP3. In this paper, we found that CD39 positively correlated with the FoxP3 expression in iTreg cells. Rapamycin induced iTreg cells showed a stronger CD39/Runx1 expression with the enhanced suppressive function. These data suggested that CD39 expression was involved in iTreg generation and the enhanced suppressive ability of rapamycin induced Treg was partly due to Runx1 pathway. We conclude that rapamycin favors CD39/Runx1 expression in human iTreg and provides a novel insight into the mechanisms of iTreg generation enhanced by rapamycin. PMID:24741640

Lu, Yunjie; Wang, Jirong; Gu, Jian; Lu, Hao; Li, Xiangcheng; Qian, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiaoshan; Wang, Xuehao; Zhang, Feng; Lu, Ling

2014-01-01

13

TLR stimulation initiates a CD39-based autoregulatory mechanism that limits macrophage inflammatory responses  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is a highly fatal disease caused by an initial hyperinflammatory response followed by a state of profound immunosuppression. Although it is well appreciated that the initial production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages accompanies the onset of sepsis, it remains unclear what causes the transition to an immunosuppressive state. In this study, we reveal that macrophages themselves are key regulators of this transition and that the surface enzyme CD39 plays a critical role in self-limiting the activation process. We demonstrate that Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated macrophages modulate their activation state by increasing the synthesis and secretion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This endogenous ATP is paradoxically immunosuppressive due to its rapid catabolism into adenosine by CD39. Macrophages lacking CD39 are unable to transition to a regulatory state and consequently continue to produce inflammatory cytokines. The importance of this transition is demonstrated in a mouse model of sepsis, where small numbers of CD39-deficient macrophages were sufficient to induce lethal endotoxic shock. Thus, these data implicate CD39 as a key “molecular switch” that allows macrophages to self-limit their activation state. We propose that therapeutics targeting the release and hydrolysis of ATP by macrophages may represent new ways to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:23908469

Cohen, Heather B.; Briggs, Katharine T.; Marino, John P.; Ravid, Katya; Robson, Simon C.

2013-01-01

14

T –cell specific defect in expression of the NTPDase CD39 as a biomarker for lupus  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for maintenance of peripheral tolerance via suppression of T-cell responses, and absence of Tregs results in autoimmunity. The role of aberrations in the Treg pool for the development of systemic lupus erythamatosus (SLE, lupus) remains uncertain. Treg-mediated generation of adenosine, dependent on the ectonucleotidase CD39, is an important mechanism for suppression of T-cell responses. We tested whether decreases in numbers of Tregs, and specifically CD39-expressing Tregs, are associated with human lupus. We studied 15 SLE patients, 6 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 24 healthy controls. Treg phenotypic markers, including CD39 expression, were studied by flow cytometry. Varying numbers of sorted Tregs cells were co-cultured with responder T (Tresp) cells, with proliferation assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The proportion of Tregs as defined by Foxp3+ CD25+high CD127?/low was similar in lupus and control populations. CD39-expressing Tregs comprised 37 ± 13% of the Treg population in healthy controls and 36 ± 21% in lupus subjects using nonsteroidal immunosuppressants to control active disease, but was nearly absent in 5 of 6 lupus subjects with minimally active disease. In contrast to healthy controls and lupus subjects without the CD39 defect, in SLE subjects with the CD39 defect, adenosine-dependent Treg-mediated suppression was nearly absent. These results suggest that functional defects in Tregs, rather than reduced Treg numbers, are important for the loss of peripheral tolerance in lupus. Presentation of this defect may serve as a biomarker for untreated disease. PMID:21763644

Loza, Matthew J.; Anderson, A. Shane; O’Rourke, Kenneth S.; Wood, James; Khan, Islam U.

2011-01-01

15

An intestinal commensal symbiosis factor controls neuroinflammation via TLR2-mediated CD39 signalling.  

PubMed

The mammalian immune system constitutively senses vast quantities of commensal bacteria and their products through pattern recognition receptors, yet excessive immune reactivity is prevented under homeostasis. The intestinal microbiome can influence host susceptibility to extra-intestinal autoimmune disorders. Here we report that polysaccharide A (PSA), a symbiosis factor for the human intestinal commensal Bacteroides fragilis, protects against central nervous system demyelination and inflammation during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 mediates tissue-specific expansion of a critical regulatory CD39(+) CD4 T-cell subset by PSA. Ablation of CD39 signalling abrogates PSA control of EAE manifestations and inflammatory cytokine responses. Further, CD39 confers immune-regulatory phenotypes to total CD4 T cells and Foxp3(+) CD4 Tregs. Importantly, CD39-deficient CD4 T cells show an enhanced capability to drive EAE progression. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanism by which an intestinal symbiont product modulates CNS-targeted demyelination. PMID:25043484

Wang, Yan; Telesford, Kiel M; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Haque-Begum, Sakhina; Christy, Marc; Kasper, Eli J; Wang, Li; Wu, Yan; Robson, Simon C; Kasper, Dennis L; Kasper, Lloyd H

2014-01-01

16

Delayed targeting of CD39 to activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa via a single-chain antibody: breaking the link between antithrombotic potency and bleeding?  

PubMed Central

The ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase CD39 represents a promising antithrombotic therapeutic. It degrades adenosine 5?-diphosphate (ADP), a main platelet activating/recruiting agent. We hypothesized that delayed enrichment of CD39 on developing thrombi will allow for a low and safe systemic concentration and thus avoid bleeding. We use a single-chain antibody (scFv, specific for activated GPIIb/IIIa) for targeting CD39. This should allow delayed enrichment on growing thrombi but not on the initial sealing layer of platelets, which do not yet express activated GPIIb/IIIa. CD39 was recombinantly fused to an activated GPIIb/IIIa-specific scFv (targ-CD39) and a nonfunctional scFv (non–targ-CD39). Targ-CD39 was more effective at preventing ADP-induced platelet activation than non–targ-CD39. In a mouse carotid artery thrombosis model, non–targ-CD39, although protective against vessel occlusion, was associated with significant bleeding on tail transection. In contrast, targ-CD39 concentrated at the thrombus site; hence, a dose ?10 times less of CD39 prevented vessel occlusion to a similar extent as high-dose non–targ-CD39, without prolonged bleeding time. An equimolar dose of non–targ-CD39 at this low concentration was ineffective at preventing vessel occlusion. Thus, delayed targeting of CD39 via scFv to activated platelets provides strong antithrombotic potency and yet prevents bleeding and thereby promotes CD39 toward clinical use. PMID:23380744

Hohmann, Jan David; Wang, Xiaowei; Krajewski, Stefanie; Selan, Carly; Haller, Carolyn A.; Straub, Andreas; Chaikof, Elliot L.; Nandurkar, Harshal H.; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

2013-01-01

17

Natural Killer T Cell Dysfunction in CD39-Null Mice Protects Against Concanavalin A–Induced Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Concanavalin A (Con A)–induced injury is an established natural killer T (NKT) cell–mediated model of inflammation that has been used in studies of immune liver disease. Extracellular nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate, are released by Con A–stimulated cells and bind to specific purinergic type 2 receptors to modulate immune activation responses. Levels of extracellular nucleotides are in turn closely regulated by ectonucleotidases, such as CD39/NTPDase1. Effects of extracellular nucleotides and CD39 on NKT cell activation and upon hepatic inflammation have been largely unexplored to date. Here, we show that NKT cells express both CD39 and CD73/ecto-5’-nucleotidase and can therefore generate adenosine from extracellular nucleotides, whereas natural killer cells do not express CD73. In vivo, mice null for CD39 are protected from Con A–induced liver injury and show substantively lower serum levels of interleukin-4 and interferon-? when compared with matched wild-type mice. Numbers of hepatic NKT cells are significantly decreased in CD39 null mice after Con A administration. Hepatic NKT cells express most P2X and P2Y receptors; exceptions include P2X3 and P2Y11. Heightened levels of apoptosis of CD39 null NKT cells in vivo and in vitro appear to be driven by unimpeded activation of the P2X7 receptor. Conclusion CD39 and CD73 are novel phenotypic markers of NKT cells. Deletion of CD39 modulates nucleotide-mediated cytokine production by, and limits apoptosis of, hepatic NKT cells providing protection against Con A–induced hepatitis. This study illustrates a further role for purinergic signaling in NKT-mediated mechanisms that result in liver immune injury. PMID:18752325

Beldi, Guido; Wu, Yan; Banz, Yara; Nowak, Michael; Miller, Lindsay; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Haschemi, Arvand; Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Candinas, Daniel; Exley, Mark; Robson, Simon C.

2010-01-01

18

Genetic analysis of an allergic rhinitis cohort reveals an intercellular epistasis between FAM134B and CD39  

PubMed Central

Background Extracellular ATP is a pro-inflammatory molecule released by damaged cells. Regulatory T cells (Treg) can suppress inflammation by hydrolysing this molecule via ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1), also termed as CD39. Multiple studies have reported differences in CD39+ Treg percentages in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Hepatitis B and HIV-1. In addition, CD39 polymorphisms have been implicated in immune-phenotypes such as susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and AIDS progression. However none of the studies published so far has linked disease-associated variants with differences in CD39 Treg surface expression. This study aims at identifying variants affecting CD39 expression on Treg and at evaluating their association with allergic rhinitis, a disease characterized by a strong Treg involvement. Methods Cohorts consisting of individuals of different ethnicities were employed to identify any association of CD39 variants to surface expression. Significant variant(s) were tested for disease association in a published GWAS cohort by one-locus and two-locus genetic analyses based on logistic models. Further functional characterization was performed using existing microarray data and quantitative RT-PCR on sorted cells. Results Our study shows that rs7071836, a promoter SNP in the CD39 gene region, affects the cell surface expression on Treg cells but not on other CD39+ leukocyte subsets. Epistasis analysis revealed that, in conjunction with a SNP upstream of the FAM134B gene (rs257174), it increased the risk of allergic rhinitis (P?=?1.98?×?10-6). As a promoter SNP, rs257174 controlled the expression of the gene in monocytes but, notably, not in Treg cells. Whole blood transcriptome data of three large cohorts indicated an inverse relation in the expression of the two proteins. While this observation was in line with the epistasis data, it also implied that a functional link must exist. Exposure of monocytes to extracellular ATP resulted in an up-regulation of FAM134B gene expression, suggesting that extracellular ATP released from damaged cells represents the connection for the biological interaction of CD39 on Treg cells with FAM134B on monocytes. Conclusions The interplay between promoter SNPs of CD39 and FAM134B results in an intercellular epistasis which influences the risk of a complex inflammatory disease. PMID:24970562

2014-01-01

19

Low expression of CD39 on regulatory T cells as a biomarker for resistance to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by joint destruction and severe morbidity. Methotrexate (MTX) is the standard first-line therapy of RA. However, about 40% of RA patients are unresponsive to MTX treatment. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) are thought to play an important role in attenuating RA. To investigate the role of Tregs in MTX resistance, we recruited 122 RA patients (53 responsive, R-MTX; 69 unresponsive, UR-MTX) and 33 healthy controls. Three months after MTX treatment, R-MTX but not UR-MTX showed higher frequency of peripheral blood CD39(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs than the healthy controls. Tregs produce adenosine (ADO) through ATP degradation by sequential actions of two cell surface ectonucleotidases: CD39 and CD73. Tregs from UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39, produced less ADO, and had reduced suppressive activity than Tregs from R-MTX. In a prospective study, before MTX treatment, UR-MTX expressed a lower density of CD39 on Tregs than those of R-MTX or control (P < 0.01). In a murine model of arthritis, CD39 blockade reversed the antiarthritic effects of MTX treatment. Our results demonstrate that MTX unresponsiveness in RA is associated with low expression of CD39 on Tregs and the decreased suppressive activity of these cells through reduced ADO production. Our findings thus provide hitherto unrecognized mechanism of immune regulation in RA and on mode of action of MTX. Furthermore, our data suggest that low expression of CD39 on Tregs could be a noninvasive biomarker for identifying MTX-resistant RA patients. PMID:25675517

Peres, Raphael Sanches; Liew, Foo Y; Talbot, Jhimmy; Carregaro, Vanessa; Oliveira, Rene D; Almeida, Sergio L; França, Rafael F O; Donate, Paula B; Pinto, Larissa G; Ferreira, Flavia I S; Costa, Diego L; Demarque, Daniel P; Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Lopes, Norberto P; Queiroz, Regina Helena C; Silva, Joao Santana; Figueiredo, Florencio; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Cunha, Thiago M; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Cunha, Fernando Q

2015-02-24

20

The Role of Ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 and Adenosine Signaling in Solid Organ Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Extracellular adenosine is a potent immunomodulatory molecule that accumulates in states of inflammation. Nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate are release from injured and necrotic cells and hydrolyzed to adenosine monophosphate and adenosine by the concerted action of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73. Accumulating evidence suggest that purinergic signaling is involved in the inflammatory response that accompanies acute rejection and chronic allograft dysfunction. Modification of the purinergic pathway has been shown to alter graft survival in a number of solid organ transplant models and the response to ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Furthermore, the purinergic pathway is intrinsically involved in B and T cell biology and function. Although T cells have traditionally been considered the orchestrators of acute allograft rejection, a role for B cells in chronic allograft loss is being increasingly appreciated. This review focuses on the role of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 and adenosine signaling in solid organ transplantation including the effects on IRI and T and B cell biology. PMID:24600452

Roberts, Veena; Stagg, John; Dwyer, Karen M.

2013-01-01

21

Activated regulatory T-cells attenuate myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury through a CD39-dependent mechanism.  

PubMed

Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are generally regarded as key immunomodulators that maintain immune tolerance and counteract tissue damage in a variety of immune-mediated disorders. However, its role in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether Tregs exert a beneficial effect on mouse MIRI. We examined the role of Tregs in murine MIRI by depletion using 'depletion of regulatory T-cell' (DEREG) mice and adoptive transfer using Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-GFP knockin mice and the mechanisms of cardio protection were further studied in vivo and in vitro. Tregs rapidly accumulated in murine hearts following MIRI. Selective depletion of Tregs in the DEREG mouse model resulted in aggravated MIRI. In contrast, the adoptive transfer of in vitro-activated Tregs suppressed MIRI, whereas freshly isolated Tregs had no effect. Mechanistically, activated Treg-mediated protection against MIRI was not abrogated by interleukin (IL)-10 or transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 inhibition but was impaired by the genetic deletion of cluster of differentiation 39 (CD39). Moreover, adoptive transfer of in vitro-activated Tregs attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis, activated a pro-survival pathway involving Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and inhibited neutrophil infiltration, which was compromised by CD39 deficiency. Finally, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) revealed a decrease in CD4+CD25+CD127low Tregs and a relative increase in CD39+ cells within the Treg population. In conclusion, our data validated a protective role for Tregs in MIRI. Moreover, in vitro-activated Tregs ameliorated MIRI via a CD39-dependent mechanism, representing a putative therapeutic strategy. PMID:25558978

Xia, Ni; Jiao, Jiao; Tang, Ting-Ting; Lv, Bing-Jie; Lu, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Ke-Jing; Zhu, Zheng-Feng; Mao, Xiao-Bo; Nie, Shao-Fang; Wang, Qing; Tu, Xin; Xiao, Hong; Liao, Yu-Hua; Shi, Guo-Ping; Cheng, Xiang

2015-05-01

22

E-NTPDase1/CD39 modulates renin release from heart mast cells during ischemia/reperfusion: a novel cardioprotective role.  

PubMed

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) elicits renin release from cardiac mast cells (MC), thus activating a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS), culminating in ventricular fibrillation. We hypothesized that in I/R, neurogenic ATP could degranulate juxtaposed MC and that ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1/CD39 (CD39) on MC membrane could modulate ATP-induced renin release. We report that pharmacological inhibition of CD39 in a cultured human mastocytoma cell line (HMC-1) and murine bone marrow-derived MC with ARL67156 (100 µM) increased ATP-induced renin release (?2-fold), whereas purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) blockade with A740003 (3 µM) prevented it. Likewise, CD39 RNA silencing in HMC-1 increased ATP-induced renin release (?2-fold), whereas CD39 overexpression prevented it. Acetaldehyde, an I/R product (300 µM), elicited an 80% increase in ATP release from HMC-1, in turn, causing an autocrine 20% increase in renin release. This effect was inhibited or potentiated when CD39 was overexpressed or silenced, respectively. Moreover, P2X7R silencing prevented ATP- and acetaldehyde-induced renin release. I/R-induced RAS activation in ex vivo murine hearts, characterized by renin and norepinephrine overflow and ventricular fibrillation, was potentiated (?2-fold) by CD39 inhibition, an effect prevented by P2X7R blockade. Our data indicate that by regulating ATP availability at the MC surface, CD39 modulates local renin release and thus, RAS activation, ultimately exerting a cardioprotective effect. PMID:25318477

Aldi, Silvia; Marino, Alice; Tomita, Kengo; Corti, Federico; Anand, Ranjini; Olson, Kim E; Marcus, Aaron J; Levi, Roberto

2015-01-01

23

CD39 is a negative regulator of P2X7-mediated inflammatory cell death in mast cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mast cells (MCs) are major contributors to an inflammatory milieu. One of the most potent drivers of inflammation is the cytokine IL-1?, which is produced in the cytoplasm in response to danger signals like LPS. Several controlling mechanisms have been reported which limit the release of IL-1?. Central to this regulation is the NLRP3 inflammasome, activation of which requires a second danger signal with the capacity to subvert the homeostasis of lysosomes and mitochondria. High concentrations of extracellular ATP have the capability to perturb the plasma membrane by activation of P2X7 channels and serve as such a danger signal. In this study we investigate the role of P2X7 channels and the ecto-5´-nucleotidase CD39 in ATP-triggered release of IL-1? from LPS-treated mast cells. Results We report that in MCs CD39 sets an activation threshold for the P2X7-dependent inflammatory cell death and concomitant IL-1? release. Knock-out of CD39 or stimulation with non-hydrolysable ATP led to a lower activation threshold for P2X7-dependent responses. We found that stimulation of LPS-primed MCs with high doses of ATP readily induced inflammatory cell death. Yet, cell death-dependent release of IL-1? yielded only minute amounts of IL-1?. Intriguingly, stimulation with low ATP concentrations augmented the production of IL-1? in LPS-primed MCs in a P2X7-independent but caspase-1-dependent manner. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the fine-tuned interplay between ATP and different surface molecules recognizing or modifying ATP can control inflammatory and cell death decisions. PMID:25184735

2014-01-01

24

CD39/NTPDase-1 expression and activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells are differentially regulated by leaf extracts from Rubus caesius and Rubus idaeus.  

PubMed

Many experimental studies have demonstrated the favorable biological activities of plants belonging to the genus Rubus, but little is known of the role of Rubus leaf extracts in the modulation of the surface membrane expression and activity of endothelial apyrase. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 1-15 ?g/ml Rubus extracts on CD39 expression and enzymatic activity, and on the activation (ICAM-1 expression) and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The polyphenolic contents and antioxidative capacities of extracts from dewberry (R. caesius L.) and raspberry (R. idaeus L.) leaves were also investigated. The techniques applied were flow cytometry (endothelial surface membrane expression of ICAM-1 and CD39), malachite green assay (CD39 activity), HPLC-DAD (quantitative analysis of polyphenolic extract), ABTS, DPPH and FRAP spectrometric assays (antioxidant capacity), and the MTT test (cell viability). Significantly increased CD39 expressions and significantly decreased ATPDase activities were found in the cells treated with 15 ?g/ml of either extract compared to the results for the controls. Neither of the extracts affected cell proliferation, but both significantly augmented endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression. The overall antioxidant capacities of the examined extracts remained relatively high and corresponded well to the determined total polyphenol contents. Overall, the results indicate that under in vitro conditions dewberry and raspberry leaf extracts have unfavorable impact on endothelial cells. PMID:25034034

Dudzinska, Dominika; Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Podsedek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

2014-09-01

25

IL-27 acts on DCs to suppress the T cell response and autoimmunity by inducing expression of the immunoregulatory molecule CD39.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) control the balance between effector T cells and regulatory T cells in vivo. Hence, the study of DCs might identify mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and guide new therapeutic approaches for disorders mediated by the immune system. We found that interleukin 27 (IL-27) signaling in mouse DCs limited the generation of effector cells of the TH1 and TH17 subsets of helper T cells and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of IL-27 were mediated at least in part through induction of the immunoregulatory molecule CD39 in DCs. IL-27-induced CD39 decreased the extracellular concentration of ATP and downregulated nucleotide-dependent activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Finally, therapeutic vaccination with IL-27-conditioned DCs suppressed established relapsing-remitting EAE. Thus, IL-27 signaling in DCs limited pathogenic T cell responses and the development of autoimmunity. PMID:23995234

Mascanfroni, Ivan D; Yeste, Ada; Vieira, Silvio M; Burns, Evan J; Patel, Bonny; Sloma, Ido; Wu, Yan; Mayo, Lior; Ben-Hamo, Rotem; Efroni, Sol; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Robson, Simon C; Quintana, Francisco J

2013-10-01

26

Extract from Ribes nigrum leaves in vitro activates nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increases CD39 expression in human endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether blackcurrant leaf extract (BLE) modulates endothelium antithrombotic function, namely increases the expression/activity of ADPase (CD39) and augments the production of nitric oxide in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). It was found that BLE with proanthocyanidins (60 % of the total polyphenol content) increased the CD39-positive endothelial cell fraction (up to 10 % for 2.5 ?g/ml, and up to 33 % for 15 ?g/ml, p < 0.05 or less) in a concentration-dependent manner, and enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (T495 phosphorylation decreased by 31 ± 6 % for 2.5 ?g/ml and 48 ± 6 % for 15 ?g/ml; S1177 phosphorylation increased by 13 ± 3 % for 2.5 ?g/ml and 18 ± 7 % for 15 ?g/ml, compared to untreated cells, p < 0.05 or less). Additionally, incubation for 24 or 48 h with BLE at a lower range of polyphenol concentrations, significantly increased cell viability with a maximal effect at 2.5 ?g/ml (viability increased by 24.8 ± 1.0 % for 24 h and by 32.5 ± 2.7 % for 48-h time incubation, p < 0.0001). The increased CD39 expression and the increased eNOS activation in HUVEC can be regarded as the beneficial markers of the improvement of antiplatelet action of endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, these assumptions were not confirmed in the experimental model of platelet-endothelial cell interactions. These observations lead to the conclusion that BLE may improve endothelial cell viability at low physiological concentrations without affecting the antiplatelet action of endothelium. PMID:25407137

Luzak, Boguslawa; Boncler, Magdalena; Rywaniak, Joanna; Dudzinska, Dominika; Rozalski, Marek; Krajewska, Urszula; Balcerczak, Ewa; Podsedek, Anna; Redzynia, Malgorzata; Watala, Cezary

2014-12-01

27

Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID.  

PubMed

Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)-mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA(-/-) Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA-treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA-treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID. PMID:22184407

Sauer, Aisha V; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna; Aiuti, Alessandro

2012-02-01

28

Interleukin-27 acts on dendritic cells to suppress the T-cell response and autoimmunity by inducing the expression of ENTPD1 (CD39)  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) control the balance between effector and regulatory T cells in vivo. Hence, the study of DCs might identify mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and guide new therapeutic approaches for immune-mediated disorders. We found that IL-27 signaling in murine DCs limits the generation of effector TH1 and TH17 cells and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of IL-27 were mediated, at least partially, through the induction of the immunoregulatory molecule ENTPD1 (CD39) in DCs. IL-27-induced ENTPD1 decreased extracellular ATP levels, down-regulating nucleotide-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Finally, therapeutic vaccination with IL-27-conditioned DCs suppressed established relapsing-remitting EAE. Thus, IL-27 signaling in DCs limits pathogenic T cell responses and the development of autoimmunity. PMID:23995234

Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Yeste, Ada; Vieira, Silvio M.; Burns, Evan J.; Patel, Bonny; Sloma, Ido; Wu, Yan; Mayo, Lior; Ben-Hamo, Rotem; Efroni, Sol; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Robson, Simon C.; Quintana, Francisco J.

2014-01-01

29

Xenotransplantation of galactosyl-transferase knockout, CD55, CD59, CD39, and fucosyl-transferase transgenic pig kidneys into baboons.  

PubMed

Galactosyl-transferase knockout (GT-KO) pigs represent the latest major progress to reduce immune reactions in xenotransplantation. However, their organs are still subject to rapid humoral rejection involving complement activation requiring the ongoing development of further genetic modifications in the pig. In a pig-to-baboon renal transplantation setting, we have used donor pigs that are not only GT-KO, but also transgenic for human CD55 (hCD55), hCD59, hCD39, and fucosyl-transferase (hHT). We studied kidney xenograft survival, physiological and immunologic parameters, xenogeneic rejection characteristics, as well as viral transmission aspects among two groups of baboons: control animals (n = 2), versus those (n = 4) treated with a cocktail of cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, steroids, and a recombinant human C1 inhibitor. Whereas control animals showed clear acute humoral rejection at around day 4, the treated animals showed moderately improved graft survival with rejection at around 2 weeks posttransplantation. Biopsies showed signs of acute vascular rejection (interstitial hemorrhage, glomerular thrombi, and acute tubular necrosis) as well as immunoglobulin (Ig)M and complement deposition in the glomerular and peritubular capillaries. The low level of preformed non-Gal-?1.3Gal IgM detected prior to transplantation increased at 6 days posttransplantation, whereas induced IgG appeared after day 6. No porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) transmission was detected in any transplanted baboon. Thus, surprisingly, organs from the GT-KO, hCD55, hCD59, hCD39, and hHT transgenic donors did not appear to convey significant protection against baboon anti-pig antibodies and complement activation, which obviously continue to be significant factors under a suboptimal immunosuppression regimen. The association, timing, and doses of immunosuppressive drugs remain critical. They will have to be optimized to achieve longer graft survivals. PMID:22099813

Le Bas-Bernardet, S; Tillou, X; Poirier, N; Dilek, N; Chatelais, M; Devallière, J; Charreau, B; Minault, D; Hervouet, J; Renaudin, K; Crossan, C; Scobie, L; Cowan, P J; d'Apice, A J F; Galli, C; Cozzi, E; Soulillou, J P; Vanhove, B; Blancho, G

2011-11-01

30

A CD38/CD203a/CD73 ectoenzymatic pathway independent of CD39 drives a novel adenosinergic loop in human T lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

The tumor microenvironment is characterized by of high levels of extracellular nucleotides that are metabolized through the dynamic and sequential action of cell surface enzymes (ectoenzymes). These ectoenzymes operate according to their spatial arrangement, as part of (1) continuous (molecules on the same cell) or (2) discontinuous (molecules on different cells) pathways, the latter being facilitated by restricted cellular microenvironment. The outcome of this catabolic activity is an increase in the local concentration of adenosine, a nucleoside involved in the control of inflammation and immune responses. The aim of the work presented here was to demonstrate that a previously unexplored enzymatic pathway may be an alternate route to produce extracellular adenosine. Our data show that this new axis is driven by the nucleotide-metabolizing ectoenzymes CD38 (an NAD+ nucleosidase), the ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1, also known as CD203a or PC-1) and the 5? ectonucleotidase (5?-NT) CD73, while bypassing the canonical catabolic pathway mediated by the nucleoside tri- and diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) CD39. To determine the relative contributions of these cell surface enzymes to the production of adenosine, we exploited a human T-cell model allowing for the modular expression of the individual components of this alternative pathway upon activation and transfection. The biochemical analysis of the products of these ectoenzymes by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fully substantiated our working hypothesis. This newly characterized pathway may facilitate the emergence of an adaptive immune response in selected cellular contexts. Considering the role for extracellular adenosine in the regulation of inflammation and immunogenicity, this pathway could constitute a novel strategy of tumor evasion, implying that these enzymes may represent ideal targets for antibody-mediated therapy. PMID:24319640

Horenstein, Alberto L; Chillemi, Antonella; Zaccarello, Gianluca; Bruzzone, Santina; Quarona, Valeria; Zito, Andrea; Serra, Sara; Malavasi, Fabio

2013-01-01

31

Low expression of CD39(+) /CD45RA(+) on regulatory T cells (Treg ) cells in type 1 diabetic children in contrast to high expression of CD101(+) /CD129(+) on Treg cells in children with coeliac disease.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coeliac disease are both characterized by an autoimmune feature. As T1D and coeliac disease share the same risk genes, patients risk subsequently developing the other disease. This study aimed to investigate the expression of T helper (Th), T cytotoxic (Tc) and regulatory T cells (Treg ) in T1D and/or coeliac disease children in comparison to healthy children. Subgroups of T cells (Th?:?CD4(+) or Tc?:?CD8(+) ); naive (CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(+) CCR7(+) ), central memory (CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(-) CCR7(+) ), effector memory (early differentiated; CD27(+) CD28(+) CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) and late differentiated; CD27(-) CD28(-) CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) ), terminally differentiated effector cells (TEMRA; CD27(-) CD28(-) CD45RA(+) CCR7(-) ) and Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) CD127(-) ) cells, and their expression of CD39, CD45RA, CD101 and CD129, were studied by flow cytometry in T1D and/or coeliac disease children or without any of these diseases (reference group). Children diagnosed with both T1D and coeliac disease showed a higher percentage of TEMRA CD4(+) cells (P?CD39(+) and CD45RA(+) within the Treg population (CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) CD127(-) ) (P?CD39(+) /CD45RA(+) Treg cells that may indicate loss of suppressive function. Conversely, children with coeliac disease show signs of CD101(+) /CD129(+) Treg cells that may indicate suppressor activity. PMID:25421756

Åkesson, K; Tompa, A; Rydén, A; Faresjö, M

2015-04-01

32

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH 02  

EPA Science Inventory

2002 PARTICULATE MATTER GPRA Goal 1: Clean Air; Objective 1.1: Ozone, PM, and SO2 NAAQS; Sub-Objective 1.1.5: Particulate Matter Research Description: In July 1997, EPA revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM), recogniz...

33

Diesel particulate control  

SciTech Connect

Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

Bertelsen, F.I. (Manufacturers of Emissions Control Association, Washington, DC (US))

1988-01-01

34

Pitch based foam with particulate  

DOEpatents

A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

35

Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

Murphy, James E.

1973-01-01

36

Airborne particulate discriminator  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-08-11

37

CONTROLLING EMISSIONS OF PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a semi-technical overview of the contribution of particulate matter to the overall U.S. air pollution problem. It also discusses contributions of the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory at Research Triangle Park, N....

38

RETORT WATER PARTICULATES  

E-print Network

nickel and calcium were removed, presumably as crystals, during the filtration of waters CS~60, -62 and -63.63, -69, and -70) also have elevated percent particulate values for chromium, selenium and nickel

2011-01-01

39

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

1999-11-01

40

Fine particulate capture device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To capture fine particulate matter in a gas such as air, a dielectric fluid is directed to the center of whichever face of a rotating disc is exposed to the air flow. The disc is comprised of two or more segments which bear opposite electrostatic potentials. As the dielectric fluid is centrifuged towards the periphery of the rotating disc, the fluid becomes charged to the same potential as the segment over which it is passing. Particulate matter is attracted to the charged segment and is captured by the fluid. The fluid then carries the captured particulate matter to a collection device such as a toroidal container disposed around the periphery of the disc. A grounded electrically-conductive ring may be disposed at the outer periphery of the disc to neutralize the captured particles and the fluid before they enter the container.

Peterson, V. S.; Siewert, R. D. (inventors)

1979-01-01

41

Health Effects of Particulate Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EPA site gives a brief overview of how different sized particulate matter affects human health. It also discusses the environmental impacts of particulate matter, including haze and acid rain. The site also provides links to more in-depth resources about particle pollution and air quality criteria for particulate matter.

Environmental Protection Agency

42

Process for cooling particulate coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for drying particulate coal by passing a heated gas through the particulate coal in a heating zone and thereafter cooling the dried particulate coal in a cooling zone, an improvement comprising the addition of a controlled quantity of water to the dried coal in the cool zone so that the coal is cooled by evaporation of

Bonnecaze

1983-01-01

43

Rigid particulate matter sensor  

DOEpatents

A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-02-22

44

Particulate matter dynamics  

E-print Network

A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

2012-01-01

45

Void/particulate detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

1983-09-26

46

Regenerable particulate filter  

DOEpatents

A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, James E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-05-05

47

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2012 Fluid and Particulate.zevenhoven@abo.fi 5Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2012 2/84 5.1Overview #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2012 Multi-phase Flow; Two

Zevenhoven, Ron

48

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

2000-12-01

49

Space station particulate contamination environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

1988-01-01

50

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate systems 424514 /2014 BASIC PRINCIPLES / REVIEW COURSE OVERVIEW Ron Zevenhoven Ã?A Thermal and Flow Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 1Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514

Zevenhoven, Ron

51

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate and Flow Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 4Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Ã?bo / Turku Finland RoNz 2januari 2014 #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid

Zevenhoven, Ron

52

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate" Ron Zevenhoven �A Thermal and Flow Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 9Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514/2014 februari 2014 �bo Akademi University - Värme- och

Zevenhoven, Ron

53

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate Zevenhoven �A Thermal and Flow Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 8Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid Strömningsteknik Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 �bo / Turku Finland #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid

Zevenhoven, Ron

54

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 3Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems �A424514 Strömningsteknik Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 �bo / Turku Finland RoNz 2januari 2014 #12;Fluid

Zevenhoven, Ron

55

Dust particulate-phonon interaction  

SciTech Connect

Collective behavior of dust particulates placed in a plasma sheath in the presence of ion acoustic wave is studied. The interaction between dust particulates and ion acoustic wave is treated as a scattering process between dust particulates and phonons (quasi-particles of ion acoustic wave). It is shown that when the streaming of ions becomes supersonic, the system is stable and the ordered structure of plasma crystal is expected to form in the potential of shock-like wake. When the streaming velocity becomes subsonic, the system becomes unstable and the dust particulates are expected to experience phase transition and to show disordered structure.

Ishihara, Osamu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-3102 (United States)

1998-10-21

56

Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our findings and APICD Gen II subsystems for automated collection, deposition and detection of ambient particulate matter. Key findings from the APTA Program include: Ambient biological PM taxonomy; Demonstration of key subsystems needed for autonomous bioaerosol detection; System design; Efficient electrostatic collection; Automated bioagent recognition; Raman analysis performance validating Td<9 sec; Efficient collection surface regeneration; and Development of a quantitative bioaerosol defection model. The objective of the APTA program was to advance the state of our knowledge of ambient background PM composition. Operation of an automated aerosol detection system was enhanced by a more accurate assessment of background variability, especially for sensitive and specific sensing strategies like Raman detection that are background-limited in performance. Based on this improved knowledge of background, the overall threat detection performance of Raman sensors was improved.

Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

2008-12-31

57

Particulate technology issues  

SciTech Connect

Advanced systems for power generation based on coal combustion or gasification will require effective particulate control both for protection of equipment in the gas stream and for compliance with environmental regulations. These new classes of systems will require efficient removal of particles from gas streams at high temperature and high pressure. Primary candidates for particulate control are various types of ceramic filter systems; however, the long-term effects of hot gases and fine particles on the structure and filtration effectiveness of potential filter materials require further study. Thermal gradients induced by pulse cleaning are also of concern. Long-term ``patch tests`` will be conducted on ceramic disks of the same materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic crossflow filters. The primary issues to be addressed in these tests are the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse cleaning systems. Each long-term patch test will require about 3 to 4 months of nearly continuous operation.

Pontius, D.H.; Vann Bush, P.

1992-12-01

58

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate.zevenhoven@abo.fi 2Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 2.1 Flow tube sections-20500 Ã?bo / Turku Finland RoNz 2januari 2014 #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid

Zevenhoven, Ron

59

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 6Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514 8, FI-20500 Ã?bo / Turku Finland RoNz 2januari 2014 #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid

Zevenhoven, Ron

60

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 10 Fluid Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514 Ã?bo / Turku Finland RoNz 2/38 #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A

Zevenhoven, Ron

61

Apparatus for particulate matter analysis  

DOEpatents

The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

2007-01-30

62

Spacecraft particulate sizing spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation prototype device is described, together with conclusions and several recommendations for follow-on flight hardware. The device detects individual particles crossing an external sensing zone, and produces a histogram displaying the size distribution of particles sensed, over the nominal range of 5 to 50 microns. The output is totally independent of the particle refractive index, and is also largely unaffected by particle shape. The reported diameters are in terms of the equivalent sphere, as judged by the scattered light intercepted by the receiving channels, which develop signals whenever a particle crosses the beam of illumination in the sensing zone. Supporting evidence for the latter assertion is discussed on the basis of experimental test data for non-spherical particulates. Also included is a technical appendix which presents theoretical arguments that provide a firm foundation for this assertion.

Miranda, Henry A., Jr.

1992-01-01

63

Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

1996-01-01

64

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010  

E-print Network

Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 Fluid&ParticulateSystems Ã?A424514/2014 Fluid and Particulate systems 424514 /2014 LIQUID/SOLID SEPARATIONS Filtration, Sedimentation, Centrifuges Ron Zevenhoven Ã?A Thermal and Flow Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 7Fluid

Zevenhoven, Ron

65

Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy  

DOEpatents

A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2011-07-12

66

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Subsequently, extensive theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale investigations were completed to find an approach to prevent bag damage without compromising AHPC performance. Results showed that the best bag protection and AHPC performance were achieved by using a perforated plate installed between the discharge electrodes and bags. This perforated-plate design was then installed in the 2.5-MW AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant in Big Stone City, South Dakota, and the AHPC was operated from March to June 2001. Results showed that the perforated-plate design solved the bag damage problem and offered even better AHPC performance than the previous design. All of the AHPC performance goals were met, including ultrahigh collection efficiency, high air-to-cloth ratio, reasonable pressure drop, and long bag-cleaning interval.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

2001-12-01

67

Measurement of vehicle particulate emissions.  

PubMed Central

A constant volume sampler (CVS) compatible auto exhaust particulate sampling system has been built which samples exhaust isokinetically at constant temperature. This system yields internally consistent results and is capable of frequent and convenient operation. PMID:50931

Beltzer, M

1975-01-01

68

A Course in Particulate Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of a graduate course on particulate processes, especially on crystal size distribution (CSD). Describes the course and includes a list of course topics. Discusses the CSD simulation and manipulation. (YP)

Randolph, Alan D.

1989-01-01

69

Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

2013-12-31

70

Particulate fuel bed tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-cooled reactors using packed beds of small-diameter, coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. To test the thermal-hydraulic performance of the particulate reactor fuel under simulated reactor conditions, a bed of 800-micrometer diameter particles was heated by its electrical resistance current and cooled by flowing helium gas. The specific resistance of the bed composed of pyrocarbon-coated particles was measured at several temperatures, and found to be 0.09 ohm-cm at 1273 K and 0.06 ohm-cm at 1600 K. The maximum bed power density reached was 1500 W/cu cm at 1500 K. The pressure drop followed the packed-bed correlation, typically 100,000 Pa/cm. The various frit materials used to contain the bed were also tested to 2000 K in helium and hydrogen to determine their properties and reactions with the fuel. Rhenium metal, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide appeared to be the best candidate materials, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost mass and strength.

Horn, F. L.; Powell, J. R.; Savino, J. M.

71

Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition  

DOEpatents

A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

2010-02-02

72

ITP Filter Particulate Decontamination Measurement  

SciTech Connect

A new test method was developed which showed the installed In- Tank Precipitation Filter Unit {number_sign}3 provided at least 40, 000 x decontamination of the precipitated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) during the cold chemical runs.This filter is expected to meet the needed 40,000 x hot cesium decontamination requirements, assuming that the cesium precipitate, CsTPB, behaves the same as KTPB. The new method permits cold chemicals field testing of installed filters to quantify particulate decontamination and verify filter integrity before going hot. The method involves a 1000 x concentration of fine particulate KTPB in the filtrate to allow direct analysis by counting for naturally radioactive isotope K-40 using the underground SRTC gamma spectroscopy facility. The particulate concentration was accomplished by ultra filtration at Rhone-Poulenc, NJ, using a small cross-flow bench facility, followed by collection of all suspended solids on a small filter disc for K analysis.

Dworjanyn, L.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-05-21

73

PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

74

NONFERROUS INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the nonferrous industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from nonferrous plants, the data were summarized and ...

75

Process for particulate removal from coal liquids  

DOEpatents

Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01

76

Comparison of particulate verification techniques study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of five particulate verification techniques on four types of materials was studied. Statistical Analysis Software\\/JMP 6.0 was used to create a statistically valid design of experiments. In doing so, 35 witness coupons consisting of the four types of materials being studied, were intentionally contaminated with particulate fallout. Image Analysis was used to characterize the extent of particulate fallout

Rachel Rivera

2006-01-01

77

Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

78

Apparatus for combustion of solid particulate fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for the combustion of solid particulate fuel. It comprises: a stationary grate including a perforated plate for receiving the solid particulate fuel; displaceable means positioned in a plane above the grate, movement of the displaceable means displacing spent solid particulate fuel from the stationary grate. The displaceable means including a rotatable member; and a burning

Whitfield

1990-01-01

79

Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized by research in exposure, epidemiology, and toxicology of atmospheric PM. This paper provides a background on the

W. E. Wilson; Judith C. Chow; Candis Claiborn; Wei Fusheng; Johann Engelbrecht; John G. Watson

2002-01-01

80

MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER OUTDOORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of the size and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated the usefulness of separating atmospheric PM into its fine and coarse components. The need to measure the mass and composition of fine and coarse PM separately has been emphasized b...

81

Source Testing for Particulate Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline covers procedures for the testing of particulate matter. These are: (1) basic requirements, (2) information required, (3) collection of samples, (4) processing of samples, (5)…

DeVorkin, Howard

82

Polarization signatures of airborne particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

2013-07-01

83

SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October--December, 2001 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The persistent daily trends described in the previous quarterly report are seen in the fall particulate data, superimposed on the seasonal trend toward lower concentrations in the cooler months. Some instrumental issues were noted with the APS and the sulfate monitoring instruments, as described in the main report.

Ashley D. Williamson

2002-01-31

84

SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

Ashley D. Williamson

2001-07-01

85

Particulate emissions: Evaluating removal methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next month, the US Environmental Protection Agency expects to finalize a new set of regulations for the removal of airborne particulate matter. The so-called PM-2.5 Standard would set thresholds for the removal of particles under 1 micrometer (μm) in diameter. Current EPA rules regulate airborne particles that are 2.5--10 μm dia. The impetus behind the controversial PM-2.5 Standard comes from

1997-01-01

86

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

DOEpatents

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08

87

Measurement of Particulate Pollutants in the Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative measurements of the mass concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere are presented, to demonstrate the application of a new type of instrument evolved from aerospace research to various types of particulate pollution and their dynamics. The instrument employs aerodynamic impaction of particles onto an adhesive-coated piezo-electric crystal whose resonant frequency decreases with mass accretion on its surface, with a resulting particulate mass resolution of 10(exp -11) gram. Applications include air basin with aerial measurement of particulate mass concentration, jet aircraft wake, stationary industrial sources, direct on-line measurement of automobile exhaust, and techniques for source detection.

Ckuan, Raymond L.

1971-01-01

88

Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

Grant, N. J.

1982-01-01

89

Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices  

DOEpatents

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

2010-06-29

90

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

DOEpatents

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05

91

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16

92

Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

2014-07-01

93

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOEpatents

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-01-26

94

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOEpatents

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-11-08

95

Measuring Particulate Emissions from Autos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science or biology students connect a real-world problem to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts; the lesson specifically focuses on particulate emissions from automobiles and their impact on air pollution. The activity should take about one class period to complete (plus time for students to complete analysis outside of class), and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

96

High-temperature deformation of alumina/yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystals particulate composites and particulate laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al2O3/Y-TZP particulate composites consisting of 20--80 vol% Al2O3 and Al2O3/Y-TZP particulate laminates with varying composition and ratios of layer thickness were fabricated, respectively, by tapecasting, lamination, and sintering. The resulting particulate composites and particulate laminates were tested in compression and tension at 1300--1450°C over strain rates from 1.00 x 10-5 to 3.16 x 10-4 s-1. The high temperature behaviors of Al2O 3/Y-TZP particulate composites and particulate laminates were characterized under conditions in which changes to the microstructure during testing were deliberately minimized. Results show that stress exponents are approximately two for both particulate composites and particulate laminates when tested in compression and tension, consistent with a grain-boundary sliding mechanism. Particulate laminates are stronger than particulate composites with the same overall composition due to the constraint imposed by the hard layer on the soft layer during the deformation. This hard layer dominates the resistance to deformation of the particulate laminates. A limited number of elongation-to-failure tests were also conducted at 1350°C at a true strain rate of 1.00 x 10-4 s-1. Although grain growth and cavitaton occurred during the elongation-to-failure tests, superplasticity was observed for Al2O3/Y-TZP particulate composites and particulate laminates. In addition, models of composite creep behavior were compared to the experimental data. A constrained isostrain model was found to provide a good prediction for the high-temperature deformation of Al2O3/Y-TZP particulate composites and particulate laminates.

Wang, Jue

97

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2014-07-01

98

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel...records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter Recordkeeping Requirements” lists...

2012-07-01

99

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2013-07-01

100

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2010-07-01

101

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2013-07-01

102

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

2013-07-01

103

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0...

2013-07-01

104

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel...records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter Recordkeeping Requirements” lists...

2013-07-01

105

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

2011-07-01

106

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2012-07-01

107

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682 Section 60... § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5...

2012-07-01

108

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2010-07-01

109

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2010-07-01

110

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2012-07-01

111

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2011-07-01

112

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2012-07-01

113

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180...

2013-07-01

114

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2013-07-01

115

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2011-07-01

116

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2010-07-01

117

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682 Section 60... § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5...

2014-07-01

118

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2011-07-01

119

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2011-07-01

120

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682 Section 60... § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5...

2010-07-01

121

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2010-07-01

122

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102 Section 60... § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0...

2012-07-01

123

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2011-07-01

124

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180...

2011-07-01

125

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2012-07-01

126

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel...records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter Recordkeeping Requirements” lists...

2011-07-01

127

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2014-07-01

128

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2013-07-01

129

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2010-07-01

130

40 CFR 52.275 - Particulate matter control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Particulate matter control. 52.275 Section... California § 52.275 Particulate matter control. (a) The following...because they control emissions of particulate matter, and because there is...

2012-07-01

131

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60... § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2012-07-01

132

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2011-07-01

133

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel...records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter Recordkeeping Requirements” lists...

2010-07-01

134

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2011-07-01

135

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2013-07-01

136

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2014-07-01

137

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2014-07-01

138

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2010-07-01

139

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2014-07-01

140

40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.732 Section 60... § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator...facility that: (a) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.092...

2012-07-01

141

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

2014-07-01

142

40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.532 Section 60... § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under...shall comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as...

2012-07-01

143

40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382 Section 60... § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05...

2011-07-01

144

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2014-07-01

145

40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162 Section 60... § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...dryer any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2014-07-01

146

40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152 Section 60... § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...the atmosphere of: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of...

2012-07-01

147

40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302 Section 60... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

2012-07-01

148

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60... § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2014-07-01

149

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2014-07-01

150

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2013-07-01

151

40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52 Section 60... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18...

2012-07-01

152

40 CFR 60.672 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.672 Section... § 60.672 Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) Affected...used to capture and transport particulate matter to a control...

2013-07-01

153

30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel...records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter Recordkeeping Requirements” lists...

2014-07-01

154

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180...

2012-07-01

155

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60... § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2011-07-01

156

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172 Section 60... § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after...machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

2013-07-01

157

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2013-07-01

158

40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60.472 Section 60... § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after...from any saturator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of: (i)...

2010-07-01

159

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Standards to control particulate matter. 266.105 Section 266...105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or industrial...hazardous waste may not emit particulate matter in excess of 180...

2014-07-01

160

Particulate Fractions of Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Passage of gonococcal cells through a Ribi cell fractionator produced a mixture of protoplasm and cell particulates, the latter being separable in sucrose solutions. Separation of these particulates resulted in the detection of objects identified as cell walls and “plasts.” The latter objects had an average diameter of 1.00 ± 0.05 ?m and consisted of spatially oriented granules surrounded by a membrane-like structure only. Cell wall structures were not observed with these plasts. Plasts were morphologically stable in distilled water and at low pH values. Although 50% more pressure was required to rupture plasts than whole cells, plast morphology was destroyed by organic solvents. Whole cell and plast morphology was examined by electron and phase microscopy, and certain correlations were made between structure and morphological stability. Cell wall antiserum reactivities were quantitatively different for plasts and cell walls. Serological reactivities of plasts were separable by sonic oscillation and differential centrifugation of the sonically treated material. Images PMID:16558027

Kellogg, Douglas S.; Turner, Emily M.; Callaway, Carey; Lee, Linda; Martin, John E.

1971-01-01

161

Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project  

SciTech Connect

This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

Ashley Williamson

2003-05-31

162

Measuring diesel particulate in filters  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an on-line soot-load-measurement system, integral part of any diesel particulate filter (DPF) system. Its function is to determine whether either maximum and/or minimum soot load targets have been reached prior to the initiation of the filter regeneration process. There are currently two methods for on-line measurement of soot accumulation in a diesel particulate filter. The first is based on the relationship between DPF back pressure, soot accumulation, and exhaust-gas flow rate. This method requires mapping of the entire engine operating regime to determine the soot load from the pressure data. It also requires transducers capable of such measurements over the full engine operating range. The second method is a more recent innovation based on radio-frequency (RF) technology. Cordierite filters are virtually transparent to RF energy, though soot absorbs it. Thus the decrease in RF signal strength as it passes through a filter can be correlated with the amount of soot present in it. Since the RF-based measurement method is not influenced by exhaust flow rate, it is inherently less complex to calibrate.

Not Available

1992-06-01

163

Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

1988-01-01

164

SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham study site during the July-September, 2000 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S sulfate monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The report also presents some initial notes on our operating experience with the 8400S sulfate analyzer. As described in the previous quarterly report, some persistent daily trends are seen in the particulate data, superimposed on a seasonal trend toward higher concentrations in warmer months. The sulfate mass fraction shows a markedly different time of day pattern from the balance of the particle mass, confirming the independent origin of this major mass fraction. The time variability of the major mass-bearing size fractions, and of the light-scattering potential, do not allow for a clean separation of independent size fractions. However, when the particle number averages are examined, the stronger time of day dependence of the smaller size fractions becomes more apparent, consistent with periods of higher formation of sub-100nm particles in early morning and in afternoon-evening periods.

Ashley D. Williamson

2001-10-01

165

Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems  

DOEpatents

A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2011-06-07

166

Recent Developments in Air Particulate Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 50 years, man has become acutely aware of the air pollution pervading our environment. Thus he has focused a considerable amount of scientific study on the chemical and physical properties of gaseous and particulate contaminants. A key element in the classification of particulate pollution is the sampling procedure used to collect particles, with the emphasis on separating

Robert K. Stevens; Thomas G. Dzubay

1975-01-01

167

RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Because people spend 90% of their time indoors, exposure to particulate matter indoors is a major contributor to the risk associated with particulate matter. The risk due to indoor exposure is probably even higher for susceptible populations such as the elderly, the sick, and t...

168

PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results of visits to Japan to assess research and development of new particulate control technology, and to evaluate the applicability of the Aut-Ainer particulate control device to diesel engines. New technology observed includes hooding systems for coke ove...

169

Understanding the Particulate Nature of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites studies related to students' misconceptions about the particulate nature of matter. Stresses that a good understanding of these concepts is fundamental to the study of chemistry itself. Reports on a study of preservice elementary teachers views of the particulate nature of matter before instruction on the topic. (TW)

Gabel, Dorothy L.; And Others

1987-01-01

170

Testing Students' Use of the Particulate Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High School students' understanding about the particulate theory of matter and their use of particulate terminology is investigated. The Physical Changes Concepts Test (PCCT) was administered in two forms, an applied version and a theoretical version, to determine whether students scientifically understood the concepts well enough to apply them to…

Williamson, Vickie; Huffman, Jason; Peck, Larry

2004-01-01

171

EMISSION CONTROL: CONTROL OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews the results of fine particulate control technology tests by the Particulate Technology Branch (PATB) of EPA's IERL-RTP over the last 3 years. The review covers characterization of conventional control equipment, assessment of the collectability of dusts, and ne...

172

PARTICULATE MATTER NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Particulate Matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of F...

173

PARTICULATE MATTER NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR NEVADA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Particulate Matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of F...

174

PARTICULATE MATTER NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Particulate Matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of F...

175

MONITORING AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MASS BY BETA ABSORPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype airborne particulate mass monitor, using the principle of beta radiation absorption, has been fabricated and evaluated on airborne particulate matter. A detection sensitivity of 80 microgram/sq cm was attained. A series of samples were collected, and a comparison was ...

176

Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers  

E-print Network

Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers -- A NARSTO Assessment -- Second Printing, April 2004, AUTHORS, and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SYNTHESIS PARTICULATE MATTER SCIENCE FOR POLICY MAKERS Assessment for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment. P. McMurry, M. Shepherd, and J. Vickery, eds. Cambridge

177

Industrial air pollution control equipment for particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamentals and design principles of industrial control equipment for particulate air pollutants are described. The five basic devices available for controlling the discharge of particulates into the atmosphere--gravity settlers, centrifugal separators, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters--are discussed in depth. The design of each is considered from both a theoretical and practical viewpoint.

L. Theodore; A. J. Buonicore

1976-01-01

178

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10

179

Particulate detection technologies for preventive maintenance applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of continuous monitoring to ensure ongoing compliance with particulate emissions standards is common practice in most parts of the world. Recently proposed standards by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are intended to use particulate monitoring as a surrogate technique for the compliance monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). This approach is based on the lack of available technologies for measuring HAPs, as well as the availability of cost-effective, reliable, low maintenance particulate monitors available today. Many types of particulate monitoring instruments are now available, but to date, all have been based on two basic measurement principles--optical or light attenuation (opacity) and contact electrification (triboelectric). Long-term exposure to problems with these methods led BHA engineers to refine a variation of the optical light attenuation method for their CPM continuous particulate monitoring product line. This technique of monitoring is known as received light modulation or scintillation.

Craney, B. [BHA Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1997-09-01

180

Hubble Space Telescope particulate optical test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Particulate Optical Test was designed to record and measure particulate contaminants on the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror. The objective of the test was to quantify the primary mirror particulate contamination prior to launch. The test consists of taking dark-field photographs of the primary mirror from in front of the telescope's aperture door. These photographs are subsequently digitized and analyzed to produce the areal coverage estimates. The estimated particulate areal obscuration is approximately 1.0 percent of the primary mirror surface in the usable region. This level of contamination is within the budget value of 2.5 percent and indicates that there was little increase in particulate contamination during the HST assembly process or the acoustic test period.

Metheny, Wayne; Pope, Tom; Rosenberg, William; Sharbaugh, Ron

1987-01-01

181

Methods for Coating Particulate Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

182

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27

183

Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

2012-10-23

184

Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

1975-01-01

185

Associations between morbidity and alternative measures of particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the association between acute respiratory morbidity and different measures of exposure to airborne particulate matter, including sulfates, total suspended particulates, and fine and inhalable particulates. Regression analysis was used to test for the impacts of these alternative measures of particulate matter on respiratory morbidity using the 1979-1981 annual Health Interview Surveys and EPA's Inhalable Particle Monitoring Network.

Bart D. Ostro

1990-01-01

186

An improved visualization of diesel particulate filter/  

E-print Network

The prevalence of diesel particulate filters (DPF) is increasing as emissions standards worldwide evolve to match current technologies. Since the first application of DPFs in the 1980's, PM trapping effectiveness has ...

Boehm, Kevin (Kevin W.)

2011-01-01

187

Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

188

Differential Spectroscopic Imaging of Particulate Explosives Residue  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results showing transmission and reflection imaging of approximately 100 microgram quantities of particulate explosives residue using a commercial uncooled microbolometer infrared camera and CO2 laser differential wavelength illumination.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas

2008-04-01

189

Particulate matter in the central subtropical Pacific  

E-print Network

The distribution of particulate matter (PM) in the Central Subtropical Pacific and its relationships with water masses and currents were determined from optical and hydrographic data. Beam attenuation data were collected with a Sea Tech...

Colgan, Annette Renee

1995-01-01

190

OPEN PATH OPTICAL SENSING OF PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the concepts behind recent developments in optical remote sensing (ORS) and the results from experiments. Airborne fugitive and fine particulate matter (PM) from various sources contribute to exceedances of state and federal PM and visibility standards. Recent...

191

GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

192

PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract, cascade impactors were...

193

Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic ... work and how types of air pollution, including ozone, big particles, and small particles, can affect them. ...

194

Apparatus for combustion of solid particulate fuel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for the combustion of solid particulate fuel. It comprises: a stationary grate including a perforated plate for receiving the solid particulate fuel; displaceable means positioned in a plane above the grate, movement of the displaceable means displacing spent solid particulate fuel from the stationary grate. The displaceable means including a rotatable member; and a burning cap positioned over the stationary grate, the burning cap defining a combustion chamber above the stationary grate. The burning cap including a battle that divided the combustion chamber into a primary half and a secondary half, the burning cap also including an aperture for allowing the particulate fuel to be introduced into the primary half.

Whitfield, O.J.

1990-08-14

195

Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a summary of the data currently available (June 1984) describing the planet-enshrouding particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere. A description and discussion of the state of knowledge of the Venus clouds and hazes precedes the tables and plots. The tabular material includes a precis of upper haze and cloud-top properties, parameters for model-size distributions for particles and particulate layers, and columnar masses and mass loadings.

Ragent, B.; Esposito, L. W.; Tomasko, M. G.; Marov, M. IA.; Shari, V. P.

1985-01-01

196

The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy  

PubMed Central

Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

Phalen, Robert F.

2004-01-01

197

MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Loth, J.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1994-10-01

198

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

Miller, S.J.

1995-11-01

199

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.227...Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a...particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region....

2010-07-01

200

Particulate characterization for PFBC filter systems  

SciTech Connect

Southern Research Institute is participating, as a subcontractor to Southern Company Services (SCS), in METC`s project to establish a Power Systems Development Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. This plant will serve as a facility for the development and testing of advanced systems for coal-based power generation. An important part of the program will be to test and evaluate various kinds of particulate control devices and systems for operation at high temperatures and high pressures. The hot gas cleanup technology is a critical factor in achieving the highest levels of energy efficiency in the advanced power systems. In connection with evaluation of particulate control devices to be installed at this facility, SRI has the responsibility for developing methods and equipment to characterize the particulate material suspended in the hot gas streams. Our objectives are to design systems for sampling and monitoring particulate mass loadings and size distributions at appropriate locations in the plant and to develop methods for operating these systems. We will assist SCS in the preparation of test plans for the operation of the plant, and we will participate in carrying out the particulate measurements.

Pontius, D.H.

1993-09-01

201

Comparison of particulate verification techniques study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficacy of five particulate verification techniques on four types of materials was studied. Statistical Analysis Software/JMP 6.0 was used to create a statistically valid design of experiments. In doing so, 35 witness coupons consisting of the four types of materials being studied, were intentionally contaminated with particulate fallout. Image Analysis was used to characterize the extent of particulate fallout on the coupons and was used to establish a baseline, or basis of comparison, against the five techniques that were studied. The five particulate verification techniques were the Tapelift, the Particulate Solvent Rinse, the GelPak lift, an in-line vacuum filtration probe, and the Infinity Focusing Microscope (IFM). The four types of materials consisted of magnesium flouride (MgF II) coated mirrors, composite coated silver aluminum (CCAg), Z93 and NS43G coated aluminum, and silicon (si) wafers. The vacuum probe was determined to be most effective for Z93, the tapelift or vacuum probe for MgF2, and the GelPak Lift for CCAg and si substrates. A margin of error for each technique, based on experimental data from two experiments, for si wafer substrates, yielded the following: Tapelift - 67%, Solvent Rinse - 58%, GelPak- 26%, Vacuum Probe - 93%, IFM-to be determined.

Rivera, Rachel

2006-08-01

202

Gas and solid particulate material heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for carrying out heat exchange between a gas and solid particulate material comprising a casing having an upper inlet for particulate material and a lower outlet for particulate material and a lower grate mounted in the casing extending from the upper inlet to the lower outlet for supporting a bed of particulate material for movement from the inlet to the outlet along the lower grate. A means defines an upper grate mounted in the casing and is spaced from the lower grate including generally vertically oriented slats, each spaced from and positioned below a preceding slat in the direction from the inlet toward the outlet for defining the top of the bed of material while permitting the bed of material to expand. The casing includes an inlet for gas on one side of the casing and an outlet for gas on the other side of the casing whereby gas flows from the inlet through the lower grate, the bed of material and through the upper grate to the outlet for gas for carrying out heat exchange between the gas and the solid particulate material. Each of the slats is perforated to permit gas and fine material to pass therethrough while retaining the bed of material on the lower grate.

Kreisberg, A.J.; Warshawsky, J.

1986-12-16

203

Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

2007-03-01

204

Particulate control for the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

As a response to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990, utilities will be faced with new emission limitations on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} that could have a major impact on their current particulate control equipment. Most of the plants affected already have electrostatic precipitators for particulate control. A large number of power plants will be switching to lower sulfur coals as part of the CAAA Title IV Phase 2 SO{sub 2} rules. The lower sulfur coal ash usually does not collect well in a small precipitator so the existing precipitator will need to be upgraded to continue to meet their current emission limitations. Title IV also requires plants to lower NO{sub x} emissions which is often accomplished by modifications to the boiler such as retrofitting low NO{sub x} burners. These boiler modifications can increase the amount of unburned carbon in the ash as well as reduce the size distribution of the fly ash. Both of these changes can negatively impact a precipitator`s performance. Finally, the CAAA Title III identifies 189 pollutants as hazardous air pollutants, also known as air toxics, which have been viewed as a risk to human health. This may result in further tightening of particulate regulations for power plants and place an increased burden on the existing particulate control equipment. This paper evaluates the technologies available to comply with these new and more stringent particulate control requirements. To demonstrate the retrofit alternatives available to meet these new particulate emission requirements, two hypothetical case studies are discussed.

Sloat, D.G.; Gaikwad, R.P. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-09-01

205

Contribution of organic particulates to respiratory cancer.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents some of the issues that remain to be resolved in order to assess the risk of cancer related to exposure to organic particulates. Most reviews of the effects of organic particulates from the outdoor environment on the risk of lung cancer show that this source seems to play a minor role. However, as fuel use and chemical composition of air pollutants change, the contribution of outdoor pollution as a cause of cancer may also change. Indoor air pollution is a more important source of exposure to organic particulates than is outdoor exposure. Although there is clear evidence that in occupational settings organic particulates cause human cancer, there has been almost no study of exposure to these types of particulates within indoor settings. Previous research has focused on cigarette smoke as the major indoor pollutant, but more specific characterization of contaminants in both the workplace and the home is required. The health effects of the higher levels of some of these contaminants in the workplace should be evaluated and the results extrapolated to populations exposed to lower levels in the home. Extensive research is needed to characterize organic particulate mixtures appropriately and test them for carcinogenicity. Studies on the health risks of nitropolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are reviewed, but their contribution to the overall burden of respiratory cancer in humans cannot be estimated at this time. Characterization of mixtures, assessment of exposures, and linkage of exposures to health effects are the objectives of the recommendations proposed for further research. PMID:3830112

Matanoski, G; Fishbein, L; Redmond, C; Rosenkranz, H; Wallace, L

1986-01-01

206

Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer  

DOEpatents

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1988-01-01

207

Modeling of Particulate Behavior in Pinhole Breaches  

SciTech Connect

A model is presented for calculating depressurization time for and particulate release from used nuclear fuel dry storage containers that have developed a pinhole breach. Particular attention is given to particulate deposition and transmission within the breach pathway. The model is modular in nature and is developed in a way that allows for more advanced treatments of internal temperature, internal component geometry, or aerosol flow to be readily incorporated. The model can be treated as a basis for addressing concerns associated with monitoring and verification efforts during long-term dry cask storage

Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Hanson, Brady D.

2014-04-01

208

Particulate matter sensor with a heater  

DOEpatents

An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-08-16

209

75 FR 17865 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Particulate Matter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rules. Particulate matter interferes with lung function when inhaled. Exposure to particulates can cause heart and lung disease. Particulate matter also aggravates asthma. Airborne particulate is the main source of haze that causes a...

2010-04-08

210

40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Calculations; particulate emissions... § 86.145-82 Calculations; particulate emissions...dilute exhaust sample gas meter or flow instrument, in Hg...at the inlet to the gas meter or flow instrument,...

2014-07-01

211

40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Calculations; particulate emissions... § 86.145-82 Calculations; particulate emissions...dilute exhaust sample gas meter or flow instrument, in Hg...at the inlet to the gas meter or flow instrument,...

2011-07-01

212

40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Calculations; particulate emissions... § 86.145-82 Calculations; particulate emissions...dilute exhaust sample gas meter or flow instrument, in Hg...at the inlet to the gas meter or flow instrument,...

2010-07-01

213

40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Calculations; particulate emissions... § 86.145-82 Calculations; particulate emissions...dilute exhaust sample gas meter or flow instrument, in Hg...at the inlet to the gas meter or flow instrument,...

2012-07-01

214

40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Calculations; particulate emissions... § 86.145-82 Calculations; particulate emissions...dilute exhaust sample gas meter or flow instrument, in Hg...at the inlet to the gas meter or flow instrument,...

2013-07-01

215

40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of...Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following...

2011-07-01

216

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of...CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of...

2012-07-01

217

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of...CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of...

2014-07-01

218

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of...District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2012-07-01

219

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2011-07-01

220

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of...West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's...

2011-07-01

221

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control...

2014-07-01

222

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of...CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of...

2011-07-01

223

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of...District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2011-07-01

224

40 CFR 52.427 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.427 Section 52.427 Protection of...PLANS Delaware § 52.427 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of attainment. EPA has...

2012-07-01

225

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2010-07-01

226

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control...

2012-07-01

227

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2014-07-01

228

40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of...Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following...

2012-07-01

229

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2012-07-01

230

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of...District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2010-07-01

231

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of...CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of...

2013-07-01

232

40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.477 Section 52.477 Protection of...District of Columbia § 52.477 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2014-07-01

233

40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection of... Missouri § 52.1341 Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has...

2011-07-01

234

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of...West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's...

2014-07-01

235

40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2429 Section 52.2429 Protection of... Virginia § 52.2429 Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA...

2013-07-01

236

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of...West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's...

2012-07-01

237

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control...

2011-07-01

238

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.2526 Section 52.2526 Protection of...West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's...

2013-07-01

239

40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of...Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following...

2010-07-01

240

40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter. 52.1341 Section 52.1341 Protection of... Missouri § 52.1341 Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has...

2012-07-01

241

40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of...CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control...

2013-07-01

242

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter...national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following...

2014-07-01

243

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter...national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following...

2011-07-01

244

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter...national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following...

2013-07-01

245

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1476 Control strategy: Particulate matter...national standards for particulate matter in the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following...

2012-07-01

246

ASPHALTIC CONCRETE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the asphaltic concrete industry. After review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from asphalt concrete plants, the data were summarized...

247

ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives the status of the most promising high-temperature/high-pressure (HTP) particulate control devices being developed. Data are presented and anticipated performance and development problems are discussed. HTP particulate control offers efficiency and potential econo...

248

Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems  

DOEpatents

A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2012-01-31

249

Pulmonary Function Changes in Children Associated with Fine Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential

J. Q. Koenig; T. V. Larson; Q. S. Hanley; V. Rebolledo; K. Dumler; H. Checkoway; S. Z. Wang; D. Lin; W. E. Pierson

1993-01-01

250

Health Effects of Atmospheric Particulates: A Medical Geology Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, atmospheric particulates as composite airborne earth materials often containing both natural and anthropogenic components were examined in the context of medical geology. Despite a vast number of both experimental and epidemiological studies confirming the direct and indirect links between atmospheric particulates and human health, the exact nature of mechanisms affecting the particulate-induced pathogenesis largely remains unexplored. Future

Nurdan S Duzgoren-Aydin

2008-01-01

251

CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE DIESEL VEHICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate emissions data are presented from a group of 19 in-use diesel automobiles. Five driving cycles and three fuel/lubricating oil combinations have been used to obtain particulate emissions data and also to collect particulate samples for chemical and bioassay characteriz...

252

SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLGOY (3RD): VOLUME III. PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document the Third Symposium on the Transfer and Utilization of Particulate Control Technology, in Orlando, FL, March 9-13, 1981, sponsored by the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The ...

253

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-print Network

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01

254

Nonlinear elastic properties of particulate composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A METHOD of computing effective elastic moduli of isotropic nonlinear composites is developed by using a perturbation scheme. It is demonstrated that only solutions from linear elasticity are needed in computing higher order moduli. As an application of the method, particulate composites of nonlinear elastic materials are analysed.

Chen, Yi-Chao; Jiang, Xiaohu

1993-07-01

255

Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

256

PARTICULATE MATTER MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's research on particulate matter (PM) represents the largest portion of the Clean Air research program. In building this program, EPA has been guided by expert advice from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and from several other organizations ...

257

PARTICULATE DATA REDUCTION (PADRE) SYSTEM REFERENCE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes how to access and use the Particulate Data Reduction (PADRE) System, an interactive computer program that facilitates entry, reduction, and analysis of cascade impactor data for particle size distributions. It also summarizes its logic and capabilities. The p...

258

HIGH TEMPERATURE PARTICULATE CONTROL WITH CERAMIC FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of using ceramic materials as filters for fine particulate removal at high temperatures. The program was in two phases. Phase I, directed toward the development of a porous alumina membrane filter, had limited success because of the fragi...

259

PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH Plan (Draft, 2004)  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy describes the EPA Office of Research and Developments research strategy in the areas of health, exposure, risk assessment, and risk management research. The scope of the strategy corresponds to the dual responsibility of EPA ...

260

EVALUATIONS OF NOVEL PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of four novel particulate control devices. Three were wet scrubbers: an Aronetics (Chemico) Two-Phase Jet Scrubber, an Entoleter Centrifield Scrubber, and a CEA Variable-Throat Venturi Scrubber. The fourth w...

261

Particulate delivery systems for biodefense subunit vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expanding identification of potentially protective subunit antigens and correlates of protection has provided a basis for the introduction of safer vaccines. Despite encouraging results in animal models, the significant potential of particulate delivery systems in vaccine design has not yet translated into effective vaccines available for use in humans. This review article will focus on the current status of the

Vincent W. Bramwell; Jim E. Eyles; H. Oya Alpar

2005-01-01

262

Bacterial activity related to sedimenting particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of sedimentation of particulate matter were measured at a station in the Eckernförde Bight, Baltic Sea, using sediment traps. Different parameters (C, N, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), heterotrophic activity (glucose maximum uptake velocity, vmax), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and electron-transport-system (ETS) activity) were measured during a 1-year period to evalnate the composition, vertical distribution, and activity

R. Iturriaga

1979-01-01

263

Interaction between Aeroallergens and Airborne Particulate Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ interaction between pollen and airborne particulate matter (APM) as well as the effect of extracts of APM on grass pollen (Dactylis glomerata) was studied. The samples were processed for structural analysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as for determination of protein content and release using immunoblot techniques. The results indicate a direct in situ

H. Behrendt; W. M. Becker; K. H. Friedrichs; U. Darsow; R. Tomingas

1992-01-01

264

Reduction of SO2 and Particulate Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sofia Institute on Local Air Quality is part of the Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe. Its report, Reduction of SO2 and Particulate Emissions, provides both emission data and the legal framework surrounding the reduction of emissions. The report is available either online or as a [.pdf] file.

1998-01-01

265

REINVENTING PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

266

Particulate content of savanna fire emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the FOS-DECAFE experiment at Lamto (Ivory Coast) in January 1991, various aerosol samples were collected at ground level near prescribed fires or under local background conditions, to characterize the emissions of particulate matter from the burning of savanna vegetation. This paper deals with total aerosol (TPM) and carbon measurements. Detailed trace element and polycyclic hydrocarbon data are

Hélène Cachier; Catherine Liousse; Patrick Buat-Menard; Annie Gaudichet

1995-01-01

267

FOREIGN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH IN FINE PARTICULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents unpublished fine particulate measurement and control information and information not readily available to the researcher, generated during the period 1971-76 in Australia, Canada, Japan, and the USSR. The information is used as a basis for identifying new conc...

268

FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

269

TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

270

Image analysis of particulate whey protein gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different methods of image analysis have been used to characterize particulate gel networks quantitatively. The methods have been used to analyse the effect of different preparation conditions on the microstructure of whey protein gels. The microstructure has been characterized at different structural levels by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The structural parameters have been quantified

Maud Langton; Anne-Marie Hermansson

1996-01-01

271

Indoor particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that precursors to reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prevalent indoors, the concentration of ROS inside buildings is unknown. ROS on PM2.5 was measured inside and outside twelve residential buildings and eleven institutional and retail buildings. The mean (± s.d.) concentration of ROS on PM2.5 inside homes (1.37 ± 1.2 nmoles/m(3)) was not significantly different from the outdoor concentration (1.41 ± 1.0 nmoles/m(3)). Similarly, the indoor and outdoor concentrations of ROS on PM2.5 at institutional buildings (1.16 ± 0.38 nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.68 ± 1.3 nmoles/m(3) outdoors) and retail stores (1.09 ± 0.93 nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.12 ± 1.1 nmoles/m(3) outdoors) were not significantly different and were comparable to those in residential buildings. The indoor concentration of particulate ROS cannot be predicted based on the measurement of other common indoor pollutants, indicating that it is important to separately assess the concentration of particulate ROS in air quality studies. Daytime indoor occupational and residential exposure to particulate ROS dominates daytime outdoor exposure to particulate ROS. These findings highlight the need for further study of ROS in indoor microenvironments. PMID:24742727

Khurshid, Shahana S; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Kinney, Kerry A

2014-07-01

272

Behavior of particulates in thermal plasma flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of particulate matter into a thermal plasma represents one of the approaches used in thermal plasma processing. The injected particles are usually treated as a dispersed phase, governed by the equation of motion and the rate equations for heat and mass transfer in Lagrangian coordinates. A stochastic approach is introduced to take particle dispersion into account due to turbulent

Y. P. Chyou; E. Pfender

1989-01-01

273

DESIGN OF A LABORATORY FOR PARTICULATE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects on human health resulting from asbestos exposure in various environments are a subject of national concern and debate. In recognition of the need for a 'state-of-the-art' laboratory for particulates analysis, with emphasis on asbestos, the Environmental Protection Age...

274

PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

275

Particulate air pollution and acute health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between particulate air pollution and not only exacerbations of illness in people with respiratory disease but also rises in the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among older people. Meta-analyses of these studies indicate that the associations are unlikely to be explained by any confounder, and suggest that they represent cause

A. Seaton; D. Godden; W. MacNee; K. Donaldson

1995-01-01

276

Particulate control system for biomass firing technologies  

SciTech Connect

The new particulate control equipment, the so-called Core Separator, overcomes most of the limitations inherent in conventional particulate control systems and can be effectively adapted for biomass applications. The Core Separator is a mechanical collector; however, this technology overcomes the performance limitation inherent in cyclones by performing the tasks of separation and collection in two separate components. The separation process is less affected by secondary flows and is much more efficient than the collection process. Also, the components of the system are arranged in such a way that the separation process determines the system efficiency. As a result, particulate emission rates downstream of this system are one fourth of those from the most efficient cyclones. This technology has been demonstrated through commercial unit installations in the U.S. and abroad. It has been used for industrial separations including coal fly ash, minerals, and chemical recovery applications. It is considered a lower-cost alternative to fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators, albeit one that can meet or exceed regulations for particulate emissions. Development of this technology has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and Electric Power Research Institute.

Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

277

Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year several accomplishments were made for both the Particulate Matter Characterization and Measurement System, (PMCMS) and PAGEMS projects. The PAGEMS focus is to measure particulate emissions as a function of combustor parameters such as inlet temperature, inlet pressure and fuel air ratio. These measurements are used to evaluate combustor performance in hopes of correlating particulate emissions with engine conditions. These measurements have taken place at in-house NASA combustor facilities and off-site facilities. Ths work is unique because particulate measurements at high- pressure conditions are not commonly made. Some calibration of the PAGEMS instrumentation was done as well as minor modifications to the PAGEMS plumbing setup. These led to measurement improvements. The instrumentation and measurement process for PAGEMS was assessed and new instruments such as a thermodenuder, thermal mass flow meters and a cyclone separator were purchased to improve the PAGEMS instrumentation and measurement process. A worksheet was created to simulate varying inlet conditions to the DMA. This worksheet allows the user to assess the error in the measurements when certain conditions exist. Two technical papers were written with the PAGEMS team for the EXCAVATE field project. A paper was also reviewed for an in house publication. Also data was processed and analyzed for another field project (PAX) and will be part of a third PAGEMS paper. Accomplishments were also made with the PMCMS project. The calibration of the radial differential mobility analyzer, (RDMA) in the particle sizing system in the PMCMS was completed and provided satisfactory results. The voltages used for the RDMA depending on the particle of interest were corrected. The measurement capability of the PMCMS was increased by replacing the MetOne CPC with a TSI CPC. Lastly, assistance was provided to three college summer students with calibration of their particulate equipment and Monica Rivera shared her understanding of the aerosol technology with them. She also provided input for their end of the summer presentations. And attended the Aviation and Particle Emissions workshop. This workshop brought together experts in the aircraft particulate emissions field. As a result Ms. Rivera made two significant contacts with academia (UMR) and government (WPAFB) which could lead to future collaboration. She also attended the Aerosol and Particle Measurement Class held at the University of Minnesota. This class refreshed her particulate knowledge and introduced her to new aerosol applications and technology. Furthermore at the class contacts were made with private industry (TSI) and government (WPAFB). Ms. Rivera also enhanced her education by taking an in-house class on aircraft design and operation.

DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

2005-01-01

278

Source apportionment of particulate matter in Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention over the last decade as an important component of air pollution, particularly due to its health effects on the exposed population. Typically the mass of particles with diameters smaller that 10 ?m (PM10) has been used in large cohort studies to estimate health effects such as increase in hospitalization rate, asthma attacks and premature deaths. Particles smaller than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ultra fine particles have been used in various epidemiological studies and correlations between exposure to fine and ultra fine particles and health effects have been found. Limits of acceptable concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and some carcinogenic species have been made, and it is important to find the origin of the particulate matter to prevent exceeds of these limits. This can be done by measuring particle mass, organic/inorganic fractions of particles, the chemical components and other relevant factors, and then use receptor modeling for source apportionment of the particulate matter. We have done measurements at street level and urban background in Copenhagen, Denmark, to determine the origin of different sizes of particulate matter and the toxic organic compounds connected to these particles. We also did measurements in a small village with less traffic and more residential wood combustion for a comparison between traffic and wood combustion generated pollution. Our results show a significant amount of particulate matter coming from non local sources and are dominated by long-range transported inorganic salts. The amount of these is highly depended on the wind direction and thus on the origin of the wind plume. The origin of the carcinogenic organic compound benzo(a)pyrene was found to be local combustion sources. To prevent events of high particulate matter concentration in Copenhagen, Denmark, a reduction of emission from the local traffic will only lead to a minor effect, since the majority of the particulate matter is from long-range transport. A reduction in combustion generated particles would lead to a significant decrease in the smallest particle sizes and in the concentration of traffic generated toxics like benzo(a)pyrene.

Moenster, J.; Glasius, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Bilde, M.; Jensen, F. P.

2005-12-01

279

Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and, except for the first and last day (where there was experimental error), recorded values seem to meet EPA standards. We conclude that the high particulate matter levels we observed were due to heavy crowding and traffic jams near street corners during the time of the festival. We also conclude that particulate pollution levels in the Chinatown neighborhood are generally acceptable, except during festivities that generate heavy congestion. We intend conduct further investigations, particularly at next year's street festival, to confirm observations made thus far.

Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

2007-12-01

280

Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

Hansen, M. Z.

1980-01-01

281

Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

2002-01-01

282

Innovations in high-temperature particulate filtration  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification expose sensitive equipment, such as high-speed turbines, to hot combustion offgases. In order to prevent erosion, corrosion, and other damage to sensitive equipment, such systems now incorporate high-temperature particulate filters. One device often considered for such applications uses a design similar to a baghouse (i.e., multiple banks of porous filter bags that remove particulate from gas streams). In this case, however, instead of polyester or teflon fabric, the filter elements are made of rigid ceramic or similar materials. These devices are sometimes called `candle filters,` and the individual ceramic filter elements are frequently called `candles.` Three high-temperature applications of candle filters are described here. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Lippert, T. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-05-01

283

Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters  

DOEpatents

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2012-01-31

284

Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Genes in Methanotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 45-kDa membrane polypeptide that is associated with activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) has been purified from three methanotrophic bacteria, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was found to be identical in 17 of 20 positions for all three polypeptides and identical in 14 of 20 positions for the N terminus of AmoB, the 43-kDa subunit of ammonia

J. D. SEMRAU; A. CHISTOSERDOV; J. LEBRON; A. COSTELLO; J. DAVAGNINO; E. KENNA; A. J. HOLMES; R. FINCH; J. C. MURRELL; E. LIDSTROM

1995-01-01

285

Self-Cleaning Particulate Prefilter Media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long-term space mission requires efficient air revitalization performance to sustain the crew. Prefilter and particulate air filter media are susceptible to rapid fouling that adversely affects their performance and can lead to catastrophic failure of the air revitalization system, which may result in mission failure. For a long-term voyage, it is impractical to carry replacement particulate prefilter and filter modules due to the usual limitations in size, volume, and weight. The only solution to this problem is to reagentlessly regenerate prefilter and filter media in place. A method was developed to modify the particulate prefilter media to allow them to regenerate reagentlessly, and in place, by the application of modest thermocycled transverse or reversed airflows. The innovation may allow NASA to close the breathing air loop more efficiently, thereby sustaining the vision for manned space exploration missions of the future. A novel, self-cleaning coatings technology was developed for air filter media surfaces that allows reagentless in-place regeneration of the surface. The technology grafts thermoresponsive and nonspecific adhesion minimizing polymer nanolayer brush coatings from the prefilter media. These polymer nanolayer brush architectures can be triggered to contract and expand to generate a "pushing-off" force by the simple application of modestly thermocycled (i.e. cycling from ambient cabin temperature to 40 C) air streams. The nonspecific adhesion-minimizing properties of the coatings do not allow the particulate foulants to adhere strongly to the filter media, and thermocycled air streams applied to the media allow easy detachment and in-place regeneration of the media with minimal impact in system downtime or astronaut involvement in overseeing the process.

Weber, Olivia; Lalwani, San-jiv; Sharma, Anjal

2012-01-01

286

Upper Atmospheric Particulate Monitoring and Sample Return  

Microsoft Academic Search

H.A.R.B.O.R. (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a student-run program in which high-altitude balloon systems are designed, constructed, and flown by students conducting individual or group research projects. One area of interest is in the sampling of particles in the upper atmosphere. Collecting airborne particulates and studying them under an SEM can answer questions on the origins

Alan Liddell; John E. Sohl

2010-01-01

287

Particulate matter, air pollution, and blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term increase in fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) concentration increases the risk for myocardial infarctions, strokes, and heart failure exacerbations. An important mechanism likely contributing to these associations is an elevation in arterial blood pressure (BP). Exposure to ambient PM2.5 even at present-day concentrations can increase BP within a period of a few days while long-term exposure might

Robert D. Brook; Sanjay Rajagopalan

2009-01-01

288

High temperature and pressure particulate flow loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1700°F and 300 psi particulate laden flow loop for flows up to 3000 SCFM has been built at Brookhaven National Laboratory and installed at the Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The purpose of this test facility is the investigation of multiphase particle\\/gas flow phenomena, high temperature erosion studies, and on-line instrument calibration. The salient features of this

Wegrzyn

1985-01-01

289

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

2000-10-01

290

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is planned to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings

2000-05-01

291

Fouling and particulate deposition in practical systems  

SciTech Connect

Soot and particulates are formed in virtually all types of practical combustion systems. The physical problem associated with these contaminants, that is expected to be aggravated with the use of future low grade fuels with high levels of C/H ratio, aromatics, sulfur, and nitrogen, is that deposition occurs on heat transfer surfaces which in turn causes a degradation in their effectiveness and efficiency. This paper closely examines the deposition of condensables and particulates on immersed surfaces in particulate laden hot flows streams. The importance of the effects such as thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Dufour, Soret eddy impaction, viscous dissipation, wall blowing and re-entrainment are discussed. Theoretical considerations reveal that despite the significant progress in this area the existing prediction capability still does not make it possible to foretell the amount of deposition onto a surface with any degree of confidence at all ranges of operational parameters and practices. The prediction capability is even weaker under conditions when the re-entrainment effects dominate and also that take into account nonisothermal wall curvatures and surface roughness in turbulent boundary layers. Future areas of research are outlined that will assist our knowledge of the overall deposition process and the interactions of the different deposition mechanisms under various conditions including low and high temperatures differences between the flowing stream and immersed surfaces.

Gupta, A.K.; Jackson, T.W.

1985-01-01

292

Prediction of particulate contamination on aperture window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an analysis to predict the effects of light scattering by surface particles on the sensor window of a missile during ascent flight. The particulate contaminant distribution on the window is calculated by tallying the number of particles in a set of size ranges. The particulate contamination at the end of the mission is predicted by adding the contributions from the events of ground and flight operations. The surface particle redistributions caused by vibroacoustically induced surface acceleration was found to contribute the most of the particulate surface contamination. The analytical surface obscuration calculation with a set of particle counts was compared to the results of image analyzer measurement. The analytical results, which were calculated with a given function of particle shape depending on the size, were more conservative than the measurement. A scattering calculation using a verified BSDF model showed that the scattering was less than 0.001 at 20 off the direction of the incident light in the mid IR wavelength when the surfaces were at Level 300 initially.

Lee, Aleck L.; Fong, Michael C.

1994-01-01

293

MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

2005-05-01

294

Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

295

Effects of Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollution on Cardiorespiratory Hospitalizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained data on daily numbers of admissions to hospital in Toronto, Canada, from 1980 to 1994 for respiratory, cardiac, cerebral vascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. We then linked the data to daily measures of particulate mass less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), particulate mass less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), and particulate mass between 2.5

Richard T. Burnett; Marc Smith-doiron; Dave Stieb; Sabit Cakmak; Jeffrey R. Brook

1999-01-01

296

Chemical coupling between atmospheric ozone and particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major function of ambient particulate matter arises from atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion. Attempts to reduce particulate matter levels require control of the same organic and nitrogen oxide (NOâ) emissions that are precursors to urban and regional ozone formation. Modeling of the gas-aerosol chemical interactions that govern levels of particulate components showed that control of gas-phase organic and NOâ precursors does

Z. Meng; J. H. Seinfeld; D. Dabdub

1997-01-01

297

Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

2013-10-08

298

Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2011-01-04

299

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2012-07-01

300

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2014-07-01

301

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2013-07-01

302

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2013-07-01

303

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2012-07-01

304

Toughening of a Particulate-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composite by Thermal Residual Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE primary toughening mechanisms of particulate- T reinforced ceramics have been attributed to (i) interaction between the crack front and particulates (crack front bowing model),'*' (ii) crack deflection by the particulates ahead of a propagating crack (crack deflection model); and (iii) crack bridging by ductile particulates (particulate bridging model).4 Other secondary mechanisms which contribute to the tough- ening of ceramic

Minoru Taya; S. Hayashi; Albert S. Kobayashi; H. S. Yoon

1990-01-01

305

Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

2004-11-23

306

Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-02-01

307

Method for producing a dried particulate coal fuel from a particulate low rank coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for producing a dried particulate coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal by drying the low rank coal in a fluidized bed, cooling the resulting dried coal in a fluidized bed cooler, separating coal particles smaller than about 80 Tyler Mesh from the cooled dried coal and treating the cooled dried

L. P. Riess; B. F. Bonnecaze

1985-01-01

308

The Effect of Viewing Order of Macroscopic and Particulate Visualizations on Students' Particulate Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prior study showed that students best make predictions about the outcome of opening a valve between two flasks containing a fluid or vacuum when they view both a demonstration video and a particulate animation, but the study showed no influence from the order in which these visualizations were used. The purpose of this current research was to…

Williamson, Vickie M.; Lane, Sarah M.; Gilbreath, Travis; Tasker, Roy; Ashkenazi, Guy; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

2012-01-01

309

MODELING FINE PARTICULATE MASS AND VISIBILITY USING THE EPA REGIONAL PARTICULATE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Particulate matter in the atmosphere can adversely impact air quality and human health, as well as significantly affect the environment. articles in the submicrometer size range, when inhaled, may pose certain health hazards. articles in this size range also scatter light, causin...

310

Polarimetric discrimination of atmospheric particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection from 300 to 1100 nm has been constructed and tested. Exploratory research has been conducted which may lead to the standoff detection of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere. The polarization properties of bsubtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) have been compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust and soot (all sampled onto microscope slides) and differentiating features have been identified. The application of this technique for the discrimination of bio-aerosol from background clutter has been demonstrated.

Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk; Gregory, Don

2012-06-01

311

Particulate Matter- What's In The Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) is intended to help environmental science, chemistry or biology students connect a real-world problem to the application of math, science, technical and critical thinking knowledge and skill concepts; it specifically focuses on particulate matter in the air we breathe. The activity should take about one week of class to complete, and requires a few easily obtainable materials. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

312

Gaseous and particulate contamination in space  

E-print Network

insulation (FRSI) which has an exterior coating of organic silicone, the low-teinperature reusable surface insulation I LRSI), which has an organic silicone structural bond, and the surf'aces inside the payload bay such as the silver/Teflon ra; fliator.... Bradley (Head of' Department) December 1989 ABSTRACT C~aseous and Particulate Contamination in Space. (Deceniber 1989) Xiaofang Yang, B. S. , Daqing Petroleum Institute, China C'o-Chairs of Advisory C, 'ominittee: Dr. Andrew R. McFarland Dr. Stuart...

Yang, Xiaofang

1989-01-01

313

Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

1974-01-01

314

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2012-07-01

315

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (e)...

2012-07-01

316

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2012-07-01

317

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. [46 FR 55693,...

2010-07-01

318

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2013-07-01

319

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa,...

2012-07-01

320

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2013-07-01

321

40 CFR 60.282a - Standard for filterable particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Standard for filterable particulate matter. 60.282a Section 60...282a Standard for filterable particulate matter. (a) On and after the... (i) Contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.10...

2014-07-01

322

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2013-07-01

323

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (e)...

2014-07-01

324

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (e)...

2011-07-01

325

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2011-07-01

326

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2014-07-01

327

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted...

2014-07-01

328

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2012-07-01

329

40 CFR 52.1678 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.1678 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a)-(c) [Reserved...strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (e)...

2013-07-01

330

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted...

2012-07-01

331

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los...

2013-07-01

332

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2010-07-01

333

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060...

2012-07-01

334

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060...

2013-07-01

335

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted...

2011-07-01

336

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa,...

2013-07-01

337

40 CFR 49.125 - Rule for limiting the emissions of particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. 49.125 Section 49...for limiting the emissions of particulate matter. (a) What is the purpose...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2011-07-01

338

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los...

2012-07-01

339

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa,...

2011-07-01

340

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. 49.126 Section... Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions. (a) What is...limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted...

2013-07-01

341

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2014-07-01

342

40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...49.128 Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products...section limits the amount of particulate matter that may be emitted...

2011-07-01

343

30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. 57.5060 Section 57.5060 Mineral...Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060...

2014-07-01

344

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2010-07-01

345

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los...

2011-07-01

346

40 CFR 52.228 - Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate... § 52.228 Regulations: Particulate matter, Southeast Desert Intrastate...the national standards for particulate matter in the Southeast Desert...

2014-07-01

347

40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. 52.126 Section 52...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements...the national standards for particulate matter in Gila, Maricopa,...

2014-07-01

348

40 CFR 52.227 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter, Metropolitan Los Angeles...the secondary standards for particulate matter in the Metropolitan Los...

2014-07-01

349

42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate...particulates from the ambient air. They are designed for use as respiratory protection against atmospheres with particulate...

2010-10-01

350

77 FR 10341 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Final Rule and Proposed Rule Federal...Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone and Correction of SIP Approvals...

2012-02-21

351

Modeling and interpreting the observed effects of ash on diesel particulate filter performance and regeneration  

E-print Network

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are devices that physically capture diesel particulates to prevent their release to the atmosphere. Diesel particulate filters have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as ...

Wang, Yujun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

352

40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...source of fugitive particulate matter emissions, must take all reasonable...prevent fugitive particulate matter emissions and must maintain...minimize fugitive particulate matter emissions. (2) Reasonable...demolition of buildings or structures, construction...

2010-07-01

353

Field measurement of diesel particulate matter emissions.  

PubMed

A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the filter with R(2) values >0.86. The relative standard deviation from replicate samples of DP and EC was 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. The method may also have applications beyond mining, where qualitative evaluation of engine emissions is desirable to determine if engine or control technology maintenance may be required. PMID:18281294

Volkwein, Jon C; Mischler, Steven E; Davies, Brian; Ellis, Clive

2008-03-01

354

Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

2014-09-01

355

Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport  

SciTech Connect

The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.

Hammerberg, James Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plohr, Bradley J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

356

Jammed particulate systems are inherently nonharmonic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal mode analysis in the harmonic approximation underlies most of solid-state physics and applies well to both ordered and dis- ordered systems. Naturally, researches apply this analysis to jammed particulate systems, such as granular media, colloids, and foams, that interact via one-sided interactions, which are nonzero only when particles overlap. However, we find that systems with one-sided repulsive interactions possess no linear, harmonic response regime for large systems (N->?) at finite pressures P, and for all N near jamming onset P->0. We perform simulations on 2D frictionless bidisperse mechanically stable disk packings over a range of packing fractions ??= ?-?J above jamming onset ?J. We apply perturbations with amplitude ? to the packings along each eigen-direction from the dynamical matrix and determine whether the response of the system evolving at constant energy remains in the original eigenmode of the perturbation. For ?> ?c, a single contact breaks and fluctuations abruptly spread to all discrete harmonic modes. As ? increases further all harmonic modes disappear into a continuous frequency band. We find that ?c˜??/N, and thus jammed particulate systems are inherently nonharmonic with no linear vibrational response regime as N->? over the full range of ??, and as ??->0 at any N. This breakdown of harmonic behavior dramatically affects all aspects of system response including heat capacity, density of states, elastic moduli, and energy propagation.

Shattuck, Mark D.

2011-03-01

357

PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes summaries of analyses performed on particulate samples from Sierra Pacific Power Company's Pinon Pine Power Project. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, and plans for enhancing the data bank with interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

NONE

1999-05-01

358

KRAFT PULP INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the kraft pulp industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from kraft pulp mills, the data were summarized and r...

359

Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed  

DOEpatents

The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Guthrie, Stephen E. (Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N. (Livermore, CA); Wally, Karl (Lafayette, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

1999-01-01

360

Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor  

DOEpatents

In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

Carl, Daniel E. (Orchard Park, NY)

1997-01-01

361

IMPACT OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATES ON PCB VOLATILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to experimentally quantify the mass of PCBs that can be transported from PCB-contaminated suspended particulate to the air phase under various conditions as a means of evaluating the mechanism and importance of suspended particulates in volatili...

362

The Relocation of Particulate Contamination During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer simulation program to model the redistribution of particulate contaminants on a spacecraft after launch is developed. The component models for particulate adhesion, meteoroid impact, and electrostatic forces are described and intermediate results are presented. The results of a sample calculation show that the recontamination process is important.

Barengoltz, J.; Edgars, D.

1975-01-01

363

PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH LOW FLOW PERSONAL SAMPLERS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory and the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) have conducted a particulate matter (PM) personal exposure study in Research Triangle Park, NC. Particulate carbon was sampled with pre-fired quartz filters using low flow PM2.5 samplers (2 L...

364

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOEpatents

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01

365

ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of

Dale R. Tree

1999-01-01

366

DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

367

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

368

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the iron and steel industry. After reviewing available information characterizing particulate emissions from iron and steel plants, the data were summarize...

369

ASSESSMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE CONTROL: DIRECT AND CATALYTIC OXIDATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the technology and potential for disposal of diesel particulate by oxidation. Relevant properties of typical diesel particulate are given; note is taken of the small size (on the order of 0.1 micrometer diameter) and the presence of a portion extractable with...

370

CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR PARTICULATE AND TAR EMISSIONS FROM COAL CONVERTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a characterization of solid and tar particulate emissions in raw product gases from several types of coal gasifiers, in terms of their total quantities, chemical composition, and size distribution. Fixed-bed gasifiers produce the smallest particulate l...

371

FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

372

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICULATE MATTER AND PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation describes initial results from on-going research at EPA on modeling human exposures to particulate matter and residential pesticides. A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM1o and P...

373

CONTROL OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN THE PRIMARY NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the symposium on 'Control of Particulate Emissions in the Primary Nonferrous Metals Industries' was to provide a forum for the exchange of knowledge and new ideas on particulate control technology with emphasis on industrial applications of environmental particulat...

374

GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

375

New models for effective Young's modulus of particulate composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new models for relative Young's modulus of concentrated particulate composites are developed using a differential scheme along with the solution of an infinitely dilute dispersion of particles in a solid matrix. The solid matrix phase is assumed to be incompressible in the derivation. Relative Young's modulus of concentrated particulate composites is a function of three variables according to the

Rajinder Pal

2005-01-01

376

Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor  

DOEpatents

In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

Carl, D.E.

1997-10-21

377

Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed  

DOEpatents

The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

1999-02-02

378

Influence of Inlet Air Temperature on Gasoline HCCI Particulate Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate emissions from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines have been usually considered negligible, and the measurement of particulates (PM) with HCCI combustion systems has been extremely rare. A report from Ford and the authors' own recently published work suggest that PM emissions from gasoline HCCI engines should not be neglected. It has been shown that PM emissions for SI

Jacek Misztal; Hongming Xu; Athanasios Tsolakis; Miroslaw L. Wyszynski; George Constandinides; Philip Price; Jun Qiao

2009-01-01

379

CONTROLLING PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a semi-technical overview of the contribution of particulate matter to the overall U.S. air pollution problem. It also discusses contributions of the Particulate Technology Branch of EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory at Research Triangle Park, NC...

380

Diesel lube oils; Fourth dimension of diesel particulate control  

SciTech Connect

Particulate emission control, for the HD diesel engine, has previously been considered a three-dimensional problem involving: combustion of the fuel by the engine, fuel modification, and exhaust aftertreatment. The lube oil contribution may be considered a fourth dimension of the problem. Historically, the heavy-duty engine manufacturer has met emission standards for smoke (1968 to present), CO, HC, and NOx (1974 to present) and particulates (1988 to present) through changes in engine design. This paper used the allocation method to estimate the reduction in lube oil consumption needed to meet 1991 and 1994 U.S. particulate emission standards. This analysis places the contribution of lube oil as a source of exhaust particulates into prospective with the contributions from fuel sulfur and fuel combustion. An emissions control strategy to meet future regulations is offered in which reductions from fuel modification, combustion improvement, reduced lube oil consumption, and exhaust particulate trap-catalysts are all involved.

Springer, K.J. (Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (US))

1989-07-01

381

Particulate matter in urban areas: health-based economic assessment.  

PubMed

The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas. PMID:10989923

El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

2000-08-10

382

Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology  

SciTech Connect

Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ? Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ? Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ? Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ? Particulate Cr(VI) may augment severity and alter phenotype of ongoing allergic asthma.

Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States) [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)] [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States) [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)] [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

2012-02-15

383

Protein particulate detection issues in biotherapeutics development--current status.  

PubMed

Formation of aggregates and particulates in biopharmaceutical formulation continues to be one of the major quality concerns in biotherapeutics development. The presence of large quantities of aggregates is believed to be one of the causes of unwanted immunogenic responses. Protein particulates can form in a wide range of sizes and shapes. Therefore, a comprehensive characterization of particulates in biologics formulation continues to be challenging. The quantity of small size aggregates (e.g., dimer) in a stable biologics formulation is well controlled using precision analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography). Particulate in clinical and commercial formulations is monitored using visual inspection and subvisible particulate counting assays. While visual inspection (by human eye or automated systems) is intended to detect particulates (intrinsic and extrinsic) of ~100 ?m or larger, the subvisible counting methods cover smaller size ranges down to 10 ?m. It is well recognized that research of particulates in the submicron (<1 ?m) and low-micron (1-10 ?m) ranges may provide important clues to understand the mechanism of particulate formation. The recent years have seen a significant increase in the development of newer technologies for more comprehensive characterization of particulates. This is attributed to increased awareness in this field of research over the past 5 years, stimulated by scholarly articles, commentaries, and robust discussions in various forums. This article provides an overview of emerging detection technologies that provide complementary characterization data encompassing a wider size range of particulates. It also discusses their advantages and limitations in the context of applications in biotherapeutics development. PMID:22566174

Das, Tapan K

2012-06-01

384

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

SciTech Connect

This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep testing of two Refractron 326 specimens is now in progress. Among the tasks expected to be completed this quarter are analysis of the creep data obtained thus far, microstructural analysis of Refractron 326 and Schumacher FT20, definition of bending loads on candle filters, and characterization of additional candle filters from Karhula.

NONE

1998-09-01

385

Leishmania infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-2 is an Apyrase Involved in Macrophage Infection and Expressed in Infected Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis is an important tropical disease, and Leishmania infantum chagasi (synonym of Leishmania infantum) is the main pathogenic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Recently, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) were identified as enablers of infection and virulence factors in many pathogens. Two putative E-NTPDases (?70 kDa and ?45 kDa) have been found in the L. infantum genome. Here, we studied the ?45 kDa E-NTPDase from L. infantum chagasi to describe its natural occurrence, biochemical characteristics and influence on macrophage infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We used live L. infantum chagasi to demonstrate its natural ecto-nucleotidase activity. We then isolated, cloned and expressed recombinant rLicNTPDase-2 in bacterial system. The recombinant rLicNTPDase-2 hydrolyzed a wide variety of triphosphate and diphosphate nucleotides (GTP> GDP ?=? UDP> ADP> UTP ?=? ATP) in the presence of calcium or magnesium. In addition, rLicNTPDase-2 showed stable activity over a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and was partially inhibited by ARL67156 and suramin. Microscopic analyses revealed the presence of this protein on cell surfaces, vesicles, flagellae, flagellar pockets, kinetoplasts, mitochondria and nuclei. The blockade of E-NTPDases using antibodies and competition led to lower levels of parasite adhesion and infection of macrophages. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed the expression of E-NTPDases in amastigotes in the lymph nodes of naturally infected dogs from an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance In this work, we cloned, expressed and characterized the NTPDase-2 from L. infantum chagasi and demonstrated that it functions as a genuine enzyme from the E-NTPDase/CD39 family. We showed that E-NTPDases are present on the surface of promastigotes and in other intracellular locations. We showed, for the first time, the broad expression of LicNTPDases in naturally infected dogs. Additionally, the blockade of NTPDases led to lower levels of in vitro adhesion and infection, suggesting that these proteins are possible targets for rational drug design. PMID:25393008

Vasconcellos, Raphael De Souza; Mariotini-Moura, Christiane; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Serafim, Tiago Donatelli; Firmino, Rafaela de Cássia; Silva e Bastos, Matheus; de Castro, Felipe Freitas; de Oliveira, Claudia Miranda; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; de Souza, Anna Cláudia Alves; de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Gómez, Gabriel Andres Tafur; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Silva-Júnior, Abelardo; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; Afonso, Luís Carlos Crocco; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

2014-01-01

386

Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

387

Ferritin as a bionano-particulate emulsifier.  

PubMed

Stable 'Pickering-type' emulsions were prepared using ferritin, a spherical protein, as a bionano-particulate emulsifier and n-dodecane, toluene, castor oil, olive oil or vegetable oil as an oil phase, in the absence of any surfactant molecules. All the emulsions prepared were of the oil-in-water type and an increase of ferritin concentration decreased the volume average droplet diameters. Transmission electron microscopy studies of the ferritin residues remaining after evaporation of oil and water from the emulsion revealed a broken capsule morphology, which is strong evidence for the attachment of ferritin at the oil-water interface thereby stabilizing the emulsion. The emulsion droplets could be elongated and made to pass through a glass capillary. PMID:19604513

Fujii, Syuji; Aichi, Atsushi; Muraoka, Masahiro; Kishimoto, Naoko; Iwahori, Kenji; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Ichiro

2009-10-01

388

Infrared spectral behavior of fine particulate solids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transmission and emission spectra of clouds and layers of fine particulate samples of quartz, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide in the 6.5-35-??m wavelength range are presented. They demonstrate that the behavior of layers of particles constitutes a good analogue for a cloud of particles; that individual micrometer-sized particles emit most where they absorb most; that as the size of the particle is increased, the emission features reverse polarity and the spectrum approaches that of one obtained from a polished plate; and that as the particle layer-thickness increases, radiative interaction becomes increasingly important so that the emission maximum shifts from the strongest to weaker features, or produces a maximum at the Christiansen wavelength.

Hunt, G.R.

1976-01-01

389

Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter  

SciTech Connect

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

2011-07-19

390

Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses  

SciTech Connect

Environmental cleanup and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

NONE

1998-09-14

391

Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

1984-01-01

392

Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials  

DOEpatents

This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Richland, WA); Hirth, John P. (Viola, ID)

1995-01-01

393

Assessment of Internal Fabric of Particulate Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particle arrangement and distribution within a soil matrix has long been recognized as having significant influence on the mechanical behavior of cohesionless soils. It is well known that two soil specimens having the same grain type (e.g., quartz, feldspar, etc.), same grain size distribution and relative density (or void ratio) can display completely different mechanical behavior. Because of the different fabric configurations in the otherwise similar specimens, they are likely to have different mechanical properties such as stress-strain response, anisotropy, dilatancy, etc. Soil Fabric is defined as the arrangement of particles, particle groups and associated pore space. In the literature, fabric analysis techniques are mainly classified as destructive (e.g., specimen stabilization, thin-sectioning, and microscopy), and nondestructive techniques (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonic testing, x-ray radiography, and computed tomography). Quantifying the void ratio and its distribution is the main parameter used to describe the fabric of particulate materials. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of fabric analysis techniques applied to particulate materials. In addition, the results of a comprehensive investigation to quantify void ratio of sand specimens will be presented and discussed. The sand used in the experiments in a natural, uniform rounded to sub-rounded silica sand known as F-75 banding sand with mean particle size of 0.22 mm. Uniform specimens and specimens subjected to different axial-strain levels tested under triaxial and biaxial conditions are examined to evaluate void ratio evolution and its distribution using destructive thin-sectioning and nondestructive Computed Tomography (CT) techniques. Details of a new innovative polygon generation technique called Voronoi tessellation used to quantify void ratio of microscopic images of sand grains will be presented and compared to classical Oda's method. Finally, frequency distribution of void ratio calculated using CT analysis will be presented and discussed.

Alshibi, Khalid A.

2000-01-01

394

Effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) on immune responses: contributions of particulate versus organic soluble components.  

PubMed

The effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure on innate, cellular and humoral pulmonary immunity was studied using high-dose, acute-exposure rat, mouse, and cell culture models. DEP consists of a complex mixture of petrochemical-derived organics adsorbed onto elemental carbon particles. DEP is a major component of particulate urban air pollution and a health concern in both urban and occupational environments. The alveolar macrophage is considered a key cellular component in pulmonary innate immunity. DEP and DEP organic extracts have been found to suppress alveolar macrophage function as demonstrated by reduced production of cytokines (interleukin-1 [IL-1], tumor necrosis factor- alpha [TNF- alpha]) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to a variety of agents, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon- gamma (IFN- gamma), and bacteria. Fractionation of DEP organic extract suggests that this activity was predominately in polyaromatic-containing and more polar (resin) fractions. Organic-stripped DEP did not alter these innate pulmonary immune responses. DEP also depressed pulmonary clearance of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The contribution of the organic component of DEP is less well defined with respect to acquired and humoral immunity. Indeed, both DEP and carbon black enhanced humoral immune responses (specific immunoglobulin [Ig] E and IgG) in an ovalbumin-sensitized rat model. It is concluded that both the particulate and adsorbed organics may contribute to DEP-mediated immune alterations. PMID:14681077

Siegel, Paul D; Saxena, Rajiv K; Saxena, Q B; Ma, Joseph K H; Ma, Jane Y C; Yin, Xue-Jun; Castranova, Vincent; Al-Humadi, Nabil; Lewis, Daniel M

2004-02-13

395

Impact of Filtration Velocities and Particulate Matter Characteristics on Diesel Particulate Filter Wall Loading Performance  

SciTech Connect

The impact of different types of diesel particulate matter (PM) and different sampling conditions on the wall deposition and early soot cake build up within diesel particulate filters has been investigated. The measurements were made possible by a newly developed Diesel Exhaust Filtration Analysis (DEFA) system in which in-situ diesel exhaust filtration can be reproduced with in small cordierite wafer disks, which are essentially thin sections of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) wall. The different types of PM were generated from selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Two filtration velocities 4 and 8 cm/s were used to investigate PM deep-bed filtration processes. The loaded wafers were then analyzed in a thermal mass analyzer that measures the Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the PM. In addition, the soot residing in the wall of the wafer was examined under an optical microscope illuminated with Ultraviolet light and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E-SEM) to determine the bulk soot penetration depth for each loading condition. It was found that higher filtration velocity results in higher wall loading with approximately the same penetration depth into the wall. PM characteristics impacted both wall loading and soot cake layer characteristics. Results from imaging analysis indicate that soot the penetration depth into the wall was affected more by PM size (which changes with engine operating conditions) rather than filtration velocity.

Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Yapaulo, Renato A [ORNL; Orita, Tetsuo [ORNL; Wirojsakunchai, Ekathai [University of Wisconsin; Foster, David [University of Wisconsin; Akard, Michael [Horiba Instruments Inc.

2009-01-01

396

Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation  

DOEpatents

Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

Selwyn, G.S.

1998-12-15

397

Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation  

DOEpatents

Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

398

Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.  

PubMed

The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. PMID:17195488

Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

2006-12-01

399

Ultra fined-grained atmospheric particulate studied by magnetic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the result of an investigation on the presence of ultrafine atmospheric particulate in the urban area of Turin by magnetic methods. Magnetic minerals are a common component of atmospheric particulate, mostly arising from a number of anthropogenic activities. Atmospheric particulate is well known to represent a serious health problem in urban area and recently the attention focused especially on fine (< 2.5 ?m) and ultrafine (< 0.1 m) particulates which are proven to be particularly dangerous because if inhaled they penetrate deep and reach lungs alveoli. In the last few years number studies took advantage of magnetic techniques to successfully identify atmospheric particulate matter through the magnetic analysis, however they did not draw much attention to the grain size problem. Indeed magnetic techniques have the ability to distinguish very fine-grained material by using the thermal relaxation effect and thus they potentially constitute a useful analysis tool to recognize ultrafine fractions of atmospheric particulate. We have performed low and room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and hysteresis loop measurements on atmospheric particulate samples in order to estimate the concentration of fine and ultrafine particles. Magnetic mineralogy was studied using IRM at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Low temperature hysteresis and thermomagnetic curves were used study the grain size distribution that showed the presence of a mixture of low-coercivity particles, magnetite-like, and a variable grain-size populations. Samples were taken from filters collecting particulates matter with diameter < 10 µm (PM10) in different city areas, the particulate mass on the filter was also measured. Results confirm the general correlation between magnetization and concentration of particulate in air. The comparison between suburban and high-traffic area also support the previous finding that anthropogenic particulate has a large concentration of magnetic minerals compared to natural sources. Moreover the low temperature measurements have shown the presence of a relevant amount of ultrafine particles which are superparamagnetic at room temperature, their concentration increase in areas of high traffic and also appear to be related to anthropogenic sources. The magnetization carried by of ultrafine particles is site dependent but always larger than room temperature magnetization suggesting that about 60-70% of the particulate matter in urban area is made of ultrafine particles of nanometric size (< 30 nm). At given environmental conditions (site) the ratio between superparamagnetic and stable single domain magnetizations was found to remain fairly constant over time, thus allowing effortless predictions.

Saragnese, F.; Lanci, L.; Lanza, R.

2009-04-01

400

Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this project are to provide a basic understanding of the principal processes that govern fine particulate formation in pulverized coal flames. This understanding is to be used to develop a model (or models) which will predict the yield and size distribution of fine particulates as a function of coal type, coal processing, and combustion conditions. The goal of the model is to provide an engineering tool that will enable the practitioner to estimate the consequences of design decisions and fuel selection on the fine particulate yield. The practitioner can then make rational decisions regarding the required technology and costs associated with effluent cleanup while still in the design phase.

Kramlich, J.C.; Newton, G.H.; Socha, R.G.; Clark, W.D.

1989-02-01

401

Repair of tegmen defect using cranial particulate bone graft.  

PubMed

Bone paté is used to repair cranial bone defects. This material contains bone-dust collected during the high-speed burring of the cranium. Clinical and experimental studies of bone dust, however, have shown that it does not have biological activity and is resorbed. We describe the use of bone paté using particulate bone graft. Particulate graft is harvested with a hand-driven brace and 16mm bit; it is not subjected to thermal injury and its large size resists resorption. Bone paté containing particulate graft is much more likely than bone dust to contain viable osteoblasts capable of producing new bone. PMID:25465655

Greene, Arin K; Poe, Dennis S

2015-01-01

402

Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987–1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate

Steven Roberts

2004-01-01

403

Li2O Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999  

E-print Network

Li2O Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 9-1 CHAPTER 9: Li2O PARTICULATE FLOW CONCEPT ­ APPLE DESIGN Contributors Lead Author: Dai Kai Sze Dai Kai Sze, Zhanhe Wang (ANL Particulate Flow Concept, APPLE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 9-2 9. LI2O PARTICULATE FLOW CONCEPT

California at Los Angeles, University of

404

The spectrum of particulate organic matter of shallow-bottom boundary waters of Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of near-bottom shallow waters of Jamaica were analyzed for particulate matter by direct microscopy and for total particulate organic carbon (POC) by wet ashing. Aggre- gates comprise less than 5% of discrete particulate material and less than 0.5% of total POC. About 88% of POC is not accounted for by discrete particulate material. Parallel analyses of exhalant water samples

HENRY M. REISWIG

1972-01-01

405

Copper-dependent Inflammation and Nuclear Factor k B Activation by Particulate Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical de- terminants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in respiratory symptoms in relation to lev- els of particulate pollution has been well documented. Provo particulates caused cytokine-induced neutro- phil

Thomas Kennedy; Andrew J. Ghio; William Reed; James Samet; John Zagorski; Jacqueline Quay; Jacqueline Carter; Lisa Dailey; John R. Hoidal; Robert B. Devlin

406

Particulate oxidative burden associated with firework activity.  

PubMed

Firework events are capable of inducing particulate matter (PM) episodes that lead to exceedances of regulatory limit values. As short-term peaks in ambient PM concentration have been associated with negative impacts on respiratory and cardiovascular health, we performed a detailed study of the consequences of firework events in London on ambient air quality and PM composition. These changes were further related to the oxidative activity of daily PM samples by assessing their capacity to drive the oxidation of physiologically important lung antioxidants including ascorbate, glutathione and urate (oxidative potential, OP). Twenty-four hour ambient PM samples were collected at the Marylebone Road sampling site in Central London over a three week period, including two major festivals celebrated with pyrotechnic events: Guy Fawkes Night and Diwali. Pyrotechnic combustion events were characterized by increased gas phase pollutants levels (NO(x) and SO(2)), elevated PM mass concentrations, and trace metal concentrations (specifically Sr, Mg, K, Ba, and Pb). Relationships between NO(x), benzene, and PM(10) were used to apportion firework and traffic source fractions. A positive significant relationship was found between PM oxidative burden and individual trace metals associated with each of these apportioned source fractions. The level of exposure to each source fraction was significantly associated with the total OP. The firework contribution to PM total OP, on a unit mass basis, was greater than that associated with traffic sources: a 1 ?g elevation in firework and traffic PM fraction concentration was associated with a 6.5 ± 1.5 OP(T) ?g(-1) and 5.2 ± 1.4 OP(T) ?g(-1) increase, respectively. In the case of glutathione depletion, firework particulate OP (3.5 ± 0.8 OP(GSH) ?g(-1)) considerably exceeded that due to traffic particles (2.2 ± 0.8 OP(GSH) ?g(-1)). Therefore, in light of the elevated PM concentrations caused by firework activity and the increased oxidative activity of this PM source, there is value in examining if firework derived PM is related to acute respiratory outcomes. PMID:20886897

Godri, Krystal J; Green, David C; Fuller, Gary W; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Mudway, Ian S

2010-11-01

407

Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

Sayuti, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Malikussaleh University of Lhokseumawe, 24300 Aceh (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

2011-01-17

408

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of methods for measuring concentrations of semivolatile particulate matter (PM) from indoor-environment, small, combustion sources. Particle concentration measurements were compared for methods using filters and a small electrostatic precip...

409

AIRWAY EPITHELIAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS: ROLE OF METAL INTERACTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated positive associations with particulate matter (PM) air pollution and daily respiratory morbidity - including exacerbations of asthma. Data are needed to elucidate which PM subcomponents may be mediating disease exacerbation in ind...

410

Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

Eckert, Richard R.

1979-01-01

411

The LEO Particulate Environment as Determined by LDEF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group has been studying the low-Earth orbit particulate environment by examining and documenting impact craters that occurred on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) during its 5.7 year stay in orbit.

See, Thomas H.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Hoerz, Friedrick; Bernhard, P.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Foster, Tammy R.; Kinard, William H.

1993-01-01

412

Les particules prverbales du roumain Dana-Marina Dumitriu  

E-print Network

Les particules préverbales du roumain Dana-Marina Dumitriu 1 , Cristiana Ciocnea 2 , Livia Nadi3 and Grammar (LGC'07), Bonifacio : France (2007)" #12;DANA-MARINA DUMITRIU, CRISTIANA CIOCANEA, LIVIA NADIS ou

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2014-07-01

414

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2011-07-01

415

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2010-07-01

416

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2013-07-01

417

40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lime Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. ...to be discharged into the atmosphere from any rotary lime kiln any gases which: (1) Contain...

2012-07-01

418

JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

Stanley Miller

2008-10-31

419

40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...completed, no owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any sintering machine any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022...

2010-07-01

420

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2011-07-01

421

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2010-07-01

422

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2012-07-01

423

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2014-07-01

424

40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Ammonium Sulfate Manufacture § 60.422 ...no owner or operator of an ammonium sulfate dryer subject to the provisions...into the atmosphere, from any ammonium sulfate dryer, particulate...

2013-07-01

425

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on...

2011-07-01

426

40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on...

2013-07-01

427

PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-RESIDENTIAL MICROENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have long been associated with increases in both acute and chronic human health effects. Traditionally, research and regulations have focused on outdoor air pollution. However, human activity pattern studies show that people are ind...

428

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON CARDIAC CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although epidemiology studies, clinical studies, and animal studies indicate that particulate matter (PM) can affect cardiac function, there is no real understanding of the underlying cellular, biochemical, and molecular processes response for PM-induced cardiac dysfunction. It i...

429

INVESTIGATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING USING CONTACT ELECTRICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the contact electrification monitor for particulate matter, charge transfer by aerosol particles impacting on metal surfaces has been investigated. Monodisperse, uniformly charged or neutral aerosol particles (1-5 micrometer diameter) from a vibrating orifice...

430

40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...

2010-07-01

431

The effects of secondary air injection on particulate matter emissions  

E-print Network

An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on particulate matter (PM) emissions. SAI was developed to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and has been shown to be effective ...

Pritchard, Joseph James

2014-01-01

432

Transport of particulate organic material between salt marsh and estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrophyte production and the transport of particulate organic matter between march and adjacent estuary have been investigated for a 30 ha salt marsh along the Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands.

W. J. Wolff

1979-01-01

433

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM-exposure. The goal of this stud...

434

ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

435

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2014-07-01

436

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2011-07-01

437

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2013-07-01

438

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2012-07-01

439

40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Steel Plants: Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.272a Standard for particulate matter....

2010-07-01

440

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator that is subject to the...which the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180...from any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate...

2014-07-01

441

40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator that is subject to the...which the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180...from any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator: (1) Particulate...

2011-07-01

442

40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2526 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...Act applicable to the Follansbee, West Virginia PM10 nonattainment area. (b)...

2010-07-01

443

AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

444

A REAL-TIME MEASURING DEVICE FOR DENSE PARTICULATE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the design and performance of an instrument, based on the concept of instantaneous intensity ratio, for measuring particle size distributions of dense particulate matter. The method involves simultaneously measuring the intensity of light scattered by a parti...

445

CHARACTERISTICS, DEPOSITION AND FATE OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate estimates of absorption and fate for particulate matter in the respiratory track are difficult because of complexities in particle composition and morphology. Several deficiencies in information further complicate the ability to make accurate estimates. Available models ...

446

Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses  

E-print Network

Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations, ammonia (NH?) concentrations, and ventilation rates were measured in four commercial, tunnel ventilated broiler houses in June through December of 2000 in Brazos County, Texas. Particle size...

Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

2001-01-01

447

Health-effects information relating to particulate matter. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) met on December 16-17, 1985 to hold a preliminary discussion with EPA staff and members of the public on health-effects information relating to particulate matter that has become available since the Committee's last official review of such data. The new scientific information includes: respiratory tract regional deposition patterns; epidemiological studies of mortality and morbidity effects associated with both short-term and long-term particulate exposures; and health effects related to acid aerosols. The preliminary view is that it does not require a fundamental alteration of the structure of the proposed particulate standards at this time or fundamentally change the authors understanding of the mechanisms by which particulate exposures affect public health. There is concern as to whether the current proposed ranges of interest are as scientifically supportable as they were in November 1981 when they were last examined by CASAC.

Not Available

1986-01-02

448

PARTICULATE SAMPLING AND SUPPORT: FINAL REPORT. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes results of research, development, and support tasks performed during the 3-year period of the contract. The tasks encompassed many aspects of particulate sampling and measurement in industrial gaseous process and effluent streams. Under this contract cascade...

449

40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM...for not more than 6 minutes in any hour. (2) Interstate Power Company shall not cause to be discharged into the...

2012-07-01

450

40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM...for not more than 6 minutes in any hour. (2) Interstate Power Company shall not cause to be discharged into the...

2014-07-01

451

40 CFR 60.42 - Standard for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.42 Standard for particulate matter (PM...for not more than 6 minutes in any hour. (2) Interstate Power Company shall not cause to be discharged into the...

2013-07-01

452

FIELD EVALUATION OF AN AUTOISOKINETIC STACK PARTICULATE SAMPLING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a prototype autoisokinetic stack particulate sampling system, designed to maintain automatically isokinetic sampling conditions, was evaluated in field tests at stationary sources. Tests were conducted to determine the operating limits and characteristics of th...

453

DOSE CONCENTRATED COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE PRODUCE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. Mortality associations have generally been shown to be stronger for fine PM (...

454

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2014-07-01

455

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2013-07-01

456

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2010-07-01

457

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2012-07-01

458

40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2584 Control strategy; Particulate...Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b) of Wisconsin Administrative Code (RACT Requirements...1988 and March 30, 1990, the State of Wisconsin submitted committal SIPs for...

2011-07-01

459

Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

1996-10-01

460

DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A measurement methodology to evaluate fugitive particulate emissions was developed and demonstrated. The project focused on the application of the lidar (laser radar) technique under field conditions, but in circumstances that simplified and controlled the variables of the genera...

461

40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.105 Standards to control particulate matter. (a) A boiler or...

2010-07-01

462

40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1374 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and...

2010-07-01

463

PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives highlights of a major EPA research program on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology, directed toward improving the performance of ESPs in controlling industrial particulate emissions, notably fly ash from coal combustion in electric power plants. Relationsh...

464

40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...needed to attain and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter. (1) NAQR Article...submitted on July 24, 1979. (2) Nevada Air Quality Regulations, Article 4, Rule 4.34, (Visible...

2010-07-01

465

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III  

EPA Science Inventory

There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed below. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I - EP...

466

Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

467

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2011-07-01

468

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2012-07-01

469

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2013-07-01

470

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2010-07-01

471

40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any blast furnace, dross reverberatory furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (b)...

2014-07-01

472

Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

1995-01-01

473

Engineering analysis of fugitive particulate matter emissions from cattle feedyards  

E-print Network

An engineering analysis of the fugitive particulate matter emissions from a feedyard is not simple. The presence of an evening dust peak in concentration measurements downwind of a feedyard complicates the calculation of an average 24-h emission...

Hamm, Lee Bradford

2006-04-12

474

CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of emerging diesel particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity o...

475

Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2012-06-26

476

Modeling of Particulate Matter Emissions from Agricultural Operations  

E-print Network

MODELING OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS A Thesis by JNANA BAIRY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... Jnana Bairy ii ABSTRACT State Air Pollution Regulation Agencies (SAPRAs) issue and enforce permits that limit particulate matter emissions from all sources including layer and broiler facilities, cattle feedyards, dairies, cotton gins...

Bairy, Jnana 1988-

2013-01-02

477

Evaluation of particulate contamination for unmanned spacecraft prelaunch operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effectiveness of a contamination control approach taken during final assembly and simulated prelaunch operations with a Mariner Mars 1969 spacecraft at the Air Force Eastern Test Range is evaluated. It is concluded that the high bay operations during final encapsulation were the most critical and the largest contributor to spacecraft particulate contamination for the sequence of prelaunch operations considered. The mechanical generation of particulate matter from surfaces that were subject to wear and tear is identified as the primary source.

Schneider, H. W.

1975-01-01

478

The distribution of particulate aluminum in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

filtering system which collects any particulate material. This water has the lowest fluores- cent. intensity of all the samples of distilled water tested. Another possibility of contamination is the filter paper itself. This presents two different...THE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICULATE ALUMINUM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis RICHARD ALAN FEELY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the reguirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1971...

Feely, Richard Alan

1971-01-01

479

Soot Removal Mechanism in an Electric Diesel Particulate Trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the performance of electric diesel particulate trap (E-DPT) that has been proposed by the authors, behavior of trapping and re-burning of diesel soot was investigated using an electric diesel particulate trap with a pair of electro-plates (1-channel E-DPT). The E-DPT was capable to trap soot by applying DC electric field between electro-plates. Experimental results showed that

Hiroyuki Hoshino; Youhei Mitsuyama; Masahiro Saito; Tomohiko Furuhata; Masataka Arai

480

Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology.  

PubMed

Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

Schneider, Brent C; Constant, Stephanie L; Patierno, Steven R; Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Ceryak, Susan M

2012-02-15

481

Multichannel simulation of regeneration in honeycomb monolithic diesel particulate filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years advanced computational tools of diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration have been developed to assist in the systematic and cost-effective optimization of next generation particulate trap systems.In the present study, we employ a previously validated, state-of-the-art multichannel DPF simulator to study the regeneration process over the entire spatial domain of the filter. Particular attention is placed on identifying

Margaritis Kostoglou; Paraskevi Housiada; Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos

2003-01-01

482

K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior  

SciTech Connect

This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

DUNCAN, D.R.

1999-02-25

483

Atmospheric particulates in a semi-rural environment  

E-print Network

and sampling results used in Figures 11 through 17 Comparison of the resultant monthly mean concentrations of airborne particulates over College Station with the mean concentrations detected by non-urban stations of the National Air Sampling Network 64... of variance table for the dependent variable C4 100 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Title Page Size distributions of airborne particulates over continents (After Junge, 1963) Nomenclature and importance of natural aerosols (After Junge, 1963) 10 The location...

Klein, Thomas Kelly

1974-01-01

484

Typical features of particulate phosphorus in the Seine estuary (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 2001–2002 hydrological cycle, 8,000 tons P year?1 (44% as particulate phosphorus) originating from the Seine basin entered the Seine estuary. P content in suspended sediments\\u000a (SS) is 2.9 g P kg?1 (80% as inorganic form) at Poses (the upstream limit of the Seine estuary). During the transfer from Poses to Caudebec (the\\u000a limit of saline water intrusion), Particulate

Julien Némery; Josette Garnier

2007-01-01

485

Analysis of airborne fine particulate matter in Athens, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of fine aerosol (diameter < 3\\/5 ..mu..m) was made in Athens, Greece during the summer of 1982 and the winter of 1982-83. Fine particulate matter was collected on Teflon filters and analyzed at Oregon Graduate Center for 21 chemical elements by X-ray fluorescence. Total particulate matter was simultaneously collected on glass or quartz fiber filters and analyzed at

Valaoras

1985-01-01

486

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings  

DOEpatents

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

Williamson, Weldon S. (Malibu, CA); Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI)

2008-12-30

487

Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (?). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

2011-11-01

488

Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

2006-12-15

489

Size- and structure-dependent toxicity of silica particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano- and micro-particulates firmly attach with the surface of various biological systems. In some chronic pulmonary disease such as asbestosis and silicosis, causative particulates will induce chronic inflammatory disorder, followed by poor prognosis diseases. However, nano- and micro-scale specific toxicity of silica particulates is not well examined enough to recognize the risk of nano- and micro-particulates from the clinical aspect. To clarify the effect of the size and structure of silica particulates on the cellular damage and the biological response, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the various kinds of silica particles including amorphous and crystalline silica, in mouse alveolar macrophage culture, focusing on the fibrotic and inflammatory response. Our study showed that the cytotoxicity, which depends on the particle size and surface area, is correlated with their inflammatory response. By contrast, production of TGF-?, which is one of the fibrotic agents in lung, by addition of crystal silica was much higher than that of amorphous silica. We conclude that fibrosis and inflammation are induced at different phases and that the size- and structure-differences of silica particulates affect the both biological responses, caused by surface activity, radical species, and so on.

Hanada, Sanshiro; Miyaoi, Kenichi; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kenji

2011-03-01

490

Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-10-01

491

Ozone removal by diesel particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most significant removal mechanisms for tropospheric ozone (O 3) include dry deposition, photolysis, and photochemical reactions. This study examines another mechanism potentially important in urban areas: sorption and removal on diesel particulate matter (DPM). Tests were performed to determine O 3 breakthrough and the amount of O 3 removed by the DPM generated by a heavy-duty diesel engine. Teflon filters loaded with 0.7-1.8 mg of DPM were exposed to a test atmosphere of humidified and ozonated air designed to represent realistic ambient air conditions. In addition, soot samples with the organic fraction removed were tested to determine whether the organic or elemental fraction contributed to O 3 removal. For comparison, activated carbon (AC) samples were also tested. The DPM-loaded filters removed 5.6±1.8 wt% of O 3. Considerably more ozone, 31±4 wt %, was removed by the DPM after removal of its soluble organic fraction. Removal capacities of DPM were small relative to AC, which removed >38±3 wt% of O 3. Of the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and Ritchie chemisorption models tested, the Ritchie model provided the best fit to the breakthrough data. Preliminary estimates drawn from laboratory results suggest that diesel soot present at typical urban levels will remove only a small portion of O 3 from urban or tropospheric air. In air cleaning applications, DPM-loaded filters are also expected to remove only a small portion of indoor O 3.

Metts, T. A.; Batterman, S. A.; Fernandes, G. I.; Kalliokoski, P.

492

Gene-particulate matter-health interactions  

SciTech Connect

Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants.

Kleeberger, Steven R. [Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, Environmental Genetics Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Building 101, Room D240, Research Triangle Park, NC 27705 (United States)]. E-mail: kleeber1@niehs.nih.gov; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan)

2005-09-01

493

Recent advances in magnetostrictive particulate composite technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there have been significant advances in using magnetostrictive particles in a polymer matrix; finding uses in many applications, both as an active transducer and a passive damper. Termed magnetostrictive particulate composites (MPC), the material provides capabilities identical or superior to the monolithic material. Fortis Technologies has been pursuing improvements in the application and fabrication of this innovative material. The MPC technology provides a passive, broadband, large temperature range, high stiffness, dampling material to be used where current technologies fall short. Damping applications of this technology include sporting goods, power/hand tools, space launch and satellite design, noise abatement and vibration isolation. Energy absorption of the composites has been measured and is approaching that of the monolithic material. The material can also be actively controlled by a magnetic field, producing a transducer that can be used for sonar applications. The advantage of this technology over those currently in use is the large power density at relatively low frequencies and the ease of fabrication, allowing less expensive and more effective conformal arrays. Effective strain output and piezomagnetic coefficients have been measured, as have its dynamic properties. The results show significant improvement of the strain output and piezomagnetic coefficients, approaching the monolithic material.

Pulliam, Wade J.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Carman, Gregory P.

2002-07-01

494

PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES  

SciTech Connect

A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

1998-09-30

495

Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

1991-01-01

496

High temperature and pressure particulate flow loop  

SciTech Connect

A 1700/sup 0/F and 300 psi particulate laden flow loop for flows up to 3000 SCFM has been built at Brookhaven National Laboratory and installed at the Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The purpose of this test facility is the investigation of multiphase particle/gas flow phenomena, high temperature erosion studies, and on-line instrument calibration. The salient features of this flow loop are in its closed loop design, which then permits a low volumetric particle feed rate, in its application of a on-line particle/gas separator and finally in its use of a pneumatic air flow amplifier (eductor). The loop is similar in category to an extrained bed reactor since the feed particles are continuously entrained in the flow and where only a portion of the gas stream is exhausted to maintain a constant pressure level. This presentation discusses the design strategy, the flow and temperature control, as well as the instrumentation that went into the construction of this particle/gas high temperature and pressure test facility.

Wegrzyn, J.

1985-04-01

497

PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, including the interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank, and issuance of a comprehensive final report on activities conducted under Task 1. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

D.H. Pontius

1999-08-30

498

Calculating the potential to emit particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

As the implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, and Title V in particular, continues, questions regarding the calculation of a facility`s potential to emit continue to surface. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided limited guidance decisions, although many are still being made during Title V implementation. This paper discusses what is meant by PM-10 and the validity of using sieve analysis in estimating particulate emissions. Title V of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, and the accompanying regulations in 40 CFR Part 70, defines a major source subject to Title V by calculating its potential emissions of all regulated pollutants, both criteria and hazardous air pollutants. For PM, the threshold emission rate is 100 tons per year (tpy) for applicability to Title V. Much discussion has ensued regarding a definition of PM for the purpose of determining a facility`s potential to emit. Recently, EPA provided guidance which indicated that only PM-10 should be considered for making this determination although many states regulate larger particles through their state implementation plan (SIP) as a surrogate for PM-10.

Vaart, D.R. van der

1996-09-01

499

Lanthanoid geochemistry of urban atmospheric particulate matter.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about the lanthanoid element (La to Lu) chemistry of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM). PM samples collected during an air sampling campaign in the Mexico City area contain lanthanoid concentrations of mostly 1-10 ng m(-3), increasing with mass where resuspension of crustal PM is important (low PM2.5/PM10), but not where fine emissions from traffic and industry dominate (high PM2.5/ PM10). Samples show anthropogenic enrichment of lighter over heavier lanthanoids, and Ce enrichment relative to La and Sm occurs in the city center (especially PM10) possibly due to PM from road vehicle catalytic converters. La is especially enriched, although many samples show low La/V values (< 0.11), suggesting the dominating influence of fuel oil combustion sources rather than refinery emissions. We use La/Sm v La/ Ce, LaCeSm, and LaCeV plots to compare Mexico City aerosols with PM from other cities. Lanthanoid aerosol geochemistry can be used not only to identify refinery pollution events, but also as a marker for different hydrocarbon combustion emissions (e.g., oil or coal power stations) on urban background atmospheric PM. PMID:18800521

Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Pey, Jorge; Minguillón, Maria Cruz; Pérez, Noemi; Bernabé, Rosa M; Blanco, Salvador; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Gibbons, Wes

2008-09-01

500

PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 2. BAGHOUSES AND PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. Overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furnac...